Science.gov

Sample records for local onion varieties

  1. Onions: Transplant Production, Varieties, and Storage Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh market, sweet onions offer a specialty crop niche market to Oklahoma growers. Experiments were done to determine effectiveness of transplants raised in a hoophouse system on cultivar performance, and to determine methods for short term storage for market extension. Ten short or intermediate ...

  2. Correlations between Colonization of Onion Thrips and Leaf Reflectance Measures across Six Cabbage Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, János; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Fail, József

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR) against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana – considered resistant – and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor – considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340–400 nm) and visible (401–650 nm) light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E) was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management. PMID:24040093

  3. [Cold tolerance and wintering cultivation effect of different Welsh onion varieties].

    PubMed

    Su, Hua; Xu, Kun; Liu, Wei; Xu, Ligong

    2006-10-01

    With Welsh onion Zhangqiu as the contrast, this paper measured the physiological indices including electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, protective enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and root vitality of two introduced Welsh onion varieties Chunwei and Changhao, and identified their cold tolerance and wintering cultivation effect. The results showed that during wintering cultivation, all test Welsh onion varieties suffered low temperature stress, which led the electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content arrived at the maximum, while the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate dropped to the bottom at 15 January. At this time, the function data of physiological indices were 0. 452, 0. 364, and 0. 226 for Chuowei, Changbao and Zhangqiu, respectively, suggesting that Chunwei had stronger cold tolerance, followed by Changbao, and Zhangqiu. The bolting rate of Chunwei, Changbao and Zhangqiu when harvested was 0, 35.2% and 81.0% , respectively. Although the biological yield of Changbao was 25.67% and 52. 94% higher than that of Chunwei and Zhangqiu, respectively, the economic yield of Chunwei was the highest (5.49 kg m2) , with an increment of 18. 57% than Changbao, and that of Zhangqiu was only 0. 86 kg x m(-2) It could be concluded that Chonwei was fit to cultivate in low tunnel in winter, while Zhangqiu was weaker in cold tolerance and not fit to wintering cultivation. PMID:17209388

  4. Effect of irradiation on Salmonella survival and quality of 2 varieties of whole green onions.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Latha; Williams-Hill, Donna; Prakash, Anuradha

    2011-08-01

    Two varieties of green onions, Banner and Baja Verde, were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 Salmonella strains using dip and spot inoculation and irradiated at 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 kGy using electron beam. Salmonella survivors were enumerated using a XLD underlay/TSAYE overlay plating method. The D values were in the range of 0.26 to 0.32 kGy depending on variety but not on the method of inoculation. This indicated that a 5-log reduction of Salmonella can be achieved at a dose of 1.6 kGy. For the quality study, both varieties of green onions were irradiated at 0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 kGy and evaluated for changes in microbial counts, color, texture, and visual quality during storage at 4 °C. Irradiation reduced total plate counts and psychrotrophs by 3 logs. Although the counts increased during storage, they did not exceed the initial counts of control. No significant difference was observed in color and texture between irradiated samples and control. The control maintained good visual quality for about 13 d as compared to 15 d for 1.5 and 2.5 kGy samples. The 2.0 kGy samples maintained good visual quality for 17 d suggesting that irradiation can increase shelf life by reducing spoilage microorganisms but higher doses can be detrimental to quality. At the dose levels required to achieve a 5-log reduction in Salmonella, the shelf life of whole green onion can be extended. This study shows that irradiation can be used to enhance safety without adverse effects on quality. PMID:21623790

  5. Morphological, nutritional and chemical description of "Vatikiotiko", an onion local landrace from Greece.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Spyridon A; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ntatsi, Georgia

    2015-09-01

    "Vatikiotiko" is an onion local landrace from Greece with special quality features, such as strong and pungent taste and storability. In this study, we tried for the first time to describe this landrace and record its morphological traits and nutritional value in comparison with commercially cultivated genotypes ("Creamgold", "Red Cross F1" and "Sivan F1"). Nutritional value of "Vatikiotiko" was higher than commercial genotypes, whereas total sugars, fructose and glucose content were lower in "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" onions. Fatty acids composed mostly from polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acid), whereas for "Vatikiotiko" saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were detected in equal amounts (29.79% and 30.60%, respectively). "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" had low antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity), especially when comparing with "Sivan F1" and "Red Cross F1", whereas no flavonoids were detected in "Vatikiotiko". The overview of "Vatikiotiko" landrace supported its special character regarding its nutritional value (sugar content, mineral composition and fatty acids profile) and the necessity to revalorize and protect its traditional culture. The potential of introducing it as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) product has also been discussed. PMID:25842322

  6. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  7. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  8. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  9. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  10. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  11. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  12. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  13. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  14. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  15. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  16. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  17. Onion dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the onion dehydration process as generally practiced in the United States. The actual processing steps from harvest to final product, and geothermal applications for power production and energy requirements in the dehydration industry are discussed. A design of a dehydrator converted to geothermal energy usage is included.

  18. Onion dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Onion dehydration consists of a continuous operation, belt conveyor using fairly low-temperature hot air from 38-104{degrees}C (100 to 200{degrees}F). Typical processing plants will handle 4500 kg (10,000 pounds) of raw product per hour (single line), reducing the moisture from around 83 % to 4 % (680 to 820 kg - 1,500 to 1,800 pounds finished product). An example of a geothermal processing plant is Integrate Ingredients at Empire, Nevada, in the San Emidio Desert. A total of 6.3 million kg (14 million pounds) of dry product are produced annually: 60% onion and 40% garlic. A 130{degrees}C (266{degrees}F) well provide the necessary heat for the plant.

  19. Onions--a global benefit to health.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth; Trueman, Laurence; Crowther, Timothy; Thomas, Brian; Smith, Brian

    2002-11-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is botanically included in the Liliaceae and species are found across a wide range of latitudes and altitudes in Europe, Asia, N. America and Africa. World onion production has increased by at least 25% over the past 10 years with current production being around 44 million tonnes making it the second most important horticultural crop after tomatoes. Because of their storage characteristics and durability for shipping, onions have always been traded more widely than most vegetables. Onions are versatile and are often used as an ingredient in many dishes and are accepted by almost all traditions and cultures. Onion consumption is increasing significantly, particularly in the USA and this is partly because of heavy promotion that links flavour and health. Onions are rich in two chemical groups that have perceived benefits to human health. These are the flavonoids and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides (ACSOs). Two flavonoid subgroups are found in onion, the anthocyanins, which impart a red/purple colour to some varieties and flavanols such as quercetin and its derivatives responsible for the yellow and brown skins of many other varieties. The ACSOs are the flavour precursors, which, when cleaved by the enzyme alliinase, generate the characteristic odour and taste of onion. The downstream products are a complex mixture of compounds which include thiosulphinates, thiosulphonates, mono-, di- and tri-sulphides. Compounds from onion have been reported to have a range of health benefits which include anticarcinogenic properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic and antibiotic effects. Here we review the agronomy of the onion crop, the biochemistry of the health compounds and report on recent clinical data obtained using extracts from this species. Where appropriate we have compared the data with that obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.) for which more information is widely available. PMID:12410539

  20. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and... the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the Vidalia Onion Committee...

  1. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  2. Cultivar evaluation for hoop house grown onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oklahoma onions are produced for the fresh market using a combination of short and intermediate day cultivars. Recently developed hoop house transplant production techniques enable local production of cultivars not available as transplants elsewhere. Several new intermediate cultivars have product...

  3. Modern maize varieties going local in the semi-arid zone in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maize is the most produced crop in Sub-Saharan Africa, but yields are low and climate change is projected to further constrain smallholder production. The current efforts to breed and disseminate new high yielding and climate ready maize varieties are implemented through the formal seed system; the chain of public and private sector activities and institutions that produce and release certified seeds. These efforts are taking place in contexts currently dominated by informal seed systems; local and informal seed management and exchange channels with a long history of adapting crops to local conditions. We here present a case study of the genetic effects of both formal and informal seed management from the semi-arid zone in Tanzania. Results Two open pollinated varieties (OPVs), Staha and TMV1, first released by the formal seed system in the 1980s are cultivated on two-thirds of the maize fields among the surveyed households. Farmer-recycling of improved varieties and seed selection are common on-farm seed management practices. Drought tolerance and high yield are the most important characteristics reported as reason for cultivating the current varieties as well as the most important criteria for farmers’ seed selection. Bayesian cluster analysis, PCA and FST analyses based on 131 SNPs clearly distinguish between the two OPVs, and despite considerable heterogeneity between and within seed lots, there is insignificant differentiation between breeder’s seeds and commercial seeds in both OPVs. Genetic separation increases as the formal system varieties enter the informal system and both hybridization with unrelated varieties and directional selection probably play a role in the differentiation. Using a Bayesian association approach we identify three loci putatively under selection in the informal seed system. Conclusions Our results suggest that the formal seed system in the study area distributes seed lots that are true to type. We suggest that

  4. Localization Accuracy and Immobilization Effectiveness of a Stereotactic Body Frame for a Variety of Treatment Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Ryan; Meyer, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Puneeth; Pistenmaa, David; Timmerman, Robert; Choy, Hak; Solberg, Timothy

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pretreatment setup errors and intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy patients immobilized and localized with a stereotactic body frame for a variety of treatment sites. Methods and Materials: Localization errors were recorded for patients receiving SBRT for 141 lung, 29 liver, 48 prostate, and 45 spine tumors representing 1005 total localization sessions. All patients were treated in a stereotactic body frame with a large custom-molded vacuum pillow. Patients were first localized to the frame using tattoos placed during simulation. Subsequently, the frame was aligned to the room lasers according to the stereotactic coordinates determined from the treatment plan. Every patient received a pretreatment and an intrafraction CBCT. Abdominal compression was used for all liver patients and for approximately 40% of the lung patients to reduce tumor motion due to respiration. Results: The mean ± standard deviation pretreatment setup errors from all localizations were −2.44 ± 3.85, 1.31 ± 5.84, and 0.11 ± 3.76 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean pretreatment localization results among all treatment sites were not significantly different (F test, P<.05). For all treatment sites, the mean ± standard deviation intrafraction shifts were 0.33 ± 1.34, 0.15 ± 1.45, and −0.02 ± 1.17 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean unidimensional intrafraction shifts were statistically different for several of the comparisons (P<.05) as assessed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Conclusions: Despite the varied tumor locations, the pretreatment mean localization errors for all sites were found to be consistent among the treatment sites and not significantly different, indicating that the body frame is a suitable immobilization and localization device for a variety of

  5. Onion: nature protection against physiological threats.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is found in various regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. It is one of the classic examples of Allium species used not only for culinary preparations but also for medicinal purposes. Onion with a variety of purposes is often used as a raw material in many dishes and accepts almost all of the traditions and culture. Owing to its storage characteristics and durability of shipping, onions have been traded more widely than most vegetables. The pungent fractions of garlic are mostly sulfur-containing moieties while its two chemical groups have marked effect on human health. These are flavonoids and ALK (EN)-based cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs). Compounds in onions have been reported with a range of health benefits, including anticancer properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic activity, and antibiotic effects. PMID:24915405

  6. Corn gluten meal as an alternative weed control option for spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful screening of suitable onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties, viable production areas, and potential marketing options suggest that onions are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas. Unfortunately, the onion's slow growth rate, short height, non-branching plant structure,...

  7. Subcellular localization and responses of superoxide dismutase isoforms in local wheat varieties subjected to continuous soil drought.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Irada M; Aliyeva, Durna R; Aliyev, Jalal A

    2014-08-01

    Water is a key factor influencing the yield and quality of crops. One of the parameters of plant biological tolerance to constantly changing environmental conditions is the change of activities and numerous molecular forms of antioxidant enzymes. Two durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat varieties contrasting for drought tolerance, such as Barakatli-95 (drought tolerant) and Garagylchyg-2 (drought sensitive) were grown over a wide area in the field. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of soil drought on changes in activities and subcellular localization of superoxide dismutase isoforms. The levels of malondialdehyde, glycine betaine and total proteins were also analyzed. The level of the enzyme activity appeared to depend on the wheat varieties, duration of drought and stages of leaf development. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed the presence of 9 isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in wheat leaves during drought. Mn-SOD was found in the mitochondrial fractions, Fe-SOD in the chloroplast fraction and Cu/Zn-SOD is localized in all subcellular fractions. Wheat leaves contain three different isoforms of SOD (Mn-, Fe-, Cu/Zn-SOD). Three isoforms of Mn-SOD, one isoform of Fe-SOD and five of Cu/Zn-SOD were observed in wheat leaves using 3 mM KCN and 5 mM H2O2 as selective inhibitors. The expression of Mn-SOD was preferentially enhanced by drought stress. It seems that Mn-SOD isoforms more than SOD ones play a major role in the scavenging of superoxide radicals. The observed data showed that status of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD could provide a meaningful tool for depicting drought tolerance of wheat genotype. PMID:24560039

  8. Complexity of Language Ideologies in Transnational Movement: Korean "Jogi Yuhak" Families' Ambivalent Attitudes towards Local Varieties of English in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, So Hee

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the complex and competing language ideologies that Korean educational migrant families in Singapore hold about the normativity and legitimacy of English language varieties. During their educational migration in Singapore, Korean families show ambivalent attitudes toward the local variety of English in Singapore, Singlish.…

  9. Variation in Maltese English: The Interplay of the Local and the Global in an Emerging Postcolonial Variety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnici, Lisa Marie

    2010-01-01

    In our current era of increased globalization, constraints on language variation in postcolonial English varieties are multifaceted. Local and global language ideologies collide and multiple sources of influence converge in present-day patterns of linguistic variation in emerging English varieties. While research into the structure and…

  10. Molecular and morphological diversity in locally grown non-commercial (heirloom) mango varieties of North India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anju; Muthukumar, M; Ahmad, Israr; Ravishankar, K V; Parthasarthy, V A; Sthapit, Bhuwon; Rao, Ramanatha; Verma, J P; Rajan, S

    2016-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) has been cultivated and conserved in different agro-ecologies including Malihabad region in northern part of India, that is well known for housing diverse types (heirloom and commercial varieties). In the present study, 37 mango types comprising of 27 heirloom varieties from Malihabad region and 10 commercial varieties grown in North and Eastern India were assessed for morphological attributes and molecular diversity. The employed SSR markers amplified 2-13 alleles individually, cumulatively amplifying 124 alleles. These were studied for allelic diversity and genetic dissimilarity ranged from 0.035 to 0.892 arranging the varieties in three major clusters. The results revealed that majority of unique heirloom mangoes from Malihabad were different from the eastern part of the country. It is interesting to note Dashehari, a commercial variety from Malihabad was not aligned with heirloom varieties. Commercial varieties like Gulabkhas and Langra were placed in a separate group including Bombay Green, Himsagar, Dashehari, etc., indicating their dissimilarity with heirloom varieties at molecular level and thus, indicating importance for later from conservation point of view. Furthermore, the hierarchical clustering of varieties based on fruit morphology, assembled these into four groups largely influenced by fruit size. The maximum agreement subtree indicated seemingly good fit as thirteen varieties were arrayed in common grouping pattern. Appreciable dissimilarity among the heirloom varieties demonstrated by molecular analysis, underlines the importance for their on-farm conservation. PMID:27097441

  11. 78 FR 8047 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 959 Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... rate established for the South Texas Onion Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.025 to $0.03 per 50-pound equivalent of onions handled. The Committee locally...

  12. Onion dehydration: a review.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    2012-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly. PMID:23729847

  13. Varieties of Organizational Learning: Investigating Learning in Local Level Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokharel, Mohan P.; Hult, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the learning dynamics in the local level public organizations due to a policy intervention in collaboration with university. This study aims to identify the existence of four different types of organizational learning in different localities and to explain their implications to public sector…

  14. 75 FR 18428 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 956 Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla... the handling of sweet onions grown in the Walla Walla Valley of southeast Washington and northeast Oregon. The marketing order is administered locally by the Walla Walla Sweet Onion Marketing...

  15. Onion cultivar evaluation - Lane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers currently use a combination of short-day and intermediate-day onion cultivars to extend the time periods for transplanting and harvesting. The intermediate cultivars available to growers have been limited in Oklahoma. Newly available intermediate cultivars may offer additional characterist...

  16. Distribution, management and diversity of yam local varieties in Brazil: a study on Dioscorea alata L.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, M V B M; Nascimento, W F; Silva, L R G; Ferreira, A B; Silva, E F; Ming, L C; Veasey, E A

    2014-02-01

    Widely spread in the tropics, yams were introduced into Brazil during the colonial period and are currently grown throughout the country. Despite its importance as a pharmacological and food source, there is a lack of studies describing how and where this tuber is grown in Brazil. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the cultivation and distribution of Dioscorea alata in different Brazilian regions. A total of 63 farmers were visited in different municipalities and communities in four regions in the country: South, Southeast, Northeast and Midwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect socio-economic, use, management and diversity data for this crop. The majority of interviewers were men, married, with children, using retirement benefits and agriculture as income and family labour as the main support in the yam cultivation. A wide distribution of this species was found, with the occurrence of D. alata in the four sampled regions. A variety of vernacular names for this species was collected, differing according to the region where it is cultivated. Most farmers cultivate yams in fields, however an increased usage of home gardens for the cultivation of this tuber was found. Also, most farmers cultivate yams in association with other crops in areas of different sizes and slash and burn practices, although mostly disappearing, are still being used by many farmers. The results of this study provide more concrete data on the distribution and diversity of this important crop. PMID:25055086

  17. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  18. Persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyfluorfen residues in onion.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2010-03-01

    A field study was conducted to determine persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyflorfen residues in onion crop at two growth stages. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was sprayed at 250 and 500 g ai/ha on the crop (variety, N53). Mature onion and soil samples were collected at harvest. Green onion were collected at 55 days from each treated and control plot and analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 78-92% at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.003 microg g(-1). Analysis showed 0.015 and 0.005 microg g(-1) residues of oxyfluorfen at 250 g a.i. ha(-1) rate in green and mature onion samples, respectively; however, at 500 g a.i.ha(-1) rates, 0.025 and 0.011 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues were detected in green and mature onion samples, respectively. Soil samples collected at harvest showed 0.003 and 0.003 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues at the doses 250 and 500 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. From the study, a pre-harvest interval of 118 days for onion crop after the herbicide application is suggested. PMID:19238567

  19. Density functional study of the intershell interaction energy in carbon onions

    SciTech Connect

    Pis Diez, P.; Iniguez, M.P.

    1995-12-15

    The intershell interaction energy in carbon onions is self-consistently obtained by using the local density approximation of the {pi} electrons in a spherically averaged pseudopotential. Onions formed by two, three, and four shells with up to 1800 atoms are considered. These results agree well with recent large-scale ab initio calculations and with experimental evidence that onions are more stable than are single fullerenes for cluster sizes larger than 100 atoms. The small electronic redistribution that takes place when onions are formed supports the picture of weak van der Waals forces between single fullerenes. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of...

  1. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of...

  2. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of...

  3. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of...

  4. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  5. Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001–2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers’ practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  6. Discontinuous Growth of Onion Structure under Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shuji

    Discontinuous growth process of the Multilamellar vesicle (so called Onion) driven by shear quench was investigated by viscometry and microscopy in detail. Discontinuous Onion growth was observed when the final shear rate corresponded to the intermediate shear rate domain where the shear-thickening and shear-thinning viscosity appeared. In this process, large Onion transformed back into the lamellae and then formed large Onion. Small Onion to lamellae degradation process might be achieved by two modes, first the disruption of the configurational order of densely packed Onions followed by the rupture of Onion as second process. The second process would be characterized by the shear-banding flow pattern composed of the Onion-Lα coexisting state. We suggest that the appearance of the shear-band structure and the Onion reformation developed from the shear-band might be scaled by considering the mechanical energy balance with the bending elastic energy of bilayers.

  7. Association of Enterobacter cloacae and other bacteria with onion bulb rot in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 1.6 million metric tons of onion bulbs are produced annually in the Pacific Northwest USA. Bulb decay can be a major problem and is caused by a variety of plant pathogens. Onion bulbs exhibiting symptoms of bacterial rot were sampled to determine the causal agents. Enterobacter cloacae...

  8. Increase of onion yield through low dose of gamma irradiation of its seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiendl, F. M.; Wiendl, F. W.; Wiendl, J. A.; Vedovatto, A.; Arthur, V.

    1995-02-01

    The increase of onions' yield could be achieved by the common farmer through the use of nuclear techniques. This report describes the results obtained with the irradiation of onion seeds, with low doses of gamma radiations (Cobalt-60), at doses of 0 (control), 150, 400 and 700 Gy. Beyond the proper onion's variety also the use of low dose rates of 13.1, 39.2 and 52.3 Gy per hour were of the great importance during irradiation. The results showed to be promising, both in laboratory studies and in the field, resulting in an increase of onions production: A greater number of seedlings, bulbs and a higher yield in weight per hectar were planted. In the field the most promising dose and dose rate to the variety "Super-X" were respectively 150 Gy and 13.1 Gy per hour, yielding an 24.9 percent heavier weight of onions than the control. The other tested variety was "Granex-33", which did not respond so favorable to irradiation. However, also with this variety we harvested a 2.1 percent heavier weight than its control, if the onion seeds were irradiated with the dose of 700 Gy at a dose dose rate of 13.1 Gy per hour.

  9. Isolation and characterization of onion degrading bacteria from onion waste produced in South Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rinland, María Emilia; Gómez, Marisa Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Onion production in Argentina generates a significant amount of waste. Finding an effective method to recycle it is a matter of environmental concern. Among organic waste reuse techniques, anaerobic digestion could be a valuable alternative to current practices. Substrate inoculation with appropriate bacterial strains enhances the rate-limiting step (hydrolysis) of anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Selection of indigenous bacteria with the ability to degrade onion waste could be a good approach to find a suitable bioaugmentation or pretreatment agent. We isolated bacterial strains from onion waste in different degradation stages and from different localities. In order to characterize and select the best candidates, we analyzed the growth patterns of the isolates in a medium prepared with onion juice as the main source of nutrients and we evaluated carbon source utilization. Nine strains were selected to test their ability to grow using onion tissue and the five most remarkable ones were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains belonged to the genera Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas. Two strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtillis MB2-62 and Pseudomonas poae VE-74 have characteristics that make them promising candidates for bioaugmentation or pretreatment purposes. PMID:25586510

  10. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... onions, shall be as follows: (1) When the product is composed of dehydrated onions, the name shall be... than dehydrated, the name shall be “onion rings made from diced onions.” (b) The words “made from...

  11. Model system for plant cell biology: GFP imaging in living onion epidermal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, A.; Wyatt, S.; Tsou, P. L.; Robertson, D.; Allen, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to visualize organelle localization and dynamics is very useful in studying cellular physiological events. Until recently, this has been accomplished using a variety of staining methods. However, staining can give inaccurate information due to nonspecific staining, diffusion of the stain or through toxic effects. The ability to target green fluorescent protein (GFP) to various organelles allows for specific labeling of organelles in vivo. The disadvantages of GFP thus far have been the time and money involved in developing stable transformants or maintaining cell cultures for transient expression. In this paper, we present a rapid transient expression system using onion epidermal peels. We have localized GFP to various cellular compartments (including the cell wall) to illustrate the utility of this method and to visualize dynamics of these compartments. The onion epidermis has large, living, transparent cells in a monolayer, making them ideal for visualizing GFP. This method is easy and inexpensive, and it allows for testing of new GFP fusion proteins in a living tissue to determine deleterious effects and the ability to express before stable transformants are attempted.

  12. Sequencing and mapping of the onion genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of DNA sequencing continues to decline and, in the near future, it will become reasonable to undertake sequencing of the enormous nuclear genome of onion. We undertook sequencing of expressed and genomic regions of the onion genome to learn about the structure of the onion genome, as well a...

  13. Leaf waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips is an important insect pest of onion that damages leaves and bulbs, reduces yields, and transmits important diseases such as iris yellow spot virus and bacterial rots. Growers would benefit from onions resistant to thrips in order to reduce insecticide applications and provide more sust...

  14. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  15. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  16. Direct determination of the chromosomal location of bunching onion and bulb onion markers using bunching onion-shallot monosomic additions and allotriploid-bunching onion single alien deletions.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamashita, Koichiro; Hagihara, Takuya; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2011-02-01

    To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these. PMID:20938763

  17. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  18. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  19. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  20. Multi-scale structure and topological anomaly detection via a new network statistic: The onion decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Grochow, Joshua A.; Allard, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a network statistic that measures structural properties at the micro-, meso-, and macroscopic scales, while still being easy to compute and interpretable at a glance. Our statistic, the onion spectrum, is based on the onion decomposition, which refines the k-core decomposition, a standard network fingerprinting method. The onion spectrum is exactly as easy to compute as the k-cores: It is based on the stages at which each vertex gets removed from a graph in the standard algorithm for computing the k-cores. Yet, the onion spectrum reveals much more information about a network, and at multiple scales; for example, it can be used to quantify node heterogeneity, degree correlations, centrality, and tree- or lattice-likeness. Furthermore, unlike the k-core decomposition, the combined degree-onion spectrum immediately gives a clear local picture of the network around each node which allows the detection of interesting subgraphs whose topological structure differs from the global network organization. This local description can also be leveraged to easily generate samples from the ensemble of networks with a given joint degree-onion distribution. We demonstrate the utility of the onion spectrum for understanding both static and dynamic properties on several standard graph models and on many real-world networks. PMID:27535466

  1. Multi-scale structure and topological anomaly detection via a new network statistic: The onion decomposition.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Grochow, Joshua A; Allard, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a network statistic that measures structural properties at the micro-, meso-, and macroscopic scales, while still being easy to compute and interpretable at a glance. Our statistic, the onion spectrum, is based on the onion decomposition, which refines the k-core decomposition, a standard network fingerprinting method. The onion spectrum is exactly as easy to compute as the k-cores: It is based on the stages at which each vertex gets removed from a graph in the standard algorithm for computing the k-cores. Yet, the onion spectrum reveals much more information about a network, and at multiple scales; for example, it can be used to quantify node heterogeneity, degree correlations, centrality, and tree- or lattice-likeness. Furthermore, unlike the k-core decomposition, the combined degree-onion spectrum immediately gives a clear local picture of the network around each node which allows the detection of interesting subgraphs whose topological structure differs from the global network organization. This local description can also be leveraged to easily generate samples from the ensemble of networks with a given joint degree-onion distribution. We demonstrate the utility of the onion spectrum for understanding both static and dynamic properties on several standard graph models and on many real-world networks. PMID:27535466

  2. Coherent coexistence of nanodiamonds and carbon onions in icosahedral core-shell particles

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Vladimir Ya. Madison, Alexey E.; Mackay, Alan L.

    2007-03-01

    In icosahedral carbon nanoparticles, the diamond-like core can undergo a reversible topological transition into and coexist coherently with the onion shells. The general approach for describing and designing complex hierarchical icosahedral structures is discussed. Structural models of icosahedral carbon nanoparticles in which the local arrangement of atoms is virtually identical to that in diamond are derived. It is shown that icosahedral diamond-like particles can be transformed into onion-like shell structures (and vice versa) by the consecutive smoothing (puckering) of atomic networks without disturbance of their topological integrity. The possibility of coherent coexistence of icosahedral diamond-like core with onion shells is shown.

  3. Research Advances: Onions Battle Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Bern in Switzerland have identified a compound in the popular vegetable that appears to decrease bone loss in laboratory studies using rat bone cells. It is suggested that eating onions might help prevent bone loss and osteoporosis, a disease, which predominantly affects older women.

  4. Electrophysical Properties of Onion-Like Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachev, E. N.; Romanenko, A. I.; Zhdanov, K. R.; Anikeeva, O. B.; Buryakov, T. I.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Moseenkov, S. I.

    2016-06-01

    The paper examines electrophysical properties of onion-like carbon (OLC) samples, where particles have the average size of 4-8 nm and are formed by 5-10 nested fullerene-like spheres connected by 1-3 common curved graphene shells into aggregates with a size of 50-300 nm. We measured the temperature dependence of electrical resistance from 4.2 to 300 K and dependence of magnetoresistance in magnetic fields up to 6 T at the temperature of 4.2 K. Temperature dependences of electrical resistance of samples can be described within the framework of the Mott law with variable hop length for the one-dimensional case or within the framework of the Efros-Shklovskii Coulomb gap. We observed the quadratically increasing positive magnetoresistance up to 6 T associated with compression of wave functions of conduction electrons. Negative magnetoresistance was observed in the range of magnetic fields up to 1-2 T in the case of some samples. This is due to the fact that magnetic field suppresses the contributions to magnetoresistance made by interference effects in the area of hopping conductivity. The measurements were used to estimate the localization radius that is comparable to the diameter of OLC particles (nano-onions).

  5. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss. PMID:22066192

  6. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  7. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Elisa S. L.; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L. N.; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called ‘Bahian cacao’ or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  8. PANMIN: sequential and parallel global optimization procedures with a variety of options for the local search strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theos, F. V.; Lagaris, I. E.; Papageorgiou, D. G.

    2004-05-01

    We present two sequential and one parallel global optimization codes, that belong to the stochastic class, and an interface routine that enables the use of the Merlin/MCL environment as a non-interactive local optimizer. This interface proved extremely important, since it provides flexibility, effectiveness and robustness to the local search task that is in turn employed by the global procedures. We demonstrate the use of the parallel code to a molecular conformation problem. Program summaryTitle of program: PANMIN Catalogue identifier: ADSU Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSU Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: PANMIN is designed for UNIX machines. The parallel code runs on either shared memory architectures or on a distributed system. The code has been tested on a SUN Microsystems ENTERPRISE 450 with four CPUs, and on a 48-node cluster under Linux, with both the GNU g77 and the Portland group compilers. The parallel implementation is based on MPI and has been tested with LAM MPI and MPICH Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece Programming language used: Fortran-77 Memory required to execute with typical data: Approximately O( n2) words, where n is the number of variables No. of bits in a word: 64 No. of processors used: 1 or many Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Parallelized using MPI No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 147163 No. of lines in distributed program, including the test data, etc.: 14366 Distribution format: gzipped tar file Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be

  9. Genetic Diversity Analysis and Single-nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Development in Cultivated Bulb Onion Based on Expressed Sequence Tag–Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although onion is a globally significant vegetable crop, the structure of genetic variation within and among populations is poorly understood. We broadly surveyed allelic variation in cultivated onion germplasm by genotyping population samples from 90 landrace, inbred and open-pollinated varieties o...

  10. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. PMID:24548212

  11. Differences in susceptibility to onion smut (Urocystis cepulae) among onion lines in the National Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion smut (Urocystis cepulae Frost) is endemic in many onion –growing regions of northeastern North America and can cause losses of up to 80 percent of plant stand if no fungicides are applied to the crop. Onion lines from the National Germplasm Collection in Geneva, New York were screened for rel...

  12. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others. PMID:27393431

  13. Overwintering locations and hosts for onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the onion cropping ecosystem in New York.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Shelton, A M; Musser, F R; Nault, B A; Plate, J

    2007-08-01

    Identifying locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently disperse is important for designing control strategies. In upstate New York from 2003 through 2006, potential overwintering sites in the commercial onion, Allium cepa L., cropping system were investigated early in the spring before onion seedling emergence and again late in the season after onions were harvested. Onion thrips adults were sampled directly from the soil and indirectly from the soil by using emergence cages. Sampling locations included onion field interiors and edges and areas outside of these fields, including woods. Host material sampled included onion culls; volunteer onions, which sprout from cull onions left behind after harvest; and weeds. Onion thrips adults were found in all sections of onion fields and in locations outside of onion fields, with the fewest emerging from woods. Emergence began in early May and extended into June. Peak emergence occurred during the last half of May, at which time 50-75% of the population had emerged. Adults colonized volunteer onions as early as late March and as late as mid-November. No adults were found overwintering in onion cull piles. Adults also colonized several weed species, especially pigweed, Amaranthus hybridis L., and lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L., late in the fall. Our results indicate that onion thrips adults overwinter in the soil within and near onion fields and that they probably colonize volunteer onion plants before subsequent generations infest the onion crop in the spring. Volunteer onions and weeds also provide onion thrips with a host after onions are harvested. Consequently, onion thrips management strategies should include tactics that reduce volunteer onion and weed abundance. PMID:17849870

  14. Weed control options for transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As interest in sweet onion production has grown in Oklahoma and Arkansas, so has the realization that uncontrolled weeds can result in a total loss of marketable onion production. Although mechanical weed control can successfully control weeds between rows, producers need reliable methods for contro...

  15. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  16. Acetic acid and weed control in onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  17. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  18. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  19. Fistular onion stalk extract exhibits anti-atherosclerotic effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    HE, BENHONG; HAO, JIANJUN; SHENG, WEIWEI; XIANG, YUANCAI; ZHANG, JIEMEIA; ZHU, HAO; TIAN, JINGCHENG; ZHU, XU; FENG, YUNXIA; XIA, HAO

    2014-01-01

    Fistular onion stalk is used as a traditional herbal medicine, and its extract exhibits certain beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. In this study, the effects of fistular onion stalk extract on the pathological features, circulating inflammatory cytokines, local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and signaling pathway activities were examined using an in vivo model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis of the aorta was induced by loading Sprague Dawley rats with a high-fat diet and vitamin D2. Fistular onion stalk extract administration began five weeks after the induction of atherosclerosis and continued for 12 weeks. Rats treated with fistular onion stalk extract showed a significant reduction in the pathological region compared with the vehicle-treated controls. Inhibition of atherosclerosis was associated with preservation of the vascular wall and immune cell infiltration. The extract also reduced the levels of the local inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the extract downregulated the local activity of the RAAS. In addition, extract treatment inhibited several inflammatory signaling pathways by preventing phosphorylation, including the nuclear factor κB, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These data indicate that fistular onion stalk extract may be useful for the attenuation of atherosclerosis, and the mechanism includes the regulation of the local inflammatory response. PMID:25120600

  20. The maintenance of regional dialects: a matter of gender? Boys, but not girls, use local varieties in relation to their friends' nativeness and local identity.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Martin, Nathael; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The linguistic diversity enduring beyond institutional pressures and social prejudices against non-standard dialects questions the social forces influencing language maintenance across generations and how children contribute to this process. Children encounter multi-dialectal interactions in their early environment, and increasing evidence shows that the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation is not a side issue but an inherent part of the general acquisition process. Despite these recent advances in sociolinguistic acquisition, children's sociolinguistic uses remain under-studied in relation to peer social networks and the ability to use dialect for identity purposes. Our study focused on a grammatical sociolinguistic variable consisting of the alternation between a regional and a standard variant of the third person object pronoun in French. The regional variant is a remnant of the Francoprovençal language and its usage by adults is strongly associated with local identity in the French Alps. We described, using questionnaires, the social networks of 117 10-11 year-old girls and boys living in the same restricted rural area. Thirteen native target children (7 girls and 6 boys) were selected from the sample, as well as 39 same-sex friends chosen according to their place of birth (native vs. non-native) and the duration of their friendship with the targets (number of years they have known each other). The target children were recorded during spontaneous dyadic conversations during free play at school with each category of friends. Target boys, but not girls, used the regional variant significantly more frequently with their long-term native friends than with their non-native friends. This adjustment mirrored their partners' uses. Moreover, with long-term native friends, boys used the regional variant twice as frequently as girls. Boys appeared thus as key actors in the maintenance and the diffusion of regional cues in local social networks. PMID:25400617

  1. The maintenance of regional dialects: a matter of gender? Boys, but not girls, use local varieties in relation to their friends' nativeness and local identity

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Martin, Nathael; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The linguistic diversity enduring beyond institutional pressures and social prejudices against non-standard dialects questions the social forces influencing language maintenance across generations and how children contribute to this process. Children encounter multi-dialectal interactions in their early environment, and increasing evidence shows that the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation is not a side issue but an inherent part of the general acquisition process. Despite these recent advances in sociolinguistic acquisition, children's sociolinguistic uses remain under-studied in relation to peer social networks and the ability to use dialect for identity purposes. Our study focused on a grammatical sociolinguistic variable consisting of the alternation between a regional and a standard variant of the third person object pronoun in French. The regional variant is a remnant of the Francoprovençal language and its usage by adults is strongly associated with local identity in the French Alps. We described, using questionnaires, the social networks of 117 10–11 year-old girls and boys living in the same restricted rural area. Thirteen native target children (7 girls and 6 boys) were selected from the sample, as well as 39 same-sex friends chosen according to their place of birth (native vs. non-native) and the duration of their friendship with the targets (number of years they have known each other). The target children were recorded during spontaneous dyadic conversations during free play at school with each category of friends. Target boys, but not girls, used the regional variant significantly more frequently with their long-term native friends than with their non-native friends. This adjustment mirrored their partners' uses. Moreover, with long-term native friends, boys used the regional variant twice as frequently as girls. Boys appeared thus as key actors in the maintenance and the diffusion of regional cues in local social networks. PMID:25400617

  2. Identification and Quantification of Flavonoids from Two Southern Italian Cultivars of Allium cepa L., Tropea (Red Onion) and Montoro (Copper Onion), and Their Capacity to Protect Human Erythrocytes from Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Carbone, Virginia; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Minasi, Paola; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2015-06-01

    Onions (Allium cepa) are consumed worldwide and represent an important source of dietary phytochemicals with proven antioxidant properties, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, thiosulfinates, and anthocyanins. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that regular consumption of onions is associated with a reduced risk of degenerative disorders. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the biological properties of different varieties of onions. Here, we characterized for the first time a variety of onion, called Ramata di Montoro (coppery onion from Montoro), grown in a niche area in southern Italy, and compared its phenolic profile and antioxidant properties to a commercial ecotype of red onion, Tropea, also present in southern Italy. An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry was used to separate and characterize the phenolic fraction (anthocyanins and flavonols) extracted from both coppery and red types. The main compounds detected in the two ecotypes were quercetin and quercetin glucosides, isorhamnetin glucosides, kaempferol glucoside, and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin glucosides. Tropea ecotype onion showed a higher content of flavonols (632.82 mg/kg fresh weight) than Montoro type onion (252.91 mg/kg fresh weight). Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of the former was 2.8-fold higher compared to the latter. More pronounced were the differences existing between the four anthocyanins detected in the two ecotypes, with those in the Tropea ecotype onion present at concentrations 20-230-fold higher than in the Montoro type onion. Both extracts reduced LDL oxidation about 6-fold and protected human erythrocytes from oxidative damage induced by HClO by about 40%. In addition, as a consequence of HClO treatment, glutathione concentration in erythrocytes was reduced about 50% and pretreatment with onion extracts induced a recovery of glutathione level by about 15-22%. Qualitative

  3. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  4. Reversible nanodiamond-carbon onion phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Ouyang, G; Liu, P; Wang, C X; Yang, G W

    2014-06-11

    Because of their considerable science and technical interest, nanodiamonds (3-5 nm) are often used as a model to study the phase transformation between graphite and diamond. Here we demonstrated that a reversible nanodiamond-carbon onion phase transformation can become true when laser irradiates colloidal suspensions of nanodiamonds at the ambient temperature and pressure. Nanodiamonds are first transformed to carbon onions driven by the laser-induced high temperature in which an intermediary bucky diamond phase is observed. Sequentially, carbon onions are transformed back to nanodiamonds driven by the laser-induced high temperature and high pressure from carbon onions as nanoscaled temperature and pressure cell upon the laser irradiation process in liquid. Similarly, the same bucky diamond phase serving as an intermediate phase is found during the carbon onion-to-nanodiamond transition. To have a clear insight into the unique phase transformation the thermodynamic approaches on the nanoscale were proposed to elucidate the reversible phase transformation of nanodiamond-to-carbon onion-to-nanodiamond via an intermediary bucky diamond phase upon the laser irradiation in liquid. This reversible transition reveals a series of phase transformations between diamond and carbon allotropes, such as carbon onion and bucky diamond, having a general insight into the basic physics involved in these phase transformations. These results give a clue to the root of meteoritic nanodiamonds that are commonly found in primitive meteorites but their origin is puzzling and offers one suitable approach for breaking controllable pathways between diamond and carbon allotropes. PMID:24823241

  5. Identification and onion pathogenicity of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates from the onion rhizosphere and onion field soil.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Janette L; Fasi, Anthony C; Ramette, Alban; Smith, James J; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Sundin, George W

    2008-05-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex strains are genetically related but phenotypically diverse organisms that are important opportunistic pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF,) as well as pathogens of onion and banana, colonizers of the rhizospheres of many plant species, and common inhabitants of bulk soil. Genotypic identification and pathogenicity characterization were performed on B. cepacia complex isolates from the rhizosphere of onion and organic soils in Michigan. A total of 3,798 putative B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered on Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine and trypan blue tetracycline semiselective media during the 2004 growing season from six commercial onion fields located in two counties in Michigan. Putative B. cepacia complex isolates were identified by hybridization to a 16S rRNA gene probe, followed by duplex PCR using primers targeted to the 16S rRNA gene and recA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the recA sequence. A total of 1,290 isolates, 980 rhizosphere and 310 soil isolates, were assigned to the species B. cepacia (160), B. cenocepacia (480), B. ambifaria (623), and B. pyrrocinia (27). The majority of isolates identified as B. cepacia (85%), B. cenocepacia (90%), and B. ambifaria (76%) were pathogenic in a detached onion bulb scale assay and caused symptoms of water soaking, maceration, and/or necrosis. A phylogenetic analysis of recA sequences from representative B. cepacia complex type and panel strains, along with isolates collected in this study, revealed that the B. cenocepacia isolates associated with onion grouped within the III-B lineage and that some strains were closely related to strain AU1054, which was isolated from a CF patient. This study revealed that multiple B. cepacia complex species colonize the onion rhizosphere and have the potential to cause sour skin rot disease of onion. In addition, the onion rhizosphere is a natural habitat and a potential environmental source

  6. Surface Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02175 Surface Variety This image of part of Aram Chaos shows two different surface textures with distinctly different brightnesses. The lighter layer appears to be on top (therefore younger) than the darker surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 2.1N, Longitude 338.7E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Dune Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02173 Dune Variety

    This image of the east end of Coprates Chasma contains several dune fields. The dunes in the center of the image are larger and darker than the dunes at the bottom.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.8N, Longitude 304.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Canyon Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03281 Canyon Variety

    This image shows paret of the west end of Melas Chasma. Landslide deposits are visible at the top of the image, with dark dunes appearing at the bottom.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2N, Longitude 281.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. RNA-Seq Reveals Leaf Cuticular Wax-Related Genes in Welsh Onion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Liying; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yongqin

    2014-01-01

    The waxy cuticle plays a very important role in plant resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses and is an important characteristic of Welsh onions. Two different types of biangan Welsh onions (BG) were selected for this study: BG, a wild-type covered by wax, which forms a continuous lipid membrane on its epidermal cells, and GLBG, a glossy mutant of BG whose epidermal cells are not covered by wax. To elucidate the waxy cuticle-related gene expression changes, we used RNA-Seq to compare these two Welsh onion varieties with distinct differences in cuticular wax. The de novo assembly yielded 42,881 putative unigenes, 25.41% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 22,289 (52.0%) had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 798 genes, representing 1.86% of the total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between these two Welsh onion varieties. The expression patterns of four important unigenes that are related to waxy cuticle biosynthesis were confirmed by RT-qPCR and COG class annotation, which demonstrated that these genes play an important role in defense mechanisms and lipid transport and metabolism. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the Welsh onion waxy cuticle. These results may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the waxy cuticle and will be useful for waxy gene cloning, genetics and breeding as well as phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of the Welsh onion. PMID:25415343

  10. 7 CFR 956.11 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA... includes all classifications, subdivisions, or types of Walla Walla Sweet Onions according to...

  11. 7 CFR 956.11 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA... includes all classifications, subdivisions, or types of Walla Walla Sweet Onions according to...

  12. 7 CFR 956.11 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA... includes all classifications, subdivisions, or types of Walla Walla Sweet Onions according to...

  13. 7 CFR 956.11 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA... includes all classifications, subdivisions, or types of Walla Walla Sweet Onions according to...

  14. 7 CFR 956.11 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA... includes all classifications, subdivisions, or types of Walla Walla Sweet Onions according to...

  15. Polyphasic characterization of xanthomonas strains from onion.

    PubMed

    Gent, David H; Schwartz, Howard F; Ishimaru, Carol A; Louws, Frank J; Cramer, Robert A; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2004-02-01

    ABSTRACT Xanthomonas leaf blight has become an increasingly important disease of onion, but the diversity among Xanthomonas strains isolated from onion is unknown, as is their relationship to other species and pathovars of Xanthomonas. Forty-nine Xanthomonas strains isolated from onion over 27 years from 10 diverse geographic regions were characterized by pathogenicity to onion and dry bean, fatty acid profiles, substrate utilization patterns (Biolog), bactericide resistance, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting, rDNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and hrp b6 gene sequencing. Multiplication of onion Xanthomonas strain R-O177 was not different from X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli in dry bean, but typical common bacterial blight disease symptoms were absent in dry bean. Populations from each geographical region were uniformly sensitive to 100 mug of CuSO(4), 100 mug of ZnSO(4), and 100 mug of streptomycin sulfate per ml. Biolog substrate utilization and fatty acid profiles revealed close phenoltypic relatedness between onion strains of Xanthomonas and X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (57% of strains) and X. arboricola pv. poinsettiicola (37% of strains), respectively. A logistic regression model based on fatty acid composition and substrate utilization classified 69% of strains into their geographical region of origin. Sequencing of a portion of the hrp B6 gene from 24 strains and ITS region from 25 strains revealed greater than 97% sequence similarity among strains. DNA fingerprinting revealed five genotype groups within onion strains of Xanthomonas and a high degree of genetic diversity among geographical regions of origin. Based on pathogenicity to onion, carbon substrate utilization, fatty acid profiles, rDNA genetic diversity, and genomic fingerprints, we conclude that the strains examined in this study are pathovar X. axonopodis pv. allii. Implications of genetic and phenotypic diversity within X. axonopodis pv. allii are

  16. Onion skin as a radiation monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Marc F.; McLaughlin, William L.

    The ESR spectra of the dry, outer skin of onion, red onion, garlic, and shallot were measured before and after irradiation. In all spectra only a single resonance (g = 2.00) was observed. The ESR signal intensity increased with absorbed dose, however, the radiation-induced signal decayed slowly with time. It was concluded that the outer skin of these foods are not suitable as a long-term postirradiation monitor.

  17. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  18. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  19. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  20. Variation for epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and thrips-vectored Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) routinely cause significant losses to the bulb and seed crops of onion. Both pests have become more problematic as global temperatures rise. Natural variation exists in onion for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on...

  1. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and weed response to mustard seed meal (MSM) were tested in greenhouse and field trials in 2007-2009. MSM was applied to the soil surface at rates of 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 MT/ha. In greenhouse trials, onions were severely injured and stands reduced with all rates of MSM applied prior to onion emer...

  2. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  3. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  4. An International Plan to Sequence the Onion Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of DNA sequencing continues to decline and, in the near future, it will become reasonable to undertake sequencing of the enormous nuclear genome of onion. We undertook sequencing of expressed and genomic regions of the onion genome to learn about the structure of the onion genome, as well a...

  5. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Definitions Damaged onion production. Storage type onions that do not grade U.S. No. 1 or do not satisfy any...) determined by multiplying the approved yield per acre by the coverage level percentage you elect. Storage... quantity of onions (in hundredweight) determined by multiplying the approved yield per acre by the...

  6. 7 CFR 980.117 - Import regulations; onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type Onions (7 CFR 51.3195 through 51.3209), the United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions (7 CFR 51.3955 through 51.3970), or the United States Standards for Grades of Onions Other Than Bermuda... Marketing Order No. 958, as amended (7 CFR Part 958) and during the March 10 through June 4 period...

  7. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  8. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  9. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  10. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Onion crop insurance provisions. 457.135 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.135 Onion crop insurance provisions. The onion crop insurance provisions for the 2013 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  11. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Onion crop insurance provisions. 457.135 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.135 Onion crop insurance provisions. The onion crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  12. 7 CFR 980.117 - Import regulations; onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type Onions (7 CFR 51.3195 through 51.3209), the United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions (7 CFR 51.3955 through 51.3970), or the United States Standards for Grades of Onions Other Than Bermuda... Marketing Order No. 958, as amended (7 CFR Part 958) and during the March 10 through June 4 period...

  13. 7 CFR 980.117 - Import regulations; onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type Onions (7 CFR 51.3195 through 51.3209), the United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions (7 CFR 51.3955 through 51.3970), or the United States Standards for Grades of Onions Other Than Bermuda... Marketing Order No. 958, as amended (7 CFR Part 958) and during the March 10 through June 4 period...

  14. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia... document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia... Vidalia onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from September...

  15. Onion thiosulfinates: some like them hot, others not

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) efficiently acquires and accumulates sulfur. In most plants, the majority of sulfur is located in proteins in the amino acids cysteine and methionine; however in onion a significant proportion of the sulfur is found in non-protein amino-acid derivatives. In onion, sulfur is most ...

  16. Self-organized two-dimensional onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shenqiang; Briber, Robert M.; Wuttig, Manfred

    2009-03-01

    Spontaneously self-assembled onion-type nanostructures based on block copolymers as templating materials are reported. Polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer containing CoFe2O4 and Pb1.1(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 precursors segregated to the two microdomains forms well-ordered templated lamellar structures. Onion-type nanostructures have been induced by room temperature solvent annealing for 64 h in a magnetic field of 0.8 T oriented perpendicularly to the plane of film. The recorded images suggest that the Lorentz force acting on charges in the paraelectric precursor induces a circular component of the diffusion flux that leads to the onion formation. This templating process opens a route for nanometer-scale patterning of magnetic toroids.

  17. Maize Varieties Released in Different Eras Have Similar Root Length Density Distributions in the Soil, Which Are Negatively Correlated with Local Concentrations of Soil Mineral Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Peng; Li, Sa; White, Philip J.; Li, Chunjian

    2015-01-01

    Larger, and deeper, root systems of new maize varieties, compared to older varieties, are thought to have enabled improved acquisition of soil resources and, consequently, greater grain yields. To compare the spatial distributions of the root systems of new and old maize varieties and their relationships with spatial variations in soil concentrations of available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), two years of field experiments were performed using six Chinese maize varieties released in different eras. Vertical distributions of roots, and available N, P and K in the 0–60 cm soil profile were determined in excavated soil monoliths at silking and maturity. The results demonstrated that new maize varieties had larger root dry weight, higher grain yield and greater nutrient accumulation than older varieties. All varieties had similar total root length and vertical root distribution at silking, but newer varieties maintained greater total root length and had more roots in the 30–60 cm soil layers at maturity. The spatial variation of soil mineral N (Nmin) in each soil horizon was larger than that of Olsen-P and ammonium-acetate-extractable K, and was inversely correlated with root length density (RLD), especially in the 0–20 cm soil layer. It was concluded that greater acquisition of mineral nutrients and higher yields of newer varieties were associated with greater total root length at maturity. The negative relationship between RLD and soil Nmin at harvest for all varieties suggests the importance of the spatial distribution of the root system for N uptake by maize. PMID:25799291

  18. Flavonoid Content in Fresh, Home Processed, and Light-Exposed Onions and in Dehydrated Commercial Onion Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion plants synthesize flavonoids as protection against damage by UV-radiation and by intracellular hydrogen peroxide. Because antioxidative flavonoids also exhibit health-promoting effects in humans, a need exists to measure their content in onions and in processed onion products. To contribute ...

  19. Evaluation of onion germplasm for resistance to Iris yellow spot (Iris yellow spot virus) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses. This important crop suffers severe damage from onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), a cosmopolitan and polyphagous insect pest. In addition to direct feeding damages, onion thrips has emerged as the principal vector o...

  20. Nanotechnology: Synthesis of carbon 'onions' in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, N.; Wang, H.; Chhowalla, M.; Alexandrou, I.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.

    2001-11-01

    The fabrication of carbon nanomaterials usually calls for expensive vacuum systems to generate plasmas and yields are disappointingly low. Here we describe a simple method for producing high-quality spherical carbon nano-'onions' in large quantities without the use of vacuum equipment. The nanoparticles, which have C60 cores surrounded by onion-like nested particles, are generated by an arc discharge between two graphite electrodes submerged in water. This technique is economical and environmentally benign, and produces uncontaminated nanoparticles which may be useful in many applications.

  1. Once an Onion, Always an Onion (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates a massive star before and after it blew up in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that this star -- the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A -- exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart.

    Cassiopeia A is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. It was once a massive star 15 to 20 times larger than our sun. Its fiery death would have been viewable from Earth about 340 years ago.

    The top figure shows the star before it died, when its layers of elements were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. Spitzer found evidence that these layers were preserved when the star exploded, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. As a result, some chunks of the layered material traveled farther out than others, as illustrated in the bottom drawing.

    The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers, because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds.

    Chunks of the star that were thrown out fastest hit the shock wave sooner and have had more time to heat up to scorching temperatures previously detected by X-ray and visible-light telescopes. Chunks of the star that lagged behind hit the shock wave later, so they are cooler and radiate infrared light that was not seen until Spitzer came along. These lagging chunks are made up of gas and

  2. Field dissipation of oxyfluorfen in onion and its dynamics in soil under Indian tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Janaki, P; Sathya Priya, R; Chinnusamy, C

    2013-01-01

    Oxyfluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide is being used to control annual and perennial broad-leaved weeds and sedges in a variety of field crops including onion. The present study was aimed to investigate the dynamics and field persistence of oxyfluorfen in onion plant, bulb and soil under Indian tropical conditions. Application of four rates of oxyfluorfen viz., 200, 250, 300 and 400 g AI ha(-1) as pre-emergence gave good weed control in field experiment with onion. The oxyfluorfen residue dissipated faster in plant than in soil respectively, with a mean half-life of 6.1 and 11.2 days. Dissipation followed first-order kinetics. In laboratory column leaching experiments, 17 percent of the applied oxyfluorfen was recovered from the soil and indicates its solubility in water and mobility in sandy clay loam soil was low. A sorption study revealed that the adsorption of oxyfluorfen to the soil was highly influenced by the soil organic carbon with the Koc value of 5450. The study concludes that the dissipation of oxyfluorfen in soil and onion was dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the soil and environmental conditions. PMID:23998306

  3. Viruses occurring in onion crop in amasya province, the major onion producing region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Mehmet Ali; Akcura, Cemile

    2013-06-01

    Amasya is the greatest onion producing area in Turkey. Onion fields from Amasya region were surveyed for virus diseases in 2009-2011 and tested for the presence of the most important onion viruses such as Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), Shallot latent virus (SLV) and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV). The presence of virus diseases and their identification was ascertained through symptom observation in the fields, sap transmission to hosts, and DAS-ELISA. Based on the ELSA results, 57 out of 332 samples (17.16 %) were infected with viruses. The results showed that the highest infection was caused by OYDV (12.33 %) followed by LYSV (3.60 %). Only 1.19 % of the samples were infected with SLV, but none of the samples were found to be infected for GCLV and IYSV. PMID:24426263

  4. Impact of straw mulch on populations of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Plate, J; Nault, B A; Shelton, A M

    2008-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), populations in onion (Allium spp.) fields and the incidence of the T. tabaci transmitted Iris yellow spot virus have stimulated interest in evaluating alternative management tactics. Effects of straw mulch applied in commercial onion fields in muck areas of western New York were assessed in 2006 and 2007 as a possible onion thrips management strategy. In trials in which no insecticides were applied for thrips control, straw mulch-treated plots supported significantly lower T. tabaci populations compared with control plots. In both years, the action thresholds of one or three larvae per leaf were reached in straw mulch treatments between 7 and 14 d later than in the control. Ground predatory fauna, as evaluated by pitfall trapping, was not increased by straw mulch in 2006; however, populations of the common predatory thrips Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) were significantly lower in straw mulch plots in both years. Interference of straw mulch in the pupation and emergence of T. tabaci was investigated in the lab and their emergence was reduced by 54% compared with bare soil. In the field the overall yield of onions was not affected by the straw mulch treatment; however, the presence of jumbo grade onions (>77 mm) was increased in 2006, but not in 2007. These results indicate that populations of T. tabaci adults and larvae can be significantly reduced by the use of straw mulch without compromising overall onion yield. The use of this cultural practice in an onion integrated pest management program seems promising. PMID:18767742

  5. Genetics of carbohydrate accumulation in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates composed of fructose chains attached to a basal sucrose molecule and act both as health-enhancing pro- and pre-biotics. In onion, higher fructan concentrations are correlated with greater soluble solids content, dry weights, and pungency. We analyzed dry weights ...

  6. Epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing of normalized cDNAs from two inbred lines of onion revealed over 3000 well supported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which over 800 have been mapped. This SNP-based map was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the amounts and types of epicu...

  7. Hoop house production of onion transplants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are important in Oklahoma in garden plantings and as fresh-market commercial crops. Plantings are generally established in late winter using transplants. The predominate type of transplants used are bare-rooted plants that are produced out of state. Observations over several ...

  8. Evaluation of sampling methodology for determining the population dynamics of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ontario onion fields.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre-Allen, J K; Scott-Dupree, C D; Tolman, J H; Harris, C R

    2005-12-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, are an economic pest of alliums worldwide. In Ontario onion-growing regions, seasonal abundance and population trends of onion thrips are not well known. The objectives of this research were to investigate onion thrips population dynamics by using both white sticky traps and plant counts, to gain insight into flight height, and to determine the genus and sex of thrips fauna present in monitored fields. Adult thrips were captured on white sticky traps placed in two commercial onion fields in the Thedford-Grand Bend Marsh region as early as mid-May in 2001, 2002, and 2003. Thrips were not recorded on onion plants in these fields until late June and early July. A comparison of sticky trap captures to plant counts revealed a strong, positive correlation, indicating that sticky traps, which consistently detected thrips earlier than plant counts, could be used instead of plant counts early in the season to monitor onion thrips populations. Pole traps placed in onion and an adjacent soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., field revealed that regardless of crop type, most thrips were captured 0.7-0.95 m above the soil surface. During this study, 70% of 137,000 thrips captured on sticky traps and 89% of 1,482 thrips captured in pan traps were female onion thrips. No male onion thrips were identified in this study: most of the remaining thrips were Frankliniella spp. PMID:16539160

  9. Impact of insecticide efficacy on developing action thresholds for pest management: a case study of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-08-01

    An action threshold (AT) is one of the most important decision-making elements in integrated pest management. Unlike economic thresholds, ATs are not typically derived from an economic injury level model, but they are more commonly used. ATs may be identified from research-based, pest-crop relationships, but they also may be based on experience. ATs may be adjusted depending on, e.g., weather and plant variety, but modifying ATs to accommodate differences in insecticide efficacy has received little attention. To examine this point, several combinations of ATs and insecticides were evaluated against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.). Studies were conducted in New York onion fields from 2006 to 2008 by using registered insecticides for T. tabaci on onions. We hypothesized that the most efficacious insecticides would provide acceptable control of thrips populations regardless of AT (one, three, and five thrips per leaf), whereas less effective products would only control populations using the lowest AT (one thrips per leaf). Results indicated that T. tabaci infestations were managed effectively when spinetoram was applied after a three larvae per leaf threshold, but not when using lambda-cyhalothrin, methomyl or formetanate hydrochloride. However, T. tabaci infestations were managed well when methomyl and formetanate hydrochloride were applied after a one larva per leaf threshold. T. tabaci infestations were never controlled using lambda-cyhalothrin, regardless of the AT used. None of the products reduced T. tabaci populations to an acceptable level when applied at a five larvae per leaf threshold. Implications of adjusting ATs based on efficacy of different insecticides are discussed. PMID:20857743

  10. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  11. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  12. [Analysis of a synthetic onion aroma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ledl, F

    1975-02-01

    A complex mixture of compounds possessing an intensive aroma of onions is obtained, when propionaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde are treated with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Dihydrodithiazines, diethyltrithiolane, diethyl-methyl-1,3-dithiine and in small quantities diethyltetrathiane, dimethylthiophene, dipropyldisulfide, dipropenylsulfide, alkylpyridines, and the condensation products of aldehydes can be proved by the GC-MS-technic. The compositions of the synthetic onion aroma corresponds slightly with the composition of the natural onion aroma. PMID:1224790

  13. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria in onion production.

    PubMed

    Colo, Josip; Hajnal-Jafari, Timea I; Durić, Simonida; Stamenov, Dragana; Hamidović, Saud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the effect of rhizospheric bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strains 1 and 2) and Bacillus subtilis on the growth and yield of onion and on the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of onion. The ability of microorganisms to produce indole-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was also assessed. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in chernozem type of soil. Bacillus subtilis was the best producer of IAA, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were better at producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphates. The longest seedling was observed with the application of Azotobacter chroococcum. The height of the plants sixty days after sowing was greater in all the inoculated variants than in the control. The highest onion yield was observed in Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum variants. The total number of bacteria and the number of Azotobacter chroococcum were larger in all the inoculated variants then in the control. The number of fungi decreased in most of the inoculated variants, whereas the number of actinomycetes decreased or remained the same. PMID:25033667

  14. Using Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kate, Aniket; Goldberg, Ian

    This paper presents compact message formats for onion routing circuit construction using the Sphinx methodology developed for mixes. We significantly compress the circuit construction messages for three onion routing protocols that have emerged as enhancements to the Tor anonymizing network; namely, Tor with predistributed Diffie-Hellman values, pairing-based onion routing, and certificateless onion routing. Our new circuit constructions are also secure in the universal composability framework, a property that was missing from the original constructions. Further, we compare the performance of our schemes with their older counterparts as well as with each other.

  15. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV. PMID:20568640

  16. OEM--a new medium for rapid isolation of onion-pathogenic and onion-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Ali M; Bonasera, Jean M; Beer, Steven V

    2012-12-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are plagued by a number of bacterial pathogens including Pantoea ananatis, P. agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. axonopodis and several Pseudomonas spp. We developed a semi-selective medium, termed onion extract medium (OEM), to selectively and rapidly isolate bacteria pathogenic to and associated with onions and onion-related samples including bulbs, seeds, sets, transplant seedlings, soil and water. Most strains of interest grow sufficiently on OEM in 24h at 28°C for tentative identification based on colony morphology, facilitating further characterization by microbiological and/or molecular means. PMID:23041494

  17. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  18. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Fail, József; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    During the past two decades, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a global pest of increasing concern in commercial onion (Allium cepa L.), because of its development of resistance to insecticides, ability to transmit plant pathogens, and frequency of producing more generations at high temperatures. T. tabaci feeds directly on leaves, causing blotches and premature senescence as well as distorted and undersized bulbs. T. tabaci can cause yield loss > 50% but can be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). IYSV was identified in 1981 in Brazil and has spread to many important onion-producing regions of the world, including several U.S. states. IYSV symptoms include straw-colored, dry, tan, spindle- or diamond-shaped lesions on the leaves and scapes of onion plants and can cause yield loss up to 100%. Here, we review the biology and ecology of T. tabaci and discuss current management strategies based on chemical, biological, and cultural control as well as host resistance. Future directions for research in integrated pest management are examined and discussed. PMID:21404832

  19. HIGH TEMPERATURE CONTINUOUS FLOW CURING OF SWEET ONIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of heat treating sweet onions under controlled commercial conditions. Three batches, approximately 2.5 tons each, were passed through a single pass continuous flow drier. Air temperatures of 43 and 46 C were used to cure sweet onions for 17 and...

  20. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Onion crop insurance provisions. 457.135 Section 457.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.135 Onion crop...

  1. Production and characterization of tearless and non-pungent onion.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masahiro; Masamura, Noriya; Shono, Jinji; Okamoto, Daisaku; Abe, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    The onion lachrymatory factor (LF) is produced from trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) through successive reactions catalyzed by alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) and lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), and is responsible for the tear inducing-property and the pungency of fresh onions. We developed tearless, non-pungent onions non-transgenically by irradiating seeds with neon-ion at 20 Gy. The bulbs obtained from the irradiated seeds and their offspring bulbs produced by selfing were screened by organoleptic assessment of tear-inducing property or HPLC analysis of LF production. After repeated screening and seed production by selfing, two tearless, non-pungent bulbs were identified in the third generation (M3) bulbs. Twenty M4 bulbs obtained from each of them showed no tear-inducing property or pungency when evaluated by 20 sensory panelists. The LF production levels in these bulbs were approximately 7.5-fold lower than those of the normal onion. The low LF production levels were due to reduction in alliinase activity, which was a result of low alliinase mRNA expression (less than 1% of that in the normal onion) and consequent low amounts of the alliinase protein. These tearless, non-pungent onions should be welcomed by all who tear while chopping onions and those who work in facilities where fresh onions are processed. PMID:27048847

  2. Nitrogen Effects on Onion Yield Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently irrigated and fertilized with high N rates to maximize yield. Converting from furrow-irrigated to drip-irrigated onion production may reduce N fertilizer needs, water inputs, and NO3-N leaching poten...

  3. Development of a haploid mapping family for onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion has one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploid plants, approximately 63 times greater than rice. Pilot sequencing of the onion transcriptome revealed adequate numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop a high-density genetic map. We are presently sequencing normaliz...

  4. Short-term storage options for fresh-market onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet onions have proven to be an excellent spring specialty crop in southeastern Oklahoma. Growers are interested in fuel-efficient methods of short term storage (up to 6 months) to lengthen market windows and enhance returns. Onions were seeded in high tunnels in November of 2005, transplanted to...

  5. Shelf life and microbial profile of peeled onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased usage of peeled onions over the past ten years by food service operations and fast-food restaurants has been plagued by black mold decay during cold-chain storage. This study examined the epiphytic microbiological distribution on onions and what effects various processing steps have on...

  6. Vinegar as a broadcast herbicide for spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The weed control challenges for onion production are formidable; however, these challenges are even greater for those considering organic crop production. Organic onion producers need additional organic herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Field research was conducted...

  7. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  8. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  9. Pentatricopeptide Repeat Genes in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of hybrid-onion seed depends on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS). The most commonly used CMS in onion requires the presence of male-sterile (S) cytoplasm and recessive alleles at one nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus. Male-sterile lines are seed propagated using maintain...

  10. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  11. Broadcast applications of acetic acid: Crop injury and onion yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organic herbicides for sweet onions (Allium cepa L.) are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research in Oklahoma has shown that corn gluten meal can be an affective early season pre-emergence herbicide for onion transplants, but once the residual impact of...

  12. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  13. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  14. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  15. Production and characterization of tearless and non-pungent onion

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masahiro; Masamura, Noriya; Shono, Jinji; Okamoto, Daisaku; Abe, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    The onion lachrymatory factor (LF) is produced from trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) through successive reactions catalyzed by alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) and lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), and is responsible for the tear inducing-property and the pungency of fresh onions. We developed tearless, non-pungent onions non-transgenically by irradiating seeds with neon-ion at 20 Gy. The bulbs obtained from the irradiated seeds and their offspring bulbs produced by selfing were screened by organoleptic assessment of tear-inducing property or HPLC analysis of LF production. After repeated screening and seed production by selfing, two tearless, non-pungent bulbs were identified in the third generation (M3) bulbs. Twenty M4 bulbs obtained from each of them showed no tear-inducing property or pungency when evaluated by 20 sensory panelists. The LF production levels in these bulbs were approximately 7.5-fold lower than those of the normal onion. The low LF production levels were due to reduction in alliinase activity, which was a result of low alliinase mRNA expression (less than 1% of that in the normal onion) and consequent low amounts of the alliinase protein. These tearless, non-pungent onions should be welcomed by all who tear while chopping onions and those who work in facilities where fresh onions are processed. PMID:27048847

  16. Acetic acid and weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  17. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  18. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  19. GENOTYPIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON GYNOGENIC HAPLOID INDUCTION IN ONION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro culture of unpollinated flowers is an efficient procedure to produce haploids of onion. However several bottlenecks remain limiting the production of doubled haploids, especially the low gynogenic response of most onion populations and poor efficiency of chromosome doubling. We studied fr...

  20. Relationship between sensory and chemical attributes of Vidalia onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavor in fresh onions is dominated by sulfur containing volatiles that are released once tissues are disrupted and the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSOs) are hydrolyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Four intensities of flavor levels of Vidalia onions were induced by cultivating sweet (Num 1006) an...

  1. A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Johnson, Aaron; Syverson, Paul

    Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous communication that is designed for practical use. Until now, however, it has had no formal model and therefore no rigorous analysis of its anonymity guarantees. We give an IO-automata model of an onion-routing protocol and, under possibilistic definitions, characterize the situations in which anonymity and unlinkability are guaranteed.

  2. Effects of simulated acid rain on the morphology, phenology and dry biomass of a local variety of maize (Suwan-1) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Babajide Milton; Enahoro, Gloria Ebarunosen

    2015-10-01

    Effects of acid rain on the morphology, phenology and dry biomass of maize (Suwan-1 variety) were investigated. The maize seedlings were subjected to different pH treatments (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0) of simulated acid rain (SAR) with pH 7.0 as the control for a period of 90 days. The common morphological defects due to SAR application were necrosis and chlorosis. It was observed that necrosis increased in severity as the acidity increased whilst chlorosis was dominant as the acidity decreased. SAR encouraged rapid floral and cob growth but with the consequence of poor floral and cob development in pH 1.0 to 3.0 treatments. The result for the dry biomass indicates that pH treatments 2.0 to 7.0 for total plant biomass were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from one another, but were all significantly higher (P < 0.05) than pH 1.0. Therefore, it may be deduced that Suwan-1 has the potential to withstand acid rain but with pronounced morphological and phenological defects which, however, have the capacity to reduce drastically the market value of the crop. Therefore, it may be concluded that Suwan-1 tolerated acid rain in terms of the parameters studied at pH 4.0 to 7.0 which makes it a suitable crop in acid rain-stricken climes. This research could also serve as a good reference for further SAR studies on maize or other important cereals. PMID:26362878

  3. Special properties of X-ray diffraction on carbon onions

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrebov, S. G. Ivanov-Omskii, V. I.

    2007-12-15

    The kinematic theory of X-ray diffraction was applied to the study of the most intense Bragg's reflection observed for carbon onions. It was shown that the agreement with experimental data was attained using a convolution of a Lorentzian contour with regard to the distribution of onion sizes and of an asymmetric contour taking into account the fluctuations of intershell distances inside the particle. It can be assumed that the observed scatter in intershell distances indicates a nonequilibrium state of the internal configuration of onion shells. It appeared to be possible to estimate not only the average onion size, which exceeds the average size of pristine nanodiamonds that are used for onion preparation by annealing, but their size distribution function as well.

  4. Two new bicyclic sulfoxides from Welsh onion.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Ono, Masateru; El-Aasr, Mona; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2016-04-01

    Newly identified bicyclic sulfoxides, welsonins A1 (1) and A2 (2), were isolated from acetone extracts of the bulbs of the Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum). In this study, the structures of 1 and 2, which are tetrahydrothiophene-S-oxide derivatives, were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. These compounds appeared to be derived from the coupling of 1-propenyl sulfenic acid and uronic acid. Welsonin A1 (1) showed the potential to suppress tumor-cell proliferation by inhibiting the polarization of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. PMID:26676612

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on onion sprouting. I.--Influence of dose rate and post-harvest period of treatment.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, W A; Donini, B

    1976-01-01

    Onions of "Dorata di Parma" variety were exposed to 10 Krads of Co60 gamma irradiation in 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 minutes in December, 1975 and then stored in the cold storage (10 +/- 1 degree C; R.H. 65-70%) and at the room temperature (15-20 degrees C; R.H. 40-70%) for 3 months, to study the influence of dose-rate and post-harvest period of treatment. Average number of buds sprouted in each onion bulb under cold storage condition ranged from 2-3, while this number was found to increase to 3-4 under ambient storage conditions. Although no effect of either irradiation or dose rate was observed when onions were irradiated after the break of their dormancy, however, a significant slowing down effect of irradiation could be observed as far as the rate of growth of sprouts was concerned. Weight loss was also reduced significantly in the irradiated onions as compared with controls. PMID:1037423

  6. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-06-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  7. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  8. A less energy intensive process for dehydrating onion.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Jha, S N; Patil, R T; Dhatt, A S; Kaur, Amandeep; Jaiswal, P

    2015-02-01

    Onion powder has an extensive demand and wide application worldwide as flavour additive in convenience foods and medicinal products. Conventionally onion powder is prepared by hot air drying of onion slices followed by grinding. Convective air drying when used alone demands longer drying time and thus has a high expense of energy. As bulk of onion is water (82-87 %), removal of moisture prior to drying can reduce moisture loading on dryer and hence the energy consumption. Keeping this in view, onions were partially dewatered using centrifugal force before convective drying. The effect of partial mechanical dewatering and drying air temperature was studied on drying time, specific energy consumption and onion powder quality (colour and flavour). The combination process was also optimized to achieve increased drying rate and product quality comparable to products obtained using convective drying alone. Onions subjected to 60 % partial mechanical dewatering and hot air drying at 70 °C exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.5) shortened drying time, decreased energy consumption and maintained colour and flavour of the dried product. PMID:25694729

  9. A new weed control strategy in onion culture.

    PubMed

    Thieron, M; Kerres, W; Schäffer, A

    2007-01-01

    A new strategy combining modem hoeing technique and spray application has been developed in order to reduce the amount of herbicides down to 20% compared to common practice. The effects on weed control have been investigated as well as the impact on qualitative and quantitative harvest. In two large scale field trials and two years of testing the authors evaluated different hoeing techniques combined with band spray application and standard spray application, the minimal lethal herbicide dose method (MLHD). All varieties have been calculated for environmental impact as well as practical and economical means. These studies reveal crop losses due to improper weed control as well as losses due to herbicide stress. Detailed information on concentration depending impact of several herbicides have been correlated to their control of different weeds and the achieved yield. Two contrary effects influencing the total yield have been identified. The novel strategy is based on the knowledge of these complex effects which finally led to a well practicable and highly economic strategy that enables onion farmers to control weeds while reducing the amounts of herbicides down to approximately 20%. PMID:18399447

  10. Interactions Between Frankliniella fusca and Pantoea ananatis in the Center Rot Epidemic of Onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Gitaitis, Ronald; Barman, Apurba; Avci, Utku; Marasigan, Kathleen; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2016-09-01

    An Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, is the causal agent of an economically important disease of onion, center rot. P. ananatis is transmitted by an onion-infesting thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). However, interactions between F. fusca and P. ananatis as well as transmission mechanisms largely remain uncharacterized. This study investigated P. ananatis acquisition by thrips and transstadial persistence. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial acquisition on thrips fitness were also evaluated. When thrips larvae and adults were provided with acquisition access periods (AAP) on peanut leaflets contaminated with the bacterium, an exponentially positive relationship was observed between AAP and P. ananatis acquisition (R(2) ≥ 0.77, P = 0.01). P. ananatis persisted in thrips through several life stages (larvae, pupae, and adult). Despite the bacterial persistence, no significant effects on thrips fitness parameters such as fecundity and development were observed. Immunofluorescence microscopy of adult thrips with P. ananatis-specific antibody after 48 h AAP on contaminated food revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut. These results suggested that the pathogen is not circulative and could be transmitted through feces. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates produced center rot symptoms, whereas inoculation with rinsates potentially containing salivary secretions did not. These results provide evidence for stercorarian transmission (transmission through feces) of P. ananatis by F. fusca. PMID:27135678

  11. The ability of onion extract gel to improve the cosmetic appearance of postsurgical scars.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2008-06-01

    Superior wound healing with excellent cosmesis is critical in superficial dermal wounds created when cosmetically unacceptable lesions are removed from the body. Dermatologists frequently remove seborrheic keratoses, nevi, and angiomas from the body with a superficial shave excision. The excision is designed to minimize dermal scarring while removing the unsightly skin growth. This study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of an onion extract gel to improve the appearance of scars following excision. Sixty subjects with symmetrical seborrheic keratoses at least 8 mm in diameter on the right and left upper chest were enrolled. The lesions were removed with a scalpel shave, following local anesthesia with 2% lidocaine plus epinephrine. The surgical sites were allowed to heal for 2 to 3 weeks, at which time the subjects returned to the research center for randomization to either the onion gel treatment group or the no-treatment group. Forty-seven subjects in the active treatment group were further randomized as to the site of study product application. Thirteen control subjects applied nothing to either side. Subjects returned to the study center at weeks 2, 4, 6, and 10 for photography, subject evaluations, and investigator assessments. The study showed that the onion extract gel significantly improved scar softness, redness, texture, and global appearance at the excision site at study weeks 4, 6, and 10 as assessed by the blinded investigator. PMID:18482012

  12. Inactivation of internalized and surface contaminated enteric viruses in green onions.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-09-01

    With increasing outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with produce, it is important to assess interventions to reduce the risk of illness. UV, ozone and high pressure are non-thermal processing technologies that have potential to inactivate human pathogens on produce and allow the retention of fresh-like organoleptic properties. The objective of this study was to determine if UV, ozone, and high pressure are effective technologies compared to traditional chlorine spray on green onions to reduce enteric viral pathogens and to determine the effect of location of the virus (surface or internalized) on the efficacy of these processes. Mature green onion plants were inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human adenovirus type 41 (Ad41) either on the surface through spot inoculation or through inoculating contaminated hydroponic solution allowing for uptake of the virus into the internal tissues. Inoculated green onions were treated with UV (240 mJ s/cm(2)), ozone (6.25 ppm for 10 min), pressure (500 MPa, for 5 min at 20°C), or sprayed with calcium hypochlorite (150 ppm, 4°C). Viral inactivation was determined by comparing treated and untreated inoculated plants using cell culture infectivity assays. Processing treatments were observed to greatly affect viral inactivation. Viral inactivation for all three viruses was greatest after pressure treatment and the lowest inactivation was observed after chlorine and UV treatment. Both surface inoculated viruses and viruses internalized in green onions were inactivated to some extent by these post-harvest processing treatments. These results suggest that ozone and high pressure processes aimed to reduce the level of microbial contamination of produce have the ability to inactivate viruses if they become localized in the interior portions of produce. PMID:23973828

  13. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Su, C.; Bailes, A.; Lu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their applications to environmental remediation. While research has been devoted to develop nanotechnology for environmental applications using carbonaceous nanomaterials, e.g. carbon nanotubes and C60 fullerenes, the practical applications are limited due to their high cost of production of about 50-100/g. We introduce a relatively new carbonaceous nanomaterial, i.e. carbon onion nanomaterials, which could be produced in a cost-effective way of about 1/g, by oxygen-depleted combustion of hydrocarbon gases. Carbon onion nanomaterials consist of spherical fullerene cores surrounded by onion-like nested spherical graphite layers, with diameters of around 20 nm. In this work, we characterized the properties of carbon onion nanomaterials to investigate their potential applications in environmental remediation. Dry carbon onion powders were first characterized using transmission electron microcopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas sorption Surface Area Analyzer. Sorption capacity of carbon onion nanomaterials for heavy metals, including Zn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II), was explored using different pH conditions and surface modification approaches. We found that carbon onion nanomaterials can effectively adsorb heavy metal contaminants at high pH or when surface functionalized with carboxylate groups. Stable aqueous suspension of carbon onion aggregates was produced by exchange of toluene organic solvent. The properties of carbon onion aggregates in aqueous suspension, including particle size, zeta potential, and concentration, were determined using a Zetasizer Nano ZS analyzer, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) / Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), and UV-VIS Scanning Spectrophotometer. Carbon onion nanomaterials were found to be very well dispersed in aqueous phase, forming stable aggregates

  14. The onion method for multiple perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R. J.

    1988-04-01

    We develop a method of successive approximations for molecular scattering theory. This consists of a recipe for removing from the Schrödinger equation, one by one, the wave functions of a set of approximate solutions. The radial wave function is expressed as a linear combination of the well-behaved and singular solutions of the first approximation, and a set of coupled differential equations is obtained for the coefficients of the approximate solutions. A similar set of coefficients is obtained for the next approximation, and the exact coefficients are expressed in terms of the approximate coefficients to yield a set of second-level coefficients. The process can be continued like pealing off the layers of an onion. At each stage the coupled differential equations for the coefficients is equivalent to the Schrödinger equation. Finally, one can either ignore the remaining coefficients or approximate the coupled equations by a simple perturbation theory.

  15. Peeling the onion: understanding others' lived experience.

    PubMed

    Miles, Maureen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Society and some healthcare professionals often marginalise pregnant women who take illicit substances. Midwives who care for these women are often viewed as working on the edge of society. This research aimed to examine the lived experiences of midwives who care for pregnant women who take illicit drugs. A phenomenological study informed by Heidegger, Gadamer and Merleau-Ponty was chosen to frame these lived experiences. Using face-to-face interviews, data were collected from 12 midwives making a difference, establishing partnerships and letting go and refining practice. Lived experiences are unique and can be difficult, intangible and couched in metaphor and difficult to grasp. This paper aims to discuss lived experience and suggests that like an onion, several layers have to be peeled away before meaning can be exposed; each cover reveals another layer beneath that is different from before and different from the next. The study provides exemplars that explain lived experiences. PMID:26169515

  16. The Origin of the Name "Onion's Fusible Alloy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a reader query, this article traces the history of fusible alloys, including Newton's metal, D'Arcet's metal, Rose's metal, Onion's fusible alloy, and Wood's metal. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  17. Dynamic susceptibility of onion in ferromagnetic elliptical nanoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Congpu; Song, Jiefang; Xu, Jianghong; Wen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    Micromagnetic simulation was performed to investigate the equilibrium state and dynamic susceptibility spectra of magnetic elliptical nanoring. There are two equilibrium states (onion and vortex) obtained in elliptical nanoring. The onion state can be used to record information in MRAM. And it is important to investigate the dynamic susceptibility spectra of onion state, which is closely related to writing and reading speed of magnetic memory devices. Those results show that two or three resonance peaks are found under different thickness of elliptical nanoring with onion state, respectively. The low resonance frequency of two resonance peaks is increasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring, but is decreasing with the thickness. However, the high frequency of two resonance peaks is decreasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring.

  18. Effect of onion extract on immune response in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chisty, M M; Quddus, R; Islam, B; Khan, B R

    1996-08-01

    A total of 40 NZW rabbits were selected for this study to see the effect of onion extract on immune response following antigenic challenge. These animals were randomly divided into four groups, each composed of ten rabbits. Group I and II were challenged with typhoid H (TH) antigen and groups III and IV with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Groups I and III were considered as control and II and IV as treated groups. The latter two groups were treated with onion extract orally. The immunosuppressive effect of onion extract was evaluated by estimating antibody levels by Widal test and hemolysin titer. It was found that mean antibody titers were significantly lower in the treated groups than in controls. The weights of thymus and lymph nodes were higher and of adrenal glands were lower in the control groups than in the treated groups. It appeared from the current study that onion extract has an inhibitory effect on immune response. PMID:9103661

  19. High Yield Synthesis of Bucky Tubules and Bucky Onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoping; Wang, Youwen; Li, Wenzhu; Wenzhou, Li

    1994-04-01

    The bucky tubules and bucky onions are synthesized in macroscopic quantity with high yield by modified Kratschmer-Lamb-Fostiropoulos-Huffman method. Besides ordinary concentric bucky tubules, also are observed abnormal nonconcentric multilayer graphitic tubules with varying layer spacings. The curved graphitic tubules are observed, showing the tendency to form torus. Under appropriate helium pressure, about half of the synthesized product is the multi-shell bucky onions, polyhedral in shape in accord with the theoretical calculation.

  20. Multishell Intermetallic Onions by Symmetrical Configuration of Ordered Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, R.; Chen, W.; Cheng, Z. Y.; Li, Y. D.; Zhu, J.

    2010-11-01

    Ordered domains are utilized to construct new nanostructures, i.e., multishell intermetallic onions, which are formed by symmetrical configuration of ordered domains. Through density-functional theory calculations, we have shown that the energy penalties for introducing antiphase boundaries into the nanoparticles are small in some alloy systems compared to typical surface energies, making it feasible to prepare intermetallic onions by tuning surface energies. The unique surface atomic arrangements would provide opportunities for developing novel materials like efficient catalysts.

  1. Aging and variety seeking.

    PubMed

    Novak, Deanna L; Mather, Mara

    2007-12-01

    The authors examined the influence of age on variety seeking in 3 experiments. When given choices among jellybeans or music, age differences in variety seeking emerged. Younger adults selected similar levels of variety when choosing what to consume immediately and what to consume later. In contrast, older adults consistently chose less variety when making choices to be consumed at a later time than when making choices to be consumed immediately. This pattern may be related to an increased focus on regulating future emotional experience that is associated with age. PMID:18179293

  2. Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds. PMID:25088041

  3. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  4. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  5. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  6. Peanut Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  7. Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  8. The optical properties of onion dry skin and flesh at the wavelength 632.8 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilin; Li, Changying

    2012-05-01

    Evaluating onions quality using optical techniques is challenging because the presence of outer dry skin and the layered structure of onion fleshy tissues. To better understand the light propagation in onions, the optical properties of dry skin and fleshy tissues from two cultivars were measured at 632.8 nm by using a single integrating sphere based system. Onion tissues were cut into 30 mm square pieces and sandwiched by Borofloat glass slides. The total diffuse reflectance, the total transmittance, and the collimated transmittance of the onion samples were measured by an integrating sphere system with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. The absorption coefficient (μa), the reduced scattering coefficient (μs'), and the anisotropy coefficient (g) of onion tissue samples were estimated using the inverse adding-doubling method based on the measured spectra. The light propagation in onion tissues were modeled based on the calculated optical parameters using Monte Carlo simulations. The results indicated that onion tissues are high albedo biological media. Onion dry skins have much higher absorption and reduced scattering coefficients than onion fleshy tissues. Comparisons between the two onion cultivars showed that the optical properties of onions could vary with cultivars. The results of this study can be used to develop appropriate optical approaches for the onion quality inspection.

  9. Effects of drying, packaging, and temperature on the quality of fried onion slices.

    PubMed

    Asefi, Narmela; Mozaffari, Mansoure

    2010-06-01

    Onion is used widely as a condiment for meat and other types of food in Iran. Because of the high sensitivity of this product to storage conditions and having not enough storage under controlled atmosphere (CA), the effects of drying method, packaging, and temperature during storage on thin slices of fried red Azershahr variety onion were investigated. To prepare this processed food with excellent organoleptic properties and useful in the food service industry onions were sliced (2 mm), deep-fried with corn frying oil in a batch fryer at 150 degrees C, and dried to a water content of 3-4% in a hot-air dryer at 70 degrees C for 24 h and a microwave system. Samples were packed in aluminum foil, which was purged by nitrogen gas, and cellophane-sealed with thermal sewing. Then these samples were kept for one year at laboratory temperature and in a freezer at -18 degrees C. During the storage time the moisture content, peroxide value, vitamin C content, total microbial count (TMC), and organoleptic characteristics of the samples were analyzed every 2 mo. The results of microbial analyses indicated that after 6 mo all of the samples had higher TMCs than the permission limits so the expiration date was set before that. The moisture contents and peroxide values showed a noticeable increase, probably due to seal failure, whereas vitamin C decreased up to 66% during storage. The loss of sensory properties was parallel to the microbial and chemical results. The findings revealed that the best sample was oven-dried, packed in aluminum foil under inert gas, and kept in a freezer (OAF) up to 6 mo. PMID:20629896

  10. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed. PMID:18767744

  11. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. PMID:27329626

  12. Prevention of browning in potato with a heat-treated onion extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Kyung; Kim, Young-Mai; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Gi-Nahm; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Bang, Keuk-Seung; Park, Inshik

    2002-04-01

    The inhibitory effect of an onion extract on browning of potato was investigated. The addition of the heated onion extract to potato exhibited a marked inhibitory effect on potato polyphenol oxidase and the formation of a brown color. The inhibitory effect of the onion extract was dependent upon its heating temperature. The addition of both glycine and glucose increased the inhibitory effect of the onion extract toward potato polyphenol oxidase. PMID:12036061

  13. Detection of Sour Skin Diseases in Vidalia Sweet Onions using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vidalia sweet onion is an important specialty crop grown in southeast area of Georgia, which accounts for approximate 13% of the vegetable farm gate value in the state. However, Vidalia sweet onions are more prone to rotting and sprouting due to lacking some pungent compounds found in other onion va...

  14. Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Resistance to Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 35 onion genotypes was evaluated for resistance to onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 (AG-8) under temperature-controlled greenhouse conditions (15 ± 1oC) in 2013. Each onion genotype was planted in a cone-tainer with and without inoculation with R. solani AG ...

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of iris yellow spot virus and thrips in Colorado onion fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iris yellow spot virus and its onion thrips vector (Thrips tabaci) are yield limiting pests of onion in the western U.S. This 2-year project investigated the relationship of iris yellow spot to thrips populations, soil properties, and grower management practices in Colorado onion fields. A random sy...

  16. Transcriptome Sequencing Analyses between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Maintainer Line in Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianchun; Lan, Yanping; Wen, Changlong; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yongqin

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is important for exploiting heterosis in crop plants and also serves as a model for investigating nuclear–cytoplasmic interaction. The molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration was investigated in several important economic crops but remains poorly understood in the Welsh onion. Therefore, we compared the differences between the CMS line 64-2 and its maintainer line 64-1 using transcriptome sequencing with the aim of determining critical genes and pathways associated with male sterility. This study combined two years of RNA-seq data; there were 1504 unigenes (in May 2013) and 2928 unigenes (in May 2014) that were differentially expressed between the CMS and cytoplasmic male maintainer Welsh onion varieties. Known CMS-related genes were found in the set of differentially expressed genes and checked by qPCR. These genes included F-type ATPase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, etc. Overall, this study demonstrated that the CMS regulatory genes and pathways may be associated with the mitochondria and nucleus in the Welsh onion. We believe that this transcriptome dataset will accelerate the research on CMS gene clones and other functional genomics research on A. fistulosum L. PMID:27376286

  17. Transcriptome Sequencing Analyses between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Maintainer Line in Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianchun; Lan, Yanping; Wen, Changlong; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yongqin

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is important for exploiting heterosis in crop plants and also serves as a model for investigating nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction. The molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration was investigated in several important economic crops but remains poorly understood in the Welsh onion. Therefore, we compared the differences between the CMS line 64-2 and its maintainer line 64-1 using transcriptome sequencing with the aim of determining critical genes and pathways associated with male sterility. This study combined two years of RNA-seq data; there were 1504 unigenes (in May 2013) and 2928 unigenes (in May 2014) that were differentially expressed between the CMS and cytoplasmic male maintainer Welsh onion varieties. Known CMS-related genes were found in the set of differentially expressed genes and checked by qPCR. These genes included F-type ATPase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, etc. Overall, this study demonstrated that the CMS regulatory genes and pathways may be associated with the mitochondria and nucleus in the Welsh onion. We believe that this transcriptome dataset will accelerate the research on CMS gene clones and other functional genomics research on A. fistulosum L. PMID:27376286

  18. Photoinduced Charge Separation in the Carbon Nano-Onion C60@C240.

    PubMed

    Voityuk, Alexander A; Solà, Miquel

    2016-07-28

    The double-shell fullerene C60@C240 formed by inclusion of C60 into C240 is the smallest stable carbon nano-onion. In this article, we analyze in detail the character of the excited states of C60@C240 in terms of exciton localization and charge transfer between the inner and outer shells. The unique structure of the buckyonion leads to a large electrostatic stabilization of charge-separated (CS) states in the C60@C240. As a result, the CS states C60(+)@C240(-) lie in the same region of the electronic spectrum (2.4-2.6 eV) as strongly absorbing locally excited states and, therefore, can be effectively populated. The CS states C60(-)@C240(+) are found to be 0.5 eV higher in energy than the CS states C60(+)@C240(-). Unlike the situation observed in donor-acceptor systems, the energies of the CS states in C60@C240 do not practically depend on the environment polarity. This leads to exceptionally small reorganization energies for electron transfer between the shells. Electronic couplings for photoinduced charge-separation and charge-recombination processes are calculated. The absolute rate of the formation of the CS state C60(+)@C240(-) is estimated at ∼4 ps(-1). The electronic features found in C60@C240 are likely to be shared by other carbon nano-onions. PMID:27383921

  19. Long-term storage effect on chemical composition, nutritional value and quality of Greek onion landrace "Vatikiotiko".

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, S A; Ntatsi, G; Fernandes, Â; Barros, L; Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Antoniadis, V

    2016-06-15

    The effect of storage at two temperatures (5±1 and 25±1 °C and 60-70±5% RH for both temperatures) on marketability and quality features of dry bulbs of local landrace "Vatikiotiko", "Sivan F1", "Red Cross F1" and "Creamgold" was examined. During storage measurements for fresh and dry weight of bulbs, tunic and flesh color, bulb firmness, nutritional value and mineral composition were taken at regular intervals. Storage concluded when either bulbs lost marketable quality or sprouting occurred. "Vatikiotiko" onion can be stored for at least 7months at 25±1 °C, whereas at 5±1 °C storage could be prolonged without significant marketability and quality loss. The fact that "Vatikiotiko" landrace can be considered a "storage" onion has to be capitalized in order to increase total production and yield, since storage could cover the market needs that arise throughout the year. PMID:26868562

  20. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    PubMed Central

    Neri, I; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G; Patrizi, A

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane. Images PMID:8001950

  1. Physiological, biochemical and transcriptional analysis of onion bulbs during storage

    PubMed Central

    Chope, Gemma A.; Cools, Katherine; Hammond, John P.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Terry, Leon A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims During the transition from endo-dormancy to eco-dormancy and subsequent growth, the onion bulb undergoes the transition from sink organ to source, to sustain cell division in the meristematic tissue. The mechanisms controlling these processes are not fully understood. Here, a detailed analysis of whole onion bulb physiological, biochemical and transcriptional changes in response to sprouting is reported, enabling a better knowledge of the mechanisms regulating post-harvest onion sprout development. Methods Biochemical and physiological analyses were conducted on different cultivars (‘Wellington’, ‘Sherpa’ and ‘Red Baron’) grown at different sites over 3 years, cured at different temperatures (20, 24 and 28 °C) and stored under different regimes (1, 3, 6 and 6 → 1 °C). In addition, the first onion oligonucleotide microarray was developed to determine differential gene expression in onion during curing and storage, so that transcriptional changes could support biochemical and physiological analyses. Key Results There were greater transcriptional differences between samples at harvest and before sprouting than between the samples taken before and after sprouting, with some significant changes occurring during the relatively short curing period. These changes are likely to represent the transition from endo-dormancy to sprout suppression, and suggest that endo-dormancy is a relatively short period ending just after curing. Principal component analysis of biochemical and physiological data identified the ratio of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) to disaccharide (sucrose), along with the concentration of zeatin riboside, as important factors in discriminating between sprouting and pre-sprouting bulbs. Conclusions These detailed analyses provide novel insights into key regulatory triggers for sprout dormancy release in onion bulbs and provide the potential for the development of biochemical or transcriptional markers for sprout

  2. Raman spectroscopy of polyhedral carbon nano-onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codorniu Pujals, Daniel; Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia; Desdín García, Luis F.; Cazzanelli, Enzo; Caputi, Lorenzo S.

    2015-09-01

    The Raman spectra of polyhedral carbon nano-onions (PCO), obtained by underwater arc discharge of graphite electrodes, are studied. While the general Raman spectrum of PCO is very similar to those of other carbon nanostructures, including spherical nano-onions, the fine structure of the G and 2D bands gives valuable information that allows using Raman spectroscopy for differentiating the PCO from other carbon structures. The interpretation of the features of the fine structure of the spectra is supported by evidences obtained by TEM.

  3. Graphitic onions as reaction cells on the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.; Banhart, F.

    2006-05-08

    Multishell fullerene clusters (carbon onions) encapsulating iron crystals of a few nanometers in size are subjected to intense electron irradiation at high temperature in an electron microscope. A reaction between graphite and iron, leading to the formation of iron carbide (cementite) in the core of the clusters, is observed in situ. The reaction in these spherical nanoencapsulates is explained by the occurrence of high pressure, mobile carbon interstitial atoms, and the irradiation-induced lowering of the kinetic barrier. Thus, carbon onions can be used as high-pressure cells for inducing a chemical reaction in nanometer-sized particles.

  4. 76 FR 35997 - Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, OR; Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 958 Onions Grown in Certain Designated... handling regulation for onions handled under the Idaho-Eastern Oregon onion marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of onions grown in designated counties in Idaho, and Malheur County,...

  5. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    PubMed Central

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  6. Efficacy of UV, acidified sodium hypochlorite, and mild heat for decontamination of surface and infiltrated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and baby spinach.

    PubMed

    Durak, M Zeki; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-07-01

    Produce-associated foodborne illnesses outbreaks have highlighted the need for more effective decontamination methods to ensure the safety of fresh produce. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined efficacies of germicidal UV light (12.5 to 500 mJ/cm(2)), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ASC 10 to 200 ppm), and mild heat (40 to 50°C) for decontaminating green onions and baby spinach infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated by spot and dip inoculation methods to mimic surface and infiltrated E. coli O157:H7 contamination, respectively. In green onions and baby spinach, the individual efficacies of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments varied based on the produce type and contamination method. Following analysis of the efficacies of the single treatments, a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C was selected for spot-inoculated green onions, and a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 20°C was selected for spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach. While a >5-log reduction was achieved with the combination treatment for spot-inoculated green onions with an initial contamination level of 7.2 log CFU per spot, the same treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations below the detection limit (<1 log) on green onions spot inoculated at a lower contamination level (4.3 log CFU per spot). On spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach, the combined treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 2.8 log CFU per spot and 2.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The combined treatment of 500 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C selected for the decontamination of dip-inoculated green onions resulted in a 2.2-log CFU/g reduction. These findings suggest that when foodborne pathogens contaminate produce and subsequently infiltrate, attach to, or become localized into protected areas, the individual or combined applications of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments have limited decontamination

  7. Onion Response to Nitrogen Fertilization Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently fertilized with high N rates (>200 lb N/a) to maximize yield. In 2005, we applied six N rates (0, 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 lb N/a) to existing N plots previously cropped to corn (2000-2003) and chile pepper (2004). ...

  8. New Specialty Crop Funds Invested in Onion Genomics Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 Farm Bill provided funds for the USDA to establish the Specialty Crops Research Initiative to address challenges in the production and marketing of fruit, nut, vegetable, nursery, and ornamental crops. A group of prominent onion scientists joined together and proposed collaborative researc...

  9. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements for moisture prediction in vidalia onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave sensing offers an opportunity to determine nondestructively the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. Dielectric properties of Vidalia onions grown in southeastern Georgia were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyz...

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  11. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  12. Integrated Systems of Weed Management in Organic 'Vidalia' Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trials were conducted in southeastern Georgia to develop integrated systems of weed management in organic Vidalia® onion. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of summer solarization, cultivation, and herbicides appropriate for use in certified organic production systems. Plots were solarized wi...

  13. Dielectric properties for prediction of moisture content in Vidalia onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave Sensing provides a means for nondestructively determining the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. In this study, dielectric properties of Vidalia onions were analyzed for moisture dependence at 13.36 GHz and 23°C for moisture content betwee...

  14. Life of the onion not knowing up from down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordeyev, A.

    1980-01-01

    The absence of the force of gravity has a negative effect on plant life. Plants grown on spacecraft have died prematurely. Tests are being made to discover whether or not electricity will compensate for the absence of gravitation. It was found that an onion under current is not subject to the force of gravity. Tremendous possibilities are opened up by these experiments.

  15. Corn Response to Nitrogen Following Onion in Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, we evaluated the effects of residual soil N level plus applied N fertilizer (6 N rates) on corn grain yields and corn N uptake following the 2005 onion crop. Residual soil N levels in the 0- to 6-ft soil profile at corn planting ranged from 86 to 189 lb N/a where furrow irrigation was used...

  16. Post-directed application of potential organic herbicides for onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic onion producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and yields. The experime...

  17. Pelargonic acid as a post-directed herbicide for onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic onion producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and yields. The experim...

  18. Characterization of Nutritionally Important Carotenoids in Welsh Onion Accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Allium genus are consumed for their culinary flavor attributes, but also contain antioxidant and anticarcinogenic phytochemicals. Welsh onions (Allium fistulosum L.) are commonly used in Asian cuisine, where both leaves and pseudostems are consumed. Carotenoids are an important clas...

  19. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in color than non-storage onions. They are generally more pungent, have a lower sugar content, and... production guarantee for the stage in which the damage occurred. 4. Contract Changes In accordance with section 4 (Contract Changes) of the Basic Provisions (§ 457.8), the contract change date is June...

  20. Translational Genomics of Onion: Challenges of an Enormous Nuclear Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed “translational genomics”. Classical breeding of onion (Allium cepa) is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics should r...

  1. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  2. Factors contributing to bacterial bulb rots of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of bacterial rots of onion bulbs is increasing and has become a serious problem for growers. This increase is likely due to a combination of factors, such as high bacterial populations in soils and irrigation water, heavy rains flooding production fields, higher temperatures, etc. It m...

  3. The Dominant Ms Allele in Onion Shows Reduced Penetrance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly used source of cytoplasmic male sterility in onion is controlled by the interaction of the cytoplasm [male-sterile (S) or normal (N) male-fertile] and one nuclear male-fertility-restoration locus (Ms). Scoring of genotypes at Ms is generally done by testcrossing male-fertile to mal...

  4. Corn gluten meal: Weed control and yields for onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One weed control option for certified organic producers is corn gluten meal (CGM). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Lane, OK) to determine the efficacy of CGM as an herbicide for use in transplanted onion production. The research involved 8 weed control treatments with 4 replicat...

  5. Integrated systems of weed management in organic "Vidalia" onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vidalia® dry-bulb onion are a multi-million dollar crop grown exclusively in a twenty county region in southeastern Georgia, as defined by a Federal Marketing Order issued in 1989. Plantings in 2009 were 11,500 harvested acres, with an estimated gross value of $9,440/A. Acreage of certified organi...

  6. Effectiveness of Onion Extract Gel on Surgical Scars in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Tanrattanakorn, Somsak; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Wongkitisophon, Pranee; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2012-01-01

    Background. Onion extracts have been shown in vitro to accelerate wound healing. Results from clinical studies on surgical scars in Caucasians were disappointing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of onion extract gel in improving the cosmetic and symptoms of surgical scars in Asians. Patients/Methods. Twenty Asians who had new Pfannenstiel's cesarean section scars were recruited in this prospective double-blinded, split-scar study. Each side was randomly assigned treatment with onion extract gel or placebo at 7 days after surgery. The product was applied three times daily for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and 4th and 12th weeks. Scar redness was assessed by calorimeter, scar height and pliability were assessed by blinded investigators, and scar symptoms and overall cosmetic improvement were assessed by subjects. Results. Sixteen subjects completed the study. A statistically significant difference between two sides of scar in terms of scar height and scar symptoms was found. There was no statistically significant difference in scar redness, scar pliability, and overall cosmetic appearance between two sides. Conclusions. The early use of topical 12% onion extract gel on Pfannenstiel's cesarean section scar in Asians resulted in the improvement of scar height and scar symptoms. PMID:22924037

  7. Multi-Functionalized Carbon Nano-onions as Imaging Probes for Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Frasconi, Marco; Marotta, Roberto; Markey, Lyn; Flavin, Kevin; Spampinato, Valentina; Ceccone, Giacomo; Echegoyen, Luis; Scanlan, Eoin M; Giordani, Silvia

    2015-12-21

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted much interest during the last decade for biomedical applications. Multimodal imaging probes based on carbon nano-onions (CNOs) have emerged as a platform for bioimaging because of their cell-penetration properties and minimal systemic toxicity. Here, we describe the covalent functionalization of CNOs with fluorescein and folic acid moieties for both imaging and targeting cancer cells. The modified CNOs display high brightness and photostability in aqueous solutions and their selective and rapid uptake in two different cancer cell lines without significant cytotoxicity was demonstrated. The localization of the functionalized CNOs in late-endosomes cell compartments was revealed by a correlative approach with confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Understanding the biological response of functionalized CNOs with the capability to target cancer cells and localize the nanoparticles in the cellular environment, will pave the way for the development of a new generation of imaging probes for future biomedical studies. PMID:26577582

  8. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  9. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration. PMID:22992282

  10. Dynamics of Phenanthrenequinone on Carbon Nano-Onion Surfaces Probed by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Anjos, Daniela M; Mamontov, Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H; Mavila Chathoth, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    We used quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) to study the dynamics of phenanthrenequinone (PQ) on the surface of onion-like carbon (OLC), or so called carbon onions, as a function of surface coverage and temperature. For both the high- and low-coverage samples, we observed two diffusion processes; a faster process and nearly an order of magnitude slower process. On the high-coverage surface, the slow diffusion process is of long-range translational character, whereas the fast diffusion process is spatially localized on the length scale of ~ 4.7 . On the low-coverage surface, both diffusion processes are spatially localized; on the same length scale of ~ 4.7 for the fast diffusion and a somewhat larger length scale for the slow diffusion. Arrhenius temperature dependence is observed except for the long-range diffusion on the high-coverage surface. We attribute the fast diffusion process to the generic localized in-cage dynamics of PQ molecules, and the slow diffusion process to the long-range translational dynamics of PQ molecules, which, depending on the coverage, may be either spatially restricted, or long-range. On the low-coverage surface, uniform surface coverage is not attained, and the PQ molecules experience the effect of spatial constraints on their long-range translational dynamics. Unexpectedly, the dynamics of PQ molecules on OLC as a function of temperature and surface coverage bears qualitative resemblance to the dynamics of water molecules on oxide surfaces, including practically temperature-independent residence times for the low-coverage surface. The dynamics features that we observed may be universal across different classes of surface adsorbates.

  11. Shear Induced Structures in Lamellar Systems ---From Layers to Onions to Onions and Layers---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschoreck, S.; Fujii, S.; Richtering, W.

    Shear flow induces the formation of multilamellar vesicles (MLV, also termed ``onions") in the lamellar phase of the nonionic surfactant C_{10}E_{3} in water. Depending on the applied shear rate, one can reach a state of polydisperse MLV (at intermediate shear rates) or densely packed monodisperse MLV at high shear rates. In this contribution we investigated the structure evolution when the shear rate is reduced by means of rheo-microscopy as well as rheo-small angle light and neutron scattering (SALS, SANS). Different shear quenches within the MLV structure region of 40 wt% C_{10}E_{3} reveal two different MLV size growth mechanisms: (i) a continuous and (ii) a discontinuous MLV size growth. In the later case, a part of the initial MLV structure transforms into planar lamellar domains leading to shear thinning. The lamellar domains perform a re-orientation process from parallel oriented lamellae into MLV in coexistence with the initial MLV structure. The pathway of the transformation of the parallel lamellae to MLV is the same as in start-up experiments, i.e. from a homeotropically aligned lamellar phase.

  12. Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foraging in response to preconditioning with onion flower scent compounds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erin M; Dean, Bill B; Hiller, Larry K

    2003-10-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) seed production has long been plagued with yield problems because of lack of pollination by the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. To attempt to attract more pollinators to the onion seed production field, honey bees were conditioned to associate onion floral odor components with a reward. Isolated nucleus hives of honey bees were fed 30% sucrose solutions scented with a 0.2% solution of onion floral odor compounds. After feeding on these solutions for 6 wk, bees were not found to prefer onion flowers to two competing food sources, carrot and alfalfa flowers, at the 5% significance level. However, there was an overall trend indicating a change in honey bee behavior, with fewer "trained" bees visiting alfalfa and carrot and more visiting onion. Thus, it may be possible to alter honey bee behavior with preconditioning but probably not to a degree that would be economically significant. PMID:14650525

  13. Quantitative metabolite profiling of edible onion species by NMR and HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Tuula H; Jukarainen, Niko; Auriola, Seppo O K; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Karjalainen, Reijo; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J

    2014-12-15

    Allium genus is a treasure trove of valuable bioactive compounds with potentially therapeutically important properties. This work utilises HPLC-MS and a constrained total-line-shape (CTLS) approach applied to (1)H NMR spectra to quantify metabolites present in onion species to reveal important inter-species differences. Extensive differences were detected between the sugar concentrations in onion species. Yellow onion contained the highest and red onion the lowest amounts of amino acids. The main flavonol-glucosides were quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin 4'-glucoside. In general, the levels of flavonols were, higher in yellow onions than in red onions, and garlic and leek contained a lower amount of flavonols than the other Allium species. Our results highlight how (1)H NMR together with HPLC-MS can be useful in the quantification and the identification of the most abundant metabolites, representing an efficient means to pinpoint important functional food ingredients from Allium species. PMID:25038704

  14. Estimating the Size of Onion Epidermal Cells from Diffraction Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groff, Jeffrey R.

    2012-10-01

    Bioscience and premedical profession students are a major demographic served by introductory physics courses at many colleges and universities. Exposing these students to biological applications of physical principles will help them to appreciate physics as a useful tool for their future professions. Here I describe an experiment suitable for introductory physics where principles of wave optics are applied to probe the size of onion epidermal cells. The epidermis tissue is composed of cells of relatively uniform size and shape (Fig. 1) so the tissue acts like a one-dimensional transmission diffraction grating. The diffraction patterns generated when a laser beam passes through the tissue (Fig. 2) are analyzed and an estimate of the average width of individual onion epidermal cells is calculated. The results are compared to direct measurements taken using a light microscope. The use of microscopes and plant-cell tissue slides creates opportunities for cross-discipline collaboration between physics and biology instructors.

  15. Management of Paratrichodorus allius Damage to Onion in the Columbia Basin of Oregon.

    PubMed

    Ingham, R E; Hamm, P B; McMorran, J P; Clough, G H

    1999-12-01

    Production of storage and dehydration (dehy) onions is increasing rapidly in the northcentral Oregon region of the Columbia Basin. Roughly circular patches of stunted onions have been observed in many fields and are often numerous and (or) extensive in area. Onions in these patches often exhibit symptoms typical of stubby-root nematodes, and Paratrichodorus allius has been collected from several damaged areas. This study examined the relationship of P. allius densities to onion yield reduction and benefit from oxamyl application. Transect samples and onions harvested across areas with varying P. allius densities revealed that the total number of onions was not affected by P. allius but that onions were in smaller, less valuable size classes. Yield of the largest size class of storage onions (colossals) declined substantially (57-61%) even at low (5-16/250 g soil) nematode densities. Treatment with oxamyl at 1.1 kg a.i./ha mitigated most of the damage, and the value of both storage and dehy onions was increased by more than $1,200/ha. Early applications were superior to later applications, whereas treatment at both times was no better than the early treatment alone. Damage at low (<10/250 g soil) nematode densities, low treatment cost ($86-172/ha), and high crop values suggest an economic benefit from treatment at population densities of four or more P. allius/250 g soil. However, stunted patches of onions may occur for reasons other than nematodes, and the presence of P. allius should be confirmed before treating fields. This is the first report of stubby-root nematode damage to dehy onions and to storage onions in the Columbia Basin. PMID:19270935

  16. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation. PMID:23179710

  17. Quality evaluation of onion bulbs during low temperature drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Asiah, N.; Wibowo, Y. P.; Yusron, D. A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A drying technology must be designed carefully by evaluating the foods' final quality properties as a dried material. Thermal processing should be operated with the minimum chance of substantial flavour, taste, color and nutrient loss. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the quality parameters of quercetin content, color, non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity. The experiments showed that heating at different temperatures for several drying times resulted in a percentage of quercetin being generally constant. The quercetin content maintained at the value of ±1.2 % (dry basis). The color of onion bulbs was measured by CIE standard illuminant C. The red color (a*) of the outer layer of onion bulbs changed significantly when the drying temperature was increased. However the value of L* and b* changed in a fluctuating way based on the temperature. The change of onion colors was influenced by temperature and moisture content during the drying process. The higher the temperature, the higher it affects the rate of non-enzymatic browning reaction. The correlation between temperature and reaction rate constant was described as Arrhenius equation. The rate of non-enzymatic browning increases along with the increase of drying temperature. The results showed that higher drying temperatures were followed by a lower IC10. This condition indicated the increase of antioxidant activity after the drying process.

  18. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  19. Comparative uptake of enteric viruses into spinach and green onions.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-03-01

    Root uptake of enteric pathogens and subsequent internalization has been a produce safety concern and is being investigated as a potential route of pre-harvest contamination. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the human norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), to internalize in spinach and green onions through root uptake in both soil and hydroponic systems. HAV or MNV was inoculated into soil matrices or into two hydroponic systems, floating and nutrient film technique systems. Viruses present within spinach and green onions were detected by RT-qPCR or infectivity assays after inactivating externally present viruses with Virkon(®). HAV and MNV were not detected in green onion plants grown up to 20 days and HAV was detected in only 1 of 64 spinach plants grown in contaminated soil substrate systems up to 20 days. Compared to soil systems, a drastic difference in virus internalization was observed in hydroponic systems; HAV or pressure-treated HAV and MNV were internalized up to 4 log RT-qPCR units and internalized MNV was shown to remain infectious. Understanding the interactions of human enteric viruses on produce can aid in the elucidation of the mechanisms of attachment and internalization, and aid in understanding risks associated with contamination events. PMID:23412715

  20. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products. PMID:26150744

  1. Continuum modeling of breathing-like modes of spherical carbon onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Ahmad Fazelzadeh, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this letter, an analytical formulation is developed for predicting the breathing-like modes of spherical carbon onions consisting of an arbitrary number of layers. The spherical layers of the carbon onions are concentrically nested, and are coupled through van der Waals (vdW) forces between two adjacent layers. Lennard-Jones potential and continuum models are utilized to estimate the vdW interaction coefficients and the breathing-like modes of the carbon onions. The formulation is justified by a good agreement between the results given by the present model and available experimental and numerical data. Finally, numerical results are obtained for various carbon onions.

  2. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products. PMID:26150744

  3. Inhibition of platelet activation by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS)-silenced (tearless) onion juice.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Susan J; Rippon, Paula; Butts, Chrissie; Olsen, Sarah; Shaw, Martin; Joyce, Nigel I; Eady, Colin C

    2013-11-01

    Onion and garlic are renowned for their roles as functional foods. The health benefits of garlic are attributed to di-2-propenyl thiosulfinate (allicin), a sulfur compound found in disrupted garlic but not found in disrupted onion. Recently, onions have been grown with repressed lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) activity, which causes these onions to produce increased amounts of di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate, an isomer of allicin. This investigation into the key health attributes of LFS-silenced (tearless) onions demonstrates that they have some attributes more similar to garlic and that this is likely due to the production of novel thiosulfinate or metabolites. The key finding was that collagen-induced in vitro platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by tearless onion extract over normal onion extract. Thiosulfinate or derived compounds were shown not to be responsible for the observed changes in the inflammatory response of AGS (stomach adenocarcinoma) cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) when pretreated with model onion juices. A preliminary rat feeding trial indicated that the tearless onions may also play a key role in reducing weight gain. PMID:24147811

  4. Pumpkins and onions and balloon design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winker, J. A.

    The reach for a capability to make long flights (months) with heavy payloads (tonnes) has long been pursued. The closest we have come is with polar flights devoid of a significant diurnal cycle. Superpressure technology, with its ability to survive diurnal cycles, is an obvious choice, but materials limitations have been an obstacle to realizing these ambitious goals. Now comes an assortment of new synthetic materials, coupled with a special variety of superpressure balloon which, in combination, is poised to yield a solution for our enhanced duration/payload quest. In this paper we are looking not at materials, but only at a balloon concept. This concept is a "natural shape" oblate spheroid balloon whose shape is chosen to exploit properties of component materials, particularly newly available ones. The current variation of this concept is called a "pumpkin" balloon. The most visible work on this shape is that done by France's CNES, Japan's ISAS, and in the USA by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. But the basic design idea is not new; it extends back at least a half century. This paper traces the origins of the shape, its evolution through various iterations, and it speculates on some of the recent thinking regarding construction details.

  5. Attachment and localization of human norovirus and animal caliciviruses in fresh produce.

    PubMed

    DiCaprio, Erin; Purgianto, Anastasia; Ma, Yuanmei; Hughes, John; Dai, Xiangjun; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-15

    Fresh produce is a high risk food for human norovirus (NoV) contamination. To help control this pathogen in fresh produce, a better understanding of the interaction of human NoV and fresh produce needs to be established. In this study the attachment of human NoV and animal caliciviruses (murine norovirus, MNV-1; Tulane virus, TV) to fresh produce was evaluated, using both visualization and viral enumeration techniques. It was found that a human NoV GII.4 strain attached efficiently to the Romaine lettuce leaves and roots and green onion shoots, and that washing with PBS or 200 ppm of chlorine removed less than 0.4 log of viral RNA copies from the tissues. In contrast, TV and MNV-1 bound more efficiently to Romaine lettuce leaves than to the roots, and simple washing removed less than 1 log of viruses from the lettuce leaves and 1-4 log PFU of viruses from roots. Subsequently, the location of virus particles in fresh produce was visualized using a fluorescence-based Quantum Dots (Q-Dots) assay and confocal microscopy. It was found that human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs), TV, and MNV-1 associated with the surface of Romaine lettuce and were found aggregating in and around the stomata. In green onions, human NoV VLPs were found between the cells of the epidermis and cell walls of both the shoots and roots. However, TV and MNV-1 were found to be covering the surface of the epidermal cells in both the shoots and roots of green onions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that (i) washing with 200 ppm chlorine is ineffective in removing human NoV from fresh produce; and (ii) different viruses vary in their localization patterns to different varieties of fresh produce. PMID:26188496

  6. Impact of over-the-top broadcast applications of Racer® on onion weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The weed control challenges for onion production are formidable; however, these challenges are even greater for those considering organic crop production. Organic onion producers need organic herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Racer (registered trademark) is a poten...

  7. Impact of broadcast applications of acetic acid on onion injury and weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in organic onion production is growing throughout the areas now producing onions with conventional methods, but weed control continues to be a primary obstacle. Weed control is ranked as the number one research priority by organic vegetable producers. The few organic herbicides cleared for ...

  8. Effect of onion and garlic on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagda, K K; Ganeriwal, S K; Nagda, K C; Diwan, A M

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aqueous extracts of onion and garlic as well as of garlic oil were studied on the process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in vitro. Only onion was found to exhibit anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic activity while garlic extract as well as garlic oil were inactive. PMID:6885127

  9. First Report of Iris yellow spot virus on Onion and Leek in Western Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) and leek (Allium porrum) are grown on approximately 600 ha in western Oregon annually for bulb and seed production. Plants with elongated to diamond-shaped, straw-colored lesions characteristic of those caused by Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) were observed on onion bulb crops an...

  10. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37–100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins. PMID:26284934

  11. Structural analyses and immunomodulatory properties of fructo-oligosaccharides from onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Prasanna; Prashanth, K V Harish; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-03-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is an immune-boosting food rich in fructans. The major aim of this study is to characterize and investigate the immunomodulatory properties of onion fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). FOS was isolated from onion bulbs by hot 80% ethanol extraction (yield: ∼4.5 g/100 g fw) followed by gel permeation chromatography. NMR of onion FOS revealed unusual β-D-Glc terminal residue at the non-reducing end. TLC and ESI-MS analyses showed that onion FOS ranged from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. Onion FOS (50 μg/mL) significantly increased (∼3-fold) the proliferation of mouse splenocytes/thymocytes vs. control. Further, onion FOS enhanced (∼2.5-fold) the production of nitric oxide by peritoneal exudates cells (PECs) from Wistar rats; intracellular free radicals production and phagocytic activity of isolated murine PECs were also augmented. Our structural and in vitro results indicate that onion FOS comprising of tri- to hexasaccharide units belongs to inulin-type fructans, and possess immunostimulatory activities towards murine lymphocytes and macrophages. PMID:25498616

  12. Non-enzymatic browning and flavour kinetics of vacuum dried onion slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, Shanker L.; Rao, Pavuluri S.

    2015-01-01

    Onion slices were dehydrated under vacuum to produce good quality dried ready-to-use onion slices. Colour development due to non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss in terms of thiosulphinate concentration was determined, along with moisture content and rehydration ratio. Kinetics of non-enzymatic browning and thiosulphinate loss during drying was analysed. Colour change due to non-enzymatic browning was found to be much lower in the case of vacuum dried onion, and improved flavour retention was observed as compared to hot air dried onion slices. The optical index values for non-enzymatic browning varied from 18.41 to 38.68 for untreated onion slices and from 16.73 to 36.51 for treated slices, whereas thiosulphinate concentration in the case of untreated onion slices was within the range of 2.96-3.92 μmol g-1 for dried sample and 3.71-4.43 μmol g-1 for the treated onion slices. Rehydration ratio was also increased, which may be attributed to a better porous structure attained due to vacuum drying. The treatment applied was found very suitable in controlling non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss during drying, besides increasing rehydration ratio. Hence, high quality dried ready- to-use onion slices were prepared.

  13. Site-Dependent Fluorescence Decay of Malachite Green Doped in Onion Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Sekine, Masaya; Suzuki, Yuji; Hattori, Toshiaki

    1999-03-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence measurements of malachite green dye moleculesdoped in onion cells were carried out.The fluorescence decay time was dependent on the individual cell and on theposition of the dye in a cell, which reflect the microscopic dynamics of each boundsite.Upon cooling, the decay time increased and this increase was accelerated ataround the freezing point of the onion cell.

  14. 78 FR 52099 - Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex-Grano

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex- Grano AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Type Onions which were issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. The Agricultural...

  15. Why are there so many molecular markers tagging the Ms locus of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary source of male sterility used to produce hybrid-onion cultivars is conditioned by the interaction of the cytoplasm (N versus S) and alleles at one nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus Due to the biennial life cycle of onion and the necessity to score testcross progenies, the de...

  16. Toxicity of selected insecticides to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) using a glass-vial bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are important pests that are primarily controlled with insecticides on both onions and cotton in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Resistance to various insecticides has been reported so data are needed on toxicity of insecticides r...

  17. Stunting of onion caused by Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2009 and 2010, 45 isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were recovered from onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, in which patches of severely stunted onion plants developed following rotation with winter cereal cover crops. Characterization of isolates recovered f...

  18. Genetic variation for epicuticular waxes in onion: a thrips-avoidance mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips are one of the main insect pests of onion, causing damage to leaves and stored bulbs as well as transmitting serious diseases such as Iris Yellow Spot Virus and bacterial bulb rots. Reduced quantity and possibly altered chemistry of epicuticular waxes contribute to thrips tolerance in onion. ...

  19. Stunted patches in onion bulb crops in Oregon and Washington: Etiology and yield loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an important soilborne disease in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. From 2010 to 2013, 251 isolates of Rhizoctonia or Rhizoctonia-like spp. were obtained from soil and onion plant samples collected from Oregon and Washington. Sequence analysis ...

  20. Transcriptome sequencing to produce SNP-based genetic maps of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used the 454 platform to sequence from normalized cDNA libraries from each of two parental inbred lines of onion: 5225 is a red, doubled-haploid onion and OH1 is a yellow inbred that shows high frequency of gynogenic haploid production. From approximately 1.6 million reads from each inbred, 27,06...

  1. Iris yellow spot virus: An emerging threat to onion bulb and seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iris yellow spot, caused by Iris yellow spot virus, is an emerging disease of onion in the U.S. and world. The disease has become pandemic in onion in the past decade, and new hosts of the virus continue to be reported. Yield losses vary depending on cultivar susceptibility and grower cultural pract...

  2. 76 FR 43606 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Onion Crop Insurance Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... Insurance Regulations; Onion Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA... Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended effect of this action...

  3. Genetic variation for epicuticular waxes in onion: a thrips-avoidance mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) is the second most valuable vegetable crop in the world and the third most valuable in the USA. Thrips are one of the main insect pests of onion, causing damage to leaves and stored bulbs as well as transmitting serious diseases such as Iris Yellow Spot Virus and bacterial bulb r...

  4. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C.

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions ( Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of γ-irradiation are discussed.

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins. PMID:26284934

  6. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  7. 78 FR 52131 - United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...This Notice would revise the United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions, which were issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is proposing to amend the similar varietal characteristic requirement to allow mixed colors of onions when designated as a mixed or specialty pack. In addition, AMS would correct language and remove the......

  8. A fresh-market onion production system for Oklahoma using short and intermediate cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion is a useful fresh-market specialty crop for some Oklahoma producers. In the state, bulb onion is traditionally established using bare-rooted transplants of short day cultivars which are set in the field in February or March. For commercial scale production this can be a problem because weather...

  9. Broadcast applications of Acetic Acid: Weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oklahoma producers are interested in sweet onion (Allium cepa L.) as an alternative crop for farm diversification, but weed control continues to be a primary obstacle. The weed control challenges for onion production are even greater for those considering organic crop production. The few organic h...

  10. Corn gluten meal as an alternative organic preemergence herbicide for onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas and corn gluten meal (CGM) is an alternative organic preemergence herbicide. Successful onion production is dependent on reliable weed control because of the onion’s slow growth rate, short height, non-branchin...

  11. Transcriptome sequencing to produce a SNP-based genetic map of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the onion genome is challenging because of its enormous size (16 giga base pairs DNA per haploid genome). Pilot sequencing of onion transcripts showed sufficient numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop a detailed genetic map. We sequenced 2.5 Roche-454 plates of norma...

  12. Marked decrease of cyclosporin bioavailability caused by coadministration of ginkgo and onion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Chao, P D L; Hou, Y C; Tsai, S Y; Wen, K C; Hsiu, S L

    2006-09-01

    Quercetin was reported to modulate CYP isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a drug efflux transporter. Our previous study reported that quercetin significantly decreased the bioavailability of cyclosporin, a substrate for CYP3A4 and Pgp, in rats and pigs. Ginkgo and onion contain quercetin and its glycosides as St. John's Wort. The coadministration of cyclosporin with ginkgo or onion may be subject to clinically relevant interactions as St. John's Wort. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influences of ginkgo and onion on the absorption and disposition of cyclosporin in rats. Cyclosporin was administered orally and intravenously to rats with and without an oral dose of ginkgo or onion in crossover designs. Blood samples were collected via cardiopuncture and blood cyclosporin concentration was assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Everted gut sac was used to investigate the effects of ginkgo and onion on the function of intestinal Pgp. Oral coadministration of ginkgo and onion significantly decreased the Cmax of cyclosporin by 62% and 60%, and reduced the AUC0-t by 51% and 68%, respectively, whereas no influence was observed when cyclosporin was given intravenously. This indicates that the interactions between cyclosporin and ginkgo or onion occurred mainly at the absorption site. In conclusion, ginkgo and onion markedly decreased the oral bioavailability of cyclosporin. We suggest that concurrent intake of quercetin-rich herbs or foods with cyclosporin are better avoided in order to ensure the efficacy of cyclosporin. PMID:16762474

  13. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and... imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable institutions or distribution...

  14. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  15. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  16. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  17. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  18. Near-infrared Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging for Early Detection of Sour Skin Disease in Vidalia Sweet Onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sour skin is a major onion disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia). It not only causes substantial economic loss from diseased onions but also could lead to pulmonary infection in humans. It is critical to prevent onions infected by sour skin from entering storage rooms or ...

  19. 76 FR 27919 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and Interest Requirements on Past Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia... delinquent assessment requirements in effect under the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered...

  20. 75 FR 44946 - Spirotetramat; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Dry Bulb Onions in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... AGENCY Spirotetramat; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Dry Bulb Onions in... the pesticide spirotetramat (CAS No. 203313-25-1) to treat up to 275 acres of dry bulb onions to... on dry bulb onions to control thrips. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part 166 was submitted...

  1. 78 FR 37150 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 956 Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla... conducted among eligible producers of sweet onions in the Walla Walla Valley of southeast Washington and... of sweet onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted...

  2. Food variety and biodiversity: Econutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Specht, R L

    1998-12-01

    Both annual biomass production and biodiversity at any locality on earth are continually under threat as the population of Homo sapiens steadily increases, with the resultant pollution of atmosphere, soil and water. Today, environmental degradation and global warming (with its effect on evaporative aerodynamics and cellular respiration) have increased at an alarming rate. The ABP of all terrestrial plant communities (natural or cultivated) is slowly declining, thus reducing the energy supply of component plants and resident animals; in turn, the biodiversity of all the world's ecosystems, plant and animal, is threatened. The maintenance of biodiversity is important to human health for several reasons: (i) a varied food supply is essential to maintain the health of the omnivorous human species; (ii) a range of diverse food sources is necessary to safe-guard against climatic and pestilent disasters which may affect one or more of the food sources; (iii) a diversity of plants and animals may provide a rich source of medicinal material, essential for the extraction of undiscovered therapeutic compounds; (iv) intact ecosystems of indigenous plants and animals appear to act as a buffer to the spread of invasive plants and animals, and of pathogens and toxins, thus contributing to the health of populations nearby; and (v) the 'spiritual' values of exploring the diversity of plants, animals and ecosystems in an area appear to have a beneficial effect on mental health, strengthening the feeling of 'belonging to the landscape'. The variety of foods, their energy contents and food values, consumed throughout the year is amenable to scientific enquiry; as is the amount of energy expended in this collection or production. The control and management of food production and of water supplies, with attention to safety issues, has led to an improvement in life expectancy for a proportion of the world's population. The question is at what point might human health be disadvantaged by

  3. Flavonol content and biometrical traits as a tool for the characterization of "Cipolla di Giarratana": a traditional Sicilian onion landrace.

    PubMed

    Riggi, Ezio; Avola, Giovanni; Siracusa, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2013-10-15

    "Cipolla di Giarratana", a locally cultivated white onion landrace, is listed as an item in the 'List of Traditional Agro-food Products' of the Italian Department for Agriculture and itemised as 'slow food presidium' by the Slow Food Foundation. Ten local accessions were investigated for their biomorphological and biochemical characteristics in five experimental locations. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electron spray-mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS) was used to identify the phenolic profile and quantify phenolic content in bulbs: quercetin, quercetin 3,4' di-O-glucoside and quercetin 4'-O-glucoside were detected as major components. The 'Cipolla di Giarratana' landrace is characterised by a high bulb weight (436g) and high diameter (11cm). The total flavonols content ranged between 68 and 408mgkg(-1) bulb fresh weight in nine of the 10 collected accessions. The opportunity of considering flavonol patterns as chemotaxonomic descriptors in order to characterise onion germplasm is also discussed. PMID:23692770

  4. Bio-ethanol Production from Green Onion by Yeast in Repeated Batch.

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza

    2013-09-01

    Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bio-ethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) by the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" in repeated batch. The results showed that the total sugar concentration of onion juice was 68.4 g/l. The maximum rate of productivity, ethanol yield and final bio-ethanol percentage was 7 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of onion juice per hour), 35 g/l (g ethanol per liter of onion juice) and 90 %, respectively. PMID:24426132

  5. Development of green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Kuroda, Youko; Numata, Masahiko; Iwata, Hitoshi; Mizukoshi, Kazushi; Nakamura, Munetomo; Watai, Masatoshi; Mitsuda, Hitoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ota, Hidekazu

    2011-08-24

    Green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for the analysis of pesticide residues were issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Green onion and cabbage samples were grown so as to contain several kinds of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides, and those were collected from a field in the Kochi Prefecture in Japan. The certification was carried out by using multiple analytical methods to ensure the reliability of analytical results; the values of target pesticides (diazinon, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, etofenprox, and permethrin for green onion and chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, and permethrin for cabbage) were obtained by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Certified values of target pesticides were 0.96-13.9 and 2.41-6.9 mg/kg for green onion and cabbage, respectively. These are the first green onion and cabbage powder certified reference materials in which organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides are determined. PMID:21774469

  6. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice. PMID:26868582

  7. Flame synthesis of carbon nano onions using liquefied petroleum gas without catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Vivek; Prasad, J Sarada; Rao, M Venkateswara; Bharadwaj, S; Anjaneyulu, Y; Jain, Pawan Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Densely agglomerated, high specific surface area carbon nano onions with diameter of 30-40 nm have been synthesized. Liquefied petroleum gas and air mixtures produced carbon nano onions in diffusion flames without catalyst. The optimized oxidant to fuel ratio which produces carbon nano onions has been found to be 0.1 slpm/slpm. The experiment yielded 70% pure carbon nano onions with a rate of 5 g/h. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and Raman spectrum reveal the densely packed sp(2) hybridized carbon with (002) semi-crystalline hexagonal graphite reflection. The carbon nano onions are thermally stable up to 600 °C. PMID:25427484

  8. Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Lee, Eul Tal; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-08-10

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated crops across the globe, and its production is increasing every year due to increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, huge amounts of waste are produced from different parts of the onion, which ultimately affect the environment in various ways. Hence, proper usage as well as disposal of this waste is important from the environmental aspect. This review summarizes various usage methods of onion waste material, and processes involved to achieve maximum benefits. Processing industries produce the largest amount of onion waste. Other sources are storage systems, domestic usage and cultivation fields. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for better extraction and usage of onion waste under specific topics: viz. organic synthesis, production of biogas, absorbent for pollutants and value added products. PMID:27457732

  9. Tracing the Geographical Origin of Onions by Strontium Isotope Ratio and Strontium Content.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Hisaaki; Morita, Sakie; Izawa, Atsunobu; Aoyama, Keisuke; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Nakano, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    The strontium (Sr) isotope ratio ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) and Sr content were used to trace the geographical origin of onions from Japan and other countries, including China, the United States of America, New Zealand, Australia, and Thailand. The mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio and Sr content (dry weight basis) for onions from Japan were 0.70751 and 4.6 mg kg(-1), respectively, and the values for onions from the other countries were 0.71199 and 12.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to classify onions produced in Japan from those produced in the other countries based on the Sr data. The discriminant equation derived from linear discriminant analysis was evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. As a result, the origins of 92% of onions were correctly classified between Japan and the other countries. PMID:27396661

  10. Thrips Settling, Oviposition and IYSV Distribution on Onion Foliage.

    PubMed

    Chitturi, Anitha; Riley, David; Nischwitz, Claudia; Gitaitis, Ron; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2015-06-01

    Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) adult and larval settling and oviposition on onion (Allium cepa L.) foliage were investigated in relation to leaf position and leaf length at prebulb plant growth stages under controlled conditions. In the laboratory, four and six adult females of T. tabaci were released on onion plants at three-leaf stage and six- to eight-leaf stage, respectively, and thrips egg, nymph, and adult count data were collected on each of the three inner most leaves at every 2-cm leaf segment. Thrips settling and oviposition parameters were quantified during the light period on the above ground portion of onion plants from the distal end of the bulb or leaf sheath "neck" through the tips of the foliage. Results from studies confirmed that distribution of thrips adults, nymphs, and eggs were skewed toward the base of the plant. The settling distributions of thrips adults and nymphs differed slightly from the egg distribution in that oviposition occurred all the way to the tip of the leaf while adults and nymphs were typically not observed near the tip. In a field study, the foliage was divided into three equal partitions, i.e., top, middle, basal thirds, and thrips adults by species, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and T. tabaci, were collected from each partition to determine if there was a similar bias of all adult thrips toward the base of the plant. The results suggested that adults of different species appear to segregate along leaf length. Finally, thrips oviposition on 2-cm segments and Iris yellow spot virus positive leaf segments were quantified in the field, irrespective of thrips species. Both variables demonstrated a very similar pattern of bias toward the base of the plant and were significantly correlated. PMID:26470242

  11. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (<2 m) throughout the season. However, 4% of T. tabaci adults captured on sticky cards were at altitudes ≥2 m, and T. tabaci were also captured on UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV. PMID:26314037

  12. Onions, myths, beliefs, fashion and reality in asthma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gimeno, A

    2009-01-01

    Some myths and unsupported beliefs about asthma are very popular and enjoy general public acceptance and fairly strong support on the Internet. Onions for cough; dairy products avoidance for asthma; and some other popular myths are reviewed, along with some other medical and mixed (popular and medical) myths comparing their popular and scientific support. Classifying medical statements as realities or unsupported beliefs is a hard and serious work nowadays addressed by Evidence Based Medicine methods, which are not devoid of the influence of medical fashion: the medical community is more prone to accept fashionable statements compared to non-fashionable or old-fashioned statements. PMID:19945775

  13. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the potato and onion industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular potato or onion processor's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based upon extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  14. Onion-like network topology enhances robustness against malicious attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans J.; Schneider, Christian M.; Moreira, André A.; Andrade, José S., Jr.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    We develop a method to generate robust networks against malicious attacks, as well as to substantially improve the robustness of a given network by swapping edges and keeping the degree distribution fixed. The method, based on persistence of the size of the largest cluster during attacks, was applied to several types of networks with broad degree distributions, including a real network—the Internet. We find that our method can improve the robustness significantly. Our results show that robust networks have a novel 'onion-like' topology consisting of a core of highly connected nodes hierarchically surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree.

  15. Companion cropping with potato onion enhances the disease resistance of tomato against Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuepeng; Wu, Xia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Shen, Yanhui; Wu, Fengzhi

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping could alleviate soil-borne diseases, however, few studies focused on the immunity of the host plant induced by the interspecific interactions. To test whether or not intercropping could enhance the disease resistance of host plant, we investigated the effect of companion cropping with potato onion on tomato Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). To investigate the mechanisms, the root exudates were collected from tomato and potato onion which were grown together or separately, and were used to examine the antifungal activities against V. dahliae in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, RNA-seq was used to examine the expression pattern of genes related to disease resistance in tomato companied with potato onion compared to that in tomato grown alone, under the condition of infection with V. dahliae. The results showed that companion cropping with potato onion could alleviate the incidence and severity of tomato Verticillium wilt. The further studies revealed that the root exudates from tomato companied with potato onion significantly inhibited the mycelia growth and spore germination of V. dahliae. However, there were no significant effects on these two measurements for the root exudates from potato onion grown alone or from potato onion grown with tomato. RNA-seq data analysis showed the disease defense genes associated with pathogenesis-related proteins, biosynthesis of lignin, hormone metabolism and signal transduction were expressed much higher in the tomato companied with potato onion than those in the tomato grown alone, which indicated that these defense genes play important roles in tomato against V. dahliae infection, and meant that the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae was enhanced in the companion copping with potato onion. We proposed that companion cropping with potato onion could enhance the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae by regulating the expression of genes related to disease

  16. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta N; Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Nielsen, Tom H; Hansen, Max; Barri, Thaer; Langkilde, Søren; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2009-12-01

    Onions are excellent sources of bioactive compounds including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polyphenols. An onion by-product was characterised in order to be developed as a potentially bioactive food ingredient. Our main aim was to investigate whether the potential health and safety effects of this onion by-product were shared by either of two derived fractions, an extract containing the onion FOS and polyphenols and a residue fraction containing mainly cell wall materials. We report here on the effects of feeding these products on markers of potential toxicity, protective enzymes and gut environment in healthy rats. Rats were fed during 4 weeks with a diet containing the products or a control feed balanced in carbohydrate. The onion by-product and the extract caused anaemia as expected in rodents for Allium products. No other toxicity was observed, including genotoxicity. Glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activities in erythrocytes increased when rats were fed with the onion extract. Hepatic gene expression of Gr, Gpx1, catalase, 5-aminolevulinate synthase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase was not altered in any group of the onion fed rats. By contrast, gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene expression was upregulated but only in rats given the onion residue. The onion by-products as well as the soluble and insoluble fractions had prebiotic effects as evidenced by decreased pH, increased butyrate production and altered gut microbiota enzyme activities. In conclusion, the onion by-products have no in vivo genotoxicity, may support in vivo antioxidative defence and alter the functionality of the rat gut microbiota. PMID:19682402

  17. Trivalent Graphs, Volume Conjectures and Character Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Pichai, Ramadevi; Zodinmawia

    2014-10-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to colored quantum invariants of the theta and tetrahedron graph. The character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with E edges in S 3 is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus g = E/3 + 1. For the theta and tetrahedron graph, we conjecture that the configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety.

  18. Language Varieties and Standard Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Randolph

    It is argued that viewing learners' errors as evidence for the emergence of new varieties of the English language is dangerously mistaken, particularly where it leads to the abandonment of Standard English as a model for learners. It is shown how this view is mistaken by: (1) citing recent British thinking on the relationship of varieties of…

  19. Pantoea allii sp. nov., isolated from onion plants and seed.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Goszczynska, Teresa; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Gitaitis, Ronald D; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2011-04-01

    Eight yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria were isolated from onion seed in South Africa and from an onion plant exhibiting centre rot symptoms in the USA. The isolates were assigned to the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD sequences, confirmed the allocation of the isolates to the genus Pantoea. MLSA further indicated that the isolates represented a novel species, which was phylogenetically most closely related to Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis also placed the isolates into a cluster separate from P. ananatis and P. stewartii. Compared with type strains of species of the genus Pantoea that showed >97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain BD 390(T), the isolates exhibited 11-55 % whole-genome DNA-DNA relatedness, which confirmed the classification of the isolates in a novel species. The most useful phenotypic characteristics for the differentiation of the isolates from their closest phylogenetic neighbours are production of acid from amygdalin and utilization of adonitol and sorbitol. A novel species, Pantoea allii sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain BD 390(T) ( = LMG 24248(T)). PMID:20495023

  20. Determination of alkaloids in onion nectar by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carolina Soto, Verónica; Jofré, Viviana Patricia; Galmarini, Claudio Romulo; Silva, María Fernanda

    2016-07-01

    Nectar is the most important floral reward offered by plants to insects. Minor components such as alkaloid compounds in nectar affect bee foraging, with great influence in seed production. CE is an advantageous tool for the analysis of unexplored samples such as onion nectar due to the limited amounts of samples. Considering the importance of these compounds, a simultaneous determination of nicotine, theophylline, theobromine, caffeine, harmaline, piperine in onion nectar by MEKC-UV is herein reported. The extraction of alkaloid compounds in nectar was performed by SPE using a homemade miniaturized column (C18 ). Effects of several important factors affecting extraction efficiency as well as electrophoretic performance were investigated to acquire optimum conditions. Under the proposed conditions, the analytes can be separated within 15 min in a 50 cm effective length capillary (75 μm id) at a separation voltage of 20 kV in 20 mmol/L sodium tretraborate, 100 mmol/L SDS. The amount of sample requirement was reduced up to 2000 times, when compared to traditional methods, reaching limits of detection as low as 0.0153 ng/L. For the first time, this study demonstrates that there are marked qualitative and quantitative differences in nectar alkaloids between open pollinated and male sterile lines (MSLs) and also within MSLs. PMID:27005835

  1. Isolation of Spherosomes (Oleosomes) from Onion, Cabbage, and Cottonseed Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yatsu, L. Y.; Jacks, T. J.; Hensarling, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Subcellular particles, identical in appearance to spherosomes observed in situ, were isolated from onions (Allium cepa L.) and cabbages (Brassica capitata L.). They were minute spherules about 1 micron in diameter, filled with an evenly stained osmiophilic matrix and delimited by a single, fineline membrane 20 to 30 Å thick. “Spherosomes” isolated from onions and cabbages were compared with “oil-droplets” isolated from cottonseeds. Morphologically, they were similar, even at ultrastructural levels. Their chemical compositions were also similar: both types of particles containing primarily lipid with very little phospholipid or protein. Neither type of particle possessed acid phosphatase activity. These results indicate that oil-droplets of oleaginous tissues correspond to spherosomes of nonoily tissues. Therefore, both types of particles should be referred to by the same name. Since these particles are rich in lipids, it is suggested that the name “spherosome” be abandoned in favor of “oleosome,” which is also entitled to priority. Images PMID:16657860

  2. Site specific atomic polarizabilities in endohedral fullerenes and carbon onions

    SciTech Connect

    Zope, Rajendra R. Baruah, Tunna; Bhusal, Shusil; Basurto, Luis; Jackson, Koblar

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the polarizability of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes by partitioning the total polarizability into site specific components. This analysis indicates that the polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is essentially due to the outer fullerene cage and has insignificant contribution from the encapsulated unit. Thus, the outer fullerene cages effectively shield the encapsulated clusters and behave like Faraday cages. The polarizability of endohedral fullerenes is slightly smaller than the polarizability of the corresponding bare carbon fullerenes. The application of the site specific polarizabilities to C{sub 60}@C{sub 240} and C{sub 60}@C{sub 180} onions shows that, compared to the polarizability of isolated C{sub 60} fullerene, the encapsulation of the C{sub 60} in C{sub 240} and C{sub 180} fullerenes reduces its polarizability by 75% and 83%, respectively. The differences in the polarizability of C{sub 60} in the two onions is a result of differences in the bonding (intershell electron transfer), fullerene shell relaxations, and intershell separations. The site specific analysis further shows that the outer atoms in a fullerene shell contribute most to the fullerene polarizability.

  3. Onion and garlic dehydration in the San Emidio Desert, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Integrated Ingredients dedicated their new onion and garlic processing plant on May 25th. {open_quotes}Grunion{close_quotes} as the new community of 72 employees has been labeled, is located just south of Empire and Gerlach and about 100 miles north of Reno, Nevada. The plant, run by Integrated Ingredients (based in Alameda, CA), is a division of Burns Philp Food, Inc., which owns brands such as Spice Islands, Durkee-French and Fleischmann`s. This plant gives the company the ability to produce its own products for industrial and consumer markets instead of purchasing them. The plant was located in the San Emidio Desert at the edge of the vast Black Rock Desert and the Great Basin to take advantage of the high temperature geothermal resource (approximately 270{degrees}F). The resource is also used by the OESI/AMOR II 3.6 MW binary plant about a mile south of the dehydration plant and a gold heap leaching operation just to the north of the plant (Wind Mt. mine operated by AMAX). In addition to the geothermal energy, the high desert is an ideal location for onion and garlic processing because the cold winters kill damaging microbes. Dry winters and summers also help.

  4. Site specific atomic polarizabilities in endohedral fullerenes and carbon onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zope, Rajendra R.; Bhusal, Shusil; Basurto, Luis; Baruah, Tunna; Jackson, Koblar

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the polarizability of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes by partitioning the total polarizability into site specific components. This analysis indicates that the polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is essentially due to the outer fullerene cage and has insignificant contribution from the encapsulated unit. Thus, the outer fullerene cages effectively shield the encapsulated clusters and behave like Faraday cages. The polarizability of endohedral fullerenes is slightly smaller than the polarizability of the corresponding bare carbon fullerenes. The application of the site specific polarizabilities to C60@C240 and C60@C180 onions shows that, compared to the polarizability of isolated C60 fullerene, the encapsulation of the C60 in C240 and C180 fullerenes reduces its polarizability by 75% and 83%, respectively. The differences in the polarizability of C60 in the two onions is a result of differences in the bonding (intershell electron transfer), fullerene shell relaxations, and intershell separations. The site specific analysis further shows that the outer atoms in a fullerene shell contribute most to the fullerene polarizability.

  5. Site specific atomic polarizabilities in endohedral fullerenes and carbon onions.

    PubMed

    Zope, Rajendra R; Bhusal, Shusil; Basurto, Luis; Baruah, Tunna; Jackson, Koblar

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the polarizability of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes by partitioning the total polarizability into site specific components. This analysis indicates that the polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is essentially due to the outer fullerene cage and has insignificant contribution from the encapsulated unit. Thus, the outer fullerene cages effectively shield the encapsulated clusters and behave like Faraday cages. The polarizability of endohedral fullerenes is slightly smaller than the polarizability of the corresponding bare carbon fullerenes. The application of the site specific polarizabilities to C60@C240 and C60@C180 onions shows that, compared to the polarizability of isolated C60 fullerene, the encapsulation of the C60 in C240 and C180 fullerenes reduces its polarizability by 75% and 83%, respectively. The differences in the polarizability of C60 in the two onions is a result of differences in the bonding (intershell electron transfer), fullerene shell relaxations, and intershell separations. The site specific analysis further shows that the outer atoms in a fullerene shell contribute most to the fullerene polarizability. PMID:26328842

  6. Enzymatic production of pectic oligosaccharides from onion skins.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Baldassarre, Stefania; Maesen, Miranda; Prandi, Barbara; Dejonghe, Winnie; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Onion skins are evaluated as a new raw material for the enzymatic production of pectic oligosaccharides (POS) with a targeted degree of polymerization (DP). The process is based on a two-stage process consisting of a chelator-based crude pectin extraction followed by a controlled enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment of the extracted crude onion skin's pectin with various enzymes (EPG-M2, Viscozyme and Pectinase) shows that EPG-M2 is the most appropriate enzyme for tailored POS production. The experiments reveal that the highest amount of DP2 and DP3 is obtained at a time scale of 75-90min with an EPG-M2 concentration of 26IU/mL. At these conditions the production amounts 2.5-3.0% (w/w) d.m for DP2 and 5.5-5.6% (w/w) d.m for DP3 respectively. In contrast, maximum DP4 production of 5.2-5.5% (w/w) d.m. is obtained with 5.2IU/mL at a time scale of 15-30min. Detailed LC-MS analysis reveals the presence of more methylated oligomers compared to acetylated forms in the digests. PMID:27112872

  7. [Nixtamalization cooking characteristics of 11 maize varieties].

    PubMed

    Billeb de Sinibaldi, A C; Bressani, R

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, 11 maize varieties were analyzed for their nixtamalization cooking quality. The 11 varieties were grown in the same locality and in the same year. The samples were evaluated for their physical characteristics, such as moisture content averaging 13.3%, average 1000 kernel weight (312.5 g), grain hardness through density (1.28 g/ml) and percent floaters (9.5%). These data indicated that all maize varieties had a hard endosperm which is recommended for the nixtamalization cooking process. The 11 varieties were formed on the average by 5.7% seed coat, 11.5% germ and 82.8% endosperm. The low seed coat content suggest a low solids loss during processing. Cooking quality evaluation was done by applying a standard lime cooking procedure to all varieties. An average solid loss of 3.2% was measured, with 0.8% of seed coat still attached to the endosperm. Water absorption at the end of cooking was 40.8% without soaking and 46.9% at the end of soaking. Nixtamal moisture was 47.9% after soaking and only 41.5% at the end of cooking. Cooking time with soaking for 50% moisture in the grain varied from 69 to 122 minutes at 1500 meters over sea level. The cooked grain was dried with hot air and ground however, the particle size obtained was not as that in commercial nixtamalized maize flour. However, the cooking quality parameters to make dough and tortillas were acceptable, with a penetration index of hydrated flour of 178.6 mm, pH 7.97, water absorption index (WAI) of 3.23 g gel/g flour and 4.11% water solubility index (WSI). All flours from the 11 varieties of maize gave acceptable tortillas as evaluated by physical characteristics and sensory quality. However of the 11 varieties 7 including the control were superior for nixtamalization cooking quality. PMID:11515238

  8. Multi-layer onion drying: Study of mass and heat transfer mechanism and quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiah, N.; Djaeni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Drying is one of methods to prolong storage life of onion. The outer layer of onion has kept dry around 12% of moisture content or below to retain the freshness of its inside part. The model of multi layers onion drying is very important to predict the water and temperature transport during dying process. In this case, one dimensional partial equation was used for predicting moisture distribution in the onion layer. To support the study, the onion drying was performed at various temperatures ranging of 40-50 °C. Then the attribute quality (quercetin content) of dried onion was analysed. The experimental data was to validate the value of water diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient used in the model. Results showed that the model can predict moisture distribution in each layer of onion. Moreover, based on the average moisture content during the drying, the model result closed to experiment data with accuracy of R2 0.970-0.999. The model was useful to estimate the drying time of outer layer to the desired level. Besides that, the quality evaluation showed that after 2 hours drying process, quercetin content can be retained.

  9. Investigating the effect of invasion characteristics on onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations in onions with a temperature-driven process model.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Stevens, Mark; Liu, De Li; Herron, Grant

    2009-12-01

    A temperature-driven process model was developed to describe the seasonal patterns of populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, in onions. The model used daily cohorts (individuals of the same developmental stage and daily age) as the population unit. Stage transitions were modeled as a logistic function of accumulated degree-days to account for variability in development rate among individuals. Daily survival was modeled as a logistic function of daily mean temperature. Parameters for development, survival, and fecundity were estimated from published data. A single invasion event was used to initiate the population process, starting at 1-100 d after onion emergence (DAE) for 10-100 d at the daily rate of 0.001-0.9 adults/plant/d. The model was validated against five observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations from two unsprayed sites in the Riverina, New South Wales, Australia, during 2003-2006. Performance of the model was measured by a fit index based on the proportion of variations in observed data explained by the model (R (2)) and the differences in total thrips-days between observed and predicted populations. Satisfactory matching between simulated and observed seasonal patterns was obtained within the ranges of invasion parameters tested. Model best-fit was obtained at invasion starting dates of 6-98 DAE with a daily invasion rate of 0.002-0.2 adults/plant/d and an invasion duration of 30-100 d. Under the best-fit invasion scenarios, the model closely reproduced the observed seasonal patterns, explaining 73-95% of variability in adult and larval densities during population increase periods. The results showed that small invasions of adult thrips followed by a gradual population build-up of thrips within onion crops were sufficient to bring about the observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations in onion. Implications of the model on timing of chemical controls are discussed. PMID:20021751

  10. Influence of different habitats and mating on olfactory behavior of onion flies seeking ovipositional hosts.

    PubMed

    Judd, G J; Borden, J H

    1992-04-01

    Using traps baited with natural and synthetic onion volatiles, we examined the effects of different habitats and mating on the olfactory behavior of laboratory-reared and wild onion flies. Rankings of olfactory treatments as host-finding stimuli for females were dependent on their mating status and the habitat in which they were foraging. In habitats devoid of hosts, traps baited with individual alkyl sulfides were as effective as 4-day-old chopped onions and more effective than 1-day-old onions in eliciting host-finding behavior in laboratory-reared unmated females (LUF) and laboratory-reared mated females (LMF). However, upwind dispersal and percent recapture were always significantly greater in LUF. In one experiment, Pr2S2 was 19 times more attractive to LMF in a fallow field, as than it was in an onion field. Reduced effectiveness of alkyl sulfides as host-finding stimuli in onion fields probably results in part because they are less findable, but more importantly because of a change in searching behavior after females have mated. Evidence to support the latter contention is that traps baited with alkyl sulfides and onions were equally findable by unmated females in both habitats. The behavior of LMF was identical to that of wild females, whereas the behavior of LUF was identical to wild males. The hypothesis that olfactory host-finding behavior in onion flies is modified by the resource level was upheld. Alkyl sulfides appear to be the primary, and possibly the only, chemical effectors of host-finding at the patch level of resource distribution, whereas the complex blend emitted by aged, chopped, or damaged onions appears to be acting at the final level of host-finding, while egg-laying females are moving between adjacent hosts in search of an optimal oviposition site. PMID:24253870

  11. Comparative sequence and genetic analyses of asparagus BACs reveal no microsynteny with onion or rice.

    PubMed

    Jakse, Jernej; Telgmann, Alexa; Jung, Christian; Khar, Anil; Melgar, Sergio; Cheung, Foo; Town, Christopher D; Havey, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    The Poales (includes the grasses) and Asparagales [includes onion (Allium cepa L.) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)] are the two most economically important monocot orders. The Poales are a member of the commelinoid monocots, a group of orders sister to the Asparagales. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed a high degree of synteny among the grasses; however, it is not known if this synteny extends to other major monocot groups such as the Asparagales. Although we previously reported no evidence for synteny at the recombinational level between onion and rice, microsynteny may exist across shorter genomic regions in the grasses and Asparagales. We sequenced nine asparagus BACs to reveal physically linked genic-like sequences and determined their most similar positions in the onion and rice genomes. Four of the asparagus BACs were selected using molecular markers tightly linked to the sex-determining M locus on chromosome 5 of asparagus. These BACs possessed only two putative coding regions and had long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons. Five asparagus BACs were selected after hybridization of three onion cDNAs that mapped to three different onion chromosomes. Genic-like sequences that were physically linked on the cDNA-selected BACs or genetically linked on the M-linked BACs showed significant similarities (e < -20) to expressed sequences on different rice chromosomes, revealing no evidence for microsynteny between asparagus and rice across these regions. Genic-like sequences that were linked in asparagus were used to identify highly similar (e < -20) expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of onion. These onion ESTs mapped to different onion chromosomes and no relationship was observed between physical or genetic linkages in asparagus and genetic linkages in onion. These results further indicate that synteny among grass genomes does not extend to a sister order in the monocots and that asparagus may not be an appropriate smaller genome

  12. Dietary fenugreek and onion attenuate cholesterol gallstone formation in lithogenic diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2011-10-01

    An animal study was conducted to evaluate the antilithogenic effect of a combination of dietary fenugreek seeds and onion. Lithogenic conditions were induced in mice by feeding them a high (0.5%) cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 weeks. Fenugreek (12%) and onion (2%) were included individually and in combination in this HCD. Fenugreek, onion and their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 75%, 27% and 76%, respectively, with attendant reduction in total cholesterol content by 38-42%, 50-72% and 61-80% in serum, liver and bile respectively. Consequently, the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was reduced significantly in serum, liver and bile. The cholesterol saturation index of bile was reduced from 4.14 to 1.38 by the combination of fenugreek and onion and to 2.33 by onion alone. The phospholipid and bile acid contents of the bile were also increased. Changes in the hepatic enzyme activities (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase, cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and cholesterol-27-hydroxylase) induced by HCD were countered by fenugreek, onion and their combination. Hepatic lipid peroxides were reduced by 19-22% and 39-45% with fenugreek, onion and their combination included in the diet along with the HCD. Increased accumulation of fat in the liver and inflammation of the gallbladder membrane produced by HCD were reduced by fenugreek, onion and their combination. The antilithogenic influence was highest with fenugreek alone, and the presence of onion along with it did not further increase this effect. There was also no additive effect of the two spices in the recovery of antioxidant molecules or in the antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:21756271

  13. Characterisation of the welsh onion isolate of Shallot yellow stripe virus from China.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Wei, C-B; Zheng, H-Y; Shi, Y-H; Adams, M J; Lin, L; Zhang, Q-Y; Wang, S-J; Chen, J-P

    2005-10-01

    The host range and nucleotide sequence of shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) from welsh onion in Shandong province, China is described. Of the plants tested, only shallot and welsh onion became infected but most shallot plants were symptomless. The complete sequence of one isolate (10429 nt) and the 3'-terminal 3540 nts of a second isolate were determined. They had c. 90% nt identity to one another and to published (partial) sequences of SYSV. SYSV was most closely related to onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and resembled it in having a much larger P3 protein than other species in the genus. PMID:15968472

  14. Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized carbon nano-onions for high resolution cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmess, Juergen; de Luca, Elisa; Signorelli, Angelo; Baldrighi, Michele; Becce, Michele; Brescia, Rosaria; Nardone, Valentina; Parisini, Emilio; Echegoyen, Luis; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Giordani, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical studies due to their low toxicity, efficient cellular uptake and low fluorescence quenching of attached probes.Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical

  15. The onion universe: all sky lightcone simulations in spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Castander, Francisco J.; Manera, Marc

    2008-11-01

    Galaxy surveys provide a large-scale view of the universe that typically has a limited line of sight or redshift resolution. The lack of radial accuracy in these surveys can be modelled by picturing the universe as a set of concentric radial shells of finite width around the observer, i.e. an onion-like structure. We present a new N-body simulation with 20483 particles developed at the Marenostrum supercomputer with the GADGET-2 code. Using the lightcone output we build a set of angular maps that mimic this onion-like representation of the universe. The onion maps are a highly compressed version of the raw data (i.e. a factor of >1000 smaller size for arcminute resolution maps) and they provide a new and powerful tool to exploit large-scale structure observations. We introduce two basic applications of these maps that are especially useful for constraining dark energy properties: the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in the galaxy power spectrum and all-sky maps of the weak lensing distortion. In particular, from the matter density maps, we determine the smallest scale where linear theory and the Gaussianity of the error analysis applies. Using the weak lensing maps, we measure the convergence power spectra and compare it to halo fit predictions. We also discuss mass resolution effects and error determinations. As a further application, we compute the variance and higher order moments of the maps. We show that sampling variance on scales of few degrees is quite large, resulting in a significant (25 per cent at 10 arcmin scales) bias in the variance. We caution that current lensing surveys such as the COSMOS HST should take into account this bias and extra sampling error in their clustering analyses and inferred cosmological parameter constraints. Finally, we test the importance of projection effects in the weak lensing mass reconstruction. On the mean, the mass calibration works well but it exhibits a large non-Gaussian scatter what could induce a large bias in

  16. Monitoring of substrate and product concentrations in acetic fermentation processes for onion vinegar production by NIR spectroscopy: value addition to worthless onions.

    PubMed

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Sánchez-Gallardo, C; Pizarro, C

    2008-08-01

    Wastes and by-products of the onion-processing industry pose an increasing disposal and environmental problem and represent a loss of valuable sources of nutrients. The present study focused on the production of vinegar from worthless onions as a potential valorisation route which could provide a viable solution to multiple disposal and environmental problems, simultaneously offering the possibility of converting waste materials into a useful food-grade product and of exploiting the unique properties and health benefits of onions. This study deals specifically with the second and definitive step of the onion vinegar production process: the efficient production of vinegar from onion waste by transforming onion ethanol, previously produced by alcoholic fermentation, into acetic acid via acetic fermentation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), coupled with multivariate calibration methods, has been used to monitor the concentrations of both substrates and products in acetic fermentation. Separate partial least squares (PLS) regression models, correlating NIR spectral data of fermentation samples with each kinetic parameter studied, were developed. Wavelength selection was also performed applying the iterative predictor weighting-PLS (IPW-PLS) method in order to only consider significant spectral features in each model development to improve the quality of the final models constructed. Biomass, substrate (ethanol) and product (acetic acid) concentration were predicted in the acetic fermentation of onion alcohol with high accuracy using IPW-PLS models with a root-mean-square error of the residuals in external prediction (RMSEP) lower than 2.5% for both ethanol and acetic acid, and an RMSEP of 6.1% for total biomass concentration (a very satisfactory result considering the relatively low precision and accuracy associated with the reference method used for determining the latter). Thus, the simple and reliable calibration models proposed in this study suggest that they

  17. DNA integrity of onion root cells under catechol influence.

    PubMed

    Petriccione, Milena; Forte, Valentina; Valente, Diego; Ciniglia, Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Catechol is a highly toxic organic pollutant, usually abundant in the waste effluents of industrial processes and agricultural activities. The environmental sources of catechol include pesticides, wood preservatives, tanning lotion, cosmetic creams, dyes, and synthetic intermediates. Genotoxicity of catechol at a concentration range 5 × 10(-1)-5 mM was evaluated by applying random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and time-lapse DNA laddering tests using onion (Allium cepa) root cells as the assay system. RAPD analysis revealed polymorphisms in the nucleotidic sequence of DNA that reflected the genotoxic potential of catechol to provoke point mutations, or deletions, or chromosomal rearrangements. Time-lapse DNA laddering test provided evidence that catechol provoked DNA necrosis and apoptosis. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining could distinguish apoptotic from necrotic cells in root cells of A. cepa. PMID:23307075

  18. Lasing properties of polymerized chiral nematic Bragg onion microlasers.

    PubMed

    Humar, Matjaž; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo; Muševič, Igor

    2016-08-22

    Dye doped photocurable cholesteric liquid crystal was used to produce solid Bragg onion omnidirectional lasers. The lasers were produced by dispersing and polymerizing chiral nematic LC with parallel surface anchoring of LC molecules at the interface, extracted and transferred into another medium. Lasing characteristics were studied in carrier medium with different refractive index. The lasing in spherical cholesteric liquid crystal was attributed to two mechanisms, photonic bandedge lasing and lasing of whispering-gallery modes. The latter can be suppressed by using a higher index carrier fluid to prevent total internal reflection on the interface of the spheres. Pulse-to-pulse stability and threshold characteristics were also studied and compared to non-polymerized lasers. The polymerization process greatly increases the lasing stability. PMID:27557203

  19. Onion-like carbon from ultra-disperse diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Chuvilin, Andrey L.; Butenko, Yuri V.; Mal'kov, Igor Yu.; Titov, Vladimir M.

    1994-05-01

    A new material containing macroscopic quantities of onion-like carbon (OLC) particles is produced by heat treatment of ultra-disperse diamond (UDD) powder (2-6 nm). Annealing products (characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy) are presented by; (a) quasi-spherical particles with closed concentric graphite shells, (b) polyhedron particles with closed shells, (c) elongated particles with linked external graphite-like layers and closed quasi-spherical internal shells. The intermediates of UDD transformation have been registered. The structural transformation of UDD begins from the surface of the diamond particles towards a crystal bulk. The transformation rate of (111) diamond planes to graphite-like sheets is higher than that of other planes.

  20. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels. PMID:24302558

  1. Molecular Rigidity in Dry and Hydrated Onion Cell Walls.

    PubMed Central

    Ha, M. A.; Apperley, D. C.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments can provide information on the rigidity of individual molecules within a complex structure such as a cell wall, and thus show how each polymer can potentially contribute to the rigidity of the whole structure. We measured the proton magnetic relaxation parameters T2 (spin-spin) and T1p (spin-lattice) through the 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of dry and hydrated cell walls from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Dry cell walls behaved as rigid solids. The form of their T2 decay curves varied on a continuum between Gaussian, as in crystalline solids, and exponential, as in more mobile materials. The degree of molecular mobility that could be inferred from the T2 and T1p decay patterns was consistent with a crystalline state for cellulose and a glassy state for dry pectins. The theory of composite materials may be applied to explain the rigidity of dry onion cell walls in terms of their components. Hydration made little difference to the rigidity of cellulose and most of the xyloglucan shared this rigidity, but the pectic fraction became much more mobile. Therefore, the cellulose/xyloglucan microfibrils behaved as solid rods, and the most significant physical distinction within the hydrated cell wall was between the microfibrils and the predominantly pectic matrix. A minor xyloglucan fraction was much more mobile than the microfibrils and probably corresponded to cross-links between them. Away from the microfibrils, pectins expanded upon hydration into a nonhomogeneous, but much softer, almost-liquid gel. These data are consistent with a model for the stress-bearing hydrated cell wall in which pectins provide limited stiffness across the thickness of the wall, whereas the cross-linked microfibril network provides much greater rigidity in other directions. PMID:12223827

  2. Molecular Rigidity in Dry and Hydrated Onion Cell Walls.

    PubMed

    Ha, M. A.; Apperley, D. C.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1997-10-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments can provide information on the rigidity of individual molecules within a complex structure such as a cell wall, and thus show how each polymer can potentially contribute to the rigidity of the whole structure. We measured the proton magnetic relaxation parameters T2 (spin-spin) and T1p (spin-lattice) through the 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of dry and hydrated cell walls from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Dry cell walls behaved as rigid solids. The form of their T2 decay curves varied on a continuum between Gaussian, as in crystalline solids, and exponential, as in more mobile materials. The degree of molecular mobility that could be inferred from the T2 and T1p decay patterns was consistent with a crystalline state for cellulose and a glassy state for dry pectins. The theory of composite materials may be applied to explain the rigidity of dry onion cell walls in terms of their components. Hydration made little difference to the rigidity of cellulose and most of the xyloglucan shared this rigidity, but the pectic fraction became much more mobile. Therefore, the cellulose/xyloglucan microfibrils behaved as solid rods, and the most significant physical distinction within the hydrated cell wall was between the microfibrils and the predominantly pectic matrix. A minor xyloglucan fraction was much more mobile than the microfibrils and probably corresponded to cross-links between them. Away from the microfibrils, pectins expanded upon hydration into a nonhomogeneous, but much softer, almost-liquid gel. These data are consistent with a model for the stress-bearing hydrated cell wall in which pectins provide limited stiffness across the thickness of the wall, whereas the cross-linked microfibril network provides much greater rigidity in other directions. PMID:12223827

  3. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Gaber Hashem Gaber; Laíño, Rosana Badía; Calzón, Josefa Angela García

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v) NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions), while solely carbon dots (C-dots) were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum), under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined. PMID:27335764

  4. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Gaber Hashem Gaber; Laíño, Rosana Badía; Calzón, Josefa Angela García; García, Marta Elena Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v) NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions), while solely carbon dots (C-dots) were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum), under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined. PMID:27335764

  5. Separation of mercury from aqueous mercuric chloride solutions by onion skins

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, S.; Konishi, Y.; Tomisaki, H.; Nakanishi, M.

    1986-01-01

    The separation of mercury from aqueous HgCl/sub 2/ solutions by onion skins (outermost coat) was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The distribution equilibria were measured by the batchwise method. The experimental results revealed that onion skin is a useful material for separating mercury from aqueous systems. The distribution data obtained at 25/sup 0/C were analyzed by using the theory based on the law of mass action. The separation of dissolved mercury by onion skins was found to be a process accompanied by an ion-exchange reaction of the cationic complex HgCl/sup +/ and an adsorption of the neutral complex HgCl/sub 2/. The equilibrium constants of the ion-exchange and adsorption processes at 25/sup 0/C and the mercury-binding capacity of onion skins were determined. Further, it was found that the distribution equilibrium of mercury is comparatively insensitive to temperature.

  6. Field evaluation of rice varieties for resistance to major diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and use of improved disease resistant rice varieties remains of foremost importance to rice producers, with field evaluation under local environments essential. In this study, we evaluated new and existing varieties, potential releases, and Texas elite breeding lines for resistance t...

  7. High yield synthesis and HREM study of fullerene tubules and fullerene onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoping; Wang, Youwen; Li, Wenzhou

    1994-01-01

    The fullerene tubules and fullerene onions are synthesized in macroscopic quantity with high yield by modified Kratschmer et. al. method. Besides ordinary concentric fullerene tubules, also are observed abnormal nonconcentric multilayer glaphitic tubules with varying layer spacings. The curved graphitic tubules are observed, showing the tendency to form torus. Under appropriate helium pressure, about half of the synthesized product is the multi-shell fullerene onions, polyhedral in shape in accord with the theoretical calculation. [11

  8. A rapid and non-invasive bio-photonic technique to monitor the quality of onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, H.; Hussain, F.; Ahmad, E.; Ikram, M.

    2015-08-01

    We present the use of swept source optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the skins and concentric tissue leaves of intact whole onion bulb as well as single leave. The normal and watery scaled (defective) onion's outer leaves and whole bulb have been characterized by cross sectional imaging of internal defects. The method can be used as potential investigating technique for application of food quality check during long storage.

  9. A new phase transformation path from nanodiamond to new-diamond via an intermediate carbon onion.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Li, J L; Liu, P; Yang, G W

    2014-12-21

    The investigation of carbon allotropes such as graphite, diamond, fullerenes, nanotubes and carbon onions and mechanisms that underlie their mutual phase transformation is a long-standing problem of great fundamental importance. New diamond (n-diamond) is a novel metastable phase of carbon with a face-centered cubic structure; it is called "new diamond" because many reflections in its electron diffraction pattern are similar to those of diamond. However, producing n-diamond from raw carbon materials has so far been challenging due to n-diamond's higher formation energy than that of diamond. Here, we, for the first time, demonstrate a new phase transformation path from nanodiamond to n-diamond via an intermediate carbon onion in the unique process of laser ablation in water, and establish that water plays a crucial role in the formation of n-diamond. When a laser irradiates colloidal suspensions of nanodiamonds at ambient pressure and room temperature, nanodiamonds are first transformed into carbon onions serving as an intermediate phase, and sequentially carbon onions are transformed into n-diamonds driven by the laser-induced high temperature and high pressure from the carbon onion as a nanoscaled temperature and pressure cell upon the process of laser irradiation in a liquid. This phase transformation not only provides new insight into the physical mechanism involved, but also offers one suitable opportunity for breaking controllable pathways between n-diamond and carbon allotropes such as diamond and carbon onions. PMID:25369973

  10. Hypocholesterolemic Efficacy of Quercetin Rich Onion Juice in Healthy Mild Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Shen, You-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Chun; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-12-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely employed as a food ingredient as well as traditional remedy to treat fever, burns, and scurvy. The present study focused on the modulator efficacy of the quercetin rich onion juice on lipid profile and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (≧ 200 mg/dL) were recruited and divided into two groups, and they consumed 100 mL of onion juice or placebo every day for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at initial, 2nd, 6th, 8th, 10th week for estimating various biochemical assays, as well as anthropometric indices. After 8 weeks of intervention, onion juice greatly decreased (p < 0.05) waist circumference, total cholesterol and LDL-c. In addition, it elevates (p < 0.05) total antioxidation capacity and prolong lag-time of LDL oxidation were also noted. To conclude, drinking onion juice could markedly suppress cholesterol level and elevate total antioxidation capacity. Hence, onion juice was probably recommended for combating various cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26385226

  11. Effective onion vinegar production by a two-step fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, J; Kanno, T; Kobayashi, M

    2000-01-01

    A two-step fermentation system combining a repeated batch process using a flocculating yeast with a charcoal pellet bioreactor was developed for onion vinegar production. Juice from the red onion R-3, which contained 67.3 g/l total sugar, was smoothly converted to onion alcohol containing 30.6 g/l ethanol by repeated batch operation using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IR-2. Stable operation was possible and the maximum productivity was about 8.0 g/l/h. A packed bed bioreactor containing charcoal pellets produced from waste mushroom medium was then applied to continuous onion vinegar production from the onion alcohol. Onion vinegar was successfully produced, with a maximum productivity and acetic acid concentration of about 3.3 g/l/h and 37.9 g/l, respectively. The total acetic acid yield calculated from the amount of sugar consumed was 0.86. The two-step system was operated for 50 d and proved to be competitive with other systems in terms of its high productivity, high acetic acid yield, operational stability and low production costs. PMID:16232858

  12. Interactions involving ozone, Botrytis cinerea, and B. squamosa on onion leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Rist, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Interactions involving Botrytis cinerea Pers., B. squamosa Walker, and ozone on onion (alium cepae L.) were investigated. Initially, threshold dosages of ozone required to predispose onion leaves to greater infection by B. cinerea and B. squamosa were determined under controlled conditions in an ozone-exposure chamber. Subsequent experiments supported the hypothesis that nutrients leaking out of ozone-injured cells stimulated lesion production by B. cinerea. The electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of onion plants which had been exposed to ozone were greater than the electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of other, non-exposed onion plants. When conidia of B. cinerea were suspended in dew collected from leaves of plants which had been exposed to ozone and the resulting suspension atomized onto leaves of non-exposed plants, more lesions were induced than on leaves of other non-exposed plants inoculated with conidia suspended in dew collected from plants which had not been exposed to ozone. EDU protected onion leaves from ozone-induced predisposition to these fungi under controlled conditions. Experiments designed to detect interaction between B. cinerea and B. squamosa in onion leaf blighting indicated that such interaction did not occur. Leaves were blighted rapidly when inoculated with B. squamosa whether B. cinerea was present or absent.

  13. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  14. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  15. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  16. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  17. Variety, Palatability, and Obesity1234

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Fiona; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Among the key characteristics of the Western obesogenic food environment is a highly palatable and varied food supply. Laboratory investigations of eating behavior in both humans and animals established key roles for palatability and variety in stimulating appetite, delaying satiety, and promoting excessive energy intake. There is a robust effect of food palatability and variety on short-term food intake, and increased variety and palatability also cause weight gain in animal models. However, laboratory paradigms do not replicate the complexities of eating in a natural setting, and there is a shortage of evidence to estimate the magnitude of effects on weight in humans. There are substantial individual differences in susceptibility to the palatability effect and this may be a key determinant in individual vulnerability to weight gain. The understanding of pathways through which palatability and variety can affect eating is advancing, and epidemiologic and intervention studies are needed to translate laboratory findings into applications in public health or clinical domains, and to establish whether there is a role for greater regulation of the food environment in tackling increases in obesity. PMID:25398751

  18. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  19. Identification and DUS Testing of Rice Varieties through Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Pourabed, Ehsan; Jazayeri Noushabadi, Mohammad Reza; Jamali, Seyed Hossein; Moheb Alipour, Naser; Zareyan, Abbas; Sadeghi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Identification and registration of new rice varieties are very important to be free from environmental effects and using molecular markers that are more reliable. The objectives of this study were, first, the identification and distinction of 40 rice varieties consisting of local varieties of Iran, improved varieties, and IRRI varieties using PIC, and discriminating power, second, cluster analysis based on Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, and, third, determining the ability of microsatellite markers to separate varieties utilizing the best combination of markers. For this research, 12 microsatellite markers were used. In total, 83 polymorphic alleles (6.91 alleles per locus) were found. In addition, the variation of PIC was calculated from 0.52 to 0.9. The results of cluster analysis showed the complete discrimination of varieties from each other except for IR58025A and IR58025B. Moreover, cluster analysis could detect the most of the improved varieties from local varieties. Based on the best combination of markers analysis, five pair primers together have shown the same results of all markers for detection among all varieties. Considering the results of this research, we can propose that microsatellite markers can be used as a complementary tool for morphological characteristics in DUS tests. PMID:25755666

  20. Highly surface functionalized carbon nano-onions for bright light bioimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasconi, Marco; Maffeis, Viviana; Bartelmess, Juergen; Echegoyen, Luis; Giordani, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials functionalized with fluorescent and water-soluble groups have emerged as platforms for biological imaging because of their low toxicity and ability to be internalized by cells. The development of imaging probes based on carbon nanomaterials for biomedical studies requires the understanding of their biological response as well as the efficient and safety exposition of the nanomaterial to the cell compartment where it is designed to operate. Here, we present a fluorescent probe based on surface functionalized carbon nano-onions (CNOs) for biological imaging. The modification of CNOs by chemical oxidation of the defects on the outer shell of these carbon nanoparticles results in an extensive surface functionalization with carboxyl groups. We have obtained fluorescently labelled CNOs by a reaction involving the amide bond formation between fluoresceinamine and the carboxylic acids groups on the surface of the CNOs. The functionalized CNOs display high emission properties and dispersability in water due to the presence of high surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups that translate in an efficient fluorescent probe for in vitro imaging of HeLa cells, without significant cytotoxicity. The resulting nanomaterial represents a promising platform for biological imaging applications due to the high dispersability in water, its efficient internalization by cancer cells and localization in specific cell compartments.

  1. Hypoglycemic effects of Welsh onion in an animal model of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Ji-Hye; Choi, Ha-Neul; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Han, Jung-Hee; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2010-01-01

    Tight control of blood glucose is the most important strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of Welsh onion on fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. Inhibitory activities of hot water extracts from the green stalk and white bulb, which are the edible portions of the Welsh onion, and the fibrous root extract against yeast α-glucosidase were measured in vitro. To study the effects of Welsh onion on postprandial hyperglycemia, a starch solution (1 g/kg) with and without Welsh onion fibrous root extract (500 mg/kg) or acarbose (50 mg/kg) was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after an overnight fast. Postprandial plasma glucose levels were measured and incremental areas under the response curve were calculated. To study the hypoglycemic effects of chronic feeding of Welsh onion, five-week-old db/db mice were fed an AIN-93G diet or a diet containing either Welsh onion fibrous root extract at 0.5% or acarbose at 0.05% for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Fasting plasma glucose and blood glycated hemoglobin were measured. Compared to the extract from the edible portions of Welsh onion, the fibrous root extract showed stronger inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase, with an IC50 of 239 µg/mL. Oral administration of Welsh onion fibrous root extract (500 mg/kg) and acarbose (50 mg/kg) significantly decreased incremental plasma glucose levels 30-120 min after oral ingestion of starch as well as the area under the postprandial glucose response curve, compared to the control group (P < 0.01). The plasma glucose and blood glycated hemoglobin levels of the Welsh onion group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.01), and were not significantly different from those fed acarbose. Thus, we conclude that the fibrous root of Welsh onion is effective in controlling hyperglycemia in animal models of diabetes mellitus. PMID:21286406

  2. Addition of garlic or onion before irradiation on lipid oxidation, volatiles and sensory characteristics of cooked ground beef.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han Sul; Lee, Eun Joo; Moon, Sun Hee; Paik, Hyun Dong; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-06-01

    Addition of 0.5% onion was effective in reducing lipid oxidation in irradiated cooked ground beef after 7 day storage. Addition of garlic or onion greatly increased the amounts of sulfur volatiles from cooked ground beef. Irradiation and storage both changed the amounts and compositions of sulfur compounds in both garlic- and onion-added cooked ground beef significantly. Although, addition of garlic and onion produced large amounts of sulfur compounds, the intensity of irradiation odor and irradiation flavor in irradiated cooked ground beef was similar to that of the nonirradiated control. Addition of garlic (0.1%) or onion (0.5%) to ground beef produced a garlic/onion aroma and flavor after cooking, and the intensity was stronger with 0.1% garlic than 0.5% onion treatment. Considering the sensory results and the amounts of sulfur compounds produced in cooked ground beef with added garlic or onion, 0.5% of onion or less than 0.1% of garlic is recommended to mask or change irradiation off-odor and off-flavor. PMID:21277693

  3. Preparation, characterization and applications of functionalized carbon nano-onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeramoju, Mahendra K.

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) discovered by Ugarte in 1992 are multi-layered fullerenes that are spherical analogs of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with diameters varying from 6 nm to 30 nm. Among the various methods of synthesis, CNOs prepared by graphitization of nanodiamonds (N-CNOs) and underwater electric arc of graphite rods (A-CNOs) are the subject of our research. N-CNOs are considered as more reactive than A-CNOs due to their smaller size, high curvature and surface defects. This dissertation focuses on structural analysis and surface functionalization of NCNOs with diameters ranging from 6---10 nm. Synthetic approaches such as oleumassisted oxidation, Freidel-Crafts acylation and Billups reductive alkylation were used to functionalize N-CNOs to improve their dispersion properties in aqueous and organic solvents. Functionalized N-CNOs were characterized using various techniques such as TGA, TG-MS, Raman spectroscopy and pH-titrimetry. We designed an experimental method to isolate polycyclic aromatic adsorbates formed on the surface of oleum oxidized N-CNOs (ON-CNOs) and characterized them. A-CNOs, on the other hand are bigger than N-CNOs with diameters ranging from 20---40 nm. In this dissertation, we discuss the preparation of graphene structures by unzipping of A-CNOs using KMnO4 as oxidizing agent. These graphene structures were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, TGA, BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption studies and compressed powder conductivity. This dissertation also focuses on lithiation/delithiation studies of N-CNOs, ACNOs and A-CNO-derived graphene structures to use them as negative electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The cycling performances of these materials at a charge/discharge rate of C/10 were discussed. The cycling performance of N-CNOs was tested at faster charge/discharge rate of C. KEYWORDS: Nano-onions, oleum-assisted oxidation, Friedel-Crafts acylation, graphene, lithium ion batteries.

  4. Chemoprevention of aberrant crypt foci in the colon of rats by dietary onion.

    PubMed

    Taché, Sylviane; Ladam, Aélis; Corpet, Denis E

    2007-01-01

    Onion intake might reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, according to epidemiology. However, Femia showed in 2003 that diets with a 20% onion intake increase carcinogenesis in rats. We speculated this dose was too high. Prevention of initiation was thus tested in 60 rats given a 5% dried onion diet or AIN76 diet, and initiated 12 days later with azoxymethane (AOM, 1x20 mg/kg i.p.), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ, 2x200 mg/kg p.o.), or N-nitroso-N-methylurea (2x50 mg/kg p.o.). Prevention of promotion was tested in 38 rats given AOM, then randomised to: AIN76 diet; 5% onion diet; phytochemicals diet (supplemented with propyl-disulfide, quercetine-glycosides and oligofructose); 1% pluronic F68 diet (a potent chemopreventive PEG-like block-polymer, used as a positive control). Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were scored 30 days (initiation) or 100 days (promotion) after carcinogen injection. The onion diet given during initiation reduced the number of AOM-induced ACF (60 versus 86, p=0.03), and the size of IQ-induced ACF (1.33 versus 1.97, p=0.02). Given post-initiation, the onion diet reduced the number of ACF (34 versus 59, p=0.008) and of large ACF (6 versus 15, p=0.02). Phytochemicals diet and pluronic diet reduced ACF growth similarly. Data show that a 5% onion diet reduced carcinogenesis during initiation and promotion stages, and suggest this chemoprevention is due to known phytochemicals. PMID:17188859

  5. Colonization of Onions by Endophytic Fungi and Their Impacts on the Biology of Thrips tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Muvea, Alexander M.; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant–herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci. PMID:25254657

  6. Onion Inbred Line ‘B8667 A&B’ and Synthetic Populations ‘Sapporo-Ki-1 A&B’ and ‘Onion Haploid-1’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, announces the release of onion inbred ‘B8667 A&B’ and synthetic population ‘Sapporo-Ki (SKI) -1 A&B’. Both of these releases represent a cytoplasmic male-sterile (A) line with its maintainer (B) for seed propagation of male...

  7. Pressure-induced transformations in carbon nano-onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Mingguang; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Jiajun; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bingbing

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) with an average diameter of 43 nm have been studied under pressure. The interlayer d-spacings of the CNOs are expanded by about 3% compared to those of the larger CNOs with average diameter of 150 nm studied earlier. High pressure study on the G-band of the small CNOs indicates that a bonding change was initiated at 23.4 GPa, which is higher than that of the larger CNOs. The small CNOs were destroyed into amorphous fragments at above 48 GPa with a large applied deviatoric stress, showing a lower high pressure stability compared with the larger CNOs. These features are qualitatively similar to the size effects observed in the compression behavior of some nanocrystalline materials, showing that a reduced cluster size gives similar physical effects in the two classes of materials. The present results for CNOs can be rationalized by the interlayer expansion and the highly turbostratic layer structure of the studied material. The fact that CNOs with different diameters behave differently upon compression is important when selecting materials for applications.

  8. Metal ion bombardment of onion skin cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Vilaithong, T.; Yu, L.D.; Verdaguer, A.; Ratera, I.; Ogletree, D.F.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    2004-05-10

    Ion bombardment of living cellular material is a novel subfield of ion beam surface modification that is receiving growing attention from the ion beam and biological communities. Although it has been demonstrated that the technique is sound, in that an adequate fraction of the living cells can survive both the vacuum environment and energetic ion bombardment, there remains much uncertainty about the process details. Here we report on our observations of onion skin cells that were subjected to ion implantation, and propose some possible physical models that tend to support the experimental results. The ion beams used were metallic (Mg, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu), mean ion energy was typically 30keV, and the implantation fluence was in the range 1014 1016 ions/cm2. The cells were viewed using Atomic Force Microscopy, revealing the formation of microcrater-like structures due to ion bombardment. The implantation depth profile was measured with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and compared to the results of the TRIM, T-DYN and PROFILE computer codes.

  9. Photofragment image analysis using the Onion-Peeling Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2003-07-01

    With the growing popularity of the velocity map imaging technique, a need for the analysis of photoion and photoelectron images arose. Here, a computer program is presented that allows for the analysis of cylindrically symmetric images. It permits the inversion of the projection of the 3D charged particle distribution using the Onion Peeling Algorithm. Further analysis includes the determination of radial and angular distributions, from which velocity distributions and spatial anisotropy parameters are obtained. Identification and quantification of the different photolysis channels is therefore straightforward. In addition, the program features geometry correction, centering, and multi-Gaussian fitting routines, as well as a user-friendly graphical interface and the possibility of generating synthetic images using either the fitted or user-defined parameters. Program summaryTitle of program: Glass Onion Catalogue identifier: ADRY Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRY Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer: IBM PC Operating system under which the program has been tested: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT Programming language used: Delphi 4.0 Memory required to execute with typical data: 18 Mwords No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9 911 434 Distribution format: zip file Keywords: Photofragment image, onion peeling, anisotropy parameters Nature of physical problem: Information about velocity and angular distributions of photofragments is the basis on which the analysis of the photolysis process resides. Reconstructing the three-dimensional distribution from the photofragment image is the first step, further processing involving angular and radial integration of the inverted image to obtain velocity and angular distributions. Provisions have to be made to correct for slight distortions of the image, and to

  10. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  11. Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Hee; Lee, Joong Won; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Sunyeong; Kim, Yang Jee; Lee, Younghyun; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee; Chung, Hai Won

    2016-01-01

    Following one of the world’s largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage is a simple strategy for minimizing radiation-related cancer rates and improving overall health. The onion is among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and is an important food for increasing their overall intake. Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM), a radiomimetic agent. In addition, we measured the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and DNA damage following treatment with BLM using a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. The frequency of BLM induced MN and DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, when lymphocytes were pretreated with onion extract (10 and 20 μL/mL), the frequency of BLM-induced MN was decreased at all doses of BLM and DNA damage was decreased at 3 μg/mL of BLM. These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. PMID:26907305

  12. Production of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Growing Onion Bulbs Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa E (HQ324110)

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed H.; Bashandy, Shymaa R.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen organic compounds were present in growing onion bulbs cultivar Giza 6 infected with P. aeruginosa, but only fourteen of them are present in dry infected onion bulbs; however, four compounds were missing in dry onion. The missing compounds in dry infected onion bulbs are pantolactone, 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(3H)-one, myristic acid, and linoleic acid. All of them were detected in growing onion (living cell) during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and it is hypothesized that it may be produced by plants and act as defence system. Pantolactone and myristic acid were selected to explore their effects on growth and virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exogenous application of pantolactone and myristic acid significantly inhibited pyocyanin production, protease, and lipase and polygalacturonase activity but did not have any significant effects on bacterial growth. The inhibition of virulence factors without reduction in bacterial growth may be providing strong support that these chemical molecules are general quorum sensing inhibitors than an antibacterial effect. Disruption of quorum sensing of pathogen indicates that this new approach has potential in fighting bacterial infections in human and plants. PMID:23724316

  13. Yield loss assessments for cultivars of broccoli, lettuce, and onion exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Temple, P J; Jones, T E; Lennox, R W

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the photochemical oxidant air pollutant ozone (O(3)) on growth and yield of three garden crops, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and onion (Allium cepa L.) were studied in an open-top chamber experiment conducted in the field in southern California. Four cultivars each of leaf lettuce, broccoli, and globe onion were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered (NF) air, or NF plus 1.5 times ambient O(3) concentration from 4 weeks after germination in January or February until harvest. Exposures lasted 31 days for lettuce, 55 to 78 days for broccoli, and 105 days for onion. Results showed that despite severe O(3) injury to outer leaves, lettuce yields were not affected by O(3). Broccoli also was resistant to O(3) and no growth reduction was observed at ambient O(3) concentrations. Onions were more susceptible to O(3), but only one cv. 'Rio Bravo' had significant yield losses (ca. 5%) at ambient O(3) levels. These results suggest that, in general, concentrations of O(3) in the winter and spring may be below the threshold for adverse effects on yields of broccoli, lettuce and onion. PMID:15092228

  14. Clean recovery of antioxidant flavonoids from onions: optimising solvent free microwave extraction method.

    PubMed

    Zill-E-Huma; Abert Vian, Maryline; Maingonnat, Jean Francois; Chemat, Farid

    2009-11-01

    A solvent free microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity extraction (MHG) of flavonol content from onion (Allium cepa L.) was studied. Effectiveness of this innovative method in extraction of onion total phenolic content, total quercetin (TQ), quercetin aglycon (QA), quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside (QDG), quercetin-4'-monoglucoside (Q4G), quercetin-3-monoglucoside (Q3G), kaempferol (KMF) and myricetin (MRT) have been evaluated and compared with conventional solvent extraction. Microwave extraction offers important advantages like shorter extraction time (23min), cleaner feature (no solvent or water used) and extraction of valuable onion crude juice retaining fresh organoleptic properties with higher phenolic content (58.29mgGAE/gDW) at optimized power (500W). Microwave extraction resulted significant yield (81.5%) with 41.9% of flavonol contents, with better retain of remaining flavonoids (55.9%) in residues of onions. QDG (239.7mg/100gDW) and Q4G (82.55mg/100gDW) have been reported the main flavonol in this study. Minor quantities of QA (traces), Q3G (4.22mg/100gDW) and KMF (3.99mg/100gDW) were also detected in microwave onion extracts. PMID:19800069

  15. AIB-OR: Improving Onion Routing Circuit Construction Using Anonymous Identity-Based Cryptosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  16. Characterization of industrial onion wastes (Allium cepa L.): dietary fibre and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A; Esteban, Rosa M

    2011-03-01

    The food industry produces a large amount of onion wastes, making it necessary to search for possible ways for their utilization. One way could be to use these onion wastes as a natural source of high-value functional ingredients, since onion are rich in several groups of compounds, which have perceived benefits to human health. The objective of this work is to gain knowledge of any differences between the different onion wastes obtained from industry and non-commercial bulbs to use them as food ingredients rich in specific compounds. The results showed that brown skin and top-bottom could be potentially used as functional ingredient rich in dietary fibre, mainly in insoluble fraction, and in total phenolics and flavonoids, with high antioxidant activity. Moreover, brown skin showed a high concentration of quercetin aglycone and calcium, and top-bottom showed high concentration of minerals. Outer scales could be used as source of flavonols, with good antioxidant activity and content of dietary fibre. However, inner scales could be an interesting source of fructans and alk(en)yl cystein sulphoxides. In addition, discarded onions (cvs Recas and Figueres) could be used as a good source of dietary fibre, and cv Recas also as a source of phenolics compounds. PMID:21318305

  17. Stimulo-deterrent diversion: A concept and its possible application to onion maggot control.

    PubMed

    Miller, J R; Cowles, R S

    1990-11-01

    Considerable basic information has been gathered on the interaction between the onion fly (Delia antiqua) and its host plant, the onion (Allium cepa). An attempt is underway to manipulate ovipositional behavior of this pest by treating onion seedlings with chemical deterrents while simultaneously providing deeply planted onion culls on which onion flies prefer to lay. This bipolar strategy of behavioral manipulation, termed "stimulo-deterrent diversion" (SDD), has the advantages of: (1) avoiding severe pest deprival and concomitant overriding of deterrents, (2) combining the effects of "push" and "pull" multiplicatively, and (3) providing opportunities for enhanced biological control in sites where the pest becomes concentrated. The suggestion is made that using SDD along with soil insecticide might relax or even reverse selection for physiological resistance ofD. antiqua to insecticides. As tools of molecular biology open new possibilities for manipulating plants and their allelochemicals, applied chemical ecologists should consider arranging situations where the allelochemicals have clear and adaptive messages for the pest. By combining toxins and deterrents at sites where feeding should be prevented, while simultaneously expediting use of alternative plants or plant parts, it might be possible to guide pest evolution toward paths of less conflict with human interest. PMID:24263303

  18. Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoon Hee; Lee, Joong Won; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Sunyeong; Kim, Yang Jee; Lee, Younghyun; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee; Chung, Hai Won

    2016-02-01

    Following one of the world's largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage is a simple strategy for minimizing radiation-related cancer rates and improving overall health. The onion is among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and is an important food for increasing their overall intake. Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM), a radiomimetic agent. In addition, we measured the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and DNA damage following treatment with BLM using a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. The frequency of BLM induced MN and DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, when lymphocytes were pretreated with onion extract (10 and 20 μL/mL), the frequency of BLM-induced MN was decreased at all doses of BLM and DNA damage was decreased at 3 μg/mL of BLM. These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. PMID:26907305

  19. Hepatoprotective potentials of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Obioha, Udoka E; Suru, Stephen M; Ola-Mudathir, Kikelomo F; Faremi, Toyin Y

    2009-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in rats is reported. Control group received double-distilled water alone. Cd group was challenged with 3CdSO(4).8H(2)O (as Cd; 1.5 mg/kg bw per day per oral) alone, while extract-treated groups were pretreated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g bw per day per oral) for a week and thereafter co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/kg bw per day per oral) for 3 weeks. Cd caused a marked (p < 0.001) increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and glutathione S-transferase, whereas glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were decreased in the liver. We also observed a decrease in hepatic activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase and a concomitant increase in the plasma activities of ALT and AST. Onion and garlic extracts significantly attenuated these adverse effects of Cd. Onion extract proffered a dose-dependent hepatoprotection. Our study showed that Cd-induced oxidative damage in rat liver is amenable to attenuation by high dose of onion and moderate dose of garlic extracts possibly via reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defense system that is insufficient to prevent and protect Cd-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:19082532

  20. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties

    PubMed Central

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

  1. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    PubMed

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

  2. Varieties of maximal line subbundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxbury, W. M.

    2000-07-01

    The point of this note is to make an observation concerning the variety M(E) parametrizing line subbundles of maximal degree in a generic stable vector bundle E over an algebraic curve C. M(E) is smooth and projective and its dimension is known in terms of the rank and degree of E and the genus of C (see Section 1). Our observation (Theorem 3·1) is that it has exactly the Chern numbers of an étale cover of the symmetric product S[delta]C where [delta] = dim M(E).This suggests looking for a natural map M(E) [rightward arrow] S[delta]C; however, it is not clear what such a map should be. Indeed, we exhibit an example in which M(E) is connected and deforms non-trivially with E, while there are only finitely many isomorphism classes of étale cover of the symmetric product. This shows that for a general deformation in the family M(E) cannot be such a cover (see Section 4).One may conjecture that M(E) is always connected. This would follow from ampleness of a certain Picard-type bundle on the Jacobian and there seems to be some evidence for expecting this, though we do not pursue this question here.Note that by forgetting the inclusion of a maximal line subbundle in E we get a natural map from M(E) to the Jacobian whose image W(E) is analogous to the classical (Brill-Noether) varieties of special line bundles. (In this sense M(E) is precisely a generalization of the symmetric products of C.) In Section 2 we give some results on W(E) which generalise standard Brill-Noether properties. These are due largely to Laumon, to whom the author is grateful for the reference [9].

  3. An exploratory NMR nutri-metabonomic investigation reveals dimethyl sulfone as a dietary biomarker for onion intake.

    PubMed

    Winning, Hanne; Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Dragsted, Lars O; Viereck, Nanna; Poulsen, Morten; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Engelsen, Søren B

    2009-11-01

    The metabolome following intake of onion by-products is evaluated. Thirty-two rats were fed a diet containing an onion by-product or one of the two derived onion by-product fractions: an ethanol extract and the residue. A 24 hour urine sample was analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy in order to investigate the effects of onion intake on the rat metabolism. Application of interval extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) proved to be able to distinguish between the metabolomic profiles from rats consuming normal feed and rats fed with an onion diet. Two dietary biomarkers for onion intake were identified as dimethyl sulfone and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. The same two dietary biomarkers were subsequently revealed by interval partial least squares regression (PLS) to be perfect quantitative markers for onion intake. The best PLS calibration model yielded a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.97% (w/w) with only 1 latent variable and a squared correlation coefficient of 0.94. This indicates that urine from rats on the by-product diet, the extract diet, and the residue diet all contain the same dietary biomarkers and it is concluded that dimethyl sulfone and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid are dietary biomarkers for onion intake. Being able to detect specific dietary biomarkers is highly beneficial in the control of nutritionally enhanced functional foods. PMID:19838425

  4. Goals of a grant funded by the Specialty Crops Research Initiative Grant on translational genomics and pest resistances in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed translational genomics. Classical breeding of onion is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics will revolutionize onion...

  5. Effects of postharvest onion curing parameters on bulb rot caused by Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea ananatis, and Pantoea allii in storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop loss of onion bulbs during storage carries an exceptionally high economic impact since a large portion of the production expenses have been expended before storage occurs. Because of this, it is important to define practices that can reduce onion bulb losses caused by storage rots. This study...

  6. Plant density and N fertilizer rate on yield and nutrient content of onion developed from greenhouse grown transplants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) can be established from seed or transplants. The latter planting material can be dormant or actively growing when transplanted to the field. Onion transplants can be produced in a greenhouse, but additional information is needed regarding the cultural requirements for these...

  7. Response of direct-seeded dry bulb onion to simulated glyphosate drift with variable rates and application timings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2011 at the Malheur Experiment Station, Ontario, OR and Prosser, WA to evaluate the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on direct-seeded dry bulb onion. Glyphosate was applied at 8.6, 25.8, 86, 290, 434, and 860 g ae ha-1 when onion plants were at the flag-, 2-, 4-, ...

  8. Corn gluten meal and spring-transplanted onions (Allium cepa L.): Crop safety, weed control, and yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas and corn gluten meal (CGM) is an alternative organic preemergence herbicide. Successful onion production is dependent on reliable weed control because of the onion’s slow growth rate, short height, non-branchin...

  9. A fresh-market production system for the U.S. southern plains using short and intermediate daylength onion cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion is a fresh-market specialty crop for producers in the U. S. southern plains. Oklahoma onion crops are typically established using bare-rooted transplants of short-day cultivars that are set in the field in February or March. Fluctuating weather conditions (temperature and rainfall) impose limi...

  10. Herbicides derived from natural products and their role in the integrated management of weeds in organic Vidalia sweet onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timely cultivation with a tine weeder is the primary tool for successful weed control in organic Vidalia® sweet onion. Vidalia® sweet onion is a cool-season crop and weather conditions frequently arise that delay cultivation. These delays are often caused by excessive rainfall. Herbicides derived...

  11. First Genome Sequence of Wild Onion Symptomless Virus, a Novel Member of Potyvirus in the Turnip Mosaic Virus Phylogenetic Group.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Kazusato; Korkmaz, Savas; Mitoma, Shinichiro; Nomiyama, Rei; Honda, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The nearly complete genome sequence of a new species of potyvirus was obtained from the symptomless wild onion (Allium sp.) in Turkey. This virus has less than 67% nucleotide sequence identities over the polyprotein to other known potyviruses. We propose the name wild onion symptomless virus for this novel potyvirus. PMID:27540073

  12. 75 FR 34345 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... FR 18428). Copies of the rule were mailed or sent via facsimile to all Committee members and Walla... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 956 Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast... requirements prescribed under the marketing order regulating the handling of sweet onions grown in the...

  13. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  14. First Genome Sequence of Wild Onion Symptomless Virus, a Novel Member of Potyvirus in the Turnip Mosaic Virus Phylogenetic Group

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Savas; Mitoma, Shinichiro; Nomiyama, Rei; Honda, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The nearly complete genome sequence of a new species of potyvirus was obtained from the symptomless wild onion (Allium sp.) in Turkey. This virus has less than 67% nucleotide sequence identities over the polyprotein to other known potyviruses. We propose the name wild onion symptomless virus for this novel potyvirus. PMID:27540073

  15. 76 FR 37618 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and Interest Requirements on Past Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... FR 27919). Copies of the rule were mailed or sent via facsimile to all Committee members and Vidalia... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and... order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia...

  16. 76 FR 67317 - Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, OR; Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Federal Register on June 21, 2011 (76 FR 35997). Copies of the rule were made available to all Committee... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 958 Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule revises the handling regulation for onions handled under the...

  17. Plant response of onion cultivars developed from greenhouse-grown transplants to plant density and fertilizer rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) can be established from seed or transplants. The latter planting material can be dormant or actively growing when transplanted to the field. Onion transplants can be produced in a greenhouse, but there are gaps in the knowledge of the cultural requirements for these plants ...

  18. Straw Mulch and Reduced-Risk Pesticide Impacts upon Thrips and Iris yellow spot virus on Western-Grown Onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) and its thrips vector, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, are yield limiting pests of onion throughout the western U.S. In experiments conducted in Colorado during 2005 to 2007, straw mulch applied to the center of onion beds reduced early to mid-bulb growth stage thrips populatio...

  19. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  20. Corn gluten meal and spring-transplanted onions (Allium cepa L.): crop safety, weed control, and yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas and corn gluten meal (CGM) is an alternative organic preemergence herbicide. Successful onion production is dependent on reliable weed control because of the onion’s slow growth rate, short height, non-branchin...

  1. Rhizoctonia spp. dynamics and optimal timing of glyphosate application to cereal cover crops to manage onion stunting in Washington and Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion stunting or bare patch caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an economically important disease in sandy soils of the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. Patches of stunted onions develop where cover crops of wheat or barley are killed with a herbicide spray prior to spring planting of onion seed....

  2. Yield responses of three onion cultivars to stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia spp. cause patches of stunted onion plants in onion bulbs crop in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon when onion crops are planted in sandy soils of this semi-arid region following winter cereal cover crops. A herbicide application is used to kill the cereal cover crop, usually ...

  3. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Dicastillo, Carol López; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  4. Method to obtain carbon nano-onions by pyrolisys of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Martin, Tomas; Rincon-Arevalo, Pedro; Campos-Martin, Gemma

    2013-11-01

    We present a new and simple method for carbon nano-onions (CNOs) production which is based on the pyrolysis of Propane. CNOs are originated in a laminar premixed Propane/Oxygen flame of approximately 1.8 of stoichiometric coefficient. The stream of gasses resulting from the combustion drives the carbon particles towards the aluminium surface on which nano-onions are deposited and collected. The structure and size of the deposited carbon onion on the metal wall are characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy technique (HRTEM). The experimental images show the presence of two different types of CNOs. The first particles have diameters in the range of 18-25 nm and the second ones around 10 nm.

  5. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  6. A new phase transformation path from nanodiamond to new-diamond via an intermediate carbon onion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, J.; Li, J. L.; Liu, P.; Yang, G. W.

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of carbon allotropes such as graphite, diamond, fullerenes, nanotubes and carbon onions and mechanisms that underlie their mutual phase transformation is a long-standing problem of great fundamental importance. New diamond (n-diamond) is a novel metastable phase of carbon with a face-centered cubic structure; it is called ``new diamond'' because many reflections in its electron diffraction pattern are similar to those of diamond. However, producing n-diamond from raw carbon materials has so far been challenging due to n-diamond's higher formation energy than that of diamond. Here, we, for the first time, demonstrate a new phase transformation path from nanodiamond to n-diamond via an intermediate carbon onion in the unique process of laser ablation in water, and establish that water plays a crucial role in the formation of n-diamond. When a laser irradiates colloidal suspensions of nanodiamonds at ambient pressure and room temperature, nanodiamonds are first transformed into carbon onions serving as an intermediate phase, and sequentially carbon onions are transformed into n-diamonds driven by the laser-induced high temperature and high pressure from the carbon onion as a nanoscaled temperature and pressure cell upon the process of laser irradiation in a liquid. This phase transformation not only provides new insight into the physical mechanism involved, but also offers one suitable opportunity for breaking controllable pathways between n-diamond and carbon allotropes such as diamond and carbon onions.The investigation of carbon allotropes such as graphite, diamond, fullerenes, nanotubes and carbon onions and mechanisms that underlie their mutual phase transformation is a long-standing problem of great fundamental importance. New diamond (n-diamond) is a novel metastable phase of carbon with a face-centered cubic structure; it is called ``new diamond'' because many reflections in its electron diffraction pattern are similar to those of diamond

  7. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  8. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  9. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  10. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  11. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  12. Platinum electrodeposition on unsupported carbon nano-onions.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Diana; Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G; Palkar, Amit; Barraza-Jimenez, Diana; Galvan, D H; Casillas, Gilberto; Mayoral, Alvaro; Jose-Yacamán, Miguel; Echegoyen, Luis; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2012-12-11

    An effort to develop smaller, well-dispersed catalytic materials electrochemically on high-surface-area carbon supports is required for improved fuel cell performance. A high-surface-area carbon material of interest is carbon nano-onions (CNOs), also known as multilayer fullerenes. The most convenient synthesis method for CNOs is annealing nanodiamond particles, thus retaining the size of the precursors and providing the possibility to prepare very small nanocatalysts using electrochemical techniques. In terms of pure metal catalysts, platinum is the most common catalyst used in fuel cells. The combination of Pt nanoparticles with CNOs could lead to new catalytic nanomaterials. In this work, this was accomplished by using a rotating disk-slurry electrode (RoDSE) technique. The Pt/CNO catalysts were prepared from slurries that contained functionalized CNOs and K(2)PtCl(6) as the platinum precursor in aqueous 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that 37% of the Pt on the CNOs is metallic Pt whereas 63% had higher binding energies, which is evidence of higher oxidation states or the presence of Pt atoms and clusters on CNOs. However, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy of the Pt/CNOs confirmed the presence of Pt atoms and clusters on CNOs. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed the excellent thermal stability of the Pt/CNOs and a lower onset potential for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol compared to that of commercial Pt/Vulcan catalyst material. The computational method confirmed the Pt atoms' location at CNOs surface sites. Geometric parameters for distances between Pt atoms in the 3Pt/CNOs molecular system from our theoretical calculations are in agreement with the respective parameters obtained experimentally. The combination of CNO with RoDSE presents a new highly dispersed catalyst nanomaterial. PMID:23145813

  13. Effective hepatitis A virus inactivation during low-heat dehydration of contaminated green onions.

    PubMed

    Laird, David T; Sun, Yan; Reineke, Karl F; Shieh, Y Carol

    2011-08-01

    Preserving fruits and vegetables by dehydration is common; however, information is limited concerning viral survival on the produce during the process. This work demonstrated the effects of low heat dehydration on inactivating hepatitis A virus (HAV) on contaminated green onions. Inoculated and uninoculated onion samples were dehydrated at target temperatures of 45-65 °C for 20 h. HAV from artificially contaminated onions (fresh or dehydrated) was eluted by shaking at 145 rpm at 20 °C for 20 min with 3% beef extract, pH 8, and followed by 0.2 μM-membrane filtration before plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Dilutions of the filtrates were made for obtaining countable plaques on FRhK-4 cell monolayers in 6-well plates, and also for eliminating inhibitors in qRT-PCR. Average water activity of the onions after 20 h-dehydration was 0.227, regardless of temperature used (47.9 °C or 65.1 °C). Eight dehydration trials resulted in a linear relationship between HAV inactivation and dehydration temperature, with HAV log reduction = 0.1372x(°C) - 5.5572, r(2) = 0.88. Therefore, the 20 h-heating at 47.8, 55.1, and 62.4 °C reduced infectious HAV in onions by 1, 2, and 3 logs respectively, the Z value being 7.3 °C. It was concluded that low heat dehydration using 62.5 °C or above could effectively inactivate HAV on contaminated onions by >3 logs. PMID:21569944

  14. Pb-inhibited mitotic activity in onion roots involves DNA damage and disruption of oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Plant responses to abiotic stress significantly affect the development of cells, tissues and organs. However, no studies correlating Pb-induced mitotic inhibition and DNA damage and the alterations in redox homeostasis during root division per se were found in the literature. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of Pb on mitotic activity and the associated changes in the oxidative metabolism in onion roots. The cytotoxic effect of Pb on cell division was assessed in the root meristems of Allium cepa (onion). The mitotic index (MI) was calculated and chromosomal abnormalities were sought. Pb-treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in MI in the onion root tips and caused mitotic abnormalities such as distorted metaphase, fragments, sticky chromosomes, laggards, vagrant chromosomes and bridges. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis was also performed to evaluate Pb induced genotoxicity. It was accompanied by altered oxidative metabolism in the onion root tips suggesting the interference of Pb with the redox homeostasis during cell division. There was a higher accumulation of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydrogen peroxide, and a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases in Pb-treated onion roots, whereas catalases activity exhibited a decreasing pattern upon Pb exposure. The study concludes that Pb-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the onion roots is mediated through ROS and is also tightly linked to the cell cycle. The exposure to higher concentrations arrested cell cycle leading to cell death, whereas different repair responses are generated at lower concentrations, thereby allowing the cell to complete the cell cycle. PMID:25023386

  15. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 2. Onions and other bulb crops.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1984-01-01

    The various factors contributing to post harvest losses in onions and other bulb crops are briefly outlined in terms of the current storage methods. The present status of research on sprout inhibition by irradiation is reviewed in detail with respect to dose requirements, effect of time interval between harvest and irradiation, and the influence of environment on sprouting during storage. Biochemical mechanisms of sprout inhibition, metabolic and compositional changes (particularly sugars, anthocyanins, flavor and lachrymatory principles), and the culinary and processing qualities of irradiated onions are discussed. The future prospects for the commercial irradiation for sprout inhibition of bulb crops are considered. PMID:6386340

  16. Limitation of dietary copper and zinc decreases superoxide dismutase activity in the onion fly, Delia antiqua.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Ooe, S; Ishikawa, Y

    1997-06-01

    Larvae of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, have lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when they are fed a defined synthetic diet that contains no copper or zinc. SOD activity was rapidly recovered when these larvae were fed onion bulbs. Addition of copper and zinc to the synthetic diet also led to the recovery of SOD activity. Results of an immunoblotting analysis using anti-D. antiqua CuZnSOD mouse monoclonal antibody suggest that this alteration of SOD activity is dependent on the amount of CuZnSOD. PMID:9172377

  17. Measurement of multilamellar onion dimensions under shear using frequency domain pulsed gradient NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutti, Antoine; Callaghan, Paul T.

    2007-08-01

    We present a simple method by which the dimensions of shear-induced multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), also known as onions, can be measured during the shearing process itself. This approach is based on the use of a closely spaced train of magnetic field gradient pulses applied during a CPMG echo sequence. The CPMG train compensates flow effects while the frequency-dependence of apparent diffusion can reveal the onion size. We present here a simple phenomenological model for restricted diffusion in multilamellar vesicles, which may be used to interpret the resulting diffusion spectrum. We demonstrate this approach with MLVs formed from the lamellar phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in water and octanol.

  18. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 2. Onions and other bulb crops

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The various factors contributing to post harvest losses in onions and other bulb crops are briefly outlined in terms of the current storage methods. The present status of research on sprout inhibition by irradiation is reviewed in detail with respect to dose requirements, effect of time interval between harvest and irradiation, and the influence of environment on sprouting during storage. Biochemical mechanisms of sprout inhibition, metabolic and compositional changes (particularly sugars, anthocyanins, flavor and lachrymatory principles), and the culinary and processing qualities of irradiated onions are discussed. The future prospects for the commercial irradiation for sprout inhibition of bulb crops are considered.

  19. Familial varieties of primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Stowasser, M; Gunasekera, T G; Gordon, R D

    2001-12-01

    1. Improved approaches to screening and diagnosis have revealed primary aldosteronism (PAL) to be much more common than previously thought, with most patients normokalaemic. The spectrum of this disorder has been further broadened by the study of familial varieties. 2. Familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I) is a glucocorticoid-remediable form of PAL caused by the inheritance of an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- regulated, hybrid CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene. Diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by the advent of genetic testing. The severity of hypertension varies widely in FH-I, even among members of the same family, and has demonstrated relationships with gender, degree of biochemical disturbance and hybrid gene crossover point position. Hormone "day curve" studies show that the hybrid gene dominates over wild-type CYP11B2 in terms of aldosterone regulation. This may be due, in part, to a defect in wild-type CYP11B2-induced aldosterone production. Control of hypertension in FH-I requires only partial suppression of ACTH and much smaller glucocorticoid doses than previously recommended. 3. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II (FH-II) is not glucocorticoid remediable and is not associated with the hybrid gene mutation. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II is clinically, biochemically and morphologically indistinguishable from apparently non-familial PAL. Linkage studies in one informative family did not show segregation of FH-II with the CYP11B2, AT1 or MEN1 genes, but a genome-wide search has revealed linkage with a locus in chromosome 7. As has already occurred in FH-I, elucidation of causative mutations is likely to facilitate earlier detection of PAL. PMID:11903322

  20. Effect of garlic, onion, and their combination on the quality and sensory characteristics of irradiated raw ground beef.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han Sul; Lee, Eun Joo; Moon, Sun Hee; Paik, Hyun Dong; Nam, Kichang; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-10-01

    Irradiated raw ground beef had lower a*- and b*-values than nonirradiated ones regardless of garlic or onion treatment at 0 d. Irradiation increased TBARS values of control ground beef, but addition of 0.5% onion or 0.1% garlic+0.5% onion reduced oxidative changes during storage. Addition of garlic or onion greatly increased the amounts of sulfur compounds, but the increase was greater with garlic. With irradiation, the profiles and amounts of S-volatiles in raw ground beef changed significantly. However, the intensity of irradiation aroma in irradiated raw ground beef with garlic or onion was similar to that of the nonirradiated control. This indicated that some of the sulfur compounds unique to garlic or onion interacted with common sulfur compounds detected in irradiated meat and masked or changed the odor characteristics of irradiated raw ground beef. It was concluded that >0.5% onion or <0.01% garlic would be needed to mask or prevent irradiation aroma in irradiated raw ground beef. PMID:21600702

  1. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage. PMID:26761840

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR GARLIC AND ONION: GOALS OF A FUNDED USDA-IFAFS GRANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enormous genomic resources are being developed for model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, it is not clear how broadly these genomic resources can be applied to the genetic improvement of more distantly related plants. Asparagus, garlic, and onion are the most economically important no...

  3. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  4. Genetic Mapping of Sulfur Assimilation Genes Reveals a QTL for Onion Bulb Pungency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion exhibits wide genetic and environmental variation in bioactive organosulfur compounds that impart pungency and health benefits. A PCR-based molecular marker map that included candidate genes for sulfur assimilation was used to identify genomic regions affecting pungency in the cross 'W202A' x ...

  5. Integrated systems of weed management in organic transplated vidalia sweet onion production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted from 2008 through 2010 near Lyons, GA to develop integrated weed management systems for organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of summer solarization, cultivation with a tine weeder, and a clove oil herbicide. Plots were so...

  6. Matran (50% clove oil) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although corn gluten meal has shown promise as an early-season pre-emergent organic herbicide in sweet onion production, uncontrolled weeds can inflict serious yield reductions by the end of the growing season. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the effectiveness of Matran EC...

  7. Fluoride toxicity effects in onion (Allium cepa L.) grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2009-07-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under controlled condition to investigate the accumulation, uptake and toxicity effects of fluoride (F) in onion (Allium cepa L.) grown on the soil contaminated by inorganic fluoride (NaF). Six different levels of soil contamination were used by adding 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg NaFkg(-1) to the soil. The F concentration in shoot, bulb and root varied between 16.3 and 109.1mg Fkg(-1), 15.8 and 54.3mg Fkg(-1) and 18.6 and 151.6 mg Fkg(-1), respectively. The visible symptoms of F toxicity in terms of tip burning and death of the plant was noticed in highly contaminated soils (>400mg NaFkg(-1) soil). The phyto-toxic threshold limit (LC(50)) in onion shoot was found to be 55 mg Fkg(-1), beyond which the biomass yield decreased by 50%. It was also inferred from the study that there is a partitioning of F in onion, with more accumulation in roots and shoots than in bulbs. The order of retention of fluoride in onion found to be roots>shoot>bulb. PMID:19394675

  8. 78 FR 23671 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... action was published in the Federal ] Register on February 5, 2013 (78 FR 8047). Copies of the proposed... / Monday, April 22, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 959 Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY:...

  9. Reflections from 20 years of onion breeding and genetics: Where do we go next?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic studies of onion are challenging due to the biennial generation time and relatively high costs of producing segregating families. Before 1990, the genetic bases of numerous morphological traits and disease resistances had been determined, however only one genetic linkage was reported between...

  10. Evaluation of the Tribological Behavior of Krytox 143AB with Nano-onions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W.; Marchetti, Mario; VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been widely developed over the past ten years and have found several applications. This work presents the use of carbon nano-onions, i.e. nanoparticles, as a potential additive in an oil for aerospace application. It was shown that these particles can provide adequate lubrication very similar to graphitic material.

  11. Genetic analyses of anthocyanin concentrations and the intensity of red color in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher concentrations of anthocyanins in vegetables are important for attractive appearance and may offer health benefits for consumers. The red color of onion bulbs is due primarily to the accumulation of anthocyanins. Segregating haploid plants from the cross of yellow and red inbreds were asexual...

  12. Pelargonic acid for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation using a tine weeder is a proven means to manage weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. If the initial cultivation is delayed, emerged weeds are not controlled by the tine weeder. In these cases, herbicides derived from natural products could be used to control the emerged we...

  13. Onion weed control with post-directed applications of pelargonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic onion producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and yields. The experim...

  14. Vinegar (20% acetic acid) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic weed control research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the effect of broadcast over-the-top applications of acetic acid (vinegar) on weed control efficacy, crop injury and onion yields. The experiment included 6 weed control treatments (2 application volumes, 2 hand-weeding ...

  15. Broadcast application of scythe for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using organic methods for onion production need organic herbicides that will effectively provide post-emergent weed control. In 2008, a second year of field research was conducted to determine the effect of broadcast over-the-top application of Scythe (57% pelargonic acid) on weed control...

  16. Impact of corn gluten meal applications on spring-transplanted onion injury and yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research to determine the relative benefits among alternative herbicides for weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.) should focus not only on weed control efficacy, but also on the impact of the herbicides on crop injury and the resulting weed competition on crop yields. Herbicide injury and weed co...

  17. Ensuring US onion sustainability: Breeding and genomics to control thrips and iris yellow spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This five-year project was initiated in the fall of 2008 and has three main goals: evaluate onion germplasms for reduced damage by thrips and/or Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV); elucidate the diversity among IYSV isolates and develop efficient inoculation protocols; and produce a detailed molecular m...

  18. Onion Response to Nitrogen and Irrigation Type Following Soybean in 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that requires frequent irrigation and is frequently fertilized with N rates exceeding 200 lb N/a to maximize yield. In 2006, we established six N treatments (0, 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 lb N/a) in an area cropped to soybean in 2005 to...

  19. Transcriptome sequencing to produce SNP-based genetic maps of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used the 454 platform to sequence from normalized cDNA libraries from each of two inbred lines of onion (OH1 and 5225). From approximately 1.6 million reads from each inbred, 27,065 and 33,254 cDNA contigs were assembled from OH1 and 5225, respectively. In total, 3,364 single nucleotide polymorph...

  20. Organic onions and potential organic herbicides for post-directed applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic onion producers need organic herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and yields. The experiment i...

  1. Broadcast application of vinegar for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vinegar (acetic acid) is a non-selective contact herbicide used in organic crop production. Research was conducted to determine if vinegar could be successfully applied over the top of onion plants to control broadleaf weeds. The experiment included 6 weed control treatments (2 application volumes...

  2. Onion Genomics: What have we done and where are we going

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses and is a member of the family Alliaceae in the order Asparagales. The Asparagales are a monophyletic order sister to the Commelinanae, which carries the grasses, palms, and bananas. These two important groups ...

  3. The Onion Model: Myth or Reality in the Field of Individual Differences Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Bellens, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To bring order in concepts related to individual learner differences, Curry (1983) designed the three-layered onion model. As this model provides an interesting way to distinguish related concepts--such as cognitive styles and approaches to studying--on the basis of their stability in learning situations, ample studies build further on this model.…

  4. Occupational exposure to mould and microbial metabolites during onion sorting--insights into an overlooked workplace.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Stefan; Twarużek, Magdalena; Błajet-Kosicka, Anna; Grajewski, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Manual sorting of onions is known to be associated with a bioaerosol exposure. The study aimed to gain an initial indication as to what extent manual sorting of onions is also associated with mycotoxin exposure. Twelve representative samples of outer onion skins from different onion origins were sampled and analyzed with a multimycotoxin method comprising 40 mycotoxins using a single extraction step followed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Six of the 12 samples were positive for mycotoxins. In those samples, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, and B2 were observed in quantitatively detectable amounts of 3940 ng/g for fumonisin B1 and in the range of 126-587 ng/g for deoxynivalenol and 55-554 ng/g for fumonisin B2. Although the results point to a lower risk due to mycotoxins, the risk should not be completely neglected and has to be considered in the risk assessment. PMID:26863887

  5. Dissipation and Removal of the Etofenprox Residue during Processing in Spring Onion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Won; Bang, Woo-Suk; Jo, Hyeong-Wook; Moon, Joon-Kwan

    2015-08-01

    The dissipation and removal of the etofenprox residue was studied in spring onion grown under greenhouse conditions. Samples of spring onion were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 days after last application, and removal rates of etofenprox by washing and drying processes were measured. Samples were extracted with acetone and partitioned with dichloromethane. The dichloromethane layer was then concentrated, cleaned up with florisil column chromatography, and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UVD). At the fortification levels of 0.5, 1.0, and 10 mg/kg, recoveries ranged from 92.0 to 107.7%, with a coefficient of variation of 4.3-7.9% (n = 3). The method limit of quantification (MLOQ) was found to be 0.05 mg/kg in spring onion. The half-lives of etofenprox in spring onion were found to be 9.5 and 7.9 days, at the single or double application rates. Removal rates of etofenprox were 21.6-43.9 and 66.6-88.5% by various washing or drying processes, respectively. PMID:26168318

  6. Human exposure modelling of quercetin in onions (Allium cepa L.) following thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Harris, S; Brunton, N; Tiwari, U; Cummins, E

    2015-11-15

    Post-harvest treatment can influence levels of secondary metabolites in fruits and vegetables. Onions contain high levels of quercetin but are commonly heat-treated before consumption. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of cooking treatments on the flavonoid (3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg) concentrations in onion and to determine, by simulation modelling, probable human exposure. Onion samples (n=3) were cooked using three processes (fry, bake and steam) for three time intervals (5, 10 and 15 min). Frying (<10 min) was the ideal cooking method which retained concentrations of 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg at >50%. Thermal processing (>10 min) was shown to decrease quercetin content in all samples. The simulation model predicted human absorption and exposure. Steaming (15 min) resulted in the lowest quercetin exposure, with mean values of 4000 and 400 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively. Untreated onions had mean exposures of 14,000 and 3000 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively. PMID:25977008

  7. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  8. Economics of supplemental weed control applications on spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field research conducted to determine the relative benefits among alternative herbicides for weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.) measured weed control efficacy, impact of herbicides on crop injury, and the resulting weed competition on crop yields and marketable bulb size. Weed competition produ...

  9. Estimation of optical constants of a bio-thin layer (onion epidermis), using SPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Saif-ur-; Mumtaz, Huma; Hayashi, Shinji; Shaukat, S. F.; Sekkat, Zouheir

    2014-12-01

    We estimate the optical constants of a biological thin layer (Allium cepa) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. For this study, the fresh inner thin epidermis of an onion bulb was used and stacked directly on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) film surfaces in order to identify the shift in SPR mode of each metal film at an operating wavelength of 632.8 nm. The thickness and dielectric constants of the biological thin layer were determined by matching the experimental SPR curves to theoretical ones. The thickness and roughness of bare Au and Ag thin films were also measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM); the results of which are in good agreement with those obtained through experiment. Due to the high surface roughness of the natural onion epidermis layer, AFM could not measure the exact thickness of an onion epidermis. It is estimated that the value of the real part of the dielectric constant of an onion epidermis is between the dielectric constants of water and air.

  10. Onions showing reduced damage by thrips and iris yellow spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of a USDA SCRI project were to understand better the epidemiology of the virus and to identify onion populations that suffer less damage under severe pressure from thrips and IYSV. Research demonstrated that North American isolates of IYSV were not all identical, indicating that the virus ...

  11. Genetic mapping of loci affecting bulb and seed colors in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bulb color in onion (Allium cepa L.) is conditioned by the interaction of five major loci. White bulbs are conditioned by a dominant allele at the I locus or recessive alleles at the C locus. Colored bulbs (pink, red, yellow, or chartreuse) require the homozygous recessive genotype at the I locus ...

  12. Segregations for Onion-Bulb Colors Reveal that Red is Controlled by at Least Three Loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion seed-coat color is controlled by one locus (B) and bulb color by at least five major loci. White bulbs are conditioned by a dominant allele at the I locus or recessive alleles at the C locus. Colored bulbs (pink, red, yellow, or chartreuse) are homozygous recessive at the I locus and carry a...

  13. Corn gluten meal as a preemergence herbicide for spring-transplanted onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas. Corn gluten meal is a certified organic material used for preemergence or preplant incorporated weed control. In 2002 and 2003 field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Lane, OK) to determine the ...

  14. 76 FR 31575 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Onions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... on the proposed grade standards in order to receive comments from interested parties (see 66 FR 21116, 68 FR 11801, 68 FR 27010) as appropriate and circulated several discussion drafts between April 2007... measuring value in the marketing of frozen onions, and provide guidance in the effective utilization...

  15. Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, F M; Yousef, M I; El-Naga, N I Abou

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of onion (Allium cepa Linn) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn) juices on biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alloxan was administered as a single dose (120 mg/kg BW) to induce diabetes. A dose of 1 ml of either onion or garlic juices/100 g body weight (equivalent to 0.4 g/100 g BW) was orally administered daily to alloxan-diabetic rats for four weeks. The levels of glucose, urea, creatinine and bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma of alloxan-diabetic rats compared to the control group. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline and acid phosphatases (AlP, AcP) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma and testes of alloxan-diabetic rats, while these activities were decreased in liver compared with the control group. Brain LDH was significantly (p<0.05) increased. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of glutathione S-transferase in plasma, liver, testes, brain, and kidney were increased in alloxan-diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with repeated doses of either garlic or onion juices could restore the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels. The present results showed that garlic and onion juices exerted antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and renal damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes. PMID:15582196

  16. Temporal dynamics of iris yellow spot virus and its vector, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in seeded and transplanted onion fields.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A; Fuchs, Marc; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2010-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferentially colonize larger plants. Limited information is available on the temporal dynamics of IYSV and its vector in onion fields. In 2007 and 2008, T. tabaci and IYSV levels were monitored in six seeded and six transplanted fields. We found significantly more thrips in transplanted fields early in the season, but by the end of the season seeded fields had higher levels of IYSV. The percentage of sample sites with IYSV-infected plants remained low (<12%) until August, when infection levels increased dramatically in some fields. The densities of adult and larval thrips in August and September were better predictors of final IYSV levels than early season thrips densities. For 2007 and 2008, the time onions were harvested may have been more important in determining IYSV levels than whether the onions were seeded or transplanted. Viruliferous thrips emigrating from harvested onion fields into nonharvested ones may be increasing the primary spread of IYSV in late-harvested onions. Managing T. tabaci populations before harvest, and manipulating the spatial arrangement of fields based on harvest date could mitigate the spread of IYSV. PMID:20388253

  17. Interaction-induced anisotropy in the onion-to-vortex transition in dense ferromagnetic nano-ring arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadmor, E.; Rosen, Y. J.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Bar-Ad, S.

    2012-11-01

    We show that the onion-to-vortex switching field in dense arrays of nanostructured ferromagnetic rings is strongly dependent on the angle between the applied magnetic field and the array's main axis. The variations in switching field of up to 8 mT are connected to the anisotropy produced by dipolar interactions between domain walls in the rings. The interactions stabilize the onion state in aligned arrays but assist domain wall rotation and onion-to-vortex switching in rotated arrays. These results are established using magneto optical Kerr effect measurements of major and minor hysteresis loops together with micromagnetic simulations.

  18. Utilization of waste products of dehydrated onion industry for production of fodder yeast by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ghonaim, S A; Abou-Zeid, A A; Abd El-Fattah, A F; Farid, M A

    1980-01-01

    One strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected from different yeasts, isolated from black strap molasses. This microorganism was cultivated on seven fermentation media for the production of protein. Medium I exhibited the highest potentiality for formation of protein. Therefore strain 1 of S. cerevisiae and medium I were used for further studies in the formation of protein. Factors controlling production of protein were explored. The required incubation period for the fermentation process was 72 hrs, while the initial pH value of the medium was 6.0. Sucrose supported the microorganism for higher production of protein (40.96%), while the best concentration of sucrose was shown to be 10.0 g/l. The best inorganic and organic nitrogen sources for protein formation were (NH4)2HPO4, (NH4)3PO4 and yeast extract, respectively. The best concentrations of (NH4)2HPO4 and yeast extract, supporting protein formation, were 5.0 g/l and 10.0 g/l, respectively. Addition of MgSO4, ZnSO4, ferrous ammonium sulphate, copper sulphate, biotin, Ca-pantothenate, thiamine, pyridoxine, and inositol to the synthetic medium did not markedly influence high level of protein formation. Glutamic acid was the best amino acid, supporting protein formation by S. cerevisiae. Onion juice was found to be a good medium, after deletion of inhibitory volatile sulphur organic compounds, for the production of protein by S. cerevisiae. Addition of (NH4)2HPO4 to the best concentration of onion juice assisted the onion medium in production of fodder yeast, containing high level of protein. Addition of MgSO4 to onion juice and (NH4)2HPO4 did not increase the total nitrogen of the biomass. Fodder yeast, produced by onion juice medium, contained more valuable ingredients than fodder yeast, produced by synthetic medium. PMID:6990654

  19. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Definitions § 51.348 One variety. One variety within...

  20. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided in § 201.11a. If separate percentages for the kind and the variety or hybrid are shown, the name of the kind and the name of the variety or the term “hybrid” shall be clearly associated with the...

  1. Maize variety and method of production

    DOEpatents

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  2. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  3. Hearts and Onions: A Second Look at the Commonplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Presents instructional methods biology teachers can use to make their presentations more interesting. Author describes variety of methods for introducing lesson on the heart and discusses use of metaphors, form, models, and fractals in instruction pertaining to circulatory system. Presents idea of using Capon's "The Supper of the Lamb" and other…

  4. Dietary onion intake as part of a typical high fat diet improves indices of cardiovascular health using the mixed sex pig model.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Nicholas K; Osrowska, Ewa; Imsic, Micheal; Eagling, David R; Jois, Mark; Tatham, Brendan G; Dunshea, Frank R

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of onions consumed at two levels of intake, using the pig model. The dietary fat content was set at a level typical of a "western" diet (25% w/w). Fifteen female and fifteen male pigs (Large White x Landrace) were allocated to one of three dietary treatments in a randomised block design. Treatments consisted of control diet (no onion) and onion supplementation at either 8.6 or 21.4 g of onion/MJ DE fed for six weeks. Onion consumption reduced plasma triglyceride levels by 15% (P=0.030) regardless of sex and onion dose. Total plasma cholesterol and cholesterol fractions were unaffected by onion supplementation (P>0.050). The bioactivity of onion was evident in haematocrit measures, where red blood cell and haemoglobin were significantly reduced in a dose dependant manner (P<0.001 and P=0.011, respectively), while other cell counts, with exception of segmented neutrophils (-18%, P=0.012), were largely unaffected. Serum oxidative status was improved (P=0.007) in pigs consuming onions. These data demonstrate that consumption of onions can have positive health effects in both male and female pigs consuming a high fat diet. PMID:17123162

  5. Co-Planting Cd Contaminated Field Using Hyperaccumulator Solanum Nigrum L. Through Interplant with Low Accumulation Welsh Onion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siqi; Wei, Shuhe; Ji, Dandan; Bai, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Monoculture and intercrop of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Welsh onion Renbentieganchongwang were conducted. The results showed that the remove ratio of S. nigrum to Cd was about 7% in intercrop plot when top soil (0-20 cm) Cd concentration was 0.45-0.62 mg kg(-1), which did not significantly impact the yield of low accumulation Welsh onion compared to the monoculture. The consistency of remove ratio in practice and theory indicated the remediation of S. nigrum to Cd was significant. The Cd concentration and yield of Welsh onion were not affected by the growth of S. nigrum either in intercrop plot. The Cd concentration in edible parts of Welsh onion was available either. In short, inter-planting hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit), which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future. PMID:25581317

  6. Growth of fullerene-like carbon nitride thin solid films consisting of cross-linked nano-onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czigány, Zs.; Brunell, I. F.; Neidhardt, J.; Hultman, L.; Suenaga, K.

    2001-10-01

    Fullerene-like CNx (x≈0.12) thin solid films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of graphite in a nitrogen and argon discharge on cleaved NaCl and Si(001) substrates at 450 °C. As-deposited films consist of 5 nm diam CNx nano-onions with shell sizes corresponding to Goldberg polyhedra determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that N incorporation is higher in the core of the onions than at the perimeter. N incorporation promotes pentagon formation and provides reactive sites for interlinks between shells of the onions. A model is proposed for the formation of CNx nano-onions by continuous surface nucleation and growth of hemispherical shells.

  7. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    PubMed

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance. PMID:26218854

  8. Formation of diamond in carbon onions under MeV ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolowski, P.; Lyutovich, Y.; Banhart, F.; Carstanjen, H. D.; Kronmüller, H.

    1997-10-01

    Spherical carbon onions are generated by irradiating graphitic carbon soot with Ne+ ions of 3 MeV energy. Under continued irradiation, a transformation of their cores to cubic diamond crystals is observed. In comparison to earlier electron irradiation experiments, the yield of diamond is much higher. The output of the irradiation experiment is characterized by electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Knock-on displacements of carbon atoms by Ne+ ions are assumed to be responsible for a self-compression of the onions, leading to the nucleation of diamond in their cores. The increased diamond yield is explained by the higher displacement cross-section, the higher energy transfer, and the higher total beam current on the specimen.

  9. Production of excitons in grazing collisions of protons with LiF surfaces: An onion model

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, J. E.; Gravielle, M. S.

    2011-12-15

    In this work we evaluate the production of excitons of a lithium fluoride crystal induced by proton impact in the intermediate and high energy regime (from 100 keV to 1 MeV). A simple model is proposed to account for the influence of the Coulomb grid of the target by dressing crystal ions to transform them in what we call onions. The excited states of these onions can be interpreted as excitons. Within this model, total cross section and stopping power are calculated by using the first Born and the continuum distorted-wave (CDW) eikonal initial-state (EIS) approximations. We found that between 7 and 30 excitons per incident proton are produced in grazing collisions with LiF surfaces, becoming a relevant mechanism of inelastic transitions.

  10. Influence of the Synthetic Conditions on the Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Carbon Nano-Onions.

    PubMed

    Mykhailiv, Olena; Lapinski, Andrzej; Molina-Ontoria, Agustin; Regulska, Elzbieta; Echegoyen, Luis; Dubis, Alina T; Plonska-Brzezinska, Marta E

    2015-07-20

    Thermal annealing of nanodiamonds with diameters of a few nanometers (in an inert atmosphere and at temperatures in the range: 1500-1800 °C) leads to the formation of carbon nano-onions (CNOs) with diameters between 5 and 6 nm, which correspond to nanostructures with six to eight graphitic layers. The resulting spherical CNO structures were thermally modified under different atmospheres and characterized by SEM, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic (Raman and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform/FTIR) spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties of the CNOs prepared under different conditions were determined and compared. The results reveal that the CNOs show different structures with predominant spherical "small" carbon nano-onions. The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of the CNO's synthesis conditions on the resulting structures and study the effect of further thermal modifications on the sizes, shapes and homogeneity of these carbon nanostructures. PMID:26017555

  11. Formation of diamond in carbon onions under MeV ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, P.; Lyutovich, Y.; Banhart, F.; Carstanjen, H.D.; Kronmueller, H.

    1997-10-01

    Spherical carbon onions are generated by irradiating graphitic carbon soot with Ne{sup +} ions of 3 MeV energy. Under continued irradiation, a transformation of their cores to cubic diamond crystals is observed. In comparison to earlier electron irradiation experiments, the yield of diamond is much higher. The output of the irradiation experiment is characterized by electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Knock-on displacements of carbon atoms by Ne{sup +} ions are assumed to be responsible for a self-compression of the onions, leading to the nucleation of diamond in their cores. The increased diamond yield is explained by the higher displacement cross-section, the higher energy transfer, and the higher total beam current on the specimen. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  13. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  14. Dietary Variety Impairs Habituation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Giacomelli, April M.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that dietary variety decreases the rate of habituation and increases energy intake in children. Design In Experiment 1, salivation in response to the same or a variety of food cues was measured followed by consumption of the study food(s). In Experiment 2, children responded in a computer task to earn points for the same or a variety of low or high energy density foods, which were then consumed. Main Outcome Measures Salivation, number of responses, and energy intake were measured. Results Participants in the same groups habituated faster than those in the variety groups (p < .05), and in Experiment 2, the effect of variety was independent of energy density. Participants in the variety groups also consumed more energy than those in the same groups in both experiments (p < .05). Conclusions Dietary variety disrupted habituation and increased energy intake in children. In addition, the response to dietary variety was independent of energy density, suggesting that increasing variety of low energy density foods may increase consumption. PMID:18248101

  15. [Genetic transformation of OSISAP1 gene to onion (Allium cepa L.) mediated by amicroprojectile bombardment].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-Jiang; Cui, Cheng-Ri

    2007-06-01

    Microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation method has been developed for onion (Allium cepa L.) using embryogenic calli, induced from stem discs, as target tissue. Zinc-finger protein gene OSISAP1 (Oryza sative subspecies indica stress-associated protein gene) was introduced into the open-pollinated onion cultivar (subs.) 'HG400B'. Bombardment parameters were optimized as: the pressure is 1,100 psi, the distance is 6 cm, two times, the ratio of mass between plasmid DNA and golden particles is 1:320. An efficient microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation system of onion (Allium cepa L.) callus has been established. The binary vector used carried the nptII gene for kanamycin resistance and the GUS reporter gene. Transgenic cultures were screened for their ability to express the GUS reporter gene and to grow in the presence of kanamycin (150 mg/L). Transient expression of GUS reporter gene was observed through histochemical staining of embryogenic callus transformed by microprojectile bombardment. The putative transgenic plants were analysed at the molecular level using PCR, southern hybridization, and RT-PCR. The results confirmed that the OSISAP1 gene was integrated as one copy into the genome of onion and expression. Transgenic plants were produced efficiently with a transformation frequency of about 10%. Test of salinity-alkali stress showed that sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate at 200 mmol/L effectively killed non-transgenic plants within 1 week of irrigation, while the transgenic plants were completely unaffected by salinity of 400 mmol/L. So transformation with the OSISAP1 gene raised the salinity-alkali-tolerance of the transgenic plants to a high level. PMID:17556805

  16. Identification of an NAC Transcription Factor Family by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia; Tang, Shouwei; Zhu, Siyuan; Dai, Qiuzhong; Liu, Touming

    2016-01-01

    Although onion has been used extensively in the past for cytogenetic studies, molecular analysis has been lacking because the availability of genetic resources is limited. NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific proteins, and they play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. However, none of the onion NAC (CepNAC) genes had been identified thus far. In this study, the transcriptome of onion leaves was analyzed by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 102.9 million clean sequence reads were produced and used for de novo assembly, which generated 117,189 non-redundant transcripts. Of these transcripts, 39,472 were annotated for their function. In order to mine the CepNAC TFs, CepNAC genes were searched from the transcripts assembled, resulting in the identification of all 39 CepNAC genes. These 39 CepNAC proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analysis together with 47 NAC proteins of known function that were previously identified in other species. The results showed that they can be divided into five groups (NAC-I-V). Interestingly, the NAC-IV and -V groups were found to be likely related to the processes of secondary wall synthesis and stress response, respectively. The transcriptome analysis generated a substantial amount of transcripts, which will aid immensely in identifying important genes and accelerating our understanding of onion growth and development. Moreover, the discovery of 39 CepNAC TFs and the identification of the sequence conservation between them and NAC proteins published will provide a basis for further characterization and validation of their functions in the future. PMID:27331904

  17. Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Platinum-Terminated “Onion-structured” Alloy Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Jeffrey A.; Jiao, Jiao; Hahn, Konstanze; Peng, Guowen; Adzic, Radoslav R.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2012-12-17

    Using periodic, self-consistent density functional theory (GGA-PW91) calculations, a series of onion-structured metal alloys have been investigated for their catalytic performance towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The onion-structures consist of a varying number of atomic layers of one or two metals each, pseudomorphically deposited on top of one another to form the overall structure. All catalysts studied feature a Pt overlayer, and often consist of at least one Pd layer below the surface. Three distinct ORR mechanisms were analyzed on the close-packed facets of all the structures considered. These mechanisms include a direct route of O2 dissociation and two hydrogen-assisted routes of O–O bond-breaking in peroxyl (OOH) and in hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) intermediates. A thermochemical analysis of the elementary steps provides information on the operating potential, and thereby energy efficiency of each electrocatalyst. A Sabatier analysis of catalytic activity based on thermochemistry of proton/electron transfer steps and activation energy barrier for O–O bond-breaking steps leads to a “volcano” relation between the surfaces’ activity and the binding energy of O. Several of the onion-structured alloys studied here show promise for achieving energy efficiency higher than that of Pt, by being active at potentials higher than the operating potential of Pt. Furthermore, some have at least as good activity as pure Pt at that operating potential. Thus, a number of the onion-structured alloys studied here are promising as cathode electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  18. Optical limiting and bleaching effects in a suspension of onion-like carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, Gen M; Bulatov, D L; Mogileva, T N; Kuznetsov, V L; Moseenkov, S I; Ishchenko, A V

    2009-04-30

    We have studied the effect of nanosecond laser pulses ({lambda} = 1064 nm) on the optical properties of onion-like carbon (OLC) prepared by high-temperature vacuum annealing of detonation nanodiamond and dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The results demonstrate that, under low-intensity irradiation, the OLC suspension displays optical limiting behaviour. Increasing the incident intensity leads to bleaching of the suspension in the visible and near-IR spectral regions. (nanostructures)

  19. Fate of Triclosan in Irrigated Soil: Degradation in Soil and Translocation into Onion and Tomato.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Monica O; Valdez, Erika M; Martinez, Eileen M; Saucedo, Melissa; Wilson, Brittan A

    2016-05-01

    This study determined the fate of triclosan, a prevalent wastewater contaminant in recycled waters and surface streams, when soil and crop plants were irrigated at environmentally relevant concentrations. Soil triclosan concentrations were monitored in an 8-wk and in a 16-wk study without plants to determine triclosan degradation. Onion ( O. Fedtsch.) and tomato ( L.) were assessed for growth and triclosan accumulation at four levels of triclosan exposure (0, 0.015, 0.15, and 1.5 µg L) in irrigation waters within ranges of those found in recycled waters and associated receiving streams. Onions were grown for 8 wk and tomatoes were grown for 8 wk (short-term study) and 12 wk (long-term study) in potting soil. Soil triclosan concentrations increased (5-fold) with triclosan levels applied to soils alone. With repeated application, the half-life of triclosan was 18 d, with low-level accumulation in soil. Bioaccumulation of triclosan was observed in all edible portions of onions (115-435 ng g), primarily in bulbs, with no discernible impact on biomass. In both short- and long-term tomato studies, triclosan translocated to shoots and fruits (approaching a translocation factor of 1) at the highest level examined. Even at low triclosan concentrations typically found in recycled waters and receiving streams, agricultural irrigation presents an additional exposure route for organic contaminants to humans via commercial crops. Our study indicates that bulb crops, in particular, would likely accumulate high levels of triclosan. However, concentrations detected in both onions and tomato fruits determined here are below current human exposure limits. PMID:27136171

  20. Onion juice (Allium cepa L.), a new topical treatment for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Sharquie, Khalifa E; Al-Obaidi, Hala K

    2002-06-01

    Alopecia areata is a patchy, non-scarring hair loss condition. Any hair-bearing surface may be involved, and different modalities of treatment have been used to induce hair regrowth. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of topical crude onion juice in the treatment of patchy alopecia areata in comparison with tap water. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group [onion juice treated] consisted of 23 patients, 16 males (69.5%) and 7 females (30.5%). Their ages ranged between 5-42 years with a mean of 22.7 years. The second group [control; tap-water-treated] consisted of 15 patients, 8 males (53.3%) and 7 females (46.6%). Their ages ranged between 3-35 years with a mean of 18.3 years. The two groups were advised to apply the treatment twice daily for two months. Re-growth of terminal coarse hairs started after two weeks of treatment with crude onion juice. At four weeks, hair re-growth was seen in 17 patients (73.9%), and, at six weeks, the hair re-growth was observed in 20 patients (86.9%) and was significantly higher among males (93.7%) compared to females (71.4%) P<0.0001. In the tap-water treated-control group, hair re-growth was apparent in only 2 patients (13%) at 8 weeks of treatment with no sex difference. The present study showed that the use of crude onion juice gave significantly higher results with regard to hair re-growth than did tap water (P<0.0001), and that it can be an effective topical therapy for patchy alopecia areata. PMID:12126069

  1. Identification of an NAC Transcription Factor Family by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Siyuan; Dai, Qiuzhong; Liu, Touming

    2016-01-01

    Although onion has been used extensively in the past for cytogenetic studies, molecular analysis has been lacking because the availability of genetic resources is limited. NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific proteins, and they play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. However, none of the onion NAC (CepNAC) genes had been identified thus far. In this study, the transcriptome of onion leaves was analyzed by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 102.9 million clean sequence reads were produced and used for de novo assembly, which generated 117,189 non-redundant transcripts. Of these transcripts, 39,472 were annotated for their function. In order to mine the CepNAC TFs, CepNAC genes were searched from the transcripts assembled, resulting in the identification of all 39 CepNAC genes. These 39 CepNAC proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analysis together with 47 NAC proteins of known function that were previously identified in other species. The results showed that they can be divided into five groups (NAC-I–V). Interestingly, the NAC-IV and -V groups were found to be likely related to the processes of secondary wall synthesis and stress response, respectively. The transcriptome analysis generated a substantial amount of transcripts, which will aid immensely in identifying important genes and accelerating our understanding of onion growth and development. Moreover, the discovery of 39 CepNAC TFs and the identification of the sequence conservation between them and NAC proteins published will provide a basis for further characterization and validation of their functions in the future. PMID:27331904

  2. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations and CO2 exchange in onion, Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Byrd, G T; Loboda, T; Black, C C; Brown, R H

    1995-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) plants were examined to determine the photosynthetic role of CO2 that accumulates within their leaf cavities. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations ranged from 2250 μL L(-1) near the leaf base to below atmospheric (<350 μL L(-1)) near the leaf tip at midday. There was a daily fluctuation in the leaf cavity CO2 concentrations with minimum values near midday and maximum values at night. Conductance to CO2 from the leaf cavity ranged from 24 to 202 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and was even lower for membranes of bulb scales. The capacity for onion leaves to recycle leaf cavity CO2 was poor, only 0.2 to 2.2% of leaf photosynthesis based either on measured CO2 concentrations and conductance values or as measured directly by (14)CO2 labeling experiments. The photosynthetic responses to CO2 and O2 were measured to determine whether onion leaves exhibited a typical C3-type response. A linear increase in CO2 uptake was observed in intact leaves up to 315 μL L(-1) of external CO2 and, at this external CO2 concentration, uptake was inhibited 35.4±0.9% by 210 mL L(-1) O2 compared to 20 mL L(-1) O2. Scanning electron micrographs of the leaf cavity wall revealed degenerated tissue covered by a membrane. Onion leaf cavity membranes apparently are highly impermeable to CO2 and greatly restrict the refixation of leaf cavity CO2 by photosynthetic tissue. PMID:24307095

  3. Effects of Intercropping with Potato Onion on the Growth of Tomato and Rhizosphere Alkaline Phosphatase Genes Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Fengzhi; Zhou, Xingang; Fu, Xuepeng; Tao, Yue; Xu, Weihui; Pan, Kai; Liu, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: In China, excessive fertilization has resulted in phosphorus (P) accumulation in most greenhouse soils. Intercropping can improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crop production. In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of intercropping with potato onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings growth and P uptake, the diversity of rhizosphere phosphobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes in phosphorus-rich soil. Methods: The experiment included three treatments, namely tomato monoculture (TM), potato onion monoculture (OM), and tomato/potato onion intercropping (TI-tomato intercropping and OI-potato onion intercropping). The growth and P uptake of tomato and potato onion seedlings were evaluated. The dilution plating method was used to determine the population of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (PMB). The genomic DNAs of PSB and PMB in the rhizosphere of tomato and potato onions were extracted and purified, and then, with the primer set of 338f /518r, the PCR amplification of partial bacterial 16S rDNA sequence was performed and sequenced to determine the diversities of PSB and PMB. After extracting the total genomic DNAs from the rhizosphere, the copy numbers and diversities of ALP genes were investigated using real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. Results: Intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato seedlings, but inhibited those of potato onion. After 37 days of transplanting, compared to the rhizosphere of TM, the soil pH increased, while the electrolytic conductivity and Olsen P content decreased (p < 0.05) in the rhizosphere of TI. The populations and diversities of PSB, PMB, and ALP genes increased significantly in the rhizosphere of TI, compared to the rhizosphere of TM. Conclusion: The results indicated that intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P

  4. Pressure-induced transformations of onion-like carbon nanospheres up to 48 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yao, Mingguang; Fan, Xianhong; Zhao, Shijia; Chen, Shuanglong; Gong, Chen; Yuan, Ye; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bingbing

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectra of onion-like carbon nanospheres (OCNSs) have been studied under pressure up to 48 GPa. A transformation related to a change from sp2 to sp3 bonding of carbons in OCNSs was observed at pressures above 20 GPa. The Raman spectra exhibit some vibrational features similar to those of the theoretically proposed Z-carbon phase of cold-compressed graphite, while the transition pressure is obviously higher than that for graphite. In contrast to the transformations in compressed graphite, interlayer bonds are formed on the nanoscale between buckled layers in OCNSs under pressure due to the concentric configuration, and sp2-sp3 conversion is incomplete even up to 48 GPa. This is confirmed by TEM observations on the decompressed samples. Moreover, the onion-like carbon structure is extremely stable and can be recovered even after a compression cycle to 48 GPa. This high stability, beyond that of other sp2 carbon materials, is related to the unique onion-like configuration and to the interlayer bonding. The transformed material should have excellent mechanical properties so that it can sustain very high pressure.

  5. Effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after air assisted lamellar keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soohyun; Park, Young Woo; Lee, Euiri; Park, Sang Wan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jong Whi; Seong, Je Kyung; Seo, Kangmoon

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after applying the air assisted lamellar keratectomy. The air assisted lamellar keratectomy was performed on 24 canine eyes. They were treated with an artificial tear (group C), prednisolone acetate (group P), onion extract (group O) and TGF-β1 (group T) three times per day from 7 to 28 days after the surgery. Corneal haze occurred on the all eyes and was observed beginning 7 days after the surgery. The haze was significantly decreased in groups P and O from day 14 compared with the group C using the clinical (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.037) and objective evaluation method (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.039). In contrast, it was significantly increased in group T from day 14 compared with group C based on the clinical (P=0.002) and objective evaluation method (P<0.001). Subsequently, these eyes were enucleated after euthanasia, and immunohistochemistry with α-SMA antibodies was done. The total green intensity for α-SMA was significantly more expressed in group T and significantly less expressed in groups P and O than in group C. Onion extract could have potential as a therapeutic in preventing corneal haze development by suppressing the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. PMID:26607134

  6. Tribological Behavior of Nano-Onions in Krytox 143AB Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Marchetti, Mario; Tomasek, Aaron J.

    2005-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been developed over the past 10 years and have found several applications. This work presents the use of carbon nano-onions as a potential oil additive for aerospace applications. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center tested lubricant lifetimes in ambient air and ultrahigh vacuum and characterized the breakdown products of the friction and wear. These carbon nanoparticles can provide adequate lubrication very similar to that of graphitic material when run in air. Soot represents one of the very first nanostructured materials, although it has rarely been considered as such. Changes in the carbon nanostructure, resulting in increased graphitic layer plane length, correlate with reactivity loss. Upon heating spherically shaped nanometer-sized carbon black in the absence of oxidant, graphene sheets form, and the initial soot particle templates the growth of a graphitic particle into what is best described as a sphere with many flat sides having a hollow interior. Because there are no edge sites, these polygonal graphitic particles, or nano-onions, are relatively resistant to oxidation. Graphite is used as a solid lubricant because of its stability at moderately high temperatures. However, the temperature at which graphite oxidizes rapidly is strongly influenced by surface area. With the size of particles typically employed in lubrication, a great amount of thermal stability is lost because of size reduction either during preparation or during lubrication of contacting parts. Therefore, we have undertaken a study of the lubricating ability of graphitic nano-onions (ref. 1).

  7. Effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after air assisted lamellar keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Soohyun; PARK, Young Woo; LEE, Euiri; PARK, Sang Wan; PARK, Sungwon; NOH, Hyunwoo; KIM, Jong Whi; SEONG, Je Kyung; SEO, Kangmoon

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after applying the air assisted lamellar keratectomy. The air assisted lamellar keratectomy was performed on 24 canine eyes. They were treated with an artificial tear (group C), prednisolone acetate (group P), onion extract (group O) and TGF-β1 (group T) three times per day from 7 to 28 days after the surgery. Corneal haze occurred on the all eyes and was observed beginning 7 days after the surgery. The haze was significantly decreased in groups P and O from day 14 compared with the group C using the clinical (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.037) and objective evaluation method (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.039). In contrast, it was significantly increased in group T from day 14 compared with group C based on the clinical (P=0.002) and objective evaluation method (P<0.001). Subsequently, these eyes were enucleated after euthanasia, and immunohistochemistry with α-SMA antibodies was done. The total green intensity for α-SMA was significantly more expressed in group T and significantly less expressed in groups P and O than in group C. Onion extract could have potential as a therapeutic in preventing corneal haze development by suppressing the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. PMID:26607134

  8. Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

    2014-02-01

    Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields. PMID:24665681

  9. Self-Assembly of Janus Oligomers into Onion-like Vesicles with Layer-by-Layer Water Discharging Capability: A Minimalist Model.

    PubMed

    Arai, Noriyoshi; Yasuoka, Kenji; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-08-23

    A vesicle in a cell is an enclosed structure in which the interior fluid is encompassed by a lipid bilayer. Synthetic vesicles are known as the liposomes. Liposomes with a single phospholipid bilayer are called unilamellar liposomes; otherwise, they are called multilamellar liposomes or onion-like liposomes (vesicles). One prototype synthetic onion-like vesicle, namely, onion-like dendrimersomes, have been recently produced via the self-assembly of amphiphilic Janus dendrimers (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016, 113, 1162). Herein, we show computer simulation evidence of another type of onion-like vesicle, namely, onion-like oligomersomes, via the self-assembly of amphiphilic Janus oligomers in water. Specifically, we investigate the minimum-sized oligomers (or minimalist model) that can give rise to the onion-like oligomersomes as well as the composition-dependent phase diagrams. Insights into the formation condition and formation process of the onion-like oligomersomes are obtained. We demonstrate that the discharge of the in-vesicle water is through the remarkable "peeling-one-onion-layer-at-a-time" fashion, a feature that can be utilized for a clinical dosing regimen. The ability to control the formation of onion-like oligomersomes by design can be exploited for applications in drug and gene delivery. PMID:27466700

  10. Update on zebra chip variety screening trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable management of zebra chip (ZC) disease of potato requires the identification and development of tolerant or resistant potato varieties. For five years (2010-2014), over 280 potato varieties and advanced breeding lines were screened for ZC under controlled field cage conditions, by infecti...

  11. Innovativeness and Variety of Internet Shopping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Brian F.; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Valdiserri, Colin M.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of 208 Internet users examined the factors underlying Internet usage and shopping. Data were gathered on Information shopping (IS) innovativeness, overall IS frequency, visit variety, purchase variety, network prevalence, education, age, gender, employment, extensiveness of Internet use, and non-shopping Internet applications. (MES)

  12. 7 CFR 51.890 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One variety. 51.890 Section 51.890 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.890 One variety....

  13. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.10 Variety. (a) The following kinds of agricultural seeds are generally... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  14. Second Language Learners' Attitudes towards English Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weimin; Hu, Guiling

    2008-01-01

    This pilot project investigates second language (L2) learners' attitudes towards three varieties of English: American (AmE), British (BrE) and Australian (AuE). A 69-word passage spoken by a female speaker of each variety was used. Participants were 30 Chinese students pursuing Masters or Doctoral degrees in the United States, who listened to each…

  15. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.10 Variety. (a) The following kinds of agricultural seeds are generally... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  16. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.10 Variety. (a) The following kinds of agricultural seeds are generally... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  17. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    PubMed Central

    Fayos, Oreto; Vallés, María P.; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Castillo, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2–3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09%) and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%). These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%), whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20–23%). Different amiprofos-methyl (APM) treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 μM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 μM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the four regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis

  18. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Björn K; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximilian; von Fragstein, Maximillian

    2013-01-01

    Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

  19. Haritaki (Chebulic myrobalan) and its varieties

    PubMed Central

    Ratha, Kshirod Kumar; Joshi, Girish Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz., Family: Combretaceae) possesses a great therapeutic value and is widely distributed in India, up to an altitude of 1500 m. Though Terminalia chebula Retz is the only botanical source of Haritaki, the uses of its varieties along with their sources, identifying features and therapeutic uses are described in Ayurvedic classics and other medical literature. In the present study, a detailed review has been carried out on different varieties of Haritaki. PMID:24501534

  20. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Zankowski, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Room 401,...

  1. Conventional curing practices reduce generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. on dry bulb onions produced with contaminated irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Emch, Alexander W; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2016-02-01

    Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) has emphasized microbial risks associated with irrigation water. Treasure Valley (eastern Oregon/western Idaho) has the highest yield of dry bulb onions in the country; however, their irrigation water is often non-compliant with current industry and proposed federal standards for fresh produce. Conventional curing practices may provide a mechanism to mitigate irrigation water quality to comply with FSMA regulations. Dry bulb onions were grown in Owyhee silt loam and Semiahmoo muck soils in greenhouses and irrigated with water containing a cocktail of rifampicin-resistant generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (4.80 log CFU/ml). To mimic conventional practices, mature onions remained undisturbed in soil without irrigation for 12 days prior to being lifted and cured for 16 additional days. Surviving generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. were selectively enumerated on using standard plating (Hektoen Enteric Agar with rifampicin; HE + rif) or most probable number (lactose broth with rifampicin; HE + rif) methods. Generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. on onions decreased 0.19-0.26 log CFU/g·d during the initial 12 days of finishing. At lifting, generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. had been reduced to <1 CFU/g and persisted through the end of curing. This study demonstrates conventional curing practices as an effective mitigation strategy for dry bulb onions produced with water of poor microbiological quality. PMID:26678128

  2. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C.; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage. PMID:25587975

  3. A customized metal oxide semiconductor-based gas sensor array for onion quality evaluation: system development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage. PMID:25587975

  4. Role of silicone derivative plus onion extract gel in presternal hypertrophic scar protection: a prospective randomized, double blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jenwitheesuk, Kamonwan; Surakunprapha, Palakorn; Jenwitheesuk, Kriangsak; Kuptarnond, Chusak; Prathanee, Sompop; Intanoo, Worawit

    2012-08-01

    Use of silicone derivative and onion extract had been reported in the prevention of hypertrophic scarring. Our experience showed the preventive use of silicone derivative plus onion extract gel on hypertrophic scars after median sternotomy. In a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled study, 60 patients after median sternotomy incisions were separated into two groups. All patients were treated either with silicone derivative plus onion extract gel (Cybele(®) scagel) or placebo gel twice daily for a total treatment period of 12 weeks. During each visit, pain and itching scores were graded by the patients and scar characteristics were observed by surgeons using the Vancouver scar scale. Pain and itch score values from patients' who applied silicone derivative plus onion extract gel was less than another group (P < 0·05). Pigmentation was significantly different between two groups (P < 0·05) and the reduction of scores on vascularity, pliability, height in treated group was not superior to the untreated group. No adverse events were reported by any of the patients. A silicone derivative plus onion extract gel is safe and effective for the preventing the hypertrophic scarring after median sternotomy. PMID:22168750

  5. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least four years to classify cytoplasms as normal (N) male-fertile or male-sterile (S). Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytopla...

  6. Efficacy of fungicides to manage onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion stunting, caused by Rhizoctonia spp., has become a significant soilborne problem of onion bulb crops planted in sandy soils in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington following winter cereal cover crops. Research on the epidemiology and management of this disease is in progress. ...

  7. Pilot Sequencing of Onion Genomic DNA Reveals Fragments of Transposable Elements, Low Gene Densities, and Significant Gene Enrichment After Methyl Filtration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) is a diploid (2n=2x=16) monocot with one of the largest nuclear genomes among cultivated plants, over 6 and 16 times that of maize and rice, respectively. In this study, we sequenced onion BACs to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive ...

  8. Effects of Fresh Yellow Onion Consumption on CEA, CA125 and Hepatic Enzymes in Breast Cancer Patients: A Double- Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour-Sadegh, Farnaz; Montazeri, Vahid; Adili, Ali; Esfehani, Ali; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza; Mesgari, Mehran; Pirouzpanah, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) consumption has been remarked in folk medicine which has not been noted to be administered so far as an adjunct to conventional doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed to investigate the effects of consuming fresh yellow onions on hepatic enzymes and cancer specific antigens compared with a low-onion containing diet among breast cancer (BC) participants treated with doxorubicin. This parallel design randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 56 BC patients whose malignancy was confirmed with histopathological examination. Subjects were assigned in a stratified-random allocation into either group received body mass index dependent 100-160 g/d of onion as high onion group (HO; n=28) or 30-40 g/d small onion in low onion group (LO; n=28) for eight weeks intervention. Participants, care givers and laboratory assessor were blinded to the assignments (IRCT registry no: IRCT2012103111335N1). The compliance of participants in the analysis was appropriate (87.9%). Comparing changes throughout pre- and post-dose treatments indicated significant controls on carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen-125 and alkaline phosphatase levels in the HO group (P<0.05). Our findings for the first time showed that regular onion administration could be effective for hepatic enzyme conveying adjuvant chemotherapy relevant toxicity and reducing the tumor markers in BC during doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. PMID:26625755

  9. New report of Lolium multiflorum and Rumex crispus as weed hosts of epiphytic populations of Psuedomonas sp., causal agent of yellow bud in onion in Geogia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow bud, an emerging bacterial disease of onion (Allium cepa L.), has been spreading throughout the Vidalia onion-growing region in Georgia since 2007. Symptoms of yellow bud include intense chlorosis in emerging leaves and severe blight in the older leaves leading to stand loss and reduced bulb ...

  10. Effect of timing of glyphosate application to a winter wheat cover crop on stunting of spring-sown onions caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Washington, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of patches of stunted onion plants caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an emerging problem in onion bulb crops planted in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington following winter cereal cover crops. Cereals such as winter wheat are used as cover crops to protect onion seedlin...

  11. Policosanol contents and compositions of wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Sibel; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2005-07-13

    Policosanol (PC) is the common name for a mixture of high molecular weight (20-36 carbon) aliphatic primary alcohols, which are constituents of plant epicuticular waxes. Wheat germ oil has been reported to improve human physical fitness, and this effect is attributed to its high PC, specifically its high octacosanol (OC) content. Although the PC composition of wheat leaves has been studied extensively, information on PC content and composition of wheat grain fractions is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the PC contents and compositions of wheat grain fractions of 31 varieties grown in Oklahoma. PC compositions of the samples were identified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. The PC content of wheat bran was higher than that of the germ, shorts, and flour. The Trego and Intrada varieties had the highest PC content among the 31 wheat varieties studied. Tetracosanol (C24), hexacosanol (C26), and OC (C28) were the major PC components in all varieties. This study showed that wheat varieties grown under identical growing conditions and management differ significantly in PC content and composition. PMID:15998118

  12. Evaluation of an onion extract, Centella asiatica, and hyaluronic acid cream in the appearance of striae rubra.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Gold, Michael H; Kaur, Mandeep; Olayinka, Babajide; Grundy, Starr L; Pappert, Eric J; Hardas, Bhushan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of an onion extract cream with Centella asiatica and hyaluronic acid in improving the appearance of striae rubra (SR). Women participants with bilateral, outer aspect of the thigh SR were randomized to apply a quarter-sized amount of the onion extract cream twice daily for 12 weeks to the randomized left or right, outer aspect of the thigh. No treatment was administered to the contralateral side. Participants were evaluated at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. Primary efficacy endpoints included color, texture, softness, and overall appearance of SR by the participant and investigator at week 12. The treated thigh demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the mean change in participant and investigator evaluations in overall appearance, texture, color, and softness compared with the untreated thigh at week 12. No adverse events occurred during the study. The onion extract cream was well tolerated and significantly improved the appearance of SR in women. PMID:20527138

  13. Phenomenological magnetic modeling of Au:Fe:Au nano-onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, J.; Carpenter, Everett E.; O'Connor, Charles J.

    2000-05-01

    A new type of materials, the nano-onions, has been shown to exhibit GMR. These nanostructured composites consist of a nonmagnetic core coated with a thin layer of a bulk ferromagnet with a passivating nonmagnetic surface layer. The nano-onion investigated had a 3 nm Au core, a 1 nm Fe layer, and a 2 nm Au coating; all values correspond to the radius. The materials were manufactured using a sequential reverse micelle technique, detailed elsewhere. The sample preparation method produces a powder sample was cold pressed into a pellet. Magnetic investigation of the sample indicated that the material was superparamagnetic with a blocking temperature of 52 K for particles approximately 8 nm in diameter. At 10 K, the coercivity was 420 Oe, indicating a large degree of order. The GMR was measured over the entire temperature range available. At 10 K, in 5 T, a 1% MR was observed. The GMR was modeled using a simple phenomenological magnetic model initially used to study GMR granular thin films. To more accurately match the physical parameters of reverse micelles, the conventional log-normal particle size distribution was replaced with a normal distribution. The model suggested that the system consisted of an ensemble of 1.3 nm particles with a standard deviation of 0.07. The model does not detect the entire 8 nm diam, rather it detects the individual walls of the shell. In this context, it has shown that a simple phenomenological model can accurately predict the magnetic and electronic behavior of nano-onions.

  14. Fabrication and modeling of electrochemical double-layer capacitors using carbon nano-onion electrode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parigi, Fabio

    Electrochemical capacitors or ultracapacitors (UCs) that are commercially available today overcome battery limitations in terms of charging time (from tens of minutes to seconds) and limited lifetime (from a few thousand cycles up to more than one million) but still lack specific energy and energy density (2-5% of a lithium ion battery). The latest innovations in carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes as an active electrode material for UCs, can provide up to five times as much energy and deliver up to seven times more power than today's activated carbon electrodes. Further improvements in UC power density have been achieved by using state-of-the-art carbon nano-onions (CNOs) for ultracapacitor electrodes. CNO UCs could exhibit up to five times the power density of single-wall CNT UCs and could substantially contribute to reducing the size of an energy storage system as well as the volume and weight, thus improving device performance. This dissertation describes the fabrication of CNO electrodes as part of an UC device, the measurement and analysis of the new electrode's performance as an energy storage component, and development of a new circuit model that accurately describes the CNO UC electrical behavior. The novel model is based on the impedance spectra of CNO UCs and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Further, the model was validated using experimental data and simulation. My original contributions are the fabrication process for reliable and repeatable electrode fabrication and the modeling of a carbon nano-onion ultracapacitor. The carbon nano-onion ultracapacitor model, composed of a resistor, an inductor, a capacitor (RLC), and a constant phase element (CPE), was developed along with a parameter extraction procedure for the benefit of other users. The new model developed, proved to be more accurate than previously reported UC models.

  15. Effect of different storage temperature on chemical composition of onion (Allium cepa L.) and its enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-03-01

    Onion stored at 4, 10, and 25 °C for 9 months were analyzed for changes in quercetin and its glucosidase content, enzymes, pyruvic acid, and sugar content. During storage, concentration of quercetin and its glucosidase showed an irregular variation at all studied temperature but at 4 °C the rate was high as compared to 10 and 25 °C. The enzymatic activity of Q4'G glucosidase and Q4'glucosyltransferase increased progressively until six months at 4, 10 and 25 °C, but later it started to decrease. At 4 and 10 °C, peroxidase activity increased during the first five weeks then decreased, while at 25 °C peroxidase activity decreased progressively after two months storage. Fructose, glucose and sucrose showed a different although more regular pattern by decreasing progressively at 4, 10 °C. At 4 °C fructose and glucose accumulated in the initial 3 to 4 months of storage while sucrose was unchanged. However, at 10 and 25 °C, fructose and glucose concentration continuously decreased, while sucrose increased consistently. Onion pyruvic acid increased at 4 and 10 °C during the first six months, while at 25 °C the fluctuation was observed during the whole storage period. Overall, we conclude that storage at 4 °C maintained the quality of onions best, as evidenced by the positive changes. PMID:27570287

  16. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  17. A New Proprietary Onion Extract Gel Improves the Appearance of New Scars

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D.; Baumann, Leslie; Fleischer, Alan B.; Plaum, Stefan; Hardas, Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This randomized, controlled, single-blind study evaluated the appearance of new dermal scars after eight weeks of once-daily application of a nonprescription proprietary onion extract gel formulation compared to control (no application scars) in a dermatological surgical setting. Methods: At Visit 1, 44 healthy male and female subjects aged 18 to 70 years gave informed consent, were screened, and enrolled in the study. Two bilateral, 8mm seborrheic keratoses, one on the right and one on the left chest, were surgically removed from each subject. The wounds were photographed at all visits. Two weeks later (Visit 2), each subject was randomly assigned to apply onion extract gel to either the right or left side wound site once daily for eight weeks and no treatment on the opposite wound. The investigator was blinded to which wound was treated. At two, four, and eight weeks after gel application, right and left scars were graded by the investigator and subjects for improvement from baseline in overall appearance, texture, redness, and softness using 4-point ordinal scales (0=no improvement, 1=mild improvement; 2= moderate improvement; 3=significant improvement). Safety was evaluated by adverse events. Results: Six subjects (13.6%) experienced mild stinging that resolved spontaneously. At two weeks, the subjects rated gel-applied scars to be significantly softer than control scars (p=0.014). After four and eight weeks of application, the investigator and subjects rated all appearance variables of the gel-applied scars to be significantly more improved from baseline than control scars (p=0.017 to p<0.01). Conclusion: The new proprietary onion extract gel is safe and significantly improves scar appearance after four weeks of once-daily application. PMID:22768353

  18. Carbon nano-onions (multi-layer fullerenes): chemistry and applications

    PubMed Central

    Bartelmess, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review focuses on the development of multi-layer fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs). First, it briefly summarizes the most important synthetic pathways for their preparation and their properties and it gives the reader an update over new developments in the recent years. This is followed by a discussion of the published synthetic procedures for CNO functionalization, which are of major importance when elucidating future applications and addressing drawbacks for possible applications, such as poor solubility in common solvents. Finally, it gives an overview over the fields of application, in which CNO materials were successfully implemented. PMID:25383308

  19. Atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation study of onion abaxial epidermis walls in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiaoning; Kim, Seong H.; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    An atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation method was employed to study how the structure of cellulose microfibril packing and matrix polymers affect elastic modulus of fully hydrated primary plant cell walls. The isolated, single-layered abaxial epidermis cell wall of an onion bulb was used as a test system since the cellulose microfibril packing in this cell wall is known to vary systematically from inside to outside scales and the most abundant matrix polymer, pectin, can easily be altered through simple chemical treatments such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and calcium ions. Experimental results showed that the pectin network variation has significant impacts on the cell wall modulus, and not the cellulose microfibril packing.

  20. Onion-shell model for cosmic ray electrons and radio synchrotron emission in supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.; Voelk, H. J.; Bogdan, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrum of cosmic ray electrons, accelerated in the shock front of a supernova remnant (SNR), is calculated in the test-particle approximation using an onion-shell model. Particle diffusion within the evolving remnant is explicity taken into account. The particle spectrum becomes steeper with increasing radius as well as SNR age. Simple models of the magnetic field distribution allow a prediction of the intensity and spectrum of radio synchrotron emission and their radial variation. The agreement with existing observations is satisfactory in several SNR's but fails in other cases. Radiative cooling may be an important effect, especially in SNR's exploding in a dense interstellar medium.