Localization protected quantum order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandkishore, Rahul
2015-03-01
Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.
Emerging magnetic order in platinum atomic contacts and chains
Strigl, Florian; Espy, Christopher; Bückle, Maximilian; Scheer, Elke; Pietsch, Torsten
2015-01-01
The development of atomic-scale structures revealing novel transport phenomena is a major goal of nanotechnology. Examples include chains of atoms that form while stretching a transition metal contact or the predicted formation of magnetic order in these chains, the existence of which is still debated. Here we report an experimental study of the magneto-conductance (MC) and anisotropic MC with atomic-size contacts and mono-atomic chains of the nonmagnetic metal platinum. We find a pronounced and diverse MC behaviour, the amplitude and functional dependence change when stretching the contact by subatomic distances. These findings can be interpreted as a signature of local magnetic order in the chain, which may be of particular importance for the application of atomic-sized contacts in spintronic devices of the smallest possible size. PMID:25649440
Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains.
Kovaleva, Agnessa
2016-08-01
Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated. PMID:27627299
Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovaleva, Agnessa
2016-08-01
Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated.
Slowest local operators in quantum spin chains.
Kim, Hyungwon; Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J Ignacio; Hastings, Matthew B; Huse, David A
2015-07-01
We numerically construct slowly relaxing local operators in a nonintegrable spin-1/2 chain. Restricting the support of the operator to M consecutive spins along the chain, we exhaustively search for the operator that minimizes the Frobenius norm of the commutator with the Hamiltonian. We first show that the Frobenius norm bounds the time scale of relaxation of the operator at high temperatures. We find operators with significantly slower relaxation than the slowest simple "hydrodynamic" mode due to energy diffusion. Then we examine some properties of the nontrivial slow operators. Using both exhaustive search and tensor network techniques, we find similar slowly relaxing operators for a Floquet spin chain; this system is hydrodynamically "trivial," with no conservation laws restricting their dynamics. We argue that such slow relaxation may be a generic feature following from locality and unitarity. PMID:26274145
Enhancing supply chain performance with improved order-control policies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nilakantan, K.
2010-09-01
This article takes up the study of the dynamics of a single product in a prototype three-stage supply chain system, at the downstream warehouse end of the chain, under a responsive chain strategy. The dynamics under various ordering policies and the parameters which will yield desired responses are systematically analysed, both for deterministic and stochastic systems. Higher-order control policies are then proposed and analysed. The considered key performance criteria are the permanent inventory deviations from the desired levels, or the offset, the maximum dip in inventory, the 'undershoot', the damping effect and decay rates, and the duration of time in the negative region, for deterministic systems; and additionally, the inventory variance for stochastic systems. It is shown that the disadvantages of the conventional (proportional-integral-derivative) control policies, like large negative deviations, low decay rates, and high inventory variance, can be overcome by the use of higher-order control policies proposed herein.
Localization of Spinons in Random Majumdar-Ghosh Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavarélo, Arthur; Roux, Guillaume
2013-02-01
We study the effect of disorder on frustrated dimerized spin-1/2 chains at the Majumdar-Ghosh point. Using variational methods and density-matrix renormalization group approaches, we identify two localization mechanisms for spinons which are the deconfined fractional elementary excitations of these chains. The first one belongs to the Anderson localization class and dominates at the random Majumdar-Ghosh point. There, spinons remain gapped and localize in Lifshitz states whose localization length is analytically obtained. The other mechanism is a random confinement mechanism which induces an effective interaction between spinons and brings the chain into a gapless and partially polarized phase for arbitrarily small disorder.
Building Higher-Order Markov Chain Models with EXCEL
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ching, Wai-Ki; Fung, Eric S.; Ng, Michael K.
2004-01-01
Categorical data sequences occur in many applications such as forecasting, data mining and bioinformatics. In this note, we present higher-order Markov chain models for modelling categorical data sequences with an efficient algorithm for solving the model parameters. The algorithm can be implemented easily in a Microsoft EXCEL worksheet. We give a…
On Many-Body Localization for Quantum Spin Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imbrie, John Z.
2016-06-01
For a one-dimensional spin chain with random local interactions, we prove that many-body localization follows from a physically reasonable assumption that limits the amount of level attraction in the system. The construction uses a sequence of local unitary transformations to diagonalize the Hamiltonian and connect the exact many-body eigenfunctions to the original basis vectors.
On Many-Body Localization for Quantum Spin Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imbrie, John Z.
2016-04-01
For a one-dimensional spin chain with random local interactions, we prove that many-body localization follows from a physically reasonable assumption that limits the amount of level attraction in the system. The construction uses a sequence of local unitary transformations to diagonalize the Hamiltonian and connect the exact many-body eigenfunctions to the original basis vectors.
Parity-dependent localization in N strongly coupled chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinmann, Dietmar; Evangelou, S. N.
2014-10-01
Anderson localization of wave functions at zero energy in quasi-one-dimensional (1D) systems of N disordered chains with interchain coupling t is examined. Localization becomes weaker than for the 1D disordered chain (t =0) when t is smaller than the longitudinal hopping t'=1, and localization becomes usually much stronger when t ≫t'. This is not so for all N. We find "immunity" to strong localization for open (periodic) lateral boundary conditions when N is odd (a multiple of 4), with localization that is weaker than for t =0 and rather insensitive to t when t ≫t'. The peculiar N dependence and a critical scaling with N are explained by a perturbative treatment in t'/t, and the correspondence to a weakly disordered effective chain is shown. Our results could be relevant for experimental studies of localization in photonic waveguide arrays.
Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders in the Old Order Amish population.
Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Lina; Goldstein, Amy; Walsh Vockley, Catherine; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Biery, Amy; Irani, Afifa; Ibarra, Jordan; Morton, D Holmes; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Vockley, Jerry
2016-08-01
The Old Order Amish populations in the US are one of the Plain People groups and are descendants of the Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to North America in the early eighteenth century. They live in numerous small endogamous demes that have resulted in reduced genetic diversity along with a high prevalence of specific genetic disorders, many of them autosomal recessive. Mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies arising from mitochondrial or nuclear DNA mutations have not previously been reported in the Plain populations. Here we present four different Amish families with mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders. Mutations in two mitochondrial encoded genes leading to mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder were identified in two patients. In the first case, MELAS syndrome caused by a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation (m.3243A>G) was identified in an extended Amish pedigree following a presentation of metabolic strokes in the proband. Characterization of the extended family of the proband by a high resolution melting assay identified the same mutation in many previously undiagnosed family members with a wide range of clinical symptoms. A MELAS/Leigh syndrome phenotype caused by a mtDNA mutation [m.13513G>A; p.Asp393Asn] in the ND5 gene encoding the ND5 subunit of respiratory chain complex I was identified in a patient in a second family. Mutations in two nuclear encoded genes leading to mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder were also identified in two patients. One patient presented with Leigh syndrome and had a homozygous deletion in the NDUFAF2 gene, while the second patient had a homozygous mutation in the POLG gene, [c.1399G>A; p.Ala467Thr]. Our findings identify mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency as a cause of disease in the Old Order Amish that must be considered in the context of otherwise unexplained systemic disease, especially if neuromuscular symptoms are present. PMID:27344355
Local Structure Fixation in the Composite Manufacturing Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girdauskaite, Lina; Krzywinski, Sybille; Rödel, Hartmut; Wildasin-Werner, Andrea; Böhme, Ralf; Jansen, Irene
2010-12-01
Compared to metal materials, textile reinforced composites show interesting features, but also higher production costs because of low automation rate in the manufacturing chain at this time. Their applicability is also limited due to quality problems, which restrict the production of complex shaped dry textile preforms. New technologies, design concepts, and cost-effective manufacturing methods are needed in order to establish further fields of application. This paper deals with possible ways to improve the textile deformation process by locally applying a fixative to the structure parallel to the cut. This hinders unwanted deformation in the textile stock during the subsequent stacking and formation steps. It is found that suitable thermoplastic binders, applied in the appropriate manner do not restrict formation of the textile and have no negative influence on the mechanical properties of the composite.
Localization of Spinons in Random Majumdar-Ghosh Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roux, Guillaume; Lavarelo, Arthur
2014-03-01
We study the effect of disorder on frustrated dimerized spin-1/2 chains at the Majumdar-Ghosh point. Using variational methods and density-matrix renormalization group approaches, we identify two localization mechanisms for spinons which are the deconfined fractional elementary excitations of these chains. The first one belongs to the Anderson localization class and dominates at the random Majumdar-Ghosh point. There, spinons remain gapped and localize in Lifshitz states whose localization length is analytically obtained. The other mechanism is a random confinement mechanism which induces an effective interaction between spinons and brings the initially gapped antiferromagnetic chain into a gapless and partially polarized phase for arbitrarily small disorder. This Imry-Ma mechanism induces domains which statistics is analyzed. Last, the connection to the real-space renormalization group method suited for the strong disorder limit is discussed.
Community-local homology of force chains in granular materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giusti, Chad; Owens, Eli; Daniels, Karen; Bassett, Danielle
2015-03-01
The development of robust quantitative measurements of the structure of force chains in granular materials remains an open problem. Recent work of Bassett, et. al. applies community detection algorithms to extract subnetworks of strongly interacting particles, and then computes geometric measures of these networks to characterize local branching. Separately, Kramar, et. al. apply persistent homology to extract robust global signatures of chains in terms of their Betti numbers. Here, we investigate a hybrid of these two approaches, computing low-dimensional persistent homology of the clique complexes of communities in force-chain graphs. Such invariants measure the tendency of core chain sections to branch while remaining insensitive to the presence of tightly-packed collections of particles, thus making them natural candidates for both local and global stability analysis.
Wave propagation in granular chains with local resonances.
Bonanomi, Luca; Theocharis, Georgios; Daraio, Chiara
2015-03-01
We study wave propagation in a chain of spherical particles containing a local resonator. The resonant particles are made of an aluminum outer spherical shell and a steel inner mass connected by a polymeric plastic structure acting as a spring. We characterize the dynamic response of individual particles and the transmitted linear spectra of a chain of particles in contact. A wide band gap is observed both in theoretical and experimental results. We show the ability to tune the acoustic transmission by varying the contact interaction between particles. Higher driving amplitude leads to the generation of nonlinearities both in the response of a single particle and that of the whole chain. For a single resonant particle, we observe experimentally a resonant frequency downshift, which follows a complex nonlinear behavior. In the chain of particles, nonlinearity leads to the generation of nonlinear harmonics and the presence of localized modes inside the band gap. PMID:25871239
Probing non local order parameters in highly correlated Bose insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altman, Ehud
2008-03-01
Ground states of integer spin chains are known since the late 80's to sustain highly non local order described by infinite string operators of the spins. Such states defy the usual Landau theory description and can be considered simple prototypes of topological order. Recently we showed that spinless Bose insulators with nearest neighbor or longer range repulsion in one dimension can exhibit similar string order in terms of the boson density [1]. The tunability of cold atomic systems would allow much more flexibility in probing the non local order than spin systems do. For example the bosons can be tuned across a quantum phase transition between the exotic insulator, which we term Haldane insulator, and the usual Mott insulator. Investigating how the transition responds to external perturbations lends direct access to properties of the string order parameter. I will demonstrate this with several new results obtained from a field theoretic description of the phases and confirmed by numerical calculations using DMRG. Particularly revealing of the unusual character of the string order is the prediction that any external perturbation, which breaks the lattice inversion symmetry, would eliminate the distinction between the Haldane and Mott phases and allow a fully gapped adiabatic connection between them. This is remarkable given that neither phase involves spontaneous breaking of lattice inversion symmetry. We also predict that inter-chain tunneling destroys the direct phase transition between the two insulators by establishing an intermediate superfluid phase. Finally I will discuss how the new phases and phase transitions may be realized and probed in actual experiments with ultra cold atoms or polar molecules. [1] E. G. Dalla Torre, E. Berg and E. Altman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 260401 (2006)
Algorithm Optimally Orders Forward-Chaining Inference Rules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2008-01-01
People typically develop knowledge bases in a somewhat ad hoc manner by incrementally adding rules with no specific organization. This often results in a very inefficient execution of those rules since they are so often order sensitive. This is relevant to tasks like Deep Space Network in that it allows the knowledge base to be incrementally developed and have it automatically ordered for efficiency. Although data flow analysis was first developed for use in compilers for producing optimal code sequences, its usefulness is now recognized in many software systems including knowledge-based systems. However, this approach for exhaustively computing data-flow information cannot directly be applied to inference systems because of the ubiquitous execution of the rules. An algorithm is presented that efficiently performs a complete producer/consumer analysis for each antecedent and consequence clause in a knowledge base to optimally order the rules to minimize inference cycles. An algorithm was developed that optimally orders a knowledge base composed of forwarding chaining inference rules such that independent inference cycle executions are minimized, thus, resulting in significantly faster execution. This algorithm was integrated into the JPL tool Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) for verification and it resulted in a significant reduction in inference cycles for what was previously considered an ordered knowledge base. For a knowledge base that is completely unordered, then the improvement is much greater.
Extended State to Localization in Random Aperiodic Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Hui-Fen; Tao, Rui-Bao
2006-11-01
The electronic states in Thus-Morse chain (TMC) and generalized Fibonacci chain (GFC) are studied by solving eigenequation and using transfer matrix method. Two model Hamiltonians are studied. One contains the nearest neighbor (n.n.) hopping terms only and the other has additionally next nearest neighbor (n.n.n.) hopping terms. Based on the transfer matrix method, a criterion of transition from the extended to the localized states is suggested for GFC and TMC. The numerical calculation shows the existence of both extended and localized states in pure aperiodic system. A random potential is introduced to the diagonal term of the Hamiltonian and then the extended states are always changed to be localized. The exponents related to the localization length as a function of randomness are calculated. For different kinds of aperiodic chain, the critical value of randomness for the transition from extended to the localized states are found to be zero, consistent with the case of ordinary one-dimensional systems.
Kinetics and thermodynamics of first-order Markov chain copolymerization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaspard, P.; Andrieux, D.
2014-07-01
We report a theoretical study of stochastic processes modeling the growth of first-order Markov copolymers, as well as the reversed reaction of depolymerization. These processes are ruled by kinetic equations describing both the attachment and detachment of monomers. Exact solutions are obtained for these kinetic equations in the steady regimes of multicomponent copolymerization and depolymerization. Thermodynamic equilibrium is identified as the state at which the growth velocity is vanishing on average and where detailed balance is satisfied. Away from equilibrium, the analytical expression of the thermodynamic entropy production is deduced in terms of the Shannon disorder per monomer in the copolymer sequence. The Mayo-Lewis equation is recovered in the fully irreversible growth regime. The theory also applies to Bernoullian chains in the case where the attachment and detachment rates only depend on the reacting monomer.
Kinetics and thermodynamics of first-order Markov chain copolymerization.
Gaspard, P; Andrieux, D
2014-07-28
We report a theoretical study of stochastic processes modeling the growth of first-order Markov copolymers, as well as the reversed reaction of depolymerization. These processes are ruled by kinetic equations describing both the attachment and detachment of monomers. Exact solutions are obtained for these kinetic equations in the steady regimes of multicomponent copolymerization and depolymerization. Thermodynamic equilibrium is identified as the state at which the growth velocity is vanishing on average and where detailed balance is satisfied. Away from equilibrium, the analytical expression of the thermodynamic entropy production is deduced in terms of the Shannon disorder per monomer in the copolymer sequence. The Mayo-Lewis equation is recovered in the fully irreversible growth regime. The theory also applies to Bernoullian chains in the case where the attachment and detachment rates only depend on the reacting monomer. PMID:25084957
Kinetics and thermodynamics of first-order Markov chain copolymerization
Gaspard, P.; Andrieux, D.
2014-07-28
We report a theoretical study of stochastic processes modeling the growth of first-order Markov copolymers, as well as the reversed reaction of depolymerization. These processes are ruled by kinetic equations describing both the attachment and detachment of monomers. Exact solutions are obtained for these kinetic equations in the steady regimes of multicomponent copolymerization and depolymerization. Thermodynamic equilibrium is identified as the state at which the growth velocity is vanishing on average and where detailed balance is satisfied. Away from equilibrium, the analytical expression of the thermodynamic entropy production is deduced in terms of the Shannon disorder per monomer in the copolymer sequence. The Mayo-Lewis equation is recovered in the fully irreversible growth regime. The theory also applies to Bernoullian chains in the case where the attachment and detachment rates only depend on the reacting monomer.
Many-body localization and thermalization in disordered Hubbard chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondaini, Rubem; Rigol, Marcos
2015-10-01
We study the many-body localization transition in one-dimensional Hubbard chains using exact diagonalization and quantum chaos indicators. We also study dynamics in the delocalized (ergodic) and localized phases and discuss thermalization and eigenstate thermalization, or the lack thereof, in such systems. Consistently within the indicators and observables studied, we find that ergodicity is very robust against disorder, namely, even in the presence of weak Hubbard interactions the disorder strength needed for the system to localize is large. We show that this robustness might be hidden by finite size effects in experiments with ultracold fermions.
Topological quantum order: Stability under local perturbations
Bravyi, Sergey; Hastings, Matthew B.; Michalakis, Spyridon
2010-09-15
We study zero-temperature stability of topological phases of matter under weak time-independent perturbations. Our results apply to quantum spin Hamiltonians that can be written as a sum of geometrically local commuting projectors on a D-dimensional lattice with certain topological order conditions. Given such a Hamiltonian H{sub 0}, we prove that there exists a constant threshold {epsilon}>0 such that for any perturbation V representable as a sum of short-range bounded-norm interactions, the perturbed Hamiltonian H=H{sub 0}+{epsilon}V has well-defined spectral bands originating from low-lying eigenvalues of H{sub 0}. These bands are separated from the rest of the spectra and from each other by a constant gap. The band originating from the smallest eigenvalue of H{sub 0} has exponentially small width (as a function of the lattice size). Our proof exploits a discrete version of Hamiltonian flow equations, the theory of relatively bounded operators, and the Lieb-Robinson bound.
Energy repartition for a harmonic chain with local reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falasco, Gianmaria; Baiesi, Marco; Molinaro, Leo; Conti, Livia; Baldovin, Fulvio
2015-08-01
We exactly analyze the vibrational properties of a chain of harmonic oscillators in contact with local Langevin heat baths. Nonequilibrium steady-state fluctuations are found to be described by a set of mode temperatures, independent of the strengths of both the harmonic interaction and the viscous damping. Energy is equally distributed between the conjugate variables of a given mode but differently among different modes, in a manner which depends exclusively on the bath temperatures and on the boundary conditions. We outline how bath-temperature profiles can be designed to enhance or reduce fluctuations at specific frequencies in the power spectrum of the chain length.
Some aspects of the orientational order distribution of flexible chains in a diblock mesophase
Lorthioir, Cédric Randriamahefa, Solo
2013-12-14
The segmental motions of flexible chains in the lamellar structure of a strongly segregated poly(styrene)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-PDMS) diblock were investigated over a time scale of a few tens of microseconds. {sup 2}H NMR experiments were performed on the PDMS block, selectively perdeuterated. Transverse relaxation measurements show that the main part of the PDMS repeat units display anisotropic reorientational motions within the diblock lamellae and such a segmental ordering essentially results from interchain steric repulsions. {sup 2}H double quantum-based experiments evidenced a non-uniform local stretching of PDMS chains and enabled the underlying distribution of the orientational order parameter to be determined quantitatively. Besides, a fraction of the PDMS chain segments, about 14%, were found to display isotropic – or nearly isotropic – reorientations, which could be assigned to repeat units located within a thin sublayer (about 1–2 nm) at the lamellae midplane, but also deeper in the lamellae, close to folded parts of the chains. These experimental results were confronted to theoretical descriptions of opposing polymer brushes and, in particular, to the strong-stretching theory (SST) including the entropic contribution of free chain ends.
Localization of chain dynamics in entangled polymer melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guenza, M. G.
2014-05-01
The dynamics of polymer melts in both the unentangled and entangled regimes is described by a Langevin equation for the correlated motion of a group of chains, interacting through both intra- and inter-molecular potentials. Entanglements are represented by an intermolecular monomer-monomer confining potential that has no effect on short chains, while interpolymer interactions, responsible for correlated motion and subdiffusive center-of-mass dynamics, are represented by an intermolecular center-of-mass potential derived from the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This potential ensures that the liquid of phantom chains reproduces the compressibility and free energy of the real samples. For polyethylene melts the calculated dynamic structure factor is found to be in quantitative agreement with neutron spin echo experiments of polyethylene melts with chain lengths that span both the unentangled and the entangled regimes. The theory shows a progressive localization of the cooperative chain dynamics at the crossover from the unentangled to the entangled regime, in the spirit of the reptation model.
Localized Single Frequency Lasing States in a Finite Parity-Time Symmetric Resonator Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phang, Sendy; Vukovic, Ana; Creagh, Stephen C.; Sewell, Phillip D.; Gradoni, Gabriele; Benson, Trevor M.
2016-02-01
In this paper a practical case of a finite periodic Parity Time chain made of resonant dielectric cylinders is considered. The paper analyzes a more general case where PT symmetry is achieved by modulating both the real and imaginary part of the material refractive index along the resonator chain. The band-structure of the finite periodic PT resonator chains is compared to infinite chains in order to understand the complex interdependence of the Bloch phase and the amount of the gain/loss in the system that causes the PT symmetry to break. The results show that the type of the modulation along the unit cell can significantly affect the position of the threshold point of the PT system. In all cases the lowest threshold is achieved near the end of the Brillouin zone. In the case of finite PT-chains, and for a particular type of modulation, early PT symmetry breaking is observed and shown to be caused by the presence of termination states localized at the edges of the finite chain resulting in localized lasing and dissipative modes at each end of the chain.
Highly Ordered Single Conjugated Polymer Chain Rod Morphologies
Adachi, Takuji; Brazard, Johanna; Chokshi, Paresh; Ganesan, Venkat; Bolinger, Joshua; Barbara, Paul F.
2010-10-15
We have reexamined the fluorescence polarization anisotropy of single polymer chains of the prototypical conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) isolated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix employing improved synthetic samples that contain a much smaller number of tetrahedral chemical defects per chain. The new measurements reveal a much larger fraction of highly anisotropic MEH-PPV chains, with >70% of the chains exhibiting polarization anisotropy values falling in the range of 0.6-0.9. High anisotropy is strong evidence for a rod-shaped conformation. A comparison of the experimental results with coarse grain, beads on a chain simulations reveals that simulations with the usual bead-bead pairwise additive potentials cannot reproduce the observed large fraction of high polarization values. Apparently, this type of potential lacks some yet to be identified molecular feature that is necessary to accurately simulate the experimental results.
Local Spin Relaxation within the Random Heisenberg Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herbrych, J.; Kokalj, J.; Prelovšek, P.
2013-10-01
Finite-temperature local dynamical spin correlations Snn(ω) are studied numerically within the random spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain. The aim is to explain measured NMR spin-lattice relaxation times in BaCu2(Si0.5Ge0.5)2O7, which is the realization of a random spin chain. In agreement with experiments we find that the distribution of relaxation times within the model shows a very large span similar to the stretched-exponential form. The distribution is strongly reduced with increasing T, but stays finite also in the high-T limit. Anomalous dynamical correlations can be associated with the random singlet concept but not directly with static quantities. Our results also reveal the crucial role of the spin anisotropy (interaction), since the behavior is in contrast with the ones for the XX model, where we do not find any significant T dependence of the distribution.
Dynamical behavior of fractional-order Hastings-Powell food chain model and its discretization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matouk, A. E.; Elsadany, A. A.; Ahmed, E.; Agiza, H. N.
2015-10-01
In this work, the dynamical behavior of fractional-order Hastings-Powell food chain model is investigated and a new discretization method of the fractional-order system is introduced. A sufficient condition for existence and uniqueness of the solution of the proposed system is obtained. Local stability of the equilibrium points of the fractional-order system is studied. Furthermore, the necessary and sufficient conditions of stability of the discretized system are also studied. It is shown that the system's fractional parameter has effect on the stability of the discretized system which shows rich variety of dynamical behaviors such as Hopf bifurcation, an attractor crisis and chaotic attractors. Numerical simulations show the tea-cup chaotic attractor of the fractional-order system and the richer dynamical behavior of the corresponding discretized system.
Effect of local chain dynamics on a bioinert interface.
Hirata, Toyoaki; Matsuno, Hisao; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Hirai, Tomoyasu; Yamada, Norifumi L; Tanaka, Masaru; Tanaka, Keiji
2015-03-31
Although many kinds of synthetic polymers have been investigated to construct blood-compatible materials, only a few have achieved success. To establish molecular designs for blood-compatible polymers, the chain structure and dynamics at the water interface must be understood using solid evidence as the first bench mark. Here we show that polymer dynamics at the water interface impacts on structure of the interfacial water, resulting in a change in protein adsorption and of platelet adhesion. As a particular material, a blend composed of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) was used. PMEA was segregated to the water interface. While the local conformation of PMEA at the water interface was insensitive to its molecular weight, the local dynamics became faster with decreasing molecular weight, resulting in a disturbance of the network structure of waters at the interface. This leads to the extreme suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. PMID:25760401
Breathers in a locally resonant granular chain with precompression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lifeng; James, Guillaume; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Vainchtein, Anna
2016-09-01
We study a locally resonant granular material in the form of a precompressed Hertzian chain with linear internal resonators. Using an asymptotic reduction, we derive an effective nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) modulation equation. This, in turn, leads us to provide analytical evidence, subsequently corroborated numerically, for the existence of two distinct types of discrete breathers related to acoustic or optical modes: (a) traveling bright breathers with a strain profile exponentially vanishing at infinity and (b) stationary and traveling dark breathers, exponentially localized, time-periodic states mounted on top of a non-vanishing background. The stability and bifurcation structure of numerically computed exact stationary dark breathers is also examined. Stationary bright breathers cannot be identified using the NLS equation, which is defocusing at the upper edges of the phonon bands and becomes linear at the lower edge of the optical band.
Breathers in a locally resonant granular chain with precompression
Liu, Lifeng; James, Guillaume; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Vainchtein, Anna
2016-05-24
Here we study a locally resonant granular material in the form of a precompressed Hertzian chain with linear internal resonators. Using an asymptotic reduction, we derive an effective nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) modulation equation. In turn, this leads us to provide analytical evidence, subsequently corroborated numerically, for the existence of two distinct types of discrete breathers related to acoustic or optical modes: (a) traveling bright breathers with a strain profile exponentially vanishing at infinity and (b) stationary and traveling dark breathers, exponentially localized, time-periodic states mounted on top of a non-vanishing background. Moreover, the stability and bifurcation structure of numerically computedmore » exact stationary dark breathers is also examined. Stationary bright breathers cannot be identified using the NLS equation, which is defocusing at the upper edges of the phonon bands and becomes linear at the lower edge of the optical band.« less
Energy Transfers in Coupled Ordered Granular Chains with No Precompression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakakis, Alexander; Hasan, Arif M.; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Manevitch, Leonid I.
2013-03-01
We study the dynamics of coupled one-dimensional granular chains mounted on elastic foundations. No dissipative effects, such as plasticity or dry friction effects are taken into account in our analysis. Assuming no pre-compression between beads, the dynamics of the system under consideration is strongly nonlinear and, in an acoustic analogy they can be viewed as `sonic vacua'. Sources of strong nonlinearity in these systems are nonlinearizable Hertzian interactions between adjacent beads in compression, and also possible separations between beads in the absence of compressive forces leading to bead collisions. We find that demonstrate that in weakly coupled granular chains there can occur strong energy exchanges in the form of nonlinear beat phenomena of spatially periodic traveling waves, stationary breathers or propagating breathers. We employ analytical techniques to study these dynamical phenomena. This work was supported by MURI grant US ARO W911NF-09-1-0436. Dr. David Stepp is the grant monitor.
Local conservation laws in spin-\\frac{1}{2} XY chains with open boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fagotti, Maurizio
2016-06-01
We revisit the conserved quantities of the spin-\\frac{1}{2} XY model with open boundary conditions. In the absence of a transverse field, we find new families of local charges and show that half of the seeming conservation laws are conserved only if the number of sites is odd. In even chains the set of noninteracting charges is abelian, like in the periodic case when the number of sites is odd. In odd chains the set is doubled and becomes non-abelian, like in even periodic chains. The dependence of the charges on the parity of the chain’s size undermines the common belief that the thermodynamic limit of diagonal ensembles exists. We consider also the transverse-field Ising chain, where the situation is more ordinary. The generalization to the XY model in a transverse field is not straightforward and we propose a general framework to carry out similar calculations. We conjecture the form of the bulk part of the local charges and discuss the emergence of quasilocal conserved quantities. We provide evidence that in a region of the parameter space there is a reduction of the number of quasilocal conservation laws invariant under chain inversion. As a by-product, we study a class of block-Toeplitz-plus-Hankel operators and identify the conditions that their symbols satisfy in order to commute with a given block-Toeplitz.
LOCAL ANISOTROPY, HIGHER ORDER STATISTICS, AND TURBULENCE SPECTRA
Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Osman, K. T.; Servidio, S.; Carbone, V.; Dmitruk, P.; Oughton, S.
2012-05-10
Correlation anisotropy emerges dynamically in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), producing stronger gradients across the large-scale mean magnetic field than along it. This occurs both globally and locally, and has significant implications in space and astrophysical plasmas, including particle scattering and transport, and theories of turbulence. Properties of local correlation anisotropy are further documented here by showing through numerical experiments that the effect is intensified in more localized estimates of the mean field. The mathematical formulation of this property shows that local anisotropy mixes second-order with higher order correlations. Sensitivity of local statistical estimates to higher order correlations can be understood in connection with the stochastic coordinate system inherent in such formulations. We demonstrate this in specific cases, and illustrate the connection to higher order statistics by showing the sensitivity of local anisotropy to phase randomization, after which the global measure of anisotropy is recovered at all scales of averaging. This establishes that anisotropy of the local structure function is not a measure of anisotropy of the energy spectrum. Evidently, the local enhancement of correlation anisotropy is of substantial fundamental interest and must be understood in terms of higher order correlations, specifically fourth-order and above.
Competition of the connectivity with the local and the global order in polymer melts and crystals
Bernini, S.; Puosi, F.; Barucco, M.; Leporini, D.
2013-11-14
The competition between the connectivity and the local or global order in model fully flexible chain molecules is investigated by molecular-dynamics simulations. States with both missing (melts) and high (crystal) global order are considered. Local order is characterized within the first coordination shell (FCS) of a tagged monomer and found to be lower than in atomic systems in both melt and crystal. The role played by the bonds linking the tagged monomer to FCS monomers (radial bonds), and the bonds linking two FCS monomers (shell bonds) is investigated. The detailed analysis in terms of Steinhardt's orientation order parameters Q{sub l} (l = 2 − 10) reveals that increasing the number of shell bonds decreases the FCS order in both melt and crystal. Differently, the FCS arrangements organize the radial bonds. Even if the molecular chains are fully flexible, the distribution of the angle formed by adjacent radial bonds exhibits sharp contributions at the characteristic angles θ ≈ 70°, 122°, 180°. The fractions of adjacent radial bonds with θ ≈ 122°, 180° are enhanced by the global order of the crystal, whereas the fraction with 70° ≲ θ ≲ 110° is nearly unaffected by the crystallization. Kink defects, i.e., large lateral displacements of the chains, are evidenced in the crystalline state.
Exact ground states and topological order in interacting Kitaev/Majorana chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsura, Hosho; Schuricht, Dirk; Takahashi, Masahiro
2015-09-01
We study a system of interacting spinless fermions in one dimension that, in the absence of interactions, reduces to the Kitaev chain [Kitaev, Phys. Usp. 44, 131 (2001), 10.1070/1063-7869/44/10S/S29]. In the noninteracting case, a signal of topological order appears as zero-energy modes localized near the edges. We show that the exact ground states can be obtained analytically even in the presence of nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions when the on-site (chemical) potential is tuned to a particular function of the other parameters. As with the noninteracting case, the obtained ground states are twofold degenerate and differ in fermionic parity. We prove the uniqueness of the obtained ground states and show that they can be continuously deformed to the ground states of the noninteracting Kitaev chain without gap closing. We also demonstrate explicitly that there exists a set of operators each of which maps one of the ground states to the other with opposite fermionic parity. These operators can be thought of as an interacting generalization of Majorana edge zero modes.
Confinement-induced order of tethered alkyl chains at the water/vapor interface.
Fukuto, M; Heilmann, R K; Pershan, P S; Yu, S M; Soto, C M; Tirrell, D A
2002-07-01
Packing of tethered alkyl chains in Langmuir monolayers of a hairy-rod polypeptide poly[gamma-4-(n-hexadecyloxy)benzyl alpha,L-glutamate] on water has been studied by x-ray scattering measurements at room temperature. The rods lie parallel to the surface while the alkyl side chains segregate toward the vapor. Results indicate that the herringbone order of the alkyl chains is established initially by one-dimensionally confined chains between aligned rods and grows laterally with compression. PMID:12241332
The Analysis of Rush Orders Risk in Supply Chain: A Simulation Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahfouz, Amr; Arisha, Amr
2011-01-01
Satisfying customers by delivering demands at agreed time, with competitive prices, and in satisfactory quality level are crucial requirements for supply chain survival. Incidence of risks in supply chain often causes sudden disruptions in the processes and consequently leads to customers losing their trust in a company's competence. Rush orders are considered to be one of the main types of supply chain risks due to their negative impact on the overall performance, Using integrated definition modeling approaches (i.e. IDEF0 & IDEF3) and simulation modeling technique, a comprehensive integrated model has been developed to assess rush order risks and examine two risk mitigation strategies. Detailed functions sequence and objects flow were conceptually modeled to reflect on macro and micro levels of the studied supply chain. Discrete event simulation models were then developed to assess and investigate the mitigation strategies of rush order risks, the objective of this is to minimize order cycle time and cost.
Separovic, F; Gawrisch, K
1996-01-01
The properties of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) having a perdeuterated stearic acid, 18:0d35, in the sn-1 position and the fatty acid 18:0, 18:1 omega 9, 18:2 omega 6, 18:3 omega 3, 20:4 omega 6, 20:5 omega 3, or 22:6 omega 3 at the sn-2 position were investigated in a matrix of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) by 2H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. At a mole ratio of DOPE/PC = 5:1, the lipids form liquid crystalline lamellar phases below 40 degrees C and coexisting lamellar, inverse hexagonal (Hll), and cubic phases at higher temperatures. The sn-1 chain of the PCs in a DOPE matrix is appreciably more ordered than in pure PCs, corresponding to an increase in the hydrophobic bilayer thickness of approximately 1 A. Distearoylphosphatidylcholine in the DOPE matrix has a higher sn-1 chain order than the unsaturated PCs. We observed distinct differences in the lipid order of upper and lower sections of the hydrocarbon chains caused by changes of temperature, unsaturation, headgroups, and ethanol. Unsaturation lowers chain order, mostly in the lower third of the hydrocarbon chains. By contrast, the increase in chain order caused by the DOPE matrix and the decrease in order with increasing temperature have a constant magnitude for the upper two-thirds of the chain and are smaller for the lower third. Addition of 2 M ethanol reduced order parameters, in effect reversing the increase in chain order caused by the DOPE matrix. PMID:8804610
a GLOBAL-LOCAL Integrated Study of Roller Chain Meshing Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, S. P.; Wang, K. W.; Hayek, S. I.; Trethewey, M. W.; Chen, F. H. K.
1997-05-01
It has been recognized that one of the most significant noise sources in roller chain drives is from impacts between the chain and the sprocket during their meshing process. In this paper an analysis is presented which integrates the local meshing phenomena with the global chain/sprocket system dynamic behaviour. A coupled chain/sprocket system interacting with local impacts is modelled and the impulse function is derived. A study is carried out to quantify the intensity of subsequent impacts. It is found that the coupling effects between the sprockets, the chain spans, and the chain/sprocket meshing impulses increase with decreasing sprocket inertia and chain longitudinal stiffness. Experimental studies are also carried out to evaluate the meshing noise. It is found experimentally that the meshing sound pressure level is closely related to the chain speed and its vibrational characteristics, as predicted in the analytical study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Shastri, Kunal Krishnaraj; Zhang, Baile
2016-05-01
Localized spoof surface plasmon polaritons (spoof-SPPs) in a graded spoof-plasmonic resonator chain with linearly increasing spacing are experimentally investigated at microwave frequencies. Transmission measurements and direct near-field mappings on this graded chain show that the propagation of localized spoof-SPPs can be cutoff at different positions along the graded chain under different frequencies due to the graded coupling between adjacent resonators. This mechanism can be used to guide localized spoof-SPPs in the graded chain to specific positions depending on the frequency and thereby implement a device that can work as a selective switch in integrated plasmonic circuits.
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Shastri, Kunal Krishnaraj; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
Localized spoof surface plasmon polaritons (spoof-SPPs) in a graded spoof-plasmonic resonator chain with linearly increasing spacing are experimentally investigated at microwave frequencies. Transmission measurements and direct near-field mappings on this graded chain show that the propagation of localized spoof-SPPs can be cutoff at different positions along the graded chain under different frequencies due to the graded coupling between adjacent resonators. This mechanism can be used to guide localized spoof-SPPs in the graded chain to specific positions depending on the frequency and thereby implement a device that can work as a selective switch in integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:27149656
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Shastri, Kunal Krishnaraj; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
Localized spoof surface plasmon polaritons (spoof-SPPs) in a graded spoof-plasmonic resonator chain with linearly increasing spacing are experimentally investigated at microwave frequencies. Transmission measurements and direct near-field mappings on this graded chain show that the propagation of localized spoof-SPPs can be cutoff at different positions along the graded chain under different frequencies due to the graded coupling between adjacent resonators. This mechanism can be used to guide localized spoof-SPPs in the graded chain to specific positions depending on the frequency and thereby implement a device that can work as a selective switch in integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:27149656
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, C. Nadir; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat
2009-06-01
For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder. We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladwin Pradeep, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Mohanasubha, R.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2016-07-01
We identify contact transformations which linearize the given equations in the Riccati and Abel chains of nonlinear scalar and coupled ordinary differential equations to the same order. The identified contact transformations are not of Cole-Hopf type and are new to the literature. The linearization of Abel chain of equations is also demonstrated explicitly for the first time. The contact transformations can be utilized to derive dynamical symmetries of the associated nonlinear ODEs. The wider applicability of identifying this type of contact transformations and the method of deriving dynamical symmetries by using them is illustrated through two dimensional generalizations of the Riccati and Abel chains as well.
Global spatiotemporal order and induced stochastic resonance due to a locally applied signal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samoletov, A.; Chaplain, M.; Levi, V.
2004-04-01
We study the phenomenon of spatiotemporal stochastic resonance (STSR) in a chain of diffusively coupled bistable oscillators. In particular, we examine the situation in which the global STSR response is controlled by a locally applied signal and reveal a wave-front propagation. In order to deepen the understanding of the system dynamics, we introduce, on the time scale of STSR, the study of the effective statistical renormalization of a generic lattice system. Using this technique we provide a criterion for STSR, and predict and observe numerically a bifurcationlike behavior that reflects the difference between the most probable value of the local quasiequilibrium density and its mean value. Our results, tested with a chain of nonlinear oscillators, appear to possess some universal qualities and may stimulate a deeper search for more generic phenomena.
Fitting optimum order of Markov chain models for daily rainfall occurrences in Peninsular Malaysia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deni, Sayang Mohd; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman
2009-06-01
The analysis of the daily rainfall occurrence behavior is becoming more important, particularly in water-related sectors. Many studies have identified a more comprehensive pattern of the daily rainfall behavior based on the Markov chain models. One of the aims in fitting the Markov chain models of various orders to the daily rainfall occurrence is to determine the optimum order. In this study, the optimum order of the Markov chain models for a 5-day sequence will be examined in each of the 18 rainfall stations in Peninsular Malaysia, which have been selected based on the availability of the data, using the Akaike’s (AIC) and Bayesian information criteria (BIC). The identification of the most appropriate order in describing the distribution of the wet (dry) spells for each of the rainfall stations is obtained using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. It is found that the optimum order varies according to the levels of threshold used (e.g., either 0.1 or 10.0 mm), the locations of the region and the types of monsoon seasons. At most stations, the Markov chain models of a higher order are found to be optimum for rainfall occurrence during the northeast monsoon season for both levels of threshold. However, it is generally found that regardless of the monsoon seasons, the first-order model is optimum for the northwestern and eastern regions of the peninsula when the level of thresholds of 10.0 mm is considered. The analysis indicates that the first order of the Markov chain model is found to be most appropriate for describing the distribution of wet spells, whereas the higher-order models are found to be adequate for the dry spells in most of the rainfall stations for both threshold levels and monsoon seasons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadir Kaplan, C.; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat
2009-03-01
For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder.[1] We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns. [1] C.N. Kaplan, M. Hinczewski, and A.N. Berker, arXiv:0811.3437v1 [cond-mat.dis-nn] (2008).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Younghyun; Cheng, Meng; Bauer, Bela; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.
2014-08-01
We theoretically obtain the phase diagram of localized magnetic impurity spins arranged in a one-dimensional chain on top of a one- or two-dimensional electron gas. The interactions between the spins are mediated by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida mechanism through the electron gas. Recent work predicts that such a system may intrinsically support topological superconductivity without spin-orbit coupling when a helical spin-density wave is spontaneously formed in the spins, and superconductivity is induced in the electron gas. We analyze, using both analytical and numerical techniques, the conditions under which such a helical spin state is stable in a realistic situation in the presence of disorder. We show that (i) it appears only when the spins are coupled to a (quasi-) one-dimensional electron gas, and (ii) it becomes unstable towards the formation of (anti)ferromagnetic domains if the disorder in the impurity spin positions δR becomes comparable with the Fermi wavelength. We also examine the stability of the helical state against Gaussian potential disorder in the electronic system using a diagrammatic approach. Our results suggest that in order to stabilize the helical spin state and thus the emergent topological superconductivity under realistic experimental conditions, a sufficiently strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling, giving rise to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, is required.
Ishida, Hideshi
2014-06-15
In this study, a family of local quantities defined on each partition and its averaging on a macroscopic small region, site, are defined on a multibaker chain system. On its averaged quantities, a law of order estimation in the bulk system is proved, making it possible to estimate the order of the quantities with respect to the representative partition scale parameter Δ. Moreover, the form of the leading-order terms of the averaged quantities is obtained, and the form enables us to have the macroscopic quantity in the continuum limit, as Δ → 0, and to confirm its partitioning independency. These deliverables fully explain the numerical results obtained by Ishida, consistent with the irreversible thermodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishida, Hideshi
2014-06-01
In this study, a family of local quantities defined on each partition and its averaging on a macroscopic small region, site, are defined on a multibaker chain system. On its averaged quantities, a law of order estimation in the bulk system is proved, making it possible to estimate the order of the quantities with respect to the representative partition scale parameter Δ. Moreover, the form of the leading-order terms of the averaged quantities is obtained, and the form enables us to have the macroscopic quantity in the continuum limit, as Δ → 0, and to confirm its partitioning independency. These deliverables fully explain the numerical results obtained by Ishida, consistent with the irreversible thermodynamics.
State space orderings for Gauss-Seidel in Markov chains revisited
Dayar, T.
1996-12-31
Symmetric state space orderings of a Markov chain may be used to reduce the magnitude of the subdominant eigenvalue of the (Gauss-Seidel) iteration matrix. Orderings that maximize the elemental mass or the number of nonzero elements in the dominant term of the Gauss-Seidel splitting (that is, the term approximating the coefficient matrix) do not necessarily converge faster. An ordering of a Markov chain that satisfies Property-R is semi-convergent. On the other hand, there are semi-convergent symmetric state space orderings that do not satisfy Property-R. For a given ordering, a simple approach for checking Property-R is shown. An algorithm that orders the states of a Markov chain so as to increase the likelihood of satisfying Property-R is presented. The computational complexity of the ordering algorithm is less than that of a single Gauss-Seidel iteration (for sparse matrices). In doing all this, the aim is to gain an insight for faster converging orderings. Results from a variety of applications improve the confidence in the algorithm.
Treatment of disordered and ordered systems of polymer chains by lattice methods
Flory, Paul J.
1982-01-01
Classical lattice theories of systems of long-chain molecules provide estimates of the number Z of random configurations to the exclusion of ordered ones. The decrease of Z thus estimated to values [unk]1 with decrease in chain flexibility at high densities is genuine, but it does not take account of eligible ordered configurations; the latter are not a subset of the configurations whose numbers are estimated by classical lattice methods. Failure to recognize this fact and the fundamental distinction between disordered and ordered states has engendered misinterpretations and has cast doubt on the validity of lattice-statistical methods. In a system at equilibrium, the decline of Z (disordered) with decrease in chain flexibility must be arrested by a first order transition to an ordered state. The inference that approach of Z (disordered) to values <1 presages a thermodynamic transition of second order is tenable only if the array of ordered configurations, not comprehended by theories in which the mean field of unoccupied lattice sites is random, can be ignored. PMID:16593214
Fractal dimensions of wave functions and local spectral measures on the Fibonacci chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macé, Nicolas; Jagannathan, Anuradha; Piéchon, Frédéric
2016-05-01
We present a theoretical framework for understanding the wave functions and spectrum of an extensively studied paradigm for quasiperiodic systems, namely the Fibonacci chain. Our analytical results, which are obtained in the limit of strong modulation of the hopping amplitudes, are in good agreement with published numerical data. In the perturbative limit, we show a symmetry of wave functions under permutation of site and energy indices. We compute the wave-function renormalization factors and from them deduce analytical expressions for the fractal exponents corresponding to individual wave functions, as well as their global averages. The multifractality of wave functions is seen to appear at next-to-leading order in ρ . Exponents for the local spectral density are given, in extremely good accord with numerical calculations. Interestingly, our analytical results for exponents are observed to describe the system rather well even for values of ρ well outside the domain of applicability of perturbation theory.
A local-order regularization for geophysical inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gheymasi, H. Mohammadi; Gholami, A.
2013-11-01
Different types of regularization have been developed to obtain stable solutions to linear inverse problems. Among these, total variation (TV) is known as an edge preserver method, which leads to piecewise constant solutions and has received much attention for solving inverse problems arising in geophysical studies. However, the method shows staircase effects and is not suitable for the models including smooth regions. To overcome the staircase effect, we present a method, which employs a local-order difference operator in the regularization term. This method is performed in two steps: First, we apply a pre-processing step to find the edge locations in the regularized solution using a properly defined minmod limiter, where the edges are determined by a comparison of the solutions obtained using different order regularizations of the TV types. Then, we construct a local-order difference operator based on the information obtained from the pre-processing step about the edge locations, which is subsequently used as a regularization operator in the final sparsity-promoting regularization. Experimental results from the synthetic and real seismic traveltime tomography show that the proposed inversion method is able to retain the smooth regions of the regularized solution, while preserving sharp transitions presented in it.
Entropy, local order, and the freezing transition in Morse liquids.
Chakraborty, Somendra Nath; Chakravarty, Charusita
2007-07-01
The behavior of the excess entropy of Morse and Lennard-Jones liquids is examined as a function of temperature, density, and the structural order metrics. The dominant pair correlation contribution to the excess entropy is estimated from simulation data for the radial distribution function. The pair correlation entropy (S2) of these simple liquids is shown to have a threshold value of (-3.5+/-0.3)kB at freezing. Moreover, S2 shows a T(-2/5) temperature dependence. The temperature dependence of the pair correlation entropy as well as the behavior at freezing closely correspond to earlier predictions, based on density functional theory, for the excess entropy of repulsive inverse power and Yukawa potentials [Rosenfeld, Phys. Rev. E 62, 7524 (2000)]. The correlation between the pair correlation entropy and the local translational and bond orientational order parameters is examined, and, in the case of the bond orientational order, is shown to be sensitive to the definition of the nearest neighbors. The order map between translational and bond orientational order for Morse liquids and solids shows a very similar pattern to that seen in Lennard-Jones-type systems. PMID:17677432
Daish, Tasman; Casey, Aaron; Grützner, Frank
2009-01-01
Monotremes are phylogenetically and phenotypically unique animals with an unusually complex sex chromosome system that is composed of ten chromosomes in platypus and nine in echidna. These chromosomes are alternately linked (X1Y1, X2Y2, ...) at meiosis via pseudoautosomal regions and segregate to form spermatozoa containing either X or Y chromosomes. The physical and epigenetic mechanisms involved in pairing and assembly of the complex sex chromosome chain in early meiotic prophase I are completely unknown. We have analysed the pairing dynamics of specific sex chromosome pseudoautosomal regions in platypus spermatocytes during prophase of meiosis I. Our data show a highly coordinated pairing process that begins at the terminal Y5 chromosome and completes with the union of sex chromosomes X1Y1. The consistency of this ordered assembly of the chain is remarkable and raises questions about the mechanisms and factors that regulate the differential pairing of sex chromosomes and how this relates to potential meiotic silencing mechanisms and alternate segregation. PMID:19874721
1998-08-11
This protective order for non-rural local exchange carriers (LECs) is intended to facilitate and expedite review of documents containing trade secrets and commercial or financial information submitted by a person or entity that are either privileged or confidential. It reflects the manner in which "Confidential Information," as that term is defined herein, is to be treated in the universal service proceeding to select a mechanism to determine high cost support. The Order is not intended to constitute a resolution of the merits concerning whether any Confidential Information would be released publicly by the Commission upon a proper request. PMID:10182564
A new local high-order laminate theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chih-Ping; Hsu, Chih-Shun
A new local high-order deformable theory of laminated composite/sandwich plates is presented here. The displacement fields of each discrete layer were assumed in the present theory to be of a high-order polynomial series through layer-thickness. The displacement and traction continuity conditions at the interface between layers and the traction conditions at the outer surfaces were imposed as the constraint conditions, and introduced into the potential energy functional by the Lagrange multiplier method. The equations of motion and admissible boundary conditions were given on the basis of the present theory by using the generalized variational principle. Pagano's 3-D elasticity solutions of generally rectangular laminated composite/sandwich plates, fully simply supported, subjected to transverse sinusoidal loading were used for assessment of the present theory and other theories discussed in previous literature. The present theory was found to agree very closely with 3-D elasticity solutions.
Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuqing; Liu, Yang
2014-01-01
Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC), which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order's volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful. PMID:25276851
Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuqing; Liu, Yang
2014-01-01
Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC), which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order's volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful. PMID:25276851
Locality and Word Order in Active Dependency Formation in Bangla.
Chacón, Dustin A; Imtiaz, Mashrur; Dasgupta, Shirsho; Murshed, Sikder M; Dan, Mina; Phillips, Colin
2016-01-01
Research on filler-gap dependencies has revealed that there are constraints on possible gap sites, and that real-time sentence processing is sensitive to these constraints. This work has shown that comprehenders have preferences for potential gap sites, and immediately detect when these preferences are not met. However, neither the mechanisms that select preferred gap sites nor the mechanisms used to detect whether these preferences are met are well-understood. In this paper, we report on three experiments in Bangla, a language in which gaps may occur in either a pre-verbal embedded clause or a post-verbal embedded clause. This word order variation allows us to manipulate whether the first gap linearly available is contained in the same clause as the filler, which allows us to dissociate structural locality from linear locality. In Experiment 1, an untimed ambiguity resolution task, we found a global bias to resolve a filler-gap dependency with the first gap linearly available, regardless of structural hierarchy. In Experiments 2 and 3, which use the filled-gap paradigm, we found sensitivity to disruption only when the blocked gap site is both structurally and linearly local, i.e., the filler and the gap site are contained in the same clause. This suggests that comprehenders may not show sensitivity to the disruption of all preferred gap resolutions. PMID:27610090
Locality and Word Order in Active Dependency Formation in Bangla
Chacón, Dustin A.; Imtiaz, Mashrur; Dasgupta, Shirsho; Murshed, Sikder M.; Dan, Mina; Phillips, Colin
2016-01-01
Research on filler-gap dependencies has revealed that there are constraints on possible gap sites, and that real-time sentence processing is sensitive to these constraints. This work has shown that comprehenders have preferences for potential gap sites, and immediately detect when these preferences are not met. However, neither the mechanisms that select preferred gap sites nor the mechanisms used to detect whether these preferences are met are well-understood. In this paper, we report on three experiments in Bangla, a language in which gaps may occur in either a pre-verbal embedded clause or a post-verbal embedded clause. This word order variation allows us to manipulate whether the first gap linearly available is contained in the same clause as the filler, which allows us to dissociate structural locality from linear locality. In Experiment 1, an untimed ambiguity resolution task, we found a global bias to resolve a filler-gap dependency with the first gap linearly available, regardless of structural hierarchy. In Experiments 2 and 3, which use the filled-gap paradigm, we found sensitivity to disruption only when the blocked gap site is both structurally and linearly local, i.e., the filler and the gap site are contained in the same clause. This suggests that comprehenders may not show sensitivity to the disruption of all preferred gap resolutions. PMID:27610090
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Yiping; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O.
2016-03-01
Coupling of electrostatic complexation with conformational transition is rather general in protein/polyelectrolyte interaction and has important implications in many biological processes and practical applications. This work studied the electrostatic complexation between κ-carrageenan (κ-car) and type B gelatin, and analyzed the effects of the conformational ordering of κ-car induced upon cooling in the presence of potassium chloride (KCl) or tetramethylammonium iodide (Me4NI). Experimental results showed that the effects of conformational ordering on protein/polyelectrolyte electrostatic complexation can be decomposed into ionic binding and chain stiffening. At the initial stage of conformational ordering, electrostatic complexation can be either suppressed or enhanced due to the ionic bindings of K+ and I‑ ions, which significantly alter the charge density of κ-car or occupy the binding sites of gelatin. Beyond a certain stage of conformational ordering, i.e., helix content θ > 0.30, the effect of chain stiffening, accompanied with a rapid increase in helix length ζ, becomes dominant and tends to dissociate the electrostatic complexation. The effect of chain stiffening can be theoretically interpreted in terms of double helix association.
Cao, Yiping; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O
2016-01-01
Coupling of electrostatic complexation with conformational transition is rather general in protein/polyelectrolyte interaction and has important implications in many biological processes and practical applications. This work studied the electrostatic complexation between κ-carrageenan (κ-car) and type B gelatin, and analyzed the effects of the conformational ordering of κ-car induced upon cooling in the presence of potassium chloride (KCl) or tetramethylammonium iodide (Me4NI). Experimental results showed that the effects of conformational ordering on protein/polyelectrolyte electrostatic complexation can be decomposed into ionic binding and chain stiffening. At the initial stage of conformational ordering, electrostatic complexation can be either suppressed or enhanced due to the ionic bindings of K(+) and I(-) ions, which significantly alter the charge density of κ-car or occupy the binding sites of gelatin. Beyond a certain stage of conformational ordering, i.e., helix content θ > 0.30, the effect of chain stiffening, accompanied with a rapid increase in helix length ζ, becomes dominant and tends to dissociate the electrostatic complexation. The effect of chain stiffening can be theoretically interpreted in terms of double helix association. PMID:27030165
Cao, Yiping; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O.
2016-01-01
Coupling of electrostatic complexation with conformational transition is rather general in protein/polyelectrolyte interaction and has important implications in many biological processes and practical applications. This work studied the electrostatic complexation between κ-carrageenan (κ-car) and type B gelatin, and analyzed the effects of the conformational ordering of κ-car induced upon cooling in the presence of potassium chloride (KCl) or tetramethylammonium iodide (Me4NI). Experimental results showed that the effects of conformational ordering on protein/polyelectrolyte electrostatic complexation can be decomposed into ionic binding and chain stiffening. At the initial stage of conformational ordering, electrostatic complexation can be either suppressed or enhanced due to the ionic bindings of K+ and I− ions, which significantly alter the charge density of κ-car or occupy the binding sites of gelatin. Beyond a certain stage of conformational ordering, i.e., helix content θ > 0.30, the effect of chain stiffening, accompanied with a rapid increase in helix length ζ, becomes dominant and tends to dissociate the electrostatic complexation. The effect of chain stiffening can be theoretically interpreted in terms of double helix association. PMID:27030165
Local Magnetization in the Impure Spin 1/2 Anisotropic Ising-Heisenberg Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gildenblat, Gennady
A theory of the Friedel-type oscillations of the local magnetization in the impure antiferromagnetic spin 1/2 chains is developed using the Green function equations of motion in the pseudo-fermion representation. For the isotropic XY (XX) chain, the problem is solved exactly, while the Ising-Heisenberg model is investigated numerically within a temperature-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. It is shown that the Hartree-Fock self consistency equations for the uniformly magnetized XXZ chain can be recovered as a particular case of the formalism developed in the present work. Comparison with the earlier perturbation theory treatment in a free-fermion approximation reveals that the magnetic field dependence of the perturbation of the local magnetization is sensitive to the formation of the localized states and the exact form of the energy dispersion law of the quasi-particles. In particular it is shown that the perturbations of the local magnetization in the impure spin 1/2 chains disappear in the absence of the external magnetic field. Using the exact solution for the XY chain it is shown that unless the localized energy levels are formed outside the pseudo-fermion energy band the singularity of the local magnetization existing in the pure chain disappears at an arbitrary distance from the single impurity spin. For the ferromagnetic chain with the ferromagnetically coupled impurity the solution of the Hartree-Fock equations at low temperatures agrees reasonably with the results of the linear spin-wave theory. If the impurity is antiferromagnetically coupled, then, in contrast with the results of the spin -wave theory, the Hartree-Fock approximation agrees with the exact result for the zero-field ground state spin defect at the impurity site. Unlike the previous methods, the technique developed in this work permits investigation of the whole temperature range and predicts the correct Curie-Weiss behavior at sufficiently large temperatures.
High-order sampling schemes for path integrals and Gaussian chain simulations of polymers
Müser, Martin H.; Müller, Marcus
2015-05-07
In this work, we demonstrate that path-integral schemes, derived in the context of many-body quantum systems, benefit the simulation of Gaussian chains representing polymers. Specifically, we show how to decrease discretization corrections with little extra computation from the usual O(1/P{sup 2}) to O(1/P{sup 4}), where P is the number of beads representing the chains. As a consequence, high-order integrators necessitate much smaller P than those commonly used. Particular emphasis is placed on the questions of how to maintain this rate of convergence for open polymers and for polymers confined by a hard wall as well as how to ensure efficient sampling. The advantages of the high-order sampling schemes are illustrated by studying the surface tension of a polymer melt and the interface tension in a binary homopolymers blend.
Diagonalization and Many-Body Localization for a Disordered Quantum Spin Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imbrie, John Z.
2016-07-01
We consider a weakly interacting quantum spin chain with random local interactions. We prove that many-body localization follows from a physically reasonable assumption that limits the extent of level attraction in the statistics of eigenvalues. In a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser-style construction, a sequence of local unitary transformations is used to diagonalize the Hamiltonian by deforming the initial tensor-product basis into a complete set of exact many-body eigenfunctions.
Local order variations in confined hard-sphere fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nygârd, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland
2013-10-01
Pair distributions of fluids confined between two surfaces at close distance are of fundamental importance for a variety of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, such as interactions between macromolecules in solution, surface forces, and diffusion in narrow pores. However, in contrast to bulk fluids, properties of inhomogeneous fluids are seldom studied at the pair-distribution level. Motivated by recent experimental advances in determining anisotropic structure factors of confined fluids, we analyze theoretically the underlying anisotropic pair distributions of the archetypical hard-sphere fluid confined between two parallel hard surfaces using first-principles statistical mechanics of inhomogeneous fluids. For this purpose, we introduce an experimentally accessible ensemble-averaged local density correlation function and study its behavior as a function of confining slit width. Upon increasing the distance between the confining surfaces, we observe an alternating sequence of strongly anisotropic versus more isotropic local order. The latter is due to packing frustration of the spherical particles. This observation highlights the importance of studying inhomogeneous fluids at the pair-distribution level.
Anisotropy of the monomer random walk in a polymer melt: local-order and connectivity effects.
Bernini, S; Leporini, D
2016-05-11
The random walk of a bonded monomer in a polymer melt is anisotropic due to local order and bond connectivity. We investigate both effects by molecular-dynamics simulations on melts of fully-flexible linear chains ranging from dimers (M = 2) up to entangled polymers (M = 200). The corresponding atomic liquid is also considered a reference system. To disentangle the influence of the local geometry and the bond arrangements, and to reveal their interplay, we define suitable measures of the anisotropy emphasising either the former or the latter aspect. Connectivity anisotropy, as measured by the correlation between the initial bond orientation and the direction of the subsequent monomer displacement, shows a slight enhancement due to the local order at times shorter than the structural relaxation time. At intermediate times-when the monomer displacement is comparable to the bond length-a pronounced peak and then decays slowly as t (-1/2), becoming negligible when the displacement is as large as about five bond lengths, i.e. about four monomer diameters or three Kuhn lengths. Local-geometry anisotropy, as measured by the correlation between the initial orientation of a characteristic axis of the Voronoi cell and the subsequent monomer dynamics, is affected at shorter times than the structural relaxation time by the cage shape with antagonistic disturbance by the connectivity. Differently, at longer times, the connectivity favours the persistence of the local-geometry anisotropy, which vanishes when the monomer displacement exceeds the bond length. Our results strongly suggest that the sole consideration of the local order is not enough to understand the microscopic origin of the rattling amplitude of the trapped monomer in the cage of the neighbours. PMID:27070080
Anisotropy of the monomer random walk in a polymer melt: local-order and connectivity effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernini, S.; Leporini, D.
2016-05-01
The random walk of a bonded monomer in a polymer melt is anisotropic due to local order and bond connectivity. We investigate both effects by molecular-dynamics simulations on melts of fully-flexible linear chains ranging from dimers (M = 2) up to entangled polymers (M = 200). The corresponding atomic liquid is also considered a reference system. To disentangle the influence of the local geometry and the bond arrangements, and to reveal their interplay, we define suitable measures of the anisotropy emphasising either the former or the latter aspect. Connectivity anisotropy, as measured by the correlation between the initial bond orientation and the direction of the subsequent monomer displacement, shows a slight enhancement due to the local order at times shorter than the structural relaxation time. At intermediate times—when the monomer displacement is comparable to the bond length—a pronounced peak and then decays slowly as t ‑1/2, becoming negligible when the displacement is as large as about five bond lengths, i.e. about four monomer diameters or three Kuhn lengths. Local-geometry anisotropy, as measured by the correlation between the initial orientation of a characteristic axis of the Voronoi cell and the subsequent monomer dynamics, is affected at shorter times than the structural relaxation time by the cage shape with antagonistic disturbance by the connectivity. Differently, at longer times, the connectivity favours the persistence of the local-geometry anisotropy, which vanishes when the monomer displacement exceeds the bond length. Our results strongly suggest that the sole consideration of the local order is not enough to understand the microscopic origin of the rattling amplitude of the trapped monomer in the cage of the neighbours.
The optimum order of a Markov chain model for daily rainfall in Nigeria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimoh, O. D.; Webster, P.
1996-11-01
Markov type models are often used to describe the occurrence of daily rainfall. Although models of Order 1 have been successfully employed, there remains uncertainty concerning the optimum order for such models. This paper is concerned with estimation of the optimum order of Markov chains and, in particular, the use of objective criteria of the Akaike and Bayesian Information Criteria (AIC and BIC, respectively). Using daily rainfall series for five stations in Nigeria, it has been found that the AIC and BIC estimates vary with month as well as the value of the rainfall threshold used to define a wet day. There is no apparent system to this variation, although AIC estimates are consistently greater than or equal to BIC estimates, with values of the latter limited to zero or unity. The optimum order is also investigated through generation of synthetic sequences of wet and dry days using the transition matrices of zero-, first- and second-order Markov chains. It was found that the first-order model is superior to the zero-order model in representing the characteristics of the historical sequence as judged using frequency duration curves. There was no discernible difference between the model performance for first- and second-order models. There was no seasonal varation in the model performance, which contrasts with the optimum models identified using AIC and BIC estimates. It is concluded that caution is needed with the use of objective criteria for determining the optimum order of the Markov model and that the use of frequency duration curves can provide a robust alternative method of model identification. Comments are also made on the importance of record length and non-stationarity for model identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor); Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, A.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, R. J.; Rogers, J.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.; Holland-Moritz, D.
2003-01-01
Over fifty years ago, David Turnbull showed that the temperature of many metallic liquids could be decreased far below their equilibrium melting temperature before crystallization occurred. To explain those surprising results, Charles Frank hypothesized that the local structures of undercooled metallic liquids are different from those of crystal phases, containing a significant degree of icosahedral order that is incompatible with extended periodicity. Such structural differences must create a barrier to the formation crystal phases, explaining the observed undercooling behavior. If true, the nucleation from the liquid of phases with extended icosahedral order should be easier. Icosahedral order is often favored in small clusters, as observed recently in liquid-like clusters of pure Pb on the (111) surface of Si, for example. However, it has never been shown that an increasing preference for icosahedral phase formation can be directly linked with the development of icosahedral order in the undercooled liquid. Owing to the combination of very recent advances in levitation techniques and the availability of synchrotron x-ray and high flux neutron facilities, this is shown here.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.; Robinson, M. B.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Over fifty years ago, David Turnbull showed that the temperature of many metallic liquids could be decreased far below their equilibrium melting temperature before crystallization occurred. To explain those surprising results, Charles Frank hypothesized that the local structures of undercooled metallic liquids are different from those of crystal phases, containing a significant degree of icosahedral order that is incompatible with extended periodicity. Such structural differences must create a barrier to the formation crystal phases, explaining the observed undercooling behavior. If true, the nucleation from the liquid of phases with extended icosahedral order should be easier. Icosahedral order is often favored in small clusters, as observed recently in liquid-like clusters of pure Pb on the (111) surface of Si(3), for example. However, it has never been shown that an increasing preference for icosahedral phase formation can be directly linked with the development of icosahedral order in the undercooled liquid. Owing to the combination of very recent advances in levitation techniques and the availability of synchrotron X-ray and high flux neutron facilities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.; Robinson, M. B.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.
2003-01-01
Over fifty years ago, David Turnbull showed that the temperature of many metallic liquids could be decreased far below their equilibrium melting temperature before crystallization occurred. To explain those surprising results, Charles Frank hypothesized that the local structures of undercooled metallic liquids are different from those of crystal phases, containing a significant degree of icosahedral order that is incompatible with extended periodicity. Such structural differences must create a barrier to the formation crystal phases, explaining the observed undercooling behavior. If true, the nucleation from the liquid of phases with extended icosahedral order should be easier. Icosahedral order is often favored in small clusters, as observed recently in liquid-like clusters of pure Pb on the (111) surface of Si[3], for example. However, it has never been shown that an increasing preference for icosahedral phase formation can be directly linked with the development of icosahedral order in the undercooled liquid. Owing to the combination of very recent advances in levitation techniques and the availability of synchrotron x-ray and high flux neutron facilities, this is shown here.
Entanglement and local extremes at an infinite-order quantum phase transition
Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S.
2010-03-15
The characterization of an infinite-order quantum phase transition (QPT) by entanglement measures is analyzed. To this aim, we consider two closely related solvable spin-1/2 chains, namely, the Ashkin-Teller and the staggered XXZ models. These systems display a distinct pattern of eigenstates but exhibit the same thermodynamics, that is, the same energy spectrum. By performing exact diagonalization, we investigate the behavior of pairwise and block entanglement in the ground state of both models. In contrast with the XXZ chain, we show that pairwise entanglement fails in the characterization of the infinite-order QPT in the Ashkin-Teller model, although it can be achieved by analyzing the distance of the pair state from the separability boundary. Concerning block entanglement, we show that both XXZ and Ashkin-Teller models exhibit identical von Neumann entropies as long as a suitable choice of blocks is performed. Entanglement entropy is then shown to be able to identify the quantum phase diagram, even though its local extremes (either maximum or minimum) may also appear in the absence of any infinite-order QPT.
First and second order semi-Markov chains for wind speed modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prattico, F.; Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.
2012-04-01
The increasing interest in renewable energy leads scientific research to find a better way to recover most of the available energy. Particularly, the maximum energy recoverable from wind is equal to 59.3% of that available (Betz law) at a specific pitch angle and when the ratio between the wind speed in output and in input is equal to 1/3. The pitch angle is the angle formed between the airfoil of the blade of the wind turbine and the wind direction. Old turbine and a lot of that actually marketed, in fact, have always the same invariant geometry of the airfoil. This causes that wind turbines will work with an efficiency that is lower than 59.3%. New generation wind turbines, instead, have a system to variate the pitch angle by rotating the blades. This system able the wind turbines to recover, at different wind speed, always the maximum energy, working in Betz limit at different speed ratios. A powerful system control of the pitch angle allows the wind turbine to recover better the energy in transient regime. A good stochastic model for wind speed is then needed to help both the optimization of turbine design and to assist the system control to predict the value of the wind speed to positioning the blades quickly and correctly. The possibility to have synthetic data of wind speed is a powerful instrument to assist designer to verify the structures of the wind turbines or to estimate the energy recoverable from a specific site. To generate synthetic data, Markov chains of first or higher order are often used [1,2,3]. In particular in [3] is presented a comparison between a first-order Markov chain and a second-order Markov chain. A similar work, but only for the first-order Markov chain, is conduced by [2], presenting the probability transition matrix and comparing the energy spectral density and autocorrelation of real and synthetic wind speed data. A tentative to modeling and to join speed and direction of wind is presented in [1], by using two models, first-order
Thermal stability and ordering study of long- and short-alkyl chain phosphonic acid multilayers.
de Pauli, Muriel; Prado, Mariana de Castro; Matos, Matheus Josue Souza; Fontes, Giselle Nogueira; Perez, Carlos Alberto; Mazzoni, Mario Sergio Carvalho; Neves, Bernardo Ruegger Almeida; Malachias, Angelo
2012-10-30
Long-range order evolution of self-assembled phosphonic acid multilayers as a function of temperature is studied here for two molecules with different alkyl chain length. By using synchrotron conventional diffraction, distinct order configurations are retrieved on phosphonic acid multilayers and their thermodynamic behavior monitored by energy-dispersive diffraction. This later technique allows us to observe the system behavior near order-disorder temperatures, as well as to determine the most stable configurations in the range from room temperature up to 120 °C. Planar order is also addressed by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) transmission experiments. Order parameter phase diagrams are built based on the experimental results, showing the dominant configuration at each temperature. The multilayer molecular long-range order retrieved from the experiments is corroborated by first principles calculations based on the Density Functional Theory. The bulk configurations depicted in this work are produced by molecule-molecule interactions and allow for future comparisons with the behavior of ordered molecules in few-monolayers configurations, commonly used in organic devices, where the presence of surfaces and interfaces strongly affects the molecule packing. PMID:23009090
Low-Power Light Guiding and Localization in Optoplasmonic Chains Obtained by Directed Self-Assembly
Ahn, Wonmi; Zhao, Xin; Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Björn M.
2016-01-01
Optoplasmonic structures contain plasmonic components embedded in a defined photonic environment to create synergistic interactions between photonic and plasmonic components. Here, we show that chains of optical microspheres containing gold nanoparticles in their evanescent field combine the light guiding properties of a microsphere chain with the light localizing properties of a plasmonic nanoantenna. We implement these materials through template guided self-assembly and investigate their fundamental electromagnetic working principles through combination of electromagnetic simulations and experimental characterization. We demonstrate that optoplasmonic chains implemented by directed self-assembly achieve a significant reduction in guiding losses when compared with conventional plasmonic waveguides and, at the same time, retain the light localizing properties of plasmonic antennas at pre-defined locations. The results reinforce the potential of optoplasmonic structures for realizing low-loss optical interconnects with high bandwidth. PMID:26931149
Low-power light guiding and localization in optoplasmonic chains obtained by directed self-assembly
Ahn, Wonmi; Zhao, Xin; Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Bjorn M.
2016-03-02
Here, optoplasmonic structures contain plasmonic components embedded in a defined photonic environment to create synergistic interactions between photonic and plasmonic components. Here, we show that chains of optical microspheres containing gold nanoparticles in their evanescent field combine the light guiding properties of a microsphere chain with the light localizing properties of a plasmonic nanoantenna. We implement these materials through template guided self-assembly and investigate their fundamental electromagnetic working principles through combination of electromagnetic simulations and experimental characterization. We demonstrate that optoplasmonic chains implemented by directed self-assembly achieve a significant reduction in guiding losses when compared with conventional plasmonic waveguides and,more » at the same time, retain the light localizing properties of plasmonic antennas at pre-defined locations. The results reinforce the potential of optoplasmonic structures for realizing low-loss optical interconnects with high bandwidth.« less
Low-Power Light Guiding and Localization in Optoplasmonic Chains Obtained by Directed Self-Assembly.
Ahn, Wonmi; Zhao, Xin; Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Björn M
2016-01-01
Optoplasmonic structures contain plasmonic components embedded in a defined photonic environment to create synergistic interactions between photonic and plasmonic components. Here, we show that chains of optical microspheres containing gold nanoparticles in their evanescent field combine the light guiding properties of a microsphere chain with the light localizing properties of a plasmonic nanoantenna. We implement these materials through template guided self-assembly and investigate their fundamental electromagnetic working principles through combination of electromagnetic simulations and experimental characterization. We demonstrate that optoplasmonic chains implemented by directed self-assembly achieve a significant reduction in guiding losses when compared with conventional plasmonic waveguides and, at the same time, retain the light localizing properties of plasmonic antennas at pre-defined locations. The results reinforce the potential of optoplasmonic structures for realizing low-loss optical interconnects with high bandwidth. PMID:26931149
Low-Power Light Guiding and Localization in Optoplasmonic Chains Obtained by Directed Self-Assembly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Wonmi; Zhao, Xin; Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Björn M.
2016-03-01
Optoplasmonic structures contain plasmonic components embedded in a defined photonic environment to create synergistic interactions between photonic and plasmonic components. Here, we show that chains of optical microspheres containing gold nanoparticles in their evanescent field combine the light guiding properties of a microsphere chain with the light localizing properties of a plasmonic nanoantenna. We implement these materials through template guided self-assembly and investigate their fundamental electromagnetic working principles through combination of electromagnetic simulations and experimental characterization. We demonstrate that optoplasmonic chains implemented by directed self-assembly achieve a significant reduction in guiding losses when compared with conventional plasmonic waveguides and, at the same time, retain the light localizing properties of plasmonic antennas at pre-defined locations. The results reinforce the potential of optoplasmonic structures for realizing low-loss optical interconnects with high bandwidth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starosvetsky, Yuli; Vakakis, Alexander F.
2010-08-01
We study a class of strongly nonlinear traveling waves and localized modes in one-dimensional homogeneous granular chains with no precompression. Until now the only traveling-wave solutions known for this class of systems were the single-hump solitary waves studied by Nesterenko in the continuum approximation limit. Instead, we directly study the discrete strongly nonlinear governing equations of motion of these media without resorting to continuum approximations or homogenization, which enables us to compute families of stable multihump traveling-wave solutions with arbitrary wavelengths. We develop systematic semianalytical approaches for computing different families of nonlinear traveling waves parametrized by spatial periodicity (wave number) and energy, and show that in a certain asymptotic limit, these wave families converge to the known single-hump solitary wave studied by Nesterenko. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stable strongly localized out-of-phase standing waves in perfectly homogeneous granular chains with no precompression or disorder. Until now such localized solutions were known to exist only in granular chains with strong precompression. Our findings indicate that homogeneous granular chains possess complex intrinsic nonlinear dynamics, including intrinsic nonlinear energy transfer and localization phenomena.
Higher-order local and non-local correlations for 1D strongly interacting Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandani, EJKP; Römer, Rudolf A.; Tan, Shina; Guan, Xi-Wen
2016-05-01
The correlation function is an important quantity in the physics of ultracold quantum gases because it provides information about the quantum many-body wave function beyond the simple density profile. In this paper we first study the M-body local correlation functions, g M , of the one-dimensional (1D) strongly repulsive Bose gas within the Lieb–Liniger model using the analytical method proposed by Gangardt and Shlyapnikov (2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 010401; 2003 New J. Phys. 5 79). In the strong repulsion regime the 1D Bose gas at low temperatures is equivalent to a gas of ideal particles obeying the non-mutual generalized exclusion statistics with a statistical parameter α =1-2/γ , i.e. the quasimomenta of N strongly interacting bosons map to the momenta of N free fermions via {k}i≈ α {k}iF with i=1,\\ldots ,N. Here γ is the dimensionless interaction strength within the Lieb–Liniger model. We rigorously prove that such a statistical parameter α solely determines the sub-leading order contribution to the M-body local correlation function of the gas at strong but finite interaction strengths. We explicitly calculate the correlation functions g M in terms of γ and α at zero, low, and intermediate temperatures. For M = 2 and 3 our results reproduce the known expressions for g 2 and g 3 with sub-leading terms (see for instance (Vadim et al 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 051604(R); Kormos et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 210404; Wang et al 2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 043634). We also express the leading order of the short distance non-local correlation functions < {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}1)\\cdots {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}M){{\\Psi }}({y}M)\\cdots {{\\Psi }}({y}1)> of the strongly repulsive Bose gas in terms of the wave function of M bosons at zero collision energy and zero total momentum. Here {{\\Psi }}(x) is the boson annihilation operator. These general formulas of the higher-order local and non-local correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas provide new insights into the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kislovsky, V.; Kovaleva, M.; Jayaprakash, K. R.; Starosvetsky, Y.
2016-07-01
In the present paper, we study the mechanism of formation and bifurcations of highly nonstationary regimes manifested by different energy transport intensities, emerging in an anharmonic trimer model. The basic model under investigation comprises a chain of three coupled anharmonic oscillators subject to localized excitation, where the initial energy is imparted to the first oscillator only. We report the formation of three basic nonstationary transport states traversed by locally excited regimes. These states differ by spatial energy distribution, as well as by the intensity of energy transport along the chain. In the current study, we focus on numerical and analytical investigation of the intricate resonant mechanism governing the inter-state transitions of locally excited regimes. Results of the analytical study are in good agreement with the numerical simulations of the trimer model.
Non-chain pulsed DF laser with an average power of the order of 100 W
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Qikun; Xie, Jijiang; Wang, Chunrui; Shao, Chunlei; Shao, Mingzhen; Chen, Fei; Guo, Jin
2016-07-01
The design and performance of a closed-cycle repetitively pulsed DF laser are described. The Fitch circuit and thyratron switch are introduced to realize self-sustained volume discharge in SF6-D2 mixtures. The influences of gas parameters and charging voltage on output characteristics of non-chain pulsed DF laser are experimentally investigated. In order to improve the laser power stability over a long period of working time, zeolites with different apertures are used to scrub out the de-excitation particles produced in electric discharge. An average output power of the order of 100 W was obtained at an operating repetition rate of 50 Hz, with amplitude difference in laser pulses <8 %. And under the action of micropore alkaline zeolites, the average power fell by 20 % after the laser continuing working 100 s at repetition frequency of 50 Hz.
Local light-induced spin manipulation in two magnetic centre metallic chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartenstein, T.; Li, C.; Lefkidis, G.; Hübner, W.
2008-08-01
In this paper localized optically induced spin dynamics is presented, based on highly correlational ab initio calculations. Two-magnetic-centre metallic chains are chosen as a material on which the total spin is always found to lie on one of the magnetic centres only. Switching is achieved through a Λ-process driven by a laser pulse whose parameters are optimized with a genetic algorithm. Locally switching the spin on the iron side of a Co-Na-Fe cluster is given as an example of local spin manipulation.
Ordering of anisotropic polarizable polymer chains on the full many-body level.
Dean, David S; Podgornik, Rudolf
2012-04-21
We study the effect of dielectric anisotropy of polymers on their equilibrium ordering within mean-field theory, but with a formalism that takes into account the full n-body nature of van der Waals (vdW) forces. Dielectric anisotropy within polymers is to be expected as the electronic properties of the polymer will typically be different along the polymer than across its cross section. It is therefore physically intuitive that larger charge fluctuations can be induced along the chain than perpendicular to it. We show that this dielectric anisotropy leads to n-body interactions which can induce an isotropic-nematic transition. The two body and three body components of the full vdW interaction are extracted and it is shown how the two body term behaves like the phenomenological self-aligning-pairwise nematic interaction. At the three body interaction level we see that the nematic phase that is energetically favorable is discotic, however, on the full n-body interaction level we find that the normal axial nematic phase is always the stable ordered phase. The n-body nature of our approach also shows that the key parameter driving the nematic-isotropic transition is the bare persistence length of the polymer chain. PMID:22519348
Global order and local disorder in brain maps.
Rothschild, Gideon; Mizrahi, Adi
2015-07-01
Maps serve as a ubiquitous organizing principle in the mammalian brain. In several sensory systems, such as audition, vision, and somatosensation, topographic maps are evident throughout multiple levels of brain pathways. Topographic maps, like retinotopy and tonotopy, persist from the receptor surface up to the cortex. Other maps, such as those of orientation preference in the visual cortex, are first created in the cortex itself. Despite the prevalence of topographic maps, it is still not clear what function they subserve. Although maps are topographically smooth at the macroscale, they are often locally heterogeneous. Here, we review studies describing the anatomy and physiology of topographic maps across various spatial scales, from the smooth macroscale to the heterogeneous local microarchitecture, with emphasis on maps of the visual and auditory systems. We discuss the potential advantages of local heterogeneity in brain maps, how they reflect complex cortical connectivity, and how they may impact sensory coding and local computations. PMID:25897872
Localization of electronic states in chain models based on real DNA sequence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Hiroaki
2004-11-01
We investigate the localization property of an electron in the disordered two- and three-chain systems (ladder model) with long-range correlation as a simple model for electronic property in a double strand of DNA. The chains are constructed by repetition of the sugar-phosphate sites, and the inter-chain hopping at the sugar sites come from nucleotide pairs, i.e., A- T or G- C pairs. It has been found that some DNA sequences have long-range correlation. In this Letter we investigate the localization properties of the electronic states in some actual DNA sequences such as bacteriophages of Escherichia coli, human chromosome 22 and histone protein. We will present some numerical results for the Lyapunov exponent (inverse localization length) of the wave function in the cases in comparison to the results for artificial sequence generated by an asymmetric modified Bernoulli map. It is shown that the correlation and asymmetry of the sequence affect on the localization in both the artificial and the real DNA sequences.
Basko, D.M.
2011-07-15
Research Highlights: > In a one-dimensional disordered chain of oscillators all normal modes are localized. > Nonlinearity leads to chaotic dynamics. > Chaos is concentrated on rare chaotic spots. > Chaotic spots drive energy exchange between oscillators. > Macroscopic transport coefficients are obtained. - Abstract: The subject of this study is the long-time equilibration dynamics of a strongly disordered one-dimensional chain of coupled weakly anharmonic classical oscillators. It is shown that chaos in this system has a very particular spatial structure: it can be viewed as a dilute gas of chaotic spots. Each chaotic spot corresponds to a stochastic pump which drives the Arnold diffusion of the oscillators surrounding it, thus leading to their relaxation and thermalization. The most important mechanism of equilibration at long distances is provided by random migration of the chaotic spots along the chain, which bears analogy with variable-range hopping of electrons in strongly disordered solids. The corresponding macroscopic transport equations are obtained.
Mańka, Agnieszka; Nowicki, Waldemar; Nowicka, Grażyna
2013-09-01
A linear chain on a simple cubic lattice was simulated by the Metropolis Monte Carlo method using a combination of local and non-local chain modifications. Kink-jump, crankshaft, reptation and end-segment moves were used for local changes of the chain conformation, while for non-local chain rearrangements the "cut-and-paste" algorithm was employed. The statistics of local micromodifications was examined. An approximate method for estimating the conformational entropy of a polymer chain, based on the efficiency of the kink-jump motion respecting chain continuity and excluded volume constraints, was proposed. The method was tested by calculating the conformational entropy of the undisturbed chain, the chain under tension and in different solvent conditions (athermal, theta and poor) and also of the chain confined in a slit. The results of these test calculations are qualitatively consistent with expectations. Moreover, the obtained values of the conformational entropy of self avoiding chain with ends fixed over different separations, agree very well with the available literature data. PMID:23765038
Sub- and supercritical defect scattering in Schrödinger chains with higher-order hopping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stockhofe, J.; Schmelcher, P.
2015-08-01
We theoretically analyze a discrete Schrödinger chain with hopping to the first and second neighbors, as can be realized with zigzag arrangements of optical waveguides or lattice sites for cold atoms. Already at moderate values, second-neighbor hopping has a strong impact on the band structure, leading to the emergence of a new extremum located inside the band, accompanied by a van Hove singularity in the density of states. The energy band is then divided into a subcritical regime, with the usual unique correspondence between wave number and energy of the traveling waves, and a supercritical regime, in which waves of different wave number are degenerate in energy. We study the consequences of these features in a scattering setup, introducing a defect that locally breaks the translational invariance. The notion of a local probability current is generalized beyond the nearest-neighbor approximation and bound states with energies outside the band are discussed. At subcritical energies inside the band, an evanescent mode coexists with the traveling plane wave, giving rise to resonance phenomena in scattering. At weak coupling to the defect, we identify a prototypical Fano-Feshbach resonance of tunable shape and provide analytical expressions for its profile parameters. At supercritical energies, we observe coupling of the degenerate traveling waves, leading to an intricate wave-packet fragmentation dynamics. The corresponding branching ratios are analyzed.
Kondo cloud mediated long-range entanglement after local quench in a spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sodano, Pasquale; Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato
2010-03-01
We show that, in the gapless Kondo regime, a single local quench at one end of a Kondo spin chain induces a fast and long-lived oscillatory dynamics. This quickly establishes a high-quality entanglement between the spins at the opposite ends of the chain. This entanglement is mediated by the Kondo cloud, attains a constant high value independent of the length for large chains, and shows thermal robustness. In contrast, when the Kondo cloud is absent, e.g., in the gapped dimer regime, only finite-size end to end effects can create some entanglement on a much longer time scale for rather short chains. By decoupling one end of the chain during the dynamics, one can distinguish between this end-end effect which vanishes, and the global Kondo cloud mediated entanglement, which persists. This quench approach paves the way to detect the elusive Kondo cloud through the entanglement between two individual spins. Our results show that nonperturbative cooperative phenomena from condensed matter may be exploited for quantum information.
Quasi-local conserved charges and spin transport in spin-1 integrable chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piroli, Lorenzo; Vernier, Eric
2016-05-01
We consider the integrable one-dimensional spin-1 chain defined by the Zamolodchikov–Fateev (ZF) Hamiltonian. The latter is parametrized, analogously to the XXZ spin-1/2 model, by a continuous anisotropy parameter and at the isotropic point coincides with the well-known spin-1 Babujian–Takhtajan Hamiltonian. Following a procedure recently developed for the XXZ model, we explicitly construct a continuous family of quasi-local conserved operators for the periodic spin-1 ZF chain. Our construction is valid for a dense set of commensurate values of the anisotropy parameter in the gapless regime where the isotropic point is excluded. Using the Mazur inequality, we show that, as for the XXZ model, these quasi-local charges are enough to prove that the high-temperature spin Drude weight is non-vanishing in the thermodynamic limit, thus establishing ballistic spin transport at high temperature.
An Invariant of Topologically Ordered States Under Local Unitary Transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haah, Jeongwan
2016-03-01
For an anyon model in two spatial dimensions described by a modular tensor category, the topological S-matrix encodes the mutual braiding statistics, the quantum dimensions, and the fusion rules of anyons. It is nontrivial whether one can compute the S-matrix from a single ground state wave function. Here, we define a class of Hamiltonians consisting of local commuting projectors and an associated matrix that is invariant under local unitary transformations. We argue that the invariant is equivalent to the topological S-matrix. The definition does not require degeneracy of the ground state. We prove that the invariant depends on the state only, in the sense that it can be computed by any Hamiltonian in the class of which the state is a ground state. As a corollary, we prove that any local quantum circuit that connects two ground states of quantum double models (discrete gauge theories) with non-isomorphic abelian groups must have depth that is at least linear in the system's diameter. As a tool for the proof, a manifestly Hamiltonian-independent notion of locally invisible operators is introduced. This gives a sufficient condition for a many-body state not to be generated from a product state by any small depth quantum circuit; this is a many-body entanglement witness.
Disorder from order among anisotropic next-nearest-neighbor Ising spin chains in SrHo2O4
Wen, J. -J.; Tian, W.; Garlea, V. O.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; McQueen, T. M.; Li, H. -F.; Yan, J. -Q.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Vaknin, D.; Broholm, C. L.
2015-02-26
In this study, we describe why Ising spin chains with competing interactions in SrHo2O4 segregate into ordered and disordered ensembles at low temperatures (T). Using elastic neutron scattering, magnetization, and specific heat measurements, the two distinct spin chains are inferred to have Néel (↑↓↑↓) and double-Néel (↑↑↓↓) ground states, respectively. Below TN = 0.68(2)K, the Néel chains develop three-dimensional long range order (LRO), which arrests further thermal equilibration of the double-Néel chains so they remain in a disordered incommensurate state for T below TS = 0.52(2)K. SrHo2O4 distills an important feature of incommensurate low dimensional magnetism: kinetically trapped topological defectsmore » in a quasi–d–dimensional spin system can preclude order in d + 1 dimensions.« less
An Efficient Algorithm to Perform Local Concerted Movements of a Chain Molecule
Zamuner, Stefano; Rodriguez, Alex; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio
2015-01-01
The devising of efficient concerted rotation moves that modify only selected local portions of chain molecules is a long studied problem. Possible applications range from speeding the uncorrelated sampling of polymeric dense systems to loop reconstruction and structure refinement in protein modeling. Here, we propose and validate, on a few pedagogical examples, a novel numerical strategy that generalizes the notion of concerted rotation. The usage of the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for chain description allows all possible choices for the subset of degrees of freedom to be modified in the move. They can be arbitrarily distributed along the chain and can be distanced between consecutive monomers as well. The efficiency of the methodology capitalizes on the inherent geometrical structure of the manifold defined by all chain configurations compatible with the fixed degrees of freedom. The chain portion to be moved is first opened along a direction chosen in the tangent space to the manifold, and then closed in the orthogonal space. As a consequence, in Monte Carlo simulations detailed balance is easily enforced without the need of using Jacobian reweighting. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the degrees of freedom involved in the move can be easily tuned. We show different applications: the manifold of possible configurations is explored in a very efficient way for a protein fragment and for a cyclic molecule; the “local backbone volume”, related to the volume spanned by the manifold, reproduces the mobility profile of all-α helical proteins; the refinement of small protein fragments with different secondary structures is addressed. The presented results suggest our methodology as a valuable exploration and sampling tool in the context of bio-molecular simulations. PMID:25825903
An efficient algorithm to perform local concerted movements of a chain molecule.
Zamuner, Stefano; Rodriguez, Alex; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio
2015-01-01
The devising of efficient concerted rotation moves that modify only selected local portions of chain molecules is a long studied problem. Possible applications range from speeding the uncorrelated sampling of polymeric dense systems to loop reconstruction and structure refinement in protein modeling. Here, we propose and validate, on a few pedagogical examples, a novel numerical strategy that generalizes the notion of concerted rotation. The usage of the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for chain description allows all possible choices for the subset of degrees of freedom to be modified in the move. They can be arbitrarily distributed along the chain and can be distanced between consecutive monomers as well. The efficiency of the methodology capitalizes on the inherent geometrical structure of the manifold defined by all chain configurations compatible with the fixed degrees of freedom. The chain portion to be moved is first opened along a direction chosen in the tangent space to the manifold, and then closed in the orthogonal space. As a consequence, in Monte Carlo simulations detailed balance is easily enforced without the need of using Jacobian reweighting. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the degrees of freedom involved in the move can be easily tuned. We show different applications: the manifold of possible configurations is explored in a very efficient way for a protein fragment and for a cyclic molecule; the "local backbone volume", related to the volume spanned by the manifold, reproduces the mobility profile of all-α helical proteins; the refinement of small protein fragments with different secondary structures is addressed. The presented results suggest our methodology as a valuable exploration and sampling tool in the context of bio-molecular simulations. PMID:25825903
On Local Homogeneity and Stochastically Ordered Mixed Rasch Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kreiner, Svend; Hansen, Mogens; Hansen, Carsten Rosenberg
2006-01-01
Mixed Rasch models add latent classes to conventional Rasch models, assuming that the Rasch model applies within each class and that relative difficulties of items are different in two or more latent classes. This article considers a family of stochastically ordered mixed Rasch models, with ordinal latent classes characterized by increasing total…
Love, S.P.; Scott, B.; Worl, L.A.; Huckett, S.C.; Saxena, A.; Huang, X.Z.; Bishop, A.R.; Swanson, B.I.
1993-02-01
Resonance Raman techniques, together with lattice-dynamics and Peierls-Hubbard modelling, are used to explore the electronic and vibrational dynamics of the quasi-one-dimensional metal-halogen chain solids [Pt(en){sub 2}][R(en){sub 2}X{sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 4}, (en = C{sub 2}H{sub 8}N{sub 2} and X=Cl, Br), abbreviated ``PLX.`` The mixed-halide materials PtCl{sub 1-x}Br{sub x} and PtCl{sub 1-x}I{sub x} consist of long mixed chains with heterojunctions between segments of the two constituent materials. Thus, in addition to providing mesoscale modulation of the chain electronic states, they serve as prototypes for elucidating the properties to be expected for macroscopic heterojunctions of these highly nonlinear materials. Once a detailed understanding of the various local vibrational modes occurring in these disordered solids is developed, the electronic structure of the chain segments and junctions can be probed by tuning the Raman excitation through their various electronic resonances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuang, Bilin; Wang, Zhen-Gang
2012-02-01
Mixtures of side-chain liquid crystal polymers (SCLCPs) and low-molecular-weight liquid crystals (LMWLCs) are novel materials with applications such as optical data storage, non-linear optics, solid polymer electrolytes, chromatography and display materials. Recent experiments showed that the nematic-isotropic transition temperature and the nematic orders of each component vary non-monotonically with concentration. Existing theories, which combine the Flory-Huggins theory for isotropic mixing and the Maier-Saupe theory for nematic order, cannot explain such non-monotonicity. Here, we extend the existing theories by, first, incorporating the local steric constraints between the side-chain and the polymer backbone on the SCLCPs, and second, accounting for the crowding effects at high SCLCP concentrations. The new extended theory is able to resolve the discrepancies between the predictions of existing theories and the experimental observations.
Local order of liquid water at the electrochemical interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez Serra, Marivi; Pedroza, Luana
2014-03-01
Understanding the aqueous electrochemical interface in an atomic level is of fundamental importance in many areas, such as catalysis and materials science. In this work we analyze in detail the structural, dynamic and energetic properties of liquid-water interacting with (111) Pd and Au surfaces at ambient temperature, using first principles molecular dynamics, with and without van der Waals interactions. We show that, contrary to what was found when studying ice-like water layers, van der Waals interactions play a critical role in modeling the aqueous/electrode interface. We show the differences in the ordering of water at the interface for Pd and Au, and we explain the change in work functions of these two metals in aqueous solution. DOE Early Career Award No. DE-SC0003871.
Chain-based order and quantum spin liquids in dipolar spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClarty, P. A.; Sikora, O.; Moessner, R.; Penc, K.; Pollmann, F.; Shannon, N.
2015-09-01
Recent experiments on the spin-ice material Dy2Ti2O7 suggest that the Pauling "ice entropy," characteristic of its classical Coulombic spin-liquid state, may be lost at low temperatures [Pomaranski et al., Nat. Phys. 9, 353 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2591]. However, despite nearly two decades of intensive study, the nature of the equilibrium ground state of spin ice remains uncertain. Here we explore how long-range dipolar interactions D , short-range exchange interactions, and quantum fluctuations combine to determine the ground state of dipolar spin ice. We identify the organizational principle that ordered ground states are selected from a set of "chain states" in which dipolar interactions are exponentially screened. Using both quantum and classical Monte Carlo simulation, we establish phase diagrams as a function of quantum tunneling g and temperature T , and find that only a very small gc≪D is needed to stabilize a quantum spin liquid ground state. We discuss the implications of these results for Dy2Ti2O7 .
Direct visualization of quasi-ordered oxygen chain structures on Au(110)-(1 × 2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiebel, F.; Montemore, M. M.; Kaxiras, E.; Friend, C. M.
2016-08-01
The Au(110) surface offers unique advantages for atomically-resolved model studies of catalytic oxidation processes on gold. We investigate the adsorption of oxygen on Au(110) using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. We identify the typical (empty-states) STM contrast resulting from adsorbed oxygen as atomic-sized dark features of electronic origin. DFT-based image simulations confirm that chemisorbed oxygen is generally detected indirectly, from the binding-induced electronic structure modification of gold. STM images show that adsorption occurs without affecting the general structure of the pristine Au(110) missing-row reconstruction. The tendency to form one-dimensional structures is observed already at low coverage (< 0.05 ML), with oxygen adsorbing on alternate sides of the reconstruction ridges. Consistently, calculations yield preferred adsorption on the (111) facets of the reconstruction, on a 3-fold coordination site, with increased stability when adsorbed in chains. Gold atoms with two oxygen neighbors exhibit enhanced electronic hybridization with the O states. Finally, the species observed are reactive to CO oxidation at 200 K and desorption of CO2 leaves a clean and ordered gold surface.
Local suppression of the hidden-order phase by impurities in URu2Si2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pezzoli, Maria E.; Graf, Matthias J.; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Balatsky, Alexander V.
2011-06-01
We consider the effects of impurities on the enigmatic hidden order (HO) state of the heavy-fermion material URu2Si2. In particular, we focus on local effects of Rh impurities as a tool to probe the suppression of the HO state. To study local properties, we introduce a lattice free energy, where the time invariant HO order parameter Ψ and local antiferromagnetic (AFM) order parameter M are competing orders. Near each Rh atom, the HO order parameter is suppressed, creating a hole in which local AFM order emerges as a result of competition. These local holes are created in the fabric of the HO state like in a Swiss cheese and “filled” with droplets of AFM order. We compare our analysis with recent NMR results on U(RhxRu1-x)2Si2 and find good agreement with the data.
Toulemon, Delphine; Liu, Yu; Cattoën, Xavier; Leuvrey, Cédric; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Pichon, Benoit P
2016-02-16
Magnetic nanoparticle arrays represent a very attractive research field because their collective properties can be efficiently modulated as a function of the structure of the assembly. Nevertheless, understanding the way dipolar interactions influence the intrinsic magnetic properties of nanoparticles still remains a great challenge. In this study, we report on the preparation of 2D assemblies of iron oxide nanoparticles as monolayers deposited onto substrates. Assemblies have been prepared by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and the SAM assisted assembling technique combined to CuAAC "click" reaction. These techniques afford to control the formation of well-defined monolayers of nanoparticles on large areas. The LB technique controls local ordering of nanoparticles, while adjusting the kinetics of CuAAC "click" reaction strongly affects the spatial arrangement of nanoparticles in monolayers. Fast kinetics favor disordered assemblies while slow kinetics favor the formation of chain-like structures. Such anisotropic assemblies are induced by dipolar interactions between nanoparticles as no magnetic field is applied and no solvent evaporation is performed. The collective magnetic properties of monolayers are studied as a function of average interparticle distance, local order and local shape anisotropy. We demonstrate that local control on spatial arrangement of nanoparticles in monolayers significantly strengthens dipolar interactions which enhances collective properties and results in possible super ferromagnetic order. PMID:26807596
Intrinsic Localized Modes in Quantum Ferromagnetic XXZ Chains in an Oblique Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, De-Jun
2016-02-01
A semiclassical study of intrinsic localized spin-wave modes in a one-dimensional quantum ferromagnetic XXZ chain in an oblique magnetic field is presented in this paper. We quantize the model Hamiltonian by introducing the Dyson-Maleev transformation, and adopt the coherent state representation as the basic representation of the system. By means of the method of multiple scales combined with a quasidiscreteness approximation, the equation of motion for the coherent-state amplitude can be reduced to the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is found that, at the center of the Brillouin zone, when θ < θ c a bright intrinsic localized spin-wave mode appears below the bottom of the magnon frequency band and when θ > θ c a dark intrinsic localized spin-wave resonance mode can occur above the bottom of the magnon frequency band. In other words, the switch between the bright and dark intrinsic localized spin-wave modes can be controlled via varying the angle of the magnetic field. This result has potential applications in quantum information storage. In addition, we find that, at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, the system can only produce a dark intrinsic localized spin-wave mode, whose eigenfrequency is above the upper of the magnon frequency band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knaapila, M.; Stepanyan, R.; Torkkeli, M.; Haase, D.; Fröhlich, N.; Helfer, A.; Forster, M.; Scherf, U.
2016-04-01
We study relations among the side-chain asymmetry, structure, and order-disorder transition (ODT) in hairy-rod-type poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PF6) with two identical side chains and atactic poly(9-octyl-9-methyl-fluorene) (PF1-8) with two different side chains per repeat. PF6 and PF1-8 organize into alternating side-chain and backbone layers that transform into an isotropic phase at TODT(PF 6 ) and TbiODT(PF 1 -8 ) . We interpret polymers in terms of monodisperse and bidisperse brushes and predict scenarios TODT
Local slowdown of translation by nonoptimal codons promotes nascent-chain recognition by SRP in vivo
Pechmann, Sebastian; Chartron, Justin W; Frydman, Judith
2015-01-01
The genetic code allows most amino acids a choice of optimal and nonoptimal codons. We report that synonymous codon choice is tuned to promote interaction of nascent polypeptides with the signal recognition particle (SRP), which assists in protein translocation across membranes. Cotranslational recognition by the SRP in vivo is enhanced when mRNAs contain nonoptimal codon clusters 35–40 codons downstream of the SRP-binding site, the distance that spans the ribosomal polypeptide exit tunnel. A local translation slowdown upon ribosomal exit of SRP-binding elements in mRNAs containing these nonoptimal codon clusters is supported experimentally by ribosome profiling analyses in yeast. Modulation of local elongation rates through codon choice appears to kinetically enhance recognition by ribosome-associated factors. We propose that cotranslational regulation of nascent-chain fate may be a general constraint shaping codon usage in the genome. PMID:25420103
Pechmann, Sebastian; Chartron, Justin W; Frydman, Judith
2014-12-01
The genetic code allows most amino acids a choice of optimal and nonoptimal codons. We report that synonymous codon choice is tuned to promote interaction of nascent polypeptides with the signal recognition particle (SRP), which assists in protein translocation across membranes. Cotranslational recognition by the SRP in vivo is enhanced when mRNAs contain nonoptimal codon clusters 35-40 codons downstream of the SRP-binding site, the distance that spans the ribosomal polypeptide exit tunnel. A local translation slowdown upon ribosomal exit of SRP-binding elements in mRNAs containing these nonoptimal codon clusters is supported experimentally by ribosome profiling analyses in yeast. Modulation of local elongation rates through codon choice appears to kinetically enhance recognition by ribosome-associated factors. We propose that cotranslational regulation of nascent-chain fate may be a general constraint shaping codon usage in the genome. PMID:25420103
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmele, Alexander; Heyl, Markus; Kraus, Christina; Dalmonte, Marcello
2015-11-01
We investigate the resilience of symmetry-protected topological edge states at the boundaries of Kitaev chains in the presence of a bath which explicitly introduces symmetry-breaking terms. Specifically, we focus on single-particle losses and gains, violating the protecting parity symmetry, which could generically occur in realistic scenarios. For homogeneous systems we show that the Majorana mode decays exponentially fast. By the inclusion of strong disorder, where the closed system enters a many-body localized phase, we find that the Majorana mode can be stabilized substantially. The decay of the Majorana converts into a stretched exponential form for particle losses or gains occurring in the bulk. In particular, for pure loss dynamics we find a universal exponent α ≃2 /3 . We show that this holds both in the Anderson and many-body localized regimes. Our results thus provide a first step to stabilize edge states even in the presence of symmetry-breaking environments.
Generation of concurrence between two qubits locally coupled to a one-dimensional spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nag, Tanay; Dutta, Amit
2016-08-01
We consider a generalized central spin model, consisting of two central qubits and an environmental spin chain (with periodic boundary condition) to which these central qubits are locally and weakly connected either at the same site or at two different sites separated by a distance d . Our purpose is to study the subsequent temporal generation of entanglement, quantified by concurrence, when initially the qubits are in an unentangled state. In the equilibrium situation, we show that the concurrence survives for a larger value of d when the environmental spin chain is critical. Importantly, a common feature observed both in the equilibrium and the nonequilibrium situations while the latter is created by a sudden but global change of the environmental transverse field is that the two qubits become maximally entangled for the critical quenching. Following a nonequilibrium evolution of the spin chain, our study for d ≠0 indicates that there exists a threshold time above which concurrence attains a finite value. Additionally, we show that the number of independent decohering channels (DCs) is determined by d as well as the local difference of the transverse field of the two underlying Hamiltonians governing the time evolution; the concurrence can be enhanced by a higher number of independent channels. The qualitatively similar behavior displayed by the concurrence for critical and off-critical quenches, as reported here, is characterized by analyzing the nonequilibrium evolution of these channels. The concurrence is maximum when the decoherence factor or the echo associated with the most rapidly DC decays to zero; on the contrary, the condition when the concurrence vanishes is determined nontrivially by the associated decay of one of the intermediate DCs. Analyzing the reduced density of a single qubit, we also explain the observation that the dephasing rate is always slower than the unentanglement rate. We further establish that the maximally and minimally decohering
Magnetic ordering in the ultrapure site-diluted spin chain materials SrCu1 -xNixO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simutis, G.; Thede, M.; Saint-Martin, R.; Mohan, A.; Baines, C.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Hess, C.; Revcolevschi, A.; Büchner, B.; Zheludev, A.
2016-06-01
The muon spin rotation technique is used to study magnetic ordering in ultrapure samples of SrCu1 -xNixO2 , an archetypical S =1 /2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain system with a small number of S =1 defects. The ordered state in the parent compound is shown to be highly homogeneous, contrary to a previous report [M. Matsuda et al., Phys. Rev. B 55, R11953 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevB.55.R11953]. Even a minute number of Ni impurities results in inhomogeneous order and a decrease of the transition temperature. At as little as 0.5 % Ni concentration, magnetic ordering is entirely suppressed. The results are compared to previous theoretical studies of weakly coupled spin chains with site defects.
Bergmann, G.; Jackson, P.O.; Hogg, J.H.C.; Stirner, T.; O'Neill, M.; Duffy, W.L.; Kelly, S.M.; Clark, G.F.
2005-08-08
Specular x-ray reflectivity probes morphological changes in a crosslinkable coumarin photoalignment polymer film resulting from ultraviolet irradiation. An ordered surface layer with density oscillations compatible with planar side-chain alignment is obtained before irradiation. The ordering is enhanced in the early stages of crosslinking. This is attributed to the photoinduced increase of mobility of the side-chains resulting from the creation of free volume by the crosslinking process. The expansion of the thin film confirms that free volume is created. The surface ordering decreases with prolonged ultraviolet irradiation because of increased material viscosity resulting from a high crosslinked density. The implications of surface ordering on liquid crystal photoalignment are discussed.
Martín, Fernando; Moreno, Luis; Garrido, Santiago; Blanco, Dolores
2015-01-01
One of the most important skills desired for a mobile robot is the ability to obtain its own location even in challenging environments. The information provided by the sensing system is used here to solve the global localization problem. In our previous work, we designed different algorithms founded on evolutionary strategies in order to solve the aforementioned task. The latest developments are presented in this paper. The engine of the localization module is a combination of the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling technique and the Differential Evolution method, which results in a particle filter based on the minimization of a fitness function. The robot's pose is estimated from a set of possible locations weighted by a cost value. The measurements of the perceptive sensors are used together with the predicted ones in a known map to define a cost function to optimize. Although most localization methods rely on quadratic fitness functions, the sensed information is processed asymmetrically in this filter. The Kullback-Leibler divergence is the basis of a cost function that makes it possible to deal with different types of occlusions. The algorithm performance has been checked in a real map. The results are excellent in environments with dynamic and unmodeled obstacles, a fact that causes occlusions in the sensing area. PMID:26389914
Martín, Fernando; Moreno, Luis; Garrido, Santiago; Blanco, Dolores
2015-01-01
One of the most important skills desired for a mobile robot is the ability to obtain its own location even in challenging environments. The information provided by the sensing system is used here to solve the global localization problem. In our previous work, we designed different algorithms founded on evolutionary strategies in order to solve the aforementioned task. The latest developments are presented in this paper. The engine of the localization module is a combination of the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling technique and the Differential Evolution method, which results in a particle filter based on the minimization of a fitness function. The robot’s pose is estimated from a set of possible locations weighted by a cost value. The measurements of the perceptive sensors are used together with the predicted ones in a known map to define a cost function to optimize. Although most localization methods rely on quadratic fitness functions, the sensed information is processed asymmetrically in this filter. The Kullback-Leibler divergence is the basis of a cost function that makes it possible to deal with different types of occlusions. The algorithm performance has been checked in a real map. The results are excellent in environments with dynamic and unmodeled obstacles, a fact that causes occlusions in the sensing area. PMID:26389914
Magnetic ordering in the frustrated J1 - J2 Ising chain candidate BaNd2O4
Aczel, Adam A.; Li, Ling; Garlea, Vasile O.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Weickert, Franziska; Jaime, M.; Maiorov, B.; Movshovich, R.; Civale, L.; Keppens, V.; et al
2014-10-06
The AR2O4 family (R = rare earth) has recently been attracting interest as a new series of frustrated magnets, with the magnetic R atoms forming zigzag chains running along the c axis. In this paper, we have investigated polycrystalline BaNd2O4 with a combination of magnetization, heat-capacity, and neutron powder diffraction measurements. Magnetic Bragg peaks are observed below TN = 1.7 K, and they can be indexed with a propagation vector of k = (0,1/2,1/2). The signal from magnetic diffraction is well described by long-range ordering of only one of the two types of Nd zigzag chains, with collinear up-up-down-down intrachainmore » spin configurations (double Néel state). Furthermore, low-temperature magnetization and heat-capacity measurements reveal two magnetic-field-induced spin transitions at 2.75 and 4 T for T = 0.46 K. The high-field phase is paramagnetic, while the intermediate-field state may arise from a spin transition of the long-range ordered Nd chains. Finally, one possible candidate for the field-induced ordered state corresponds to an up-up-down intrachain spin configuration, as predicted for a classical J1-J2 Ising chain with a double Néel ground state in zero field.« less
Plasma membrane localization signals in the light chain of botulinum neurotoxin
Fernández-Salas, Ester; Steward, Lance E.; Ho, Helen; Garay, Patton E.; Sun, Sarah W.; Gilmore, Marcella A.; Ordas, Joseph V.; Wang, Joanne; Francis, Joseph; Aoki, K. Roger
2004-01-01
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent biological substance used to treat neuromuscular and pain disorders. Both BoNT type A and BoNT type E display high-affinity uptake into motor neurons and inhibit exocytosis through cleavage of the synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25). The therapeutic effects of BoNT/A last from 3 to 12 months, whereas the effects of BoNT/E last less than 4 weeks. Using confocal microscopy and site-specific mutagenesis, we have determined that the protease domain of BoNT/A light chain (BoNT/A-LC) localizes in a punctate manner to the plasma membrane, colocalizing with the cleaved product, SNAP25197. In contrast, the short-duration BoNT/E serotype is cytoplasmic. Mutations in the BoNT/A-LC have revealed sequences at the N terminus necessary for plasma membrane localization, and an active dileucine motif in the C terminus that is likely involved in trafficking and interaction with adaptor proteins. These data support sequence-specific signals as determinants of intracellular localization and as a basis for the different durations of action in these two BoNT serotypes. PMID:14982988
Doughty, Benjamin; Yin, Panchao; Ma, Ying-Zhong
2016-08-16
The continued development and application of surfactant-encapsulated polyoxometalates (SEPs) relies on understanding the ordering and organization of species at their interface and how these are impacted by the various local environments to which they are exposed. Here, we report on the equilibrium properties of two common SEPs adsorbed to the air-water interface and probed with surface-specific vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. These results reveal clear shifts in vibrational band positions, the magnitude of which scales with the charge of the SEP core, which is indicative of a static field effect on the surfactant coating and the associated local chemical environment. This static field also induces ordering in surrounding water molecules that is mediated by charge screening via the surface-bound surfactants. From these SFG measurements, we are able to show that Mo132-based SEPs are more polar than Mo72V30 SEPs. Disorder in the surfactant chain packing at the highly curved SEP surfaces is attributed to large conic volumes that can be sampled without interactions with neighboring chains. Measurements of adsorption isotherms yield free energies of adsorption to the air-water interface of -46.8 ± 0.4 and -44.8 ± 1.2 kJ/mol for the Mo132 and Mo72V30 SEPs, respectively, indicating a strong propensity for the fluid surface. The influence of intermolecular interactions on the surface adsorption energies is discussed. PMID:27452922
Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2)
Schütz, Martin
2015-06-07
We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a.
Local stability of a five dimensional food chain model in the ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusumawinahyu, W. M.; Hidayatulloh, M. R.
2014-02-01
This paper discuss a food chain model on a microbiology ecosystem in the ocean, where predation process occurs. Four population growth rates are discussed, namely bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and protozoa growth rate. When the growth of nutrient density is also considered, the model is governed by a five dimensional dynamical system. The system considered in this paper is a modification of a model proposed by Hadley and Forbes [1], by taking Holling Type I as the functional response. For sake of simplicity, the model needs to be scaled. Dynamical behavior, such as existence condition of equilibrium points and their local stability are addressed. There are eight equilibrium points, where two of them exist under certain conditions. Three equilibrium points are unstable, while two points stable under certain conditions and the other three points are stable if the Ruth-Hurwitz criteria are satisfied. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate analytical findings.
Ryltsev, R E; Chtchelkatchev, N M
2013-11-01
The local order units of dense simple liquid are typically three-dimensional (close packed) clusters: hcp, fcc, and icosahedrons. We show that the fluid demonstrates the superstable tetrahedral local order up to temperatures several orders of magnitude higher than the melting temperature and down to critical density. While the solid-like local order (hcp, fcc) disappears in the fluid at much lower temperatures and far above critical density. We conclude that the supercritical fluid shows the temperature (density)-driven two-stage "melting" of the three-dimensional local order. We also find that the structure relaxation times in the supercritical fluid are much larger than ones estimated for weakly interactive gas even far above the melting line. PMID:24329208
Zhang, Liang; Ward, Robert E
2011-01-01
Nonmuscle myosin II (myosin hereafter) has well-established roles in generating contractile force on actin filaments during morphogenetic processes in all metazoans. Myosin activation is regulated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC, encoded by spaghettisquash or sqh in Drosophila) first on Ser21 and subsequently on Thr20. These phosphorylation events are positively controlled by a variety of kinases including myosin light chain kinase, Rho kinase, citron kinase, and AMP kinase and are negatively regulated by myosin phosphatase. The activation of myosin is thus highly regulated and likely developmentally controlled. In order to monitor the activity of myosin during development, we have generated antibodies against the monophosphorylated (Sqh1P) and diphosphorylated (Sqh2P) forms of Sqh. We first show that the antibodies are highly specific. We then used these antibodies to monitor myosin activation in wild type Drosophila tissues. Interestingly, Sqh1P and Sqh2P show distinct patterns of expression in embryos. Sqh1P is expressed nearly ubiquitously and outlines cells consistent with a junctional localization, whereas Sqh2P is strongly expressed on the apical surfaces and in filopodia of tissues undergoing extensive cell shape change or cell movements including the invaginating fore- and hindgut, the invaginating tracheal system, the dorsal pouch and the dorsal most row of epidermal (DME) cells during dorsal closure. In imaginal discs, Sqh1P predominantly localizes in the adherens junction, whereas Sqh2P locates to the apical domain. These antibodies thus have the potential to be very useful in monitoring myosin activation for functional studies of morphogenesis in Drosophila. PMID:20920606
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo; Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wee, Hui Ming
2013-05-01
In this article, we first complement an inappropriate mathematical error on the total cost in the previously published paper by Chung and Wee [2007, 'Optimal the Economic Lot Size of a Three-stage Supply Chain With Backlogging Derived Without Derivatives', European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 933-943] related to buyer-distributor-vendor three-stage supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives. Then, an arithmetic-geometric inequality method is proposed not only to simplify the algebraic method of completing prefect squares, but also to complement their shortcomings. In addition, we provide a closed-form solution to integral number of deliveries for the distributor and the vendor without using complex derivatives. Furthermore, our method can solve many cases in which their method cannot, because they did not consider that a squared root of a negative number does not exist. Finally, we use some numerical examples to show that our proposed optimal solution is cheaper to operate than theirs.
High-order spoof localized surface plasmons supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile
2016-04-01
We experimentally demonstrate that multiple high-order spoof localized surface plasmons (spoof-LSPs) modes can be supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure, which were absent in the previously reported spoof-LSPs modes. Through exact numerical simulations and near-field imaging experiments, we directly observe these high-order spoof-LSPs modes at microwave frequencies. We also show that these higher-order spoof-LSPs modes exhibit larger frequency shifts caused by the local environmental refractive index change than the previously reported low-order spoof-LSPs modes. Hence the complementary MSS may find potential applications as plasmonic sensor in the microwave and terahertz frequencies.
Non-local bias contribution to third-order galaxy correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bel, J.; Hoffmann, K.; Gaztañaga, E.
2015-10-01
We study halo clustering bias with second- and third-order statistics of halo and matter density fields in the Marenostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (MICE) Grand Challenge simulation. We verify that two-point correlations deliver reliable estimates of the linear bias parameters at large scales, while estimations from the variance can be significantly affected by non-linear and possibly non-local contributions to the bias function. Combining three-point auto- and cross-correlations we find, for the first time in configuration space, evidence for the presence of such non-local contributions. These contributions are consistent with predicted second-order non-local effects on the bias functions originating from the dark matter tidal field. Samples of massive haloes show indications of bias (local or non-local) beyond second order. Ignoring non-local bias causes 20-30 and 5-10 per cent overestimation of the linear bias from three-point auto- and cross-correlations, respectively. We study two third-order bias estimators that are not affected by second-order non-local contributions. One is a combination of three-point auto- and cross-correlations. The other is a combination of third-order one- and two-point cumulants. Both methods deliver accurate estimations of the linear bias. Ignoring non-local bias causes higher values of the second-order bias from three-point correlations. Our results demonstrate that third-order statistics can be employed for breaking the growth-bias degeneracy.
O'Brien, Evan S; Wand, A Joshua; Sharp, Kim A
2016-06-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become a central tool for investigating various biophysical questions with atomistic detail. While many different proxies are used to qualify MD force fields, most are based on largely structural parameters such as the root mean square deviation from experimental coordinates or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts and residual dipolar couplings. NMR derived Lipari-Szabo squared generalized order parameter (O(2) ) values of amide NH bond vectors of the polypeptide chain were also often employed for refinement and validation. However, with a few exceptions, side chain methyl symmetry axis order parameters have not been incorporated into experimental reference sets. Using a test set of five diverse proteins, the performance of several force fields implemented in the NAMDD simulation package was examined. It was found that simulations employing explicit water implemented using the TIP3 model generally performed significantly better than those using implicit water in reproducing experimental methyl symmetry axis O(2) values. Overall the CHARMM27 force field performs nominally better than two implementations of the Amber force field. It appeared that recent quantum mechanics modifications to side chain torsional angles of leucine and isoleucine in the Amber force field have significantly hindered proper motional modeling for these residues. There remained significant room for improvement as even the best correlations of experimental and simulated methyl group Lipari-Szabo generalized order parameters fall below an R(2) of 0.8. PMID:26990788
Pantusa, Manuela; Vad, Brian; Lillelund, Ove; Kjær, Lars; Otzen, Daniel; Bartucci, Rosa
2016-09-01
Alpha-synuclein (aSN) is a presynaptic protein with a pathological role in Parkinson's disease (PD). The mutants A30P, E46K and A53T are involved in PD early-onset forms. aSN is natively unfolded but can self-assemble to oligomers and fibrils and binds anionic membranes in a helical conformation. We study the influence of wild-type (wt) aSN and familial variants on the chain order and thermotropic phase behavior of anionic dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) bilayers by using electron spin resonance and calorimetry, respectively. The alpha-helical conformation of the proteins in the membrane-bound state is assessed by circular dichroism thermal scans. wt and mutated aSN upon binding to fluid DMPG vesicles progressively increase chain order. Lipid:protein molar binding stoichiometries correspond to 50 for A30P, 35-36 for aSN and A53T, 30 for E46K. The temperature range over which the variants assume the α-helical fold correlates directly with the density of proteins on vesicle surfaces. All variants preserve the characteristic chain flexibility gradient and impart motional restriction in the lipid chain. This is evident at the first CH2 segments and is markedly reduced at the chain termini, disappearing completely for A30P. The proteins slightly reduce DMPG main transition temperature, revealing preferential affinity for the fluid phase, and broaden the transition, promoting gel-fluid phase coexistence. The overall results are consistent with protein surface association in which the degree of binding correlates with the degree of folding and perturbation of the membrane bilayer. However, the degree of binding of monomer to membrane does not correlate directly with aSN toxicity in vivo. PMID:27177693
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monthus, Cécile
2016-07-01
The iterative methods to diagonalize matrices and many-body Hamiltonians can be reformulated as flows of Hamiltonians towards diagonalization driven by unitary transformations that preserve the spectrum. After a comparative overview of the various types of discrete flows (Jacobi, QR-algorithm) and differential flows (Toda, Wegner, White) that have been introduced in the past, we focus on the random XXZ chain with random fields in order to determine the best closed flow within a given subspace of running Hamiltonians. For the special case of the free-fermion random XX chain with random fields, the flow coincides with the Toda differential flow for tridiagonal matrices which is related to the classical integrable Toda chain and which can be seen as the continuous analog of the discrete QR-algorithm. For the random XXZ chain with random fields that displays a many-body-localization transition, the present differential flow should be an interesting alternative to compare with the discrete flow that has been proposed recently to study the many-body-localization properties in a model of interacting fermions (Rademaker and Ortuno 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 010404).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mubeena, Shaikh; Chatterji, Apratim
2015-03-01
We report many different nanostructures which are formed when model nanoparticles of different sizes (diameter σn) are allowed to aggregate in a background matrix of semiflexible self-assembled polymeric wormlike micellar chains. The different nanostructures are formed by the dynamical arrest of phase-separating mixtures of micellar monomers and nanoparticles. The different morphologies obtained are the result of an interplay of the available free volume, the elastic energy of deformation of polymers, the density (chemical potential) of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, and, of course, the ratio of the size of self-assembling nanoparticles and self-avoidance diameter of polymeric chains. We have used a hybrid semi-grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulation scheme to obtain the (nonequilibrium) phase diagram of the self-assembled nanostructures. We observe rodlike structures of nanoparticles which get self-assembled in the gaps between the nematically ordered chains, as well as percolating gel-like network of conjoined nanotubes. We also find a totally unexpected interlocked crystalline phase of nanoparticles and monomers, in which each crystal plane of nanoparticles is separated by planes of perfectly organized polymer chains. We identified the condition which leads to such interlocked crystal structure. We suggest experimental possibilities of how the results presented in this paper could be used to obtain different nanostructures in the laboratory.
Hernandez-Maldonado, D.; Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse ; Ramos, B.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Séguy, I.; Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse ; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Sournia-Saquet, A.; Moineau-Chane Ching, K. I.; Alary, F.; Heully, J. L.
2014-03-10
An “annealing-free” strategy consisting of using a planar nickel bisdithiolene complex nickel bis[1,2-di(3′,4′-di-n-decyloxyphenyl)ethene-1,2-dithiolene] ([Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}]) is proposed for structuring poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT). Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopies, in conjunction with electronic absorption, have been used for evidencing P3HT changes due to blending. PL and absorption observations are consistent and show a correlation between polymer chain organization and increasing amounts of [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}]. Blending with [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] do not modify the Raman ring-breathing modes energies indicating that blending does not induce strongly disorder in P3HT chains. Atomic force microscopic measurements show that blends nanoscale morphology presents a homogeneous matrix and small fibrils related to [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] concentration, especially for blends with a [Ni(4dopedt){sub 2}] weight ratio lower than 50%.
Improvements to local projective noise reduction through higher order and multiscale refinements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Jack Murdoch; Small, Michael; Karrech, Ali
2015-06-01
The broad spectrum characteristic of signals from nonlinear systems obstructs noise reduction techniques developed for linear systems. Local projection was developed to reduce noise while preserving nonlinear deterministic structures, and a second order refinement to local projection which was proposed ten years ago does so particularly effectively. It involves adjusting the origin of the projection subspace to better accommodate the geometry of the attractor. This paper describes an analytic motivation for the enhancement from which follows further higher order and multiple scale refinements. However, the established enhancement is frequently as or more effective than the new filters arising from solely geometric considerations. Investigation of the way that measurement errors reinforce or cancel throughout the refined local projection procedure explains the special efficacy of the existing enhancement, and leads to a new second order refinement offering widespread gains. Different local projective filters are found to be best suited to different noise levels. At low noise levels, the optimal order increases as noise increases. At intermediate levels second order tends to be optimal, while at high noise levels prototypical local projection is most effective. The new higher order filters perform better relative to established filters for longer signals or signals corresponding to higher dimensional attractors.
Improvements to local projective noise reduction through higher order and multiscale refinements.
Moore, Jack Murdoch; Small, Michael; Karrech, Ali
2015-06-01
The broad spectrum characteristic of signals from nonlinear systems obstructs noise reduction techniques developed for linear systems. Local projection was developed to reduce noise while preserving nonlinear deterministic structures, and a second order refinement to local projection which was proposed ten years ago does so particularly effectively. It involves adjusting the origin of the projection subspace to better accommodate the geometry of the attractor. This paper describes an analytic motivation for the enhancement from which follows further higher order and multiple scale refinements. However, the established enhancement is frequently as or more effective than the new filters arising from solely geometric considerations. Investigation of the way that measurement errors reinforce or cancel throughout the refined local projection procedure explains the special efficacy of the existing enhancement, and leads to a new second order refinement offering widespread gains. Different local projective filters are found to be best suited to different noise levels. At low noise levels, the optimal order increases as noise increases. At intermediate levels second order tends to be optimal, while at high noise levels prototypical local projection is most effective. The new higher order filters perform better relative to established filters for longer signals or signals corresponding to higher dimensional attractors. PMID:26117108
Nicholson, Charles F; He, Xi; Gómez, Miguel I; Gao, H O; Hill, Elaine
2015-10-20
We developed and evaluated an empirical model of the U.S. dairy supply chain with a high degree of spatial and product disaggregation to assess the impacts of increasing localization of the northeast region's fluid milk supply on food miles, supply chain costs, greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, economic activity, and employment. Evaluation included comparison to regional production values and sensitivity analysis of demand and unit cost assumptions. Our analysis compares a baseline to two localization scenarios based on state boundaries and multiple-state subregions. Localization scenarios increased total distances fluid milk traveled by 7-15%, overall supply chain costs by 1-2%, and emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 equivalent) criteria pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm associated with fluid milk transportation by 7-15% per month. The impacts of localization on employment and economic activity are positive, but changes are small on a percentage basis. Our analyses indicate that the definition used for localization has an impact on outcomes and that efforts to localize food systems may benefit from a more systems-oriented approach. PMID:26401757
Energy Localization in the Ordered Condensed Systems: A 3 B Alloys With L12 Superstructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, N. N.; Starostenkov, M. D.; Potekaev, A. I.; Zakharov, P. V.; Markidonov, A. V.; Eremin, A. M.
2014-07-01
Energy localization in the ordered condensed systems is analyzed using А3В alloys with L12 superstructure. Using molecular dynamics, possible localization of phonon vibration energy in the aluminum sublattice and generation of a localized mode oscillating at a frequency belonging to the phonon spectrum energy gap and not representing a breather is considered for the ordered Pt3Al and Ni3Al alloys with L12 superstructure, which possess translational symmetry. Manifestations of anharmonicity in the atomic interactions and the relevant features of energy redistribution between sublattices of the ordered alloys are investigated. It is found out that in the ordered alloys of an A3B stoichiometry with L12 superstructure, whose phonon spectrum has a forbidden energy gap, vibrational energy can localize on the sublattice of B atoms. The alloys, found in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium at a certain temperature, are characterized by a local effect of spontaneous energy localization (the effect of energy redistribution between the lattices).
NonSymmorphic Symmetry Protected Topological Order in Many-body Localized Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashraf, Khalid
Many-body localized systems have many interesting physical properties such as localization protected quantum order, symmetry protected topological order, area law in entanglement spectrum etc.. Specifically, it has been shown that closed quantum system in 1D i.e. p-wave superconducting wires host localization protected topological order. In this work, we explore the interplay between non-symmorphic symmetry which protects topological order and localization due to disorder. Using a Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) description of p-wave superconductors, we study the topological edge states on a 2D non-symmorphic crystal. We show that a localization protected topological order can exist at high energy in a 2D non-symmorphic crystal. The system goes between topologically trivial and non-trivial phases based on the degree of disorder and shift between the adjacent atoms in the bipartite lattice. We further explore the nature of this phase transition by calculating the entanglement spectrum of the two phases. Finally, the effect of dimensionality on the realization of these phases are discussed.
The diffuse-scattering method for investigating locally ordered binary solid solutions
Epperson, J.E. ); Anderson, J.P. ); Chen, H. . Materials Science and Engineering Dept.)
1994-01-01
Diffuse-scattering investigations comprise a series of maturing methods for detailed characterization of the local-order structure and atomic displacements of binary alloy systems. The distribution of coherent diffuse scattering is determined by the local atomic ordering, and analytical techniques are available for extracting the relevant structural information. An extension of such structural investigations, for locally ordered alloys at equilibrium, allows one to obtain pairwise interaction energies. Having experimental pairwise interaction energies for the various coordination shells offers one the potential for more realistic kinetic Ising modeling of alloy systems as they relax toward equilibrium. Although the modeling of atomic displacements in conjunction with more conventional studies of chemical ordering is in its infancy, the method appears to offer considerable promise for revealing additional information about the strain fields in locally ordered and clustered alloys. The diffuse-scattering methods for structural characterization and for the recovery of interaction energies are reviewed, and some preliminary results are used to demonstrate the potential of the kinetic Ising modeling technique to follow the evolution of ordering or phase separation in an alloy system.
Raman study of local ordering processes of solid n-alkanes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hacura, A.; Zimnicka, B.; Wrzalik, R.
2016-02-01
The microphase separation of n-alkanes with different chain length was investigated by Raman spectroscopy for binary mixture rapidly quenched from the melt. The process was observed as a function of time. The first several minutes after solidification were crucial for the demixing process. For a few weeks old sample the orientational order parameters
Quantum Breathers in Anisotropy Ferromagnetic Chains with Second-Order Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Bing
2016-03-01
Under considering the next-nearest-neighbor interaction, quantum breathers in one-dimensional anisotropy ferromagnetic chains are theortically studied. By introducing the Dyson-Maleev transformation for spin operators, a map to a Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin lattice into an extended Bose-Hubbard model can be established. In the case of a small number of bosons, by means of the numerical diagonalization technique, the energy spectrum of the corresponding extended Bose-Hubbard model containing two bosons is calculated. When the strength of the single-ion anisotropy is enough large, a isolated single band appears. This isolated single band corresponds to two-boson bound state, which is the simplest quantum breather state. It is shown that the introduction of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction will lead to interesting band structures. In the case of a large number of bosons, by applying the time-dependent Hartree approximation, quantum breather states for the system is constructed. In this case, the effect of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction on quantum breathers is also analyzed.
Quantum Breathers in Anisotropy Ferromagnetic Chains with Second-Order Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Bing
2016-08-01
Under considering the next-nearest-neighbor interaction, quantum breathers in one-dimensional anisotropy ferromagnetic chains are theortically studied. By introducing the Dyson-Maleev transformation for spin operators, a map to a Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin lattice into an extended Bose-Hubbard model can be established. In the case of a small number of bosons, by means of the numerical diagonalization technique, the energy spectrum of the corresponding extended Bose-Hubbard model containing two bosons is calculated. When the strength of the single-ion anisotropy is enough large, a isolated single band appears. This isolated single band corresponds to two-boson bound state, which is the simplest quantum breather state. It is shown that the introduction of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction will lead to interesting band structures. In the case of a large number of bosons, by applying the time-dependent Hartree approximation, quantum breather states for the system is constructed. In this case, the effect of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction on quantum breathers is also analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yi; Duan, Suqing; Zhang, Wei
2012-06-01
Correlation effects and phase transitions are central issues in current studies on disordered systems. In this paper, we study the electronic properties of a disordered double chain with long-range intrachain correlation and short-range interchain correlation. Based on detailed numerical calculations, finite size scaling analysis and empirical analytical calculations, we obtain a phase diagram containing rich physics due to the interplay among the disorder, short-range and long-range correlations. Besides the long-range correlation induced localization-delocalization transitions, we find both first-order and second-order quantum phase transitions on changing the short-range correlation. Interestingly, the localization may be suppressed by increasing the disorder strength in some parameter regime and the ‘anti-correlation’ leads to the most delocalized state. Our studies shine some light on the mechanism of the charge transport in DNA molecules, where both types of correlated disorders are present.
Novel Magnetic and Charge Orders in Dimer-Chain Iridate Ba5AlIr2O11
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Feng; Terzic, J.; Wang, J. C.; Song, W. H.; Yuan, S. J.; Aswartham, S.; Cao, G.
2015-03-01
We report a novel magnetic state coexisting with a charge ordering state in a dimer-chain system Ba5AlIr2O11. This newly synthesized single-crystal iridate features both tetravalent Ir4+ and pentavalent Ir5+ ions in each of dimers that are only linked via AlO4-tetrahedra along the b-axis. Despite the evident one-dimensional characteristic, the dimer-chains undergo an unexpected long-rang order at TM = 4.5 K with a large magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic transition is unusually resilient to magnetic field up to 14 T but more susceptible to even modest hydrostatic pressure up to 10 kbar. Furthermore, a subtle structural change discerned at TS = 200 K marks a charge ordering that accompanies a huge enhancement in the dielectric constant and changes in the electrical resistivity. It is evident that the strong SOC imposes a j =1/2 (Ir4+) and singlet j =0 (Ir5+) states in each dimer, which critically hinges on the orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. This work was supported by NSF via Grant DMR 1265162.
Schütz, Alexander C; Mamassian, Pascal
2016-08-01
Superposition of two dot clouds moving in different directions results in the perception of two transparent layers. Despite the ambiguous depth order of the layers, there are consistent preferences to perceive the layer, which is moving either rightward or downward in front of the other layer. Here we investigated the origin of these depth order biases. For this purpose, we measured the interaction with stereoscopic disparity and the influence of global and local motion properties. Motion direction and stereoscopic disparity were equally effective in determining depth order at a disparity of one arcmin. Global motion properties, such as the aperture location in the visual field or the aperture's motion direction did not affect directional biases. Local motion properties however were effective. When the moving elements were oriented lines rather than dots, the directional biases were shifted towards the direction orthogonal to the lines rather than the actual motion direction of the lines. Therefore, depth order was determined before the aperture problem was fully resolved. Varying the duration of the stimuli, we found that the time constant of the aperture problem was much lower for depth order than for perceived motion direction. Altogether, our results indicate that depth order is determined in one shot on the basis of an early motion signal, while perceived motion direction is continuously updated. Thus, depth ordering in transparent motion appears to be a surprisingly fast process, that relies on early, local motion signals and that precedes high-level motion analysis. PMID:27580044
High-order local spatial context modeling by spatialized random forest.
Ni, Bingbing; Yan, Shuicheng; Wang, Meng; Kassim, Ashraf A; Tian, Qi
2013-02-01
In this paper, we propose a novel method for spatial context modeling toward boosting visual discriminating power. We are particularly interested in how to model high-order local spatial contexts instead of the intensively studied second-order spatial contexts, i.e., co-occurrence relations. Motivated by the recent success of random forest in learning discriminative visual codebook, we present a spatialized random forest (SRF) approach, which can encode an unlimited length of high-order local spatial contexts. By spatially random neighbor selection and random histogram-bin partition during the tree construction, the SRF can explore much more complicated and informative local spatial patterns in a randomized manner. Owing to the discriminative capability test for the random partition in each tree node's split process, a set of informative high-order local spatial patterns are derived, and new images are then encoded by counting the occurrences of such discriminative local spatial patterns. Extensive comparison experiments on face recognition and object/scene classification clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed spatial context modeling method over other state-of-the-art approaches for this purpose. PMID:23060330
Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q. M.; Xing, Yulong
2015-01-23
In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.
High-order localized spoof surface plasmon resonances and experimental verifications
Liao, Zhen; Luo, Yu; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I.; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A.; Cui, Tie Jun
2015-01-01
We theoretically demonstrated and experimentally verified high-order radial spoof localized surface plasmon resonances supported by textured metal particles. Through an effective medium theory and exact numerical simulations, we show the emergence of these geometrically-originated electromagnetic modes at microwave frequencies. The occurrence of high-order radial spoof plasmon resonances is experimentally verified in ultrathin disks. Their spectral and near-field properties are characterized experimentally, showing an excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Our findings shed light into the nature of spoof localized surface plasmons, and open the way to the design of broadband plasmonic devices able to operate at very different frequency regimes. PMID:25873523
Local Orientational Order in Liquids Revealed by Resonant Vibrational Energy Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panman, M. R.; Shaw, D. J.; Ensing, B.; Woutersen, S.
2014-11-01
We demonstrate that local orientational ordering in a liquid can be observed in the decay of the vibrational anisotropy caused by resonant transfer of vibrational excitations between its constituent molecules. We show that the functional form of this decay is determined by the (distribution of) angles between the vibrating bonds of the molecules between which energy transfer occurs, and that the initial drop in the decay reflects the average angle between nearest neighbors. We use this effect to observe the difference in local orientational ordering in the two hydrogen-bonded liquids ethanol and N -methylacetamide.
Simple description of shear dynamics of glasses with crystalline local order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Leonid
2015-09-01
For those glassformers (especially metallic glasses), which structure may be presented as a set of linear topological defects embedded into a media with crystalline local order, we suggest a description of the shear dynamics in terms of kinks motion along the topological defect lines, as it is customary for crystalline materials. Locally, these defects are similar to dislocations and disclinations. For the motion of the kink, we write out the Fokker - Planck equation in a self - consistent potential. The glass transition occurs to be described as a localization of the kink.
Localization of dynein light chains 1 and 2 and their pro-apoptotic ligands.
Day, Catherine L; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Skea, Gretchen; Strasser, Andreas; Barsukov, Igor; Lian, Lu-Yun; Huang, David C S; Hinds, Mark G
2004-01-01
The dynein and myosin V motor complexes are multi-protein structures that function to transport molecules and organelles within the cell. DLC (dynein light-chain) proteins, found as components of both dynein and myosin V motor complexes, connect the complexes to their cargoes. One of the roles of these motor complexes is to selectively sequester the pro-apoptotic 'BH3-only' (Bcl-2 homology 3-only) proteins, Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death) and Bmf (Bcl-2-modifying factor), and so regulate their cell death-inducing function. In vivo DLC2 is found exclusively as a component of the myosin V motor complex and Bmf binds DLC2 selectively. On the other hand, Bim interacts with DLC1 (LC8), an integral component of the dynein motor complex. The two DLCs share 93% sequence identity yet show unambiguous in vivo specificity for their respective BH3-only ligands. To investigate this specificity the three-dimensional solution structure of DLC2 was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. In vitro structural and mutagenesis studies show that Bmf and Bim have identical binding characteristics to recombinant DLC2 or DLC1. Thus the selectivity shown by Bmf and Bim for binding DLC1 or DLC2, respectively, does not reside in their DLC-binding domains. Remarkably, mutational analysis of DLC1 and DLC2 indicates that a single surface residue (residue 41) determines the specific localization of DLCs with their respective motor complexes. These results suggest a molecular mechanism for the specific compartmentalization of DLCs and their pro-apoptotic cargoes and implicate other protein(s) in defining the specificity between the cargoes and the DLC proteins. PMID:14561217
High-order spoof localized surface plasmons supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure.
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate that multiple high-order spoof localized surface plasmons (spoof-LSPs) modes can be supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure, which were absent in the previously reported spoof-LSPs modes. Through exact numerical simulations and near-field imaging experiments, we directly observe these high-order spoof-LSPs modes at microwave frequencies. We also show that these higher-order spoof-LSPs modes exhibit larger frequency shifts caused by the local environmental refractive index change than the previously reported low-order spoof-LSPs modes. Hence the complementary MSS may find potential applications as plasmonic sensor in the microwave and terahertz frequencies. PMID:27079658
High-order spoof localized surface plasmons supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate that multiple high-order spoof localized surface plasmons (spoof-LSPs) modes can be supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure, which were absent in the previously reported spoof-LSPs modes. Through exact numerical simulations and near-field imaging experiments, we directly observe these high-order spoof-LSPs modes at microwave frequencies. We also show that these higher-order spoof-LSPs modes exhibit larger frequency shifts caused by the local environmental refractive index change than the previously reported low-order spoof-LSPs modes. Hence the complementary MSS may find potential applications as plasmonic sensor in the microwave and terahertz frequencies. PMID:27079658
Local Box-Counting to Determine Fractal Dimension of High-Order Chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osaka, Motohisa; Ito, Nobuyasu
To determine the attractor dimension of chaotic dynamics, the box-counting method has the difficulty in getting accurate estimates because the boxes are not weighted by their relative probabilities. We present a new method to minimize this difficulty. The local box-counting method can be quite effective in determining the attractor dimension of high-order chaos as well as low-order chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Bei; Wen, Xiao-Gang
2015-03-01
In this work, we present some new understanding of topological order, including three main aspects. (1) It was believed that classifying topological orders corresponds to classifying gapped quantum states. We show that such a statement is not precise. We introduce the concept of gapped quantum liquid as a special kind of gapped quantum states that can "dissolve" any product states on additional sites. Topologically ordered states actually correspond to gapped quantum liquids with stable ground-state degeneracy. Symmetry-breaking states for on-site symmetry are also gapped quantum liquids, but with unstable ground-state degeneracy. (2) We point out that the universality classes of generalized local unitary (gLU) transformations (without any symmetry) contain both topologically ordered states and symmetry-breaking states. This allows us to use a gLU invariant—topological entanglement entropy—to probe the symmetry-breaking properties hidden in the exact ground state of a finite system, which does not break any symmetry. This method can probe symmetry- breaking orders even without knowing the symmetry and the associated order parameters. (3) The universality classes of topological orders and symmetry-breaking orders can be distinguished by stochastic local (SL) transformations (i.e., local invertible transformations): small SL transformations can convert the symmetry-breaking classes to the trivial class of product states with finite probability of success, while the topological-order classes are stable against any small SL transformations, demonstrating a phenomenon of emergence of unitarity. This allows us to give a definition of long-range entanglement based on SL transformations, under which only topologically ordered states are long-range entangled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.; Arjan Wardekker, J.
2015-04-01
In order to enable anticipation and proactive adaptation, local decision makers increasingly seek detailed foresight about regional and local impacts of climate change. To this end, the Netherlands Models and Data-Centre implemented a pilot chain of sequentially linked models to project local climate impacts on hydrology, agriculture and nature under different national climate scenarios for a small region in the east of the Netherlands named Baakse Beek. The chain of models sequentially linked in that pilot includes a (future) weather generator and models of respectively subsurface hydrogeology, ground water stocks and flows, soil chemistry, vegetation development, crop yield and nature quality. These models typically have mismatching time step sizes and grid cell sizes. The linking of these models unavoidably involves the making of model assumptions that can hardly be validated, such as those needed to bridge the mismatches in spatial and temporal scales. Here we present and apply a method for the systematic critical appraisal of model assumptions that seeks to identify and characterize the weakest assumptions in a model chain. The critical appraisal of assumptions presented in this paper has been carried out ex-post. For the case of the climate impact model chain for Baakse Beek, the three most problematic assumptions were found to be: land use and land management kept constant over time; model linking of (daily) ground water model output to the (yearly) vegetation model around the root zone; and aggregation of daily output of the soil hydrology model into yearly input of a so called ‘mineralization reduction factor’ (calculated from annual average soil pH and daily soil hydrology) in the soil chemistry model. Overall, the method for critical appraisal of model assumptions presented and tested in this paper yields a rich qualitative insight in model uncertainty and model quality. It promotes reflectivity and learning in the modelling community, and leads to
Process-chain approach to high-order perturbation calculus for quantum lattice models
Eckardt, Andre
2009-05-15
A method based on Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory is developed that allows to obtain high-order series expansions for ground-state properties of quantum lattice models. The approach is capable of treating both lattice geometries of large spatial dimensionalities d and on-site degrees of freedom with large state space dimensionalities. It has recently been used to accurately compute the zero-temperature phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model on a hypercubic lattice, up to arbitrary large filling and for d=2, 3, and greater [Teichmann et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 100503(R) (2009)].0.
Decision Support from Local Data: Creating Adaptive Order Menus from Past Clinician Behavior
Klann, Jeffrey G.; Szolovits, Peter; Downs, Stephen; Schadow, Gunther
2014-01-01
Objective Reducing care variability through guidelines has significantly benefited patients. Nonetheless, guideline-based clinical decision support (CDS) systems are not widely implemented or used, are frequently out-of-date, and cannot address complex care for which guidelines do not exist. Here, we develop and evaluate a complementary approach - using Bayesian network (BN) learning to generate adaptive, context-specific treatment menus based on local order-entry data. These menus can be used as a draft for expert review, in order to minimize development time for local decision support content. This is in keeping with the vision outlined in the US Health Information Technology Strategic Plan, which describes a healthcare system that learns from itself. Materials and Methods We used the Greedy Equivalence Search algorithm to learn four 50-node domain-specific BNs from 11,344 encounters: abdominal pain in the emergency department, inpatient pregnancy, hypertension in the urgent visit clinic, and altered mental state in the intensive care unit. We developed a system to produce situation-specific, rank-ordered treatment menus from these networks. We evaluated this system with a hospital-simulation methodology and computed Area Under the Receiver-Operator Curve (AUC) and average menu position at time of selection. We also compared this system with a similar association-rule-mining approach. Results A short order menu on average contained the next order (weighted average length 3.91–5.83 items). Overall predictive ability was good: average AUC above 0.9 for 25% of order types and overall average AUC .714–.844 (depending on domain). However, AUC had high variance (.50–.99). Higher AUC correlated with tighter clusters and more connections in the graphs, indicating importance of appropriate contextual data. Comparison with an association rule mining approach showed similar performance for only the most common orders with dramatic divergence as orders are less
Extension of local-type inequality for the higher order correlation functions
Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp
2011-07-01
For the local-type primordial perturbation, it is known that there is an inequality between the bispectrum and the trispectrum. By using the diagrammatic method, we develop a general formalism to systematically construct the similar inequalities up to any order correlation function. As an application, we explicitly derive all the inequalities up to six and eight-point functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, T.; Brewster, R.; Safran, S. A.
2010-07-01
We use a liquid-crystal model to predict that hybrid lipids (lipids that have one saturated and one unsaturated tail) can stabilize line interfaces between domains in mixed membranes of saturated lipids, hybrid lipids, and cholesterol (SHC membranes). The model predicts the phase separation of SHC membranes with both parabolic and loop binodals depending on the cholesterol concentration, modeled via an effective pressure. In some cases, the hybrid lipids can reduce the line tension to zero in SHC membranes at temperatures that approach the critical temperature as the pressure is increased. The differences in the hybrid saturated tail conformational order in bulk and at the interface are responsible for the reduction of the line tension.
Love, S.P.; Scott, B.; Worl, L.A.; Huckett, S.C.; Saxena, A.; Huang, X.Z.; Bishop, A.R.; Swanson, B.I.
1993-01-01
Resonance Raman techniques, together with lattice-dynamics and Peierls-Hubbard modelling, are used to explore the electronic and vibrational dynamics of the quasi-one-dimensional metal-halogen chain solids [Pt(en)[sub 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumeler, ńmin; Feix, Adrien; Wolf, Stefan
2014-10-01
Quantum theory in a global spacetime gives rise to nonlocal correlations, which cannot be explained causally in a satisfactory way; this motivates the study of theories with reduced global assumptions. Oreshkov, Costa, and Brukner [Nat. Commun. 3, 1092 (2012), 10.1038/ncomms2076] proposed a framework in which quantum theory is valid locally but where, at the same time, no global spacetime, i.e., predefined causal order, is assumed beyond the absence of logical paradoxes. It was shown for the two-party case, however, that a global causal order always emerges in the classical limit. Quite naturally, it has been conjectured that the same also holds in the multiparty setting. We show that, counter to this belief, classical correlations locally compatible with classical probability theory exist that allow for deterministic signaling between three or more parties incompatible with any predefined causal order.
Temperature evolution of the local order parameter in relaxor ferroelectrics (1 - x)PMN-xPZT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gridnev, S. A.; Glazunov, A. A.; Tsotsorin, A. N.
2005-09-01
The temperature dependence of the local order parameter and relaxation time distribution function have been determined in (1 - x)PMN-xPZT ceramic samples via dielectric permittivity. Above the Burns temperature, the permittivity was found to follow the Currie-Weiss law, and with temperature decreasing the deviation was observed to increase. A local order parameter was calculated from the dielectric data using a modified Landau-Devonshire approach. These results are compared to the distribution function of relaxation times. It was found that a glasslike freezing of reorientable polar clusters occurs in the temperature range of diffuse relaxor transition. The evolution of the studied system to more ordered state arises from the increased PZT content.
Holte, L. L.; Peter, S. A.; Sinnwell, T. M.; Gawrisch, K.
1995-01-01
Solid-state 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to determine the orientational order parameter profiles for a series of phosphatidylcholines with perdeuterated stearic acid, 18:0d35, in position sn-1 and 18:1 omega 9, 18:2 omega 6, 18:3 omega 3, 20:4 omega 6, 20:5 omega 3, or 22:6 omega 3 in position sn-2. The main phase transition temperatures were derived from a first moment analysis, and order parameter profiles of sn-1 chains were calculated from dePaked nuclear magnetic resonance powder patterns. Comparison of the profiles at 37 degrees C showed that unsaturation causes an inhomogenous disordering along the sn-1 chain. Increasing sn-2 chain unsaturation from one to six double bonds resulted in a 1.6-kHz decrease in quadrupolar splittings of the sn-1 chain in the upper half of the chain (or plateau region) and maximum splitting difference of 4.4 kHz at methylene carbon 14. The change in chain order corresponds to a decrease in the 18:0 chain length of 0.4 +/- 0.2 A with 18:2 omega 6 versus 18:1 omega 9 in position sn-2. Fatty acids containing three or more double bonds in sn-2 showed a decrease in sn-1 chain length of 0.7 +/- 0.2 A compared with 18:1 omega 9. The chain length of all lipids decreased with increasing temperature. Highly unsaturated phosphatidylcholines (three or more double bonds in sn-2) had shorter sn-1 chains, but the chain length was somewhat less sensitive to temperature. The profiles reveal that the sn-1 chain exhibits a selective increase in motional freedom in a region located toward the bottom half of the chain as sn-2 unsaturation is increased. This corresponds to an area increase around carbon atom number 14 that is three to four times greater than the increase for the top part of the chain. A similar asymmetric decrease in order, largest toward the methyl end of the chain, was observed when 1 -palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylethanolamine goes from a lamellar to an inverse hexagonal (H,,) phase. This is consistent with a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meguro, Sakae; Akahane, Koichi; Saito, Shin
2016-05-01
An observation system of centimeter-order of view of magnetic domain with local magnetization direction was developed by designing a telecentric optical system of finite design through the extension of microscope technology. The field of view realized in the developed system was 1.40 × 1.05 cm as suppressing defocus and distortion. Detection of the local magnetization direction has become possible by longitudinal Kerr observation from the orthogonal two directions. This system can be applied to the domain observation of rough surface samples and time resolved analysis for soft magnetic materials such as amorphous foil strips and soft magnetic thin films.
Held, K R; Sternowsky, H J; Singh, S; Plettner, C; Grüttner, R
1976-02-01
We are reporting a girl aged eight years with ketotic hypoglycemia, mental deficiency and retarded motor and somatic development. Investigation of plasma amino acid concentrations during a spontaneous hypoglycemia revealed an increase in the branched-chain amino acids valine (4.1), leucine (7.8) and isoleucine (1.7 mg/100 ml), while alanine was decreased (1.2 mg/100 ml) and ketonuria was present. The determination of the branched-chain ketoacid decarboxylase in leukocytes showed a decrease of approximately 50% of normal for alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) as substrate, whereas values for alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIVA) and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (MEVA) were normal. In fibroblasts activities for all three substrates were in the normal range. Intermittend maple-syrup-urine disease was excluded by oral loading tests with the branched-chain amino acids and with an isocaloric, high-protein diet. Impairment of oxydative decarboxylation of leucine, valine, and isoleucine secondary to increased ketogenesis may play an etiologic role in ketotic hypoglycemia, since we observed, by gaschromatographic analysis, an increase in the urinary excretion of KIVA (5.5 mumol/h), KIC (29.4), and MEVA (47.9) after a provocative test with an isocaloric ketogenic diet for 36 hrs. The significance of branched-chain hyperaminoacidemia and branched chain alpha-ketoaciduria is discussed in this context. PMID:1256452
Impact of local order and stoichiometry on the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of Heusler compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steil, Daniel; Schmitt, Oliver; Fetzer, Roman; Kubota, Takahide; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Rodan, Steven; Blum, Christian G. F.; Balke, Benjamin; Wurmehl, Sabine; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko
2015-04-01
Nowadays, a wealth of information on ultrafast magnetization dynamics of thin ferromagnetic films exists in the literature. Information is, however, scarce on bulk single crystals, which may be especially important for the case of multi-sublattice systems. In Heusler compounds, representing prominent examples for such multi-sublattice systems, off-stoichiometry and degree of order can significantly change the magnetic properties of thin films, while bulk single crystals may be generally produced with a much more well-defined stoichiometry and a higher degree of ordering. A careful characterization of the local structure of thin films versus bulk single crystals combined with ultrafast demagnetization studies can, thus, help to understand the impact of stoichiometry and order on ultrafast spin dynamics. Here, we present a comparative study of the structural ordering and magnetization dynamics for thin films and bulk single crystals of the family of Heusler alloys with composition Co2Fe1 - xMnxSi. The local ordering is studied by 59Co nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, while the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect gives access to the ultrafast magnetization dynamics. In the NMR studies we find significant differences between bulk single crystals and thin films, both regarding local ordering and stoichiometry. The ultrafast magnetization dynamics, on the other hand, turns out to be mostly unaffected by the observed structural differences, especially on the time scale of some hundreds of femtoseconds. These results confirm hole-mediated spin-flip processes as the main mechanism for ultrafast demagnetization and the robustness of this demagnetization channel against defect states in the minority band gap as well as against the energetic position of the band gap with respect to the Fermi energy. The very small differences observed in the magnetization dynamics on the picosecond time-scale, on the other hand, can be explained by considering the
Alpha-chain disease with localized plasmacytoma of the intestine. Immunoperoxidase study.
Skinner, J M; Manousos, O N; Economidou, J; Nicolaou, A; Merikas, G
1976-01-01
An ileocaecal tumour in a patient with alpha-chain disease in remission was studied immunohistochemically by a quantitive immunoperoxidase method. The tumour which was histologically shown to be a plasmacytoma consisted of 68% alpha cells and 15% lambda cells; no kappa cells were found. Away from the tumour the pattern of immunoglobulin-producing cells was normal. It is concluded that the abnormal cell causing alpha-chain disease remains inactive and that the patient developed a plasmacytoma from a different cell clone. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:825335
Probing local order in glasses from limited-volume electron and x-ray diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, A. C. Y.; Tabor, R. F.; Bourgeois, L.; de Jonge, M. D.; Mudie, S. T.; Petersen, T. C.
2016-05-01
It has long been recognised that spatial fluctuations in local order in disordered assemblies of particles can be probed using limited-volume diffraction measurements. These measurements have unique advantages over broad-beam diffraction experiments that isotropically average over many structural configurations and result in one-dimensional intensity curves, requiring modelling to interpret. Despite the advantages of limiting illumination to a low number of particle configurations, obtaining quantitative measurements of local order from such experiments remains a challenge. The effects on the diffraction pattern of changing the beam energy, lateral size, aberrations and coherence and the specimen thickness have only recently been clarified. We review theoretical and experimental efforts in this direction in the fields of both electron and x-ray diffraction and identify promising areas of future development.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yan, Jue; Shu, Chi-Wang; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this paper we review the existing and develop new continuous Galerkin methods for solving time dependent partial differential equations with higher order derivatives in one and multiple space dimensions. We review local discontinuous Galerkin methods for convection diffusion equations involving second derivatives and for KdV type equations involving third derivatives. We then develop new local discontinuous Galerkin methods for the time dependent bi-harmonic type equations involving fourth derivatives, and partial differential equations involving fifth derivatives. For these new methods we present correct interface numerical fluxes and prove L(exp 2) stability for general nonlinear problems. Preliminary numerical examples are shown to illustrate these methods. Finally, we present new results on a post-processing technique, originally designed for methods with good negative-order error estimates, on the local discontinuous Galerkin methods applied to equations with higher derivatives. Numerical experiments show that this technique works as well for the new higher derivative cases, in effectively doubling the rate of convergence with negligible additional computational cost, for linear as well as some nonlinear problems, with a local uniform mesh.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cisneros, G. Andrés; Liu, Haiyan; Lu, Zhenyu; Yang, Weitao
2005-03-01
A two-step procedure for the determination of reaction paths in enzyme systems is presented. This procedure combines two chain-of-states methods: a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) implementation of the nudged elastic band (NEB) method and a second order parallel path optimizer method both recently developed in our laboratory. In the first step, a reaction path determination is performed with the NEB method, along with a restrained minimization procedure for the MM environment to obtain a first approximation to the reaction path. In the second step, the calculated path is refined with the parallel path optimizer method. By combining these two methods the reaction paths are determined accurately, and in addition, the number of path optimization iterations are significantly reduced. This procedure is tested by calculating both steps of the isomerization of 2-oxo-4-hexenedioate by 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase, which have been previously determined by our group. The calculated paths agree with the previously reported results and we obtain a reduction of 45%-55% in the number of path optimization cycles.
Non-local order in Mott insulators, duality and Wilson loops
Rath, Steffen Patrick; Simeth, Wolfgang; Endres, Manuel; Zwerger, Wilhelm
2013-07-15
It is shown that the Mott insulating and superfluid phases of bosons in an optical lattice may be distinguished by a non-local ‘parity order parameter’ which is directly accessible via single site resolution imaging. In one dimension, the lattice Bose model is dual to a classical interface roughening problem. We use known exact results from the latter to prove that the parity order parameter exhibits long range order in the Mott insulating phase, consistent with recent experiments by Endres et al. [M. Endres, M. Cheneau, T. Fukuhara, C. Weitenberg, P. Schauß, C. Gross, L. Mazza, M.C. Bañuls, L. Pollet, I. Bloch, et al., Science 334 (2011) 200]. In two spatial dimensions, the parity order parameter can be expressed in terms of an equal time Wilson loop of a non-trivial U(1) gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions which exhibits a transition between a Coulomb and a confining phase. The negative logarithm of the parity order parameter obeys a perimeter law in the Mott insulator and is enhanced by a logarithmic factor in the superfluid. -- Highlights: •Number statistics of cold atoms in optical lattices show non-local correlations. •These correlations are measurable via single site resolution imaging. •Incompressible phases exhibit an area law in particle number fluctuations. •This leads to long-range parity order of Mott-insulators in one dimension. •Parity order in 2d is connected with a Wilson-loop in a lattice gauge theory.
Direct evidence of strong local ferroelectric ordering in a thermoelectric semiconductor
Aggarwal, Leena; Sekhon, Jagmeet S.; Arora, Ashima; Sheet, Goutam; Guin, Satya N.; Negi, Devendra S.; Datta, Ranjan; Biswas, Kanishka
2014-09-15
It is thought that the proposed new family of multi-functional materials, namely, the ferroelectric thermoelectrics may exhibit enhanced functionalities due to the coupling of the thermoelectric parameters with ferroelectric polarization in solids. Therefore, the ferroelectric thermoelectrics are expected to be of immense technological and fundamental significance. As a first step towards this direction, it is most important to identify the existing high performance thermoelectric materials exhibiting ferroelectricity. Herein, through the direct measurement of local polarization switching, we show that the recently discovered thermoelectric semiconductor AgSbSe{sub 2} has local ferroelectric ordering. Using piezo-response force microscopy, we demonstrate the existence of nanometer scale ferroelectric domains that can be switched by external electric field. These observations are intriguing as AgSbSe{sub 2} crystalizes in cubic rock-salt structure with centro-symmetric space group (Fm–3m), and therefore, no ferroelectricity is expected. However, from high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurement, we found the evidence of local superstructure formation which, we believe, leads to local distortion of the centro-symmetric arrangement in AgSbSe{sub 2} and gives rise to the observed ferroelectricity. Stereochemically active 5S{sup 2} lone-pair of Sb may also give rise to local structural distortion thereby creating ferroelectricity in AgSbSe{sub 2}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnoux, A.; Batou, A.; Soize, C.; Gagliardini, L.
2013-08-01
This paper is devoted to the construction of a stochastic reduced order computational model of structures having numerous local elastic modes in low frequency dynamics. We are particularly interested in automotive vehicles which are made up of stiff parts and flexible components. This type of structure is characterized by the fact that it exhibits, in the low frequency range, not only the classical global elastic modes but also numerous local elastic modes which cannot easily be separated from the global elastic modes. To solve this difficult problem, an innovative method has recently been proposed for constructing a reduced order computational dynamical model adapted to this particular situation for the low frequency range. Then a new adapted generalized eigenvalue problem is introduced and allows a global vector basis to be constructed for the global displacements space. This method requires to decompose the domain of the structure into sub-domains. Such a decomposition is carried out using the Fast Marching Method. This global vector basis is then used to construct the reduced order computational model. Since there are model uncertainties induced by modeling errors in the computational model, the nonparametric probabilistic approach of uncertainties is used and implemented in the reduced order computational model. The methodology is applied to a complex computational model of an automotive vehicle.
Characterization of the Local Structure in Liquid Water by Various Order Parameters
2015-01-01
A wide range of geometric order parameters have been suggested to characterize the local structure of liquid water and its tetrahedral arrangement, but their respective merits have remained elusive. Here, we consider a series of popular order parameters and analyze molecular dynamics simulations of water, in the bulk and in the hydration shell of a hydrophobic solute, at 298 and 260 K. We show that these parameters are weakly correlated and probe different distortions, for example the angular versus radial disorders. We first combine these complementary descriptions to analyze the structural rearrangements leading to the density maximum in liquid water. Our results reveal no sign of a heterogeneous mixture and show that the density maximum arises from the depletion in interstitial water molecules upon cooling. In the hydration shell of the hydrophobic moiety of propanol, the order parameters suggest that the water local structure is similar to that in the bulk, with only a very weak depletion in ordered configurations, thus confirming the absence of any iceberg-type structure. Finally, we show that the main structural fluctuations that affect water reorientation dynamics in the bulk are angular distortions, which we explain by the jump hydrogen-bond exchange mechanism. PMID:26054933
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foury-Leylekian, P.; Pouget, J. P.; Greenblatt, M.; Wang, E.
1998-03-01
We present a structural investigation of the Cs1‒xP8W8O40 family of quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) conductors, which exhibit intriguing charge transport properties where, for x small, the conductivity exhibits a crossover from a semiconducting to a metallic like regime when the temperature decreases. In these materials the W4O18 double zig-zag chains, together with the P2O7 diphosphate groups, delimit channels which are partially filled with the Cs+ ions. It is found, from an X-ray diffuse scattering investigation, that at room temperature the Cs+ ions are locally ordered on a lattice of well-defined sites in the channel direction and not ordered between neighboring channels. These Cs+ ions form 1D incommensurate concentration waves whose periodicity depends on the Cs+ stoichiometry. In CsP8W8O40 upon cooling, the intrachannel order increases significantly, and an interchannel order between the 1D Cs+ concentration waves develops. But, probably because of kinetic effects, no tridimensional (3D) long range order of the Cs+ ions is achieved at low temperature. The 3D low-temperature local order has been determined and it is found that the phase shift between the Cs+ concentration waves minimizes their Coulomb repulsions. This local order is increasingly reduced as the Cs concentration diminishes. We interpret the intriguing features of the electrical conductivity in relationship with the thermal evolution of the Cs ordering effects. We suggest that in Cs1‒xP8W8O40, for x small, a localization-delocalization transition of the Anderson type occurs due to the thermal variation of the Cs disorder. When x increases, the enhancement of the disorder leads to a localization of the electronic wave function in the whole temperature range measured. Finally, and probably because of the disorder, no charge density wave instability is revealed by our X-ray diffuse scattering investigation.
Local orderings in long-range-disordered bismuth-layered intergrowth structure
Zhang, Faqiang; Li, Yongxiang; Gu, Hui; Gao, Xiang
2014-04-01
A series of intergrowth bismuth-layered (Bi{sub 3}TiNbO{sub 9}){sub 2}(Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) (2{sub 2}3) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction to study the characteristics of the local orderings in long-range-disordered intergrowth structures. High-resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging reveals the intergrowth structure composed of mixtures of -23-, -223-, -2223- and -22- sequences, while the -223- structure is the thermodynamic stable state of this intergrowth system. It was confirmed by the crystals of recurrent -223- structure prepared by self-flux method and the nature of the local ordering was discussed from their differences in repeating units. The statistics show that when repeating units reach 4 or higher, the independent -223- intergrowth ordering emerges clearly among the competing associated orderings. We infer it is the kinetic factor that induces local compositional variance to result in long-range disordered intergrowth structures. - Graphical abstract: The long-range-disordered intergrowth structure in a (Bi{sub 3}TiNbO{sub 9}){sub 2}(Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) (2{sub 2}3) grain, which is composed of various types of local orderings, such as -22-, -23- and -223-. - Highlights: • The characteristic of the long-range-disordered (Bi{sub 3}TiNbO{sub 9}){sub 2}(Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) (2{sub 2}3) structure was statistically analyzed, and the ordered -223- structure was speculated to be the thermodynamic stable state of the system. • The crystals of the -223- structure were successfully prepared for the first time by self-melt method. • The lower limit of the repeating units (L) to uniquely determine an independent intergrowth structure was speculated to be L=4. • The analysis inferred that the kinetic process is the controlling factor to limit the structural continuity and induce the long-range-disordered intergrowth structure.
Aver'yanov, E. M.
2009-01-15
The problems on the relation of the mean effective molecular polarizability {gamma}-bar to the long-range orientational order of molecules (the optical anisotropy of the medium) in uniaxial and biaxial liquid crystals, the local anisotropy on mesoscopic scales, and the anisotropy of the Lorentz tensor L and the local-field tensor f are formulated and solved. It is demonstrated that the presence of the long-range orientational order of molecules in liquid crystals imposes limitations from below on the molecular polarizability {gamma}-bar, which differs for uniaxial and biaxial liquid crystals. The relation between the local anisotropy and the molecular polarizability {gamma}-bar is investigated for calamitic and discotic uniaxial liquid crystals consisting of lath- and disk-shaped molecules. These liquid crystals with identical macroscopic symmetry differ in the local anisotropy and the relationships between the components L{sub parallel} < L{sub perpendicular} , f{sub parallel} < f{sub perpendicular} (calamitic) and L{sub parallel} > L{sub perpendicular} , f{sub parallel} > f{sub perpendicular} (discotic) for an electric field oriented parallel and perpendicular to the director. The limitations from below and above on the molecular polarizability {gamma}-bar due to the anisotropy of the tensors L and f are established for liquid crystals of both types. These limitations indicate that the molecular polarizability {gamma}-bar depends on the phase state and the temperature. The factors responsible for the nonphysical consequences of the local-field models based on the approximation {gamma}-bar = const are revealed. The theoretical inferences are confirmed by the experimental data for a number of calamitic nematic liquid crystals with different values of birefringence and the discotic liquid crystal Col{sub ho}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbar, Jodi; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad
2016-02-01
Politeknik Manufaktur Bandung (Bandung Manufacture Polytechnic) is a polytechnic education that is not only to educate their students, but also manufactures order from customers at its teaching factory. This polytechnic is usually not responsive with the number of reject due to amateur operators from newcomer students. However, customers will be displeased if the reject rate is too high which can cause delay of delivery. At the foundry section, pintle chain is a product that has the highest amount of quantity but the lowest product standard fulfilment. Realizing this problem, it is a strong need to give more focus on quality improvement. The polytechnic considers that bad quality is not only related to low level of humanware (operator) but also related to low level of technoware (machine and equipment). In this research, QFD model was used as a tool for identifying target of improvement of non conforming factors of humanware and technoware using UNESCAP's technometric model. An improvement was done by implementing new scheduling strategy at foundry unit in order to minimize waiting time from molding to pouring process because of deterioration problem. This strategy provides an opportunity to reduce completion times about 50% and waiting time about 95% compared to the existing scheduling strategy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jungkyu; Hong, Yushin; Kim, Taebok
2011-01-01
This article discusses joint pricing and ordering policies for price-dependent demand in a supply chain consisting of a single retailer and a single manufacturer. The retailer places orders for products according to an EOQ policy and the manufacturer produces them on a lot-for-lot basis. Four mechanisms with differing levels of coordination are presented. Mathematical models are formulated and solution procedures are developed to determine the optimal retail prices and order quantities. Through extensive numerical experiments, we analyse and compare the behaviours and characteristics of the proposed mechanisms, and find that enhancing the level of coordination has important benefits for the supply chain.
Parallel and Low-Order Scaling Implementation of Hartree-Fock Exchange Using Local Density Fitting.
Köppl, Christoph; Werner, Hans-Joachim
2016-07-12
Calculations using modern linear-scaling electron-correlation methods are often much faster than the necessary reference Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations. We report a newly implemented HF program that speeds up the most time-consuming step, namely, the evaluation of the exchange contributions to the Fock matrix. Using localized orbitals and their sparsity, local density fitting (LDF), and atomic orbital domains, we demonstrate that the calculation of the exchange matrix scales asymptotically linearly with molecular size. The remaining parts of the HF calculation scale cubically but become dominant only for very large molecular sizes or with many processing cores. The method is well parallelized, and the speedup scales well with up to about 100 CPU cores on multiple compute nodes. The effect of the local approximations on the accuracy of computed HF and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory energies is systematically investigated, and default values are established for the parameters that determine the domain sizes. Using these values, calculations for molecules with hundreds of atoms in combination with triple-ζ basis sets can be carried out in less than 1 h, with just a few compute nodes. The method can also be used to speed up density functional theory calculations with hybrid functionals that contain HF exchange. PMID:27267488
[Localization of human brain areas activated for chaotic and ordered pattern perception].
Fokin, V A; Shelepin, Iu E; Kharauzov, A K; Trufanov, G E; Sevost'ianov, A V; Pronin, S V; Koskin, S A
2007-10-01
The aim of our work was to localize cortical areas involved in the processing of incomplete figures using functional MRI (fMRI) for 8 healthy volunteers (18-30 year old) with the did of anatomical and fMRI fast imaging technique: echo planar imaging (EPI), whole brain scan (36 slices) matrix 64 x 64, 3.7 second. We used 1.5 T MR-scanner and BOLD-method (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent), based on distinctions of magnetic properties of hemoglobin. Fast imaging technique on modern MR-scanners with > or = 1.5 T provides precise statistical maps of oxygenation increase with high spatial resolution. For test stimuli we used matrix of Gabor grating. We used two types of 10 x 10 matrices with chaotic and ordered orientation of Gabor gratings. The size, brightness and contrast of the stimuli were identical. The chaotic and ordered patterns activated different brain areas. We establish that ordered patterns activated only primary visual cortex - V1 and V2, (BA17-18), wheareas chaotic patterns activated in addition primary visual cortex, the V3,V4,V5 (BA19) of the occipital cortex and the area 7 of parietal area (BA7) classification. Decision making for that task is localized in prefrontal and frontal cortex, including (BA 6, 9, 10). PMID:18074783
Local order origin of thermal stability enhancement in amorphous Ag doping GeTe
Xu, L.; Li, Y.; Yu, N. N.; Zhong, Y. P.; Miao, X. S.
2015-01-19
We demonstrate the impacts of Ag doping on the local atomic structure of amorphous GeTe phase-change material. The variations of phonon vibrational modes, boding nature, and atomic structure are shown by Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculation. Combining the experiments and simulations, we observe that the number of Ge atoms in octahedral site decreases and that in tetrahedral site increases. This modification in local order of GeTe originating from the low valence element will affect the crystallization behavior of amorphous GeTe, which is verified by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscope results. This work not only gives the analysis on the structural change of GeTe with Ag dopants but also provides a method to enhance the thermal stability of amorphous phase-change materials for memory and brain-inspired computing applications.
Tempest - Efficient Computation of Atmospheric Flows Using High-Order Local Discretization Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullrich, P. A.; Guerra, J. E.
2014-12-01
The Tempest Framework composes several compact numerical methods to easily facilitate intercomparison of atmospheric flow calculations on the sphere and in rectangular domains. This framework includes the implementations of Spectral Elements, Discontinuous Galerkin, Flux Reconstruction, and Hybrid Finite Element methods with the goal of achieving optimal accuracy in the solution of atmospheric problems. Several advantages of this approach are discussed such as: improved pressure gradient calculation, numerical stability by vertical/horizontal splitting, arbitrary order of accuracy, etc. The local numerical discretization allows for high performance parallel computation and efficient inclusion of parameterizations. These techniques are used in conjunction with a non-conformal, locally refined, cubed-sphere grid for global simulations and standard Cartesian grids for simulations at the mesoscale. A complete implementation of the methods described is demonstrated in a non-hydrostatic setting.
Klassen, Joel; Wen, Xiao-Gang
2015-10-14
We study a chain of ferromagnetic sites, ie nano-particles, molecules or atoms, on a substrate of fully gapped superconductors. We find that under quite realistic conditions, the fermion-number-parity symmetry Z₂(f) can spontaneously break. In other words, such a chain can realize a 1 + 1D fermionic topologically ordered state and the corresponding two-fold topological degeneracy on an open chain. Such a topological degeneracy becomes the so called Majorana zero mode in the non-interacting limit. PMID:26401725
Oldfield, E.; Gilmore, R.; Glaser, M.; Gutowsky, H. S.; Hshung, J. C.; Kang, S. Y.; King, Tsoo E.; Meadows, M.; Rice, D.
1978-01-01
Deuterium Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectra have been obtained of 1-myristoyl 2-(14,14,14-trideutero)myristoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers at 34.1 MHz by using the quadrupole echo pulse technique. Thereby, we have investigated the effects upon the deuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers of the following proteins and polypeptides: gramicidin A, bacteriophage f1 coat protein, beef brain myelin proteolipid apoprotein, cytochrome b5, and cytochrome c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.9.3.1). Above Tc, the transition temperature between the gel and liquid crystal phases, the quadrupole splitting of the deuterium-labeled methyl group is reduced or collapsed in the presence of protein or polypeptide. No evidence has been found for ordered “boundary lipid.” Below Tc, the spectra show that the hydrocarbon chains are prevented from crystallizing by the protein (or polypeptide) incorporated in the membrane. Similar disordering effects above Tc are also seen when an unsaturated lipid, 1-(16,16,16-trideutero)palmitoyl 2-palmitoleyl phosphatidylcholine is complexed with cytochrome oxidase. PMID:16592570
Iwata, Kazuyoshi
1992-05-14
The local knot (LK) theory is tested by computer simulations in parts 1 and 2. Here, theoretical problems of the simulations are mainly discussed. The probe fluctuation found in part 1 is studied theoretically, and a method for separating the Markov motion of a LK from its probe fluctuation is proposed. A detailed discussions on the mechanism of the probe fluctuation and the uncertainty principal are given. A modified expression of the diffusion coefficient of a LK is derived that cancels the interference of the probe fluctuations, and its numerical calculation is performed. A correction for short memory effects of LK motion is also done. The theoretical value of d{sub 0} thus computed is 0.0393 bond{sup 2}/u.t. (u.t. - unit time) which is comparable to its simulation value 0.0172 bond{sup 2}/u.t. obtained in part 1. Finally, it is concluded that the LK theory is proved by the results of parts 1 and 2 and, by this, a true molecular theory of entanglement has been first established. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Antiferromagnetic order in single crystals of the S =2 quasi-one-dimensional chain MnCl3(bpy)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinozaki, Shin-ichi; Okutani, Akira; Yoshizawa, Daichi; Kida, Takanori; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shoji; Risset, Olivia N.; Talham, Daniel R.; Meisel, Mark W.; Hagiwara, Masayuki
2016-01-01
A suite of experimental tools, including high-field magnetization and electron spin resonance (ESR) studies in magnetic fields of up to 50 T and heat capacity studies up to 9 T, have revealed antiferromagnetic order in single crystals of the Heisenberg S =2 chain compound MnCl3(bpy), where bpy is 2 ,2'-bipyridine . The Néel temperature, which depends on the strength of the applied magnetic field and its orientation with respect to the crystalline axes that was revealed by heat capacity measurements, is near 11.5 K in zero field. The spin-flop transition is identified in the magnetization curve acquired at 1.7 K and at μoHSFc=24 T along the c axis. The transition field HSF is lower than that expected from the previous antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) studies on a powder sample. The identification of the long-range antiferromagnetic order resolves an earlier report by Granroth et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1616 (1996)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.1616 that identified MnCl3(bpy) as an S =2 Haldane system down to 40 mK. The ESR studies identify a wide range of antiferromagnetic resonance modes that provide additional microscopic information about the g values (ga*=2.09 , gb=1.92 , and gc=2.07 ), the zero-field splitting constants, D /kB=-1.5 K and E /kB=-0.17 K when the nearest-neighbor spin interaction J /kB=31.2 K, which is evaluated from fitting the susceptibility, and the anisotropy of this compound (easy axis is the c axis, the second easy-axis is the b axis, and the hard axis is the a* axis), when using a standard (two-sublattice) AFMR analysis that does not quantitatively reproduce the observed HSFc value. The observed resonance mode indicates the frequency minimum at HSFc.
Rathnayake, Sewwandi S.; Mirheydari, Mona; Schulte, Adam; Gillahan, James E.; Gentit, Taylor; Phillips, Ashley N.; Okonkwo, Rose K.; Burger, Koert N.J.; Mann, Elizabeth K.; Vaknin, David; Bu, Wei; Agra-Kooijman, Dena Mae; Kooijman, Edgar E.
2013-10-04
Neutral lipid transport in mammals is complicated involving many types of apolipoprotein. The exchangeable apolipoproteins mediate the transfer of hydrophobic lipids between tissues and particles, and bind to cell surface receptors. Amphipathic a-helices form a common structural motif that facilitates their lipid binding and exchangeability. ApoLp-III, the only exchangeable apolipoprotein found in insects, is a model amphipathic a:helix bundle protein and its three dimensional structure and function mimics that of the mammalian proteins apoE and apoAI. Even the intracellular exchangeable lipid droplet protein TIP47/perilipin 3 contains an a-helix bundle domain with high structural similarity to that of apoE and apoLp-III. Here, we investigated the interaction of apoLp-III from Locusta migratoria with lipid monolayers. Consistent with earlier work we find that insertion of apoLp-III into fluid lipid monolayers is highest for diacylglycerol. We observe a preference for saturated and more highly ordered lipids, suggesting a new mode of interaction for amphipathic a-helix bundles. X-ray reflectivity shows that apoLp-III unfolds at a hydrophobic interface and flexible loops connecting the amphipathic cc-helices stay in solution. X-ray diffraction indicates that apoLp-III insertion into diacylglycerol monolayers induces additional ordering of saturated acyl-chains. These results thus shed important new insight into the protein-lipid interactions of a model exchangeable apolipoprotein with significant implications for its mammalian counterparts. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Higher-order oligomerization promotes localization of SPOP to liquid nuclear speckles.
Marzahn, Melissa R; Marada, Suresh; Lee, Jihun; Nourse, Amanda; Kenrick, Sophia; Zhao, Huaying; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Kolaitis, Regina-Maria; Peters, Jennifer L; Pounds, Stanley; Errington, Wesley J; Privé, Gilbert G; Taylor, J Paul; Sharon, Michal; Schuck, Peter; Ogden, Stacey K; Mittag, Tanja
2016-06-15
Membrane-less organelles in cells are large, dynamic protein/protein or protein/RNA assemblies that have been reported in some cases to have liquid droplet properties. However, the molecular interactions underlying the recruitment of components are not well understood. Herein, we study how the ability to form higher-order assemblies influences the recruitment of the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) to nuclear speckles. SPOP, a cullin-3-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) substrate adaptor, self-associates into higher-order oligomers; that is, the number of monomers in an oligomer is broadly distributed and can be large. While wild-type SPOP localizes to liquid nuclear speckles, self-association-deficient SPOP mutants have a diffuse distribution in the nucleus. SPOP oligomerizes through its BTB and BACK domains. We show that BTB-mediated SPOP dimers form linear oligomers via BACK domain dimerization, and we determine the concentration-dependent populations of the resulting oligomeric species. Higher-order oligomerization of SPOP stimulates CRL3(SPOP) ubiquitination efficiency for its physiological substrate Gli3, suggesting that nuclear speckles are hotspots of ubiquitination. Dynamic, higher-order protein self-association may be a general mechanism to concentrate functional components in membrane-less cellular bodies. PMID:27220849
Ordering of young injection events within Saturnian SLS longitude and local time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennelly, T.; Leisner, J. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.
2012-12-01
The Saturnian SLS longitude systems are based on periodic radio emissions generated at high latitudes and relatively close to the planet. These periodicities have been observed throughout the magnetosphere in both the magnetic field and the plasma. While their presence in the outer magnetosphere has been understood, one outstanding question is how these periodicities are transmitted to the inner magnetosphere. The inner and outer magnetospheres are connected by inward-moving flux tubes, referred to as injection events, and it was postulated that they could carry the periodicities between the two regions. Early analysis of these phenomena, however, showed that there was no ordering in longitude. In this study, we reexamine this possibility by limiting our data set to the young injection events observed by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument. We find that the young injection events are restricted to two local time sectors: post-noon and near-midnight. We find no structure in the post-noon sector, but the near-midnight events are strongly ordered by SLS longitude. Further, the longitudinal ordering varies with Saturnian season. Pre-equinox, the longitude system derived from the northern hemisphere's SKR emissions controls the event occurrence. Post-equinox, the events are ordered by the southern hemisphere-derived longitude system. We suggest that this may be an effect in the variations in the ionospheric conductivity or due to change in the magnetosphere's orientation relative to the solar wind.
Mesoscopic turbulence and local order in Janus particles self-propelling under an ac electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishiguchi, Daiki; Sano, Masaki
2015-11-01
To elucidate mechanisms of mesoscopic turbulence exhibited by active particles, we experimentally study turbulent states of nonliving self-propelled particles. We realize an experimental system with dense suspensions of asymmetrical colloidal particles (Janus particles) self-propelling on a two-dimensional surface under an ac electric field. Velocity fields of the Janus particles in the crowded situation can be regarded as a sort of turbulence because it contains many vortices and their velocities change abruptly. Correlation functions of their velocity field reveal the coexistence of polar alignment and antiparallel alignment interactions, which is considered to trigger mesoscopic turbulence. Probability distributions of local order parameters for polar and nematic orders indicate the formation of local clusters with particles moving in the same direction. A broad peak in the energy spectrum of the velocity field appears at the spatial scales where the polar alignment and the cluster formation are observed. Energy is injected at the particle scale and conserved quantities such as energy could be cascading toward the larger clusters.
Mesoscopic turbulence and local order in Janus particles self-propelling under an ac electric field.
Nishiguchi, Daiki; Sano, Masaki
2015-11-01
To elucidate mechanisms of mesoscopic turbulence exhibited by active particles, we experimentally study turbulent states of nonliving self-propelled particles. We realize an experimental system with dense suspensions of asymmetrical colloidal particles (Janus particles) self-propelling on a two-dimensional surface under an ac electric field. Velocity fields of the Janus particles in the crowded situation can be regarded as a sort of turbulence because it contains many vortices and their velocities change abruptly. Correlation functions of their velocity field reveal the coexistence of polar alignment and antiparallel alignment interactions, which is considered to trigger mesoscopic turbulence. Probability distributions of local order parameters for polar and nematic orders indicate the formation of local clusters with particles moving in the same direction. A broad peak in the energy spectrum of the velocity field appears at the spatial scales where the polar alignment and the cluster formation are observed. Energy is injected at the particle scale and conserved quantities such as energy could be cascading toward the larger clusters. PMID:26651697
Typical density of states as an order parameter for the Anderson localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tam, Ka-Ming; Moore, Conrad; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark
2015-03-01
The typical medium theory and its recently proposed extensions for models with off-diagonal disorder and multiple bands are significant progress towards the study of localization phenomenon in real materials. The fundamental assumption of these methods is that the typical density of states can be treated as an order parameter. However, its justifications in lattice model is largely lacking. This is predominantly due to two factors. First, the lattice sizes amenable for exact diagonalization is rather limited. Second, the small lattice sizes lead to a very sensitive dependence on the broadening factor. In this work, we use the kernel polynomial method to perform simulation for large system sizes. By adapting the method for the study of criticality, we find that the typical density of states has a well defined finite size scaling behavior. In particular, from the kurtosis, Binder ratio, of the distribution of the density of states for different lattice sizes, we find a clear crossing to identify the critical point. This provides further support that the typical density of states can be used as an order parameter for the localization transition.
Tomic, Slavisa; Beko, Marko; Dinis, Rui
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new approach based on convex optimization to address the received signal strength (RSS)-based cooperative localization problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). By using iterative procedures and measurements between two adjacent nodes in the network exclusively, each target node determines its own position locally. The localization problem is formulated using the maximum likelihood (ML) criterion, since ML-based solutions have the property of being asymptotically efficient. To overcome the non-convexity of the ML optimization problem, we employ the appropriate convex relaxation technique leading to second-order cone programming (SOCP). Additionally, a simple heuristic approach for improving the convergence of the proposed scheme for the case when the transmit power is known is introduced. Furthermore, we provide details about the computational complexity and energy consumption of the considered approaches. Our simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing ones in terms of the estimation accuracy for more than 1.5 m. Moreover, the new approach requires a lower number of iterations to converge, and consequently, it is likely to preserve energy in all presented scenarios, in comparison to the state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:25275350
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-González, Dany; Molina, Mario I.
2016-03-01
We examine the transport of extended and localized excitations in one-dimensional linear chains populated by linear and nonlinear symmetric identical n -mers (with n =3 , 4, 5, and 6), randomly distributed. First, we examine the transmission of plane waves across a single linear n -mer, paying attention to its resonances, and looking for parameters that allow resonances to merge. Within this parameter regime we examine the transmission of plane waves through a disordered and nonlinear segment composed by n -mers randomly placed inside a linear chain. It is observed that nonlinearity tends to inhibit the transmission, which decays as a power law at long segment lengths. This behavior still holds when the n -mer parameters do not obey the resonance condition. On the other hand, the mean square displacement exponent of an initially localized excitation does not depend on nonlinearity at long propagation distances z , and shows a superdiffusive behavior ˜z1.8 for all n -mers, when parameters obey the resonance merging condition; otherwise the exponent reverts back to the random dimer model value ˜z1.5 .
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrini, A.; Pukala, D.; Schlecht, E.; Mehdi, I.; Erickson, N.
2001-01-01
This paper will describe a robust test-bed that has been built to measure multiplier performance over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. In a 182-212 GRz designed balanced doubler the peak efficiency at 201 GHz improves from 22% to 28% upon cooling from 300 K to 120 K. This stage is then used to pump a 362-424 GRz balanced planar doubler. The peak chain efficiency increases from 3.4% to 6% when the two cascaded doublers are cooled from 300 K to 120 K. This enables the production of 10 mW of peak output power at 377 GHz, which ought to be sufficient for driving the next stage multiplier.
Local atomic order, electronic structure and electron transport properties of Cu-Zr metallic glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonowicz, J.; Pietnoczka, A.; Pekała, K.; Latuch, J.; Evangelakis, G. A.
2014-05-01
We studied atomic and electronic structures of binary Cu-Zr metallic glasses (MGs) using combined experimental and computational methods including X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and ab-initio calculations. The results of MD simulations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicate that atomic order of Cu-Zr MGs and can be described in terms of interpenetrating icosahedral-like clusters involving five-fold symmetry. MD configurations were used as an input for calculations of theoretical electronic density of states (DOS) functions which exhibits good agreement with the experimental X-ray absorption near-edge spectra. We found no indication of minimum of DOS at Fermi energy predicted by Mott's nearly free electron (NFE) model for glass-forming alloys. The theoretical DOS was subsequently used to test Mott's model describing the temperature variation of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of transition metal-based MGs. We demonstrate that the measured temperature variations of electrical resistivity and TEP remain in a contradiction with this model. On the other hand, the experimental temperature dependence of electrical resistivity can be explained by incipient localization of conduction electrons. It is shown that weak localization model works up to relatively high temperatures when localization is destroyed by phonons. Our results indicate that electron transport properties of Cu-Zr MGs are dominated by localization effects rather than by electronic structure. We suggest that NFE model fails to explain a relatively high glass-forming ability of binary Cu-Zr alloys.
Local atomic order, electronic structure and electron transport properties of Cu-Zr metallic glasses
Antonowicz, J. Pietnoczka, A.; Pękała, K.; Latuch, J.; Evangelakis, G. A.
2014-05-28
We studied atomic and electronic structures of binary Cu-Zr metallic glasses (MGs) using combined experimental and computational methods including X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and ab-initio calculations. The results of MD simulations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicate that atomic order of Cu-Zr MGs and can be described in terms of interpenetrating icosahedral-like clusters involving five-fold symmetry. MD configurations were used as an input for calculations of theoretical electronic density of states (DOS) functions which exhibits good agreement with the experimental X-ray absorption near-edge spectra. We found no indication of minimum of DOS at Fermi energy predicted by Mott's nearly free electron (NFE) model for glass-forming alloys. The theoretical DOS was subsequently used to test Mott's model describing the temperature variation of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of transition metal-based MGs. We demonstrate that the measured temperature variations of electrical resistivity and TEP remain in a contradiction with this model. On the other hand, the experimental temperature dependence of electrical resistivity can be explained by incipient localization of conduction electrons. It is shown that weak localization model works up to relatively high temperatures when localization is destroyed by phonons. Our results indicate that electron transport properties of Cu-Zr MGs are dominated by localization effects rather than by electronic structure. We suggest that NFE model fails to explain a relatively high glass-forming ability of binary Cu-Zr alloys.
Low-temperature dynamics of weakly localized Frenkel excitons in disordered linear chains.
Bednarz, M; Malyshev, V A; Knoester, J
2004-02-22
We calculate the temperature dependence of the fluorescence Stokes shift and the fluorescence decay time in linear Frenkel exciton systems resulting from the thermal redistribution of exciton population over the band states. The following factors, relevant to common experimental conditions, are accounted for in our kinetic model: (weak) localization of the exciton states by static disorder, coupling of the localized excitons to vibrations in the host medium, a possible nonequilibrium of the subsystem of localized Frenkel excitons on the time scale of the emission process, and different excitation conditions (resonant or nonresonant). A Pauli master equation, with microscopically calculated transition rates, is used to describe the redistribution of the exciton population over the manifold of localized exciton states. We find a counterintuitive nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the Stokes shift. In addition, we show that depending on experimental conditions, the observed fluorescence decay time may be determined by vibration-induced intraband relaxation, rather than radiative relaxation to the ground state. The model considered has relevance to a wide variety of materials, such as linear molecular aggregates, conjugated polymers, and polysilanes. PMID:15268548
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.
2015-04-01
In this work we analyze the simultaneous emergence of diffusive energy transport and local thermalization in a nonequilibrium one-dimensional quantum system, as a result of integrability breaking. Specifically, we discuss the local properties of the steady state induced by thermal boundary driving in a X X Z spin chain with staggered magnetic field. By means of efficient large-scale matrix product simulations of the equation of motion of the system, we calculate its steady state in the long-time limit. We start by discussing the energy transport supported by the system, finding it to be ballistic in the integrable limit and diffusive when the staggered field is finite. Subsequently, we examine the reduced density operators of neighboring sites and find that for large systems they are well approximated by local thermal states of the underlying Hamiltonian in the nonintegrable regime, even for weak staggered fields. In the integrable limit, on the other hand, this behavior is lost, and the identification of local temperatures is no longer possible. Our results agree with the intuitive connection between energy diffusion and thermalization.
Phillips, L C; Cherifi, R O; Ivanovskaya, V; Zobelli, A; Infante, I C; Jacquet, E; Guiblin, N; Ünal, A A; Kronast, F; Dkhil, B; Barthélémy, A; Bibes, M; Valencia, S
2015-01-01
Ferroic materials (ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, ferroelastic) usually divide into domains with different orientations of their order parameter. Coupling between different ferroic systems creates new functionalities, for instance the electrical control of macroscopic magnetic properties including magnetization and coercive field. Here we show that ferroelastic domains can be used to control both magnetic order and magnetization direction at the nanoscale with a voltage. We use element-specific X-ray imaging to map the magnetic domains as a function of temperature and voltage in epitaxial FeRh on ferroelastic BaTiO3. Exploiting the nanoscale phase-separation of FeRh, we locally interconvert between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states with a small electric field just above room temperature. Imaging and ab initio calculations show the antiferromagnetic phase of FeRh is favoured by compressive strain on c-oriented BaTiO3 domains, and the resultant magnetoelectric coupling is larger and more reversible than previously reported from macroscopic measurements. Our results emphasize the importance of nanoscale ferroic domain structure and the promise of first-order transition materials to achieve enhanced coupling in artificial multiferroics. PMID:25969926
Phillips, L. C.; Cherifi, R. O.; Ivanovskaya, V.; Zobelli, A.; Infante, I. C.; Jacquet, E.; Guiblin, N.; Ünal, A. A.; Kronast, F.; Dkhil, B.; Barthélémy, A.; Bibes, M.; Valencia, S.
2015-01-01
Ferroic materials (ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, ferroelastic) usually divide into domains with different orientations of their order parameter. Coupling between different ferroic systems creates new functionalities, for instance the electrical control of macroscopic magnetic properties including magnetization and coercive field. Here we show that ferroelastic domains can be used to control both magnetic order and magnetization direction at the nanoscale with a voltage. We use element-specific X-ray imaging to map the magnetic domains as a function of temperature and voltage in epitaxial FeRh on ferroelastic BaTiO3. Exploiting the nanoscale phase-separation of FeRh, we locally interconvert between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states with a small electric field just above room temperature. Imaging and ab initio calculations show the antiferromagnetic phase of FeRh is favoured by compressive strain on c-oriented BaTiO3 domains, and the resultant magnetoelectric coupling is larger and more reversible than previously reported from macroscopic measurements. Our results emphasize the importance of nanoscale ferroic domain structure and the promise of first-order transition materials to achieve enhanced coupling in artificial multiferroics. PMID:25969926
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, L. C.; Cherifi, R. O.; Ivanovskaya, V.; Zobelli, A.; Infante, I. C.; Jacquet, E.; Guiblin, N.; Ünal, A. A.; Kronast, F.; Dkhil, B.; Barthélémy, A.; Bibes, M.; Valencia, S.
2015-05-01
Ferroic materials (ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, ferroelastic) usually divide into domains with different orientations of their order parameter. Coupling between different ferroic systems creates new functionalities, for instance the electrical control of macroscopic magnetic properties including magnetization and coercive field. Here we show that ferroelastic domains can be used to control both magnetic order and magnetization direction at the nanoscale with a voltage. We use element-specific X-ray imaging to map the magnetic domains as a function of temperature and voltage in epitaxial FeRh on ferroelastic BaTiO3. Exploiting the nanoscale phase-separation of FeRh, we locally interconvert between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states with a small electric field just above room temperature. Imaging and ab initio calculations show the antiferromagnetic phase of FeRh is favoured by compressive strain on c-oriented BaTiO3 domains, and the resultant magnetoelectric coupling is larger and more reversible than previously reported from macroscopic measurements. Our results emphasize the importance of nanoscale ferroic domain structure and the promise of first-order transition materials to achieve enhanced coupling in artificial multiferroics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamoto, Kentaro; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Wataru; Awaga, Kunio; Inabe, Tamotsu
2007-08-01
We here examine the electrical and magnetic properties of the isostructural NT3•MCl4 ( NT=naphtho [2,1- d :6,5- d' ]bis([1,2,3] dithiazole and M=Ga and Fe). The crystal structure of NT3•MCl4 consists of one-dimensional π -stacking chains of NT with strong interchain interactions caused by electrostatic Sδ+•••Nδ- contacts. This structure includes four NT molecules with significant differences in molecular structure and charge, exhibiting a characteristic charge ordering, namely, three-dimensional alternation of charge-rich (or -intermediate) and -poor molecules. NT3•GaCl4 and NT3•FeCl4 are found to be semiconductors with σRT˜0.5Scm-1 and to exhibit a nonlinear electrical transport at room temperature with a very low threshold field of 80Vcm-1 for the negative differential resistance. This threshold field significantly increases with a decrease in temperature. The X -band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of NT3•GaCl4 consist of a single-line absorption ascribable to that of the NT+ cation. When the sample is exposed to a current at room temperature, this signal exhibits a drastic decrease in intensity with little change in linewidth. This is attributed to the inhomogeneous formation of EPR-silent conducting pathways for the nonlinear transport. The temperature dependence of the EPR spin susceptibility χs of NT3•GaCl4 suggests a transition toward a spin-gap state below 20K ; χs exhibits a Bonner-Fisher-type temperature dependence above 20K , but gradually collapses to zero below this temperature.
Complex Plasmas in Narrow Channels: Impact of Confinement on the Local Order
Klumov, B. A.
2008-10-15
Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) quasi-equilibrium configurations of a complex (dusty) plasma in narrow channels are investigated using the molecular dynamics simulations for various confining potentials (confinements). The dynamics of the microparticles is described within the framework of a Langevin thermostat with allowance for the pair interaction between charged particles, which is described by a screened Coulomb potential (Yukawa potential). Two types of confinement: the parabolic electrostatic potential and hard elastic wall are considered. It is shown that the confinement strongly affects the crystallization and the local order of the microparticles in the system under consideration; in particular, the appearance of a new quasicrystalline phase induced by the hard wall confinement is revealed in 3D case.
Energy localization on the Al sublattice of Pt3Al with L12 order
Medvedev, Nikolay N; Starostenkov, Mikhail D; Manley, Michael E
2013-01-01
A three-dimensional molecular-dynamics model of with order was developed and found to support the excitation of discrete breathers (DBs) and energy localization on the Al sublattice. For an initial lattice temperature of 0 K, large-amplitude DBs polarized along [100] are found to be very weakly damped, retaining most of their initial energy for more than 2000 cycles, while DBs polarized along [111] damped out over ~30 cycles. Because the DBs and their dissipation channels are confined to the Al sublattice, long-lived nonequilibrium states with large energy differences between the Al and Pt sublattices occur. Since collisions during irradiation more efficiently generate lattice vibrations in light atoms than heavy atoms, such nonequilibrium states may occur and alter the relaxation processes occurring during radiation damage.
Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.
Towards local isotropy of higher-order statistics in the intermediate wake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, S. L.; Antonia, R. A.; Danaila, L.; Djenidi, L.; Zhou, T.; Zhou, Y.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we assess the local isotropy of higher-order statistics in the intermediate wake region. We focus on normalized odd moments of the transverse velocity derivatives, {M_{2n + 1}}(partial u/partial z) = {{overline{{{(partial u/partial z)}^{2n + 1}}} }}/{{{{overline{{{(partial u/partial z)}^2}} }^{(2n + 1)/2}}}} and {N_{2n + 1}}(partial u/partial y) = {{overline{{{(partial u/partial y)}^{2n + 1}}} }}/{{{{overline{{{(partial u/partial y)}^2}} }^{(2n + 1)/2}}}}, which should be zero if local isotropy is satisfied ( n is a positive integer). It is found that the relation M_{2n+1}(partial u/partial z) ˜ R_λ ^{-1} is supported reasonably well by hot-wire data up to the seventh order (n=3) on the wake centreline, although it is also dependent on the initial conditions. The present relation N3(partial u/partial y) ˜ R_λ ^{-1} is obtained more rigorously than that proposed by Lumley (Phys Fluids 10:855-858, 1967) via dimensional arguments. The effect of the mean shear at locations away from the wake centreline on M_{2n+1}(partial u/partial z) and N_{2n+1}(partial u/partial y) is addressed and reveals that, although the non-dimensional shear parameter is much smaller in wakes than in a homogeneous shear flow, it has a significant effect on the evolution of N_{2n+1}(partial u/partial y) in the direction of the mean shear; its effect on M_{2n+1}(partial u/partial z) (in the non-shear direction) is negligible.
COSMO-RSC: Second-Order Quasi-Chemical Theory Recovering Local Surface Correlation Effects.
Klamt, A
2016-03-31
The conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) was introduced 20 years ago and meanwhile has become an important tool for the prediction of fluid phase equilibrium properties. Starting from quantum chemical information about the surface polarity of solutes and solvents, it solves the statistical thermodynamics of molecules in liquid phases by the very efficient approximation of independently pairwise interacting surfaces, which meanwhile was shown to be equivalent to Guggenheim's quasi-chemical theory. One of the basic limitations of COSMO-RS, as of any quasi-chemical model, is the neglect of neighbor information, i.e., of local correlations of surface types on the molecular surface. In this paper we present the completely novel concept of using the first-order COSMO-RS contact probabilities for the construction of local surface correlation functions. These are fed as an entropic correction for the pair interactions into a second COSMO-RS self-consistency loop, which yields new contact probabilities, enthalpies, free energies and activity coefficients recovering much of the originally lost neighbor effects. By a novel analytic correction for concentration dependent interactions, the resulting activity coefficients remain exactly Gibbs-Duhem consistent. The theory is demonstrated on the example of a lattice Monte Carlo fluid of dimerizing pseudomolecules. In this showcase the strong deviations of the lattice Monte Carlo fluid from quasi-chemical theory are almost perfectly reproduced by COSMO-RSC. PMID:26963690
Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Croteau, Rodney B
2012-06-01
Biosynthesis of the p-menthane monoterpenes in peppermint occurs in the secretory cells of the peltate glandular trichomes and results in the accumulation of primarily menthone and menthol. cDNAs and recombinant enzymes are well characterized for eight of the nine enzymatic steps leading from the 5-carbon precursors to menthol, and subcellular localization of several key enzymes suggests a complex network of substrate and product movement is required during oil biosynthesis. In addition, studies concerning the regulation of oil biosynthesis have demonstrated a temporal partition of the pathway into an early, biosynthetic program that results in the accumulation of menthone and a later, oil maturation program that leads to menthone reduction and concomitant menthol accumulation. The menthone reductase responsible for the ultimate pathway reduction step, menthone-menthol reductase (MMR), has been characterized and found to share significant sequence similarity with its counterpart reductase, a menthone-neomenthol reductase, which catalyzes a minor enzymatic reaction associated with oil maturation. Further, the menthone reductases share significant sequence similarity with the temporally separate and mechanistically different isopiperitenone reductase (IPR). Here we present immunocytochemical localizations for these reductases using a polyclonal antibody raised against menthone-menthol reductase. The polyclonal antibody used for this study showed little specificity between these three reductases, but by using it for immunostaining of tissues of different ages we were able to provisionally separate staining of an early biosynthetic enzyme, IPR, found in young, immature leaves from that of the oil maturation enzyme, MMR, found in older, mature leaves. Both reductases were localized to the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of the secretory cells of peltate glandular trichomes, and were absent from all other cell types examined. PMID:22170164
Modification of local order in FePd films by low energy He{sup +} irradiation
Merkel, D. G.; Tancziko, F.; Sajti, Sz.; Major, M.; Nemeth, A.; Bottyan, L.; Horvath, Z. E.; Waizinger, J.; Stankov, S.; Kovacs, A.
2008-07-01
Owing to their strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, FePd, CoPd, and their Co(Fe)Pt counterparts are candidate materials for ultrahigh density magnetic recording. The stability and magnetic properties of such films are largely dependent on the orientation and local distribution of the L1{sub 0} FePd phase fraction. Therefore, the formation and transformation of the L1{sub 0} phase in such thin films have been the subject of continued interest. Highly ordered epitaxial FePd(001) thin films (with an L1{sub 0} phase fraction of 0.81) were prepared by molecular-beam epitaxy on a MgO(001) substrate. The effect of postgrown room temperature, 130 keV He{sup +} irradiation was investigated at fluences up to 14.9x10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that with increasing fluence, the L1{sub 0} FePd phase decomposes into the face centered cubic phase with random Fe and Pd occupation of the sites. A partially ordered local environment exhibiting a large hyperfine magnetic field also develops. Upon He{sup +} irradiation, the lattice parameter c of the FePd L1{sub 0} structure increases and the long range order parameter S steeply decreases. The Fe-Fe nearest-neighbor coordination in the Fe-containing environments increases on average from Fe{sub 47}Pd{sub 53} to Fe{sub 54}Pd{sub 46}, indicating a tendency of formation iron-rich clusters. The equilibrium parameters corresponding to the equiatomic L1{sub 0} phase were found at different fluences by conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy and by x-ray diffraction a difference, from which a plane-perpendicular compressive stress and a corresponding in-plane tensile stress are conjectured. The steep increase in the interface roughness above 7.4x10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} is interpreted as a percolation-type behavior related to the high diffusion anisotropy in the L1{sub 0} phase.
H-localized mode in chains of hydrogen-bonded amide groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barthes, Mariette; Kellouai, Hassan; Page, Gabriel; Moret, Jacques; Johnson, Susanna W.; Eckert, Juergen
1993-09-01
New infrared measurements of the anomalous amide modes in acetanilide and its derivatives are presented. Preliminary results of structural data obtained by neutron diffraction at low temperature are also described. Besides the well-known anomalous amide-1 mode (1650 cm -1), it is shown that the NH out-of-plane bend (770 cm -1) and the “H-bond strain” (at about 105 cm -1) exhibit an anomalous increase of intensity proportional to the law exp(- T2/ Θ2), suggesting that the amide proton bears a significant electronic distribution as formerly observed for H - localized modes. Structural data, moreover, show that the thermal ellips of the amide proton has an increasing anisotropy at 15 K. Considering these new results, the theoretical model of a self-trapped “polaronic” state seems to be the most consistent with the whole set of observed anomalies in this family of crystals.
Disorder from order among anisotropic next-nearest-neighbor Ising spin chains in SrHo_{2}O_{4}
Wen, J. -J.; Tian, W.; Garlea, V. O.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; McQueen, T. M.; Li, H. -F.; Yan, J. -Q.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Vaknin, D.; Broholm, C. L.
2015-02-26
In this study, we describe why Ising spin chains with competing interactions in SrHo_{2}O_{4} segregate into ordered and disordered ensembles at low temperatures (T). Using elastic neutron scattering, magnetization, and specific heat measurements, the two distinct spin chains are inferred to have Néel (↑↓↑↓) and double-Néel (↑↑↓↓) ground states, respectively. Below T_{N} = 0.68(2)K, the Néel chains develop three-dimensional long range order (LRO), which arrests further thermal equilibration of the double-Néel chains so they remain in a disordered incommensurate state for T below T_{S} = 0.52(2)K. SrHo_{2}O_{4} distills an important feature of incommensurate low dimensional magnetism: kinetically trapped topological defects in a quasi–d–dimensional spin system can preclude order in d + 1 dimensions.
Multiple-order resonant Raman scattering of the localized molecular rose center in BaF 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deyhimi, Farzad; Bill, Hans
1983-11-01
The rose center in BaF 2 is investigated by resonant Raman scattering. The spectra obtained at liquid-helium temperature show multiple order and combination bands of the internal local modes (up to the sixth order), and associated side bands of the lattice. The temperature dependence of the linewidth of the local-mode transitions has been investigated and is explained as being due to anharmonic coupling to the lattice.
Tick, David; Satici, Aykut C; Shen, Jinglin; Gans, Nicholas
2013-08-01
This paper presents a novel navigation and control system for autonomous mobile robots that includes path planning, localization, and control. A unique vision-based pose and velocity estimation scheme utilizing both the continuous and discrete forms of the Euclidean homography matrix is fused with inertial and optical encoder measurements to estimate the pose, orientation, and velocity of the robot and ensure accurate localization and control signals. A depth estimation system is integrated in order to overcome the loss of scale inherent in vision-based estimation. A path following control system is introduced that is capable of guiding the robot along a designated curve. Stability analysis is provided for the control system and experimental results are presented that prove the combined localization and control system performs with high accuracy. PMID:26502433
Manby, Frederick R; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Adler, Thomas B; May, Andrew J
2006-03-01
The recently introduced MP2-R122*A(loc) and LMP2-R122*A(loc) methods are modified to use a short-range correlation factor expanded as a fixed linear combination of Gaussian geminals. Density fitting is used to reduce the effort for integral evaluation, and local approximations are introduced to improve the scaling of the computational resources with molecular size. The MP2-F122*A(loc) correlation energies converge very rapidly with respect to the atomic orbital basis set size. Already with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis the correlation energies computed for a set of 21 small molecules are found to be within 0.5% of the MP2 basis set limit. Furthermore the short-range correlation factor leads to an improved convergence of the resolution of the identity, and eliminates problems with long-range errors in density fitting caused by the linear r12 factor. The DF-LMP2-F122*A(loc) method is applied to compute second-order correlation energies for molecules with up to 49 atoms and more than 1600 basis functions. PMID:16526841
Evidence of local structural order and spin-lattice coupling in the frustrated pyrochlore Y2Ru2O7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellano, C.; Berti, G.; Sanna, S.; Ruiz-Bustos, R.; van Duijn, J.; Brambilla, A.; Muñoz-Noval, Á.; Carretta, P.; Duò, L.; Demartin, F.
2015-06-01
We present an extended x-ray absorption fine structure study of the pyrochlore Y2Ru2O7 (8-298 K). We find evidence, on a local scale, of a significant magnetoelastic coupling at the Néel temperature TN˜77 K pointed out by a huge Debye-Waller σ2 factor deviation from a correlated temperature dependent Debye-like local order behavior plus a temperature independent static contribution. Moreover, we notice the occurrence of a potential local order-disorder structural phase transition at T*=150 K. This anomalous behavior is consistent with the pyrochlore's predisposition towards structural disorder and with a strong spin-phonon correlation. Remarkably the low-temperature order competes with the tendency of magnetic frustration to induce a less symmetric local structure.
Sadjadi, Seyed J; Naeij, Jafar; Shavandi, Hasan; Makui, Ahmad
2016-06-01
This paper studying the impact of strategic customer behavior on decentralized supply chain gains and decisions, which includes a supplier, and a monopoly firm as a retailer who sells a single product over a finite two periods of selling season. We consider three types of customers: myopic, strategic and low-value customers. The problem is formulated as a bi-level game where at the second level (e.g. horizontal game), the retailer determines his/her equilibrium pricing strategy in a non-cooperative simultaneous general game with strategic customers who choose equilibrium purchasing strategy to maximize their expected surplus. At the first level (e.g. vertical game), the supplier competes with the retailer as leader and follower in the Stackelberg game. They set the wholesale price and initial stocking capacity to maximize their profits. Finally, a numerical study is presented to demonstrate the impacts of strategic behavior on supply chain gain and decisions; subsequently the effects of market parameters on decision variables and total profitability of supply chain's members is studied through a sensitivity analysis. PMID:27276375
Bayat, Farhad; Mobayen, Saleh; Javadi, Shamsi
2016-07-01
This paper addresses the problem of finite-time tracking controller design for nth-order chained-form non-holonomic systems in the presence of unknown disturbances. To this aim, a generalized disturbance observer based controller is proposed and combined with a recursive terminal sliding mode approach which guarantees finite-time convergence of the disturbance observer dynamic. By introducing a time-varying transformation and introducing a new control law, the existence of the sliding around the recursive terminal sliding mode surfaces is guaranteed. Finally, the proposed approach is applied for a wheeled mobile robot with a fourth-order chained-form non-holonomic model. The simulation results demonstrate the desirable and robust tracking performance of the proposed approach in the presence of unknown disturbance. PMID:27000631
Potier, M.C.; Rossier, J.; Turnell, W.G.; Pekarsky, Y.; Gardiner, K.
1995-10-10
Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a key enzyme in muscle contraction, has been shown by immunohistology to be present in neurons and glia. We describe here the cloning of the cDNA for human MLCK from hippocampus, encoding a protein sequence 95% similar to smooth muscle MLCKs but less than 60% similar to skeletal muscle MLCKs. The cDNA clone detected two RNA transcripts in human frontal and entorhinal cortex, in hippocampus, and in jejunum, one corresponding to MLCK and the other probably to telokin, the carboxy-terminal 154 codons of MLCK expressed as an independent protein in smooth muscle. Levels of expression were lower in brain compared to smooth muscle. We show that within the protein sequence, a motif of 28 or 24 residues is repeated five times, the second repeat ending with the putative methionine start codon. These repeats overlap with a second previously reported module of 12 residues repeated five times in the human sequence. In addition, the acidic C-terminus of all MLCKs from both brain and smooth muscle resembles the C-terminus of tubulins. The chromosomal localization of the gene for human MLCK is shown to be at 3qcen-q21, as determined by PCR and Southern blotting using two somatic cell hybrid panels. 33 refs., 8 figs.
Pérez-Gutiérrez, Rocío-Anaís; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Islas, África; Alcaraz, Luis David; Hernández-González, Ismael; Olivera, Beatriz Carely Luna; Santillán, Moisés; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria; Travisano, Michael; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela
2013-01-01
Understanding the principles that govern community assemblages is a central goal of ecology. There is limited experimental evidence in natural settings showing that microbial assembly in communities are influenced by antagonistic interactions. We, therefore, analyzed antagonism among bacterial isolates from a taxonomically related bacterial guild obtained from five sites in sediments from a fresh water system. We hypothesized that if antagonistic interactions acted as a shaping force of the community assembly, then the frequency of resistance to antagonism among bacterial isolates originating from a given site would be higher than the resistance to conspecifics originating from a different assemblage. Antagonism assays were conducted between 78 thermoresistant isolates, of which 72 were Bacillus spp. Sensitive, resistant and antagonistic isolates co-occurred at each site, but the within-site frequency of resistance observed was higher than that observed when assessed across-sites. We found that antagonism results from bacteriocin-like substances aimed at the exclusion of conspecifics. More than 6000 interactions were scored and described by a directed network with hierarchical structure that exhibited properties that resembled a food chain, where the different Bacillus taxonomic groups occupied specific positions. For some tested interacting pairs, the unidirectional interaction could be explained by competition that inhibited growth or completely excluded one of the pair members. This is the first report on the prevalence and specificity of Bacillus interactions in a natural setting and provides evidence for the influence of bacterial antagonist interactions in the assemblage of a taxonomically related guild in local communities. PMID:23096405
Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng
2014-01-01
In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818
Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng
2014-01-01
In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818
Goedert, M.; Marsh, S.; Carter, N.
1996-02-15
This article reports on the localization of human kinesin light chain gene (KNS2) to human chromosome 14q32.3 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Further studies will need to be conducted to see whether mutations in the KNS2 gene are associated with hereditary diseases. 10 refs., 1 fig.
Yoshioka, N; Atassi, M Z
1986-03-01
A synthetic approach was employed to identify the haptoglobin-binding sites on the beta-chain of human haemoglobin. This approach consists of the synthesis of a series of consecutive overlapping peptides that, together, systematically represent the entire protein chain. Fourteen synthetic peptides (beta 1-15, beta 11-25 etc.) were examined for their ability to bind human haptoglobin by quantitative solid-phase radiometric titrations of 125I-labelled haptoglobin. Of these 14 peptides only peptides beta 11-25 and beta 131-146 bound haptoglobin significantly; peptide beta 21-35 exhibited a small binding activity as a consequence of the overlap with peptide beta 11-25. On this basis and by examination of the three-dimensional structure of haemoglobin, it was concluded that the beta-chain of haemoglobin has two binding sites for haptoglobin that reside in, but do not necessarily encompass all of, the regions beta 11-25 and beta 131-146. PMID:3718478
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garaud, Julien; Babaev, Egor
2015-01-01
We study superconductors with two order components and phase separation driven by intercomponent density-density interaction, focusing on the phase where only one condensate has nonzero ground-state density and a competing order parameter exists only in vortex cores. We demonstrate there that multibody intervortex interactions can be strongly nonpairwise, leading to some unusual vortex patterns in an external field, such as vortex pairs and vortex chains. We demonstrate that in an external magnetic field such a system undergoes a field-driven phase transition from (broken) U (1 ) to (broken) U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetries when a subdominant order parameter in the vortex cores acquires global coherence. Observation of these characteristic ordering patterns in surface probes may signal the presence of a subdominant condensate in the vortex core.
Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q.M.; Xing, Yulong
2015-01-23
In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finzel, Kati
2016-01-01
The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level.
Krill, S L; Gupta, S L
1994-04-01
Dynamic surface tension measurements of films of a d62 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine:L-alpha-phosphatidyl-DL - glycerol:d31 palmitic acid (d62-DPPC:EggPG:d31-PA) lipid matrix in the presence of a bovine pulmonary surfactant protein isolate (SP-B/C) demonstrate the improved surface activity over that of the lipids alone. Thus, significant interaction of the proteins with the lipid matrix is demonstrated. The effect of SP-B/C on the acyl chain order of the negatively charged EggPG within a d62-DPPC:EggPG:d31-PA lipid matrix in D2O saline was investigated in thermal perturbation Fourier transform IR spectroscopic studies. The EggPG thermotropic phase behavior was determined independently of the other lipid components with perdeuterated lipids and D2O. The data demonstrate the high degree of EggPG acyl chain disorder in the absence of the protein isolate. A broad transition occurs between 30 and 40 degrees C. The addition of the protein isolate did not alter the acyl chain order at 0.281 and 1.46 mg/mL of protein. However, alterations in the lipid carbonyl vibrational mode were observed. PMID:8046609
Nagai, N; Nakano, K; Sado, Y; Naito, I; Gunduz, M; Tsujigiwa, H; Nagatsuka, H; Ninomiya, Y; Siar, C H
2001-10-01
The dental basement membrane (BM) putatively mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. Type IV collagen alpha chains, a major network-forming protein of the dental BM, was studied and results disclosed distinct expression patterns at different stages of mouse molar germ development. At the dental placode and bud stage, the BM of the oral epithelium expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains while the gubernaculum dentis, in addition to the above four chains, also expressed a 4 chain. An asymmetrical expression for alpha 4, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains was observed at the bud stage. At the early bell stage, the BM associated with the inner enamel epithelium (IEE) of molar germ expressed alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 4 chains while the BM of the outer enamel epithelium (OEE) expressed only alpha 1 and a 2 chains. With the onset of dentinogenesis, the collagen a chain profile of the IEE BM gradually disappeared. Howeverfrom the early to late bell stage, the gubernaculum dentis consistently expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and a 6 chains resembling fetal oral mucosa. These findings suggest that stage- and position-specific distribution of type IV collagen alpha subunits occur during molar germ development and that these changes are essential for molar morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. PMID:11732842
Local well-posedness for the fifth-order KdV equations on T
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Chulkwang
2016-05-01
This paper is a continuation of the paper Low regularity Cauchy problem for the fifth-order modified KdV equations on T[7]. In this paper, we consider the fifth-order equation in the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy as following:
Adler, Thomas B; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Manby, Frederick R
2009-02-01
A local explicitly correlated LMP2-F12 method is described that can be applied to large molecules. The steep scaling of computer time with molecular size is reduced by the use of local approximations, the scaling with respect to the basis set size per atom is improved by density fitting, and the slow convergence of the correlation energy with orbital basis size is much accelerated by the introduction of terms into the wave function that explicitly depend on the interelectronic distance. The local approximations lead to almost linear scaling of the computational effort with molecular size without much affecting the accuracy. At the same time, the domain error of conventional LMP2 is removed in LMP2-F12. LMP2-F12 calculations on molecules of chemical interest involving up to 80 atoms, 200 correlated electrons, and 2600 contracted Gaussian-type orbitals, as well as several reactions of large biochemical molecules are reported. PMID:19206957
A localized basis that allows fast and accurate second order Moller-Plesset calculations
Subotnik, Joseph E.; Head-Gordon, Martin
2004-10-27
We present a method for computing a basis of localized orthonormal orbitals (both occupied and virtual), in whose representation the Fock matrix is extremely diagonal-dominant. The existence of these orbitals is shown empirically to be sufficient for achieving highly accurate MP@ energies, calculated according to Kapuy's method. This method (which we abbreviate KMP2), which involves a different partitioning of the n-electron Hamiltonian, scales at most quadratically with potential for linearity in the number of electrons. As such, we believe the KMP2 algorithm presented here could be the basis of a viable approach to local correlation calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... meet in order to be eligible for financial assistance under section 8003(f)(2)(B)? 222.64 Section 222.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND... Local Educational Agencies Under Section 8003(f) of the Act § 222.64 What other requirements must...
Krill, S L; Gupta, S L; Smith, T
1994-05-01
Lung surfactant-associated protein interaction with lipid matrices and the effects on lipid thermotropic phase behavior are areas of active research. Many studies limit the lipids to a single or two-component system. The current investigation utilizes a three-lipid component matrix (DPPC:POPG:palmitic acid) to investigate the impact of a synthetic surfactant protein B fragment (SP-B 53-78 DiACM) on the dynamic surface activity of the lipid admixture as measured by a Wilhelmy surface balance. Also, the modulation of the individual lipid acyl chain order by the peptide within the lipid matrix is studied through the use of thermal perturbation FTIR spectroscopy. The data clearly demonstrate a concentration-dependent effect of the peptide on the surface activity with an improvement in the dynamic surface tension diagram characteristics (decreased surface tension and increased collapse plateau) especially at low, 0.36 M%, peptide concentrations. These effects are diminished upon further addition of the peptide. FTIR spectral data demonstrate that the peptide addition results in a significant increase in the acyl chain order of the DPPC and POPG components as measured by the position of the methylene stretching vibrational bands. DPPC is most sensitive to the peptide presence, while the palmitic acid is least affected. The transition temperatures of the individual lipids are also increased with the addition of the peptide. The presence of POPG in the matrix achieves the surface activity similarly seen with natural lung surfactant relative to a DPPC/palmitic acid lipid matrix alone. Its presence increases the sensitivity of the DPPC acyl chains to the presence of the peptide. These effects on the chain order are most probably related to the increased acyl chain fluidity which POPG imparts to the lipid matrix because of the presence of the cis double bond. The phosphatidylglycerol headgroup also adds a negative charge to the lipid matrix which enhances the peptide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yen, Ghi-Feng; Chung, Kun-Jen; Chen, Tzung-Ching
2012-11-01
The traditional economic order quantity model assumes that the retailer's storage capacity is unlimited. However, as we all know, the capacity of any warehouse is limited. In practice, there usually exist various factors that induce the decision-maker of the inventory system to order more items than can be held in his/her own warehouse. Therefore, for the decision-maker, it is very practical to determine whether or not to rent other warehouses. In this article, we try to incorporate two levels of trade credit and two separate warehouses (own warehouse and rented warehouse) to establish a new inventory model to help the decision-maker to make the decision. Four theorems are provided to determine the optimal cycle time to generalise some existing articles. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and annual costs of the inventory system.
Effects of surface reflectance on local second order shape estimation in dynamic scenes.
Dövencioğlu, Dicle N; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Doerschner, Katja
2015-10-01
In dynamic scenes, relative motion between the object, the observer, and/or the environment projects as dynamic visual information onto the retina (optic flow) that facilitates 3D shape perception. When the object is diffusely reflective, e.g. a matte painted surface, this optic flow is directly linked to object shape, a property found at the foundations of most traditional shape-from-motion (SfM) schemes. When the object is specular, the corresponding specular flow is related to shape curvature, a regime change that challenges the visual system to determine concurrently both the shape and the distortions of the (sometimes unknown) environment reflected from its surface. While human observers are able to judge the global 3D shape of most specular objects, shape-from-specular-flow (SFSF) is not veridical. In fact, recent studies have also shown systematic biases in the perceived motion of such objects. Here we focus on the perception of local shape from specular flow and compare it to that of matte-textured rotating objects. Observers judged local surface shape by adjusting a rotation and scale invariant shape index probe. Compared to shape judgments of static objects we find that object motion decreases intra-observer variability in local shape estimation. Moreover, object motion introduces systematic changes in perceived shape between matte-textured and specular conditions. Taken together, this study provides a new insight toward the contribution of motion and surface material to local shape perception. PMID:25645965
Liu, A C Y; Tabor, R F; Bourgeois, L; de Jonge, M D; Mudie, S T; Petersen, T C
2016-05-20
The bond-orientational order parameters introduced by Steinhardt et al. [Phys. Rev. B 28, 784 (1983)] have been an invaluable measurement tool for assessing short-range order in disordered, close-packed assemblies of particles in which the particle positions are known. In many glassy systems the measurement of particle position is not possible or limited (field of view, thickness, resolution) and the bond-orientational order parameters cannot be measured, or adequately sampled. Here we calculate a set of rotationally averaged, projected bond-orientational order parameters that reflect the symmetries of close-packed particle clusters when projected onto a plane. We show by simulation that these parameters are unique fingerprints that can be directly compared to angular correlations in limited-volume, transmission geometry, diffraction patterns from close-packed glassy assemblies. PMID:27258876
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, A. C. Y.; Tabor, R. F.; Bourgeois, L.; de Jonge, M. D.; Mudie, S. T.; Petersen, T. C.
2016-05-01
The bond-orientational order parameters introduced by Steinhardt et al. [Phys. Rev. B 28, 784 (1983)] have been an invaluable measurement tool for assessing short-range order in disordered, close-packed assemblies of particles in which the particle positions are known. In many glassy systems the measurement of particle position is not possible or limited (field of view, thickness, resolution) and the bond-orientational order parameters cannot be measured, or adequately sampled. Here we calculate a set of rotationally averaged, projected bond-orientational order parameters that reflect the symmetries of close-packed particle clusters when projected onto a plane. We show by simulation that these parameters are unique fingerprints that can be directly compared to angular correlations in limited-volume, transmission geometry, diffraction patterns from close-packed glassy assemblies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luhong, Wang; Haozhe, Liu; Kuiying, Chen; Zhuangqi, Hu
1997-02-01
Based on the empirical embedded-atom method, the molecular dynamics studies of the local orientational orders and structures of liquid and amorphous solid of FCC-type metals Au and Ni are performed. During the rapid solidification, the amorphous structures can be obtained and their amorphous transition temperatures are determined. The icosahedral ordering and the short-range ordering are enhanced, and FCC-type as well as HCP-type ordering changes slightly during the quench of Au and Ni. In the mean time, the BCC-type ordering of Au is Ni enhanced, but that of Ni is weakened. The results of the simulation also indicate that the diffusion coefficients in Au and Ni decrease rapidly with decreasing temperature above their glass transition temperatures.
Developing sustainable food supply chains.
Smith, B Gail
2008-02-27
This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237
Kimura, Hikari; Dynes, Robert; Barber Jr., Richard. P.; Ono, S.; Ando, Y.
2009-09-01
Direct measurements of the superconducting superfluid on the surface of vacuum-cleaved Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta (BSCCO) samples are reported. These measurements are accomplished via Josephson tunneling into the sample using a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM) equipped with a superconducting tip. The spatial resolution of the STM of lateral distances less than the superconducting coherence length allows it to reveal local inhomogeneities in the pair wavefunction of the BSCCO. Instrument performance is demonstrated first with Josephson measurements of Pb films followed by the layered superconductor NbSe2. The relevant measurement parameter, the Josephson ICRN product, is discussed within the context of both BCS superconductors and the high transition temperature superconductors. The local relationship between the ICRN product and the quasiparticle density of states (DOS) gap are presented within the context of phase diagrams for BSCCO. Excessive current densities can be produced with these measurements and have been found to alter the local DOS in the BSCCO. Systematic studies of this effect were performed to determine the practical measurement limits for these experiments. Alternative methods for preparation of the BSCCO surface are also discussed.
Non-local Coulomb correlations in metals close to a charge order insulator transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merino, Jaime
2008-03-01
Recent extensions of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) to clusters either in its real space (CDMFT) or momentum space versions (DCA) have become important tools for the description of electronic properties of low dimensional strongly correlated systems. In contrast to single site DMFT, short range correlation effects on electronic properties of systems close to the Mott transition can be analyzed. We have investigated the charge ordering transition induced by the nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion V in the 1/4-filled extended Hubbard model using CDMFT. We find a transition to a strongly renormalized charge ordered Fermi liquid at VCO and a metal-to- insulator transition at VMI>VCO. Short range antiferromagnetism occurs concomitantly with the CO transition. Approaching the charge ordered insulator, V
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute
2005-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally a tunable third-order optical filter fabricated from the three voltage-controlled lithium niobate whispering gallery-mode resonators. The filter operates at 1550 nm with 30-MHz bandwidth and can be electrooptically tuned by 12 GHz in the linear regime with approximately 80-MHz/V tuning rate. With this filter, we have demonstrated 6-dB fiber-to-fiber insertion loss and 30-ns tuning speed, limited by the resonator buildup time.
Local atomic and electronic structure in LaMnO{sub 3} across the orbital ordering transition
Souza, Raquel A.; Souza-Neto, Narcizo M.; Ramos, Aline Y.; Tolentino, Helio C.N.; Granado, Eduardo
2004-12-01
The local atomic disorder and electronic structure in the environment of manganese atoms in LaMnO{sub 3} has been studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy over a temperature range (300-870 K) covering the orbital ordering transition ({approx}710 K). The Mn-O distance splitting into short and long bonds (1.95 and 2.15 A) is kept across the transition temperature, so that the MnO{sub 6} octahedra remain locally Jahn-Teller distorted. Discontinuities in the Mn local structure are identified in the extended x-ray fine structure spectra at this temperature, associated with a reduction of the disorder in the superexchange angle and to the removal of the anisotropy in the radial disorder within the coordination shell. Subtle changes in the electronic local structure also take place at the Mn site at the transition temperature. The near-edge spectra show a small drop of the Mn 4p hole count and a small enhancement in the pre-edge structures at the transition temperature. These features are associated with an increase of the covalence of the Mn-O bonds. Our results shed light on the local electronic and structural phenomena in a model of order-disorder transition, where the cooperative distortion is overcome by the thermal disorder.
Tchaicheeyan, Oren; Freed, Jack H; Meirovitch, Eva
2016-03-24
Restricted motions in proteins (e.g., N-H bond dynamics) are studied effectively with NMR. By analogy with restricted motions in liquid crystals (LC), the local ordering has in the past been primarily represented by potentials comprising the L = 2, |K| = 0, 2 spherical harmonics. However, probes dissolved in LCs experience nonpolar ordering, often referred to as alignment, while protein-anchored probes experience polar ordering, often referred to as orientation. In this study we investigate the role of local (site) symmetry in the context of the polarity of the local ordering. We find that potentials comprising the L = 1, |K| = 0, 1 spherical harmonics represent adequately polar ordering. It is useful to characterize potential symmetry in terms of the irreducible representations of D2h point group, which is already implicit in the definition of the rotational diffusion tensor. Thus, the relevant rhombic L = 1 potentials have B1u and B3u symmetry whereas the relevant rhombic L = 2 potentials have Ag symmetry. A comprehensive scheme where local potentials and corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) are represented in Cartesian and spherical coordinates clarifies how they are affected by polar and nonpolar ordering. The Cartesian coordinates are chosen so that the principal axis of polar axial PDF is pointing along the z-axis, whereas the principal axis of the nonpolar axial PDF is pointing along ±z. Two-term axial potentials with 1 ≤ L ≤ 3 exhibit substantial diversity; they are expected to be useful in NMR-relaxation-data-fitting. It is shown how potential coefficients are reflected in the experimental order parameters. The comprehensive scheme representing local potentials and PDFs is exemplified for the L = 2 case using experimental data from (15)N-labeled plexin-B1 and thioredoxin, (2)H-, and (13)C-labeled benzenehexa-n-alkanoates, and nitroxide-labeled T4 lysozyme. Future prospects for improved ordering analysis based on combined atomistic and