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Sample records for local planetary ores

  1. Chlorination processing of local planetary ores for oxygen and metallurgically important metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    The use of chlorine to extract, reclaim, and purify metals has attractive possibilities for extraterrestrial processing of local planetary resources. While a complete cyclic process has been proposed for the recovery of metallurgically significant metals and oxygen, herein the chlorination step of the cycle is examined. An experimental apparatus for reacting refractory materials, such as ilmenite, in a microwave induced plasma is being built. Complex equilibria calculations reveal that stable refractory materials can, under the influence of a plasma, undergo chlorination and yield oxygen as a by-product. These issues and the potential advantages for plasma processing in space are reviewed. Also presented is a discussion of the complex equilibria program used in the analysis.

  2. Chandra Locates Mother Lode of Planetary Ore in Colliding Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    form the ultimate building blocks for habitable planets," said Andrew King of the University of Leicester, U.K. and a coauthor of the study. "This process occurs in all galaxies, but it is greatly enhanced by the collision. Usually we only see the new elements in diluted form as they are mixed up with the rest of the interstellar gas." CfA coauthor Alessandro Baldi commented that, "This is spectacular confirmation of the idea that the basis of chemistry, of planets, and ultimately of life is assembled inside stars and spread through galaxies by supernova explosions," As the enriched gas cools, a new generation of stars will form, and with them new planets. A number of studies indicate that clouds enriched in heavy elements are more likely to form stars with planetary systems, so in the future an unusually high number of planets may form in The Antennae. "If life arises on a significant fraction of these planets, then in the future the Antennae will be teeming with life," speculated Francois Schweizer, another coauthor who is from the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, Calif. "A vast number of Sun like stars and planetary systems will age in unison for billions of years." At a distance of about 60 million light years, The Antennae system is the nearest example of a collision between two large galaxies. The collision, which began a couple of hundred million years ago, has been so violent that gas and stars from the galaxies have been ejected into the two long arcs that give the system its name. The Chandra image shows spectacular loops of 3-million-degree gas spreading out south of the antennae. "These loops may be carrying out some of the elements dispersed by supernovas into intergalactic space," said Trevor Ponman of Birmingham University, U.K. The Antennae give a closeup view of the type of collisions that were common in the early universe and likely led to the formation of most of the stars that exist in the universe today. They may also provide a glimpse of the

  3. Localization conditions and ore mineralogy of the Ulziit hydrogenic uranium deposit, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechukhin, M. N.; Doinikova, O. A.; Ignatov, P. A.; Rassulov, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Information on the speciation of uranium minerals in ore of the recently discovered Ulziit uranium deposit in Mongolia is given for the first time. The ore composition has been studied by analytical scanning electron microscopy and local laser luminescent spectroscopy. The ore formed as a result of epigenetic redox processes. Transition from permeable variegated fan sediments to poorly permeable gray-colored coalbearing lacustrine-boggy sediments is the main ore-controlling factor. High-tech uranium mining with borehole in-situ leaching is feasible.

  4. Exploration and local forecast of gold-ore deposits based on typomorphic properties of pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichkin, A. Ya; Ananyev, Yu S.; Bushmano, A. I.; Abramova, R. N.

    2015-11-01

    The article describes the data in exploration and local forecast of gold-ore deposits based on typomorphic pyrite properties. The pyrite properties: crystal shape, impurity-elements and thermal EMF change in relation to the deposit formation conditions are consistent with the mineralogical and geochemical zoning of ore bodies and deposits. In this case, it is possible to evaluate the ore zone erosion, prospectivity and productivity of the ore bodies at depth and flanks. Mineralogical sampling on pyrite and gold should be conducted on the basis of other methods during exploration and mining.

  5. 63,65Cu NMR Method in a Local Field for Investigation of Copper Ore Concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilenko, A. N.; Starykh, R. V.; Khabibullin, I. Kh.; Matukhin, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    To choose the most efficient method and ore beneficiation flow diagram, it is important to know physical and chemical properties of ore concentrates. The feasibility of application of the 63,65Cu nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method in a local field aimed at studying the properties of copper ore concentrates in the copper-iron-sulfur system is demonstrated. 63,65Cu NMR spectrum is measured in a local field for a copper concentrate sample and relaxation parameters (times T1 and T2) are obtained. The spectrum obtained was used to identify a mineral (chalcopyrite) contained in the concentrate. Based on the experimental data, comparative characteristics of natural chalcopyrite and beneficiated copper concentrate are given. The feasibility of application of the NMR method in a local field to explore mineral deposits is analyzed.

  6. Local and social facets of planetary boundaries: right to nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahiluoto, Helena; Kuisma, Miia; Kuokkanen, Anna; Mikkilä, Mirja; Linnanen, Lassi

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient flows exceed the planetary boundaries. The boundaries and the current excesses vary spatially. Such variations have both an ecological and a social facet. We explored the spatial variation using a bottom-up approach. The local critical boundaries were determined through the current or accumulated flow of the preceding five years before the planetary boundary criteria were met. Finland and Ethiopia served as cases with contrasting ecology and wealth. The variation in excess depends on historical global inequities in the access to nutrients. Globally, the accumulated use per capita is 2300 kg reactive nitrogen (Nr) and 200 kg phosphorus (P). For Finland, the accumulated use per capita is 3400 kg Nr and 690 kg P, whereas for Ethiopia, it is 26 kg Nr and 12 kg P. The critical N boundary in Finland is currently exceeded by 40 kg cap-1 a-1 and the accumulated excess is 65 kg cap-1 a-1, while the global current excess is 24 kg cap-1 a-1 and there is space in Ethiopia to increase even the accumulated flow. The critical P boundary is exceeded in Finland and (although less so) in Ethiopia, but for contrary reasons: (1) the excessive past inflow to the agrifood system in Finland and (2) the excessive outflow from the agrifood system triggered by deficits in inflow and waste management in Ethiopia. The critical boundaries set by Finnish marine systems are lower and those set by freshwaters are higher than the planetary boundaries downscaled per capita. The shift to dominance of internal loading in watercourses represents a tipping point. We conclude that food security within the safe boundaries requires global redistribution of nutrients in residues, soils and sediments and of rights to use nutrients. Bottom-up assessments reveal local dynamics that shed new light on the relevant boundary criteria and on estimates and remedies.

  7. Evolution of volcanic and tectonic features in caldera settings and their importance in the localization of ore deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Many calderas are located along regionally important fault zones that are intermittently active before and after the caldera cycle. In mineralized calderas, the ore deposits are controlled by structures developed during caldera formation and by regional faults which intersect and reactivate the caldera-related structures. The paper discusses the importance of the different stages of caldera formation in connection with the localization of ore deposits. -from Author

  8. HST Search for Planetary Nebulae in Local Group Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    If every star of about solar mass produces a planetary nebula (PN) near the end of its life, there should be several dozen PNe in the globular clusters (GCs) of the Local Group. However, ground-based surveys of Milky Way GCs have revealed only 4 PNe. A converse argument is that it is likely that the remnants of stars now evolving in ancient GCs leave the AGB so slowly that any ejected PN dissipates long before the star becomes hot enough to ionize it. Thus there should not be any PNe in Milky Way GCs--but there are four! It has been suggested that these PNe are the result of binary mergers of binary stars within GCs, i.e., that they are descendants of blue stragglers. To explore these issues and extend them beyond the Milky Way, I carried out a Snapshot imaging survey of GCs throughout the Local Group with the Hubble Space Telescope. Observations were made with the WFPC2 camera in 2007-2008, and with WFC3 in 2009-2011. Frames were obtained in a narrow-band [O III] 5007 filter and in a broad V filter (F555W). In this filter combination, a PN will have a comparable signal in both bandpasses, but stars will be much brighter in the V filter. I surveyed 41 GCs in M31, 4 in M33, 8 in the Magellanic Clouds, 2 in Fornax, and 1 each in NGC 6822, WLM, and NGC 147. Only one candidate PN was found, in the M31 GC B086. My results appear to be consistent with a ground-based spectroscopic survey for PNe in the M31 GCs by Jacoby et al. (2013), which found only 3 PN candidates in 274 clusters. PNe are very rare in GCs, but a few do exist, and they may require binary interactions for their formation.

  9. Planetary nebulae in galaxies beyond the Local Group.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, H. C.; Ciardullo, R.; Jacoby, G. H.; Hui, X.

    Planetary nebulae can be used to estimate the distances to galaxies and to measure stellar dynamics in faint halos. The authors discuss surveys which have netted a total of 665 candidate planetary nebulae in NGC 5128 (Cen A), NGC 5102, NGC 3031 (M81), NGC 3115, three galaxies in the Leo Group (NGC 3379, NGC 3384, NGC 3377), NGC 5866, and finally, in NGC 4486 (M87). The highly consistent distances derived from the brightnesses of the jth nebula and the median nebula in different fields in the same galaxy and from different galaxies in the same group lend strong support to the suggestion that planetaries are an accurate standard candle in old stellar populations. Comparison of theoretical luminosity functions to be observed PNLFs shows that there is a very small dispersion in the central star masses.

  10. Cold plasma processing of local planetary ores for oxygen and metallurgically important metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, D. C.; Bullard, D.; Ortega, R.

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of a cold or nonequilibrium plasma in chlorination processing is discussed. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was successfully chlorinated at temperatures between 700 and 900 C without the aid of carbon. In addition to these initial experiments, a technique was developed for determining the temperature of a specimen in a plasma. Development of that technique has required evaluating the emissivity of TiO2, ZrO2, and FeOTiO2 and analyzing the specimen temperature in a plasma as a function of both power absorbed by the plasma and the pressure of the plasma. The mass spectrometer was also calibrated with TiCl4 and CCl4 vapor.

  11. Cold plasma processing of local planetary ores for oxygen and metallurgically important metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, D. C.; Bullard, D.; Ortega, R.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of a cold plasma in chlorination processing is described. Essential equipment and instruments were received, the experimental apparatus assembled and tested, and preliminary experiments conducted. The results of the latter lend support to the original hypothesis: a cold plasma can both significantly enhance and bias chemical reactions. In two separate experiments, a cold plasma was used to reduce TiCl4 vapor and chlorinate ilmenite. The latter, reacted in an argon-chlorine plasma, yielded oxygen. The former experiment reveals that chlorine can be recovered as HCl vapor from metal chlorides in a hydrogen plasma. Furthermore, the success of the hydrogen experiments has lead to an analysis of the feasibility of direct hydrogen reduction of metal oxides in a cold plasma. That process would produce water vapor and numerous metal by-products.

  12. Variability of Elemental Abundances in the Local Neighborhood and its Effect on Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Michael

    As the detection of planets become commonplace around our neighboring stars, scientists can now begin exploring their possible properties and habitability. Using statistical analysis I determine a true range of elemental compositions amongst local stars and how this variation could affect possible planetary systems. Through calculating and analyzing the variation in elemental abundances of nearby stars, the actual range in stellar abundances can be determined using statistical methods. This research emphasizes the diversity of stellar elemental abundances and how that could affect the environment from which planets form. An intrinsic variation has been found to exist for almost all of the elements studied by most abundance-finding groups. Specifically, this research determines abundances for a set of 458 F, G, and K stars from spectroscopic planet hunting surveys for 27 elements, including: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, and Hf. Abundances of the elements in many known exosolar planet host stars are calculated for the purpose investigating new ways to visualize how stellar abundances could affect planetary systems, planetary formation, and mineralogy. I explore the Mg/Si and C/O ratios as well as place these abundances on ternary diagrams with Fe. Lastly, I emphasize the unusual stellar abundance of tau Ceti. tau Ceti is measured to have 5 planets of Super-Earth masses orbiting in near habitable zone distances. Spectroscopic analysis finds that the Mg/Si ratio is extremely high (˜ 2) for this star, which could lead to alterations in planetary properties. tau Ceti's low metallicity and oxygen abundance account for a change in the location of the traditional habitable zone, which helps clarify a new definition of habitable planets.

  13. Variability of Elemental Abundances in the Local Neighborhood and its Effect on Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Michael D.; Young, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Does a true range of elemental compositions amongst local stars exist? How does this variation effect possible planetary systems around these stars? Through calculating and analyzing the variation in elemental abundances of nearby stars, the actual range in stellar abundances can be determined using statistical methods. This research emphasizes the improvement needed within the field of stellar abundance determination, both by the ease of measuring and by standardization. An intrinsic variation has been found to exist for almost all of the elements studied by most abundance-finding groups. Specifically, this research determines abundances for our own set of F, G, and K stars 400 stars) from spectroscopic planet hunting surveys for 27 elements, including: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, and Hf, where some elements are not measured in all stars. Abundances of the elements in many known exosolar planet host stars are calculated for the purpose of hypothesizing new ways to visualize how stellar abundances could affect planetary systems, planetary formation, and mineralogy. For example, the emphasis on the unusual stellar abundances of Tau Ceti is being heavily analyzed. Tau Ceti is theorized to have 5 planets of Super-Earth masses orbiting in near habitable zone distances(Tuomi, M. et al. 2013). Spectroscopic analysis finds that the Mg/Si ratio is extremely high 2) for this star, which could lead to alterations in planetary properties. Tau Ceti's low metallicity and Oxygen abundance leads to changes in the location of the traditional habitable zone. In addition, the abundance results of a spectroscopic survey of around 400 stars will be presented. This is completed by observing mineralogical ratios, such as Mg/Si and C/O, as well as constructing other useful ratios for determining the effects of individual stellar abundances.

  14. Sustaining ecosystem services: Overcoming the dilemma posed by local actions and planetary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, Matthias; Ometto, Jean Pierre; Batistella, Mateus; Franklin, Oskar; Hall, Marianne; Lapola, David M.; Moran, Emilio F.; Tramberend, Sylvia; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza; Schaffartzik, Anke; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Nilsson, Sten B.; Nobre, Carlos A.

    2014-08-01

    Resolving challenges related to the sustainability of natural capital and ecosystem services is an urgent issue. No roadmap on reaching sustainability exists; and the kind of sustainable land use required in a world that acknowledges both multiple environmental boundaries and local human well-being presents a quandary. In this commentary, we argue that a new globally consistent and expandable systems-analytical framework is needed to guide and facilitate decision making on sustainability from the planetary to the local level, and vice versa. This framework would strive to link a multitude of Earth system processes and targets; it would give preference to systemic insight over data complexity through being highly explicit in spatiotemporal terms. Its strength would lie in its ability to help scientists uncover and explore potential, and even unexpected, interactions between Earth's subsystems with planetary environmental boundaries and socioeconomic constraints coming into play. Equally importantly, such a framework would allow countries such as Brazil, a case study in this commentary, to understand domestic or even local sustainability measures within a global perspective and to optimize them accordingly.

  15. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar processing including cold plasma processing of local planetary ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullard, D.; Lynch, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite has been studied by a number of investigators as a potential means for recovery of oxygen from lunar soil. Interest in this process has always rested with the simplicity of the flow diagram and the utilization of established technology. Effective utilization of hydrogen in the reduction process at temperatures of 1200 C and below has always been disappointing and, as such, has led other investigators to focus attention on other systems. Effective utilization of hydrogen in the reduction of ilmenite can be significantly enhanced in the presence of a non-equilibrium hydrogen plasma. Ilmenite at solid specimen temperatures of 600 C to 970 C were reacted in a hydrogen plasma. Those experiments revealed that hydrogen utilization can be significantly enhanced. At a specimen temperature of 850 C the fraction of H2 reacted was 24 percent compared to the 7 percent theoretical limit calculated with thermodynamic theory for the same temperature. An added advantage for a hydrogen plasma involves further reduction of TiO2. Reduction of the iron oxide in ilmenite yields TiO2 and metallic iron as by products. Titanium forms a number of oxides including TiO, Ti2O3, Ti3O5 and the Magneli oxides (Ti4O7 to Ti50O99). In conventional processing of ilmenite with hydrogen it is possible to reduce TiO2 to Ti7O13 within approximately an hour, but with poor utilization of hydrogen on the order of one mole of H2 per thousand. In the cold or non-equilibrium plasma TiO2 can be rapidly reduced to Ti2O3 with hydrogen utilization exceeding 10 percent. Based on design considerations of the plasma reactor greater utilization of the hydrogen in the reduction of TiO2 is possible.

  16. Positive feedback between strain localization and fluid flow at the ductile-brittle transition leading to Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore deposits in Lavrion (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Tarantola, Alexandre; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    At the crustal scale, the ductile-brittle transition (DBT) might correspond to a physical barrier that separates a deep reservoir of metamorphic and magmatic fluids from a shallow reservoir of surficial fluids. Rock rheology, and thus the location of the DBT, is mainly governed by lithology, temperature and the presence/absence of fluids. Accordingly, the position of the DBT potentially evolves during orogenic evolution owing to thermal evolution and fluid circulation. In turn rocks are transferred across it during burial and exhumation. These processes induce connections between fluid reservoirs which might play a role on ore deposition. In this contribution, we discuss the impact of lithological heterogeneities on deformation, fluid flow and ore deposition based on the example of the Lavrion low-angle top-to-the-SSW detachment accommodating gravitational collapse of the Hellenides orogenic belt in Greece. The Lavrion peninsula, localized along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic Metamorphic Core Complex, is characterized by Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore mineralization mainly concentrated along a lithological contact (marble/schists) below and within a detachment shear zone. The mylonitic marble below the detachment shear zone is composed of white layers of pure marble alternating with blue layers containing impurities (SiO2, Al2O3, organic matter…). Development of the mylonitic fabric in competent impure blue marble is associated with its preferred dolomitization related to focused fluid infiltration. This mylonitic marble is cross-cut by several cataclastic horizons preferentially developed within the more competent impure blue marble and newly-crystallized dolomitic horizon. These cataclasites are invaded by fluorite and calcite gangue minerals showing locally Mn, Pb, Zn, Fe oxides and/or hydroxides, sphalerite, Ag-galena, Ag-sulfur and native Ag. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes performed on marble sections point out decarbonation with magmatic contribution and

  17. Evaluation of nonlocal and local planetary boundary layer schemes in the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bo; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Chan, Allen; Lau, Alexis

    2012-06-01

    A realistic reproduction of planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure and its evolution is critical to numerical simulation of regional meteorology and air quality. Conversely, insufficient realism in the simulated physical properties often leads to degraded meteorological and air quality prognostic skills. This study employed the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to evaluate model performance and to quantify meteorological prediction differences produced by four widely used PBL schemes. Evaluated were two nonlocal PBL schemes, YSU and ACM2, and two local PBL schemes, MYJ and Boulac. The model grid comprised four nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 27 km, 9 km, 3 km and 1 km respectively. Simulated surface variables 2 m temperature and 10 m wind at 1 km resolution were compared to measurements collected in Hong Kong. A detailed analysis of land-atmosphere energy balance explicates heat flux and temperature variability among the PBL schemes. Differences in vertical profiles of horizontal velocity, potential temperature, bulk Richardson number and water vapor mixing ratio were examined. Diagnosed PBL heights, estimated by scheme specific formulations, exhibited the large intrascheme variance. To eliminate formulation dependence in PBL height estimation, lidar measurements and a unified diagnosis were jointly used to reanalyze PBL heights. The diagnosis showed that local PBL schemes produced shallower PBL heights than those of nonlocal PBL schemes. It is reasonable to infer that WRF, coupled with the ACM2 PBL physics option can be a viable producer of meteorological forcing to regional air quality modeling in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region.

  18. Joint amplitude and frequency demodulation analysis based on local mean decomposition for fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Zuo, Ming J.; Qu, Jian; Tian, Tao; Liu, Zhiliang

    2013-10-01

    The vibration signals of faulty planetary gearboxes have complicated spectral structures due to the amplitude modulation and frequency modulation (AMFM) nature of gear damage induced vibration and the additional multiplicative amplitude modulation (AM) effect caused by the time-varying vibration transfer paths (for local gear damage case) and the passing planets (for distributed gear damage case). The spectral complexity leads to the difficulty in fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes. Observing that both the amplitude envelope and the instantaneous frequency of planetary gearbox vibration signals are associated with the characteristic frequency of the faulty gear, a joint amplitude and frequency demodulation method is proposed for fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes. In order to satisfy the mono-component requirement by instantaneous frequency estimation, a signal is firstly decomposed into product functions (PF) using the local mean decomposition (LMD) method. Then, the earliest extracted PF that has an instantaneous frequency fluctuating around the gear meshing frequency or its harmonics is chosen for further analysis, because it contains most of the information about the gear fault. The amplitude demodulation analysis can be accomplished through Fourier transforming the amplitude envelope of the chosen PF. For the frequency demodulation analysis, Fourier transform is applied to the estimated instantaneous frequency of the chosen PF to reveal its fluctuating frequency, thus obtaining the spectrum of the instantaneous frequency. By joint application of the amplitude and frequency demodulation methods, planetary gearbox faults can be diagnosed by matching the dominant peaks in the envelope spectrum and the spectrum of instantaneous frequency with the theoretical characteristic frequencies of faulty gears. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by simulated signal analysis, and is validated by experimental signal analysis of a lab planetary

  19. Automatic alignment of multi-temporal images of planetary nebulae using local optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2010-08-01

    Automatic alignment of time-separated astronomical images have historically proven to be difficult. The main reason for this difficulty is the amount of sporadic and unpredictable noise associated with astronomical images. A few examples of these effects are: image distortion due to optics, cosmic ray hits, transient background sources (super novae) and various artifact sources associated with the CCD imager itself. In this paper a new automated image registration method is introduced for aligning two time-separated images while minimizing the inherent errors and unpredictabilities. Using local optimization, the two images are aligned when the root mean square of the difference between the two images is minimized. The dataset consists of images of galactic planetary nebulae acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope. The aligned centroids inferred by the suggested method agree with the results from previously aligned images by inspection with high confidence. It is also demonstrated that this method is robust, sufficient, does not require extensive user input and it is highly sensitive to minor adjustments.

  20. Numerical simulation of structural evolution from regional to local scale in the Outokumpu ore district, eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanhua; Sorjonen-Ward, Peter; Ord, Alison; Kontinen, Asko

    2015-04-01

    Numerical simulations of geological processes may be used in several ways. On the one hand there is an analytical, or forensic approach, analogous to geophysical inversion, to constrain boundary conditions and to demonstrate how a particular geological process or sequence of events is feasible, or even probable. Alternatively, or additionally, modeling of earth processes can be used in a predictive sense, where forward modeling of various scenarios representing different initial states and applied boundary conditions and processes can provide generic or specific insights - depending on model complexity - which may be applied to problems as diverse as geohazard risk assessment and mineral exploration. These two approaches are complementary, and either may be emphasized, depending on the degree of understanding or density of data in a given study area. Here we review how the results of modeling can be used to develop and test structural scenarios and hypotheses and how they can be integrated with new data sets, in this case, deep crustal and upper crustal high resolution reflection seismic data acquired in recent years in the Paleoproterozoic Outokumpu ore district in eastern Finland. A range of process models have been devised and run for the Outokumpu mineral system, including coupled convective reactive transport models, coupled thermomechanical models assessing thermal regimes in rifting, and coupled mechanical and fluid flow models, but here we focus on the results of mechanical modeling using the finite element code FLAC. Models designed at different scales have provided simple and plausible solutions that affirm the geometric and kinematic scenarios based on regional and mine-scale structural data. At regional scale, FLAC models effectively simulated the partitioning of deformation into NW-SE trending ductile shear zones and domains where coeval folding and thrusting have NE-trending axial trends. At a more detailed district scale, development of local

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Search for Planetary Nebulae in Globular Clusters of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    2015-04-01

    Single stars in ancient globular clusters (GCs) are believed incapable of producing planetary nebulae (PNs), because their post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary timescales are slower than the dissipation timescales for PNs. Nevertheless, four PNs are known in Galactic GCs. Their existence likely requires more exotic evolutionary channels, including stellar mergers and common-envelope binary interactions. I carried out a snapshot imaging search with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for PNs in bright Local Group GCs outside the Milky Way. I used a filter covering the 5007 Å nebular emission line of [O iii], and another one in the nearby continuum, to image 66 GCs. Inclusion of archival HST frames brought the total number of extragalactic GCs imaged at 5007 Å to 75, whose total luminosity slightly exceeds that of the entire Galactic GC system. I found no convincing PNs in these clusters, aside from one PN in a young M31 cluster misclassified as a GC, and two PNs at such large angular separations from an M31 GC that membership is doubtful. In a ground-based spectroscopic survey of 274 old GCs in M31, Jacoby et al. found three candidate PNs. My HST images of one of them suggest that the [O iii] emission actually arises from ambient interstellar medium rather than a PN; for the other two candidates, there are broadband archival UV HST images that show bright, blue point sources that are probably the PNs. In a literature search, I also identified five further PN candidates lying near old GCs in M31, for which follow-up observations are necessary to confirm their membership. The rates of incidence of PNs are similar, and small but nonzero, throughout the GCs of the Local Group. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for Utilization of Local Planetary Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Lewis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Progress toward the goal of exploiting extraterrestrial resources for space missions is documented. Some areas of research included are as follows: Propellant and propulsion optimization; Automation of propellant processing with quantitative simulation; Ore reduction through chlorination and free radical production; Characterization of lunar ilmenite and its simulants; Carbothermal reduction of ilmenite with special reference to microgravity chemical reactor design; Gaseous carbonyl extraction and purification of ferrous metals; Overall energy management; and Information management for space processing.

  3. Characterisation and Processing of Some Iron Ores of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S. J. G.; Patil, M. R.; Rudrappa, C.; Kumar, S. P.; Ravi, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    Lack of process characterization data of the ores based on the granulometry, texture, mineralogy, physical, chemical, properties, merits and limitations of process, market and local conditions may mislead the mineral processing entrepreneur. The proper implementation of process characterization and geotechnical map data will result in optimized sustainable utilization of resource by processing. A few case studies of process characterization of some Indian iron ores are dealt with. The tentative ascending order of process refractoriness of iron ores is massive hematite/magnetite < marine black iron oxide sands < laminated soft friable siliceous ore fines < massive banded magnetite quartzite < laminated soft friable clayey aluminous ore fines < massive banded hematite quartzite/jasper < massive clayey hydrated iron oxide ore < manganese bearing iron ores massive < Ti-V bearing magnetite magmatic ore < ferruginous cherty quartzite. Based on diagnostic process characterization, the ores have been classified and generic process have been adopted for some Indian iron ores.

  4. Localization of ultra-low frequency waves in multi-ion plasmas of the planetary magnetosphere

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Eun -Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong -Hun

    2015-01-01

    By adopting a 2D time-dependent wave code, we investigate how mode-converted waves at the Ion-Ion Hybrid (IIH) resonance and compressional waves propagate in 2D density structures with a wide range of field-aligned wavenumbers to background magnetic fields. The simulation results show that the mode-converted waves have continuous bands across the field line consistent with previous numerical studies. These waves also have harmonic structures in frequency domain and are localized in the field-aligned heavy ion density well. Lastly, our results thus emphasize the importance of a field-aligned heavy ion density structure for ultra-low frequency wave propagation, and suggest that IIH wavesmore » can be localized in different locations along the field line.« less

  5. Localization of ultra-low frequency waves in multi-ion plasmas of the planetary magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun -Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong -Hun

    2015-01-01

    By adopting a 2D time-dependent wave code, we investigate how mode-converted waves at the Ion-Ion Hybrid (IIH) resonance and compressional waves propagate in 2D density structures with a wide range of field-aligned wavenumbers to background magnetic fields. The simulation results show that the mode-converted waves have continuous bands across the field line consistent with previous numerical studies. These waves also have harmonic structures in frequency domain and are localized in the field-aligned heavy ion density well. Lastly, our results thus emphasize the importance of a field-aligned heavy ion density structure for ultra-low frequency wave propagation, and suggest that IIH waves can be localized in different locations along the field line.

  6. Processing Gold Quarry refractory ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausen, D. M.

    1989-04-01

    The Gold Quarry deposit is the largest sediment-hosted gold deposit yet discovered on the Carlin trend in northern Nevada. However, despite the locale's vast reserves, the gold is difficult to extract from portions of the deposit. Detailed, ongoing mineralogical analyses assure proper treatment of the ore.

  7. Planetary nebulae: the universal mass-metallicity relation for Local Group dwarf galaxies and the chemistry of NGC 205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Denise R.; Magrini, Laura; Teodorescu, Ana M.; Carneiro, Carolina M.

    2014-10-01

    Here we study 16 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 205 by using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs (GMOS@Gemini) spectra to derive their physical and chemical parameters. The chemical patterns and evolutionary tracks for 14 of our PNe suggest that there are no type I PNe among them. These PNe have an average oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 8.08 ± 0.28 and progenitor masses of 2-2.5 M⊙ and thus were born ˜1.0-1.7 Gyr ago. Our results are in good agreement with previous PN studies of NGC 205. The present 12+log(O/H) is combined with our previous work and results in the literature to study the PN metallicity trends of Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies, in an effort to establish the PN luminosity-metallicity and mass-metallicity relations (LZR and MZR) for LG dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) and dwarf spheroidals (dSphs). Previous attempts to obtain such relations failed to provide correct conclusions because they were based on limited samples. As far as we are able to compare stellar with nebular metallicities, our MZR is in very good agreement with the slope of the MZR recently obtained for LG dwarf galaxies using spectroscopic stellar metallicities by Kirby and coauthors. In fact, we found that both dIrr and dSph galaxies follow the same MZR, at variance with the differences claimed in the past. Moreover, our MZR is also consistent with the global MZR of star-forming galaxies, which span a wider stellar mass range (˜106-1011 M⊙).

  8. Effective Temperatures and Elemental Abundances of Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae via Non Local Thermal Equilibrium Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Mark Francis

    Effective temperatures, gravities, and surface abundances are determined for five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN): NGC 6826, NGC 2392, IC 2149, IC 4593, and IC 418. These stellar parameters are obtained by reproducing high resolution International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra (1200-1680A), using atmospheric models which assume conditions of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium. In a preliminary study, absorption features are identified for the standard white subdwarf stars BD+28 ^circ4211 and BD+75 ^circ325, and B0 main sequence standard star Tau Sco, which exhibit effective temperatures (T _{rm eff}) of 80,000K, 55,000K, and 30,000K, respectively. Using the atomic data tables of Kurucz, and those of Ekberg and Johansson, over 98% of the absorption features in high resolution IUE spectra (1150-1990A) are identified. Analysis of the identifications shows that the UV spectra of these stars, similar in temperature to CSPN, are dominated by iron and nickel. The results of a comparative study of the high resolution UV spectra (1150-1980A) spectra of fifteen CSPN (36,000K <= T_{ rm eff} <= 130,000K) are also presented. Measurement of the terminal velocities of the stellar wind P Cygni profiles exhibited by the resonance lines of N V (1240A), Si IV (1390, 1400A), and C IV (1550A) yields estimates of stellar mass and radius. A grid of plane parallel model atmospheres in hydrostatic and statistical equilibrium is calculated, using complete linearization/accelerated lambda iteration hybrid algorithms. The major constituents of the atmospheres, hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, are treated non-local thermal equilibrium. Using these models, the spectra of the five coolest CSPN are reproduced over the wavelength region 1200-1680A, thus yielding estimates of the effective temperature, gravity, and surface abundances. For each atomic species, the total opacity is calculated, using atmospheres of identical composition and constant luminosity. Analysis

  9. Planetary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.; Brahic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are the development history of planetary ring research, the view of planetary rings in astronomy and cosmology over the period 1600-1900, the characteristics of the ring systems of Saturn and Uranus, the ethereal rings of Jupiter and Saturn, dust-magnetosphere interactions, the effects of radiation forces on dust particles, the collisional interactions and physical nature of ring particles, transport effects due to particle erosion mechanisms, and collision-induced transport processes in planetary rings. Also discussed are planetary ring waves, ring particle dynamics in resonances, the dynamics of narrow rings, the origin and evolution of planetary rings, the solar nebula and planetary disk, future studies of the planetary rings by space probes, ground-based observatories and earth-orbiting satellites, and unsolved problems in planetary ring dynamics.

  10. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  11. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  12. Planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieseking, F.

    1983-02-01

    The first planetary nebula (PN) was discovered by Darquier in 1779. In 1981, a compilation of galactic PN listed a total of 1455 objects. Outside the Milky Way Galaxy, PN are currently known in the Magellanic Clouds and in several members of the local group of galaxies. The PN have a rich emission-line spectrum, which makes it possible to recognize them at large distances. A central stellar object can be observed within the nebula. In 1927, spectral lines at 4959 A and 5007 A emitted by the PN could finally be identified as 'forbidden lines' of O(++). The life expectancy of a PN, estimated on the basis of the observed expansion rate, is only about 30,000 years. The PN have a number of interesting characteristics which are partly related to the high effective temperature and luminosity of the central stars, the presence of a particle system under extreme physical conditions, and the stellar material provided by the PN for the interstellar medium. Attention is given to the determination of the distance of PN, the Shklovsky distances, and two mysterious aspects related to the spectrum

  13. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  14. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  15. Planetary Magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  16. Application of LANDSAT satellite imagery for iron ore prospecting in the western desert of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdel-Hady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Khawasik, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The delineation of the geological units and geological structures through image interpretation, corroborated by field observations and structural analysis, led to the discovery of new iron ore deposits. A new locality for iron ore deposition, namely Gebel Qalamun, was discovered, as well as new occurrences within the already known iron ore region of Bahariya Oasis.

  17. Antimony ore in the Fairbanks district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Killeen, Pemberton Lewis; Mertie, John B., Jr.

    1951-01-01

    Antimony-bearing ores in the Fairbanks district, Alaska, are found principally in two areas, the extremities of which are at points 10 miles west and 23 miles northeast of Fairbanks; and one of two minor areas lies along this same trend 30 miles farther to the northeast. These areas are probably only local manifestations of mineralization that affected a much broader area and formed antimony-bearing deposits in neighboring districts, the closest of which is 50 miles away. The ores were exposed largely as a result of lode gold mining, but at two periods in the past, high prices for antimony ore warranted an independent production and about 2500 tons of stibnite ore was shipped. The sulfide deposits occupy the same fractures along which a gold-quartz mineralization of greater economic importance occurred; and both are probably genetically related to igneous rocks which intrude the schistose country rock. The sulfide is in part contemporaneous with some late-stage quartz in which it occurs as disseminated crystals; and in part the latest filling in the mineralized zones where it forms kidney-shaped masses of essentially solid sulfide. One extremely long mass must have contained nearly 100 tons of ore, but the average of the larger kidneys is closer to several tons. Much of the ore is stibnite, with quartz as a minor impurity, and assays show the tenor to vary from 40 to 65 percent antimony. Sulphantimonites are less abundant but likewise occur as disseminated crystals and as kidney-shaped bodies. Antimony oxides appear on the weathered surface and along fractures within the sulfide ore. Deposits containing either stibnite or sulphantimonite are known at more than 50 localities, but only eighteen have produced ore and the bulk of this came from the mines. The geology of the deposit, and the nature, extent, and period of the workings are covered in the detailed descriptions of individual occurrences. Several geologic and economic factors, which greatly affect

  18. From Regime Shifts to Planetary Boundaries: How Non-Linear System Behavior is Manifest from Local to Global Scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Although they have been building for decades, changes in the environment are not always smooth and gradual. In fact, the most important changes - such as those to our ecosystems and natural resources - are often sudden and large. Recent research suggests that instead of following a predictable linear path along existing trends, environmental systems often exhibit highly non-linear behavior, including very abrupt shifts in condition. In fact, the complex, non-linear workings of the planet's biological, physical and human systems can give rise to sudden, often catastrophic, environmental disasters. Recent scientific advances have shown can exhibit "tipping points" or "regime shifts". Examples of regime shifts range from lake eutrophication, desertification, and forest die-back, across many regions of the world. But do such regime shifts exist at the global scale? A recent synthesis of global environmental research (published by Rockstrom et al., in Nature, 2010) suggested that there may be "Planetary Boundaries", beyond which the global environment would enter conditions not seen in the Holocene era. In this presentation, I will review case studies of environmental regime shifts at regional scales, and show how they may or may not operate at global scales. Managing such complex systems, across regional and global scales, will be a fundamental challenge as humanity charts attempts to chart a more sustainability path.

  19. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  20. 38. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE FROM THE GEORGE M. CARL.' VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-14, OH-18-39, and OH-18-40) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. 14. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE FROM THE 'GEORGE M. CAR.' VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-38, OH-18-39, and OH-18-40.) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  3. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  4. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

  5. Sedimentary exhalative nickel-molybdenum ores in south China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lott, D.A.; Coveney, R.M., Jr.; Murowchick, J.B.; Grauch, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    Unique bedded Ni-Mo ores hosted by black shales were discovered in localized paleobasins along the Yangzte platform of southern China in 1971. Textural evidence and radiometric dates imply ore formation during sedimentation of black shales that grade into readily combustible beds, termed stone coals, which contain 10 to 15 percent organic carbon. Studies of 427 fluid inclusions indicate extreme variation in hydrothermal brine salinities that were contained by Proterozoic dolostones underlying the ore zone in Hunan and Guizhou. Variations of fluid inclusion salinities, which range from 0.1 to 21.6 wt percent NaCl equiv, are attributed to differences in the compositions of brines in strata underlying the ore bed, complicated by the presence of seawater and dilute fluids that represent condensates of vapors generated by boiling of mineralizing fluids or Cambrian meteoric water. The complex processes of ore deposition led to scattered homogenization temperatures ranging from 100??to 187??C within the Hunan ore zone and from 65??to 183??C within the Guizhou ore zone. While living organisms probably did not directly accumulate metals in situ in sufficient amounts to explain the unusually high grades of the deposits, sulfur isotope ratios indicate that bacteria, now preserved as abundant microfossils, provided sufficient sulfide for the ores by reduction of seawater sulfate. Such microbiota may have depended on vent fluids and transported organic matter for key nutrients and are consistent with a sedex origin for the ores. Vent fluids interacted with organic remains, including rounded fragments of microbial mats that were likely transported to the site of ore deposition by the action of waves and bottom currents prior to replacement by ore minerals.

  6. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective is to identify those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints. The objective of the phase being described was to develop an approach for using decision theory in performing a PQ analysis for a Mariner Jupiter Uranus Mission and to compare it with the traditional approach used for other missions.

  7. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  8. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  9. Planetary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  10. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Developed methodologies and procedures for the reduction of microbial burden on an assembled spacecraft at the time of encapsulation or terminal sterilization are reported. This technology is required for reducing excessive microbial burden on spacecraft components for the purposes of either decreasing planetary contamination probabilities for an orbiter or minimizing the duration of a sterilization process for a lander.

  11. The genesis of ores

    SciTech Connect

    Brimhall, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Human history and technology have been shaped by metals. How did they become concentrated in minable deposits located so conveniently near the earth's surface The author explains the mechanisms of fluid transport-by magma, water and even air and wind-responsible for the chemical and physical interactions that created bodies of metallic ores throughout geologic history. From their formation to their modification at the surface of the earth, ore deposits are geologically transitory and reflect dynamic processes within the earth as well as atmospheric and climatic influences on hydrologic systems. As highly reactive supracrustal systems, they then serve as geochemical sensors providing a powerful record and set of tracer elements for deducing the history, transport paths and forces operative in the crust.

  12. Hauling urban ore

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, P.A. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that during the last few years, many railroads have viewed this country's growing MSW disposal problem as mountains of urban ore, referring to the potential revenues in its transportation. Much to the chagrin of the railroads, however, few endeavors to mine this new market have panned out. The MSW disposal problem is most acute in the Northeast, where numerous urban landfills were due to close early this year. Unfortunately, large-scale mass movement of MSW by railroads in the Northeast have failed to materialize. At least one railroad in the West is actively transporting MSW via rail. On April 1, 1991, the Union Pacific (UP) began transporting MSW in double stack containers from Seattle, Wash., to a landfill in Arlington, Ore. Working with Washington Waste Systems, the UP upgraded part of its trackage and dedicated space and equipment to serve that city's disposal needs.

  13. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  14. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints were identified. The specific objectives for this reporting period were (1) to perform an analysis of the effects of PQ on an outer planet atmospheric probe, and (2) to prepare a quantitative illustration of spacecraft microbial reduction resulting from exposure to space environments. The Jupiter Orbiter Probe mission was used as a model for both of these efforts.

  15. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  16. ORE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM AND ADIT. LOOKING WEST. ORE FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ORE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM AND ADIT. LOOKING WEST. ORE FROM THE MINES ABOVE AT THE RIDGELINE AND TO THE RIGHT WAS CONVEYED TO THIS AREA AND DUMPED INTO THE SHAFT AT CENTER. THIS SHAFT OPENS INTO THE ADIT AT BOTTOM CENTER. THERE IS ANOTHER SHAFT OPENING INTO THE ADIT JUST ABOVE THE ADIT BEHIND THE STONE WALL. THE ORE WAS LOADED INTO TRAM CARS INSIDE THE ADIT AND CONVEYED ON TRACKS TO THE TRESTLE LEADING TO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN AT THE TRAM TERMINAL. TRACKS CAN BE SEEN LEADING FROM THE ADIT AND TO THE LEFT. THE ORE WAS THEN DUMPED INTO A CHUTE AT THE END OF THE TRESTLE CARRYING IT INTO THE ORE BIN AT THE TRAM TERMINAL(SEE CHUTE ON CA-291-30). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Planetary engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  18. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M. K.; Araki, S.; Black, G. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Brahic, A.; Brooks, S. M.; Charnoz, S.; Colwell, J. E.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Dones, L.; Durisen, R. H.; Esposito, L. W.; Ferrari, C.; Festou, M.; French, R. G.; Giuliatti-Winter, S. M.; Graps, A. L.; Hamilton, D. P.; Horanyi, M.; Karjalainen, R. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Krueger, H.; Larson, S. M.; Levison, H. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Murray, C. D.; Namouni, F.; Nicholson, P. D.; Olkin, C. B.; Poulet, F.; Rappaport, N. J.; Salo, H. J.; Schmidt, J.; Showalter, M. R.; Spahn, F.; Spilker, L. J.; Srama, R.; Stewart, G. R.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2002-08-01

    The past two decades have witnessed dramatic changes in our view and understanding of planetary rings. We now know that each of the giant planets in the Solar System possesses a complex and unique ring system. Recent studies have identified complex gravitational interactions between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto, or collisions between, parent bodies. Yet, as far as we have come, our understanding is far from complete. The fundamental questions confronting ring scientists at the beginning of the twenty-first century are those regarding the origin, age and evolution of the various ring systems, in the broadest context. Understanding the origin and age requires us to know the current ring properties, and to understand the dominant evolutionary processes and how they influence ring properties. Here we discuss a prioritized list of the key questions, the answers to which would provide the greatest improvement in our understanding of planetary rings. We then outline the initiatives, missions, and other supporting activities needed to address those questions, and recommend priorities for the coming decade in planetary ring science.

  19. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  20. Planetary atlases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Inge, J. L.; Morgan, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Two kinds of planetary map atlases are in production. Atlases of the first kind contain reduced-scale versions of maps in hard-bound books with dimensions of 11 x 14 inches. These new atlases are intended to: (1) provide concise but comprehensive references to the geography of the planets needed by planetary scientists and others; and (2) allow inexpensive access to the planetary map dataset without requiring acquisition and examination of tens or hundreds of full-size map sheets. Two such atlases have been published and a third is in press. Work was begun of an Atlas of the Satellite of the Outer Planets. The second kind of atlas is a popular or semi-technical version designed for commercial publication and distribution. The first edition, The Atlas of the Solar System, is nearly ready for publication. New funding and contracting constraints now make it unlikely that the atlas can be published in the format originally planned. Currently, the possibility of publishing the maps through the U.S. Geological Survey as a series of folios in the I-map series is being explored. The maps are global views of each solid-surface body of the Solar System. Each map shows airbrushed relief, albedo, and, where available, topography. A set of simplified geologic maps is also included. All of the maps are on equal-area projections. Scales are 1:40,000,000 for the Earth and Venus; 1:2,000,000 for the Saturnian satellites Mimas and Enceladus and the Uranian satellite Miranda; 1:100,000 for the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos; and 1:10,000,000 for all other bodies.

  1. Planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    A concise overview is presented of our understanding of planetary magnetospheres (and in particular, of that of the Earth), as of the end of 1981. Emphasis is placed on processes of astrophysical interest, e.g., on particle acceleration, collision-free shocks, particle motion, parallel electric fields, magnetic merging, substorms, and large scale plasma flows. The general morphology and topology of the Earth's magnetosphere are discussed, and important results are given about the magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury, including those derived from the Voyager 1 and 2 missions and those related to Jupiter's satellite Io. About 160 references are cited, including many reviews from which additional details can be obtained.

  2. Planetary Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonenko, I.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    The final report consists of 10 journal articles concerning Planetary Volcanism. The articles discuss the following topics: (1) lunar stratigraphy; (2) cryptomare thickness measurements; (3) spherical harmonic spectra; (4) late stage activity of volcanoes on Venus; (5) stresses and calderas on Mars; (6) magma reservoir failure; (7) lunar mare basalt volcanism; (8) impact and volcanic glasses in the 79001/2 Core; (9) geology of the lunar regional dark mantle deposits; and (10) factors controlling the depths and sizes of magma reservoirs in Martian volcanoes.

  3. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar-based astronomy offers major prospects for solar system research in the coming century. In addition to active advocacy of both ground-based and Lunar-based astronomy, a workshop on the value of asteroids as a resource for man is being organized. The following subject areas are also covered: (1) astrophysics from the Moon (composition and structure of planetary atmospheres); (2) a decade of cost-reduction in Very Large Telescopes (the SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes); and (3) a plan for development of lunar astronomy.

  4. Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    The MAGSAT-program has added significantly to our knowledge of planetary magnetism. The accuracy of observations has been improved such that a reliable extrapolation of the magnetic field to the core surface is now much more feasible than it has been before, and the prospect of further MAGSAT missions raises the expectation that the time dependence of the geomagnetic field will be known with similar accuracy in the future. In the research support it has been attempted to develop dynamo theory with these applications in mind.

  5. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  6. Planetary Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  7. Planetary Interior in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, R; Bastea, M; Mitchell, A C; Minich, R W; Nellis, W J

    2003-01-31

    In the three years of this project, we have provided a complete database of the electrical conductivity of planetary materials to 180 GPa. The electrical conductivities of these planetary materials now provide a basis for future modeling of planets taking into account full magnetohydrodynamics. By using a full magnetohydrodynamics simulation, the magnetic fields of the planets can then be taken into account. Moreover, the electrical conductivities of the planetary materials have given us insight into the structure and nature of these dense fluids. We showed that simple monoatomic fluids such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen at planetary interior conditions undergo a common metallization process which can be explained on a simple basis of their radial charge density distributions. This model also shows that the metallization process is actually rather common and likely to take place in a number of materials such as carbon monoxide which is also present within planetary objects. On the other hand, we have also showed that a simple two component fluid like water and methane take on much different behaviors than say nitrogen due to the chemical interactions within these systems. The dynamics of an even more complex system, ''synthetic Uranus'' are still being analyzed but suggest that on some levels the behavior is very simple, i.e. the electrical conductivity is essentially the same as water, but the local dynamics are very complex. This project has shed much light on the nature of electrical transport within planetary interiors but also has shown that understanding chemical processes in the complex fluids within planetary interiors to be very important. Understanding those local interactions and processes is required to gain further insight into planetary interiors.

  8. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  9. Can I Trust ORE Reports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feedback, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue of FEEDBACK, a newsletter produced by the the Austin Independent School District Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE), illustrates the accuracy, validity, and fairness of ORE reports. The independence of the reports is explained. Internal and external quality controls are used to ensure reliability and accuracy of the reports.…

  10. Advanced planetary analyses. [for planetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results are summarized of research accomplished during this period concerning planetary mission planning are summarized. The tasks reported include the cost estimations research, planetary missions handbook, and advanced planning activities.

  11. Ore-fluid evolution at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, J.S.; Hofstra, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    deposited gold-enriched pyrite and jasperoid quartz. Gold and pyrite precipitated together as H2S in the ore fluids reacted with iron in the host rocks. As ore fluids mixed with local aquifer fluids, ore fluids became cooler and more dilute. Cooling caused precipitation of ore-stage fluorite and orpiment, and late ore-stage realgar. Phase separation and/or neutralization of the ore fluid during the waning stages of the hydrothermal ore system led to deposition of late ore-stage calcite.

  12. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    A synoptic view of early and recent data on the planetary magnetism of Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn is presented. The data on Mercury from Mariner 10 are synthesized with various other sources, while data for Venus obtained from 120 orbits of Pioneer Venus give the upper limit of the magnetic dipole. Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter data provided the first evidence of lunar magnetization, but it was the Apollo subsatellite data that measured accurately the magnetic dipole of the moon. A complete magnetic survey of Mars is still needed, and only some preliminary data are given on the magnetic dipole of the planet. Figures on the magnetic dipoles of Jupiter and Saturn are also suggested. It is concluded that if the magnetic field data are to be used to infer the interior properties of the planets, good measures of the multiple harmonics in the field are needed, which may be obtained only through low altitude polar orbits.

  13. Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles (Editor); Treiman, Allan H. (Editor); Kostiuk, Theodor (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report on planetary surface investigations and planetary landers covers: (1) the precise chemical analysis of solids; (2) isotopes and evolved gas analyses; (3) planetary interiors; planetary atmospheres from within as measured by landers; (4) mineralogical examination of extraterrestrial bodies; (5) regoliths; and (6) field geology/processes.

  14. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-01-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  15. Planetary Seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. In addition to Earth, seismometers have been installed on Venus, Mars, and the Moon. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon (now over 40 years ago) revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this talk I will discuss some of these methods and review the history of planetary seismology.

  16. Reinforcement core facilitates O-ring installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Reinforcement core holds O-ring in place within a structure while adjacent parts are being assembled. The core in the O-ring adds circumferential rigidity to the O-ring material. This inner core does not appreciably affect the sectional elasticity or gland-sealing characteristics of the O-ring.

  17. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOEpatents

    Hoffmann, Michael R.; Arnold, Robert G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  18. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOEpatents

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  19. The fragility of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Jílková, Lucie

    2015-07-01

    We specify the range to which perturbations penetrate a planetesimal system. Such perturbations can originate from massive planets or from encounters with other stars. The latter can have an origin in the star cluster in which the planetary system was born, or from random encounters once the planetary system has escaped its parental cluster. The probability of a random encounter, either in a star cluster or in the Galactic field depends on the local stellar density, the velocity dispersion and the time spend in that environment. By adopting order of magnitude estimates, we argue that the majority of planetary systems born in open clusters will have a Parking zone, in which planetesimals are affected by encounters in their parental star cluster but remain unperturbed after the star has left the cluster. Objects found in this range of semimajor axis and eccentricity preserve the memory of the encounter that last affected their orbits, and they can therefore be used to reconstruct this encounter. Planetary systems born in a denser environment, such as in a globular cluster are unlikely to have a Parking zone. We further argue that some planetary systems may have a Frozen zone, in which orbits are not affected either by the more inner massive planets or by external influences. Objects discovered in this zone will have preserved information about their formation in their orbital parameters.

  20. Stellar Ablation of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    We review observations and theories of the solar ablation of planetary atmospheres, focusing on the terrestrial case where a large magnetosphere holds off the solar wind, so that there is little direct atmospheric impact, but also couples the solar wind electromagnetically to the auroral zones. We consider the photothermal escape flows known as the polar wind or refilling flows, the enhanced mass flux escape flows that result from localized solar wind energy dissipation in the auroral zones, and the resultant enhanced neutral atom escape flows. We term these latter two escape flows the "auroral wind." We review observations and theories of the heating and acceleration of auroral winds, including energy inputs from precipitating particles, electromagnetic energy flux at magnetohydrodynamic and plasma wave frequencies, and acceleration by parallel electric fields and by convection pickup processes also known as "centrifugal acceleration." We consider also the global circulation of ionospheric plasmas within the magnetosphere, their participation in magnetospheric disturbances as absorbers of momentum and energy, and their ultimate loss from the magnetosphere into the downstream solar wind, loading reconnection processes that occur at high altitudes near the magnetospheric boundaries. We consider the role of planetary magnetization and the accumulating evidence of stellar ablation of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Finally, we suggest and discuss future needs for both the theory and observation of the planetary ionospheres and their role in solar wind interactions, to achieve the generality required for a predictive science of the coupling of stellar and planetary atmospheres over the full range of possible conditions.

  1. Supergene processes and uranium ore formation in the Ronneburg ore field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonin, A. V.; Gradovsky, I. F.

    2012-04-01

    The Ordovician-Lower Carboniferous sequence of slightly metamorphosed gray carbonate-terrigenous rocks contains the Silurian black cherty shales enriched in carbon (6-9%), pyrite (6-7%), and uranium (˜30 ppm). The uranium ore is localized at the pinch-out of areal and linear zones of the Early Permian supergene (exogenic) oxidation of rocks expressed in reddening (hematitization). U, As, Sb, Cu, Ni, Mo, and Ag have been removed from the oxidized black shales and concentrated in the cementation zone in form of pitchblende and sulfides in wall-rock disseminations and veinlets largely hosted in carbonate-bearing rocks. In the Late Permian, during deposition of the upper Rotliegende and Zechstein, the fractures in the basement were filled with carbonates and sulfates; uranium was partly redeposited along with enrichment in Pb and Zn. Mesozoic and Cenozoic supergene processes altered uranium ore insignificantly.

  2. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  3. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  4. Ore and coal beneficiation method

    SciTech Connect

    Abadi, K.

    1987-10-27

    This patent describes a method for the separation of iron pyrite from a pulverized mineral ore comprising iron pyrites as a first constituent and a second constituent selected from the group consisting of coal and non-ferrous metal ores by air froth flotation of an aqueous pulp of the pulverized mineral ore. The improvement comprises incorporating in the pulp from about 0.02 to about 1 pound per ton of mineral of a composition comprising hydroxyacetic acid, xanthan gum, sodium silicate, and water wherein the acid content of the composition is from about 0.1 to about 69 percent by weight of the composition, the xanthan gum is from about 0.01 to about 10 percent by weight of the composition; and the ratio by weight of sodium silicate to hydroxyacetic acid is in the range of from about 0 to about 0.5.

  5. Planetary radio lasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1988-01-01

    Both the Earth's auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) and Jupiter's decametric radio S-bursts are attributed to natural radio lasing. Presumably consisting of self-excited, closed-loop wave feedback oscillations between local irregularities of the source plasma density, this radio lasing is comparable to that which occurs in man-made optical lasers, although at radio, rather than optical wavelengths. As a result, it should produce a multiple discrete emission spectrum and intense, coherent beams. Recent observations of the AKR's discreteness and coherence have clearly ruled out the previous open-loop amplifier model for such emissions, and recent observations of the Jovian S-bursts have shown the expected, regularly-spaced, longitudinal laser modes. These new observations thus confirm the proposed planetary cyclotron radio lasing at both planets.

  6. SRB O-ring free response analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Carleton J.

    1986-01-01

    The free response of viton O-rings were investigated. Two different response mechanisms of viton O-rings are identified and a theoretical representation of the two mechanisms is compared with experimental results for various temperatures.

  7. Conical O-ring seal

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, Jr., Gordon G.

    1984-01-01

    A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials which has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

  8. Conical O-ring seal

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, G.G. Jr.

    A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

  9. Leak Rate Performance of Silicone Elastomer O-Rings Contaminated with JSC-1A Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of spacecraft components with planetary and foreign object debris is a growing concern. Face seals separating the spacecraft cabin from the debris filled environment are particularly susceptible; if the seal becomes contaminated there is potential for decreased performance, mission failure, or catastrophe. In this study, silicone elastomer O-rings were contaminated with JSC- 1A lunar regolith and their leak rate performance was evaluated. The leak rate values of contaminated O-rings at four levels of seal compression were compared to those of as-received, uncontaminated, O-rings. The results showed a drastic increase in leak rate after contamination. JSC-1A contaminated O-rings lead to immeasurably high leak rate values for all levels of compression except complete closure. Additionally, a mechanical method of simulant removal was examined. In general, this method returned the leak rate to as-received values.

  10. [Assessment of Soil Fluorine Pollution in Jinhua Fluorite Ore Areas].

    PubMed

    Ye, Qun-feng; Zhou, Xiao-ling

    2015-07-01

    The contents of. soil total fluorine (TF) and water-soluble fluorine (WF) were measured in fluorite ore areas located in Jinhua City. The single factor index, geoaccumulation index and health risk assessment were used to evaluate fluorine pollution in soil in four fluorite ore areas and one non-ore area, respectively. The results showed that the TF contents in soils were 28. 36-56 052. 39 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 8 325.90 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 1 555. 94 mg.kg-1, and a median of 812. 98 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of TF was 172. 07% . The soil WF contents ranged from 0. 83 to 74. 63 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 16. 94 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 10. 59 mg.kg-1, and a median of 10. 17 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of WF was 100. 10%. The soil TF and WF contents were far higher than the national average level of the local fluorine epidemic occurrence area. The fluoride pollution in soil was significantly affected by human factors. Soil fluorine pollution in Yangjia, Lengshuikeng and Huajie fluorite ore areas was the most serious, followed by Daren fluorite ore area, and in non-ore area there was almost no fluorine pollution. Oral ingestion of soils was the main exposure route. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters showed that children's weight exerted the largest influence over hazard quotient. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found among the three kinds of evaluation methods. PMID:26489337

  11. Mapping Planetary Volcanic Deposits: Identifying Vents and Distinguishing between Effects of Eruption Conditions and Local Storage and Release on Flow Field Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Skinner, J. A.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J. E.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Whitson, P.; Janoiko, B.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial geologic mapping techniques are regularly used for "photogeologic" mapping of other planets, but these approaches are complicated by the diverse type, areal coverage, and spatial resolution of available data sets. When available, spatially-limited in-situ human and/or robotic surface observations can sometimes introduce a level of detail that is difficult to integrate with regional or global interpretations. To assess best practices for utilizing observations acquired from orbit and on the surface, our team conducted a comparative study of geologic mapping and interpretation techniques. We compared maps generated for the same area in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona using 1) data collected for reconnaissance before and during the 2010 Desert Research And Technology Studies campaign, and 2) during a traditional, terrestrial field geology study. The operations, related results, and direct mapping comparisons are discussed in companion LPSC abstracts. Here we present new geologic interpretations for a volcanic cone and related lava flows as derived from all approaches involved in this study. Mapping results indicate a need for caution when interpreting past eruption conditions on other planetary surfaces from orbital data alone.

  12. Mapping Planetary Volcanic Deposits: Identifying Vents and Distingushing between Effects of Eruption Conditions and Local Lava Storage and Release on Flow Field Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Skinner, J. A.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J. E.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Whitson, P.; Janoiko, B.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial geologic mapping techniques are regularly used for "photogeologic" mapping of other planets, but these approaches are complicated by the diverse type, areal coverage, and spatial resolution of available data sets. When available, spatially-limited in-situ human and/or robotic surface observations can sometimes introduce a level of detail that is difficult to integrate with regional or global interpretations. To assess best practices for utilizing observations acquired from orbit and on the surface, our team conducted a comparative study of geologic mapping and interpretation techniques. We compared maps generated for the same area in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona using 1) data collected for reconnaissance before and during the 2010 Desert Research And Technology Studies campaign, and 2) during a traditional, terrestrial field geology study. The operations, related results, and direct mapping comparisons are discussed in companion LPSC abstracts [1-3]. Here we present new geologic interpretations for a volcanic cone and related lava flows as derived from all approaches involved in this study. Mapping results indicate a need for caution when interpreting past eruption conditions on other planetary surfaces from orbital data alone.

  13. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  14. The planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Nasa has sponsored the development of the Planetary Data System (PDS) in order to preserve the scientific returns from past and future planeary missions and to make those data readily accessible in a well-documented form. The PDS encompasses all planetary data, but also provides a distributed, discipline-oriented architecture to best serve the needs of the diverse planetary sciences user-community. It is the intention of the PDS to ease and promote the analysis of planetary data through the development and application of data and documentation standards, basic analysis tools, and technology.

  15. Planetary geosciences, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); Plescia, Jeff L. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Research topics within the NASA Planetary Geosciences Program are presented. Activity in the fields of planetary geology, geophysics, materials, and geochemistry is covered. The investigator's current research efforts, the importance of that work in understanding a particular planetary geoscience problem, the context of that research, and the broader planetary geoscience effort is described. As an example, theoretical modelling of the stability of water ice within the Martian regolith, the applicability of that work to understanding Martian volatiles in general, and the geologic history of Mars is discussed.

  16. On the stability of circumbinary planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. A.; Shevchenko, I. I.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of circumbinary planetary systems (the systems in which the planets orbit a central binary) with a small binary mass ratio discovered to date is considered. The domains of chaotic motion have been revealed in the "pericentric distance-eccentricity" plane of initial conditions for the planetary orbits through numerical experiments. Based on an analytical criterion for the chaoticity of planetary orbits in binary star systems, we have constructed theoretical curves that describe the global boundary of the chaotic zone around the central binary for each of the systems. In addition, based on Mardling's theory describing the separate resonance "teeth" (corresponding to integer resonances between the orbital periods of a planet and the binary), we have constructed the local boundaries of chaos. Both theoretical models are shown to describe adequately the boundaries of chaos on the numerically constructed stability diagrams, suggesting that these theories are efficient in providing analytical criteria for the chaoticity of planetary orbits.

  17. New simple early diagnostic methods using Omura's "Bi-Digital O-Ring Dysfunction Localization Method" and acupuncture organ representation points, and their applications to the "drug & food compatibility test" for individual organs and to auricular diagnosis of internal organs--part I.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1981-01-01

    By critically evaluating exceptions which may lead to false diagnoses, as well as by improving the currently-used applied kinesiology diagnostic method (="Dysfunction Localization Method"), the author was able to develop the "Thumb-Index Finger Bi-Digital O-Ring Diagnostic Method," using the Applied Kinesiology Dysfunction Localization Principle. By combining the author's "Bi-Digital O-Ring Dysfunction Localization Method" with clinically useful organ representation points in acupuncture medicine (where the presence of tenderness at the organ representation point is used for diagnosis as well as for the location of treatment), it has become possible to make early diagnoses of most of the internal organs, with an average diagnostic accuracy of over 85%, without knowing the patient's history or using any instruments. The method can detect dysfunctioning or diseased organs even before tenderness appears at the organ representation point, with an applied force of less than 1 gm/mm2 on the skin surface, while the detection of tenderness at the organ representation point often requires a minimum applied force of 80-100 gm/mm2. The method was applied to the "Drug and Food Compatibility Test" to determine the probable effects of a given food or drug on individual internal organs without going through time-consuming, expensive laboratory tests. It was also applied to auricular organ representation points and their evaluation, and has succeeded in increasing their diagnostic sensitivity. The method was also used for the evaluation of magnetic fields. Usually the North pole increased muscle strength and the South pole weakened it at most parts of the body. This simple, improved, economical diagnostic method may have invaluable implications in clinical diagnosis, treatment and drug research. Key Words: early diagnostic methods, "Thumb-Index Finger Bi-Digital O-Ring Diagnostic Method," applied kinesiology, cardio-vascular diseases, drugs, tenderness, pain, pain medicine, anti

  18. A genetic reinterpretation of the Falun and Åmmeberg ore types, Bergslagen, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundblad, K.

    1994-06-01

    The stratiform sulphide and oxide ores of Bergslagen, south-central Sweden, constitute the largest concentration of base metal and iron ores in northern Europe. They are hosted by Early Proterozoic metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary successions, which (together with later granitoids) belong to the Svecofennian Domain. An earlier genetic model suggested that two principal types of sulphide ores existed in Bergslagen (Falun and Åmmeberg), which had been formed through two contrasting granitoid-related processes, whereas the iron oxide ores were considered exhalative-volcanogenic. The prevailing view for the Bergslagen ores is that all stratiform sulphide (and oxide) ores were formed by exhalative-volcanogenic processes from one homogenous metal source. In this paper are presented new high-precision determinations of the ore lead isotopic composition of twentytwo stratiform sulphide and oxide ores in Bergslagen (among them Falun, Zinkgruvan-Åmmeberg and Dannemora), in order to provide an improved base for their genesis. The results show that significant variations in metal sources existed in Bergslagen for the volcanogenic ores. Most ores (including the Falun Cu-Zn-Pb deposit) were formed from a major isotopic reservoir that occurs in the interior parts of Bergslagen. This source is defined as the Falun reservoir and is dominated by calcalkaline felsic volcanic rocks. A variable input from a more evolved source component (recycled pre-Svecofennian crustal components) is locally important in sedimentdominated areas, particularly the Stockholm archipelago. A third source, representing relatively primitive metabasalts, influenced the lead isotopic pattern of ores in westernmost Bergslagen. The composition of the Zinkgruvan (Åmmeberg) ore lead is distinctly different from that of the Falun reservoir, but forms, together with other sulphide deposits along the southern margin of Bergslagen, a pronounced linear trend in standard isotope diagrams. The linear trend is

  19. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  20. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  1. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  2. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  3. Ground-based observations of Saturn's auroral ionosphere over three days: Trends in H3+ temperature, density and emission with Saturn local time and planetary period oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, James; Melin, Henrik; Stallard, Tom S.; Provan, G.; Moore, Luke; Badman, Sarah V.; Cowley, Stan W. H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Miller, Steve; Blake, James S. D.

    2016-01-01

    On 19-21 April 2013, the ground-based 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope was used to simultaneously measure H3+ emissions from four regions of Saturn's auroral ionosphere: (1) the northern noon region of the main auroral oval; (2) the northern midnight main oval; (3) the northern polar cap and (4) the southern noon main oval. The H3+ emission from these regions was captured in the form of high resolution spectral images as the planet rotated. The results herein contain twenty-three H3+ temperatures, column densities and total emissions located in the aforementioned regions - ninety-two data points in total, spread over timescales of both hours and days. Thermospheric temperatures in the spring-time northern main oval are found to be cooler than their autumn-time southern counterparts by tens of K, consistent with the hypothesis that the total thermospheric heating rate is inversely proportional to magnetic field strength. The main oval H3+ density and emission is lower at northern midnight than it is at noon, in agreement with a nearby peak in the electron influx in the post-dawn sector and a minimum flux at midnight. Finally, when arranging the northern main oval H3+ parameters as a function of the oscillation period seen in Saturn's magnetic field - the planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase - we see a large peak in H3+ density and emission at ∼115° northern phase, with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ∼44°. This seems to indicate that the influx of electrons associated with the PPO phase at 90° is responsible at least in part for the behavior of all H3+ parameters. A combination of the H3+ production and loss timescales and the ±10° uncertainty in the location of a given PPO phase are likely, at least in part, to be responsible for the observed peaks in H3+ density and emission occurring at a later time than the peak precipitation expected at 90° PPO phase.

  4. Planetary Landscape Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    hydrosphere (no erosion). Adding new elements (differentiated body: horizon, atmosphere: blue/purple etc sky as visually important elements; complex lithology (mountains of tectonic ori- gin); atmosphere (which can alter temperature) and hydrosphere (erosion, rivers, de- position) a more complex landscape will appear. As a first step, by making a "landscape model", we can input general parameters of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, the distance from the Sun, orbital parameters, last resurfacing date, age of the planet and the model will output the pos- 1 sible landscape elements in the planet. This can be refined by inputing the actual pa- rameters (place on planet, climate region etc.) from which the actual landscape can be the result. The landscape altering processes are: exogenic (impact), mass movement, endogenic (volcanism, thermal conditions), weathering, aeolic, fluvial, glacial, biogenic, antro- pogenic processes. Comparing planets and moons, all of these processes work on Earth, only half of them works on Mars and Venus, and even fewer on Mercury and Moon [3], where most of the surface is an "post-impact" landscape. A Planetary view. Science-fiction writers often describe planets with one characteris- tic: "desert planet", "ocean planet", "forest planet". Generally, planetary flyby missions verify these images (Europa - ice plain planet or Io - volcano world), but a orbiter mis- sion makes clear than in any planet, several significantly different landcape units are present, but from planet to planet, the average climatic and lithologic conditions do change and characterize the given planet. LANDSCAPE RESOURCES, LANDSCAPE "HOT SPOTS" Landscape hot spots has "high values" in the factors listed below. Physical landscape values. Small object not detectable from orbiters: individual rocks or the local physical characteristics of the upper layer of the regolith, the sediment or bedrock characteristics along with relief forms will be the important factors of

  5. Softened-Stainless-Steel O-Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquis, G. A.; Waters, William I.

    1993-01-01

    In fabrication of O-ring of new type, tube of 304 stainless steel bent around mandril into circle and welded closed into ring. Ring annealed in furnace to make it soft and highly ductile. In this condition, used as crushable, deformable O-ring seal. O-ring replacements used in variety of atmospheres and temperatures, relatively inexpensive, fabricated with minimum amount of work, amenable to one-of-a-kind production, reusable, and environmentally benign.

  6. Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars

  7. Planetary Vital Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  8. Planetary Systems Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander

    1997-01-01

    This project was initiated in 1993, about one year after the announcement of two planets around PSR B1257+12. Its goal was to investigate planetary systems around neutron stars using high precision timing of radio pulsars as a tool. A microsecond precision of the pulse timing analysis, which is equivalent to a millimeter-per-second radial velocity resolution, makes it possible to detect asteroid-mass bodies in orbit around pulsars and to study the dynamics of pulsar planetary systems. The project originally consisted of two longterm efforts: (i) routine observations and timing analysis of the millisecond pulsar PSR B1257+12 which was found to be orbited by at least two earth-mass bodies (Wolszczan and Frail, Nature, 355, 145) and (ii) a sensitive all-sky search for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of neutron stars with planetary systems. In the third year of the project, it was expanded to include long-term timing observations of slow pulsars in search for planetary systems around these younger neutron stars. The instrumentation used to conduct these investigations included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM-1), the 100-m Effelsberg telescope with the local pulse timing hardware, and the 32-m paraboloid of the Torun Centre for Astronomy in Torun, Poland (TCFA) with the PSPM-2, the second pulsar machine built at Penn State. The PI's collaborators included pulsar groups led by D. Backer (Berkeley), R. Foster (NRL), S. Kulkarni (Caltech), J. Taylor (Princeton) and R. Wielebinski (Bonn). One postdoc (Stuart Anderson), one graduate student (Brian Cadwell) and several undergraduates have been engaged in various aspects of research related to this project.

  9. Urey prize lecture: On the diversity of plausible planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are used to predict the variety of planetary and satellite systems that may be present within our galaxy. A new approximate global criterion for orbital stability of planetary systems based on an extension of the local resonance overlap criterion is proposed. This criterion implies that at least some of Uranus' small inner moons are significantly less massive than predicted by estimates based on Voyager volumes and densities assumed to equal that of Miranda. Simple calculations (neglecting planetary gravity) suggest that giant planets which acrete substantial amounts of gas while their envelopes are extremely distended ultimately rotate rapidly in the prgrade direction.

  10. Planetary Data Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Planetary data include all of those data which have resulted from measurements made by the instruments carried aboard planetary exploration spacecraft, and (for our purposes) exclude observations of Moon and Earth. The working, planetary data base is envisioned to contain not only these data, but also a wide range of supporting measurements such as calibration files, navigation parameters, spacecraft engineering states, and the various Earth-based and laboratory measurements which provide the planetary research scientist with historical and comparative data. No convention exists across the disciplines of the planetary community for defining or naming the various levels through which data pass in the progression from a sensed impulse at the spacecraft to a reduced, calibrated, and/or analyzed element in a planetary data set. Terms such as EDR (experiment data record), RDR (reduced data record), and SEDR (supplementary experiment data record) imply different meanings depending on the data set under consideration. The development of standard terminology for the general levels of planetary data is necessary.

  11. Planetary data definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-10-01

    Planetary data include all of those data which have resulted from measurements made by the instruments carried aboard planetary exploration spacecraft, and (for our purposes) exclude observations of Moon and Earth. The working, planetary data base is envisioned to contain not only these data, but also a wide range of supporting measurements such as calibration files, navigation parameters, spacecraft engineering states, and the various Earth-based and laboratory measurements which provide the planetary research scientist with historical and comparative data. No convention exists across the disciplines of the planetary community for defining or naming the various levels through which data pass in the progression from a sensed impulse at the spacecraft to a reduced, calibrated, and/or analyzed element in a planetary data set. Terms such as EDR (experiment data record), RDR (reduced data record), and SEDR (supplementary experiment data record) imply different meanings depending on the data set under consideration. The development of standard terminology for the general levels of planetary data is necessary.

  12. Estimating gold-ore mineralization potential within Topolninsk ore field (Gorny Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timkin, T.; Voroshilov, V.; Askanakova, O.; Cherkasova, T.; Chernyshov, A.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the results of ore and near-ore metasomatite composition analysis, the factors and indicators of gold-ore mineralization potential were proposed. Integration of the obtained data made it possible to outline magmatic, structural, and lithological factors, as well as direct and indirect indicators of gold-ore mineralization. Applying multidimensional analysis inherent to geochemical data, the spatial structure was investigated, as well as the potential mineralization was identified. Based on the developed and newly-identified mineralization, small (up to medium-sized) mineable gold-ore deposits in skarns characterized by complex geological setting was identified.

  13. Physics of planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental physical and chemical processes in an idealized planetary ionosphere are considered as a general abstraction, with actual planetary ionospheres representing special cases. After describing the structure of the neutral atmospheres (the barosphere, the thermosphere, and the exosphere) and noting the principal ionizing radiations responsible for the formation of planetary ionospheres, a detailed study is made of the thermal structure of these ionospheres and of the chemical processes and plasma-transport processes occurring in them. The features of equilibrium and realistic models of planetary ionospheres are discussed, and an attempt is made to determine the extent of these ionospheres. Considering the ionosphere as a plasma, a plasma kinetic approach is developed for determining the effects of interactions between individual particles and waves in this plasma. The use of remote-sensing radio techniques and direct measurement or in situ techniques is discussed. Finally, the observed properties of the ionospheres of the Earth, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter are reviewed.

  14. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  15. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  16. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  17. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  18. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  19. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  20. The Planetary Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, Louis P.

    2016-06-01

    This poster presentation presents the Planetary Project, a multi-week simulated research experience for college non-science majors. Students work in research teams of three to investigate the properties of a fictitious planetary system (the “Planetary System”) created each semester by the instructor. The students write team and individual papers in which they use the available data to draw conclusions about planets, other objects or general properties of the Planetary System and in which they compare, contrast and explain the similarities between the objects in the Planetary System and comparable objects in the Solar System.Data about the orbital and physical properties of the planets in the Planetary System are released at the start of the project. Each week the teams request data from a changing pool of available data. For example, in week one pictures of the planets are available. Each team picks one planet and the data (pictures) on that planet are released only to that team. Different data are available in subsequent weeks. Occasionally a news release to all groups reports an unusual occurrence - e.g. the appearance of a comet.Each student acts as principal author for one of the group paper which must contain a description of the week’s data, conclusions derived from that data about the Planetary System and a comparison with the Solar System. Each students writes a final, individual paper on a topic of their choice dealing with the Planetary System in which they follow the same data, conclusion, comparison format. Students “publish” their papers on a class-only restricted website and present their discoveries in class talks. Data are released to all on the website as the related papers are “published.” Additional papers commenting on the published work and released data are encouraged.The successes and problems of the method are presented.

  1. Modeling the formation of porphyry-copper ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    Porphyry-copper ore systems, the source of much of the world's copper and molybdenum, form when metal-bearing fluids are expelled from shallow, degassing magmas. On page 1613 of this issue, Weis et al. (1) demonstrate that self-organizing processes focus metal deposition. Specifically, their simulation studies indicate that ores develop as consequences of dynamic variations in rock permeability driven by injection of volatile species from rising magmas. Scenarios with a static permeability structure could not reproduce key field observations, whereas dynamic permeability responses to magmatic-fluid injection localized a metal-precipitation front where enrichment by a factor of 103 could be achieved [for an overview of their numerical-simulation model CSMP++, see (2)].

  2. Ore-blending optimization model for sintering process based on characteristics of iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sheng-Li; Oliveira, Dauter; Dai, Yu-Ming; Xu, Jian

    2012-03-01

    An ore-blending optimization model for the sintering process is an intelligent system that includes iron ore characteristics, expert knowledge and material balance. In the present work, 14 indices are proposed to represent chemical composition, granulating properties and high temperature properties of iron ores. After the relationships between iron ore characteristics and sintering performance are established, the "two-step" method and the simplex method are introduced to build the model by distinguishing the calculation of optimized blending proportion of iron ores from that of other sintering materials in order to improve calculation efficiency. The ore-blending optimization model, programmed by Access and Visual Basic, is applied to practical production in steel mills and the results prove that the present model can take advantage of the available iron ore resource with stable sinter yield and quality performance but at a lower cost.

  3. Study of Munella Ores. (puka Region, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liçaj, Engjell; Mandili, Jorgo; Tabaku, Boran; Thomo, Niko

    2010-01-01

    The study of Munella ores is based on four analysis (A, B, Cand cores). They represent different types of minerals in the Munella area. Cores were taken by the geologist of Puka Geological Enterprise. A Core: It represents an ore with pyrite and chalcopyrite where copper and sulfur contents are 0.77 and 8.2% respectively. B Core: This core represents an ore with spharelites and pyrite where zinc content is 1.5% and 2.9% sulfur one. C Core: It is a chalcopyrite ore, massive in nature, where copper content is 2.01% and 36% sulfur one. D Core: It also represents copper- zinc—sulfur ore where their content is 0.66, 1.00 and 4.28% respectively. Each core is studied individually by selective schema to have copper, zinc and pyrite concentrates. Copper and pyrite concentrates will be the first material for pyro- metallurgical industry.

  4. Comparative analysis of ore-bearing structures in Maiskoe, Markha, and Ozernoe kimberlite bodies at the Nakyn field, Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatov, P. A.; Novikov, K. V.; Shmonov, A. M.; Razumov, A. N.; Kilizhikov, O. K.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative characteristics of ore-bearing structures in kimberlite dikes and veins at the Nakyn field (Yakutia) were compared, and local tension and compression zones were identified. According to the results, dikes, veins and their swells are controlled by local strike-slip tension zones, while their morphology and dimensions are highly dependent on the tectonodynamic conditions the ore-bearing structures were formed under.

  5. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  6. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  7. Compositional Variability of Rutile in Hydrothermal Ore Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. R.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2009-05-01

    Rutile is a relatively common accessory phase in many geological environments, and although it is almost always composed dominantly of TiO2, it is also associated with a wide range of minor and trace element substitutions. The most prominent minor elements that occur in rutile are Fe, Cr, V, Nb and Ta. Like Ti, the latter two elements are essentially immobile in most non-magmatic metallic ore deposits, and their concentrations in rutile are largely influenced by precursor mineral compositions. Iron, Cr and V concentrations vary considerably in rutile hosted by ore deposits, and reflect combinations of precursor mineral composition and the bulk chemistry of the local mineralized or altered rock environment. However, in hydrothermal alteration zones, rutile compositions are clearly anomalous compared to those in unaltered host rocks, and have distinctive elemental associations and substitutions in different types of ore deposits. We have evaluated the mineral chemistry of rutile in >40 ore deposits worldwide. In general, rutile in volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits contains Sn (and locally W, Sb and/or Cu). Rutile from mesothermal and related gold deposits invariably contains W, and in some of the larger and more important deposits, also contains Sb and/or V. Tungsten-bearing detrital rutile grains from the Witwatersrand suggest that paleoplacer mineralization may have had a mesothermal/orogenic gold source. In some magmatic-hydrothermal Pd-Ni-Cu deposits, rutile contains Ni and Cu. Rutile associated with granite-related Sn deposits has strongly elevated concentrations of Sn and W, and granite-pegmatite W-Sn deposits contain rutile with these elements plus Nb and Ta. The Olympic Dam deposit hosts rutile that is enriched in W, Sn and Cu. Rutile associated with porphyry and skarn Cu and Cu-Au deposits tends to contain elevated W, Cu (and sometimes V). Although many ore deposits have well-defined and diagnostic rutile compositions, there are some compositional

  8. Morphology of orebodies and genesis of uranium deposits in the Khiagda ore field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, B. T.; Novgorodtsev, A. A.; Tarasov, N. N.; Martynenko, V. G.

    2014-11-01

    The localization controls of uranium lodes at deposits in the Khiagda ore field are considered in this paper on the basis of detailed documentation of borehole cores, geological sections, and maps. Detailed mapping has been carried out at four of eight deposits of the ore field; additionally, three deposits were studied fragmentary using separate sections and boreholes. We have shown that the idea of the lenticular shape of ore-bodies in section and their ribbonlike shape in plan view only partially corresponds to reality. The revealed morphological features of orebodies along with spatial relationships with epigenetic alteration of host rocks and faults indicate that mineralization was formed by mixing of the oxygen- and uranium-bearing subsurface water descending downdip the seam and the reductive subsurface water ascending from the basement along faults. The available data on the composition of subsurface water currently contained in the basement of ore field give grounds to assume that water similar in composition could have participated in uranium ore deposition. The special properties of this water, interacting for a long time with flows of formation water under conditions of the local geological setting, have imparted those features to the studied deposits, which differentiate them from other economic sandstone-hosted deposits, including those localized in paleovalleys.

  9. Extrasolar planetary systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.-S.

    1973-01-01

    The terms 'planet' and 'planet-like objects' are defined. The observational search for extrasolar planetary systems is described, as performable by earthbound optical telescopes, by space probes, by long baseline radio interferometry, and finally by inference from the reception of signals sent by intelligent beings in other worlds. It is shown that any planetary system must be preceded by a rotating disk of gas and dust around a central mass. A brief review of the theories of the formation of the solar system is given, along with a proposed scheme for classification of these theories. The evidence for magnetic activity in the early stages of stellar evolution is presented. The magnetic braking theories of solar and stellar rotation are discussed, and an estimate is made for the frequency of occurrence of planetary systems in the universe.

  10. Planetary noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  11. Principles of Planetary Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.

    2010-12-01

    This book introduces the reader to all the basic physical building blocks of climate needed to understand the present and past climate of Earth, the climates of Solar System planets, and the climates of extrasolar planets. These building blocks include thermodynamics, infrared radiative transfer, scattering, surface heat transfer and various processes governing the evolution of atmospheric composition. Nearly four hundred problems are supplied to help consolidate the reader's understanding, and to lead the reader towards original research on planetary climate. This textbook is invaluable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in atmospheric science, Earth and planetary science, astrobiology, and physics. It also provides a superb reference text for researchers in these subjects, and is very suitable for academic researchers trained in physics or chemistry who wish to rapidly gain enough background to participate in the excitement of the new research opportunities opening in planetary climate.

  12. 25. FRONT END LOADERS MOMENTARILY IN REPOSE IN THE ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. FRONT END LOADERS MOMENTARILY IN REPOSE IN THE ORE STORAGE YARD. AN ORE BRIDGE THAT FORMERLY TRANSFERRED ORE WITHIN THE STORAGE YARD WAS DESTROYED BY A BLIZZARD IN 1978. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. 36. ORE DOCK, LOOKING WEST. HULETT UNLOADERS AWAIT THE NEXT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ORE DOCK, LOOKING WEST. HULETT UNLOADERS AWAIT THE NEXT ORE BOAT. BY LATE WINTER, THE ORE STORAGE YARD SEEN AT LEFT WILL BE DEPLETED. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Airships for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing an airship for planetary atmospheric exploration was assessed. The environmental conditions of the planets and moons within our solar system were evaluated to determine their applicability for airship flight. A station-keeping mission of 50 days in length was used as the baseline mission. Airship sizing was performed utilizing both solar power and isotope power to meet the baseline mission goal at the selected planetary location. The results show that an isotope-powered airship is feasible within the lower atmosphere of Venus and Saturn s moon Titan.

  15. The sources of our iron ores. II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

  16. Research of Geochemical Associations of Nephelin Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulf, M.; Simonov, K.; Sazonov, A.

    The instant paper concerns research of distribution petrogenic chemical members in urtit ore body of Kia-Shaltyrsk deposit. Rocks of the deposit are ore for producing alum earth. Actuality of the subject based on outlooks of detection noble metal ore-bearing (Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru) in alkaline rocks of Siberia, including rocks of Kia-Shaltyrsk deposit (Kuznetsk Alatau). The main purpose of analysis of distribution of members is directed to detection of a non-uniformity of distribution of substance and segments enriched with alum earth and noble members. The basic solved problems are following: o Creation regression models of ore body; o Definition of cumulative distribution functions of members in a contour of ore body; o The analysis of the obtained outcomes in geologic terms. For construction regression models the full-scale data was used, which was presented by the results of the spectral and silicate analyses of gold and petrogenic members containing 130 assays arranged in ore body. A non-linear multiparameter model of the ore body based on components of nephelin ore using neural net approach was constructed. For each member the corresponding distribution function is produced. The model is constructed on the following members: Au, Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, R2O ((Na2O+K2O) -1) and losses of burning. The error of model forecasting membersS concentrations was from 0.02 up to 20%. Large errors basically connected with assays located near contact of ore body and ad- jacent strata or with very high concentrations of members; also they can be connected with different genesis of rocks or superposition of other processes. The analysis of concentrations of members and normalised absolute errors of the fore- cast has shown, that all members can be sectioned into two groups: first: Al2O3, SiO2, R2O, Fe2O3 and second: Au, losses of burning, CaO, MgO, SO3. The distribution of 1 gold is tightly connected with calcium and losses of burning and spatially linked with zones

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The present conference discusses such topics as density crossovers in lunar picrites, the geology of the Cassini impact basin, Mars, nanobacteria in carbonates, the properties of shocked aerogels, a chemical model of Comet Halley, lunar mascons, the impact evolution of icy regoliths, the geology of the Venera 8 landing site, the photogeologic mapping of northern Venus, HST observations of Mars, observational constraints on the rotational dynamics of Mars, and primordial magnetic field measurements from the moon. Also discussed are models of the S2 fluorescence spectra of comets, Martian crater ejecta, the heights of Venusian steep-sided domes, cloud-climate interactions on Venus, the Humorum basin geology from Clementine data, an early Amazonian lake in the Gale crater of Mars, nebular fractionations and Mn-Cr systematics, the Rock Chipper planetary surface sample collection, Mariner 10 stereo images of Mercury, remote and local stresses and Calderas on Mars, the electrostatic charging of saltating particles, SO2 detected on Callisto, the Mars Explorer Planetary Data System, an assessment of explosive venting on Europa, the sequential faulting history of the Mars Valles Marineris, a search for Martian sediments, the composition and internal structure of Europa, long-term and 'diurnal' tidal stresses on Europa, and episodic greenhouse climates on Mars.

  18. ESA Missions Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will report the planetary protection status of ESA flight projects with planetary protection requirements. It will cover Rosetta, Mars Express, ExoMars 2016, ExoMars 2018, JUICE, Solar Orbiter, and Bepi Colombo.

  19. The dating of ore genesis with using of sulfides: new opportunities of Sm-Nd method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekimova, N.; Serov, P.; Bayanova, T.

    2012-04-01

    Within the Fennoscandian Shield only on the surface there are hundreds of mafic-ultramafic intrusions, and on geophysical data - more than a thousand. Existing estimates of the ore potential related to the very costly and time-consuming drilling and analytical work (Mitrofanov, 2006). One of the express-and relatively inexpensive methods is a Sm-Nd dating of rocks and minerals. Feature of the Sm-Nd method is that it allows to use rock-forming minerals for the dating process. Our studies have shown that along with rock-forming, ore minerals (sulfides) can be used to determine the ore genesis time of industrially important geological sites, since exactly with the sulfides the industry Pt-Pd mineralization is closely connected. Age determination on sulphides is a direct method, since in this case the time of mineralization is determined directly, which can consist with the time of crystallization of the parent magma (syngenetic ores), and do not match - epigenetic, redeposited ore. Within Fennoscandia the both types of syngenetic and epigenetic manifestation of ore are known and setting of milestones mineralization is essential for understanding the evolution of ore-bearing magmatic sources and assess the prospects for PGE of many mafic massifs. Studies have shown that Sm-Nd dating method is applicable to both types of ore and dates obtained agree well with the known U-Pb ages of zircon or with key scenes of Svekofennian metamorphic events (eg, Sm-Nd age of the redeposited ores Ahmavaary - about 1900 Ma). One of the problems of Sm-Nd systematics of sulfides is the question of internal inclusions with high contents of REE. In this case, obtained isotope-geochronological features may not correspond to real geological events. To address this issue, the study of internal structure of sulfide minerals was carried out by CL high-local equipment - a scanning electron microscope LEO 1450 with cathodoluminescent attachment PanaCL. Studies have shown that these inclusions are

  20. 8. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL AND UPPER ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL AND UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST FROM ACCESS ROAD. THE ROADWAY ON THIS LEVEL (CENTER) WAS USED FOR UNLOADING ORE BROUGHT ON BURROWS INTO THE ORE BIN AT THE TOP LEVEL OF THE MILL. THE ORE BIN IN THE UPPER LEFT WAS ADDED LATER WHEN ORE WAS BROUGHT TO THE MILL BY TRUCKS. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms. PMID:23793914

  2. Planetary Radar Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Radar is a powerful technique that has furnished otherwise unavailable information about solar system bodies for three decades. The advantages of radar in planetary astronomy result from: (1) the observer's control of all the attributes of the coherent signal used to illuminate the target, especially the wave form's time/frequency modulation and polarization; (2) the ability of radar to resolve objects spatially via measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency; (3) the pronounced degree to which delay-Doppler measurements constrain orbits and spin vectors; and (4) centimeter-to-meter wavelengths, which easily penetrate optically opaque planetary clouds and cometary comae, permit investigation of near-surface macrostructure and bulk density, and are sensitive to high concentrations of metal or, in certain situations, ice. Planetary radar astronomy has primarily involved observations with Earth-based radar telescopes, but also includes some experiments with a spaceborne transmitter or receiver. In addition to providing a wealth of information about the geological and dynamical properties of asteroids, comets, the inner planets, and natural satellites, radar experiments have established the scale of the solar system, have contributed significantly to the accuracy of planetary ephemerides, and have helped to constrain theories of gravitation. This review outlines radar astronomical techniques and describes principal observational results.

  3. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrametz, K.; Kofler, L.

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution were addressed.

  4. Planetary quarantine computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    The computer programs are identified pertaining to planetary quarantine activities within the Project Engineering Division, both at the Air Force Eastern Test Range and on site at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief description of each program and program inputs are given and typical program outputs are shown.

  5. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Eleven study tasks are described and key results are discussed for the following: advanced planning activity; cost estimation research; planetary missions performance handbooks-revisions; multiple discipline science assessment; asteroid workshop; galilean lander mission strategies; asteroid exploration study; ion drive transport capabilities; Mars strategy study; Venus surface sample return; and ion drive/solar sail assessment study.

  6. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  7. Asteroidal and planetary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Photometric, spectrophotometric, and radiometric investigations of asteroids and planets are reported. Profiles of the planetary disk were used to study the physical structure of the Uranus atmosphere, and thermal and photographic properties of Saturn rings were theoretically modelled. Ground-based Mars observations were made for long-term comparison with Mariner 9 results.

  8. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Oconnell, R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution are addressed.

  9. Application of micro-PIXE method to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Murao, S.; Hamasaki, S.; Sie, S. H.; Maglambayan, V. B.; Hu, X.

    1999-06-10

    Specific examples of ore mineral analysis by micro-PIXE are presented in this paper. For mineralogical usage it is essential to construct a specimen chamber which is designed exclusively for mineral analysis. In most of the analysis of natural minerals, selection of absorbers is essential in order to obtain optimum results. Trace element data reflect the crystallographic characteristics of each mineral and also geologic settings of sampling locality, and can be exploited in research spanning mineral exploration to beneficiation. Micro-PIXE thus serves as a bridge between small-scale mineralogical experiments and understanding of large-scale geological phenomenon on the globe.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference covered topics on Mars, planetary origins, planetary analog studies, education,chondrite studies, and meteorite composition. Over 1000 reports were presented at the conference in over 100 sessions. Each session, and presentations,was processed separately for the database.

  11. Ores and Climate Change - Primary Shareholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2015-04-01

    Many in the economic geology community concern themselves with details of ore formation at the deposit scale, whether tallying fluid inclusion data to get at changes in ore-forming fluids or defining structures that aid and abet mineralization. These compilations are generally aimed at interpretation of events at the site of ore formation, with the goal being assignment of the deposit to a sanctioned ore deposit model. While providing useful data, this approach is incomplete and does not, by itself, serve present-day requirements for true interdisciplinary science. The ore-forming environment is one of chaos and disequilibrium at nearly all scales (Stein, 2014). Chaos and complexity are documented by variably altered rocks, veins or disseminated mineralization with multi-generational fluid histories, erratic and unusual textures in host rocks, and the bitumen or other hydrocarbon products entwined within many ore deposits. This should give pause to our drive for more data as a means to find "the answer". The answer lies in the kind of data collected and more importantly, in the way we interpret those data. Rather than constructing an ever-increasing catalog of descriptive mutations on sanctioned ore deposit models (e.g., IOGC or Iron-Oxide Copper Gold deposits), the way forward is to link source and transport of metals, sulfur, and organic material with regional and ultimately whole Earth chemical evolution. Important experimental work provides chemical constraints in controlled and behaved environments. To these data, we add imagination and interpretation, always tying back to field observations. In this paper, several key points are made by way of ore deposit examples: (1) many IOCG deposits are outcomes of profound changes in the chemistry of the Earth's surface, in the interplay of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere; (2) the redox history of Fe in deep earth may be ultimately expressed in the ore-forming sequence; and (3) the formation of

  12. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 3 Koongarra.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    The Koongarra ore body is an early Proterozoic U ore body in the Alligator Rivers U province, Northern Territory, Australia. It has surface expression with a redox front located ∼30 m below the surface. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR) for the ground water and the amorphous phase of the solid have been analysed for the ore zone and dispersion halo as a function of depth. The results display a (234)U/(238)U AR signature with depth which may be common to all U ore bodies. The (234)U/(238)U AR is depressed below secular equilibrium in the weathered material above the redox front; rises significantly above secular equilibrium in the vicinity of the redox front; and is followed by a gradual decrease with depth below the redox front. The amplitude of the profile is a function of local conditions. A model is proposed for the signature in which oxidising waters preferentially leach the (234)U sites at the redox front due to preconditioning of the (234)U sites by α recoil during the decay of (23)(8)U to (23)(4)U. Mass balance requires the solid material left behind the redox front to have a (234)U/(238)U AR reduced below 1. Local second order effects may be superimposed on the signature. The signature may have application to calibrating scenarios for nuclear waste repositories, assisting in understanding historical climates, economic evaluation of U ore bodies and U exploration. PMID:23142336

  13. Characterization of U ore from a roll-front U deposit: Implications of dominant U-Ti mineral for ore genesis and post solution-mining U immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. T.; Basu, A.; Christensen, J. N.; Reimus, P. W.; Heikoop, J. M.; WoldeGabriel, G. W.; Hartmann, M.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Reductive immobilization of dissolved U(VI) is an important process that gives rise to roll-front U deposits as well as offers a remediation strategy after in situ recovery (ISR) mining of roll-fronts by oxidative dissolution of the U ore. About 25% of the global and over 90% of all U resources in the United States consist of roll-front deposits. Accordingly, ~50% of global U mining and almost all current U mining in the United States is ISR mining. Therefore, it is important to identify the U immobilization pathways for an improved understanding of the U ore genesis and postmining U(VI) remediation. Here, we characterize (XRD, XRF, SEM/EDS, QEMSCAN) the U ore from a roll-front U deposit and sediments downgradient of the ore from an ISR site at Rosita, TX, USA. The dominant U mineral in Rosita U ore is brannerite (nominally U4+Ti2O6, up to 0.032 wt%), followed by coffinite and U-oxides. The U mineralized sand is composed of quartz (41-53%), calcite (15-30%), plagioclase (11-19%), microcline (2-9%), clinoptilolite (0.5-7%) with minor amounts of pyrite/marcasite (2-7%) and clays/micas (1-4%), and very little organic C (<0.1%). Ore zone samples contain minor amounts (<2%) of hematite, V-oxides/V-Ti-Fe-oxides and sulfidized Fe-Ti oxides with variable Fe, Ti and S ratios locally hosting low levels of U. The dominant sulfide mineral is marcasite. We observe a complex relationship between U-Ti minerals and sulfide/silicate phases where U minerals occur as inclusions, irregularly developed veins or intergrowths. Except for the U concentrations, the downgradient sediments are compositionally similar to the ore and contain abundant smectite/illite (7-45%). The predominance of brannerite implies direct reduction of U(VI) on surfaces of reduced Fe-Ti oxides as a major ore-forming mechanism. Our results reveal an as yet unidentified mechanism of ore genesis that differs from the current model that presupposes the sulfidized Fe-Ti oxides as the main reductant of U

  14. Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1985-03-01

    The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more

  15. Vibration condition monitoring of planetary gearbox under varying external load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmus, W.; Zimroz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The paper shows that for condition monitoring of planetary gearboxes it is important to identify the external varying load condition. In the paper, systematic consideration has been taken of the influence of many factors on the vibration signals generated by a system in which a planetary gearbox is included. These considerations give the basis for vibration signal interpretation, development of the means of condition monitoring, and for the scenario of the degradation of the planetary gearbox. Real measured vibration signals obtained in the industrial environment are processed. The signals are recorded during normal operation of the diagnosed objects, namely planetary gearboxes, which are a part of the driving system used in a bucket wheel excavator, used in lignite mines. It is found that a planetary gearbox in bad condition is more susceptible to load than a gearbox in good condition. The estimated load time traces obtained by a demodulation process of the vibration acceleration signal for a planetary gearbox in good and bad conditions are given. It has been found that the most important factor of the proper planetary gearbox condition is connected with perturbation of arm rotation, where an arm rotation gives rise to a specific vibration signal whose properties are depicted by a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and Wigner-Ville distribution presented as a time frequency map. The paper gives evidence that there are two dominant low-frequency causes that influence vibration signal modulation, i.e. the varying load, which comes from the nature of the bucket wheel digging process, and the arm/carrier rotation. These two causes determine the condition of the planetary gearboxes considered. Typical local faults such as cracking or breakage of a gear tooth, or local faults in rolling element bearings, have not been found in the cases considered. In real practice, local faults of planetary gearboxes have not occurred, but heavy destruction of planetary gearboxes have

  16. Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

  17. Planetary science: A lunar perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    An interpretative synthesis of current knowledge on the moon and the terrestrial planets is presented, emphasizing the impact of recent lunar research (using Apollo data and samples) on theories of planetary morphology and evolution. Chapters are included on the exploration of the solar system; geology and stratigraphy; meteorite impacts, craters, and multiring basins; planetary surfaces; planetary crusts; basaltic volcanism; planetary interiors; the chemical composition of the planets; the origin and evolution of the moon and planets; and the significance of lunar and planetary exploration. Photographs, drawings, graphs, tables of quantitative data, and a glossary are provided.

  18. Composition and origin of Early Cambrian Tiantaishan phosphorite-Mn carbonate ores, Shaanxi Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Fan, D.; Ye, J.; Liu, T.; Yeh, H.-W.

    1999-01-01

    -ocean waters, and marine transgression. Water depth increased from deposition of the black phyllite sequence through deposition of the Mn mixed-carbonate sequence, then shallowed again during deposition of the overlying dolostone sequence. Bottom waters were mostly dysoxic to suboxic, but fluctuated from oxic to anoxic. Productivity was high during deposition of the black phyllite sequence, increased during precipitation of phosphorite, and then decreased to moderate levels during precipitation of rhodochrostone ores. Biosilica contributions occur in each lithology, but are greatest in rhodochrostone. Changes in sedimentation were determined by changes in water depth, productivity, upwelling, sea-level change, and ventilation of the depositional basin. The source of the phosphorus was organic matter produced in great quantities during deposition of the black phyllite and phosphorite sequences in a zone of coastal upwelling. Organic matter accumulation was rapid. Globally, Mn was supplied by overturn of stagnant, metal-rich deep-ocean waters, which were redistributed to areas of coastal upwelling and seaways; that process may have been initiated by latest Proterozoic glaciations which would have promoted density stratification and accumulation and storage of metals. Regionally, Mn was supplied by terrigenous input into the shallow seaway and hydrothermal input into the deeper water parts of that seaway. Locally, Mn sources included leaching and transport of metals from the sediment column. Manganese was stored locally in low-oxygen (not anoxic) seawater prior to Mn-ore formation. The source of the carbon in the Mn carbonates and dolostones was predominantly seawater bicarbonate and secondarily CO2 derived from the oxidation of organic matter in the bacterially mediated diagenetic zone of sulfate reduction.

  19. Structural controls on the formation and transposition of the Malmberget apatite iron ore deposit, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Tobias; Sarlus, Zimer; Andersson, Joel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Malmberget mine is the World's second largest underground iron ore operation. It is composed of approximately 20 apatite iron ore bodies, whereas 13 ore bodies with 5-245 Mt each are presently mined. The massive magnetite ore is hosted within volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Host rocks within the entire area were subject to intense hydrothermal alteration. The ore reserves at beginning of 2012 totalled 290 Mt at 44 percent iron. Together with Kiruna and Svappavaara these three deposits stands for more than 90 percent of the iron ore production in Europe. An on-going collaborative research project aims at unravelling the structural geometries, relationships and control on ore formation and ore body transposition at different scales in the Gällivare district in general and in the Malmberget mine in particular. Recent results show the three-dimensional crustal architecture of the Malmberget deposit which has undergone at least two separate deformation events. The first deformation event (D1) resulted in the formation of a strong and penetrative cleavage (S1) forming a varyingly intense banding within the volcanic rocks. The D1-event coincides with the amphibolite facies peak metamorphism in the area. Distinct, biotite-rich D1 shear zones are spatially related to the majority of the S1-parallel massive magnetite bodies. These D1 shear zones seem to be responsible for a strong strain partitioning during D1. A second compressional event (D2) resulted in open to close folding of the S1 fabric, the D1 shear zones and the related ore bodies. The result is an asymmetric F2-synform with moderately south-west-plunging fold axis. Furthermore, distinct D2 high strain zones are responsible for local transposition of S1 fabrics, tight to isoclinal folding and channeling or re-mobilization of hydrothermal alteration minerals. Both deformation events are accompanied by syn- and late-tectonic granitic intrusions forming both foliated and unfoliated and commonly boudinaged

  20. On-Board Perception System For Planetary Aerobot Balloon Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Scheid, Robert E.; T. Salomon, Phil

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is implementing the Planetary Aerobot Testbed to develop the technology needed to operate a robotic balloon aero-vehicle (Aerobot). This earth-based system would be the precursor for aerobots designed to explore Venus, Mars, Titan and other gaseous planetary bodies. The on-board perception system allows the aerobot to localize itself and navigate on a planet using information derived from a variety of celestial, inertial, ground-imaging, ranging, and radiometric sensors.

  1. Forming different planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ji-Lin; Xie, Ji-Wei; Liu, Hui-Gen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yi-Sui

    2012-08-01

    With the increasing number of detected exoplanet samples, the statistical properties of planetary systems have become much clearer. In this review, we summarize the major statistical results that have been revealed mainly by radial velocity and transiting observations, and try to interpret them within the scope of the classical core-accretion scenario of planet formation, especially in the formation of different orbital architectures for planetary systems around main sequence stars. Based on the different possible formation routes for different planet systems, we tentatively classify them into three major catalogs: hot Jupiter systems, standard systems and distant giant planet systems. The standard system can be further categorized into three sub-types under different circumstances: solar-like systems, hot Super-Earth systems, and subgiant planet systems. We also review the theory of planet detection and formation in binary systems as well as planets in star clusters.

  2. How many ore-bearing asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2014-02-01

    A simple formalism is presented to assess how many asteroids contain ore, i.e., commercially profitable material, and not merely a high concentration of a resource. I apply this formalism to two resource cases: platinum group metals (PGMs) and water. Assuming for now that only Ni-Fe asteroids are of interest for PGMs, then 1% of NEOs are rich in PGMs. The dearth of ultra-low delta-v (<4.5 km s-1) NEOs larger than 100 m diameter reduces the ore-bearing fraction to only 1 in 2000 NEOs. As 100 m diameter NEOs are needed to have a value ≥US$1B and the population of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 100 m diameter is 20,000 (Mainzer et al., 2011) the total population of PGM ore-bearing NEOs is roughly 10. I stress that this is a conservative and highly uncertain value. For example, an order of magnitude increase in PGM ore-bearing NEOs occurs if delta-v can be as large as 5.7 km s-1. Water ore for utilization in space is likely to be found in 1/1100 NEOs. NEOs as small as 18 m diameter can be water-ore-bodies because of the high richness of water ( 20%) expected in 25% of carbonaceous asteroids, bringing the number of water-ore-bearing NEOs to 9000 out of the 10 million NEOs of this size. These small NEOs are, however, hard to find with present surveys. There will be 18 water-ore-bearing NEOs >100 m diameter. These estimates are at present highly imprecise and sensitive to small changes, especially in the maximum delta-v allowed. Nonetheless the low values found here mean that much improved determinations of each of the terms of the formalism are urgently needed. If better estimates still find small numbers of ore-bearing NEOs then thorough surveys for NEA discovery and, especially, characterization are needed. Strategies for the two classes are likely to be different.

  3. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  4. Survival of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, William R.

    1996-06-01

    Recent low frequency results from attempts to detect Jupiter-sized planets around nearby stars have raised a question as to whether such objects are all that common. In the over 200 stars observed so far, the yield has been 3%. And, the close orbit (0.05 AU) of the nearly Jupiter-sized object around Peg 51 places the object in an environment where the current paradigm of planetary formation would not predict planets to form at all. Other newly discovered candidates, such a Vir 70 and HR3522, also have suspiciously small semi-major axes for gas giants. Of course, the low yield may be strongly influenced by selection effects since massive planets close to their primaries are more easily detected. Nevertheless, given the results to date, it is natural to wonder whether a planetary system like ours is such a natural outgrowth of a circumplantary disk. In particular, could there be forces absent from the existing paradigm that tend to destroy a planetary system once formed? We point out that strong gravitational interactions (i.e., disk tides) between a newly formed protoplanet and its precursor disk give rise to a net torque that drains angular momentum from the protoplanet's orbit. As a result, protoplanetary objects suffer orbital decay as the disk attempts to destroy the very system it spawns. Strong interaction (type I) leads to gap formation and co-evolution with the disk; weak inter- action (type II) leads to drift relative to the disk and in some cases, a much more rapid decay. Survival of a planetary system may be a comparatively uncommon outcome. Newly discovered planets such as Peg 51b may be evidence of such large-scale orbit migration due to disk tidal torques (i.e., Lin et al., 1996).

  5. Planetary seismology and interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.

    1979-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes knowledge gained in the area of planetary seismology in the period 1969-1979. Attention is given to the seismic instruments, the seismic environment (noise, characteristics of seismic wave propagation, etc.), and the seismicity of the moon and Mars as determined by the Apollo missions and Viking Lander experiments, respectively. The models of internal structures of the terrestrial planets are discussed, with the earth used for reference.

  6. NASA Planetary Rover Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, David; Bedard, Roger J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Planetary Rover Project was initiated in 1989. The emphasis of the work to date has been on development of autonomous navigation technology within the context of a high mobility wheeled vehicle at the JPL and an innovative legged locomotion concept at Carnegie Mellon University. The status and accomplishments of these two efforts are discussed. First, however, background information is given on the three rover types required for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) whose objective is a manned mission to Mars.

  7. Galactic planetary science.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-04-28

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy. PMID:24664916

  8. Planetary System Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Contents include a summary of publications followed by their abstracts titeled: 1. On microlensing rates and optical depth toward the Galactic center. 2. Newly discovered brown dwarfs not seen in microlensing timescale frequency distribution? 3. Origin and evolution of the natural satellites. 4. Probing the structure of the galaxy with microlensing. 5. Tides, Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6. The Puzzle of the Titan-Hyperion 4:3 Orbital Resonance. 7. On the Validity of the Coagulation Equation and the Nature of Runaway Growth. 8. Making Hyperion. 9. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: Scientific objectives and implementation. 10. A Survey of Numerical Solutions to the Coagulation. 11. Probability of detecting a planetary companion during a microlensing event. 12. Dynamics and origin of the 2:l orbital resonances of the GJ876 planets. 13. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics. 14. A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean Satellites. 15. A procedure for determining the nature of Mercury's core. 16. Secular evolution of hierarchical planetary systems. 17. Tidally induced volcanism. 18. Extrasolar planets and mean motion resonances. 19. Comparison of a ground-based microlensing search for planets with a search from space.

  9. Galactic planetary science

    PubMed Central

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets—mainly radial velocity and transit—or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even ‘just’ in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current ‘understanding’. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy. PMID:24664916

  10. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains.

  11. Planetary polarization nephelometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, D.; Dissly, R.; Mishchenko, M.; Muñoz, O.; Roos-Serote, M.; Stam, D.; Volten, H.

    2004-02-01

    We have proposed to develop a polarization nephelometer for use on future planetary descent probes. It will measure both the scattered intensity and polarization phase functions of the aerosols it encounters descending through an atmosphere. These measurements will be taken at two wavelengths separated by about an octave, with one light source near 500nm and another near 1μm. Adding polarization measurements to the intensity phase functions greatly increases our ability to constrain the size distribution, shape and chemical composition of the sampled particles. There remain important questions about these parameters of the aerosols on Venus, the giant planets and Titan that can only be addressed with a nephelometer like ours. The NRC Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey has identified probe missions to Venus and Jupiter as a priority. On both of these missions, our proposed instrument would be an excellent candidate for flight. We also expect that future probe missions to Saturn, Uranus, Neptune or Titan would employ our instrument. It could also find use in Earth in situ aerosol studies. We will use a technique to simultaneously measure intensity and polarization phase functions that uses polarization modulation of a light source. This technique has been implemented in laboratory settings, but not with considerations to the environment on a planetary descent probe. We have proposed to design and build a flexible breadboard nephelometer to test the components and concepts of our approach. We would then test the device against well defined aerosols, ensuring that it accurately measures their expected intensity and polarization phase functions. With the knowledge gained in this flexible design, we would then design and build a breadboard polarization nephelometer more suited to integration on a planetary descent probe. To include traceability in the technical requirements of our device, we would also conduct an Observing System Simulation Experiment. In this study, we

  12. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  13. Lead and zinc dust depositions from ore trains characterised using lead isotopic compositions.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, L J; Taylor, M P; Morrison, A L

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates an unusual source of environmental lead contamination - the emission and deposition of lead and zinc concentrates along train lines into and out of Australia's oldest silver-lead-zinc mine at Broken Hill, Australia. Transport of lead and zinc ore concentrates from the Broken Hill mines has occurred for more than 125 years, during which time the majority was moved in uncovered rail wagons. A significant amount of ore was lost to the adjoining environments, resulting in soil immediately adjacent to train lines elevated with concentrations of lead (695 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (2230 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations of lead and zinc decreased away from the train line and also with depth shown in soil profiles. Lead isotopic compositions demonstrated the soil lead contained Broken Hill ore in increasing percentages closer to the train line, with up to 97% apportioned to the mined Broken Hill ore body. SEM examination showed ceiling dusts collected from houses along the train line were composed of unweathered galena particles, characteristic of the concentrate transported in the rail wagons. The loss of ore from the uncovered wagons has significantly extended the environmental footprint of contamination from local mining operations over an area extending hundreds of kilometres along each of the three train lines. PMID:25627173

  14. Method for extraction of uranium from ores

    SciTech Connect

    Bings, H.; Fischer, P.; Kampf, F.; Pietsch, H.; Thome, R.; Turke, W.; Wargalla, G.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-11-30

    A method for continuously extracting uranium from ores comprises the steps of: forming a slurry of ore in a leaching solution; heating the slurry while pumping it through a tube reactor at high turbulences characterized by Reynolds numbers in excess of 50,000; supplying gaseous oxygen at high pressures into the tube reactor such that the uranium is substantially completely oxidized in a soluble form but impurities in the slurry are substantially kept from becoming soluble; recovering the uranium oxide solute which is substantially free of impurities.

  15. Origin of high-grade gold ore, source of ore fluid components, and genesis of the Meikle and neighboring Carlin-type deposits, Northern Carlin Trend, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, P.; Hofstra, A.H.; Lauha, E.A.; Griffin, G.L.; Hutchinson, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Meikle mine exploits one of the world's highest grade Carlin-type gold deposits with reserves of ca. 220 t gold at an average grade of 24.7 g/t. Locally, gold grades exceed 400 g/t. Several geologic events converged at Meikle to create these spectacular gold grades. Prior to mineralization, a Devonian hydrothermal system altered the Bootstrap limestone to Fe-rich dolomite. Subsequently the rocks were brecciated by faulting and Late Jurassic intrusive activity. The resulting permeability focused flow of late Eocene Carlin-type ore fluids and allowed them to react with the Fe-rich dolomite. Fluid inclusion data and mineral assemblages indicate that these fluids were hot (ca. 220??C),of moderate salinity (400 g/t. Petrographic observations, geochemical data, and stable isotope results from the Meikle mine and other deposits at the Goldstrike mine place important constraints on genetic models for Meikle and other Carlin-type gold deposits on the northern Carlin trend. The ore fluids were meteoric water (??D = -135???, ??18O = -5???) that interacted with sedimentary rocks at a water/rock ratio of ca. 1 and temperatures of ca. 220??C. The absence of significant silicification suggests that there was little cooling of the ore fluids during mineralization. These two observations strongly suggest that ore fluids were not derived from deep sources but instead flowed parallel to isotherms. The gold was transported by H2S (??34S = 9???), which was derived from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The presence of auriferous sedimentary exhalative mineralization in the local stratigraphic sequence raises the possibility that preexisting concentrations of gold contributed to the Carlin-type deposits. Taken together our observations suggest that meteoric water evolved to become an ore fluid by shallow circulation through previously gold- and sulfur-enriched rocks. Carlin-type gold deposits formed where these fluids encountered permeable, reactive Fe-rich rocks.

  16. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO WEST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  18. 2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW TO RIGHT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  19. 7. VIEW OF CARRIE No. 3 AND No. 4 ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF CARRIE No. 3 AND No. 4 ORE BRIDGE, ORE YARD AND FURNACES FROM THE HOT METAL BRIDGE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO EAST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  1. 1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM TO LEFT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  2. CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE CARS TOWARDS CLEVELAND BULK TERMINAL BUILDINGS. LOOKING SOUTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING MODERN TRACKS PASSING UNDER HULETTS AND ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING MODERN TRACKS PASSING UNDER HULETTS AND ORE YARD. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELFUNLOADING SHIP UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELF-UNLOADING SHIP UNLOADING IN FRONT OF HULETTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELFUNLOADING BOOM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM IN FRONT OF HULETTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

  7. Dissociative recombination in planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionization in planetary atmospheres can be produced by solar photoionization, photoelectron impact ionization, and, in auroral regions, by impact of precipitating particles. This ionization is lost mainly in dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions. Although atomic ions cannot undergo DR, they can be transformed locally through ion-molecule reactions into molecular ions, or they may be transported vertically or horizontally to regions of the atmosphere where such transformations are possible. Because DR reactions tend to be very exothermic, they can be an important source of kinetically or internally excited fragments. In interplanetary thermospheres, the neutral densities decrease exponentially with altitude. Below the homopause (or turbopause), the atmosphere is assumed to be throughly mixed by convection and/or turbulence. Above the homopause, diffusion is the major transport mechanism, and each species is distributed according to its mass, with the logarithmic derivative of the density with repect to altitude given approximately by -1/H, where H = kT/mg is the scale height. In this expression, T is the neutral temperature, g is the local acceleratiion of gravity, and m is the mass of the species. Thus lighter species become relatively more abundant, and heavier species less abundant, as the altitude increases. This variation of the neutral composition can lead to changes in the ion composition; furthermore, as the neutral densities decrease, dissociative recombination becomes more important relative to ion-neutral reactions as a loss mechanism for molecular ions.

  8. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics) G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The wave planetology [1-3 & others] proceeds from the following: "planetary structures are made by orbits and rotations". A uniform reason makes uniform structures. Inertia-gravity waves arising in planetary bodies due to their movements in Keplerian elliptical orbits with periodically changing accelerations warp these bodies in such way that they acquire polyhedron shapes (after interference of standing waves of four directions). Strong Newtonian gravity makes bodies larger than ~400 to 500 km in diameter globular and polyhedra are rarely seen. Only geomorphologic, geologic and geophysical mapping can develop these hidden structures. But small bodies, normally less than ~ 300 to 400 km in diameter, often show parts of the polyhedra, rarely fully developed forms (the asteroid Steins and satellite Amalthea present rather perfect forms of "diamond"). Depending on warping wavelengths (they make harmonics) various Plato's figures superimposed on each other can be distinguished. The fundamental wave 1 produces a tetrahedron, intrinsically dichotomic figure in which a vertex (contraction) always is opposed to a face (expansion). From the recent examples the best is the saturnian northern hexagon (a face) opposed to the southern hurricane (a vertex). The first overtone wave 2 is responsible for creation of structural octahedra. Whole ‘diamonds" and their parts are known [4, 5]. Other overtones produce less developed (because of smaller wave amplitudes) planetary shapes complicating main forms. Thus, the first common structural peculiarity of planetary bodies is their polyhedron nature. Not less important is the second common structural peculiarity. As all globular or smaller more or less isometric bodies rotate, they have an angular momentum. It is inevitably different in tropic and extra-tropic belts having uneven radii or distances to

  9. Planetary rover technology development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedard, Roger J., Jr.; Muirhead, Brian K.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.; Hirschbein, Murray S.

    1989-01-01

    Planetary surface (including lunar) mobility and sampling capability is required to support proposed future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solar system exploration missions. The NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) is addressing some of these technology needs in its base research and development program, the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and a new technology initiative entitled Pathfinder. The Pathfinder Planetary Rover (PPR) and Sample Acquisition, Analysis and Preservation (SAAP) programs will develop and validate the technologies needed to enable both robotic and piloted rovers on various planetary surfaces. The technology requirements for a planetary roving vehicle and the development plans of the PPR and SAAP programs are discussed.

  10. 32. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE ORE BREAKER LEVEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE ORE BREAKER LEVEL. THE ORE BREAKER, A BLAKE JAW CRUSHER, IS IN THE BOX IN THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH, THE ORE TO BE BROKEN IS FED INTO THE OPENING ON THE FLOOR AND NEXT TO ORE BREAKER BOX. THE GRIZZLY BARS ARE ON THE RIGHT AND THE PULLEYS FROM THE POWER SYSTEM ARE OVERHEAD. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  11. Placement Of O-Rings In Solid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Brief report proposes to modify placement of O-ring seals in joints of Solid Rocket Booster of Space Shuttle. Modified joint and seal essentially "inside-out" version of old joint and seal. O-rings placed between outer side of tang and clevis. Joint rotation pushes tang harder against O-rings, thereby making even tighter seal. Proposal derived from analysis of Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, attributed to failure of these O-ring seals.

  12. Process for recovering hydrocarbons from a diatomite-type ore

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.W.

    1983-02-15

    A process for recovering hydrocarbons from a diatomite-type ore which comprises contacting the diatomite ore with a C/sub 4/-C/sub 10/ alcohol and thereafter contacting the diatomite ore-alcohol mixture with an aqueous alkaline solution to separate a hydrocarbon-alcohol phase and an alkaline aqueous phase containing the stripped diatomite ore. Thereafter, the alcohol is distilled off from the hydrocarbon phase and recycled back into the initial process.

  13. Dynamics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, S.

    1991-02-01

    The modeling of the dynamics of particle collisions within planetary rings is discussed. Particles in the rings collide with one another because they have small random motions in addition to their orbital velocity. The orbital speed is roughly 10 km/s, while the random motions have an average speed of about a tenth of a millimeter per second. As a result, the particle collisions are very gentle. Numerical analysis and simulation of the ring dynamics, performed with the aid of a supercomputer, is outlined.

  14. Planetary Spatial Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keely, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This is a status report for the project entitled Planetary Spatial Analyst (PSA). This report covers activities from the project inception on October 1, 2007 to June 1, 2008. Originally a three year proposal, PSA was awarded funding for one year and required a revised work statement and budget. At the time of this writing the project is well on track both for completion of work as well as budget. The revised project focused on two objectives: build a solid connection with the target community and implement a prototype software application that provides 3D visualization and spatial analysis technologies for that community. Progress has been made for both of these objectives.

  15. Disequilibration by Planetary Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Jutzi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Molten planets equilibrate gravitationally, chemically, and thermally. Large scale collisions (a.k.a. giant impacts, similar-sized collisions) can upset the apple cart by bringing core material, late in the game, into mixture with mantle products, and by shredding stratified planets into strands of mantle and clumps of core (c.g. Asphaug et al. Nature 2006). Atmophiles and volatiles come along for the ride, and can find themselves in disequilibrium mixtures not anticipated by one-dimensional models of planetary evolution, or by planet growth models in which planets stick, merge, and mix perfectly in the aftermath of a collision. We present very high resolution case studies of such collisions.

  16. Planetary cratering mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    To obtain a quantitative understanding of the cratering process over a broad range of conditions, we have numerically computed the evolution of impact induced flow fields and calculated the time histories of the major measures of crater geometry (e.g., depth diameter, lip height ...) for variations in planetary gravity (0 to 10 exp 9 cm/sq seconds), material strength (0 to 140 kbar), thermodynamic properties, and impactor radius (0.05 to 5000 km). These results were fit into the framework of the scaling relations of Holsapple and Schmidt (1987). We describe the impact process in terms of four regimes: (1) penetration; (2) inertial; (3) terminal; and (4) relaxation.

  17. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  18. Planetary submillimeter spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The aim is to develop a comprehensive observational and analytical program to study solar system physics and meterology by measuring molecular lines in the millimeter and submillimeter spectra of planets and comets. A primary objective is to conduct observations with new JPL and Caltech submillimeter receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A secondary objective is to continue to monitor the time variable planetary phenomena (e.g., Jupiter and Uranus) at centimeter wavelength using the NASA antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  19. Planetary entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.

    1994-01-01

    The final report summarizes the results from three research areas: (1) window design for the radiometric measurement of the forebody radiative heating experienced by atmospheric entry spaceraft; (2) survey of the current understanding of chemical species on selected solar system bodies and assess the importance of measurements with regard to vehicle environment and with regard to understanding of planetary atmospheres with emphasis on Venus, Mars, and Titan; and (3) measure and analyze the radiation (VUV to near-IR) from the shock heated gas cap of a blunt body in an Ames arc Jet wind-tunnel facility.

  20. Misclassified planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbadin, F.

    1986-08-01

    The classifications of 130 objects as planetary nebulae (PNs) in the catalogs of Kohoutek (1965, 1969, and 1972) are reexamined by analyzing their images on the IR (755-885-nm) and red (610-690-nm) plates of the NIR photographic survey of the Galactic plane of Hoessel et al. (1985). Factors affecting the IR and red brightness of normal stars and emission-line objects are discussed, and it is shown that PNs should be brighter in the red than in the IR. Thirty-six supposed PNs for which this is not the case are identified, and it is suggested that they have been improperly classified.

  1. Heat transfer and planetary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, D. C.

    1985-06-01

    . After a discussion and definition of ‘lithospheric’ material, it is concluded that endogenous tectonic activity only continues on Earth's surface on account of water enhancing the deformability of its rocks. Metal/silicate differentiation of terrestrial planet material is predicted to have been a global scale catastrophic process in the many objects it formed predating the existing planets, but intersilicate and volatile/silicate separations are necessarily protracted, quasi continous processes arising from local shear instabilties in the convective flow of such a viscous material. In particular, these local magma producing instabilities require the involvement of ‘lithospheric’ planetary material in convective movements and it is shown how this unsteadiness accounts for the distribution and salient features of planetary seismicity and vulcanicity at the present time. The picture that emerges for the state of Earth's silicate shell material after more than four billion years of average viscosity regulation and shear instability is one of chemical and isotopic heterogeneity on a wide range of length scales. The larger length scales of this range are introduced by the pattern of heterogeneity remixing rather than its generation. For example, at the largest scale, the predicted heterogeneity is radial and a feature indirectly arising from properties conferred on the shell material by major mineral phase transitions at depths ˜700km. These increase the adiabatic temperature gradient and have the effect of a barrier adequate in strength to prevent wholesale mixing of the material above and below for at least a large fraction of the Earth's history in which radiogenic heat has been the dominant cause of large scale internal movements. That such a barrier actually marks a chemical and isotopic heterogeneity of the mantle is because only the convective movements above it are prone to the shear heating instabilities on which differentiation absolutely depends. Many

  2. 29. ORE DOCK, LOOKING WEST; AT WORK UNLOADING THE 'GEORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ORE DOCK, LOOKING WEST; AT WORK UNLOADING THE 'GEORGE M. HUMPHREY'S' CARGO OF 25,000. TONS OF ORE. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, c. 1908-10. SHOWS EXPOSED CRUSHER HOUSE IN FRONT OF (SOUTH) CRUDE ORE BIN AND SNOW SHED ADDED OVER TRAM TRACKS. NOTE LACK OF EAST OR WEST CRUDE ORE BINS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. 18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ORE BIN AND TRESTLE FROM TWO JOHNS TRAMLINE TO SOUTH, CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND. MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND. THE TRAM TO PORTLAND PASSED TO NORTH OF MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. 6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore which had been put in pockets in December 1959, May 6, 1990. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Ore Dock, On pilings in Marquette City Lower Harbor, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

  6. 17. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN BUILT IN 1911-1912, THIS WAS THE LARGEST ORE-UNLOADING DOCK ON THE GREAT LAKES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE CARS TOWARDS WESTERN SIDE OF CLEVELAND BULK TERMINAL BUILDINGS AND A SELF-UNLOADING IRON ORE SHIP AT DOCK. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    DOEpatents

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  9. Sources of ores of the ferroalloy metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    Since all steel is made with the addition of alloying elements, the record of the metallic raw materials contributory to the steel industry would be far from complete without reference to the ferroalloy metals. This paper, therefore, supplements two preceding arvicles on the sources of our iron ores. The photographs, with the exception of those relating to molybdenum and vanadium, are by the author.

  10. Metalliferous black shales and related ore deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Grauch, R.I. ); Huyck, H.L.O. )

    1990-01-01

    This book comprises papers and extended abstracts dealing with a variety of topics including the geochemistry and organic geochemistry of several black shale formations: the nature of modern Black Sea sediments: metal- organic complexes in ore fluids; black shales related to disseminated gold deposits; vanadium concentrations and molybdenum-nickel deposits; and the problem of defining metalliferous black shales.

  11. Young Planetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.

    2007-07-01

    The present review focuses on UV observations of young planetary disks and consequently mostly on the gaseous content of those disks. Few examples are taken to illustrate the capability of the UV observatories to scrutinize in detail the gas content of low density circumstellar disks if they are seen edge-on or nearly edge-on. For instance, in the case of HD100546, FUSE observations re- vealed signatures of outflow and infall in the disk caused by interaction of the stellar magnetosphere with the circumstellar disk. Observations of numerous absorption lines from H2 around young stars give constrains on the gas temper- ature and density, and physical size of the absorbing layer. In the case of T-Tauri stars and one brown dwarf, emissions from exited H2 have been detected. In the case of Beta Pictoris, the observation of CO in the UV and search for H2 with FUSE demonstrated that the evaporation of frozen bodies like comets must produce the CO seen in the disk. Extensive observations of spectral variability of Beta Pictoris are now interpreted by extrasolar comets evaporating in the vicinity of the central star of this young planetary system.

  12. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  13. Planetary Ringmoon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The last decade has seen an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Much of the structure revealed was thoroughly puzzling and fired the imagination of workers in a variety of disciplines. Consequently, we have also seen steady progress in our understanding of these systems as our intuitions (and our computers) catch up with the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems (refs 1-5). The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems and families of regular satellites are invariably found together, and there is an emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system.

  14. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-03-01

    The present investigation is concerned with planetary radar research reported during the time from 1979 to 1982. A brief synopsis of radar definitions and technical terminology is also provided. In connection with the proximity of the moon to earth, lunar radar studies have been performed over a wider range of wavelengths than radar investigations of other planetary targets. The most recent study of lunar quasispecular scattering is due to Simpson and Tyler (1982). The latest efforts to interpret the lunar radar maps focus on maria-highlands regolith differences and models of crater ejecta evolution. The highly successful Pioneer Venus Radar Mapper experiment has provided a first look at Venus' global distributions of topography, lambda 17-cm radar reflectivity, and rms surface slopes. Attention is given to recent comparisons of Viking Orbiter images of Mars to groundbased radar altimetry of the planet, the icy Galilean satellites, radar observations of asteroids and comets, and lambda 4-cm and lambda 13-cm observations of Saturn's rings.

  15. Ore controls at the Mahd adh Dhahab gold mine, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worl, Ronald G.

    1978-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. Free gold and silver, tellurides, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite are in and associated with quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Country rocks consist of a sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Halaban Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. Two known ore zones occur in a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metallization approximately 400 m wide and 1,000 m long. The ancient and recent workings are located in the northern part of this zone, and a significant new discovery, the southern mineralized zone, is in the southern part. A potential resource of 1.1 million tons of 27 g/t Au and 73 g/t Ag ore is contained in the southern mineralized zone. Geologic setting of ore bodies is similar in both zones. Significant mineralization occurs only within altered and fractured agglomerate directly beneath a cap of fine-grained tuff and sedimentary rock where the layered rocks are cut by metalliferous quartz veins. Ore was localized by four interacting controls; depth, an impervious cap, metalliferous quartz veins and a receptive host rock.

  16. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The 34th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference was held March 17-21, 2003. Topics included planetary exploration, crater research on Mars, Earth, Moon, and other planets or satellites, imaging techniques and image analysis, age determination, albedo studies, petrographic studies, isotope composition studies, instrument design, sampling methods, landform analysis, asteroids, impact analysis, impact melts, and related research.

  18. Fourier spectroscopy and planetary research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.; Kunde, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) to planetary research is reviewed. The survey includes FTS observations of the sun, all the planets except Uranus and Pluto, the Galilean satellites and Saturn's rings. Instrumentation and scientific results are considered and the prospects and limitations of FTS for planetary research in the forthcoming years are discussed.

  19. 13. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN BUILT IN 1911-1912, THIS WAS THE LARGEST ORE-UNLOADING DOCK ON THE GREAT LAKES. THE DOCK FEATURED FOUR HULETT UNLOADERS, EACH WITH A BUCKET CAPACITY OF 17 TONS; A 15-TON CAPACITY ORE STOCKING AND REHANDLING BRIDGE; AND A ONE-MILLION-TON CAPACITY ORE STORAGE YARD. THE WILLIAM-SEAVER-MORGAN COMPANY OF CLEVELAND BUILT THE DOCK EQUIPMENT. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. The Birth of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1997-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. Modern theories of star and planet formation, which are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large- enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Another potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  1. Planetary Doppler Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Jefferies, S.; Hart, M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Showman, A. P.; Hernandez, G.; Rudd, L.

    2014-12-01

    Determining the internal structure of the solar system's gas and ice giant planets is key to understanding their formation and evolution (Hubbard et al., 1999, 2002, Guillot 2005), and in turn the formation and evolution of the solar system. While internal structure can be constrained theoretically, measurements of internal density distributions are needed to uncover the details of the deep interior where significant ambiguities exist. To date the interiors of giant planets have been probed by measuring gravitational moments using spacecraft passing close to, or in orbit around the planet. Gravity measurements are effective in determining structure in the outer envelope of a planet, and also probing dynamics (e.g. the Cassini and Juno missions), but are less effective in probing deep structure or the presence of discrete boundaries. A promising technique for overcoming this limitation is planetary seismology (analogous to helioseismology in the solar case), postulated by Vorontsov, 1976. Using trapped pressure waves to probe giant planet interiors allows insight into the density and temperature distribution (via the sound speed) down to the planetary core, and is also sensitive to sharp boundaries, for example at the molecular to metallic hydrogen transition or at the core-envelope interface. Detecting such boundaries is not only important in understanding the overall structure of the planet, but also has implications for our understanding of the basic properties of matter at extreme pressures. Recent Doppler measurements of Jupiter by Gaulme et al (2011) claimed a promising detection of trapped oscillations, while Hedman and Nicholson (2013) have shown that trapped waves in Saturn cause detectable perturbations in Saturn's C ring. Both these papers have fueled interest in using seismology as a tool for studying the solar system's giant planets. To fully exploit planetary seismology as a tool for understanding giant planet structure, measurements need to be made

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER FOUNDATION, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ORE FROM THE MINES WAS DUMPED FROM THE TRAM BUCKETS INTO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN UNDER THE TRAM TERMINAL. A SLIDING CONTROL DOOR INTRODUCED THE INTO THE JAW CRUSHER (FOUNDATIONS,CENTER). THE CRUSHED ORE WAS THEN CONVEYED INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN AT CENTER LEFT. A HOLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORE BIN PASSED ORE ONTO ANOTHER CONVEYOR THAT BROUGHT IT OUT TO THE BALL MILL(FOUNDATIONS,CENTER BOTTOM). THIS SYSTEM IS MOST LIKELY NOT THE ORIGINAL SET UP, PROBABLY INSTALLED IN THE MINE'S LAST OCCUPATION IN THE EARLY 1940s. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. Extraction process and apparatus for hydrocarbon containing ores

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R. H.; Eakin, B. E.

    1985-09-03

    There is provided a hydrocarbon extraction process and apparatus for removing hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon containing ore such as a diatomite ore. The ore is preprocessed to the extent required to produce an extractable ore and subsequently mixed with a carrier to form an ore stream. The carrier may be a nonaqueous solvent and may further comprise a non-porous granular material such as sand. The ore stream is passed in substantially vertical countercurrent flow through a nonaqueous solvent to produce a product-solvent stream and a spent ore stream. The solvent is subsequently separated from the hydrocarbon stream, which may be further upgraded by removal of a heavy portion. This may be accomplished in the presence of a substantial amount of fines.

  4. Process for extracting hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon bearing ores

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.; Eakin, B.E.

    1986-02-18

    This patent describes a process for recovering hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore consisting of: reducing the size of the ore to less than about 5 mesh to form a reduced ore; combining the reduced ore with liquid to form ore pellets; treating the ore pellets to form extractable ore pellets; contacting a bed of the extractable pellets with extracting solvent in an extraction zone such that the relative velocity of the solvent to the extractable pellets is at least about one-half gallon per square foot per minute or more to thereby extract hydrocarbons from the extractable pellets and form spent pellets and a hydrocarbon rich solvent stream comprising extracting solvent and extracted hydrocarbons. The extracted hydrocarbons have an ash content of about less than 3 weight percent; and recovering extracting solvent from the spent pellets while retaining the spent pellets in pellet form without release of a significant amount of fines.

  5. Degradation Characteristics of O-rings on Highly Aged GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minagawa, Tadao; Nagao, Eiichi; Tsuchie, Ei; Yonezawa, Hiroshi; Takayama, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Yutaka

    Owing to increasing number of highly aged GIS, the investigation of the remaining lifetimes of those systems are becoming more important. Because a lot of O-rings are used in GIS, the study of degradation mechanism and lifetime estimation method of O-ring is essential. In this paper, the information about O-ring degradation mechanism is described, and the statistical method for estimating the remaining lifetime of O-ring is proposed. The degradation of O-ring is mainly subject to chemical reactions triggered by oxygen. Because there are many factors influencing those chemical reactions, the dispersion of degradation rates of O-rings in GIS is very large. Consequently the statistical analysis is one of the effective techniques for lifetime estimation of O-rings in GIS.

  6. High-rate behaviour of iron ore pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Gustaf; Häggblad, Hans-Åke; Jonsén, Pär; Nishida, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content. Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel. In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation. For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed. This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets. To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed.

  7. Photochemistry in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Graedel, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Widely varying paths of evolutionary history, atmospheric processes, solar fluxes, and temperatures have produced vastly different planetary atmospheres. The similarities and differences between the earth atmosphere and those of the terrestrial planets (Venus and Mars) and of the Jovian planets are discussed in detail; consideration is also given to the photochemistry of Saturn, Uranus, Pluto, Neptune, Titan, and Triton. Changes in the earth's ancient atmosphere are described, and problems of interest in the earth's present troposphere are discussed, including the down wind effect, plume interactions, aerosol nucleation and growth, acid rain, and the fate of terpenes. Temperature fluctuations in the four principal layers of the earth's atmosphere, predicted decreases in the ozone concentration as a function of time, and spectra of particles in the earth's upper atmosphere are also presented. Finally, the vertical structure of the Venus cloud system and the thermal structure of the Jovian planets are shown graphically.

  8. Planetary Moon Cycler Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ryan P.; Strange, Nathan J.

    2007-01-01

    Free-return cycler trajectories repeatedly shuttle a spacecraft between two bodies using little or no fuel. Here, the cycler architecture is proposed as a complementary and alternative method for designing planetary moon tours. Previously applied enumerative cycler search and optimization techniques are generalized and specifically implemented in the Jovian and Saturnian moon systems. In addition, the algorithms are tested for general use to find non-Earth heliocentric cyclers. Overall, hundreds of ideal model ballistic cycler geometries are found and several representative cases are documented and discussed. Many of the ideal model solutions are found to remain ballistic in a zero radius sphere of influence patched conic ephemeris model, and preliminary work in a high-fidelity fully integrated model demonstrates near-ballistic cycles for several example cases.

  9. Rheology of planetary ices

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    1996-04-24

    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  10. Sonar equations for planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Michael A; Leighton, Timothy G

    2016-08-01

    The set of formulations commonly known as "the sonar equations" have for many decades been used to quantify the performance of sonar systems in terms of their ability to detect and localize objects submerged in seawater. The efficacy of the sonar equations, with individual terms evaluated in decibels, is well established in Earth's oceans. The sonar equations have been used in the past for missions to other planets and moons in the solar system, for which they are shown to be less suitable. While it would be preferable to undertake high-fidelity acoustical calculations to support planning, execution, and interpretation of acoustic data from planetary probes, to avoid possible errors for planned missions to such extraterrestrial bodies in future, doing so requires awareness of the pitfalls pointed out in this paper. There is a need to reexamine the assumptions, practices, and calibrations that work well for Earth to ensure that the sonar equations can be accurately applied in combination with the decibel to extraterrestrial scenarios. Examples are given for icy oceans such as exist on Europa and Ganymede, Titan's hydrocarbon lakes, and for the gaseous atmospheres of (for example) Jupiter and Venus. PMID:27586766

  11. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments. PMID:16286290

  12. Reconnection in Planetary Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    Current sheets in planetary magnetospheres that lie between regions of "oppositely-directed" magnetic field are either magnetopause-like, separating plasmas with different properties, or tail-like, separating plasmas of rather similar properties. The magnetopause current sheets generally have a nearly limitless supply of magnetized plasma that can reconnect, possibly setting up steady-state reconnection. In contrast, the plasma on either side of a tail current sheet is stratified so that, as reconnection occurs, the plasma properties, in particular the Alfven velocity, change. If the density drops and the magnetic field increases markedly perpendicular to the sheet, explosive reconnection can occur. Even though steady state reconnection can take place at magnetopause current sheets, the process often appears to be periodic as if a certain low average rate was demanded by the conditions but only a rapid rate was available. Reconnection of sheared fields has been postulated to create magnetic ropes in the solar corona, at the Earth's magnetopause, and in the magnetotail. However, this is not the only way to produce magnetic ropes as the Venus ionosphere shows. The geometry of the reconnecting regions and the plasma conditions both can affect the rate of reconnection. Sorting out the various controlling factors can be assisted through the examination of reconnection in planetary settings. In particular we observe similar small-scale tearing in the magnetopause current layers of the Earth, Saturn. Uranus and Neptune and the magnetodisk current sheet at Jupiter. These sites may be seeds for rapid reconnection if the reconnection site reaches a high Alfven velocity region. In the Jupiter magnetosphere this appears to be achieved with resultant substorm activity. Similar seeds may be present in the Earth's magnetotail with the first one to reach explosive growth dominating the dynamics of the tail.

  13. Reconstruction and visualization of planetary nebulae.

    PubMed

    Magnor, Marcus; Kindlmann, Gordon; Hansen, Charles; Duric, Neb

    2005-01-01

    From our terrestrially confined viewpoint, the actual three-dimensional shape of distant astronomical objects is, in general, very challenging to determine. For one class of astronomical objects, however, spatial structure can be recovered from conventional 2D images alone. So-called planetary nebulae (PNe) exhibit pronounced symmetry characteristics that come about due to fundamental physical processes. Making use of this symmetry constraint, we present a technique to automatically recover the axisymmetric structure of many planetary nebulae from photographs. With GPU-based volume rendering driving a nonlinear optimization, we estimate the nebula's local emission density as a function of its radial and axial coordinates and we recover the orientation of the nebula relative to Earth. The optimization refines the nebula model and its orientation by minimizing the differences between the rendered image and the original astronomical image. The resulting model allows creating realistic 3D visualizations of these nebulae, for example, for planetarium shows and other educational purposes. In addition, the recovered spatial distribution of the emissive gas can help astrophysicists gain deeper insight into the formation processes of planetary nebulae. PMID:16144246

  14. Physics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkavyi, N.

    2007-08-01

    It is difficult to enumerate all the surprises presented by the planetary rings. The Saturnian rings are stratified into thousands of ringlets and the Uranian rings are compressed into narrow streams, which for some reason or other differ from circular orbits like the wheel of an old bicycle. The edge of the rings is jagged and the rings themselves are pegged down under the gravitational pressure of the satellites, bending like a ship's wake. There are spiral waves, elliptical rings, strange interlacing of narrow ringlets, and to cap it all one has observed in the Neptunian ring system three dense, bright arcs - like bunches of sausages on a transparent string. For celestial mechanics this is a spectacle as unnatural as a bear's tooth in the necklace of the English queen. In the dynamics of planetary rings the physics of collective interaction was supplemented by taking collisions between particles into account. One was led to study a kinetic equation with a rather complex collision integral - because the collisions are inelastic - which later on made it possible, both by using the Chapman-Enskog method and by using the solution of the kinetic equation for a plasma in a magnetic field, to reduce it to a closed set of (hydrodynamical) moment equations [1]. The hydrodynamical instabilities lead to the growth of short-wavelength waves and large-scale structures of the Saturnian rings [1]. We have shown that the formation of the existing dense Uranian rings is connected with the capture of positively drifting ring particles in inner Lindblad resonances which arrest this drift [1]. After the formation of dense rings at the positions of satellite resonances the collective interaction between resonant particles is amplified and the rings can leave the resonance and drift away from the planet and the parent resonance. We can expect in the C ring an appreciable positive ballistic particle drift caused by the erosion of the B ring by micrometeorites. It is therefore natural

  15. HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [Top left] - IC 3568 lies in the constellation Camelopardalis at a distance of about 9,000 light-years, and has a diameter of about 0.4 light-years (or about 800 times the diameter of our solar system). It is an example of a round planetary nebula. Note the bright inner shell and fainter, smooth, circular outer envelope. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Top center] - NGC 6826's eye-like appearance is marred by two sets of blood-red 'fliers' that lie horizontally across the image. The surrounding faint green 'white' of the eye is believed to be gas that made up almost half of the star's mass for most of its life. The hot remnant star (in the center of the green oval) drives a fast wind into older material, forming a hot interior bubble which pushes the older gas ahead of it to form a bright rim. (The star is one of the brightest stars in any planetary.) NGC 6826 is 2,200 light- years away in the constellation Cygnus. The Hubble telescope observation was taken Jan. 27, 1996 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy) and NASA [Top right ] - NGC 3918 is in the constellation Centaurus and is about 3,000 light-years from us. Its diameter is about 0.3 light-year. It shows a roughly spherical outer envelope but an elongated inner balloon inflated by a fast wind from the hot central star, which is starting to break out of the spherical envelope at the top and bottom of the image. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Bottom left] - Hubble 5 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or bipolar (two-lobed) nebula. The heat generated by fast winds causes

  16. Planetary Habitability of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Abel

    2009-09-01

    Habitability is a qualitative concept generally defined as the suitability of an environment to support life. Although there are many works related to planetary habitability, there is no practical quantitative definition of habitability. The search for habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond requires a method to quantify and compare their significance. Therefore, this study presents a quantitative approach to assess the habitability of Earth and other planetary bodies. A Quantitative Habitability Model (QH Model) was develop and used to model the terrestrial habitability as a standard for comparison. The QH Model provides a simple ecophysiology-based framework that can be used to predict the potential distribution, abundance and productivity of life in planetary bodies from local to global scales. The simplest QH Model calculates habitability from the environment temperature and relative humidity in gas phases (i.e. atmospheres), and from temperature and salinity in liquid phases (i.e. oceans). The model was used to explain the latitudinal gradients of primary producers on Earth and was validated with ground and satellites observations of net primary productivity (NPP). The potential global habitability for prokaryotes of the upper-troposphere of Venus, the subsurface of Mars, Europa, Titan, and Enceladus was compared. Results show that Enceladus has the zone with the highest mean habitability in the Solar System although to deep for direct exploration. Results also show that the current global terrestrial environment of land areas is not optimized for primary producers, but it was during some paleoclimates. The QH Model has applications in ecosystem modeling, global climate studies including paleoclimates and global warming, planetary protection, and astrobiology. It can also be used to quantify the potential for life of any terrestrial-size extrasolar planet as compared to Earth. This study was partially supported by UPR Arecibo and NASA

  17. The Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Harris, Walter M.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection theme roadmap calls for comparative study of how the planets, comets, and local interstellar medium (LISM) interact with the Sun and respond to solar variability. Through such a study we advance our understanding of basic physical plasma and gas dynamic processes, thus increasing our predictive capabilities for the terrestrial, planetary, and interplanetary environments where future remote and human exploration will occur. Because the other planets have lacked study initiatives comparable to the terrestrial ITM, LWS, and EOS programs, our understanding of the upper atmospheres and near space environments on these worlds is far less detailed than our knowledge of the Earth. To close this gap we propose a mission to study {\\it all) of the solar interacting bodies in our planetary system out to the heliopause with a single remote sensing space observatory, the Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of a binocular EUV/FUV telescope operating from a remote, driftaway orbit that provides sub-arcsecond imaging and broadband medium resolution spectro-imaging over the 55-290 nm bandpass, and high (R>10$^{5}$ resolution H Ly-$\\alpha$ emission line profile measurements of small scale planetary and wide field diffuse solar system structures. A key to the SCOPE approach is to include Earth as a primary science target. From its remote vantage point SCOPE will be able to observe auroral emission to and beyond the rotational pole. The other planets and comets will be monitored in long duration campaigns centered when possible on solar opposition when interleaved terrestrial-planet observations can be used to directly compare the response of both worlds to the same solar wind stream and UV radiation field. Using a combination of observations and MHD models, SCOPE will isolate the different controlling parameters in each planet system and gain insight into the underlying physical processes that define the

  18. Mining and beneficiation of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Williams, R. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Giles, D.

    1979-01-01

    The beneficiation of lunar plagioclase and ilmenite ores to feedstock grade permits a rapid growth of the space manufacturing economy by maximizing the production rate of metals and oxygen. A beneficiation scheme based on electrostatic and magnetic separation is preferred over conventional schemes, but such a scheme cannot be completely modeled because beneficiation processes are empirical and because some properties of lunar minerals have not been measured. To meet anticipated shipping and processing needs, the peak lunar mining rate will exceed 1000 tons/hr by the fifth year of operation. Such capabilities will be best obtained by automated mining vehicles and conveyor systems rather than trucks. It may be possible to extract about 40 kg of volatiles (60 percent H2O) by thermally processing the less than 20 micron ilmenite concentrate extracted from 130 tons of ilmenite ore. A thermodynamic analysis of an extraction process is presented.

  19. Prospecting For Magnetite Ore Deposits With A Innovative Sensor's of Unique Fundamentally New Magnetometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelianenko, T. I.; Tachaytdinov, R. S.; Sarichev, V. F.; Kotov, B. V.; Susoeva, G. N.

    After careful study of principles and abilities of all existing magnetmeters of all three revolutions in magnetic prospecting we have come to the conclusion that they cannot solve local guestions of the magnetic prospecting or determine centre coordinates of magnetite ore body before drilling Electromagnetism lows and achievents magnetprospectings and radioelectronics of all 20th century serve as a theoretical base of the "locator". While creating this cardinally new magnetmeter , we borrowed different things from radio-prospectors, magnetprospectors, wireless operators and combined all of them while creating the "locators''. The "locators' construction is bas ed on the "magnetic intensification" principle ,owing to which this "locators" are characterised by hight sensitiveness and ability to determine centers of even little commercial magnetite ore deposits with relatively weak magnetic anomalies. The main advantage of the "locators" over existing ones is that it can solve local questions determine centre coordinates. A remarkably simple locator construction determine direction of the on-surface measurings towards the ore body centre and gives approximate prognosis resourses before/withour/ drilling. The "locators" were worked out for the first time in history , they have 2 licences. The fundamental design and drawbacks of the existing magnetometers have been inherited from the original magnetometre dating back two or three hundred years. The developers of the existing magnetometres have all gone along the same well- beaten track of replacing the primitive sensor in the form of a piece of ore hung on a string at first by an arrow sensor and later by magnetically oriented protons and quanta, with amplification of the sensors' OUTPUT signal. Furthermore, all the existing magnetometres are imperfect in that they, lacking the directivity of the ground-level magnetic measurements, only record the overall magnetic vector field generated by all the ore bodies around the

  20. Tourmaline in the central Swedish ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellingwerf, R. H.; Gatedal, K.; Gallagher, V.; Baker, J. H.

    1994-06-01

    More than 40 recently discovered tourmaline occurrences have been investigated in the Mid-Proterozoic Bergslagen ore district of central Sweden. Some are spatially associated with ores, others with zones of leaching, remobilization and migmatization. Among the tourmaline-bearing ore deposits are the Dammberg ZnPb-Fe sulphide deposit, the Sala Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, the Dalkarlsberg, Pershyttan and Håksberg Fe oxide deposits, the Leja Cu deposit, and the Zinkgruvan Zn-Pb-Ag deposit. Tourmaline has been recorded a) as tourmalinites and tourmaline-bearing chemical sediments; b) in tourmaline-bearing skarns; c) in tourmaline-quartz veins; d) as disseminations along the foliation in schists; e) in tourmaline pegmatites; f) in tourmalinized haloes in metavolcanites along tourmaline pegmatites; and g) in late joints. Tourmalinites, tourmaline-bearing chemical sediments and tourmaline-bearing skarns are spatially associated with sulphide and oxide mineralizations. The dravite components in these tourmalines are proportional to the size of Zn-Pb sulphide mineralizations. Tourmalines from quartz veins close to and within ore deposits contain high Zr and Cr contents. With increasing distance away from these deposits, the Zr and Cr contents fall significantly. Tourmalines from pegmatites have inherited a number of trace element enrichments through partial melting and assimilation of volcaniclastic sediments into granitic melts. Despite magmatic homogenization, Zn contents in these tourmalines reflect the proximity of Zn-Pb-sulphide deposits, decreasing away from them. Tourmalines from late joints with Zn contents above the 100 ppm level are also indicative for the proximity of Zn-Pb sulphide mineralizations. Thus, some trace elements in these tourmalines may represent suitable exploration tools.

  1. Pressure leaching las cruces copper ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezowsky, R. M.; Xue, T.; Collins, M. J.; Makwana, M.; Barton-Jones, I.; Southgate, M.; Maclean, J. K.

    1999-12-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for treating the Las Cruces massive sulfide-ore deposit located near Seville, Spain. A two-stage countercurrent leach process, consisting of an atmospheric leach and a pressure leach, was developed to effectively leach copper from the copper-bearing minerals and to generate a solution suitable for the subsequent solvent-extraction and copper-electrowinning operations. The results of batch and continuous miniplant tests are presented.

  2. Spatial Query for Planetary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Powell, Mark W.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Fox, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Science investigators need to quickly and effectively assess past observations of specific locations on a planetary surface. This innovation involves a location-based search technology that was adapted and applied to planetary science data to support a spatial query capability for mission operations software. High-performance location-based searching requires the use of spatial data structures for database organization. Spatial data structures are designed to organize datasets based on their coordinates in a way that is optimized for location-based retrieval. The particular spatial data structure that was adapted for planetary data search is the R+ tree.

  3. The Automated Planetary Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivie, C. V.; Friedman, L. D.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a study on mission definition and design to determine broad technology directions and needs for advanced planetary spacecraft and future planetary missions. The discussion covers mission selection, system design, and technology assessment and review for a multicomponent spacecraft exploration facility provided with nuclear power propulsion. As an example, the Automated Planetary Space Station at Jupiter is examined as a generic concept which has the capability of conducting in-depth investigations of different aspects of the entire Jovian system. Mission planning is discussed relative to low-thrust trajectory control, automatic target identification and landing, roving vehicle operation, and automated sample analysis.

  4. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Research supported by grant NAGW-1928 has addressed a variety of problems related to planetary evolution. One important focus has been on questions related to the role of chemical buoyancy in planetary evolution with application to both Venus and the Moon. We have developed a model for the evolution of the Moon (Hess and Parmentier, 1995) in which dense, highly radioactive, late stage magma ocean cumulates sink forming a core. This core heats the overlying, chemically layered mantle giving rise to a heated, chemically well-mixed layer that thickens with time. This Mixed layer eventually becomes hot enough and thick enough that its top begins to melt at a pressure low enough that melt is buoyant, thus creating mare basalts from a high pressure source of the correct composition and at an appropriate time in lunar evolution. In work completed during the last year, numerical experiments on convection in a chemically stably stratified fluid layer heated from below have been completed. These results show us how to calculate the evolution of a mixed layer in the Moon, depending on the heat production in the ilmenite- cumulate core and the chemical stratification of the overlying mantle. Chemical stratification of the mantle after its initial differentiation is would trap heat in the deep interior and prevent the rapid rise of plumes with accompanying volcanism. This trapping of heat in the interior can explain the thickness of the lunar lithosphere as a function of time as well as the magmatic evolution. We show that heat transported to the base of the lithosphere at a rate determined by current estimates of radioactivity in the Moon would not satisfy constraints on elastic lithosphere thickness from tectonic feature associated with basin loading. Trapping heat at depth by a chemically stratified mantle may also explain the absence of global compressional features on the surface that previous models predict for an initially hot lunar interior. For Venus, we developed a

  5. Planetary Protection Constraints For Planetary Exploration and Exobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, A.; Bonneville, R.; Viso, M.

    According to the article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY (London / Washington January 27., 1967) and in the frame of extraterrestrial missions, it is required to preserve planets and Earth from contamination. For ethical, safety and scientific reasons, the space agencies have to comply with the Outer Space Treaty and to take into account the related planetary protection Cospar recommendations. Planetary protection takes also into account the protection of exobiological science, because the results of life detection experimentations could have impacts on planetary protection regulations. The validation of their results depends strongly of how the samples have been collected, stored and analyzed, and particularly of their biological and organic cleanliness. Any risk of contamination by organic materials, chemical coumpounds and by terrestrial microorganisms must be avoided. A large number of missions is presently scheduled, particularly on Mars, in order to search for life or traces of past life. In the frame of such missions, CNES is building a planetary protection organization in order handle and to take in charge all tasks linked to science and engineering concerned by planetary protection. Taking into account CNES past experience in planetary protection related to the Mars 96 mission, its planned participation in exobiological missions with NASA as well as its works and involvement in Cospar activities, this paper will present the main requirements in order to avoid celestial bodies biological contamination, focussing on Mars and including Earth, and to protect exobiological science.

  6. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at <900°C are dominated by early crystallization of hornblende and apatite, and late crystallization (~<780°C) of titanite

  7. Clay mineralogy of the Greenvale Ore Body, Queensland, Australia: Implications for the interpretation of paleoclimate

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, S.; Anderson, K.; Ramirez, B.; Sun, H.; Swank, R.; Yost, D.; Huff, W.; Maynard, J.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    A 3--5% nickel enriched laterite in the Greenvale Ore Body of Queensland, Australia, is the result of weathering a serpentinized ultramafic intrusion. Variations in solubilities and drainage, typical of laterite deposits, resulted in the formation of three primary zones: (1) the Saprolite zone, (2) the Intermediate zone, and (3) the Limonite zone. Within these zones, clay mineral species with distinct chemistries and/or mineralogies have been identified, including: Ni-rich Smectite, Halloysite, and Palygorskite. Clay minerals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM. Bulk chemistry was determined by X-ray fluorescence in an attempt to better constrain the chemical conditions at the time of formation of the clay minerals. Results indicate a complex drainage system and history for the Greenvale Ore Body. Based on the distribution of ore grade material, it is apparent that the deposit was initially characterized by fracture controlled drainage. Owing to precipitation of Ni-rich smectite, halloysite, and palygorskite, subsequent alteration of the ore body drainage network and/or local climate can be inferred.

  8. The Gas Hills uranium district and some probable controls for ore deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, Howard Davis

    1957-01-01

    Uranium deposits occur in the upper coarse-grained facies of the Wind River formation of Eocene age in the Gas Hills district of the southern part of the Wind River Basin. Some of the principal deposits lie below the water table in the unoxidized zone and consist of uraninite and coffinite occurring as interstitial fillings in irregular blanket-like bodies. In the near-surface deposits that lie above the water table, the common yellow uranium minerals consist of uranium phosphates, silicates, and hydrous oxides. The black unoxidized uraninite -coffinite ores show enrichment of molybdenum, arsenic, and selenium when compared to the barren sandstone. Probable geologic controls for ore deposits include: 1) permeable sediments that allowed passage of ore-bearing solutions; 2) numerous faults that acted as impermeable barriers impounding the ore -bearing solutions; 3) locally abundant pyrite, carbonaceous material, and natuial gas containing hydrogen sulfide that might provide a favorable environment for precipitation of uranium. Field and laboratory evidence indicate that the uranium deposits in the Gas Hills district are very young and related to the post-Miocene to Pleistocene regional tilting to the south associated with the collapse of the Granite Mountains fault block. This may have stopped or reversed ground water movement from a northward (basinward) direction and alkaline ground water rich in carbonate could have carried the uranium into the favorable environment that induced precipitation.

  9. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, P.B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700??C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S2 and O2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must

  10. Planetary Scientist Profile: Noah Petro

    NASA Video Gallery

    Noah Petro is a NASA planetary geologist who studies the surface of airless bodies in space, primarily focusing on the moon. In this video profile, Noah talks about how he was inspired to become a ...