Science.gov

Sample records for local retarded off-shell

  1. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  2. The off-shell c-map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; de Wit, Bernard; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2016-01-01

    The off-shell version of the c-map is presented, based on a systematic off-shell reduction from four to three space-time dimensions for supergravity theories with eight supercharges. In the reduction, the R-symmetry group is enhanced to local [SU(2)× SU(2)]/{{Z}}_2=SO(4) and the c-map is effected by a parity transformation in the internal space that interchanges the two SU(2) factors. Vector and tensor supermultiplets are each others conjugate under the c-map and both can be dualized in three dimensions to (on-shell) hypermultiplets.

  3. Scattering amplitudes with off-shell quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hameren, A.; Kutak, K.; Salwa, T.

    2013-11-01

    We present a prescription to calculate manifestly gauge invariant tree-level scattering amplitudes for arbitrary scattering processes with off-shell initial-state quarks within the kinematics of high-energy scattering. Consider the embedding of the process, in which the off-shell u-quark is replaced by an auxiliary quark qA, and an auxiliary photon γA is added in final state. The momentum flow is as if qA carries momentum k1 and the momentum of γA is identical to 0. γA only interacts via Eq. (3), and qA further only interacts with gluons via normal quark-gluon vertices. qA-line propagators are interpreted as iℓ̸1/(2ℓ1ṡp), and are diagonal in color space. Sum the squared amplitude over helicities of the auxiliary photon. For one helicity, simultaneously assign to the external qA-quark and to γA the spinor and polarization vector |ℓ1], {<ℓ1|γμ|ℓ2]}/{√{2}[ℓ1|ℓ2]}, and for the other helicity assign |ℓ1>, {<ℓ2|γμ|ℓ1]}/{√{2}<ℓ2|ℓ1>}. Multiply the amplitude with √{-x1k12/2}. For the rest, normal Feynman rules apply.Some remarks are at order. Regarding the momentum flow, we stress, as in [20], that momentum components proportional to k1 do not contribute in the eikonal propagators, and there is a freedom in the choice of the momenta flowing through qA-lines.Regarding the sum over helicities, one might argue that only one of them leads to a non-zero result for given helicity of the final-state quark, but there may, for example, be several identical such quarks in the final state with different helicities.In case of more than one quark in the final state with the same flavor as the off-shell quark, the rules as such admit graphs with γA-propagators. These must be omitted. They do not survive the limit Λ→∞ in the derivation, since the γA-propagators are suppressed by 1/Λ.The rules regarding the qA-line could be elaborated further like in [20], leading to simplified vertices for gluons attached to this line and reducing the

  4. Off-shell hydrodynamics from holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Michael; Glorioso, Paolo; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    We outline a program for obtaining an action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics by considering the holographic Wilsonian renormalization group applied to systems with a gravity dual. As a first step, in this paper we restrict to systems with a non-dissipative horizon. By integrating out gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk gravitational system between an asymptotic boundary and a horizon, we are led to a formulation of hydrodynamics where the dynamical variables are not standard velocity and temperature fields, but the relative embedding of the boundary and horizon hypersurfaces. At zeroth order, this action reduces to that proposed by Dubovsky et al. as an off-shell formulation of ideal fluid dynamics.

  5. Compton scattering by a pion and off-shell effects

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.; Fearing, H.W. )

    1995-01-01

    We consider Compton scattering by a pion in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. We investigate off-shell effects in the [ital s]- and [ital u]-channel pole diagrams. For that purpose we perform a field transformation which, in comparison with the standard Gasser and Leutwyler Lagrangian, generates additional terms at order [ital p][sup 4] proportional to the lowest-order equation of motion. As a result of the equivalence theorem the two Lagrangians predict the same Compton scattering [ital S]-matrix even though they generate different off-shell form factors. We conclude that off-shell effects are not only model dependent but also representation dependent.

  6. Chiral perturbation theory and off-shell electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, T.E.; Fearing, H.W.; Scherer, S.

    1995-05-10

    The off-shell electromagnetic vertex of pions and kaons is calculated to {ital O}({ital p}{sup 4}) in the momentum expansion within the framework of chiral perturbation theory to one loop. The formalism of Gasser and Leutwyler is extended to accommodate the most general form for off-shell Green`s functions in the pseudoscalar meson sector. To that end we identify the structures at {ital O}({ital p}{sup 4}) which were initially removed by using the equation of motion of the lowest-order lagrangian. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  7. Off-Shell Structure of the String Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Kostelecky, V.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Potting, Robertus

    2000-05-15

    The off-shell structure of the string sigma model is investigated. In the open bosonic string, nonperturbative effects appear to depend crucially on the regularization scheme. A scheme retaining the notion of string width reproduces the structure of Witten's string field theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Wilson lines and gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotko, Piotr

    2014-07-01

    We study matrix elements of Fourier-transformed straight infinite Wilson lines as a way to calculate gauge invariant tree-level amplitudes with off-shell gluons. The off-shell gluons are assigned "polarization vectors" which (in the Feynman gauge) are transverse to their off-shell momenta and define the direction of the corresponding Wilson line operators. The infinite Wilson lines are first regularized to prove the correctness of the method. We have implemented the method in a computer FORM program that can calculate gluonic matrix elements of Wilson line operators automatically. In addition we formulate the Feynman rules that are convenient in certain applications, e.g. proving the Ward identities. Using both the program and the Feynman rules we calculate a few examples, in particular the matrix elements corresponding to gauge invariant g * g * g * g and g * g * g * g * g processes. An immediate application of the approach is in the high energy scattering, as in a special kinematic setup our results reduce to the form directly related to Lipatov's vertices. Thus the results we present can be directly transformed into Lipatov's vertices, in particular into RRRP and RRRRP vertices with arbitrary "orientation" of reggeized gluons. Since the formulation itself is not restricted to high-energy scattering, we also apply the method to a decomposition of an ordinary on-shell amplitude into a set of gauge invariant objects.

  9. Deformations with maximal supersymmetries part 2: off-shell formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2016-04-01

    Continuing our exploration of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories (MSYM) deformed by higher dimensional operators, in this paper we consider an off-shell approach based on pure spinor superspace and focus on constructing supersymmetric deformations beyond the first order. In particular, we give a construction of the Batalin-Vilkovisky action of an all-order non-Abelian Born-Infeld deformation of MSYM in the non-minimal pure spinor formalism. We also discuss subtleties in the integration over the pure spinor superspace and the relevance of Berkovits-Nekrasov regularization.

  10. Off-shell electromagnetic form factors of pions and kaons in chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, T.E.; Fearing, H.W.; Scherer, S. )

    1994-07-01

    The off-shell electromagnetic vertex of a (pseudo)scalar particle contains, in general, two form factors [ital F] and [ital G] which depend, in addition to the squared momentum transfer, on the invariant masses associated with the initial and final legs of the vertex. Chiral perturbation theory to one loop is used to calculate the off-shell form factors of pions and kaons. The formalism of Gasser and Leutwyler, which was previously used to calculate the on-shell limit of the form factor [ital F], is extended to accommodate the most general form for off-shell Green's functions in the pseudoscalar meson sector. We find that chiral symmetry predicts that the form factors [ital F] of the charged pions and kaons go off-shell in the same way, i.e., the off-shell slope at the real photon point is given by the same new phenomenological constant [beta][sub 1]. Furthermore, it is shown that at order [ital p][sup 4] the form factor [ital F] of the [ital K][sup 0] does not show any off-shell dependence. The form factors [ital G] are all related to the form factors [ital F] in the correct fashion as required by the Ward-Takahashi identity. Numerical results for different off-shell kinematics are presented.

  11. Off-shell suppressions and two body radiative processes in a vector dominance model

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, A.; Bagchi, B.; Gautam, V.P.; Nandy, A.

    1980-08-01

    The radiative decays of rho,K*, omega and phi are studied in a one-parameter vector dominance model by introducing corrections for the off-shell vector meson-photon coupling constants. It is found that off-shell values rho and omega are suppressed by 1/1.5 while off-shell phi is suppressed by 1/1.9 compared with their on-shell values. In addition, we have also considered P ..-->.. ..gamma.. ..gamma.. decays and sigma/sub tot/ (VP), and found generally good agreement with the available data.

  12. Off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like interactions in all partial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, U.; Bhoi, J.

    2013-01-15

    By exploiting the theory of ordinary differential equations, with judicious use of boundary conditions, interacting Green's functions and their integral transforms together with certain properties of higher transcendental functions, useful analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for motion in Coulomb and Coulomb-nuclear potentials are derived in maximal reduced form through different approaches to the problem in the representation space. The exact analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials are believed to be useful for the description of the charged particle scattering/reaction processes.

  13. Novel method to deal with off-shell particles in cascade decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Kundu, Anirban; Srivastava, Tripurari

    2016-03-01

    We propose a novel algorithm to compute the width of any generic n -body decay involving multiple off-shell particles having zero and nonzero spins. Starting from a toy example, we show the computations for three different processes that contain spin-0, -1/2 , and -1 off-shell particles. We check that our results match with the existing results at the analytical level. This proposal can be automatized and should be useful to compute the phase space for long cascade decays, without any Monte Carlo sampling.

  14. Off-shell D-brane action at order α'2 in flat spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garousi, Mohammad R.

    2016-03-01

    We use compatibility of the second fundamental form corrections to Dirac-Born-Infeld action at order α'2 which includes the trace of the second fundamental form, with T-duality and with the linear S-duality as guiding principles, to find an off-shell D-brane action at order α'2 in type II superstring theories in flat spcetime.

  15. Off-shell amplitudes as boundary integrals of analytically continued Wilson line slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotko, P.; Serino, M.; Stasto, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    One of the methods to calculate tree-level multi-gluon scattering amplitudes is to use the Berends-Giele recursion relation involving off-shell currents or off-shell amplitudes, if working in the light cone gauge. As shown in recent works using the light-front perturbation theory, solutions to these recursions naturally collapse into gauge invariant and gauge-dependent components, at least for some helicity configurations. In this work, we show that such structure is helicity independent and emerges from analytic properties of matrix elements of Wilson line operators, where the slope of the straight gauge path is shifted in a certain complex direction. This is similar to the procedure leading to the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion, however we apply a complex shift to the Wilson line slope instead of the external momenta. While in the original BCFW procedure the boundary integrals over the complex shift vanish for certain deformations, here they are non-zero and are equal to the off-shell amplitudes. The main result can thus be summarized as follows: we derive a decomposition of a helicity-fixed off-shell current into gauge invariant component given by a matrix element of a straight Wilson line plus a reminder given by a sum of products of gauge invariant and gauge dependent quantities. We give several examples realizing this relation, including the five-point next-to-MHV helicity configuration.

  16. Off-shell effects in Higgs processes at a linear collider and implications for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebler, Stefan; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid; Weiglein, Georg

    2015-06-01

    The importance of off-shell contributions is discussed for H → V V (∗) with V ∈ { Z,W} for large invariant masses m VV involving a standard model (SM)-like Higgs boson with m H = 125 GeV at a linear collider (LC). Both dominant production processes e + e - → ZH → ZV V (∗) and are taken into account, and the signal processes are compared with background yielding the same final state. The relative size of the off-shell contributions is strongly dependent on the centre-of-mass energy. These contributions can have an important impact on the determination of cross sections and branching ratios. However, the combination of on- and off-shell contributions can also be utilised to lift degeneracies allowing to test higher-dimensional operators, unitarity and light and heavy Higgs interferences in extended Higgs sectors. The latter is demonstrated in the context of a 2-Higgs-Doublet model. We also discuss the impact of these aspects for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where they are relevant. The importance of a precise measurement of the Higgs mass for on-shell contributions in H → V V (∗) is emphasized. A particular focus is put on methods for extracting the Higgs width at a LC. Off-shell contributions are shown to have a negligible impact on the width determination at low when applying the Z recoil method to extract branching ratios in combination with an appropriate determination of a partial width. On the other hand, off-shell contributions can be exploited to constrain the Higgs width in a similar fashion as in recent analyses at the LHC. It is demonstrated that this approach, besides relying heavily on theoretical assumptions, is affected by the negative interference of Higgs and background contributions that may limit the sensitivity that is achievable with the highest foreseeable statistics at the LHC and a LC.

  17. Off-shell superconformal nonlinear sigma-models in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele; von Unge, Rikard

    2011-01-01

    We develop superspace techniques to construct general off-shell mathcal{N} ≤ 4 super-conformal sigma-models in three space-time dimensions. The most general mathcal{N} = 3 and mathcal{N} = 4 superconformal sigma-models are constructed in terms of mathcal{N} = 2 chiral superfields. Several superspace proofs of the folklore statement that mathcal{N} = 3 supersymmetry implies mathcal{N} = 4 are presented both in the on-shell and off-shell settings. We also elaborate on (super)twistor realisations for (super)manifolds on which the three-dimensional mathcal{N} -extended superconformal groups act transitively and which include Minkowski space as a subspace.

  18. Compton scattering from a pion: Off-shell effects and the equivalence theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.; Fearing, H.W.

    1995-05-10

    We consider Compton scattering from a pion in the framework of chiral perturbation theory ({chi}{ital PT}). We investigate off-shell effects in the s- and u-channel pole diagrams. For that purpose we perform a field transformation which, in comparison with the standard Gasser and Leutwyler lagrangian, generates additional terms at order {ital p}{sup 4} proportional to the lowest-order equation of motion. We demonstrate that the two lagrangians which generate different off-shell form factors predict the same Compton scattering S-matrix. This result is interpreted as an application of a generalized equivalence theorem. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  19. 3-point off-shell vertex in scalar QED in arbitrary gauge and dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.; Delbourgo, R.

    2007-09-15

    We calculate the complete one-loop off-shell three-point scalar-photon vertex in arbitrary gauge and dimension for scalar quantum electrodynamics. Explicit results are presented for the particular cases of dimensions 3 and 4 both for massive and massless scalars. We then propose nonperturbative forms of this vertex that coincide with the perturbative answer to order e{sup 2}.

  20. Radiative processes of UPSILON and UPSILON' and off-shell suppressions

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, A.; Bagchi, B.; Gautam, V.P.

    1980-09-01

    Within the framework of an extended vector-dominance scheme, the various radiative processes of UPSILON and UPSILON' are studied. The rates turn out to be generally much smaller than those of the corresponding psi decays and in some cases too small for direct observation. The off-shell UPSILON-..gamma.. and UPSILON'-..gamma.. coupling constants are found to be suppressed by about a couple of orders of magnitude compared with their on-shell values.

  1. X-linked mental retardation with heterozygous expression and macrocephaly: Pericentromeric gene localization

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.; Gedeon, A. |; Mulley, J.

    1994-07-15

    A family is described with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) with affected males in 2 generations. The manifestations are macrocephaly and heterozygous expression. Linkage analysis gives a 2-point lod score of 3.31 ({theta} = 0.0) at the AR, DXS991, and MAOB marker loci. The gene is localized by recombination events between DXS1068 (Xp) and DXS1125 (Xq). This condition in this family may be similar to that described by Atkin et al., 1985. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Off-shell behavior of relativistic NN effective interactions and charge symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersten, A.; Thomas, A. W.; Weyrauch, M.

    1990-04-01

    We examine in detail the suggestion of Iqbal et al. for calculating the class-four charge symmetry breaking amplitude in n-p scattering. By simplifying to a model problem, we show explicitly that the approximation scheme is unreliable if a phenomenological, effective nucleon-nucleon T matrix is used. Our results have wider implications for observables calculated in relativistic impulse approximation calculations. They reinforce the observation made in the literature that the procedure of fitting only positive energy matrix elements can lead to an NN interaction whose off-shell behavior is incorrect.

  3. Bordered surfaces, off-shell amplitudes, sewing, and string field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Carlip, S.

    1989-04-01

    These lectures will deal with the current status of the sewing problem. The rationale for this approach is that any nonperturbative string theory must reproduce the Polyakov path integral as a perturbation series. If our experience in ordinary field theory is a guide --- and admittedly it may not be --- the terms in such a perturbation series, like Feynman diagrams, are likely to be built up from simple ''vertices'' and ''propagators,'' which can themselves be represented as (off-shell) Polyakov amplitudes. Hence an understanding of how to put together simple components into more complicated world sheet amplitudes is likely to give us much-needed information about the structure of nonperturbative string theory. To understand sewing, we must first understand the building blocks, off-shell Polyakov amplitudes. This is the subject of my first lecture. Next, we will explore the sewing of conformal field theories at a fixed conformal structure, that is, the reconstruction of correlation functions for a fixed surface /Sigma/ from those on a pair of surfaces /Sigma//sub 1/ and /Sigma//sub 2/ obtained by cutting /Sigma/ along a closed curve. We will then look at the problem of sewing amplitudes, integrals of correlation functions over moduli space. This will necessitate an understanding of how to build the moduli space of a complicated surface from simpler moduli spaces. Finally, we will briefly examine vertices and string field theories. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Bordered surfaces, off-shell amplitudes, sewing, and string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlip, Steven

    1989-04-01

    These lectures will deal with the current status of the sewing problem. The rationale for this approach is that any nonperturbative string theory must reproduce the Polyakov path integral as a perturbation series. If our experience in ordinary field theory is a guide, and admittedly it may not be, the terms in such a perturbation series, like Feynman diagrams, are likely to be built up from simple vertices and propagators, which can themselves be represented as (off-shell) Polyakov amplitudes. Hence an understanding of how to put together simple components into more complicated world sheet amplitudes is likely to give us much-needed information about the structure of nonperturbative string theory. To understand sewing, we must first understand the building blocks, off-shell Polyakov amplitudes. This is the subject of my first lecture. Next, we will explore the sewing of conformal field theories at a fixed conformal structure, that is, the reconstruction of correlation functions for a fixed surface (Sigma) from those on a pair of surfaces (Sigma)(sub 1) and (Sigma)(sub 2) obtained by cutting (Sigma) along a closed curve. We will then look at the problem of sewing amplitudes, integrals of correlation functions over moduli space. This will necessitate an understanding of how to build the moduli space of a complicated surface from simpler moduli spaces. Finally, we will briefly examine vertices and string field theories.

  5. Recursion relations for multi-gluon off-shell amplitudes on the light-front and Wilson lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Santiago, C.; Kotko, P.; Staśto, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    We analyze the off-shell scattering amplitudes in the framework of the light-front perturbation theory. It is shown that the previously derived recursion relation between tree level off-shell amplitudes in this formalism actually resums whole classes of graphs into a Wilson line. More precisely, we establish a correspondence between the light-front methods for the computation of the off-shell amplitudes and the approach which makes use of the matrix elements of straight infinite Wilson lines, which are manifestly gauge invariant objects. Furthermore, since it is needed to explicitly verify the gauge invariance of light-front amplitudes, it is demonstrated that the Ward identities in this framework need additional instantaneous terms in the light-front graphs.

  6. Off-Shell Green Functions: One-Loop with Growing Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.; Delbourgo, R.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2008-07-02

    One loop calculations in gauge theories in arbitrary gauge and dimensions become exceedingly hard with growing number of external off-shell legs. Let alone higher point functions, such a calculation for even the three point one-loop vertices for quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been made available only recently. In this article, we discuss how Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identities (WFGTI) may provide a helpful tool in these computations. After providing a glimpse of our suggestion for the case of the 3-point vertex, we present our preliminary findings towards our similar efforts for the 4-point function. We restrict ourselves to the example of scalar quantum electrodynamics (SQED)

  7. Higher gauge theories from Lie n-algebras and off-shell covariantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, Ursula; Heller, Marc Andre; Ikeda, Noriaki; Kaneko, Yukio; Watamura, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    We analyze higher gauge theories in various dimensions using a supergeometric method based on a differential graded symplectic manifold, called a QP-manifold, which is closely related to the BRST-BV formalism in gauge theories. Extensions of the Lie 2-algebra gauge structure are formulated within the Lie n-algebra induced by the QP-structure. We find that in 5 and 6 dimensions there are special extensions of the gauge algebra. In these cases, a restriction of the gauge symmetry by imposing constraints on the auxiliary gauge fields leads to a covariantized theory. As an example we show that we can obtain an off-shell covariantized higher gauge theory in 5 dimensions, which is similar to the one proposed in [1].

  8. Off-shell single-top production at NLO matched to parton showers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papanastasiou, A. S.; Prestel, S.; Torrielli, P.

    2016-06-06

    We study the hadroproduction of a W b pair in association with a light jet, focusing on the dominant t -channel contribution and including exactly at the matrix-element level all non-resonant and off-shell effects induced by the finite top-quark width. Our simulations are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, and are matched to the Herwig6 and Pythia8 parton showers through the MC@NLO method. We present phenomenological results relevant to the 8 TeV LHC, and carry out a thorough comparison to the case of on-shell t -channel single-top production. Furthermore, we formulate our approach so that it can be appliedmore » to the general case of matrix elements that feature coloured intermediate resonances and are matched to parton showers.« less

  9. Off-shell single-top production at NLO matched to parton showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papanastasiou, A. S.; Prestel, S.; Torrielli, P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the hadroproduction of a W b pair in association with a light jet, focusing on the dominant t-channel contribution and including exactly at the matrix-element level all non-resonant and off-shell effects induced by the finite top-quark width. Our simulations are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, and are matched to the Herwig6 and Pythia8 parton showers through the MC@NLO method. We present phenomenological results relevant to the 8 TeV LHC, and carry out a thorough comparison to the case of on-shell t-channel single-top production. We formulate our approach so that it can be applied to the general case of matrix elements that feature coloured intermediate resonances and are matched to parton showers.

  10. Form factor of the B meson off-shell for the vertex B{sub s}*BK

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, A. Jr.; Bracco, M. E.

    2010-11-12

    In this work we evaluate the coupling constant and the form factor for the vertex B{sub s}*BK using the QCD Sum Rules. In this case we consider the B meson off shell. The only theoretical evaluation for the coupling constant was made using the Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory (HHChPT) and we made comparison with this result.

  11. Off-shell D-brane/F-theory effective superpotentials and Ooguri-Vafa invariants of several compact Calabi-Yau manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shi; Xu, Feng-Jun; Yang, Fu-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    According to the open-closed mirror symmetry and generalized Gel'fand-Kapranov-Zelerinski (GKZ) system, we calculate off-shell D-brane/F-theory effective superpotentials of four compact Calabi-Yau (CY) manifolds by integrating special periods of subsystem, and extracting the open Ooguri-Vafa invariants from the expansion of off-shell D-brane superpotentials.

  12. Retardations in fault creep rates before local moderate earthquakes along the San Andreas fault system, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burford, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Records of shallow aseismic slip (fault creep) obtained along parts of the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in central California demonstrate that significant changes in creep rates often have been associated with local moderate earthquakes. An immediate postearthquake increase followed by gradual, long-term decay back to a previous background rate is generally the most obvious earthquake effect on fault creep. This phenomenon, identified as aseismic afterslip, usually is characterized by above-average creep rates for several months to a few years. In several cases, minor step-like movements, called coseismic slip events, have occurred at or near the times of mainshocks. One extreme case of coseismic slip, recorded at Cienega Winery on the San Andreas fault 17.5 km southeast of San Juan Bautista, consisted of 11 mm of sudden displacement coincident with earthquakes of ML=5.3 and ML=5.2 that occurred 2.5 minutes apart on 9 April 1961. At least one of these shocks originated on the main fault beneath the winery. Creep activity subsequently stopped at the winery for 19 months, then gradually returned to a nearly steady rate slightly below the previous long-term average. The phenomena mentioned above can be explained in terms of simple models consisting of relatively weak material along shallow reaches of the fault responding to changes in load imposed by sudden slip within the underlying seismogenic zone. In addition to coseismic slip and afterslip phenomena, however, pre-earthquake retardations in creep rates also have been observed. Onsets of significant, persistent decreases in creep rates have occurred at several sites 12 months or more before the times of moderate earthquakes. A 44-month retardation before the 1979 ML=5.9 Coyote Lake earthquake on the Calaveras fault was recorded at the Shore Road creepmeter site 10 km northwest of Hollister. Creep retardation on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista has been evident in records from one creepmeter site for

  13. General N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Supervariable approach to its off-shell nilpotent symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R.P.

    2014-12-15

    Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and θ-bar with θ{sup 2}=(θ-bar){sup 2}=0,θ(θ-bar)+(θ-bar)θ=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: • A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. • General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. • The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. • SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. • Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided.

  14. A Lorentz covariant holoraumy-induced "gadget" from minimal off-shell 4D, N=1 supermultiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. James; Grover, Tyler; Miller-Dickson, Miles David; Mondal, Benedict A.; Oskoui, Amir; Regmi, Shirash; Ross, Ethan; Shetty, Rajath

    2015-11-01

    Starting from three minimal off-shell 4D, N=1 supermultiplets, using constructions solely defined within the confines of the four dimensional field theory we show the existence of a "gadget" — a member of a class of metrics on the representation space of the supermultiplets — whose values directly and completely correspond to the values of a metric defined on the 1d, N = 4 adinkra networks adjacency matrices corresponding to the projections of the four dimensional supermultiplets.

  15. Zfrp8 forms a complex with fragile-X mental retardation protein and regulates its localization and function.

    PubMed

    Tan, William; Schauder, Curtis; Naryshkina, Tatyana; Minakhina, Svetlana; Steward, Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Fragile-X syndrome is the most commonly inherited cause of autism and mental disabilities. The Fmr1 (Fragile-X Mental Retardation 1) gene is essential in humans and Drosophila for the maintenance of neural stem cells, and Fmr1 loss results in neurological and reproductive developmental defects in humans and flies. FMRP (Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, involved in mRNA silencing and translational repression. Both Zfrp8 and Fmr1 have essential functions in the Drosophila ovary. In this study, we identified FMRP, Nufip (Nuclear Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein-interacting Protein) and Tral (Trailer Hitch) as components of a Zfrp8 protein complex. We show that Zfrp8 is required in the nucleus, and controls localization of FMRP in the cytoplasm. In addition, we demonstrate that Zfrp8 genetically interacts with Fmr1 and tral in an antagonistic manner. Zfrp8 and FMRP both control heterochromatin packaging, also in opposite ways. We propose that Zfrp8 functions as a chaperone, controlling protein complexes involved in RNA processing in the nucleus. PMID:26772998

  16. Localization of a non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation gene (MRX80) to Xq22-q24.

    PubMed

    Verot, Lucie; Alloisio, Nicole; Morlé, Laurette; Bozon, Muriel; Touraine, Renaud; Plauchu, Henri; Edery, Patrick

    2003-09-15

    Isolated mental retardation is clinically and genetically heterogenous and may be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner. We report here a linkage analysis in a large family including 15 members, 6 of whom presenting X-linked non-syndromic mental retardation (MRX). Two-point linkage analysis using 23 polymorphic markers covering the entire X chromosome demonstrated significant linkage between the causative gene and DXS8055 with a maximum LOD score of 2.98 at theta = 0.00. Haplotype analysis indicated location for the disease gene in a 23.1 cM interval between DXS1106 and DXS8067. This MRX localization overlaps with 7 XLMR loci (MRX23, MRX27, MRX30, MRX35, MRX47, MRX53, and MRX63). This interval contains two genes associated with non-syndromic mental retardation (NSMR), namely the PAK3 gene, encoding a p21-activated kinase (MRX30 and MRX47) and the FACL4 gene encoding a fatty acyl-CoA ligase (MRX63). As skewed X-inactivation, an apparently constant feature in FACL4 carrier females was not observed in an obligate carrier belonging to the MRX family presented here, the PAK3 gene should be considered as the strongest candidate for this MRX locus. PMID:12949969

  17. Off-shell {rho}-{omega} mixing through quark loops with a nonperturbative meson vertex and quark mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, A.N.; Yang, K.

    1995-06-01

    The momentum dependence of the off-shell {rho}-{omega} mixing amplitude is calculated through a two-quark loop diagram, using nonperturbative meson-quark vertex functions for the {rho} and {omega} mesons, as well as nonperturbative quark propagators. Both these quantities are generated self-consistently through an interlinked Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) cum Schwinger- Dyson equation (SDE) approach with a 3D support for the BSE kernel with two basic constants that are prechecked against a wide cross section of both meson and baryon spectra within a common structural framework for their respective 3D BSE`s. With the precalibration, the on-shell strength works out at {minus}2.434 {delta}({ital m}{sub {ital q}}{sup 2}) in units of the change in ``constituent mass squared,`` which is consistent with the {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} data for a {ital u}-{ital d} mass difference of 4 MeV, while the relative off-shell strength (0.99{plus_minus}0.01) lies midway between quark-loop and QCD-SR results. We also calculate the photon-mediated {rho}-{omega} propagator whose off-shell structure has an additional pole at {ital q}{sup 2}=0. The implications of these results vis-a-vis related investigations are discussed.

  18. Next-to-leading order versus quark off-shellness and intrinsic k{sub T} in the Drell-Yan process

    SciTech Connect

    Linnyk, O.; Leupold, S.; Mosel, U.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the effects of next-to-leading order perturbative QCD as well as of the quark transverse motion and off-shellness on the Drell-Yan process cross section. By studying the s{yields}{infinity} behavior of the cross section in these approaches, we find that the effects of quark off-shellness and intrinsic-k{sub T} parametrize those of higher twists. In particular, the off-shellness of partons generates part of the K-factor type corrections to the leading order cross section. Higher-twist contributions to the p{sub T}-spectrum of the Drell-Yan pairs are found to be large for presently accessible energies. The evolution of quark off-shellness distribution with the hard scale is also studied.

  19. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.

    2015-07-17

    The measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the \\(2m_Z\\) and \\(2m_W\\) thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the \\(ZZ \\rightarrow 4\\ell \\), \\(ZZ\\rightarrow 2\\ell 2\

  20. Brachydactyly and mental retardation: An Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome localized to 2q37

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.C. |; Oude Luttikhuis, M.E.M.; Duckett, D.P.; Barrow, M.A.; Leverton, K.; Read, A.P.; Oley, C.A.; Wolstenholme, J.; Flint, J.; Leonard, J.V.

    1995-02-01

    We report five patients with a combination of brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation, similar to that observed in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). Four patients had cytogenetically visible de novo deletions of chromosome 2q37. The fifth patient was cytogenetically normal and had normal bioactivity of the {alpha} subunit of Gs (Gs{alpha}), the protein that is defective in AHO. In this patient, we have used a combination of highly polymorphic molecular markers and FISH to demonstrate a microdeletion at 2q37. The common region of deletion overlap involves the most telomeric 2q marker, D2S125, and extends proximally for a maximum distance of 17.6 cM. We suggest this represents a consistent phenotype associated with some deletions at 2q37 and that genes important for skeletal and neurodevelopment lie within this region. Screening for deletions at this locus should be considered in individuals with brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation. Furthermore, 2q37 represents a candidate region for type E brachydactyly. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Subcellular fractionation and localization studies reveal a direct interaction of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) with nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed S; Nouri, Kazem; Milroy, Lech G; Moll, Jens M; Herrmann, Christian; Brunsveld, Luc; Piekorz, Roland P; Ahmadian, Mohammad R

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is a well-known regulator of local translation of its mRNA targets in neurons. However, despite its ubiquitous expression, the role of FMRP remains ill-defined in other cell types. In this study we investigated the subcellular distribution of FMRP and its protein complexes in HeLa cells using confocal imaging as well as detergent-free fractionation and size exclusion protocols. We found FMRP localized exclusively to solid compartments, including cytosolic heavy and light membranes, mitochondria, nuclear membrane and nucleoli. Interestingly, FMRP was associated with nucleolin in both a high molecular weight ribosomal and translation-associated complex (≥6 MDa) in the cytosol, and a low molecular weight complex (∼200 kDa) in the nucleoli. Consistently, we identified two functional nucleolar localization signals (NoLSs) in FMRP that are responsible for a strong nucleolar colocalization of the C-terminus of FMRP with nucleolin, and a direct interaction of the N-terminus of FMRP with the arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) domain of nucleolin. Taken together, we propose a novel mechanism by which a transient nucleolar localization of FMRP underlies a strong nucleocytoplasmic translocation, most likely in a complex with nucleolin and possibly ribosomes, in order to regulate translation of its target mRNAs. PMID:24658146

  2. NLO QCD+EW predictions for V + jets including off-shell vector-boson decays and multijet merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, S.; Lindert, J. M.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.; Schönherr, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present next-to-leading order (NLO) predictions including QCD and electroweak (EW) corrections for the production and decay of off-shell electroweak vector bosons in association with up to two jets at the 13 TeV LHC. All possible dilepton final states with zero, one or two charged leptons that can arise from off-shell W and Z bosons or photons are considered. All predictions are obtained using the automated implementation of NLO QCD+EW corrections in the O penLoops matrix-element generator combined with the Munich and Sherpa Monte Carlo frameworks. Electroweak corrections play an especially important role in the context of BSM searches, due to the presence of large EW Sudakov logarithms at the TeV scale. In this kinematic regime, important observables such as the jet transverse momentum or the total transverse energy are strongly sensitive to multijet emissions. As a result, fixed-order NLO QCD+EW predictions are plagued by huge QCD corrections and poor theoretical precision. To remedy this problem we present an approximate method that allows for a simple and reliable implementation of NLO EW corrections in the MePs@Nlo multijet merging framework. Using this general approach we present an inclusive simulation of vector-boson production in association with jets that guarantees NLO QCD+EW accuracy in all phase-space regions involving up to two resolved jets.

  3. Similarity and differences between the radion and Higgs boson production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Boos, E. E.; Keizerov, S. I.; Rahmetov, E. R.; Svirina, K. S.

    2015-12-15

    The radion is a scalar particle that occurs in brane world models and interacts with the trace of the energy–momentum tensor of the Standard Model (SM). The radion–SM fermion interaction Lagrangian differs from the Higgs boson–fermion interaction Lagrangian for off-shell fermions. It is shown that all additional, as compared to the Higgs boson, contributions to the amplitudes of radion production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions are canceled out for both massless and massive fermions. Thus, additional terms in the interaction Lagrangian do not change properties of these processes for the radion and the Higgs boson, except for the general normalization factors. This similarity is a consequence of gauge invariance for the processes with production of gauge bosons. When an additional scalar particle is produced, there are no apparent reasons for the above cancellation, as confirmed, for example, by the process with production of two scalar particles, which features an additional contribution of the radion in comparison with the Higgs boson.

  4. Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Jet with Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Off-Shell Effects at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, G.; Hartanto, H. B.; Kraus, M.; Worek, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete description of top quark pair production in association with a jet in the dilepton channel. Our calculation is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD and includes all nonresonant diagrams, interferences, and off-shell effects of the top quark. Moreover, nonresonant and off-shell effects due to the finite W gauge boson width are taken into account. This calculation constitutes the first fully realistic NLO computation for top quark pair production with a final state jet in hadronic collisions. Numerical results for differential distributions as well as total cross sections are presented for the Large Hadron Collider at 8 TeV. With our inclusive cuts, NLO predictions reduce the unphysical scale dependence by more than a factor of 3 and lower the total rate by about 13% compared to leading-order QCD predictions. In addition, the size of the top quark off-shell effects is estimated to be below 2%.

  5. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  6. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  7. Regional localization of an X-linked mental retardation gene to Xp21.1-Xp22.13 (MRX38)

    SciTech Connect

    Schutz, C.K.; Robinson, P.D.; White, B.N.

    1996-07-12

    A gene responsible for X-linked mental retardation with macrocephaly and seizures (MRX38) in a family with five affected males in three generations was localized to Xp21.1-p22.13 by linkage analysis. Recombination events placed the gene between DXS1226 distally and DXS1238 proximally, defining an interval of approximately 14 cM. A peak lod score of 2.71 was found with several loci in Xp21.1 (DXS992, DXS1236, DXS997, and DXS1036) at a recombination fraction of zero. The map intervals of 5 X-linked mental retardation loci, MRX2 (Xp22.1-p22.2), MRX19 (Xp22), MRX21 (Xp21.1-p22.3), MRX29 (Xp21.2-p22.1), and MRX32 (Xp21.2-p22.1), and two syndromal mental retardation loci, Partington syndrome (PRTS; Xp22) and Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS; Xp22.13-p22.2), overlap this region. As none of these display the same phenotype seen in the family reported here, this X-linked mental retardation locus may represent a new entity. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  9. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, Dominick P.; And Others

    Evidence today indicates that the causes of mental retardation are biological, psychological, and social in origin and that a combination of these causes frequently occur in a single individual. Mental retardation is identified clinically by the presence of several signs that include, but are not limited to, a significant impairment of…

  10. Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Jet with Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Off-Shell Effects at the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, G; Hartanto, H B; Kraus, M; Worek, M

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete description of top quark pair production in association with a jet in the dilepton channel. Our calculation is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD and includes all nonresonant diagrams, interferences, and off-shell effects of the top quark. Moreover, nonresonant and off-shell effects due to the finite W gauge boson width are taken into account. This calculation constitutes the first fully realistic NLO computation for top quark pair production with a final state jet in hadronic collisions. Numerical results for differential distributions as well as total cross sections are presented for the Large Hadron Collider at 8 TeV. With our inclusive cuts, NLO predictions reduce the unphysical scale dependence by more than a factor of 3 and lower the total rate by about 13% compared to leading-order QCD predictions. In addition, the size of the top quark off-shell effects is estimated to be below 2%. PMID:26894704

  11. Localization of a gene for X-linked nonspecific mental retardation (MRX24) in Xp22.2-p22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, F.; Palau, F.; Prieto, F.

    1995-01-30

    Nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) includes several distinct genetic entities in which mental retardation is not associated with additional distinguishing physical changes. We report linkage data in a Spanish family with MRX, using polymorphic DNA markers distributed over the X chromosome. Two-point linkage analysis demonstrated close linkage between the MRX locus and DXS85 in Xp22.3 with a peak lod score of 2.28 at a {theta} = 0.00. Analysis of multiple informative meioses suggested a localization of the MRX locus (MRX24) between DXS278 and DXS207. Multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score of 2.45 at 3cM proximal to DXS85, and allowed us to reject a localization of the MRX24 gene in all other regions from Xp21-Xqter. These findings localize the MRX24 gene in the chromosomal region Xp22.2-p22.3. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Localization of a gene responsible for nonspecific mental retardation (MRX9) to the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Willems, P.; Vits, L.; Buntinx, I.; Raeymaekers, P.; Van Broeckhoven, C.; Ceulemans, B. )

    1993-11-01

    Nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) includes several distinct entities with mental retardation but without additional distinguishing features. The MRX family reported here has been classified previously as MRX9. In this study, the authors performed linkage analysis of MRX9 with a panel of 43 polymorphic DNA markers dispersed over chromosome X. Two-point linkage analysis revealed lod scores of 3.52 and 3.82 at 0% recombination for OATL1 and MAOA, both located in Xp11.2-p11.4. Lod scores for linkage with PGK1P1, DXS106, and DXS132, all located in Xq11-q13, were 3.83, 3.82, and 3.52, respectively, all at 0% recombination. Multipoint linkage analysis showed two peaks with MAOA and DXS132/DXS106, respectively. Analysis of recombinational events indicated a position of the MRX9 gene between DXS164 and DXS453. These findings are compatible with a location of the MRX9 gene in the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome at Xp21-q13. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Flame retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troitzsch, J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of flame retardants in plastics has grown only slightly in recent years and will probably grow slowly in the future. The reasons for this are slow economic growth and the absence of fundamentally new requirements for future fire prevention. The trends are toward the increasing use of easily handled, dust-free and well-dispersed flame retardant compounds and master batches; there are no spectacular new developments. In the future, questions of smoke evolution, toxicity and corrosiveness of combustion gases will become increasingly important, especially due to new regulations and rising requirements for environmental protection.

  14. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Piqueras, D. Álvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the 2mZ and 2mW thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the ZZ→4ℓ, ZZ→2ℓ2ν and WW→eνμν final states. The result is based on pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1 at a collision energy of √s=8 TeV. Using the CLs method, the observed 95 %% confidence level (CL) upper limit on the off-shell signal strength is in the range 5.1–8.6, with an expected range of 6.7–11.0. In each case the range is determined by varying the unknown gg→ZZ and gg→WW background K-factor from higher-order quantum chromodynamics corrections between half and twice the value of the known signal K-factor. Assuming the relevant Higgs boson couplings are independent of the energy scale of the Higgs boson production, a combination with the on-shell measurements yields an observed (expected) 95 % CL upper limit on ΓH/ΓSMH in the range 4.5–7.5 (6.5–11.2) using the same variations of the background K-factor. Assuming that the unknown gg→VV background K-factor is equal to the signal K-factor, this translates into an observed (expected) 95 % CL upper limit on the Higgs boson total width of 22.7 (33.0) MeV.

  15. X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: Phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G.; Nelen, M.R.; Zandvoort, P. van; Abeling, N.G.G.M.; Gennip, A.H. van; Ropers, H.H.; Oost, B.A. van ); Wolters, E.C.; Kuiper, M.A. )

    1993-06-01

    The authors have identified a large Dutch kindred with a new form of X-linked nondysmorphic mild mental retardation. All affected males in this family show very characteristic abnormal behavior, in particular aggressive and sometimes violent behavior. Other types of impulsive behavior include arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Attempted suicide has been reported in a single case. The locus for this disorder could be assigned to the Xp11-21 interval between DXS7 and DXS77 by linkage analysis using markers spanning the X chromosome. A maximal multipoint lod score of 3.69 was obtained at the monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) monoamine metabolism. These data are compatible with a primary defect in the structural gene for MAOA and/or monoamine oxidase type B (MAOB). Normal platelet MAOB activity suggests that the unusual behavior pattern in this family may be caused by isolated MAOA deficiency. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. A gene for nonspecific mental retardation is localized to Xp22.2-p21.2 in a Belgian family

    SciTech Connect

    Raeymaekers, P.; Soekarman, G.D.; Van Zand, K.

    1994-09-01

    We report a family with 6 male individuals with moderate mental retardation (MR) and a nonspecific phenotype, one additional male individual with borderline to mild MR and two obligate female carriers with borderline MR. All family members tested were negative for the fragile X MR mutation. In order to localize the MR gene on the X chromosome, we used 16 highly polymorphic markers dispersed over the whole X-chromosome. Under the model of full penetrance in males and 20% penetrance in carrier females, moderate positive peak lod scores of 0.90 at 10%, 1.14 at 20% and 1.17 at 18% recombination were obtained with DXS999, DXS989 and DMD49, respectively. Al three markers are located in Xp22.2-p21.2. With markers located distal of DXS999, proximal of DMD49 and on Xq, close linkage in this family could be rejected. In multipoint linkage analysis, distinct negative lod scores were obtained in all intervals between markers proximal of Xp21 and on Xq. On the other hand, a disappointing peak lod score of 0.69 was obtained between DXS989 and DMD. This lod score by itself is not significant to justify definite localization of the MR gene in this chromosomal region. However, taken into account the exclusion data in other regions on the X-chromosome, the odds in favor of positioning the MR gene between DXS989 and DMD versus regions proximal of DMD49 are at least 160 to 1. The low peak lod score is explained by the inheritance of a different Xp haplotype in the borderline to mild mentally retarded male patient compared to his two affected brothers and his two carrier sisters. Linkage analysis in other families with nonspecific MR have suggested the existence of MR genes in Xp22.3-p22.2 (MRX2) and Xq21-q21 (MRX5, 10, 11, 12, 13). As these partially overlapping localizations have been obtained with different markers, it is not clear whether these families represent one single MR syndrome.

  17. X-linked [alpha]-thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome: Localization to Xq12-q21. 31 by X inactivation and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, R.J.; Buckle, V.J.; Higgs, D.R.; Suthers, G.K. ); Wilkie, A.O.M. )

    1992-11-01

    The authors have examined seven pedigrees that include individuals with a recently described X-linked form of severe mental retardation associated with [alpha]-thalassemia (ATR-X syndrome). Using hematologic and molecular approaches, they have shown that intellectually normal female carriers of this syndrome may be identified by the presence of rare cells containing HbH (hemoglobin H) inclusions in their peripheral blood and by an extremely skewed pattern of X inactivation seen in cells from a variety of tissues. Linkage analysis has localized the ATR-X locus to an interval of approximately 11 cM between the loci DXS106 and DXYS1X (Xq12-q21.31), with a peak LOD score of 5.4 (recombination fraction of 0) at DCS72. These findings provide the basis for genetic counseling, assessment of carrier risk, and prenatal diagnosis of the ATR-X syndrome. Furthermore, they represent an important step in developing strategies to understand how the mutant ATR-X allele causes mental handicap, dysmorphism, and down-regulation of the [alpha]-globin genes. 54 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Intense and specialized dendritic localization of the fragile X mental retardation protein in binaural brainstem neurons: a comparative study in the alligator, chicken, gerbil, and human.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Sakano, Hitomi; Beebe, Karisa; Brown, Maile R; de Laat, Rian; Bothwell, Mark; Kulesza, Randy J; Rubel, Edwin W

    2014-06-15

    Neuronal dendrites are structurally and functionally dynamic in response to changes in afferent activity. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an mRNA binding protein that regulates activity-dependent protein synthesis and morphological dynamics of dendrites. Loss and abnormal expression of FMRP occur in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and some forms of autism spectrum disorders. To provide further understanding of how FMRP signaling regulates dendritic dynamics, we examined dendritic expression and localization of FMRP in the reptilian and avian nucleus laminaris (NL) and its mammalian analogue, the medial superior olive (MSO), in rodents and humans. NL/MSO neurons are specialized for temporal processing of low-frequency sounds for binaural hearing, which is impaired in FXS. Protein BLAST analyses first demonstrate that the FMRP amino acid sequences in the alligator and chicken are highly similar to human FMRP with identical mRNA-binding and phosphorylation sites, suggesting that FMRP functions similarly across vertebrates. Immunocytochemistry further reveals that NL/MSO neurons have very high levels of dendritic FMRP in low-frequency hearing vertebrates including alligator, chicken, gerbil, and human. Remarkably, dendritic FMRP in NL/MSO neurons often accumulates at branch points and enlarged distal tips, loci known to be critical for branch-specific dendritic arbor dynamics. These observations support an important role for FMRP in regulating dendritic properties of binaural neurons that are essential for low-frequency sound localization and auditory scene segregation, and support the relevance of studying this regulation in nonhuman vertebrates that use low frequencies in order to further understand human auditory processing disorders. PMID:24318628

  19. The RNA binding and transport proteins staufen and fragile X mental retardation protein are expressed by rat primary afferent neurons and localize to peripheral and central axons.

    PubMed

    Price, T J; Flores, C M; Cervero, F; Hargreaves, K M

    2006-09-15

    Neuronal proteins have been traditionally viewed as being derived solely from the soma; however, accumulating evidence indicates that dendritic and axonal sites are capable of a more autonomous role in terms of new protein synthesis. Such extra-somal translation allows for more rapid, on-demand regulation of neuronal structure and function than would otherwise be possible. While mechanisms of dendritic RNA transport have been elucidated, it remains unclear how RNA is trafficked into the axon for this purpose. Primary afferent neurons of the dorsal root (DRG) and trigeminal (TG) ganglia have among the longest axons in the neuraxis and such axonal protein synthesis would be advantageous, given the greater time involved for protein trafficking to occur via axonal transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that these primary sensory neurons might express proteins involved in RNA transport. Rat DRG and TG neurons expressed staufen (stau) 1 and 2 (detected at the mRNA level) and stau2 and fragile x mental retardation protein (FMRP; detected at the protein level). Stau2 mRNA was also detected in human TG neurons. Stau2 and FMRP protein were localized to the sciatic nerve and dorsal roots by immunohistochemistry and to dorsal roots by Western blot. Stau2 and FMRP immunoreactivities colocalized with transient receptor potential channel type 1 immunoreactivity in sensory axons of the sciatic nerve and dorsal root, suggesting that these proteins are being transported into the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive sensory axons. Based on these findings, we propose that stau2 and FMRP proteins are attractive candidates to subserve RNA transport in sensory neurons, linking somal transcriptional events to axonal translation. PMID:16809002

  20. Localization of two X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) genes to Xp: MRX37 gene at Xp22.31-p22.32 and a putative MRX gene on Xp22.11-p22.2

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-David, S.; Lerer, I.; Sarfaty, C.K.

    1996-07-12

    MRX genes of 2 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) were localized by linkage analysis. In family A, the gene was mapped to Xp22.31-p22.32, with significant LOD scores to various Xp22 markers within a distance of 6 Mb between DXS1223 and DXS1224. The MRX gene of this family was designated MRX37. In a mentally retarded female who is a carrier of the MRX37 gene, a random pattern of X inactivation was demonstrated. In family B, a positive LOD score, although not significant (<+2), was found with the marker DXS1202 at Xp22.11-p22.2. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Introduction to Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc of the United States, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…

  2. QCD corrections to vector boson pair production in gluon fusion including interference effects with off-shell Higgs at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caola, Fabrizio; Dowling, Matthew; Melnikov, Kirill; Röntsch, Raoul; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    We compute next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the production of two massive electroweak bosons in gluon fusion. We consider both the prompt production process gg → V V and the production mediated by an exchange of an s-channel Higgs boson, gg → H ∗ → V V . We include final states with both on- and off-shell vector bosons with leptonic decays. The gluonic production of vector bosons is a loop-induced process, including both massless and massive quarks in the loop. For gg → ZZ production, we obtain the NLO QCD corrections to the massive loops through an expansion around the heavy top limit. This approximation is valid below the top production threshold, giving a broad range of invariant masses between the Higgs production and the top production thresholds in which our results are valid. We explore the NLO QCD effects in gg → ZZ focusing, in particular, on the interference between prompt and Higgs-mediated processes. We find that the QCD corrections to the interference are large and similar in size to the corrections to both the signal and the background processes. At the same time, we observe that corrections to the interference change rapidly with the four-lepton invariant mass in the region around the ZZ production threshold. We also study the interference effects in gg → W + W - production where, due to technical limitations, we only consider contributions of massless loops. We find that the QCD corrections to the interference in this case are somewhat larger than those for either the signal or the background.

  3. THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORDAN, THOMAS E.

    THIS BOOK PROVIDES A GUIDE TO THE BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES IN THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. THERE ARE MANY SOURCES OR CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION AND THE FOLLOWING TYPES ARE EXPLAINED--(1) GENETIC OR CHEMICAL DISORDERS, (2) BIRTH TRAUMA, (3) SUBSEQUENT ACCIDENTS OR DISEASE, AND (4) ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES. IT IS NOTED THAT MOST CASES INVOLVE…

  4. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  5. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  6. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    The use of the family history chart and the "Binet-Simon Scale" to study mental retardation in the early 20th century are considered, along with the implications of this practice. With the thesis that mental retardation was primarily familial and hereditary, limiting reproduction and segregation were viewed as appropriate approaches. (SEW)

  7. Consanguinity and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T; Narayan, J

    1991-04-01

    Consanguinity among parents as a cause of mental retardation in their children is debatable. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of consanguinity on mental retardation where the causative factor is not established. A total of 517 mentally retarded persons and their families were studied out of which 160 were born of consanguineous marriage and 357 were of non-consanguineous marriage. The results indicated that, when there is a history of mental retardation in the family and if the parents are consanguineously married, the risk of mental retardation in the offspring is significantly high (chi 2 = 11.52; P less than 0.001). Among the consanguineously married families, the blood relationship of uncle-niece seems to have the highest risk of affecting the offsprings. The implications are discussed in detail. PMID:2072392

  8. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  9. Preventing Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Fotheringham, John B.

    1974-01-01

    Influences producing mental retardation can be divided into three categories: inherited factors, health problems and social-emotional influences. This article outlines steps which can be taken to reduce the first two categories, both pre and postnatally. PMID:20469133

  10. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  11. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  12. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    Described are turn-of-the-century (1900) efforts of E. Johnstone, Vineland Training School for the mentally retarded; H. Goddard, psychologist (also at Vineland); and C. Davenport, Carnegie Foundation biological laboratory, Coldspring Harbor; to identify the roles of genetic heredity and environmental impact, and thus to eradicate or ameliorate…

  13. Epidemiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heber, Rick

    Prevalence data on mental retardation is presented including international estimates on general prevalence, age directions, geographical variations within the United States, racial and ethnic variations, economic class distributions, family variations, and population distribution in institutions. Statistics are also provided in areas of specific…

  14. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  15. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  16. Mental Retardation, Selected Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.

    A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…

  17. Teaching the Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Harold D.

    The text discusses the behavior, evaluation, and education of mentally retarded children. Harold D. Love presents an overview of the retarded, a description of intelligence and personality tests, and a historical survey of retardation; Virginia Cantrell reviews the educational philosophies and methods of Itard, Seguin, and Montessori. Shirley K.…

  18. Fire and smoke retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  19. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  20. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  1. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  2. China's Approach to Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittman, Stephan

    History, tradition, culture, and superstition have played significant roles in influencing Chinese attitudes toward the mentally retarded. China's overwhelmingly rural, agricultural society has made it dependent upon a huge force of semi-skilled and unskilled labor, to which the retarded are capable of contribution. The stress on self-reliance,…

  3. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  4. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  5. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  6. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  7. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  8. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  9. Understanding and Teaching the Dependent Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Louis E.; Long, Julia

    Levels of mental retardation and school admission procedures for the dependent retarded (IQ's 30 to 50) are reviewed. Goals for all retarded and the application of goals to the dependent retarded are considered. Plans and procedures for both teacher and child activities along with suggestions for audiovisual and other materials are provided in the…

  10. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  11. Development of novel fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  12. Auto cannibalism in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rohit; Mina, Shaily; Sachdeva, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) deems an individual more vulnerable to psychopathologies. The individual may develop an array of behavioral disturbances manifesting themselves in the form of aggressive and destructive conduct, violent fits of anger, stereotyped, or self-injuring behavior. Self-injurious behavior is heterogeneous in nature ranging from mild to severe variant. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with MR with self-inflicted severe oral injuries of cannibalistic nature presenting as cleft lip and palate. A more extensive research is needed on the problem behaviors in mentally retarded patients for early detection and effective and timely intervention leading to a better outcome. PMID:24891909

  13. Sorption-capacity limited retardation of radionuclides transport in water-saturated packing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclides breakthrough times as calculated through constant retardation factors obtained in dilute solutions are non-conservative. The constant retardation approach regards the solid as having infinite sorption capacity throughout the solid. However, as the solid becomes locally saturated, such as in the proximity of the waste form-packing materials interface, it will exhibit no retardation properties, and transport will take place as if the radionuclides were locally non-reactive. The magnitude of the effect of finite sorption capacity of the packing materials on radionuclide transport is discussed with reference to high-level waste package performance. An example based on literature sorption data indicates that the breakthrough time may be overpredicted by orders of magnitude using a constant retardation factor as compared to using the entire sorption isotherm to obtain a concentration-dependent retardation factor. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  15. Transportation and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…

  16. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  17. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  18. Idiots Savants: Retarded and Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    The paper reviews the paradoxical nature of idiots savants, persons who, although retarded, have exceptional skills in certain areas. Various explanations for the phenomenon are discussed, such as a specific genetic endowment, a specialized compensatory response to general intellectual deficiency, and possession of an eidetic memory. Various…

  19. Books for Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.

    Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…

  20. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  1. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  2. VOCATIONAL PROGRAMMING FOR THE RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRICE, CARL R.

    A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS BEING CARRIED ON AT THE MADISON (WISCONSIN) VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND ADULT SCHOOLS. THE TRAINEES MUST BE 17 YEARS OR OLDER, WITH AN IQ OF APPROXIMATELY 50-75. THE SCHOOL OF QUANTITY FOOD PREPARATION CONTRIBUTES GREATLY TO THIS PROGRAM, FOR WHILE IT MAINLY TEACHES CHEFS AND…

  3. Toilet Training the Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey K.

    The booklet offers guidelines in both Spanish and English to parents who are toilet training a mentally retarded child. The toilet training process is broken down into tasks that the child must learn, and the importance of positive reinforcement for each successfully accomplished task is emphasized. It is recommended that parents keep charts…

  4. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  5. Lorentz-diffeomorphism quasi-local conserved charges and Virasoro algebra in Chern-Simons-like theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2016-08-01

    The Chern-Simons-like theories of gravity (CSLTG) are formulated at first order formalism. In this formalism, the derivation of the entropy of a black hole on bifurcation surface, as a quasi-local conserved charge is problematic. In this paper we overcome these problems by considering the concept of total variation and the Lorentz-Lie derivative. We firstly find an expression for the ADT conserved current in the context of the CSLTG which is based on the concept of the Killing vector fields. Then, we generalize it to be conserved for all diffeomorphism generators. Thus, we can extract an off-shell conserved charge for any vector field which generates a diffeomorphism. The formalism presented here is based on the concept of quasi-local conserved charges which are off-shell. The charges can be calculated on any codimension two space-like surface surrounding a black hole and the results are independent of the chosen surface. By using the off-shell quasi-local conserved charge, we investigate the Virasoro algebra and find a formula to calculate the central extension term. We apply the formalism to the BTZ black hole solution in the context of the Einstein gravity and the Generalized massive gravity, then we find the eigenvalues of their Virasoro generators as well as the corresponding central charges. Eventually, we calculate the entropy of the BTZ black hole by the Cardy formula and we show that the result exactly matches the one obtained by the concept of the off-shell conserved charges.

  6. The Supreme Court V. Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas

    1981-01-01

    The author examines the Supreme Court decisions regarding the rights of retarded children not to be institutionalized and rights of retarded people to have aggressive medical treatment that will help prolong their lives. (SB)

  7. Endocrine Disorders Associated with Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Churku Mohan

    1980-01-01

    Endocrine disorders associated with mental retardation are described in relation to clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, diagnostic procedures, and treatment. Some endocrine disorders, particularly hypothyroidism, nephrogenic-diabetes insipidus, and hypoglycemic conditions, are frequently associated with mental retardation. Early diagnosis and prompt and proper management reduce mortality and the incidence of mental retardation associated with endocrine disorders. PMID:7392067

  8. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  9. Rehearsal Capacity and Dimensional Independence in Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBane, Bonnie M.

    1976-01-01

    Retardate use of retention strategies and the independence of color and form retention were compared with predictions of the Attention-Retention theory of retardate discrimination learning. Institutional retardates were selected from two MA ranges, 6 to 8 and 9 to 12 years, without regard to diagnostic categories. (Author/JH)

  10. Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…

  11. THE TEACHER OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHARNEY, LEON; LACROSSE, EDWARD

    BASIC INFORMATION IS PROVIDED FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN. THE FIRST FOUR CHAPTERS ARE DEVOTED TO CLASSROOM CONDITIONS, PARENTAL ATTITUDES, AND TEACHER-PUPIL INTERACTION IN THE SPECIAL CLASS FOR RETARDATES. CHAPTER ONE GIVES A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD AS HE APPEARS TO THE TEACHER. CHAPTER TWO…

  12. [Sterilization of mentally retarded women].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, W; Petersen, P; Schneider, J

    1982-07-01

    Seven mentally retarded women were sterilized in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Medical School Hannover between 1.6.74 and 1.6.81. The decision to operate proceeded only after careful consideration by the director of the clinic. Each case was documented with proof that improvement of the mental situation was unprobable and that sterilization seemed highly desirable. In spite of strong reservation the sterilization of a mentally retarded may medically and ethically be justified in exceptional cases. The operation seems possible by the following: The sterilization may only be performed if the patient does not obviously refuse it. Diagnosis and prognosis of the mental handicap must undoubtedly be proven. If the patient cannot judge the consequence of the operation the legal guardian must decide for her. The court must consent in these cases. Regarding legal theory the decision by the guardian is an open question. PMID:6922080

  13. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  14. Fire retardancy using applied materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, R.

    1971-01-01

    An example of advanced technology transfer from the Little Joe, Surveyor, Comsat, re-entry and Apollo age to everyday fire protection needs is presented. Utilizing the principle of sublimation cooling for thermostatic temperature control, the material meets a wide range of fire retardancy and heat transmission control requirements. Properties vary from flexible tape for conduits and electrical cables to rigid coatings for column protection, with a broad spectrum of sublimation temperatures available. The material can be applied in the field or in the factory, utilizing mass production techniques, yielding a product that is reliable, effective, widely available and low in cost.

  15. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  16. You and Your Retarded Child. A Manual for Parents of Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Samuel A.; And Others

    The book offers advice to parents of retarded children in recognizing and facing inherent problems and provides insight into their own emotional needs and those of their child. Levels of retardation are described and assistance given to aid parents in determining how retarded their child is and whether to send the child to a residential school or…

  17. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  18. Epidemiological issues in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Fryers, T

    1987-12-01

    The basic epidemiological issues have not changed fundamentally in 30 years but emphases are different. Clarity of concept and definition is essential; we need several definitions for different purposes, and should distinguish global criteria defining groups in some way specifically 'retarded' and partial criteria defining groups not exclusive to retardation. Of global definitions, we can distinguish Intellectual Impairment based on IQ, Learning Disability based on educational criteria, and Mental Handicap or Retardation based on service or administrative criteria. The first and second may be co-terminous for children. The first and third are usually co-terminous below a certain IQ level, conventionally 50, as SII and SMH/R. This is not so for higher ability groups: MII and MMR are conceived and defined differently, and suit different research purposes. There may be much unknown need because there have been so few studies of total IQ defined groups above 50. Although organic and psychological factors are very important, the study of MMR needs to recognize its primarily social nature, reflecting determinants of selection into MMR status in legal, organizational and professional structures, activities and attitudes characteristic of particular communities and cultures. If the primary focus is on aetiological factors, natural history, and preventive possibilities, study group should be aetiologically defined and preferably not limited to MR. The same applies to specific impairments, disabilities, diseases, behaviours and disadvantages. The services are also susceptible to epidemiological approaches, descriptive, analytic, interventionist and evaluative, but little is yet available on agency structure and function, professional activities, attitudes and training, legal contexts, and financial constraints. Rigorous outcome studies would greatly benefit rapidly developing services. We know quite a lot about the distribution and associations of SII/SMR, though more is

  19. Innovations in Vocational Rehabilitation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, George E., Ed.

    Conference proceedings of the Vocational Rehabilitation Subdivision Meetings held at the American Association on Mental Deficiency contain discussions of innovative aspects of vocational rehabilitation and mental retardation. In the area of training rehabilitation counselors, George Baroff describes the Mental Retardation Training Institute in…

  20. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically unfit". The…

  1. Retarded Children of the Poor: A Casebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Majorie H.

    Written for welfare and social workers, the publication concerns families which have problems of retardation, usually mild or borderline, and which are heavily represented on welfare rolls. A brief discussion of retardation and family and child welfare services is followed by a list of suggested readings dealing with social and child welfare…

  2. Assertiveness Training and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granat, Jay P.

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews some of the basic principles of assertiveness training and explains the application of this treatment to the habilitation of mentally retarded adults. It presents qualitative data regarding the value of assertiveness training in a counseling group of mentally retarded persons and proposes several guidelines for counselors.…

  3. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  4. Mental Retardation: Update 2002. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourcade, Jack

    This digest provides an overview of mental retardation in children and adults. It begins by discussing the definition of mental retardation and the three components that are required for an accurate diagnosis: an IQ score of approximately 70 or below, a determination of deficits in adaptive behavior, and origins of the disability prior to age 18.…

  5. UNDERSTANDING AND HELPING THE RETARDED READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRANG, RUTH, ED.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1962 STATEWIDE ARIZONA CONFERENCE ON READING DEVELOPMENT AND READING DIFFICULTIES INCLUDE 15 PAPERS. ARTICLES ON THE ABLE RETARDED READER ARE "UNDERSTANDING THE ABLE RETARDED READER" BY HELEN M. ROBINSON, AND "CLASSROOM PROCEDURES" BY ROSEMARY YOAKUM. PAPERS ON EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN ARE "IDENTIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL…

  6. Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.; Butterfield, Earl, Ed.

    The handbook on residential institutions, for professionals and students in the field of mental retardation, attempts to interpret the institution as a part of the culture which it serves, avoiding emotional responses but suggesting formulas for change. Characteristics of contemporary institutions for the mentally retarded are examined and…

  7. Computational Errors of Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janke, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Examined computational errors made by educable mentally retarded students on the arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test. Retarded students had a lower percent of grouping and inappropriate inversion errors and a higher percent of incorrect operation errors than regular students had in Engelhardt's study. (Author)

  8. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  9. Teaching Language Arts to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet K.

    Suggestions are made for teaching language arts to mentally retarded children. The nature of language arts, the effect of mental retardation on the learning of language arts, and the need for home-school cooperation are treated. Also described are language arts areas, the school program, methods of beginning instruction, speech training,…

  10. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  11. Noncitizen: Plight of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarnulis, Ed

    1974-01-01

    Mentally retarded citizens have been denied their human and civil rights, not only by the public, but by professionals--including social workers. The author claims that most programs for the mentally retarded are, at best, dehumanizing. Professionals have an ethical obligation to refuse to refer children to such programs. (Author)

  12. Counseling the Mentally Retarded: A Psychoeducational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spragg, Paul A.

    The paper suggests that a cognitive or psychoeducational perspective is valuable in counseling mentally retarded individuals. Psychoeducational considerations in pretreatment assessment, with an emphasis on process rather than product, are noted; and it is explained that counseling of mentally retarded persons can be enhanced through the use of…

  13. Teaching Physical Education to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Patricia A.

    Methods for teaching physical education activities and skills to mentally retarded children are presented. General objectives are listed and the physical education program is outlined. Hints are offered for teaching the retarded child; and basic skills and rhythms are described. The following are then described; rhythm games, a volleyball unit and…

  14. A Case of Pseudo-Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, D. H.

    Review of a case study of a 4-year-old girl who assumed the role of a retardate reveals that the girl probably suffered multiple congenital impairments of a minor character that affected the central nervous system and the structures governing social behavior and maturation. The stated basis for pseudo-retardation is the person's ability to…

  15. Poverty and Mental Retardation: A Causal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Rodger L.

    The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…

  16. Mental Retardation's Two Cultures of Behavioral Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    1994-01-01

    This survey of nine journals identified two distinct cultures in mental retardation research: classification by level of retardation (usually by psychologists and special educators) or etiology (usually by geneticists and psychiatric researchers). The paper discusses varied effects that genetic etiology may have on behavior, issues in reconciling…

  17. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  18. Care Of The Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810

  19. Toward a positive psychology of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2006-04-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have long focused on the external life conditions, adaptive behavior, and inclusion of persons with mental retardation. Using breakthroughs in positive psychology, this article proposes a new research agenda focused on the positive, internal states of those with mental retardation. It shows how major movements in the mental retardation field--quality of life, dual diagnosis, personality motivation, and families--have succeeded in some arenas but failed to address happiness and well-being. Examples of happiness--of positive emotions, flow, strengths, and virtues--are offered in people with genetic causes of mental retardation. Complexities related to etiology, measurement, flow, and a meaningful life are described, as is the vital role that mental retardation can play in the emerging science of positive psychology. PMID:16719637

  20. Yellow Book File of Program Procedures in Education for the Mentally Retarded. Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka. Div. of Education Services.

    The document is a brief collection of materials which provide a framework whereby local Kansas education units can individually and collectively identify ways to use the statewide effort to strengthen existing programs of service or develop new approaches at the local level for educating the mentally retarded. Part I introduces the process systems…

  1. Biodegradation of brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Parsons, John R

    2016-04-01

    Brominated flame retardants account for about 21% of the total production of flame retardants and many of these have been identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Nevertheless, debromination of these chemicals under anaerobic conditions is well established, although this can increase their toxicity. Consequently, the production and use of these chemicals has been restricted and alternative products have been developed. Many of these are brominated compounds and share some of the disadvantages of the chemicals they are meant to replace. Therefore, other, nonbrominated, flame retardants such as organophosphorus compounds are also being used in increasing quantities, despite the fact that knowledge of their biodegradation and environmental fate is often lacking. PMID:26748263

  2. Postnatal Organic Causes of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, G. G.

    1962-01-01

    A study of 1137 retarded children from Western Ontario revealed 129 (11.3%) in whom retardation was first noted after a specific postnatal event. Eighty-three of these were boys. The most common cause of postnatal cerebral injury in this series was a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by the sudden onset of fever, convulsions and coma which occurred in 45 patients. The nature of this syndrome is discussed and the necessity for early treatment emphasized. Other postnatal causes of retardation are classified according to frequency, as encephalitis, accidents, meningitis and a miscellaneous group consisting of epilepsy and tumours. PMID:13907577

  3. A polymeric flame retardant additive for rubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N.; Maiti, S.

    1993-12-31

    Synthesis of a polyphosphonate by the interfacial polymerization of bisphenol-A (BPA) and dichloro-phenyl phosphine oxide (DCPO) using cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (TMAC) as phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was reported. The polyphosphonate was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, DSC and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The flame retardancy of the polymer was done by OI study. The polymer was used as a fire retardant additive to rubbers such as natural rubber (NR), styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR), nitrile rubber (NBR) and chloroprene rubber (CR). The efficiency of the fire retardant property of this additive was determined by LOI measurements of the various rubber samples.

  4. Public health implications of components of plastics manufacture. Flame retardants.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, E M; Liepins, R

    1975-01-01

    The four processes involved in the flammability of materials are described and related to the various flame retardance mechanisms that may operate. Following this the four practical approaches used in improving flame retardance of materials are described. Each approach is illustrated with a number of typical examples of flame retardants or synthetic procedures used. This overview of flammability, flame retardance, and flame retardants used is followed by a more detailed examination of most of the plastics manufactured in the United States during 1973, their consumption patterns, and the primary types of flame retardants used in the flame retardance of the most used plastics. The main types of flame retardants are illustrated with a number of typical commercial examples. Statistical data on flame retardant market size, flame retardant growth in plastics, and price ranges of common flame retardants are presented. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:1175568

  5. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  6. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  7. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  8. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  9. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  10. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  11. Retardation Measurements of Infrared PVA Wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Z, H.; W, D.; D, Y.; Z, Z.; S, J.

    The wave plate made of Polyvinyl Alcohol PVA plastic film has several advantages such as its lower cost and insensitivity to temperature and incidence angle so it has been used in the Solar Multi-Channel Telescope SMCT in China But the important parameter retardations of PVA wave plates in the near infrared wavelength have never been provided In this paper a convenient and high precise instrument to get the retardations of discrete wavelengths or a continuous function of wavelength in near infrared is developed In this method the retardations of wave plates have been determined through calculating the maximum and minimum of light intensity The instrument error has been shown Additionally we can get the continuous direction of wavelength retardations in the ultraviolet visible or infrared spectral in another way

  12. PCBs, PBBs and Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...

  13. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Bernard; Vermeesch, Joris; Devriendt, Koen

    2006-07-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis or hairy throat is a rare dysmorphic sign described in a total of 19 patients so far. The association with a number of additional features has been reported, including mental retardation. We report on another patient with this condition who also had moderate mental retardation, mildly dysmorphic facial features, obesity, hypermetropia and additional hair anomalies (low dorsal hair line on the neck, lumbosacral hypertrichosis). Karyotype and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis at 1 Mb resolution were normal. PMID:16760744

  14. CesrTA Retarding Field Analyzer Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Calvey, J.R.; Celata, C.M.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.F.; Greenwald, S.; Leong, Z.; Livezey, J.; Palmer, M.A.; Furman, M.; Venturini, M.; Harkay, K.

    2010-05-23

    Retarding field analyzers (RFAs) provide an effective measure of the local electron cloud density and energy distribution. Proper interpretation of RFA data can yield information about the behavior of the cloud, as well as the surface properties of the instrumented vacuum chamber. However, due to the complex interaction of the cloud with the RFA itself, understanding these measurements can be nontrivial. This paper examines different methods for interpreting RFA data via cloud simulation programs. Techniques include postprocessing the output of a simulation code to predict the RFA response; and incorporating an RFA model into the cloud modeling program itself.

  15. Trends in Classification Usage in the Mental Retardation Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.; Kaufmann, Steve

    1991-01-01

    A total of 685 articles in "Mental Retardation,""American Journal of Mental Deficiency," and "American Journal on Mental Retardation" from 1980 through 1989 were examined. The mental retardation classification system developed by the American Association on Mental Retardation was used in over 50 percent of the articles, whereas the American…

  16. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  17. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  18. Reactions to the Labels "Institutionalized" and "Mentally Retarded" by Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.

    The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…

  19. X linked mental retardation: a clinical guide

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, F L

    2006-01-01

    Mental retardation is more common in males than females in the population, assumed to be due to mutations on the X chromosome. The prevalence of the 24 genes identified to date is low and less common than expansions in FMR1, which cause Fragile X syndrome. Systematic screening of all other X linked genes in X linked families with mental retardation is currently not feasible in a clinical setting. The phenotypes of genes causing syndromic and non‐syndromic mental retardation (NLGN3, NLGN4, RPS6KA3(RSK2), OPHN1, ATRX, SLC6A8, ARX, SYN1, AGTR2, MECP2, PQBP1, SMCX, and SLC16A2) are first discussed, as these may be the focus of more targeted mutation analysis. Secondly, the relative prevalence of genes causing only non‐syndromic mental retardation (IL1RAPL1, TM4SF2, ZNF41, FTSJ1, DLG3, FACL4, PAK3, ARHGEF6, FMR2, and GDI) is summarised. Thirdly, the problem of recurrence risk where a molecular genetics diagnosis has not been made and what proportion of the male excess of mental retardation is due to monogenic disorders of the X chromosome are discussed. PMID:16118346

  20. The Effects of Stimulus Modification on Putting Accuracy for Adults with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Jenifer L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study found that, following a systematic fading of putting guides, three adults with severe/profound mental retardation increased accuracy in making putts during posttraining assessments on a practice green. Results also maintained at, or increased above, posttraining levels at a two-week maintenance check and were generalized to a local golf…

  1. The Delivery of Services to Mentally Retarded Persons Living in Rural Areas: Context, Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horejsi, Charles R.

    Strategies and techniques for developing community-based programs for mentally retarded persons in rural areas must take into consideration local circumstances, resources, and characteristics. Rural norms such as overt racial segregation, social conformity, the importance of church, and the stigma of obtaining human services for personal problems…

  2. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    PubMed

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  3. Aging, Mental Retardation and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide an overview of what physical fitness is and how it relates to people with mental retardation. Questions address the following topics: the fitness movement; a definition of physical fitness; the different components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body…

  4. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  5. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  6. Implementing Programs for Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    Guidelines for the development of programs for trainable mentally retarded children are presented. Major task areas identified are the family group, communication skills, physical development, socialization, recreational interests and skills, and preparation for work oriented activity. Six papers are presented: precision teaching and behavior…

  7. READINESS AND READING FOR THE RETARDED CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNSTEIN, BEBE

    THIS TEACHER'S BOOK AND MANUAL, DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY TWO WORKBOOKS, PRESENTS A FUNCTIONAL APPROACH TO READINESS AND READING FOR YOUNG EDUCABLE RETARDED CHILDREN. THE WORKBOOKS THEMSELVES OFFER PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES FOR CHILDREN AT THE READINESS LEVEL AND SEQUENTIAL ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS FOR THOSE AT THE BEGINNING READING STAGE. THE TEACHER'S…

  8. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  9. Noncompliant Behavior of People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rex G.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on antecedents, behaviors, and consequences in the noncompliant behavior of people with mental retardation found that noncompliance is more likely when instructions are vague or task demands are too difficult and that noncompliance responds well to programs utilizing combinations of social and tangible rewards. (Author/JDD)

  10. New fire retardant foams and intumescents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of fire retardant foams and intumescent paints for protection of commercial aircraft passengers in the event of fire is discussed. Recommended materials and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the materials are presented. Typical problems resulting from aircraft fires and the basic protective mechanisms to cope with these problems are examined.

  11. Teaching the Mentally Retarded Job Interviewing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Jr., Richard M.; Lieberman, Alice

    1977-01-01

    Examined the most effective usage of videotape in job interview skill training for 24 mentally retarded young adults utilizing the microcounseling model of instruction. Data revealed the microcounseling model is most effective with the two skill areas of eye contact and body posture regardless of the method of videotape utilization. (Author)

  12. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  13. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  14. HEALTH ASPECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing bromine have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...

  15. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  16. Do the Mentally Retarded Have Poor Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.

    1978-01-01

    A reevaluation of a number of experiments suggests that normal and retarded persons differ on short-term memory tasks from the time of initial stimulus exposure. The hypothesis that memory differences are due to differential encoding as a result of more adequate rehearsal by the normal subjects is unacceptable. (Author/BW)

  17. Brominated flame retardants as food contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews analytical methods for the three major brominated flame retardant (BFR) classes in use today, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a "legacy" BFR no longer in use, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and a...

  18. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  19. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  20. Novel additives to retard permeable flow

    SciTech Connect

    Golombok, Michael; Crane, Carel; Ineke, Erik; Welling, Marco; Harris, Jon

    2008-09-15

    Low concentrations of surfactant and cosolute in water, can selectively retard permeable flow in high permeability rocks compared to low permeability ones. This represents a way forward for more efficient areal sweep efficiency when water flooding a reservoir during improved oil recovery. (author)

  1. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  2. Jean Piaget Archives Bibliography on Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Susie; And Others

    This bibliography lists all entries from the Jean Piaget Archives Catalogues dealing with mental retardation. The list, including almost 200 entries, encompasses four works by Piaget himself, one collaboration, and 189 works by other authors. Entries are arranged in order by their publication in one of the 12 catalogues of the archives, providing…

  3. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  4. Computer Assisted Instruction for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Providence Coll., RI.

    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for the mentally retarded is described; the advantages of CAI (which generally follows the pattern of programed instruction) are listed; and the roles of the teacher and the student are summarized. The coursewriter is explained, and its use as an experimental tool discussed. Guidelines are given covering…

  5. Vocational Horticulture for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, William H.; And Others

    The study explored methods and techniques for training mentally retarded adults to perform gardening tasks. A total of 31 subjects ages 21 to 48 (IQ range 32-89) participated in the study, which consisted of three phases. In an initial pilot study, experimentation without subjects resulted in the development of modified tools (e.g., notched…

  6. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  7. Teaching Laundry Skills to Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuvo, Anthony J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Five moderately and mildly retarded students (19 to 21 years old) were taught to sort garments to be laundered and to use a clothes washer and dryer. Rapid acquisition and maintenance of the laundry skills were obtained through praise and response contingent feedback as a consequence for behavior. (Author/CL)

  8. Ophthalmologic Screening of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Joel G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ophthalmological screening was conducted on 113 clients in a work activity center for adults with mental retardation. Abnormalities that were neither refractive nor strabismic were found in 32 percent of clients. Findings suggest the value of conducting screenings in settings familiar to such clients. (Author/DB)

  9. STUDYING LEARNING PATTERNS IN MENTAL RETARDATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANDLAND, DOUGLAS K.; MANNING, SIDNEY ALPERN

    FIVE EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED IN AN ATTEMPT TO ISOLATE SPECIFIC LEARNING PATTERNS IN CHILDREN OF VARYING DEGREES OF MENTAL RETARDATION AND TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PHYLOGENETIC DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENCE. FACTORS STUDIED WERE THOSE KNOWN TO INFLUENCE LEARNING IN NORMAL CHILDREN AND ADULTS--KIND OF REINFORCEMENT (VERBAL OR…

  10. Fully variable elliptical phase retarder composed of two linear phase retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chih-Jen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a fully variable elliptical phase retarder was developed by combining a variable linear phase retarder and a half-wave plate. All three polarization parameters of the elliptical phase retarder (elliptical phase retardation γ, azimuth angle θ, and ellipticity angle ɛ) were adjustable. Experimental verification was performed by measuring the polarization parameters with a polarizer-sample-analyzer polarimeter. The polarization parameters were set to γ = 120°, ɛ = 15°, and θ = 20°. The measurement results, γ = 119.838° ± 0.006°, ɛ = 14.659° ± 0.002°, and θ = 20.084° ± 0.002°, agreed with theoretical prediction.

  11. Malnutrition as a cause of mental retardation: A population-based study from Sub-Himalayan India

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Shailja; Bhardwaj, Ashok; Singh, Mitasha; Chaudhary, Sanjeev; Kashyap, Vipasha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental retardation is one of the most common disabilities of childhood. The research on childhood malnutrition and its relationship with cognitive functioning suggests that malnutrition alone does not cause mental retardation. Objective: To identify the relation between malnutrition and cognition among children from a Sub-Himalayan state in North India. Materials and Methods: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural, urban, and slum area of district Kangra. A 30-cluster sampling technique was used to screen a population of children 1–10 years of age from five randomly selected panchayats (village government units) of district Kangra. The screening was based on a modified version of the ten questions screen, adapted to the local population. In the first phase, a door-to-door survey was done to identify suspects of mental retardation. In the second phase, the children found positive in the first phase were called for clinical examination to confirm mental retardation. Anthropometric assessment of all study children was done by measuring weight and height. The nutritional assessment was done by categorizing them according to Waterlow classification for malnutrition. Results: Out of the total 5300 children, 1.7% were diagnosed as mentally retarded. No positive association was reported with different types of malnutrition and mental retardation. A weakly positive association existed between nutritional status and mental retardation (correlation coefficient-0.04). Children who were both wasted and stunted had the highest risk (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval – 5.57, 2.29–10.36) of mental retardation as compared to normal. Conclusion: Malnutrition may be one of the causes but certainly not the only cause of mental retardation. Other causes may be contributing more significantly toward it. PMID:27365949

  12. Attitudes of High School Students toward Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Junean; Flaherty, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The attitudes of 144 high school students toward individuals with mental retardation were examined using the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory-Revised. Results indicated that gender and frequency of contact both influenced attitudes. Females and students with more frequent contacts with individuals with mental retardation indicated more…

  13. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  14. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  15. Stimulus Overselectivity: A Common Feature in Autism and Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovaas, O. Ivar; Wilhelm, Hannelore

    1976-01-01

    Overselective attention in discrimination between picture cards was investigated with three groups of children with different IQ levels: 10 severely retarded (IQ = 29 - 51, CA = 9.6 - 18 years), 10 moderately retarded (IQ = 56 - 85, CA = 12.8 - 16.3 years), and 10 non-retarded (CA = 10 - 12 years). (Author/IM)

  16. Repair Behaviors of Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scudder, Rosalind R.; Tremain, Deborah Hobbs

    1992-01-01

    Communication repair behaviors of 10 children with mental retardation (ages 11-13) and 10 mental age-matched children without mental retardation were examined. The children with mental retardation did not respond as often and rarely used details to expand their utterances. Results have implications for the development of conversational skills in…

  17. Motor Task Persistence of Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Porretta, David L.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2000-01-01

    Task persistence by 31 children (ages 9-13) with and without mental retardation during two challenging motor tasks was investigated. A main effect was found for group affiliation: children without mental retardation attempted more trials over three sessions. Results indicated children with mental retardation were less persistent than typical…

  18. Guidelines for Library Services for People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed to assist all libraries, including school, public, academic, and specialized libraries such as prison and institutional libraries, to better serve the needs of people of all ages who are mentally retarded. An overview provides a definition of mental retardation, places services for people with mental retardation in…

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  20. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  1. The Problem of Typological Thinking in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelb, Steven A.

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that typological thinking, the belief that individual differences diverge around an underlying type of essence, has persisted regarding mental retardation and prevents the appreciation of individual differences and human dignity in the mental retardation field. Past and present controversies over the definition of mental retardation are…

  2. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  3. Older Mentally Retarded Persons: Demographic Profile and Service Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    An overview is presented on current knowledge about elderly mentally retarded persons. Definitional and incidence issues are addressed, and support is voiced for use of a lower cut-off for the beginning of old age among the retarded than for the general population. Conflicting findings of age-related differences in mentally retarded adults are…

  4. Serving Young Children Whose Parents Are Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Eleanor W.; Bakley, Sue

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews the cognitive and social/emotional characteristics associated with mental retardation, the literature on parents with mental retardation, and the interaction between these characteristics in relation to child abuse and neglect. Three case studies of mentally retarded parents illustrate the range of problems and needs service…

  5. New supersymmetric localizations from topological gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jinbeom; Imbimbo, Camillo; Rey, Soo-Jong; Rosa, Dario

    2016-03-01

    Supersymmetric field theories can be studied exactly on off-shell "localizing" supergravity backgrounds. We show that these supergravity configurations can be identified with BRST invariant configurations of background topological gravity coupled to background topological gauge multiplets. We apply this topological point of view to two-dimensional {N}=left(2,2right) supersymmetric matter theories to obtain, in a simple and straightforward way, a complete classification of localizing supersymmetric backgrounds in two dimensions. We recover all known localizing backgrounds and (infinitely) many more that have not been explored so far. The newly found localizing backgrounds are characterized by quantized fluxes for both graviphotons of the {N}=left(2,2right) supergravity multiplet. The BRST invariant topological backgrounds are parametrized by both Killing vectors and {{S}}^1 -equivariant cohomology of the two-dimensional spacetime. We completely reconstruct the supergravity backgrounds from the topological data: some of the supergravity fields are twisted versions of the topological backgrounds, but others are composite, in that they are nonlinear functionals of topological fields. Moreover, we show that the supersymmetric Ω-deformation is nothing but the background value of the ghost-for-ghost of topological gravity, a result which holds for higher dimensions too.

  6. Methods for Quantitative Interpretation of Retarding Field Analyzer Data

    SciTech Connect

    Calvey, J.R.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.F.; Palmer, M.A.; Furman, M.; Harkay, K.

    2011-03-28

    Over the course of the CesrTA program at Cornell, over 30 Retarding Field Analyzers (RFAs) have been installed in the CESR storage ring, and a great deal of data has been taken with them. These devices measure the local electron cloud density and energy distribution, and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of different cloud mitigation techniques. Obtaining a quantitative understanding of RFA data requires use of cloud simulation programs, as well as a detailed model of the detector itself. In a drift region, the RFA can be modeled by postprocessing the output of a simulation code, and one can obtain best fit values for important simulation parameters with a chi-square minimization method.

  7. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of brominated flame retardants. PMID:14698924

  8. [Curing mental retardation: searching for balance].

    PubMed

    Harel, Sharon; Jenna, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) occurs in 2 to 3 % of the general population and is still not therapeutically addressed. Milder forms of MR result from deficient synaptogenesis and/or impaired synaptic plasticity during childhood. These alterations would result from disequilibrium in signalling pathways regulating the balance between long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) in certain neurons such as hippocampus neurons. To provide mentally retarded children with increased cognitive abilities, novel experimental approaches are currently being developed to characterize signalling status associated with MR and to identify therapeutic targets that would restore lost equilibrium. Several studies also highlighted the major role played by molecular switches like kinases, phosphatases, small G proteins and their regulators in the coordination and integration of signalling pathways associated with synaptic plasticity. These proteins may therefore constitute promising therapeutic targets for a number of cognitive deficiencies. PMID:21299965

  9. Chemistry and toxicity of flame retardants for plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Liepins, R; Pearce, E M

    1976-01-01

    An overview of commercially used flame retardants is give. The most used flame retardants are illustrated and the seven major markets, which use 96% of all flame-retarded polymers, are described. Annual flame retardant growth rate for each major market is also projected. Toxicity data are reviewed on only those compositions that are considered commercially significant today. This includes 18 compounds or families of compounds and four inherently flame-retarded polymers. Toxicological studies of flame retardants for most synthetic materials are of recent origin and only a few of the compounds have been evaluated in any great detail. Considerable toxicological problems may exist in the manufacturing of some flame retardants, their by-products, and possible decomposition products. PMID:1026419

  10. Localization in supergravity and quantum AdS 4 /CFT3 holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Drukker, Nadav; Gomes, João

    2014-10-01

    We compute the quantum gravity partition function of M-theory on AdS 4 × X 7 by using localization techniques in four-dimensional gauged supergravity obtained by a consistent truncation on the Sasaki-Einstein manifold X 7. The supergravity path integral reduces to a finite dimensional integral over two collective coordinates that parametrize the localizing instanton solutions. The renormalized action of the off-shell instanton solutions depends linearly and holomorphically on the "square root" prepotential evaluated at the center of AdS 4. The partition function resembles the Laplace transform of the wave function of a topological string and with an assumption about the measure for the localization integral yields an Airy function in precise agreement with the computation from the boundary ABJM theory on a 3-sphere. Our bulk quantum gravity computation is nonperturbatively exact in four-dimensional Planck length but ignores corrections due to brane-instantons.

  11. High speed memory scanning in retarded and non-retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Todman, J; Gibb, C M

    1985-02-01

    Four groups of 13-14-year-olds, classified on the basis of Raven's Progressive Matrices scores as intellectually above average, average, below average and retarded, were subjects in a Sternberg (1966) type memory scanning task in which memory sets of two, three and four letters were used. Slope values of the memory search function did not differ between groups, whereas intercept values decreased with higher intelligence up to the average intelligence level. There was an overall inverse relation between intercept values and intelligence (r = -0.77) and similar relations obtained within the three non-retarded groups (rs greater than or equal to -0.57), but not within the retarded group (r = -0.06). Possible connections between these results and findings from inspection time studies are discussed. PMID:3978355

  12. Transcription factor SOX3 is involved in X-linked mental retardation with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Laumonnier, Frédéric; Ronce, Nathalie; Hamel, Ben C J; Thomas, Paul; Lespinasse, James; Raynaud, Martine; Paringaux, Christine; Van Bokhoven, Hans; Kalscheuer, Vera; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Chelly, Jamel; Moraine, Claude; Briault, Sylvain

    2002-12-01

    Physical mapping of the breakpoints of a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome (46,X,inv[X][p21q27]) in a female patient with mild mental retardation revealed localization of the Xp breakpoint in the IL1RAPL gene at Xp21.3 and the Xq breakpoint near the SOX3 gene (SRY [sex determining region Y]-box 3) (GenBank accession number NM_005634) at Xq26.3. Because carrier females with microdeletion in the IL1RAPL gene do not present any abnormal phenotype, we focused on the Xq breakpoint. However, we were unable to confirm the involvement of SOX3 in the mental retardation in this female patient. To validate SOX3 as an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) gene, we performed mutation analyses in families with XLMR whose causative gene mapped to Xq26-q27. We show here that the SOX3 gene is involved in a large family in which affected individuals have mental retardation and growth hormone deficiency. The mutation results in an in-frame duplication of 33 bp encoding for 11 alanines in a polyalanine tract of the SOX3 gene. The expression pattern during neural and pituitary development suggests that dysfunction of the SOX3 protein caused by the polyalanine expansion might disturb transcription pathways and the regulation of genes involved in cellular processes and functions required for cognitive and pituitary development. PMID:12428212

  13. Transcription Factor SOX3 Is Involved in X-Linked Mental Retardation with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Laumonnier, Frédéric; Ronce, Nathalie; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Thomas, Paul; Lespinasse, James; Raynaud, Martine; Paringaux, Christine; van Bokhoven, Hans; Kalscheuer, Vera; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Chelly, Jamel; Moraine, Claude; Briault, Sylvain

    2002-01-01

    Physical mapping of the breakpoints of a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome (46,X,inv[X][p21q27]) in a female patient with mild mental retardation revealed localization of the Xp breakpoint in the IL1RAPL gene at Xp21.3 and the Xq breakpoint near the SOX3 gene (SRY [sex determining region Y]–box 3) (GenBank accession number NM_005634) at Xq26.3. Because carrier females with microdeletion in the IL1RAPL gene do not present any abnormal phenotype, we focused on the Xq breakpoint. However, we were unable to confirm the involvement of SOX3 in the mental retardation in this female patient. To validate SOX3 as an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) gene, we performed mutation analyses in families with XLMR whose causative gene mapped to Xq26-q27. We show here that the SOX3 gene is involved in a large family in which affected individuals have mental retardation and growth hormone deficiency. The mutation results in an in-frame duplication of 33 bp encoding for 11 alanines in a polyalanine tract of the SOX3 gene. The expression pattern during neural and pituitary development suggests that dysfunction of the SOX3 protein caused by the polyalanine expansion might disturb transcription pathways and the regulation of genes involved in cellular processes and functions required for cognitive and pituitary development. PMID:12428212

  14. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    SciTech Connect

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  15. Electrode contamination effects of retarding potential analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fang, H K; Oyama, K-I; Cheng, C Z

    2014-01-01

    The electrode contamination in electrostatic analyzers such as Langmuir probes and retarding potential analyzers (RPA) is a serious problem for space measurements. The contamination layer acts as extra capacitance and resistance and leads to distortion in the measured I-V curve, which leads to erroneous measurement results. There are two main effects of the contamination layer: one is the impedance effect and the other is the charge attachment and accumulation due to the capacitance. The impedance effect can be reduced or eliminated by choosing the proper sweeping frequency. However, for RPA the charge accumulation effect becomes serious because the capacitance of the contamination layer is much larger than that of the Langmuir probe of similar dimension. The charge accumulation on the retarding potential grid causes the effective potential, that ions experience, to be changed from the applied voltage. Then, the number of ions that can pass through the retarding potential grid to reach the collector and, thus, the measured ion current are changed. This effect causes the measured ion drift velocity and ion temperature to be changed from the actual values. The error caused by the RPA electrode contamination is expected to be significant for sounding rocket measurements with low rocket velocity (1-2 km/s) and low ion temperature of 200-300 K in the height range of 100-300 km. In this paper we discuss the effects associated with the RPA contaminated electrodes based on theoretical analysis and experiments performed in a space plasma operation chamber. Finally, the development of a contamination-free RPA for sounding rocket missions is presented. PMID:24517809

  16. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The exploitation of "new" effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  17. Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatke, D. S.; Descour, M. R.; Dereniak, E. L.; Sweatt, W. C.; Kemme, S. A.; Phipps, G. S.

    2000-06-01

    We present two figures of merit based on singular value decomposition, which can be used to assess the noise immunity of a complete Stokes polarimeter. These are used to optimize a polarimeter featuring a rotatable retarder and a fixed polarizer. A retardance of 132 degree sign (approximately three-eighths wave) and retarder orientation angles of {+-}51.7{sup (convolution} {sup sign)} and {+-}15.1{sup (convolution} {sup sign)} are found to be optimal when four measurements are used. Use of this retardance affords a factor-of-1.5 improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over systems employing a quarter-wave plate. A geometric means of visualizing the optimization process is discussed, and the advantages of the use of additional measurements are investigated. No advantage of using retarder orientation angles spaced uniformly through 360 degree sign is found over repeated measurements made at the four retarder orientation angles. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  18. Factors affecting social integration of noninstitutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Levi, A M

    1980-07-01

    The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community. PMID:7446566

  19. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  20. New hybrid halogen-free flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijowska, Dorota; Jankowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of this work were researches concerning the methods of the in-situ modification of silicate layer-tubular mineral (SL-TM) halloysite, using the salts of melamine, i.e. melamine cyanurate. The modified mineral was used as flame retardant to thermoplastic polymers. In the case of the application of halloysite modified by melamine cyanurate to polyamide 6 (PA6) the highest parameters of vertical and horizontal flammability were achieved. The mechanical properties of filled polyamide 6 have been improved.

  1. Retardation of nanoparticles growth by doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, Valentyna; Rudko, Galyna; Fediv, Volodymyr; Savchuk, Andrij; Gule, Evgenij; Vorona, Igor

    2014-12-01

    The process of doping of CdS nanoparticles with Mn during colloidal synthesis is analyzed by EPR and optical studies. Analysis of EPR results demonstrated that Mn2+ ions are successfully incorporated into the nanoparticles and occupy the crystal sites both in the bulk of a NP and near the surface of a NP. Optical absorption measurements revealed the retardation of absorption edge shift during the growth for Mn-doped CdS NPs as compared to the undoped CdS NPs. It was concluded that the presence of Mn in the solution leads to the inhibition of NPs growth.

  2. Spiritual and religious need of mentally retarded persons.

    PubMed

    Carder, M M

    1984-06-01

    Describes the special spiritual and religious needs of the mentally retarded, at the same time proclaiming the necessity of thinking of them firstly as persons. Gives specific illustrations of how the spiritual and religious needs of the mentally retarded may be met by peers, chaplains, and family members. Offers a personal testimony on how the mentally retarded can contribute to the growth and insight of the caregiver. PMID:10266989

  3. Comparison of Families of Children with Mental Retardation and Families of Children without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Zigler, Edward

    1993-01-01

    This commentary on EC 605 926 states that families of children with severe mental retardation or autism have problems that might be considered "the same, only more so" compared to issues faced by families with nonhandicapped children, and therefore solutions might involve magnifications of solutions being suggested to help all parents. (JDD)

  4. Evaluation of Still Picture Telephone for Mentally Retarded Persons. Telematics and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva

    This study examined the benefit of using a visual telecommunication system for Sweden's children and adults with mild to moderate mental retardation and speech difficulties. The Panasonic Image Communication Unit connects to standard modular telephones and includes a camera and monitor for the transfer of pictures. Units were placed in eight…

  5. Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Institutionalized and Noninstitutionalized Retarded Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judy E.; Morris, Helen L.

    1976-01-01

    Sixty-one noninstitutionalized and 61 institutionalized educable mentally retarded adolescents were psychometrically assessed on three measures: sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and self-concept. (Author)

  6. Rotatable broadband retarders for far infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, T.D.; Carr, G.; Zhou, T.; Kotelyanskii, M.; Sirenko, A.A.

    2010-12-09

    Rotatable retarders have been developed for applications in spectroscopic, full Mueller Matrix ellipsometry in the far-IR spectral range. Several materials, such as silicon, KRS-5, and a commercial polymer plastic (TOPAS) have been utilized to achieve a fully adjustable retardation between 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Experimental characteristics of the rotatable retarders that utilize three- and four-bounce designs are compared with calculations. We discuss the effect of light focusing on the performance of these rotatable retarders. Broadband optical retarders are required for spectroscopic ellipsometry in its full Mueller matrix (MM) realization. Performance of the MM ellipsometer depends on the capability to produce substantially linearly-independent Stokes vectors for the light incident onto the sample. As has been shown, the errors in the measuredMMof the sample are proportional to the condition number of the 4 x 4 matrix composed of the Stokes vectors of four polarization states incident at the sample. It can be proven that it is impossible to cover the Poincare sphere with linearly-independent Stokes vectors by only changing the linear polarization at the input surface of a stationary retarder. As we will illustrate further in this paper, total coverage of the Poincare sphere is possible by rotating a tandem of a linear polarizer and a retarder with a retardation of 90{sup o}. It is this goal that we are trying to achieve in the retarder designs described in this paper.

  7. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened for possible use wiith acrylic printing inks on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants were selected according to their physical properties and thermostabilities. Thermostabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. A criterion was then established for selecting the more stable agent. Results show that some of the bromine-containing fire retardants are more thermostable than the acrylic ink, alone, used as a control. Also, the bromine-containing fire retardants yield even better limiting oxygen index values when tested after adding carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber.

  8. Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe

    2001-01-01

    Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education. We provide information on the nature of flame retardants in general and the mechanisms of flame retardation. In addition, we offer a complete pedagogical presentation of the topic, including the use of video and some simple laboratory experiments, that was developed and successfully implemented in both countries.

    Featured on the Cover

  9. TG-FTIR characterization of flame retardant polyurethane foams materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Tang, Y.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and trichloroethyl phosphtate (TCEP) have been used to enhance the flame retardancy of polyurethane foams materials (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the excellent flame retardancy can be achieved due to the presence of the flame retardant system containing DMMP and TCEP. TG-FTIR reveals that the addition of DMMP/TCEP can not only improve the thermal stability of PUF samples but can also affect the gaseous phase at high temperature.

  10. In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Nakari, Tarja; Pessala, Piia

    2005-09-10

    Estrogenicity of five brominated flame retardants (BFRs), namely BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-205, PBB-153 and technical Firemaster BP-6, were assessed by in vitro assays developed to detect chemicals with estrogenic properties. Recombinant yeast cells containing a human estrogen receptor gene failed to give any response to the chemicals tested. However, the positive control compound, estradiol-17beta, showed that the yeast cell assays had worked properly. The freshly separated fish hepatocyte assay based on the synthesis and secretion of vitellogenin from the isolated liver cells produced a clear dose-response curve in the presence of all tested flame retardants except Firemaster BP-6. The toxicity of the BFRs was detected by determining the cell ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD). The BFRs tested induced hepatic EROD activity at low test concentrations, but started to inhibit activity at higher concentrations. The decreased detoxification capacity of the hepatocytes resulted in a decrease in the vitellogenin production of the cells. The capability of in vitro assays to detect estrogenic properties of chemicals seems to vary. Thus, further work is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for these reactions. PMID:16024102

  11. Inter-relationship among degree of mental retardation, living arrangements, and dental health in adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Gahnberg, L

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the inter-relationship among the degree of mental retardation, the way of living, and dental health in adults with mental retardation. One hundred and thirty-two adults between the ages of 21 and 40 years who were mentally retarded were examined on two occasions, one year apart. All subjects had had regular dental care for at least 10 years. The clinical examinations included bite-wing radiographs and were made by the same dentist. The degree of mental retardation was assessed by a professional psychologist. The results show that the degree of mental retardation as well as living arrangements are factors influencing the dental health of persons with mental retardation. Subjects who were mildly retarded had higher caries incidence and caries prevalence compared with subjects with moderate or severe mental retardation. From a preventive dental health perspective, special attention should be focused on subjects with mild mental retardation who are not living in institutions. PMID:9582703

  12. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  13. Defining Mental Retardation and Ensuring Access to the General Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of trends in the American Association on Mental Retardation's definition of mental retardation notes a shift toward a support paradigm and a definition stressing the interaction between a person's independent functioning and the various contexts of the person's life. The current definition is seen to promote greater access to the…

  14. School Behavior Problems of Mentally Retarded and Normal Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinan, Douglas; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Female elementary, middle, and high school students (N=146) identified as educable mentally retarded were rated on the Quay-Peterson Behavior Problem Checklist by their teachers. Normal females were also rated for comparison. Analyses indicated that mentally retarded females exceeded normal females on the Conduct Disorder, Personality Problem, and…

  15. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A child is classified as mentally retarded who exhibits significantly sub-average intellectual functioning and exhibits deficits in adaptive behavior which adversely affect learning. Adaptive behavior...

  16. PUBLIC PROVISION FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEST, HARRY

    WRITTEN FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE SOCIOLOGIST OR SOCIAL SCIENTIST, THIS BOOK REPORTS DATA OBTAINED FROM STATISTICAL RESEARCH ON MENTAL RETARDATES. ITS CHIEF PURPOSE IS THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED AND PROVISIONS MADE FOR THEM IN THE UNITED STATES. DISCUSSION OF THE GENERAL CONDITION COVERS DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION, ETIOLOGY,…

  17. Estate Planning for Retarded Persons and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruge, Don L.; Green, Karen O.

    Intended for parents and legal guardians of mentally retarded persons, the manual provides guidelines for estate planning. An overview of definitions, causes, and prevalence factors in retardation is followed by reviews of the major financial assistance governmental programs such as Medicare, and Supplemental Security Income, and of legal…

  18. Association between the Diagnosis of Mental Retardation and Socioeconomic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra

    1998-01-01

    An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)

  19. Development of the Fear Survey for Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Lukenbill, James F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the fear survey for adults with mental retardation (FSAMR) and provides initial evidence of its psychometric properties. The FSAMR was designed to be sensitive to the assessment needs of individuals with mental retardation. The items were developed through open-ended interviews, a review of existing…

  20. COGNITIVE TRAINING WITH RETARDED CHILDREN, I. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTER, HAROLD M.; MCKINNEY, JAMES D.

    THE MAJOR PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH WAS TO DETERMINE WHETHER TRAINING IN SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROCESSES IS EFFECTIVE IN INCREASING THE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING OF RETARDED CHILDREN. IN PHASE I OF THE PROJECT, 51 EDUCABLE RETARDED AND 18 NORMAL SUBJECTS RECEIVED A 20-DAY PROGRAM IN SIMILARITIES-DIFFERENCES CONCEPT FORMATION AND WERE COMPARED WITH 42…

  1. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  2. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  3. Qualitative Differences in the Structure of Intelligence of Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sheryl L.; Cleaves, Wallace T.

    To examine whether or not retarded individuals have the same structure of intelligence as normal IQ individuals, test scores from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Reitan's Trail Making Test (TMT), and Beery's Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) for both a mildly retarded and normal IQ population of…

  4. Eyewitness Memory and Suggestibility in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy A.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared how well 31 children (ages 11-12) with mental retardation, 19 age-matched (CA) children, and 21 mental-age (MA) matched children were able to recall a staged event one day later. Children with mental retardation were more suggestible in response to closed misleading questions than were CA children. (Contains references.)…

  5. Family Problem-Solving with Children Who Have Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Frank J; Harter, Kristina S. M.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2004-01-01

    Problem-solving discussions were observed within families of children with mental retardation and multiple comparison groups (total N = 162 families). As expected, parents were more persistent and directive with their children who had mental retardation, but they also avoided negative exchanges with these children. These patterns did not spillover…

  6. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  7. Cone calorimeter evaluation of two flame retardant cotton fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unbleached (grey) cotton needle punched nonwoven (NW) fabrics with 12.5% polypropylene scrim were treated with two phosphate-nitrogen based fire-retardant (FR) formulations, SRRC-1 and SRRC-2. The SRRC-1 formulation contains diammonium phosphate as the flame retardant chemical along with urea and d...

  8. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  9. Serial Memory Span Thresholds of Normal and Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1974-01-01

    Educable mental retardates and normal grade school students were presented seven classes of materials in both visual and auditory modalities for the determination of immediate memory span thresholds. Major conclusions included auditory presentation produces higher thresholds than visual, and retarded children may employ different processing…

  10. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…