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Sample records for local traffic pollution

  1. Characterizing local traffic contributions to particulate air pollution in street canyons using mobile monitoring techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwack, Leonard M.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-05-01

    Traffic within urban street canyons can contribute significantly to ambient concentrations of particulate air pollution. In these settings, it is challenging to separate within-canyon source contributions from urban and regional background concentrations given the highly variable and complex emissions and dispersion characteristics. In this study, we used continuous mobile monitoring of traffic-related particulate air pollutants to assess the contribution to concentrations, above background, of traffic in the street canyons of midtown Manhattan. Concentrations of both ultrafine particles (UFP) and fine particles (PM 2.5) were measured at street level using portable instruments. Statistical modeling techniques accounting for autocorrelation were used to investigate the presence of spatial heterogeneity of pollutant concentrations as well as to quantify the contribution of within-canyon traffic sources. Measurements were also made within Central Park, to examine the impact of offsets from major roadways in this urban environment. On average, an approximate 11% increase in concentrations of UFP and 8% increase in concentrations of PM 2.5 over urban background was estimated during high-traffic periods in street canyons as opposed to low traffic periods. Estimates were 8% and 5%, respectively, after accounting for temporal autocorrelation. Within Central Park, concentrations were 40% higher than background (5% after accounting for temporal autocorrelation) within the first 100 m from the nearest roadway for UFP, with a smaller but statistically significant increase for PM 2.5. Our findings demonstrate the viability of a mobile monitoring protocol coupled with spatiotemporal modeling techniques in characterizing local source contributions in a setting with street canyons.

  2. Emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants from mobile sources: Insights from integrating real-time traffic data into local air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, Conor; Hutyra, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, on-road mobile sources were responsible for over 26% of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (ffCO2) emissions, and over 34% of both CO and NOx emissions. However, accurate representations of these emissions at the scale of urban areas remains a difficult challenge. Quantifying emissions at the scale of local streets and highways is critical to provide policymakers with the information needed to develop appropriate mitigation strategies and to guide research into the underlying process that drive mobile emissions. Quantification of vehicle ffCO2 emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires a detailed synthesis of data on traffic activity, roadway attributes, fleet characteristics and vehicle speeds. To accurately characterize criteria air pollutant emissions, information on local meteorology is also critical, as the temperature and relative humidity can affect emissions rates of these pollutants by as much as 400%. As the health impacts of air pollutants are more severe for residents living in close proximity (<500m) to road sources, it is critical that inventories of these emissions rely on highly resolved source data to locate potential hot-spots of exposure. In this study we utilize real-time GPS estimates of vehicle speeds to estimate ffCO2 and criteria air pollutant emissions at multiple spatial and temporal scales across a large metropolitan area. We observe large variations in emissions associated with diurnal activity patterns, congestion, sporting and civic events, and weather anomalies. We discuss the advantages and challenges of using highly-resolved source data to quantify emissions at a roadway scale, and the potential of this methodology for forecasting the air quality impacts of changes in infrastructure, urban planning policies, and regional climate.

  3. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  4. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand. PMID:15504517

  5. Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157539.html Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women ... suggests. Both short- and long-term exposure to pollution from vehicles was linked to a higher risk ...

  6. Urban snow indicates pollution originating from road traffic.

    PubMed

    Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Setälä, Heikki; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Kotze, D Johan

    2014-12-01

    Traffic is a major source of pollutants in cities. In this well-replicated study we analysed a broad array of contaminants in snowpacks along roads of different traffic intensities. The majority of pollutants showed a similar pattern with respect to traffic intensity: pH and conductivity as well as concentrations of PAHs, total suspended solids, phosphorus and most heavy metals were higher next to high intensity roads compared to low intensity roads. These pollutant levels also decreased considerably up to 5 m distance from the roads. Furthermore, apart from nitrogen, these variables increased in concentration from control sites in urban forest patches to road bank sites next to roads of low, intermediate and high traffic intensities. The deposition pattern of various traffic-derived pollutants--whether gaseous or particle-bound--was the same. Such information can be useful for the purposes of managing pollutants in urban areas. PMID:25194272

  7. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors. PMID:24946571

  8. [Urban air pollutant exposure among traffic policemen].

    PubMed

    Priante, E; Schiavon, I; Boschi, G; Gori, G; Bartolucci, G B; Soave, C; Brugnone, F; Clonfero, E

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to dusts and benzene was studied in 65 traffic policemen. Samples of total dusts showed that mean personal exposure was 0.44 (SD = 0.30) mg/m3, with peaks of about 2 mg/m3. Exposure to 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), the main compound occurring in emissions from diesel engines, which was estimated from concentrations in dusts collected with high-flow samplers, was 0.28 (SD = 0.19) ng/m3 (range: 0.06-1.24 ng/m3). The mean concentration of benzene in the breathing zone was 41 (SD = 20) micrograms/m3, although a level of 100 micrograms/m3 was slightly exceeded in one subject. In urine samples collected before and after workshifts, two biological indicators of exposure to benzene were measured, urinary benzene and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (MA). The mean values of urinary benzene before and after workshift were similar (98, SD = 81 and 83, SD = 55 ng/l; n = 63; Wilcoxon's T-test = not significant), while a moderate increase in the metabolite was observed (MA = 0.08, SD = 0.11; 0.11, SD = 0.09 mg/g creatinine, in pre- and post-shift samples respectively; Wilcoxon's T-test, z = 3.00; p < 0.01). The levels of exposure to dusts and 1-NP deriving from diesel engine emissions were comparable to those of other occupational groups with this type of risk (garage mechanics, workers operating diesel engine machinery, etc.). Traffic police exposure to benzene was similar to that of the whole population of Padova (40 micrograms/m3, mean annual 24-hour value). However, the values of urinary MA, like those reported by other authors for non-smoker controls, increased after the workshift, indicating low occupational exposure to this pollutant. It should be noted that traffic police exposure to benzene is much lower than that of other occupational categories, e.g., fuel pump distributors. PMID:9102558

  9. Childhood Incident Asthma and Traffic-Related Air Pollution at Home and School

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Rob; Islam, Talat; Shankardass, Ketan; Jerrett, Michael; Lurmann, Fred; Gilliland, Frank; Gauderman, Jim; Avol, Ed; Künzli, Nino; Yao, Ling; Peters, John; Berhane, Kiros

    2010-01-01

    Background Traffic-related air pollution has been associated with adverse cardiorespiratory effects, including increased asthma prevalence. However, there has been little study of effects of traffic exposure at school on new-onset asthma. Objectives We evaluated the relationship of new-onset asthma with traffic-related pollution near homes and schools. Methods Parent-reported physician diagnosis of new-onset asthma (n = 120) was identified during 3 years of follow-up of a cohort of 2,497 kindergarten and first-grade children who were asthma- and wheezing-free at study entry into the Southern California Children’s Health Study. We assessed traffic-related pollution exposure based on a line source dispersion model of traffic volume, distance from home and school, and local meteorology. Regional ambient ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter were measured continuously at one central site monitor in each of 13 study communities. Hazard ratios (HRs) for new-onset asthma were scaled to the range of ambient central site pollutants and to the residential interquartile range for each traffic exposure metric. Results Asthma risk increased with modeled traffic-related pollution exposure from roadways near homes [HR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–1.82] and near schools (HR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06–1.98). Ambient NO2 measured at a central site in each community was also associated with increased risk (HR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.18–4.01). In models with both NO2 and modeled traffic exposures, there were independent associations of asthma with traffic-related pollution at school and home, whereas the estimate for NO2 was attenuated (HR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.69–2.71). Conclusions Traffic-related pollution exposure at school and homes may both contribute to the development of asthma. PMID:20371422

  10. Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

  11. Road-traffic pollution and asthma – using modelled exposure assessment for routine public health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Elspeth C; Maheswaran, Ravi; Daly, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease and appears to be increasing in prevalence. There is evidence linking air pollution, including that from road-traffic, with asthma. Road traffic is also on the increase. Routine surveillance of the impact of road-traffic pollution on asthma, and other diseases, would be useful in informing local and national government policy in terms of managing the environmental health risk. Several methods for exposure assessment have been used in studies examining the association between asthma and road traffic pollution. These include comparing asthma prevalence in areas designated as high and low pollution areas, using distance from main roads as a proxy for exposure to road traffic pollution, using traffic counts to estimate exposure, using vehicular miles travelled and using modelling techniques. Although there are limitations to all these methods, the modelling approach has the advantage of incorporating several variables and may be used for prospective health impact assessment. The modelling approach is already in routine use in the United Kingdom in support of the government's strategy for air quality management. Combining information from such models with routinely collected health data would form the basis of a routine public health surveillance system. Such a system would facilitate prospective health impact assessment, enabling policy decisions concerned with road-traffic to be made with knowledge of the potential implications. It would also allow systematic monitoring of the health impacts when the policy decisions and plans have been implemented. PMID:15485575

  12. Mapping noise pollution from road traffic for regional environmental planning

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.J.; France, J.

    1982-03-01

    Attempts were made to assess and map noise pollution from traffic for 1 km grid squares throughout South Yorkshire. The method adopted involved estimating traffic noise at source for all major road sections and modeling the attenuation of noise with distance by use of a variety of relationships developed by road traffic engineers. Results of the analysis were plotted by computer. This paper outlines the methods used in the analysis, presents the data and discusses the results. It is concluded that the method provides a realistic picture of noise pollution in South Yorkshire, and might be used more widely as an instrument of regional survey.

  13. Long-term continuous measurement of near-road air pollution in Las Vegas: Seasonal variability in traffic emissions impact on local air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess air pollution along roadways is an issue of public health concern and motivated a long-term measurement effort established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Las Vegas, Nevada. Measurements of air pollutants – including black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO),...

  14. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants: self reported traffic intensity versus GIS modelled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, J; Gehring, U; Cyrys, J; Brauer, M; Hoek, G; Fischer, P; Bellander, T; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: In epidemiological studies of the potential health effects of traffic related air pollution, self reported traffic intensity is a commonly used, but rarely validated, exposure variable. Methods: As part of a study on the impact of Traffic Related Air Pollution on Childhood Asthma (TRAPCA), data from 2633 and 673 infants from the Dutch and the German-Munich cohorts, respectively, were available. Parents subjectively assessed traffic intensity at the home address. Objective exposures were estimated by a combination of spatial air pollution measurements and geographic information system (GIS) based modelling using an identical method for both cohorts. Results: The agreement rates between self reported and GIS modelled exposure—accumulated over the three strata of self assessed traffic intensity—were 55–58% for PM2.5, filter absorbance (PM2.5 abs), and nitrogen dioxide in Munich and 39–40% in the Netherlands. Of the self reported low traffic exposed group, 71–73% in Munich and 45–47% in the Netherlands had low modelled exposure to these three air pollutants. Of the self assessed high exposed subgroups in Munich (15% of the total population) and the Netherlands (22% of the total population), only 22–33% and 30–32% respectively had high modelled exposure to the three air pollutants. The subjective assessments tend to overestimate the modelled estimates for PM2.5 and NO2 in both study areas. When analysis was restricted to the portion of the Dutch cohort living in non-urban areas, the agreement rates were even lower. Conclusions: Self reported and modelled assessment of exposure to air pollutants are only weakly associated. PMID:16046603

  15. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m3, respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC. PMID:26464095

  16. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m(3), respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC. PMID:26464095

  17. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    SciTech Connect

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  18. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  19. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km2) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 h, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic

  20. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates.

  1. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates. PMID:25844042

  2. 14 CFR 294.81 - Local traffic prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Local traffic prohibited. 294.81 Section 294.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... This Part § 294.81 Local traffic prohibited. (a) Except as set forth in paragraph (b) of this...

  3. 14 CFR 294.81 - Local traffic prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local traffic prohibited. 294.81 Section 294.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... This Part § 294.81 Local traffic prohibited. (a) Except as set forth in paragraph (b) of this...

  4. 14 CFR 294.81 - Local traffic prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Local traffic prohibited. 294.81 Section 294.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... This Part § 294.81 Local traffic prohibited. (a) Except as set forth in paragraph (b) of this...

  5. 14 CFR 294.81 - Local traffic prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Local traffic prohibited. 294.81 Section 294.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... This Part § 294.81 Local traffic prohibited. (a) Except as set forth in paragraph (b) of this...

  6. 14 CFR 294.81 - Local traffic prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local traffic prohibited. 294.81 Section 294.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... This Part § 294.81 Local traffic prohibited. (a) Except as set forth in paragraph (b) of this...

  7. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 μg/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 μg/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution. PMID:25827311

  8. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 μg/m3 in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83–1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 μg/m3 corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68–1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution. PMID:25827311

  9. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Congenital Anomalies in Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Salvador, Joaquin; de Nazelle, Audrey; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Basagaña, Xavier; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis suggested evidence for an effect of exposure to ambient air pollutants on risk of certain congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the effects of traffic-related air pollutants with sufficient spatial accuracy. Objectives: We estimated associations between congenital anomalies and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Barcelona, Spain. Method: Cases with nonchromosomal anomalies (n = 2,247) and controls (n = 2,991) were selected from the Barcelona congenital anomaly register during 1994–2006. Land use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were applied to residential addresses at birth to estimate spatial exposure to nitrogen oxides and dioxide (NOx, NO2), particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), 10–2.5 μm (PMcoarse), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and PM2.5 absorbance. Spatial estimates were adjusted for temporal trends using data from routine monitoring stations for weeks 3–8 of each pregnancy. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for 18 congenital anomaly groups associated with an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in exposure estimates. Results: In spatial and spatiotemporal exposure models, we estimated statistically significant associations between an IQR increase in NO2 (12.2 μg/m3) and coarctation of the aorta (ORspatiotemporal = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31) and digestive system defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.23), and between an IQR increase in PMcoarse (3.6 μg/m3) and abdominal wall defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.73). Other statistically significant increased and decreased ORs were estimated based on the spatial model only or the spatiotemporal model only, but not both. Conclusions: Our results overall do not indicate an association between traffic-related air pollution and most groups of congenital anomalies. Findings for coarctation of the aorta are consistent with

  10. Preterm Birth: The Interaction of Traffic-related Air Pollution with Economic Hardship in Los Angeles Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Ninez A.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth may be affected by the interaction of residential air pollution with neighborhood economic hardship. The authors examined variations in traffic-related pollution exposure—measured by distance-weighted traffic density—using a framework reflecting the social and physical environments. An adverse social environment was conceptualized as low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods—census tracts with concentrated poverty, unemployment, and dependence on public assistance. An adverse physical environment was depicted by the winter season, when thermal inversions trap motor vehicle pollutants, thereby increasing traffic-related air pollution. Los Angeles County, California, birth records from 1994 to 1996 were linked to traffic counts, census data, and ambient air pollution measures. The authors fit multivariate logistic models of preterm birth, stratified by neighborhood SES and third pregnancy trimester season. Traffic-related air pollution exposure disproportionately affected low SES neighborhoods in the winter. Further, in these poorer neighborhoods, the winter season evidenced increased susceptibility among women with known risk factors. Health insurance was most beneficial to women residing in neighborhoods exposed to economic hardship and an adverse physical environment. Reducing preterm births warrants a concerted effort of social, economic, and environmental policies, focused on not only individual risk factors but also the reduction of localized air pollution, expansion of health-care coverage, and improvement of neighborhood resources. PMID:15972941

  11. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lepicier, Veronique; Chiron, Mireille; Joumard, Robert

    2013-01-15

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The

  12. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.

    PubMed

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

  13. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time due to varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory disease. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

  14. Comparison of modeled traffic exposure zones using on-road air pollution measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeled traffic data were used to develop traffic exposure zones (TEZs) such as traffic delay, high volume, and transit routes in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA). On-road air pollution measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxid...

  15. Assessment of traffic noise pollution from 1989 to 2003 in Lanzhou City.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoxia; Tian, Yujun; Ju, Tianzhen; Ren, Zhengwu

    2006-12-01

    On the basis of the continuous traffic noise data observed at 142 sites distributed in 52 roads from 1989 to 2003, the characteristics of traffic noise and effect factors were analyzed through traffic noise indices, such as Lep, L10, L50, L90, TNI, and Pn. Our findings allow us to reach a number of conclusions as follows: Firstly, traffic noise pollution was serious, and its fluctuant characteristic was obvious, resulting in a great intrusion to public in Lanzhou City during last 15 years. Secondly, traffic noise made a distinction between trunk lines and secondary lines, west-east direction roads and north-south direction roads. Thirdly, spatial character and time rule of traffic noise were obvious. In addition, traffic volume, traffic composition, road condition, and traffic management were identified as the key factors influencing traffic noise in this city. PMID:17036256

  16. Influence of traffic-related noise and air pollution on self-reported fatigue.

    PubMed

    Jazani, Reza Khani; Saremi, Mahnaz; Rezapour, Tara; Kavousi, Amir; Shirzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to environmental pollutions is related to health problems. It is, however, questionable whether this condition affects working performance in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of age as well as traffic related air and noise pollutions for fatigue. 246 traffic officers participated in this study. Air pollution data were obtained from the local Air Quality Control Company. A sound level meter was used for measuring ambient noise. Fatigue was evaluated by the MFI-20 questionnaire. The general and physical scales showed the highest, while the reduced activity scale showed the lowest level of fatigue. Age had an independent direct effect on reduced activity and physical fatigue. The average of daytime equivalent noise level was between 71.63 and 88.51 dB(A). In the case of high noise exposure, older officers feel more fatigue than younger ones. Exposure to PM10 and O3 resulted in general and physical fatigue. Complex Interactions between SO2, CO and NO2 were found. Exposure to noise and some components of air pollution, especially O3 and PM10, increases fatigue. The authorities should adopt and rigorously implement environmental protection policies in order to protect people. PMID:26323778

  17. Traffic-related air pollution and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Nicholas; Finch, Caleb E.; Morgan, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Automotive traffic-related air pollution (TRP) imposes an increasing health burden with global urbanization. Gestational and early child exposure to urban TRP is associated with higher risk of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, as well as low birth weight. While cardio-respiratory effects from exposure are well documented, cognitive effects are only recently becoming widely recognized. This review discusses effects of TRP on brain and cognition in human and animal studies. The mechanisms underlying these epidemiological associations are studied with rodent models of pre- and neonatal exposure to TRP, which show persisting inflammatory changes and altered adult behaviors and cognition. Some behavioral and inflammatory changes show male bias. Rodent models may identify dietary and other interventions for neuroprotection to TRP. PMID:27099868

  18. Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a longitudinal, multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biologically plausible mechanisms link traffic-related air pollution to metabolic disorders and potentially to obesity. Here we sought to determine whether traffic density and traffic-related air pollution were positively associated with growth in body mass index (BMI = kg/m2) in children aged 5–11 years. Methods Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort of children who lived in 13 communities across Southern California (N = 4550). Children were enrolled while attending kindergarten and first grade and followed for 4 years, with height and weight measured annually. Dispersion models were used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Multilevel models were used to estimate and test traffic density and traffic pollution related to BMI growth. Data were collected between 2002–2010 and analyzed in 2011–12. Results Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI and was robust to adjustment for many confounders. The effect size in the adjusted model indicated about a 13.6% increase in annual BMI growth when comparing the lowest to the highest tenth percentile of air pollution exposure, which resulted in an increase of nearly 0.4 BMI units on attained BMI at age 10. Traffic density also had a positive association with BMI growth, but this effect was less robust in multivariate models. Conclusions Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI in children aged 5–11 years. Traffic pollution may be controlled via emission restrictions; changes in land use that promote jobs-housing balance and use of public transit and hence reduce vehicle miles traveled; promotion of zero emissions vehicles; transit and car-sharing programs; or by limiting high pollution traffic, such as diesel trucks, from residential areas or places where children play outdoors, such as schools and parks. These measures may have beneficial effects in terms of reduced obesity formation in children. PMID:24913018

  19. Road traffic and sandy playground influence on ambient pollutants in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Rivas, I.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Font, O.; Córdoba, P.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-06-01

    Urban air pollution has a greater impact on children's health compared to adults. In the framework of the BREATHE (BRain dEvelopment and Air polluTion ultrafine particles in scHool childrEn) project, the present work studies the impact of road traffic and the presence of sandy playgrounds on the outdoor air quality around schools. Four schools were selected for intensive campaigns of one month. PM2.5 samples were collected daily from 8:00 to 20:00 and chemically analysed. Real time measurements of NOx, black carbon (BC), PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were carried out. Sand samples from five school playgrounds were characterized. The results confirm the representativeness of the general BREATHE project campaigns (eight weekdays measurements at each of the 39 schools). NOx, BC and PMx concentrations were higher in the school located nearest to traffic in the city centre with the daily pattern reflecting the traffic rush hours. The NOx concentrations were found to decrease with distance to the main road. The road traffic influence on ambient pollutants was higher on weekdays than weekends. The PM10 concentrations at one of the schools were mainly driven by the influence of the sandy playground, with peaks up to 25, 57 and 12 times higher than night background concentrations during mid-morning break, lunch break and end of school day, respectively. The airborne mineral matter concentrations registered at this school further confirm this origin. Nevertheless the influence of the re-suspension from the sandy playground was very local and decreased drastically within a short distance. The possible impact of the use of the private car for children's commuting on the outdoor air quality of the schools cannot be quantitatively assessed due to the overlapping with the rush hour of the city.

  20. Land use regression modeling of intra-urban residential variability in multiple traffic-related air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane E; Wright, Rosalind J; Baxter, Lisa K; Levy, Jonathan I

    2008-01-01

    , and were differently related to local traffic and meteorology. Our results indicate a need for multi-pollutant exposure modeling to disentangle causal agents in epidemiological studies, and further investigation of site-specific and meteorological modification of the traffic-concentration relationship in urban neighborhoods. PMID:18485201

  1. Air quality of Prague: traffic as a main pollution source.

    PubMed

    Branis, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Political and economical transition in the Central and Eastern Europe at the end of eighties significantly influenced all aspects of life as well as technological infrastructure. Collapse of outdated energy demanding industry and adoption of environmental legislation resulted in seeming improvements of urban environmental quality. Hand in hand with modernization the newly adopted regulations also helped to phase out low quality coal frequently used for domestic heating. However, at the same time, the number of vehicles registered in the city increased. The two processes interestingly acted as parallel but antagonistic forces. To interpret the trends in urban air quality of Prague, Czech capital, monthly averages of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), NO, O(3) and CO concentrations from the national network of automated monitoring stations were analyzed together with long term trends in fuel consumption and number of vehicles registered in Prague within a period of 1992-2005. The results showed that concentrations of SO(2) (a pollutant strongly related to fossil fuel burning) dropped significantly during the period of concern. Similarly NO(X) and PM(10) concentrations decreased significantly in the first half of the nineties (as a result of solid fuel use drop), but remained rather stable or increased after 2000, presumably reflecting rapid increase of traffic density. In conclusion, infrastructural changes in early nineties had a strong positive effect on Prague air quality namely in the first half of the period studied, nevertheless, the current trend in concentrations of automotive exhaust related pollutants (such as PM(10), NO(X)) needs adoption of stricter measures. PMID:18709434

  2. Development of outdoor exposure model of traffic-related air pollution for epidemiologic research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Isao; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nataami, Taro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Tamura, Kenji; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Shima, Masayuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Yokota, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We developed an exposure estimation model for an epidemiological study on the effect of traffic-related air pollutants on respiratory diseases. The model estimates annual average outdoor concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC). The model is composed of three nested plume dispersion type submodels treating different spatial scales from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The emissions from road traffic was estimated at high spatial resolution along the paths of roads taking into account the effects of individual building shape and traffic signals to secure accuracy near trunk roads where most of the subjects of the epidemiological study resided. Model performance was confirmed by field measurements at permanent local government stations and purpose-built temporary stations; the latter supplemented roadside monitoring points and provided EC concentrations, which are not measured routinely. We infer that EC emissions were underestimated by using the available database because there were significant contributions to EC concentrations from sources that did not emit much NOx. An adjustment concentration yielded good agreement between model estimates and field measurements. PMID:23715083

  3. Quality function deployment applied to local traffic accident reduction.

    PubMed

    Sohn, S Y

    1999-11-01

    One of the major tasks of police stations is the management of local road traffic accidents. Proper prevention policy which reflects the local accident characteristics could immensely help individual police stations in decreasing various severity levels of road traffic accidents. In order to relate accident variation to local driving environmental characteristics, we use both cluster analysis and Poisson regression. The fitted result at the level of each cluster for each type of accident severity is utilized as an input to quality function deployment. Quality function deployment (QFD) has been applied to customer satisfaction in various industrial quality improvement settings, where several types of customer requirements are related to various control factors. We show how QFD enables one to set priorities on various road accident control policies to which each police station has to pay particular attention. PMID:10487350

  4. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  5. Quantifying local traffic contributions to NO2 and NH3 concentrations in natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Gadsdon, Sally R; Power, Sally A

    2009-10-01

    NO(2) and NH(3) concentrations were measured across a Special Area for Conservation in southern England, at varying distances from the local road network. Exceedances of the critical levels for these pollutants were recorded at nearly all roadside locations, extending up to 20 m away from roads at some sites. Further, paired measurements of NH(3) and NO(2) concentrations revealed differences between ground and tree canopy levels. At "background" sites, away from the direct influence of roads, concentrations were higher within tree canopies than at ground level; the reverse pattern was, however, seen at roadside locations. Calculations of pollutant deposition rates showed that nitrogen inputs are dominated by NH(3) at roadside sites. This study demonstrates that local traffic emissions contribute substantially to the exceedance of critical levels and critical loads, and suggests that on-site monitoring is needed for sites of nature conservation value which are in close proximity to local transport routes. PMID:19427723

  6. Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Anderson, H Ross; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to traffic pollution on health is inconsistent. In Greater London we examined associations between traffic pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases by applying linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models in a small-area analysis. For both models the results for children and adults were close to unity. In the elderly, linear models found negative associations whereas piecewise models found non-linear associations characterized by positive risks in the lowest and negative risks in the highest exposure category. An increased risk was observed among those living in areas with the highest socioeconomic deprivation. Estimates were not affected by adjustment for traffic noise. The lack of convincing positive linear associations between primary traffic pollution and hospital admissions agrees with a number of other reports, but may reflect residual confounding. The relatively greater vulnerability of the most deprived populations has important implications for public health. PMID:26476693

  7. Air Quality Modeling of Traffic-related Air Pollutants for the NEXUS Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characteriz...

  8. The association between chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution and ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, Bernardo S; Jerrett, Michael; Finkelstein, Murray; Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Brook, Jeffrey R; Arain, M Altaf; Sears, Malcolm R; Stieb, David; Balmes, John; Chapman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence links air pollution to the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association between ischemic heart disease (IHD) prevalence and exposure to traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], fine particulate matter [PM₂.₅], and ozone [O₃]) in a population of susceptible subjects in Toronto. Local (NO₂) exposures were modeled using land use regression based on extensive field monitoring. Regional exposures (PM₂.₅, O₃) were modeled as confounders using inverse distance weighted interpolation based on government monitoring data. The study sample consisted of 2360 patients referred during 1992 to 1999 to a pulmonary clinic at the Toronto Western Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to diagnose or manage a respiratory complaint. IHD status was determined by clinical database linkages (ICD-9-CM 412-414). The association between IHD and air pollutants was assessed with a modified Poisson regression resulting in relative risk estimates. Confounding was controlled with individual and neighborhood-level covariates. After adjusting for multiple covariates, NO₂ was significantly associated with increased IHD risk, relative risk (RR) = 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 1.47). Subjects living near major roads and highways had a trend toward an elevated risk of IHD, RR = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.18). Regional PM₂.₅ and O₃ were not associated with risk of IHD. PMID:22524595

  9. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects Among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Isakov, Vlad; Burke, Janet; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Snyder, Michelle; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with adverse human health effects, especially in areas near major roads. In addition to emissions from vehicles, ambient concentrations of air pollutants include contributions from stationary sources and background (or regional) sources. Although dispersion models have been widely used to evaluate air quality strategies and policies and can represent the spatial and temporal variation in environments near roads, the use of these models in health studies to estimate air pollutant exposures has been relatively limited. This paper summarizes the modeling system used to estimate exposures in the Near-Roadway Exposure and Urban Air Pollutant Study, an epidemiological study that examined 139 children with asthma or symptoms consistent with asthma, most of whom lived near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. Air pollutant concentrations were estimated with a hybrid modeling framework that included detailed inventories of mobile and stationary sources on local and regional scales; the RLINE, AERMOD, and CMAQ dispersion models; and monitored observations of pollutant concentrations. The temporal and spatial variability in emissions and exposures over the 2.5-year study period and at more than 300 home and school locations was characterized. The paper highlights issues with the development and understanding of the significance of traffic-related exposures through the use of dispersion models in urban-scale exposure assessments and epidemiology studies. PMID:26139957

  10. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  11. Interaction Between Strategic and Local Traffic Flow Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Son; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit; Morando, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The loosely coordinated sets of traffic flow management initiatives that are operationally implemented at the national- and local-levels have the potential to under, over, and inconsistently control flights. This study is designed to explore these interactions through fast-time simulations with an emphasis on identifying inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays. Two operationally derived scenarios were considered in which flights arriving into the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport were first controlled at the national-level, either with a Ground Delay Program or a playbook reroute. These flights were subsequently controlled at the local level. The Traffic Management Advisor assigned them arrival scheduling delays. For the Ground Delay Program scenarios, between 51% and 53% of all arrivals experience both pre-departure delays from the Ground Delay Program and arrival scheduling delays from the Traffic Management Advisor. Of the subset of flights that received multiple delays, between 5.7% and 6.4% of the internal departures were first assigned a pre-departure delay by the Ground Delay Program, followed by a second pre-departure delay as a result of the arrival scheduling. For the playbook reroute scenario, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport arrivals were first assigned pre-departure reroutes based on the MW_2_DALLAS playbook plan, and were subsequently assigned arrival scheduling delays by the Traffic Management Advisor. Since the airport was operating well below capacity when the playbook reroute was in effect, only 7% of the arrivals were observed to receive both rerouting and arrival scheduling delays. Findings from these initial experiments confirm field observations that Ground Delay Programs operated in conjunction with arrival scheduling can result in inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays.

  12. Structural equation modeling of the inflammatory response to traffic air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Baja, Emmanuel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Coull, Brent A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Suh, Helen H.

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results on the effect of traffic-related pollutants on markers of inflammation. In a Bayesian framework, we examined the effect of traffic pollution on inflammation using structural equation models (SEMs). We studied measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) for 749 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Using repeated measures SEMs, we fit a latent variable for traffic pollution that is reflected by levels of black carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide to estimate its effect on a latent variable for inflammation that included sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and CRP. Exposure periods were assessed using 1-, 2-, 3-, 7-, 14- and 30-day moving averages previsit. We compared our findings using SEMs with those obtained using linear mixed models. Traffic pollution was related to increased inflammation for 3-, 7-, 14- and 30-day exposure periods. An inter-quartile range increase in traffic pollution was associated with a 2.3% (95% posterior interval (PI): 0.0–4.7%) increase in inflammation for the 3-day moving average, with the most significant association observed for the 30-day moving average (23.9%; 95% PI: 13.9–36.7%). Traffic pollution adversely impacts inflammation in the elderly. SEMs in a Bayesian framework can comprehensively incorporate multiple pollutants and health outcomes simultaneously in air pollution–cardiovascular epidemiological studies. PMID:23232970

  13. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as “Bicycle Boulevards.” We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function. Methods We recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes – a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride. Results We found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations. Conclusions These results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers and

  14. Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shunqin; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Yimin; Wang, Shengchun; Chen, Shuyun

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of motor vehicles, ambient air pollution related to traffic exhaust has become an important environmental issue in China. Because of their fast growth and development, children are more susceptible to ambient air pollution exposure. Many chemicals from traffic exhaust, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead, have been reported to show adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions. Several studies in China have suggested that traffic exhaust might affect neurobehavioral functions of adults who have occupational traffic exhaust exposure. However, few data have been reported on the effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and its effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Methods This field study was conducted in Quanzhou, China, where two primary schools were chosen based on traffic density and monitoring data of ambient air pollutants. School A was located in a clear area and school B in a polluted area. We monitored NO2 and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm as indicators for traffic-related air pollution on the campuses and in classrooms for 2 consecutive days in May 2005. The children from second grade (8–9 years of age) and third grade (9–10 years of age) of the two schools (n = 928) participated in a questionnaire survey and manual-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We selected 282 third-grade children (school A, 136; school B, 146) to participate in computer-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We conducted the fieldwork between May and June 2005. We used data from 861 participants (school A, 431; school B, 430) with manual neurobehavioral testing and from all participants with computerized testing for data analyses. Results Media concentrations of NO2 in school A and school B campus were 7 μg/m3 and 36 μg/m3, respectively (p < 0.05). The ordinal logistic regression

  15. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy and term low birth weight: estimation of causal associations in a semiparametric model.

    PubMed

    Padula, Amy M; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B

    2012-11-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000-2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants. PMID:23045474

  16. Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Term Low Birth Weight: Estimation of Causal Associations in a Semiparametric Model

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000–2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants. PMID:23045474

  17. Evaluation of traffic noise pollution and attitudes of exposed individuals in working place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B. D.; Mishra, Virendra kumar

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the noise pollution problem in the Varanasi city and its effect on the exposed people. The study revealed the fact that noise levels have reached an alarming level. The result of the study indicated the fact that 85% of the people were disturbed by traffic noise, about 90% of the people reported that traffic noise is the main cause of headache, high BP problem, dizziness and fatigue. People having higher education and income level are much aware of the health impact due to traffic noise. Marital status was found to be significantly affecting the annoyance level caused by traffic noise. Traffic noise was found to be interfering daily activities such as at resting, reading, communication etc.

  18. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes. PMID:24840278

  19. Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods and findings Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g) and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers’ addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10). Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP. Conclusions This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers. PMID:25426640

  20. Dependence of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) Seed Reproduction Indices on Intensity of Motor Traffic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2014-12-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010-2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years. PMID:25552956

  1. Personal exposures to traffic-related particle pollution among children with asthma in the South Bronx, NY

    PubMed Central

    Spira-Cohen, Ariel; Chen, Lung Chi; Kendall, Michaela; Sheesley, Rebecca; Thurston, George D.

    2014-01-01

    Personal exposures to fine Particulate Matter air pollution (PM2.5), and to its traffic-related fraction, were investigated in a group of urban children with asthma. The relationships of personal and outdoor school-site measurements of PM2.5 and elemental carbon (EC) were characterized for a total of forty fifth-grade children. These students, from four South Bronx, NY schools, each carried air pollution monitoring equipment with them 24 hours per day for approximately one month. Daily EC concentrations were estimated using locally calibrated reflectance of the PM2.5 samples. Personal EC was more closely related to outdoor school-site EC (median subject-specific r = 0.64) than was personal PM with school-site PM2.5 (median subject specific r = 0.33). Regression models also showed a stronger, more robust association of school-site with personal measurements for EC than for PM2.5. High traffic pollution exposure was found to coincide with the weekday early morning rush hour, with higher personal exposures for subjects living closer to a highway (< 500 ft). A significant linear relationship of home distance from a highway with personal EC pollution exposure was also found (up to 1000 ft.). This supports the assumptions by previous epidemiological studies using distance from a highway as an index of traffic PM exposure. These results are also consistent with the assumption that traffic, and especially diesel vehicles, are a significant contributor to personal PM exposure levels of children living in urban areas such as the South Bronx, NY. PMID:19865073

  2. Effects of Exposure Measurement Error in the Analysis of Health Effects from Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    In large epidemiological studies, many researchers use surrogates of air pollution exposure such as geographic information system (GIS)-based characterizations of traffic or simple housing characteristics. It is important to validate these surrogates against measured pollutant co...

  3. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Mortality: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Andréa Paula Peneluppi; Gouveia, Nelson; Machado, Reinaldo Paul Pérez; de Souza, Miriam Regina; Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; de Almeida, Márcia Furquim

    2009-01-01

    Background Ambient levels of air pollution may affect the health of children, as indicated by studies of infant and perinatal mortality. Scientific evidence has also correlated low birth weight and preterm birth, which are important determinants of perinatal death, with air pollution. However, most of these studies used ambient concentrations measured at monitoring sites, which may not consider differential exposure to pollutants found at elevated concentrations near heavy-traffic roadways. Objectives Our goal was to examine the association between traffic-related pollution and perinatal mortality. Methods We used the information collected for a case–control study conducted in 14 districts in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, regarding risk factors for perinatal deaths. We geocoded the residential addresses of cases (fetal and early neonatal deaths) and controls (children who survived the 28th day of life) and calculated a distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) measure considering all roads contained in a buffer surrounding these homes. Results Logistic regression revealed a gradient of increasing risk of early neonatal death with higher exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Mothers exposed to the highest quartile of the DWTD compared with those less exposed exhibited approximately 50% increased risk (adjusted odds ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.67–3.19). Associations for fetal mortality were less consistent. Conclusions These results suggest that motor vehicle exhaust exposures may be a risk factor for perinatal mortality. PMID:19165399

  4. Non-stationary spatio-temporal modeling of traffic-related pollutants in near-road environments.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Owais; Berrocal, Veronica J; Batterman, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    A problem often encountered in environmental epidemiological studies assessing the health effects associated with ambient exposure to air pollution is the spatial misalignment between monitors' locations and subjects' actual residential locations. Several strategies have been adopted to circumvent this problem and estimate pollutants concentrations at unsampled sites, including spatial statistical or geostatistical models that rely on the assumption of stationarity to model the spatial dependence in pollution levels. Although computationally convenient, the assumption of stationarity is often untenable for pollutants concentration, particularly in the near-road environment. Building upon the work of Fuentes (2001) and Schmidt et al. (2011), in this paper we present a non-stationary spatio-temporal model for three traffic-related pollutants in a localized near-road environment. Modeling each pollutant separately and independently, we express each pollutant's concentration as a mixture of two independent spatial processes, each equipped with a non-stationary covariance function with covariates driving the non-stationarity and the mixture weights. PMID:27494957

  5. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas, and traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter under 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with...

  6. Association between leukocyte telomere shortening and exposure to traffic pollution: a cross-sectional study on traffic officers and indoor office workers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Telomere shortening in blood leukocytes has been associated with increased morbidity and death from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but determinants of shortened telomeres, a molecular feature of biological aging, are still largely unidentified. Traffic pollution has been linked with both cardiovascular and cancer risks, particularly in older subjects. Whether exposure to traffic pollution is associated with telomere shortening has never been evaluated. Methods We measured leukocyte telomere length (LTL) by real-time PCR in blood DNA from 77 traffic officers exposed to high levels of traffic pollutants and 57 office workers (referents). Airborne benzene and toluene, as tracers for traffic exposure, were measured using personal passive samplers and gas-chromatography/flame-ionization detector analysis. We used covariate-adjusted multivariable models to test the effects of the exposure on LTL and obtain adjusted LTL means and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs). Results Adjusted mean LTL was 1.10 (95%CI 1.04-1.16) in traffic officers and 1.27 in referents (95%CI 1.20-1.35) [p < 0.001]. LTL decreased in association with age in both traffic officers (p = 0.01) and referents (p = 0.001), but traffic officers had shorter LTL within each age category. Among traffic officers, adjusted mean relative LTL was shorter in individuals working in high (n = 45, LTL = 1.02, 95%CI 0.96-1.09) compared to low traffic intensity (n = 32, LTL = 1.22, 95%CI 1.13-1.31) [p < 0.001]. In the entire study population, LTL decreased with increasing levels of personal exposure to benzene (p = 0.004) and toluene (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our results indicate that leukocyte telomere length is shortened in subjects exposed to traffic pollution, suggesting evidence of early biological aging and disease risk. PMID:19772576

  7. Assessing the Impact of Local Agency Traffic Safety Training Using Ethnographic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colling, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic crashes are a significant source of loss of life, personal injury and financial expense in the United States. In 2008 there were 37,261 people killed and an estimated 2,346,000 people injured nationwide in motor vehicle traffic crashes. State and federal agencies are beginning to focus traffic safety improvement effort on local agency…

  8. The Evaluation of Alternative Exposure Metrics for Traffic-related Air Pollutant Exposure in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transportation plays an important role in the modern society but can cause significant health impacts. To quantify the associated health impacts, an appropriate traffic-related air pollution exposure metric is required. In this study, we evaluate the suitability of four exposure ...

  9. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH: BEYOND PROXIMITY TO MAJOR ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Previous studies of the respiratory health impact of mobile source air pollutants on

    children have relied heavily on simple exposure metrics such as proximity to roadways and traffic

    density near the home or school. Few studies have conducted area-wide...

  10. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth) Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose–response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013). Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose–response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011. PMID:26676071

  11. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...

  12. Health effects of metropolitan traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongtip, P.; Thongsuk, W.; Yoosook, W.; Chantanakul, S.

    Traffic-related air pollutants are a commonly important source of air pollution. Research on the effects of multiple traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors is scarce. This study evaluated the health effect of traffic-related air pollutants in street vendors. It was designed as a panel study, covering 61 d of data collection, on the daily concentration of air pollutants and daily percentage of respiratory and other health symptoms reported. An adjusted odds ratio was used to estimate the risk of developing respiratory and other adverse health symptoms for street vendors exposed to multiple air pollutants, fine particulate (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), ozone (O 3), carbon monoxide (CO) and total volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), after controlling for confounding factors. In the first model, significant associations were found with the adjusted odds ratios of 1.022 and 1.027 for eye irritation and dizziness for PM 2.5 respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of total VOCs was 1.381 for phlegm, 4.840 for chest tightness and 1.429 for upper respiratory symptoms, and the adjusted odds ratio for CO was 1.748 for a sore throat and 1.880 for a cold and 1.655 for a cough. In the second model, the effect of PM 2.5, total VOCs and CO gave a slightly lower effect with the symptoms. The results clearly show the health effects of traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors, and imply suggestions about how to reduce exposure of street vendors.

  13. Air pollution exposure monitoring and estimation. Part V. Traffic exposure in adults.

    PubMed

    Bartonova, A; Clench-Aas, J; Gram, F; Grønskei, K E; Guerreiro, C; Larssen, S; Tønnesen, D A; Walker, S E

    1999-08-01

    In Oslo, traffic has been one of the dominating sources of air pollution in the last decade. In one part of the city where most traffic collects, two tunnels were built. A series of before and after studies was carried out in connection with the tunnels in use. Dispersion models were used as a basis for estimating exposure to nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter in two fractions. Exposure estimates were based on the results of the dispersion model providing estimates of outdoor pollutant concentrations on an hourly basis. The estimates represent concentrations in receptor points and in a square kilometre grid. The estimates were used to assess development of air pollution load in the area, compliance with air quality guidelines, and to provide a basis for quantifying exposure-effect relationships in epidemiological studies. After both tunnels were taken in use, the pollution levels in the study area were lower than when the traffic was on the surface (a drop from 50 to 40 micrograms m-3). Compliance with air quality guidelines and other prescribed values has improved, even if high exposures still exist. The most important residential areas are now much less exposed, while areas around tunnel openings can be in periods exposed to high pollutant concentrations. The daily pattern of exposure shows smaller differences between peak and minimum concentrations than prior to the traffic changes. Exposures at home (in the investigation area) were reduced most, while exposures in other locations than at home showed only a small decrease. Highest hourly exposures are encountered in traffic. PMID:11529132

  14. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended. PMID:25670023

  15. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended. PMID:25670023

  16. Influence of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions on PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Lonardo, Sara; Tartaglia, Mario; Vagnoli, Carolina; Zaldei, Alessandro; Gioli, Beniamino

    2015-12-01

    The importance of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions as major drivers of urban PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes has been assessed in the city of Florence (Italy) during the winter season. The most significant meteorological variables (wind speed and atmospheric stability) explained 80.5-85.5% of PM10 concentrations variance, while a marginal role was played by major emission sources such as residential heating (12.1%) and road traffic (5.7%). The persistence of low wind speeds and unstable atmospheric conditions was the leading factor controlling PM10 during critical episodes. A specific PM10 critical episode was analysed, following a snowstorm that caused a "natural" scenario of 2-day dramatic road traffic abatement (-43%), and a massive (up to +48%) and persistent (8 consecutive days) increase in residential heating use. Even with such a strong variability in local PM10 emissions, the role of meteorological conditions was prominent, revealing that short-term traffic restrictions are insufficient countermeasures to reduce the health impacts and risks of PM10 critical episodes, while efforts should be made to anticipate those measures by linking them with air quality and weather forecasts. PMID:26233744

  17. Variation of Site Specific Pollutants with Vehicular Traffic in New Delhi: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, S.; Shukla, A.

    2014-12-01

    Delhi, capital of India, is one of the most important polluted urban areas in the world. With a population of about 16 million, and an annual average growth rate of 3.85%, a rapidly increasing number of vehicles (more than 7.4 million, with an annual average growth rate of 7.27%, as reported by the Economic Survey of Delhi, 2012-2013), Delhi is facing an aggressive rise in vehicular pollution. Ground-level traffic vehicles in Delhi are typically natural gas fueled, gasoline fueled or diesel-fueled. The traffic-related air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), lead (Pb), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)] have huge impact on the health of the population given high exposure risk for daily commuters. We conducted on-roadway ambient monitoring on National Highway-2 (NH-2; Delhi-Mathura Road), on the southeast outer zone of Delhi represented by heterogeneous traffic during heavy traffic hours in the morning and early evening, with varying vehicle speeds ranging 35-60 km/h. Ambient levels of PM2.5, PM10, O3, NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and certain VOCs (benzene, xylene, ethylbenze) were recorded. In addition, traffic volume count surveys were carried out to record the number of vehicles in different hours of the day, moving across the count point during a given time. Specific traffic volume counts were also conducted at the location to understand the flow of traffic. Vehicle counts classified the vechicles into separate categories: buses (9.1%), trucks (9.2%), cars (41.6%), two-wheelers (30.3%), auto-rickshaws (6%) and other non-motorized traffic (3.9%). Statistical models have been developed to predict on-roadway pollutant concentrations in terms of specific vehicle counts, and weather parameters (temperature, wind speed). Results suggest that two-wheelers and auto-rickshaws significantly impact PM concentrations. Concentrations of BC are a

  18. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.

    PubMed

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control. PMID:23393990

  19. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway.

    PubMed

    Patton, Allison P; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L

    2014-12-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (<400 m) and background areas (>1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km(2). Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near

  20. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-12-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in neighborhoods along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (<400 m) and background areas (>1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Spearman correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient

  1. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (<400 m) and background areas (>1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near

  2. Traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gongbo; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan; Zou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer in order to provide evidence for control of traffic-related air pollution. Methods Several databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. The quality of articles obtained was evaluated by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Statistical analysis, including pooling effective sizes and confidential intervals, was performed. Results A total of 1106 records were obtained through the database and 36 studies were included in our analysis. Among the studies included, 14 evaluated the association between ambient exposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer and 22 studies involved occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers. Twenty-two studies were marked A level regarding quality, 13 were B level, and one was C level. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (meta-odds ratio [OR]: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–1.13), nitrogen oxide (meta-OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07), sulfur dioxide (meta-OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05), and fine particulate matter (meta-OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00–1.22) were positively associated with a risk of lung cancer. Occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers significantly increased the incidence (meta-OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.19–1.36) and mortality of lung cancer (meta-OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.26). Conclusion Exposure to traffic-related air pollution significantly increased the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26273377

  3. Proximity to Traffic, Ambient Air Pollution, and Community Noise in Relation to Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Tamburic, Lillian; Davies, Hugh W.; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with living near traffic; however, there is evidence suggesting that air pollution may not be responsible for this association. Noise, another traffic-generated exposure, has not been studied as a risk factor for RA. Objectives: We investigated proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to RA in the Vancouver and Victoria regions of British Columbia, Canada. Methods: Cases and controls were identified in a cohort of adults that was assembled using health insurance registration records. Incident RA cases from 1999 through 2002 were identified by diagnostic codes in combination with prescriptions and type of physician (e.g., rheumatologist). Controls were matched to RA cases by age and sex. Environmental exposures were assigned to each member of the study population by their residential postal code(s). We estimated relative risks using conditional logistic regression, with additional adjustment for median income at the postal code. Results: RA incidence was increased with proximity to traffic, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.68) for residence ≤ 50 m from a highway compared with residence > 150 m away. We found no association with traffic-related exposures such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, or noise. Ground-level ozone, which was highest in suburban areas, was associated with an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36 per interquartile range increase). Conclusions: Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship. Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for RA. Citation: De Roos AJ, Koehoorn M, Tamburic L, Davies HW, Brauer M. 2014. Proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community

  4. A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution: application and testing in four contrasting urban environments.

    PubMed

    Briggs, D J; de Hoogh, C; Gulliver, J; Wills, J; Elliott, P; Kingham, S; Smallbone, K

    2000-05-15

    Accurate, high-resolution maps of traffic-related air pollution are needed both as a basis for assessing exposures as part of epidemiological studies, and to inform urban air-quality policy and traffic management. This paper assesses the use of a GIS-based, regression mapping technique to model spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution. The model--developed using data from 80 passive sampler sites in Huddersfield, as part of the SAVIAH (Small Area Variations in Air Quality and Health) project--uses data on traffic flows and land cover in the 300-m buffer zone around each site, and altitude of the site, as predictors of NO2 concentrations. It was tested here by application in four urban areas in the UK: Huddersfield (for the year following that used for initial model development), Sheffield, Northampton, and part of London. In each case, a GIS was built in ArcInfo, integrating relevant data on road traffic, urban land use and topography. Monitoring of NO2 was undertaken using replicate passive samplers (in London, data were obtained from surveys carried out as part of the London network). In Huddersfield, Sheffield and Northampton, the model was first calibrated by comparing modelled results with monitored NO2 concentrations at 10 randomly selected sites; the calibrated model was then validated against data from a further 10-28 sites. In London, where data for only 11 sites were available, validation was not undertaken. Results showed that the model performed well in all cases. After local calibration, the model gave estimates of mean annual NO2 concentrations within a factor of 1.5 of the actual mean (approx. 70-90%) of the time and within a factor of 2 between 70 and 100% of the time. r2 values between modelled and observed concentrations are in the range of 0.58-0.76. These results are comparable to those achieved by more sophisticated dispersion models. The model also has several advantages over dispersion modelling. It is able, for example, to provide

  5. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  6. Traffic-related air pollution and risk for leukaemia of an adult population.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution causes lung cancer, but associations with other cancers have not been established. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with the risk of the general population for leukaemia. We identified 1,967 people in whom leukaemia was diagnosed in 1992-2010 from a nation-wide cancer registry and selected 3,381 control people at random, matched on sex and year of birth, from the entire Danish population. Residential addresses since 1971 were traced in a population registry, and outdoor concentrations of NOx and NO2 , as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, were calculated at each address in a dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the risk for leukaemia after adjustment for income, educational level, cohabitation status and co-morbidity. In linear analyses, we found odds ratios for acute myeloid leukaemia of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.38) per 20 µg/m(3) increase in NOx and 1.31 (1.02-1.68) per 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2 , calculated as time-weighted average exposure at all addresses since 1971. We found no association with chronic myeloid or lymphocytic leukaemia. This study indicates an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute myeloid leukaemia in the general population, but not for other subtypes of leukaemia. PMID:26415047

  7. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas (p < 0.05). In contrast, no statically significant difference in Pla or 2 protein and mRNA expression level was found between samples from the two areas. We found greater expression of allergens involved in plant defense mechanisms (Pla or 1 and Pla or 3) in polluted sites than in unpolluted ones. The high expression of these proteins can lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. These findings suggest the necessity of supporting public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.

  8. Traffic-related air pollution. A pilot exposure assessment in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Borgie, Mireille; Garat, Anne; Cazier, Fabrice; Delbende, Agnes; Allorge, Delphine; Ledoux, Frederic; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz; Dagher, Zeina

    2014-02-01

    Traffic-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution has frequently been demonstrated to be a serious problem in the developing countries. Benzene and 1,3-butadiene (BD) have been classified as a human carcinogen based on evidence for an increased genotoxic and epigenotoxic effects in both occupational exposure assessment and in vivo/in vitro studies. We have undertaken a biomonitoring of 25 traffic policemen and 23 office policemen in Beirut, through personal air monitoring, assessed by diffusive samplers, as well as through the use of biomarkers of exposure to benzene and BD. Personal benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) exposure were quantified by GC-MS/MS, urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) by HPLC/UV, S-phenyl mercapturic acid (S-PMA), monohydroxy-butenyl mercapturic acid (MHBMA) and dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (DHBMA) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI(-)-MS/MS) in MRM (Multiple Reaction Monitoring) mode. We found that individual exposure to benzene in the traffic policemen was higher than that measured in traffic policemen in Prague, in Bologna, in Ioannina and in Bangkok. t,t-MA levels could distinguish between office and traffic policemen. However, median MHBMA levels in traffic policemen were slightly elevated, though not significantly higher than in office policemen. Alternatively, DHBMA concentrations could significantly distinguish between office and traffic policemen and showed a better correlation with personal total BTEX exposure. DHMBA, measured in the post-shift urine samples, correlated with both pre-shift MHMBA and pre-shift DHMBA. Moreover, there was not a marked effect of smoking habits on DHBMA. Taken together, these findings suggested that DHBMA is more suitable than MHBMA as biomarker of exposure to BD in humans. Traffic policemen, who are exposed to benzene and BD at the roadside in central Beirut, are potentially at a higher risk for development of

  9. High Resolution Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Harbin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle traffic is one of the most significant emission sources of air pollutants in urban areas. While the influence of mobile source emissions is felt throughout an urban area, concentrations from mobile emissions can be highest near major roadways. At present, information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns and the share of pollution attributable to traffic-related air pollutants is limited, in part due to concentrations that fall sharply with distance from roadways, as well as the few monitoring sites available in cities. This study uses a newly developed dispersion model (RLINE) and a spatially and temporally resolved emissions inventory to predict hourly PM2.5 and NOx concentrations across Detroit (MI, USA) at very high spatial resolution. Results for annual averages and high pollution days show contrasting patterns, the need for spatially resolved analyses, and the limitations of surrogate metrics like proximity or distance to roads. Data requirements, computational and modeling issues are discussed. High resolution pollutant data enable the identification of pollutant “hotspots”, “project-level” analyses of transportation options, development of exposure measures for epidemiology studies, delineation of vulnerable and susceptible populations, policy analyses examining risks and benefits of mitigation options, and the development of sustainability indicators integrating environmental, social, economic and health information. PMID:25837345

  10. [Modeling the vehicle pollution in the urban streets before and during the Beijing Olympic Games traffic control period].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Xie, Shao-dong

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate the vehicle pollution situation in the streets in Beijing and the abatement during the Olympic Games, the OSPM model was applied to calculate the concentrations of PM10, CO, NO2 and O3 inside the urban streets of Beijing before and during the Olympic traffic controlling period in July, 2008. The modeled concentrations before the traffic control are 146 micog/m3, 3.83 mg/m3, 114.4 microg/m3 and 4.71 x 10(-1), while after the traffic control are 112 microg/m3, 3.16 mg/m3, 102.4 microg/m3 and 5.31 x 10(-9) , with the reduction rates of 23.4%, 20.5%, 10.5% and -12.5%, respectively. The research on these concentration changes and the daily variations of the pollutants reveals: the concentration of PM10 is most influenced by the traffic control; the concentration of CO presents the most similar daily variation with the traffic flow; the reduction of NO2 concentration is limited, indicating the influence of other factors other than the traffic emission; the concentration of O3 increases after the traffic control, which means the traffic management measures can not abate the O3 pollution in the street. Furthermore, the comparison between the calculation results in different types of street canyons reveals that the fleet composition and street geometry impact the concentration changes. In a word, the vehicle pollution inside the streets of Beijing before the traffic control is relatively serious, as the concentrations of PM10, CO and NO2, all approach or exceed the Grade II National Air Quality Standard; the traffic control measures take effect in reducing the primary pollutants, but the secondary pollutants may increase after the traffic control. PMID:20358809

  11. Local and transported pollution over San Diego, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.; Tanner, R. L.; Valente, R. J.; Bairai, S. T.; Koracin, D.; Gertler, A. W.

    Ten air-quality samplings flights were performed over the San Diego metropolitan area during July 2003. One of the objectives of these flights was to assess the contribution of the offshore pollution sources (civilian and military vessels) to the air quality in the region. The flights, which took place during the mid-day hours in the lower levels of the boundary layer, originated offshore and proceeded eastwards through a series of concentric arcs covering an area of approximately 600 km 2. The data from the continuous gas analyzers were translated to image plots that enabled the determination of the impact of the various sources on air quality. The results revealed that the offshore sources could often be detected (at least during five of the 10 flights) from their SO 2 plume. However, the area covered by these plumes and the concentrations were significantly lower than those measured over other parts of the domain due to sources south of the region. It was further observed that vehicular traffic contributed in a major source way to the formation of ozone. During most flights the pollution cloud, originating over the high traffic area in the vicinity of the downtown area, could be tracked 'downwind' until the completion of the photochemical processing. By then, most of the NO X had been converted to NO Z, and peak O 3 levels caused by the local emissions had started to ebb. Also, during most flights boundary layer peak levels of O 3 exceeded 100 ppbv, and in one case were above 140 ppbv.

  12. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. Methods We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993–1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Mean levels of NO2 at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.51, per doubling of NO2 concentration) and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23, per doubling of NO2 concentration) after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate < 200 g of fruit and vegetables per day, the MRR was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.13–1.87) for mortality from cardiovascular disease and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.11–1.42) for mortality from all causes. Conclusions Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:22950554

  13. Traffic-related Air Pollution and the Right Ventricle. The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joel D.; Barr, R. Graham; Bluemke, David A.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Hough, Catherine L.; Lima, Joao A.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Van Hee, Victor C.; Kawut, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Right heart failure is a cause of morbidity and mortality in common and rare heart and lung diseases. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is linked to left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and death. Relationships between traffic-related air pollution and right ventricular (RV) structure and function have not been studied. Objectives: To characterize the relationship between traffic-related air pollutants and RV structure and function. Methods: We included men and women with magnetic resonance imaging assessment of RV structure and function and estimated residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a study of individuals free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Multivariable linear regression estimated associations between NO2 exposure (averaged over the year prior to magnetic resonance imaging) and measures of RV structure and function after adjusting for demographics, anthropometrics, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Adjustment for corresponding left ventricular parameters, traffic-related noise, markers of inflammation, and lung disease were considered in separate models. Secondary analyses considered oxides of nitrogen (NOx) as the exposure. Measurements and Main Results: The study sample included 3,896 participants. In fully adjusted models, higher NO2 was associated with greater RV mass and larger RV end-diastolic volume with or without further adjustment for corresponding left ventricular parameters, traffic-related noise, inflammatory markers, or lung disease (all P < 0.05). There was no association between NO2 and RV ejection fraction. Relationships between NOx and RV morphology were similar. Conclusions: Higher levels of NO2 exposure were associated with greater RV mass and larger RV end-diastolic volume. PMID:24593877

  14. A numerical and experimental study of pollutant dispersion in a traffic tunnel.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chung-Yi; Chung, Pei-Ling

    2007-07-01

    Three-dimensional turbulent flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a road tunnel was modeled using the standard k-epsilon turbulence model and solved numerically using the finite volume method. Vehicle emissions were estimated from the measured traffic flow rates and modeled as banded line sources along the tunnel floor. The effects of fan ventilation and piston effect of moving vehicles on the airflow and pollutant dilution were examined. The numerical results reveal that a peak velocity exists near the tunnel floor due to the piston effect of vehicles. The cross-sectional concentrations of air pollutants are non-uniformly distributed and concentrations rise with downstream distance. The piston effect of vehicles can alone provide 25%-34% dilution of air pollutants in the tunnel, compounded 43%-70% dilution effect according to the ventilation condition. PMID:17057955

  15. T-wave Alternans, Air Pollution and Traffic in High-risk Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Stone, Peter H; Speizer, Frank E; Schwartz, Joel D; Coull, Brent A; Suh, Helen H; Nearing, Bruce D; Mittleman, Murray A; Verrier, Richard L; Gold, Diane R

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution has been linked to risk of cardiac death; possible mechanisms include pollution-related increases in cardiac electrical instability. T-wave alternans (TWA) is a marker of cardiac electrical instability measured as differences in the magnitude between adjacent T waves. In a repeated-measures study of 48 patients aged 43-75 years, we investigated associations of ambient and home indoor particulate pollution including black carbon (BC) and report of traffic exposure, with changes in half-hourly maximum TWA (TWA-MAX), measured by 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram monitoring. Each patient was observed up to 4 times within one year after percutaneous intervention for myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome without infarction, or stable coronary artery disease for a total of 5,830 half-hour observations. Diary data for each half-hour period defined whether the patient was home or not home, or in traffic. Increases in TWA-MAX were independently associated both with the previous 2-h mean ambient BC (2.1%; 95% C.I.: 0.9-3.3) and with being in traffic in the previous 2 hours (6.1%; 95% C.I.: 3.4-8.8). When subjects were home, indoor home BC effects were largest and most precise; when subjects were away from home, ambient central site BC effects were strongest. Increases in pollution increased the odds of TWA-MAX ≥ 75th percentile (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 for 1 μg/m3 increase in 6-h mean BC). In conclusion, following hospitalization for coronary artery disease, being in traffic, and short-term ambient or indoor BC exposures increase TWA, a marker of cardiac electrical instability. PMID:19699342

  16. Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS).

    PubMed

    Napier, F; Jefferies, C; Heal, K V; Fogg, P; Arcy, B J D; Clarke, R

    2009-01-01

    SUDS are being increasingly employed to control highway runoff and have the potential to protect groundwater and surface water quality by minimising the risks of both point and diffuse sources of pollution. While these systems are effective at retaining polluted solids by filtration and sedimentation processes, less is known of the detail of pollutant behaviour within SUDS structures. This paper reports on investigations carried out as part of a co-ordinated programme of controlled studies and field measurements at soft-engineered SUDS undertaken in the UK, observing the accumulation and behaviour of traffic-related heavy metals, oil and PAHs. The field data presented were collected from two extended detention basins serving the M74 motorway in the south-west of Scotland. Additional data were supplied from an experimental lysimeter soil core leaching study. Results show that basin design influences pollutant accumulation and behaviour in the basins. Management and/or control strategies are discussed for reducing the impact of traffic-related pollutants on the aqueous environment. PMID:19587419

  17. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs—Noise maps and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, Paulo Eduardo Kirrian; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2015-02-15

    A study was made of some of the main traffic hubs in a Latin American metropolis, in order to determine the presence or absence of noise by means of noise measurements and acoustic mapping. To characterize noise in the evaluated road stretches, 232 measurements were taken at different points. The Predictor software package was used for the noise mapping calculations. Noise sensitive areas, e.g., hospitals, were identified in the evaluated road stretches. Noise maps were calculated for two hospitals, showing the current levels of noise that reach their facades. Hypothetical scenarios were simulated by making changes in the composition of traffic and total number of vehicles, and an assessment was made of the potential influence of these modifications in reducing the noise levels reaching the facades of the buildings in question. The simulations indicated that a 50% reduction in total traffic flow, or a 50% reduction in heavy vehicle traffic flow, would reduce the noise levels by about 3 dB(A). - Highlights: • Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs • Street systems • Environmental noise impacts • Noise mapping.

  18. Biomagnetic monitoring of traffic air pollution in Toulouse (France) using magnetic properties of tree bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macouin, M.; Rousse, S.; Brulfert, F.; Durand, M.; Feida, N.; Durand, X.; Becaud, L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic properties of various atmospheric samples represent rapid and economic proxies in the pollution studies based on their strong linkage to heavy metals and/or volatile organic carbons. We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Toulouse (France) based on the magnetic properties of tree (Platanus acerifolia) bark. More than 250 bark samples were taken at different areas of the city. Both mass specific magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) at 1 Tesla display relationships with the traffic intensity and the distance to the road. Urban roadside tree bark exhibit significant enhancement in their values of susceptibility and IRM reflecting surface accumulation of particulate pollutants, compared with tree growing at lower traffic sites. To estimate the deposition time and accumulation on bark, we have deposited 20 "clean" bark samples from low traffic area with susceptibility inferior to 10 SI, near the city ring road. Samples were then collected during three months. Samples were imparted a 1 Tesla IRM both prior the deposition and after the resampling. Results are useful to apprehend the process of magnetic particulates accumulation and to evaluate the potential of tree bark for the air quality monitoring.

  19. Redistribution of traffic related air pollution associated with a new road tunnel.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Christine T; Rose, Nectarios; Gillett, Robert; Walter, Scott; Marks, Guy B

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a new road tunnel on the concentration and distribution of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), specifically nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM), and to determine its relationship to change in traffic flow. We used continuously recorded data from four monitoring stations at nonroadside locations within the study area and three regional monitors outside the area. The four monitors in the study area were in background locations where smaller pollutant changes were expected compared with changes near the bypassed main road. We also deployed passive samplers to assess finer spatial variability in NO(2) including application of a land use regression model (LUR). The study was conducted from 2006 to 2008. Analysis of the continuously recorded data showed that the tunnel intervention did not lead to consistent reductions in NO(2) or PM over the wider study area. However, there were significant decreases in NO(2), NO(x), and PM(10) in the eastern section of the study area. Analysis of passive sampler data indicated that the greatest reductions in NO(2) concentrations occurred within 100 m of the bypassed main road. The LUR model also demonstrated that changes in NO(2) were most marked adjacent to the bypassed main road. These findings support the use of methods that highlight fine spatial variability in TRAP and demonstrate the utility of traffic interventions in reducing air pollution exposures for populations living close to main roads. PMID:22289123

  20. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. A Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect of Roadway Configurations on the Dispersion of Traffic-Related Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we examine the effect of different roadway configurations, including noise barriers and roadway elevation or depression relative to surrounding terrain, on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants from winds perpendicular to the roadway.

  2. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Adolfsson, Annelie Nordin; Lind, Nina; Modig, Lars; Nordin, Maria; Nordin, Steven; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia. Objectives We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden. Methods Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed using a land-use regression model with a spatial resolution of 50 m × 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) were used as markers for long-term exposure to air pollution. Results Out of 1,806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the group with the highest exposure were more likely than those in the group with the lowest exposure to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.998, 2.05 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer’s disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated with the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A subanalysis that excluded a younger sample that had been retested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than were present in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). Conclusions If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Citation Oudin A, Forsberg B, Nordin Adolfsson A, Lind N, Modig L, Nordin M, Nordin S, Adolfsson R, Nilsson LG. 2016. Traffic

  3. Numerical evaluation of the effect of traffic pollution on indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsang-Jung

    2002-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics technique was used to evaluate the effect of traffic pollution on indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building for various ventilation control strategies. The transport of street-level nonreactive pollutants emitted from motor vehicles through the indoor environment was simulated using the large eddy simulation (LES) of the turbulent flows and the pollutant transport equations. The numerical model developed herein was verified by available wind-tunnel measurements. Good agreement with the measured velocity and concentration data was found. Twelve sets of numerical scenario simulations for various roof- and side-vent openness and outdoor wind speeds were carried out. The effects of the air change rate, the indoor airflow pattern, and the external pollutant dispersion on indoor air quality were investigated. The control strategies of ventilation rates and paths for reducing incoming vehicle pollutants and maintaining a desirable air change rate are proposed to reduce the impact of outdoor traffic pollution during traffic rush hours. It was concluded that the windward side vent is a significant factor contributing to air change rate and indoor air quality. Air intakes on the leeward side of the building can effectively reduce the peak and average indoor concentration of traffic pollutants, but the corresponding air change rate is relatively low. Using the leeward cross-flow ventilation with the windward roof vent can effectively lower incoming vehicle pollutants and maintain a desirable air change rate during traffic rush hours. PMID:12269665

  4. Synergistic Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Exposure to Violence on Urban Asthma Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane E.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Ryan, P. Barry; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Canner, Marina Jacobson; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Disproportionate life stress and consequent physiologic alteration (i.e., immune dysregulation) has been proposed as a major pathway linking socioeconomic position, environmental exposures, and health disparities. Asthma, for example, disproportionately affects lower-income urban communities, where air pollution and social stressors may be elevated. Objectives We aimed to examine the role of exposure to violence (ETV), as a chronic stressor, in altering susceptibility to traffic-related air pollution in asthma etiology. Methods We developed geographic information systems (GIS)–based models to retrospectively estimate residential exposures to traffic-related pollution for 413 children in a community-based pregnancy cohort, recruited in East Boston, Massachusetts, between 1987 and 1993, using monthly nitrogen dioxide measurements for 13 sites over 18 years. We merged pollution estimates with questionnaire data on lifetime ETV and examined the effects of both on childhood asthma etiology. Results Correcting for potential confounders, we found an elevated risk of asthma with a 1-SD (4.3 ppb) increase in NO2 exposure solely among children with above-median ETV [odds ratio (OR) = 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14–2.33)]. Among children always living in the same community, with lesser exposure measurement error, this association was magnified (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.48–3.88). Of multiple exposure periods, year-of-diagnosis NO2 was most predictive of asthma outcomes. Conclusions We found an association between traffic-related air pollution and asthma solely among urban children exposed to violence. Future studies should consider socially patterned susceptibility, common spatial distributions of social and physical environmental factors, and potential synergies among these. Prospective assessment of physical and social exposures may help determine causal pathways and critical exposure periods. PMID:17687439

  5. Predicting traffic-related air pollution in Los Angeles using a distance decay regression selection strategy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernardo; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) has emerged as an effective means of estimating exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies. We created the first LUR models of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the complex megalopolis of Los Angeles (LA), California. Two-hundred and one sampling sites (the largest sampling design to date for LUR estimation) for two seasons were selected using a location-allocation algorithm that maximized the potential variability in measured pollutant concentrations and represented populations in the health study. Traffic volumes, truck routes and road networks, land use data, satellite-derived vegetation greenness and soil brightness, and truck route slope gradients were used for predicting NOx concentrations. A novel model selection strategy known as “ADDRESS” (A Distance Decay REgression Selection Strategy) was used to select optimized buffer distances for potential predictor variables and maximize model performance. Final regression models explained 81%, 86% and 85% of the variance in measured NO, NO2 and NOx concentrations, respectively. Cross-validation analyses suggested a prediction accuracy of 87–91%. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with NOx concentrations, suggesting these data are useful surrogates for modeling traffic-related pollution when certain land use data are unavailable. Our study also demonstrated that reactive pollutants such as NO and NO2 could have high spatial extents of influence (e.g., > 5000 m from expressway) and high background concentrations in certain geographic areas. This paper represents the first attempt to model traffic-related air pollutants at a fine scale within such a complex and large urban region. PMID:19540476

  6. Predicting traffic-related air pollution in Los Angeles using a distance decay regression selection strategy.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernardo; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Ritz, Beate

    2009-08-01

    Land use regression (LUR) has emerged as an effective means of estimating exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies. We created the first LUR models of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) for the complex megalopolis of Los Angeles (LA), California. Two-hundred and one sampling sites (the largest sampling design to date for LUR estimation) for two seasons were selected using a location-allocation algorithm that maximized the potential variability in measured pollutant concentrations and represented populations in the health study. Traffic volumes, truck routes and road networks, land use data, satellite-derived vegetation greenness and soil brightness, and truck route slope gradients were used for predicting NOX concentrations. A novel model selection strategy known as "ADDRESS" (A Distance Decay REgression Selection Strategy) was used to select optimized buffer distances for potential predictor variables and maximize model performance. Final regression models explained 81%, 86% and 85% of the variance in measured NO, NO2 and NOX concentrations, respectively. Cross-validation analyses suggested a prediction accuracy of 87-91%. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with NOX concentrations, suggesting these data are useful surrogates for modeling traffic-related pollution when certain land use data are unavailable. Our study also demonstrated that reactive pollutants such as NO and NO2 could have high spatial extents of influence (e.g., > 5000 m from expressway) and high background concentrations in certain geographic areas. This paper represents the first attempt to model traffic-related air pollutants at a fine scale within such a complex and large urban region. PMID:19540476

  7. Towards a monitoring strategy to assess the anthropogenic signature of traffic derived pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, G.; Appel, E.; Magiera, T.; Wawer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination along roadsides is one important factor of anthropogenic linear pollution source. In our present study we focus on typical traffic pollutants like heavy metals (HM), platinum group elements (PGEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and investigate the use of magnetic parameters, in particular to discriminate the distribution of contaminants by surface runoff, splash-water and airborne transport. For monitoring we removed 10-15 cm of top soil at 1 m distance from the roadside edge and replaced it by 30 plastic boxes, and installed pillars at 1 m and 2 m distances to the roadside with samplers in different heights (ground, 0.5 m, 2 m) as well as 4 m long u-channels (surface and 2.5 cm above ground) perpendicular to the road. Clean quartz sand was used as collector material. Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) and the concentration of pollutants (HM, PAH) all show a significant increase with time in the box samples, however, there are obviously also seasonal and site-dependent effects which lead to more stable values over several months or even some decrease in the upper few cm due to vertical migration. Similar significant differences of χ, PAH and HM concentrations and an importance of splash-water were noticed in pillars and u-channels within one year of monitoring. Magnetic results revealed that magnetite-like phases are responsible for the enhancement of magnetic concentration. A good correlation between χ and semi-volatile and particle-bound PAH phases as well as HM suggests that χ can be used as a proxy for traffic derived PAH and HM pollution. SEM observations and EDX analyses identified a dominance of angular and aggregates-shaped particles with composition of Fe-Cr-Ni derived from traffic-specific activities (abrasion of tyres, exhausts and brake linings). The results from our monitoring studies will be utilized to develop new innovative roadside pollution monitoring concepts.

  8. Using mobile monitoring to visualise diurnal variation of traffic pollutants across two near-highway neighbourhoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattinson, Woodrow; Longley, Ian; Kingham, Simon

    2014-09-01

    It is widely accepted that concentrations of primary traffic pollutants can vary substantially across relatively small urban areas. Fixed-site monitors have been shown to be largely inadequate for representing concentrations at nearby locations, resulting in the increasing use of spatial modelling or mobile sampling methods to achieve spatial saturation. In this study, we employ the use of a simple bicycle to sample concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM10) at two small areas (<2.5 km2) in South Auckland, New Zealand. Portable instruments were mounted inside a custom-built casing at the front of the bicycle and every street within each study area was sampled in a grid-like fashion, at four times of day (07:00, 12:00, 17:00 and 22:00). Each area has a six-lane highway running through its centre and the core aim was to visualise and describe spatial variability of pollutant levels about the highway, main arterials and quieter streets, at periods of contrasting meteorological and traffic conditions. A total of 20 sampling runs in each area (five at each of the four timings) were conducted. Meteorological data were logged continuously at background sites within each study area. Results show that the influence of highway traffic (UFPs, CO) was strongest during the mornings and late evenings when wind speeds were low, while for the midday and afternoon timings, concentrations were highest at the arterial and shopping zones. Concentrations of PM10 appeared to be strongest in the residential areas during mornings and late evenings, suggesting an influence of wood burning for home heating. For all timings combined, for all three pollutants, it appears the arterial roads featuring shops and numerous intersections with traffic lights, had a stronger influence on concentrations than the busier but more free-flowing highways. This study provides not only an insight into microspatial hotspot variation across suburbs, but

  9. TRP channels and traffic-related environmental pollution-induced pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Armen N.; Fanick, E. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollutant exposures are major risk factors for adverse health outcomes, with increased morbidity and mortality in humans. Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the major harmful components of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure to DE affects several physiological systems, including the airways, and pulmonary diseases are increased in highly populated urban areas. Hence, there are urgent needs to (1) create newer and lesser polluting fuels, (2) improve exhaust aftertreatments and reduce emissions, and (3) understand mechanisms of actions for toxic effects of both conventional and cleaner diesel fuels on the lungs. These steps could aid the development of diagnostics and interventions to prevent the negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on the pulmonary system. Exhaust from conventional, and to a lesser extent, clean fuels, contains particulate matter (PM) and more than 400 additional chemical constituents. The major toxic constituents are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PM and PAHs could potentially act via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In this review, we will first discuss the associations between DE from conventional as well as clean fuel technologies and acute and chronic airway inflammation. We will then review possible activation and/or potentiation of TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels by PM and PAHs. Finally, we will discuss and summarize recent findings on the mechanisms whereby TRPs could control the link between DE and airway inflammation, which is a primary determinant leading to pulmonary disease. PMID:26837756

  10. TRP channels and traffic-related environmental pollution-induced pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Akopian, Armen N; Fanick, E Robert; Brooks, Edward G

    2016-05-01

    Environmental pollutant exposures are major risk factors for adverse health outcomes, with increased morbidity and mortality in humans. Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the major harmful components of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure to DE affects several physiological systems, including the airways, and pulmonary diseases are increased in highly populated urban areas. Hence, there are urgent needs to (1) create newer and lesser polluting fuels, (2) improve exhaust aftertreatments and reduce emissions, and (3) understand mechanisms of actions for toxic effects of both conventional and cleaner diesel fuels on the lungs. These steps could aid the development of diagnostics and interventions to prevent the negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on the pulmonary system. Exhaust from conventional, and to a lesser extent, clean fuels, contains particulate matter (PM) and more than 400 additional chemical constituents. The major toxic constituents are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PM and PAHs could potentially act via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In this review, we will first discuss the associations between DE from conventional as well as clean fuel technologies and acute and chronic airway inflammation. We will then review possible activation and/or potentiation of TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels by PM and PAHs. Finally, we will discuss and summarize recent findings on the mechanisms whereby TRPs could control the link between DE and airway inflammation, which is a primary determinant leading to pulmonary disease. PMID:26837756

  11. Traffic pollution at the home address and pregnancy outcomes in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, David; Mogren, Ingrid; Eneroth, Kristina; Forsberg, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Background For the past two decades, several studies have reported associations between elevated levels of ambient air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, although with varying conclusions. Objectives To examine possible associations between the traffic pollution situation at the home address, for women who did not change address during pregnancy, and three types of pregnancy outcomes: spontaneous preterm delivery, children born small for gestational age (SGA) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. Methods We used data for the Greater Stockholm Area from the Swedish Medical Birth Register to construct a cohort based on all pregnancies conceived between July 1997 and March 2006, n=100 190. The pregnancy average nitrogen oxide, NOx, levels and annual mean daily vehicles at the home address were used as exposure variables. Mixed-model logistic regression was performed to assess any associations between exposure and outcome. Results There was an association between elevated traffic pollution exposure during pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the pregnancy average NOx level at the home address resulted in an OR of 1.17 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.26). The 2nd to 4th quartiles of NOx were all associated with an increased risk of SGA, but there was no difference in the risk estimate among the higher quartiles. There was a tendency of a higher risk of spontaneous preterm delivery in relation to higher levels of NOx. There was no evidence of an association between vehicle flow, the cruder indicator of traffic pollution, and the studied outcomes in this study. Conclusions In this large cohort, there was a fairly strong association between vehicle exhaust levels at the home address and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, after adjustment for important risk factors. PMID:26275899

  12. Biomonitoring of traffic air pollution in Rome using magnetic properties of tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Eva; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Winkler, Aldo; Cascella, Antonio

    We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Rome based on the magnetic properties of tree leaves. In a first step, magnetic properties of leaves from different tree species from the same location were compared. It was observed that leaves of evergreen species, like Quercus ilex, present much higher magnetic intensities than those of deciduous species, like Platanus sp., suggesting that leaves accumulate magnetic pollutants during their whole lifespan. In a second step, leaves from Q. ilex and Platanus sp. trees, both very common in Rome, have been used to monitor traffic emission pollution in two different periods. A Platanus sp. sampling campaign was undertaken in October 2001, at the end of the seasonal vegetational cycle, and 5 Q. ilex monthly sampling campaigns from April to August 2002. The strong difference observed in the magnetic susceptibility from leaves collected in green areas and roads allowed the realization of detailed pollution distribution maps from the south of Rome. Magnetic properties indicate that high concentrations and relatively larger grain-sizes of magnetic particles are observed in trees located along roads with high vehicle traffic and in the vicinity of railways. The decrease in concentration and grain size of magnetic particles with distance from the roadside confirms that magnetic properties of leaves are related to air pollution from vehicle emissions. The results indicate that a magnetic survey of tree leaves, which is relatively rapid and inexpensive, may be used in addition to the classical air quality monitoring systems to identify and delineate high-polluted areas in urban environments.

  13. Daily and seasonal variation of traffic related aerosol pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece, during the financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouitsis, Ilias; Amanatidis, Stavros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kelessis, Apostolos; Petrakakis, Maximos; Stamos, Iraklis; Mitsakis, Evangelos; Samaras, Zissis

    2015-12-01

    Airborne urban particulate and gaseous pollutants measurements were conducted at the kerbside of a busy road and at a nearby urban background site of Thessaloniki, Greece, during a winter and a summer period. The main objective was to observe how the financial crisis has affected the air quality in the city, compared to previous measurements. Compared to a study conducted in 2006, the current work suggests that although average concentrations at the traffic affected site remain higher that in the urban background station, the differences are much smaller than in the past. A number of observations suggest a scenario of decrease in traffic activity and increase in biomass burning for residential heating. On this basis, the results suggest that traffic may be less important as an air quality contributor in a financially hit city. On the contrary, domestic heating appears as a significant contributor and affects areas of the city that were earlier not being of environmental concern. Because of the impact of biomass burning in residential areas, exposure calculations are required to estimate whether traffic or biomass burning is the overall highest contributors to daily PM dosages that citizens of the city are exposed to.

  14. The modifying effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between traffic, air pollution and respiratory health in elementary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Jasmine D; Vanos, Jennifer

    2016-07-15

    The volume and type of traffic and exposure to air pollution have been found to be associated with respiratory health, but few studies have considered the interaction with socioeconomic status at the household level. We investigated the relationships of respiratory health related to traffic type, traffic volume, and air pollution, stratifying by socioeconomic status, based on household income and education, in 3591 schoolchildren in Windsor, Canada. Interquartile range changes in traffic exposure and pollutant levels were linked to respiratory symptoms and objective measures of lung function using generalised linear models for three levels of income and education. In 95% of the relationships among all cases, the odds ratios for reported respiratory symptoms (a decrease in measured lung function), based on an interquartile range change in traffic exposure or pollutant, were greater in the lower income/education groups than the higher, although the odds ratios were in most cases not significant. However, in up to 62% of the cases, the differences between high and low socioeconomic groups were statistically significant, thus indicating socioeconomic status (SES) as a significant effect modifier. Our findings indicate that children from lower socioeconomic households have a higher risk of specific respiratory health problems (chest congestion, wheezing) due to traffic volume and air pollution exposure. PMID:27064731

  15. The spatial relationship between traffic-generated air pollution and noise in 2 US cities☆

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ryan W.; Davies, Hugh; Cohen, Martin A.; Mallach, Gary; Kaufman, Joel D.; Adar, Sara D.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic-generated air pollution and noise have both been linked to cardiovascular morbidity. Since traffic is a shared source, there is potential for correlated exposures that may lead to confounding in epidemiologic studies. As part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), 2-week NO and NO2 concentrations were measured at up to 105 locations, selected primarily to characterize gradients near major roads, in each of 9 US communities. We measured 5-min A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) and ultrafine particle (UFP) counts at a subset of these NO/NO2 monitoring locations in Chicago, IL (N = 69 in December 2006; N = 36 in April 2007) and Riverside County, CA (N = 46 in April 2007). Leq and UFP were measured during non-“rush hour” periods (10:00–16:00) to maximize comparability between measurements. We evaluated roadway proximity exposure surrogates in relation to the measured levels, estimated noise–air pollution correlation coefficients, and evaluated the impact of regional-scale pollution gradients, wind direction, and roadway proximity on the correlations. Five-minute Leq measurements in December 2006 and April 2007 were highly correlated (r = 0.84), and measurements made at different times of day were similar (coefficients of variation: 0.5–13%), indicating that 5-min measurements are representative of long-term Leq. Binary and continuous roadway proximity metrics characterized Leq as well or better than NO or NO2. We found strong regional-scale gradients in NO and NO2, particularly in Chicago, but only weak regional-scale gradients in Leq and UFP. Leq was most consistently correlated with NO, but the correlations were moderate (0.20–0.60). After removing the influence of regional-scale gradients the correlations generally increased (Leq–NO: r = 0.49–0.62), and correlations downwind of major roads (Leq–NO: r = 0.53–0.74) were consistently higher than those upwind (0.35–0.65). There

  16. Nitric Oxide and Superoxide Mediate Diesel Particle Effects in Cytokine-Treated Mice and Murine Lung Epithelial Cells ─ Implications for Susceptibility to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: Epidemiologic studies associate childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution with increased respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The strongest associations between traffic exposure and negative health impacts are observed in in...

  17. Modeling exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the NEXUS respiratory health study of asthmatic children in Detroit, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-Road EXposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to investigate associations between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the respiratory health of asthmatic children living near major roadways in Detroit, MI. A combination of modeli...

  18. Meta-Analysis on Near-Road Air Pollutants Concentrations for Developing Traffic Indicators for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road air pollution has been associated with various health risks in human populations living near roadways. To better understand relationship between vehicle emissions and spatial profiles of traffic-related air pollutants we performed a comprehensive and systematic literat...

  19. The association between greenness and traffic-related air pollution at schools.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Rivas, Ioar; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Su, Jason; De Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Amato, Fulvio; Jerret, Michael; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Greenness has been reported to improve mental and physical health. Reduction in exposure to air pollution has been suggested to underlie the health benefits of greenness; however, the available evidence on the mitigating effect of greenness on air pollution remains limited and inconsistent. We investigated the association between greenness within and surrounding school boundaries and monitored indoor and outdoor levels of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) including NO2, ultrafine particles, black carbon, and traffic-related PM2.5 at 39 schools across Barcelona, Spain, in 2012. TRAP levels at schools were measured twice during two one-week campaigns separated by 6months. Greenness within and surrounding school boundaries was measured as the average of satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within boundaries of school and a 50m buffer around the school, respectively. Mixed effects models were used to quantify the associations between school greenness and TRAP levels, adjusted for relevant covariates. Higher greenness within and surrounding school boundaries was consistently associated with lower indoor and outdoor TRAP levels. Reduction in indoor TRAP levels was partly mediated by the reduction in outdoor TRAP levels. We also observed some suggestions for stronger associations between school surrounding greenness and outdoor TRAP levels for schools with higher number of trees around them. Our observed reduction of TRAP levels at schools associated with school greenness can be of public importance, considering the burden of health effects of exposure to TRAPs in schoolchildren. PMID:25862991

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Risk of Early Childhood Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C.; Heck, Julia E.; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression–based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:23989198

  1. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C; Heck, Julia E; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-15

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression-based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:23989198

  2. Manganese pollution in the city environment and its relationship to traffic density.

    PubMed

    Joselow, M M; Tobias, E; Koehler, R; Coleman, S; Bogden, J; Gause, D

    1978-06-01

    As lead is phased out of gasoline, other additives with anti-knock properties, particularly organic manganese compounds, are being substituted. Unavoidably, such compounds go through the combustion process, are eliminated in exhaust gases, and become part of the city environment. To obtain some indication of the extent of this new pollution street soils from various locations in a heavily trafficked city (Newark, NJ) were analyzed for manganese and lead by atomic absorption. Highly signigicant inverse relationships were found between the concentrations of both contaminants and distances from major traffic arteries. Strong circumstantial evidence is thus provided that: 1) manganese pollution is occurring, along with lead, in the city environment; 2) this new pollution is related to traffic density; and 3) the most likely sources are automobile exhausts. This suspicion is further strengthened by the significant correlations observed between manganese and lead contents in children's blood, suggesting a common source for both. Substantiation of the safety of this practice of adding manganese to gasoline is needed. PMID:655314

  3. Manganese pollution in the city environment and its relationship to traffic density.

    PubMed Central

    Joselow, M M; Tobias, E; Koehler, R; Coleman, S; Bogden, J; Gause, D

    1978-01-01

    As lead is phased out of gasoline, other additives with anti-knock properties, particularly organic manganese compounds, are being substituted. Unavoidably, such compounds go through the combustion process, are eliminated in exhaust gases, and become part of the city environment. To obtain some indication of the extent of this new pollution street soils from various locations in a heavily trafficked city (Newark, NJ) were analyzed for manganese and lead by atomic absorption. Highly signigicant inverse relationships were found between the concentrations of both contaminants and distances from major traffic arteries. Strong circumstantial evidence is thus provided that: 1) manganese pollution is occurring, along with lead, in the city environment; 2) this new pollution is related to traffic density; and 3) the most likely sources are automobile exhausts. This suspicion is further strengthened by the significant correlations observed between manganese and lead contents in children's blood, suggesting a common source for both. Substantiation of the safety of this practice of adding manganese to gasoline is needed. PMID:655314

  4. Variations of traffic related air pollution on different time scales in Szeged, Hungary and Freiburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, László; Mayer, Helmut; Mika, János; Sánta, Tamás; Holst, Jutta

    Economic activities and everyday life may create weekly variations in concentrations of air pollutants in urban settings. The present study contributes to this experience on the example of two typical medium-sized towns in Central Europe, Szeged and Freiburg considering the following air pollutants: NO, NO 2, O 3, O x and PM 10. Five-year data sets of hourly observations (1997-2001) collected in downtown traffic junctions are analysed. In addition, the effect of the weekly variation on the diurnal course of the air pollutants is also demonstrated, which is especially important when we consider the possible extremes of these traffic related air pollutants. Since the annual variation of the pollutants explains only a minor part of the total variance and, furthermore, the weekly variation behaves rather similarly in the different seasons, the weekly variation of the diurnal peaks is quantified for the whole year. The average annual variations of NO, NO 2, O 3 and O x are very similar for both Szeged and Freiburg. Annual levels of NO 2 and O 3 are moderately higher, while those of PM 10 are extremely higher in Szeged, which is reflected in their average weekly and diurnal variations, too. In Freiburg the diurnal variation of PM 10 shows a clear daily course with only one wave, compared to that for Szeged with the shape of a double wave. In Szeged, highest percentile values of NO and NO 2 occur mostly in the evening, while in Freiburg either in the mourning or in the evening and generally there is very little difference between them. In Szeged, maximum of O 3 peak values, while in Freiburg minimum of them are found on weekends.

  5. Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects of a sedentary life style, on the one hand, and of acute and chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution, on the other. Because physical exercise augments the amount of inhaled pollutants, it is not clear whether cycling to work in a polluted urban environment should be encouraged or not. To address this conundrum we investigated if a bicycle journey along a busy commuting road would induce changes in biomarkers of pulmonary and systematic inflammation in a group of healthy subjects. Methods 38 volunteers (mean age: 43 ± 8.6 years, 26% women) cycled for about 20 minutes in real traffic near a major bypass road (road test; mean UFP exposure: 28,867 particles per cm3) in Antwerp and in a laboratory with filtered air (clean room; mean UFP exposure: 496 particles per cm3). The exercise intensity (heart rate) and duration of cycling were similar for each volunteer in both experiments. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), platelet function, Clara cell protein in serum and blood cell counts were measured before and 30 minutes after exercise. Results Percentage of blood neutrophils increased significantly more (p = 0.004) after exercise in the road test (3.9%; 95% CI: 1.5 to 6.2%; p = 0.003) than after exercise in the clean room (0.2%; 95% CI: -1.8 to 2.2%, p = 0.83). The pre/post-cycling changes in exhaled NO, plasma IL-6, platelet function, serum levels of Clara cell protein and number of total blood leukocytes did not differ significantly between the two scenarios. Conclusions Traffic-related exposure to particles during exercise caused a small increase in the distribution of inflammatory blood cells in healthy subjects. The health significance of this isolated change is unclear. PMID:20973949

  6. Disability-adjusted life years in the assessment of health effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Ł; Badyda, A J; Gayer, A; Mucha, D

    2015-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have an impact on human health and have been recognized as one of the main stressors that cause mortality and morbidity in urban areas. Research confirms that citizens living in the vicinity of main roads are strongly exposed to high concentrations of numerous air pollutants. In the present study the measurements of traffic-related parameters such as density, velocity, and structure were performed for cross-sections of selected street canyons in Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. In addition, the results of the general traffic measurements were used to describe the number of cars crossing the border of the city. Vehicle emissions of PM10 were calculated for the whole city area and changes of the PM10 concentration were modeled to present the exposure to this pollutant that could be attributable to traffic. The principles of the environmental burden of disease (EBD) were used. The assessment of the impact of traffic-related air pollutants on human health was made. The results, presented in disability-adjusted life years (DALY), were based on the outcomes of the study conducted in 2008-2012 in Warsaw, one the most congested agglomerations in Europe, and included the health damage effect of the exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants. DALY calculations were performed in accordance to the methodologies used in renowned international scientific research on EBD. PMID:25310938

  7. The magnetic way of quantifying road traffic pollution in atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassov, S.; Egli, R.; Heller, F.

    2003-12-01

    The steadily increasing number of motor vehicles requires continuous air quality monitoring in large urban and sub-urban areas. We present a fast and simple method for analysing samples of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic measurements, which is suitable for systematic pollution monitoring of extensive areas at low costs. Representative samples have been collected in Switzerland at sites with variable exposure to pollution sources. Atmospheric PM consists of natural and of anthropogenic components which both contain magnetic mineral fractions with specific magnetic properties. Our method relies on the analysis of the remanent magnetisation of PM samples. Detailed demagnetisation curves of anhysteretic remanent magnetisation (ARM) of these samples have been modelled using a linear combination of appropriate model functions, which represent the contribution of different magnetic mineral sources to the total magnetisation. Two magnetic components C1 and C2 with well-defined magnetic properties have been identified in all samples. The low-coercivity component C1 predominates in less polluted sites, whereas the concentration of the higher coercivity component C2 is large in urban areas. Once the coercivity distributions of C1 and C2 have been characterised, a simple method has been developed to quantify C1 and C2. This method is based on four-step demagnetisation curves, which can be measured in 12 minutes using a 2G cryogenic magnetometer with an in-line AF degausser. Our results are confirmed by independent chemical investigations at the same sites. The magnetic contribution of C2 is shown to be proportional to the chemically estimated total PM10 mass contribution of exhaust emissions. The mass concentration of traffic related elements in PM10 such as Fe, Ba, Cu, Mo, Br and elemental carbon also correlates with our results. Traffic is the most important PM pollution source in Switzerland: it includes exhaust emissions and abrasion products released

  8. Real-time traffic jam detection and localization running on a smart camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipetski, Yuriy; Loibner, Gernot; Ulm, Michael; Ponweiser, Wolfgang; Sidla, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Reliable automatic detection of traffic jam occurrences is of big significance for traffic flow analysis related applications. We present our work aimed at the application of video based real-time traffic jam detection. Our method can handle both calibrated and un-calibrated scenarios, operating in world and in image coordinate systems respectively. The method is designed to be operated on a smart camera, but is also suitable for a standard personal computer. The combination of state-of-the-art algorithms for vehicle detections and velocity estimation allows robust long-term system operation in due to the high recall rate and very low false alarm rate. The proposed method not only detects traffic jam events in real-time, but also precisely localizes traffic jams by their start and end positions per road lane. We describe also our strategy in making computationally heavy algorithms real-time capable even on hardware with a limited computing power.

  9. Structural equation modeling of parasympathetic and sympathetic response to traffic air pollution in a repeated measures study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traffic-related air pollution has been associated to a range of adverse health impacts, including decreased heart rate variability (HRV). The association between traffic-related pollution and HRV, however, has varied by traffic-related or HRV marker as well as by study, suggesting the need for a more comprehensive and integrative approach to examining air pollution-mediated biological impacts on these outcomes. In a Bayesian framework, we examined the effect of traffic pollution on HRV using structural equation models (SEMs) and looked at effect modification by participant characteristics. Methods We studied measurements of 5 HRV markers [high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF), 5-min standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (rMSSD), and LF/HF ratio (LF/HF)] for 700 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Using SEMs, we fit a latent variable for traffic pollution that is reflected by levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon (BC) to estimate its effect on latent variable for parasympathetic tone that included HF, SDNN and rMSSD, and the sympathetic tone marker, LF/HF. Exposure periods were assessed using 4-, 24-, 48-, 72-hour moving average pre-visit. We compared our main effect findings using SEMs with those obtained using linear mixed models. Results Traffic pollution was not associated with mean parasympathetic tone and LF/HF for all examined moving averages. In Bayesian linear mixed models, however, BC was related to increased LF/HF, an inter quartile range (IQR) increase in BC was associated with a 6.5% (95% posterior interval (PI): -0.7%, 14.2%) increase in mean LF/HF 24-hours later. The strongest association observed was for the 4-hour moving average (10.1%; 95% PI: 3.0%, 17.6%). The effect of traffic on parasympathetic tone was stronger among diabetic as compared to non-diabetic participants. Specifically

  10. Exposure Error Masks The Relationship Between Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Heart Rate Variability (HRV)

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Helen H.; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined whether more precise exposure measures would better detect associations between traffic-related pollution, elemental carbon (EC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and HRV. Methods Repeated 24-h personal and ambient PM2.5, EC, and NO2 were measured for 30 people living in Atlanta, GA. The association between HRV and either ambient concentrations or personal exposures was examined using linear mixed effects models. Results Ambient PM2.5, EC, and NO2 and personal PM2.5 were not associated with HRV. Personal EC and NO2 measured 24-h prior to HRV was associated with decreased rMSSD, PNN50, and HF and with increased LF/HF. RMSSD decreased by 10.97% (95% CI: -18.00,-3.34) for an IQR change in personal EC (0.81 ug/m3). Conclusions Results indicate decreased vagal tone in response to traffic pollutants, which can best be detected with precise personal exposure measures. PMID:20595912

  11. Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and birth defects in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Girguis, Mariam S; Strickland, Matthew J; Hu, Xuefei; Liu, Yang; Bartell, Scott M; Vieira, Verónica M

    2016-04-01

    Exposures to particulate matter with diameter of 2.5µm or less (PM2.5) may influence risk of birth defects. We estimated associations between maternal exposure to prenatal traffic-related air pollution and risk of cardiac, orofacial, and neural tube defects among Massachusetts births conceived 2001 through 2008. Our analyses included 2729 cardiac, 255 neural tube, and 729 orofacial defects. We used satellite remote sensing, meteorological and land use data to assess PM2.5 and traffic-related exposures (distance to roads and traffic density) at geocoded birth addresses. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models. Generalized additive models were used to assess spatial patterns of birth defect risk. There were positive but non-significant associations for a 10µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.83), patent foramen ovale (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.54) and patent ductus arteriosus (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.62). There was a non-significant inverse association between PM2.5 and cleft lip with or without palate (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.10), cleft palate only (OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.46) and neural tube defects (OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.05). Results for traffic related exposure were similar. Only ostium secundum atrial septal defects displayed significant spatial variation after accounting for known risk factors. PMID:26705853

  12. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  13. Study on the Traffic Air Pollution inside and outside a Road Tunnel in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Chanzhen; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Heng; Liu, Rui; Chen, Limin; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the vehicle induced air pollution situations both inside and outside the tunnel, the field measurement of the pollutants concentrations and its diurnal variations was performed inside and outside the Xiangyin tunnel in Shanghai from 13:00 on April 24th to 13:00 on April 25th, 2013. The highest hourly average concentrations of pollutants were quantified that CO, NO, NO2 and NOX inside the tunnel were 13.223 mg/m3, 1.829 mg/m3, 0.291 mg/m3 and 3.029 mg/m3, respectively, while the lowest ones were 3.086 mg/m3, 0.344 mg/m3, 0.080 mg/m3 and 0.619 mg/m3. Moreover, the concentrations of pollutants were higher during the daytime, and lower at night, which is relevant to the traffic conditions inside the tunnel. Pollutants concentrations inside the tunnel were much higher than those outside the tunnel. Then in a case of slow wind, the effect of wind is much smaller than the impact of pollution sources. Additionally, the PM2.5 concentrations climbed to the peak sharply (468.45 µg/m3) during the morning rush hours. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 inside the tunnel were 37.09–99.06 µg/m3 and 22.69–137.99 µg/m3, respectively. Besides, the OC/EC ratio ranged from 0.72 to 2.19 with an average value of 1.34. Compared with the results of other tunnel experiments in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China, it could be inferred that the proportion of HDVs through the Xiangyin tunnel is relatively lower. PMID:25386920

  14. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  15. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  16. A comparison of exposure metrics for traffic-related air pollutants: application to epidemiology studies in Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  17. A comparative study of traffic related air pollution next to a motorway and a motorway flyover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Poppel, Martine; Int Panis, Luc; Govarts, Eva; Van Houtte, Jeroen; Maenhaut, Willy

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the vertical position of a motorway on the pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of the motorway. Therefore, a near-road monitoring campaign was performed along two adjoining motorway stretches: one motorway at ground level and a motorway flyover. PM2.5 and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and NOx) were measured at both sides of the motorway on a 30-min resolution. In addition, EC (elemental carbon) was measured on both sides of the road on a daily basis using low volume samplers and thermal-optical transmission (TOT) analysis of filters. PNC (particle number concentration) was measured at one side. The measurement locations on each side of the road were located at 29 m and 102 m from the motorway at ground level and at 60 m and 120 m from the motorway flyover. Pollution roses, showed increased average concentrations in the direction of the road for nitrogen oxides and PM2.5. The impact of road traffic appeared to be higher at ground level compared to the flyover. The difference in concentration between both sides of the road for PM2.5, NO, NO2 and NOx was analysed using linear mixed models. The concentration difference, which can be seen as the contribution of road traffic to the pollutant concentration, was calculated taking into account prevailing wind directions. The results indicate that taking into account confounding parameters (time of day, day of the week, distance to the road and wind speed), the contribution of the motorway traffic to pollutant concentrations is significantly higher when the motorway is at ground level. Furthermore, time of day and day of the week also have a significant effect on the concentration difference. The linear mixed model estimated a reduced road increment at the motorway flyover compared to the ground level motorway of 119 ppb for NO, 29 ppb for NO2 and 3.5 μg m-3 for PM2.5. taking into account confounding parameters. The highest EC and PNC concentrations were measured

  18. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites as biomarkers of exposure to traffic-emitted pollutants.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Rich, David Q; Huang, Wei; Lin, Wan-Ting; Hu, Min; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2015-12-01

    1-Nitro-pyrene has been considered a compound specific to diesel combustion emission, while 1- and 2-nitro-napthalene are mainly produced through photochemical conversion of naphthalene released to the atmosphere. Metabolites of these compounds may serve as biomarkers of exposure to traffic related pollutants. We collected urine samples from 111 healthy and non-smoking subjects within (i.e., during the Beijing Olympics) and outside (i.e., before and after the Olympics) a traffic control regime to improve Beijing's air quality. Urines were analyzed for the sum of 1&2-amino-naphthalene (metabolites of 1- and 2-nitro-naphthalene) and 1-amino-pyrene (a metabolite of 1-nitro-pyrene), using an HPLC-fluorescence method. Within the same time periods, PM2.5 mass and constituents were measured, including elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate, PAHs, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particle number concentrations. The associations between the urinary metabolites and air pollutants were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to during-Olympic period, 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene decreased by 23% (p=0.066) and 16% (p=0.049), respectively, while there was no change in 1-amino-pyrene (2% increase, p=0.892). From during- to post-Olympic period, 1&2-amino-naphthalene, 1-amino-pyrene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene concentrations increased by 26% (p=0.441), 37% (p=0.355), and 3% (p=0.868), respectively. Furthermore, 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene were associated with traffic related pollutants in a similar lag pattern. 1-amino-pyrene was associated more strongly with diesel combustion products (e.g. PN and elemental carbon) and not affected by season. Time-lag analyses indicate strongest/largest associations occurred 24-72h following exposure. 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene can be used as a biomarker of exposure to general vehicle-emitted pollutants. More data are needed to confirm 1-amino-pyrene as a biomarker

  19. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNF RII) in sera of children and traffic-derived particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Cox, F A; Stiller-Winkler, R; Hadnagy, W; Ranft, U; Idel, H

    1999-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNF RII) was determined in sera of 160 healthy schoolchildren of the city of Düsseldorf, Germany, living in areas with different traffic density. According to the frequency distribution a higher prevalence of children with increased sTNF RII values (> 3000 pg/ml) were found for a high traffic area as compared to a low traffic area. Based on sTNF RII values above the 75% percentile of children from the low traffic area, the group of children from the high traffic area revealed a significant increased odds ratio of 2.5. Concerning traffic-derived particulate air pollution an association between the concentration of fine particles (PM2.5) and sTNF RII serum levels could be observed for both areas. Furthermore, sTNF RII values gave a significant positive correlation with C3c, an activation product of the complement component C3. C3c has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of the non-specific humoral defence in response to air pollution. Therefore, the results suggest that traffic-derived fine particles may upon inhalation trigger immune modulation via the activation of macrophages and enhanced cytokine production. PMID:10631790

  20. Traffic-related air pollution and circulating levels of total and allergen-specific IgE among children in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: There is a growing body of literature suggesting a relationship between traffic-related air pollution and allergic health outcomes. Animal studies have demonstrated that air pollution, particularly diesel exhaust particles, may stimulate or enhance atopic responses...

  1. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Selected Birth Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Yang, Wei; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Birth defects are a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some structural anomalies, although evidence is limited and several anomalies have not been investigated previously. METHODS We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to estimate the odds of 26 congenital birth defect phenotypes with respect to quartiles of seven ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in California during the first 2 months of pregnancy, 1997 to 2006 (874 cases and 849 controls). We calculated odds ratios (adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, and vitamin use; aOR) for 11 phenotypes that had at least 40 cases. RESULTS Few odds ratios had confidence intervals that did not include 1.0. Odds of esophageal atresia were increased for the highest versus lowest of traffic density (aOR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–7.4) and PM10 exposure (aOR 4.9; 95% CI, 1.4–17.2). PM10 was associated with a decreased risk of hydrocephaly (aOR= 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1–0.9) and CO with decreased risk of anotia/microtia (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.8) and transverse limb deficiency (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.9), again reflecting highest versus lowest quartile comparisons. CONCLUSION Most analyses showed no substantive association between air pollution and the selected birth defects with few exceptions of mixed results. PMID:24108522

  2. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M; Wichmann, J; Autrup, H; Dang, D A; Decordier, I; Hvidberg, M; Bossi, R; Jakobsen, J; Loft, S; Knudsen, L E

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in urban environment is common and has been associated with adverse human health effects. In utero exposures that result in DNA damage may affect health later in life. Early effects of maternal and in utero exposures to traffic-related air pollution were assessed through the use of validated biomarkers in blood cells from mother-newborn pairs. A cross-sectional biomonitoring study with healthy pregnant women living in the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark, was conducted. Bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei (MN) were measured in blood from 75 women and 69 umbilical cords, concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section. Modeled residential traffic density, a proxy measure of traffic-related air pollution exposures, was validated by indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 42 non-smoking homes. DNA adduct levels were similar and positively correlated in maternal and cord blood (1.40 vs. 1.37 n/10(8) nucleotides; r=0.99; p<0.01). Maternal MN frequencies were significantly associated with age (p<0.01), and higher than those of the newborns (7.0 vs. 3.2 MN per 1000 binucleated cells). Adduct levels were highest among mother-newborn pairs who lived near medium-traffic-density (>400-2500 vehicle km/24h; p<0.01) places. MN frequencies among newborns from women who lived at high-traffic-density homes (>2500 vehicle km/24h) were significantly increased (p=0.02). This trend remained after adjusting for potential confounders and effect modifiers. For the first time increased bulky DNA adducts and MN in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution are found, demonstrating that these transplacental environmental exposures induce DNA damage in newborns. Given that increased DNA damage early in life indicate an increased risk for adverse health effects later in life, these findings justify intervention of pregnant women. PMID:19783246

  3. Traffic-related air pollution: Exposure and health effects in Copenhagen street cleaners and cemetery workers

    SciTech Connect

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Nielsen, M.L.; Gehl, J.

    1995-05-01

    This questionaire-based study found a significantly higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis, asthma, and several other symptoms in 116 Copenhagen street cleaners who were exposed to traffic-related air pollution at levels that were slightly lower than the 1987 World Health Organization-recommended threshold values, compared with 115 Copenhagen cemetery workers exposed to lower pollution levels. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for age and smoking, was conducted, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to be 2.5 for chronic bronchitis (95% confidence interval = 1.2-5.1), 2.3 for asthma (95% confidence interval = 1.0-5.1), and 1.8-7.9 for other symptoms (95% confidence interval = 1.0-28.2). Except for exposure to air pollution, the two groups were comparable, i.e., they had similar terms of employment and working conditions. the exposure ranges during an 8-h work day, averaged from readings taken at five monitored street positions, were: 41-257 ppb nitric oxide (1-h max: 865 ppb); 23-43 ppb nitrogen dioxide (1-h max: 208 ppb); 1.0-4.3 ppm carbon monoxide (8-h max: 7.1 ppm); 14-28 ppb sulfur dioxide (1-h max; 112 ppb); and 10-38 ppb ozone (1-h max: 72 ppb). 33 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Pollution on the rise: local trends in power plant pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Corrigan, Z.; Emily Figdor, E.

    2005-01-15

    More than 1,200 power plants report emissions to US EPA, which compiles the information in its acid rain database. To examine trends in power plant pollution, this report analyzes the data for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions since 1995, the first year the Acid Rain Program capped SO{sub 2} emissions from the electricity-generating sector. Power plants contribute 39% of the USA's CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2003, power plants released 2.5 billion tons of CO{sub 2}, a 9% increase over 1995 levels. Power plants in Texas, Ohio, Florida, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kentucky, West Virginia, Alabama, and Georgia released the most CO{sub 2} in 2003. Power plants contribute 67%t of sootforming SO{sub 2} emissions. Although federal law caps SO{sub 2} emissions from power plants, more than half (216 of 400, or 54 percent) of the nation's dirtiest power plants increased their annual emissions from 1995 to 2003, even while annual SO{sub 2} emissions from power plants decreased by 10% nationwide. Power plants in Ohio had highest emissions, releasing 1.2 million tons in 2003, with Pennsylvania a close second. Power plants contribute 22% of smog-forming NOx emissions. NOx also contributes to fine particle pollution. Though regional initiatives limit NOx emissions from power plants, 38% (188 of 500) of the nation's dirtiest power plants increased their annual NOx emissions from 1995 to 2003, even while annual NOx emissions from power plants declined by 29 percent nationwide. Power plants in Ohio also led the nation for the most NOx emissions in 2003. The report recommends that tighter national caps should be accompanied by rigorous enforcement of New Source Review and other Clean Air Act programs that ensure that every plant installs modern pollution controls. 57 refs., 5 apps.

  5. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming

    2016-08-01

    Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities

  6. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning.

    PubMed

    Huber, Maximilian; Welker, Antje; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-01-15

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. PMID:26448594

  7. Traffic Air Pollution and Other Risk Factors for Respiratory Illness in Schoolchildren in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mustapha, B. Adetoun; Blangiardo, Marta; Briggs, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Association of childhood respiratory illness with traffic air pollution has been investigated largely in developed but not in developing countries, where pollution levels are often very high. Objectives: In this study we investigated associations between respiratory health and outdoor and indoor air pollution in schoolchildren 7–14 years of age in low socioeconomic status areas in the Niger Delta. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1,397 schoolchildren. Exposure to home outdoor and indoor air pollution was assessed by self-report questionnaire. School air pollution exposures were assessed using traffic counts, distance of schools to major streets, and particulate matter and carbon monoxide measurements, combined using principal components analysis. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to examine associations with reported respiratory health, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Traffic disturbance at home (i.e., traffic noise and/or fumes evident inside the home vs. none) was associated with wheeze [odds ratio (OR) = 2.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28–3.64], night cough (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.03–1.82), phlegm (OR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.09–2.04), and nose symptoms (OR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03–1.90), whereas school exposure to a component variable indicating exposure to fine particles was associated with increased phlegm (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09–1.75). Nonsignificant positive associations were found between cooking with wood/coal (OR = 2.99; 95% CI, 0.88–10.18) or kerosene (OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 0.85–9.44) and phlegm compared with cooking with gas. Conclusion: Traffic pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren in a deprived area of western Africa. Associations may have been underestimated because of nondifferential misclassification resulting from limitations in exposure measurement. PMID:21719372

  8. Lung Cancer Incidence and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution from Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer. Objective We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer. Methods We identified 592 lung cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry among 52,970 members of the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort and traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 in the Central Population Registry. We calculated the NOx concentration at each address by dispersion models and calculated the time-weighted average concentration for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit. Results For the highest compared with the lowest quartile of NOx concentration at the residence, we found an IRR for lung cancer of 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–1.61], and the IRR for lung cancer in association with living within 50 m of a major road (> 10,000 vehicles/day) was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95–1.55). The results showed tendencies of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly. Conclusions This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air pollution from traffic near the residence. PMID:21227886

  9. Ultrafine particles near a major roadway in Raleigh, North Carolina: downwind attenuation and correlation with traffic-related pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter <100 run) emitted by traffic are a potential direct health threat to nearby populations and may additionally act as a tracer for co-emitted pollutants. During summertime in Raleigh, North Carolina, UFPs were simultaneously measured upwind and d...

  10. Traffic-related air pollution modeling during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: the effects of an odd-even day traffic restriction scheme.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Xie, Shaodong

    2011-04-15

    An integrated urban air quality modeling system was applied to assess the effects of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS) on traffic-related air pollution in the urban area of Beijing (UAB) before, during and after the 2008 Olympic Games. Using traffic flow data retrieved from an on-line traffic monitoring system, concentration levels of CO, PM(10), NO(2) and O(3) on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Ring Roads (RR) and Linkage Roads (LRs), the main roads distributed around the UAB, were predicted for the pre- (10th-19th, July), during- (20th July-20th September) and post-TRS (21st-30th, September) periods. A widely used statistical framework for model evaluation was adopted, the dependences of model performance on time-of-the-day and on wind direction were investigated, and the model predictions turned out reasonably satisfactory. Results showed that daily average concentrations on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th RR and LRs decreased significantly during the TRS period, by about 35.8, 38.5, 34.9 and 35.6% for CO, about 38.7, 31.8, 44.0 and 34.7% for PM(10), about 30.3, 31.9, 32.3 and 33.9% for NO(2), and about 36.7, 33.0, 33.4 and 34.7% for O(3), respectively, compared with the pre-TRS period. Hourly average concentrations were also reduced significantly, particularly for the morning and evening peaks for CO and PM(10), for the evening peak for NO(2), and for the afternoon peak for O(3). Consequently, both the daily and hourly concentration level of CO, PM(10), NO(2) and O(3) conformed to the China National Ambient Air Quality Standards Grade II during the Games. In addition, notable reduction of concentration levels was achieved in different regions of Beijing, with the traffic-related air pollution in the downwind northern and western areas relieved most significantly. The TRS policy was therefore effective in alleviating traffic-related air pollution and improving short-term air quality in Beijing during the Games. PMID:21353290

  11. The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Weichenthal, Scott; Dugum, Hussam; Pickett, Graeme; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Kulka, Ryan; Andersen, Ross; Goldberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions. PMID:22910003

  12. Association between Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Schools and Cognitive Development in Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. Methods and Findings We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10–700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%–8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%–12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%–23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could

  13. Characteristics of DNA methylation changes induced by traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Jin, Yongtang; Liu, Xinneng; Zhu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ting; Xu, Yinchun

    2016-01-15

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is a potential risk factor for numerous respiratory disorders, including lung cancer, while alteration of DNA methylation may be one of the underlying mechanisms. However, the effects of TRAP mixtures on DNA methylation have not been investigated. We have studied the effects of brief or prolonged TRAP exposures on DNA methylation in the rat. The exposures were performed in spring and autumn, with identical study procedures. In each season, healthy Wistar rats were exposed to TRAP at for 4 h, 7 d, 14 d, or 28 d. Global DNA methylation (LINE-1 and Alu) and specific gene methylation (p16(CDKN2A), APC, and iNOS) in the DNA from blood and lung tissues were quantified by pyrosequencing. Multiple linear regression was applied to assess the influence of air pollutants on DNA methylation levels. The levels of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in the high and moderate groups were significantly higher than in the control group. The DNA methylation levels were not significantly different between spring and autumn. When spring and autumn data were analyzed together, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 exposures were associated with changes in%5mC (95% CI) in LINE-1, iNOS, p16(CDKN2A), and APC ranging from -0.088 (-0.150, -0.026) to 0.102 (0.049, 0.154) per 1 μg/m(3) increase in the pollutant concentration. Prolonged exposure to a high level of TRAP was negatively associated with LINE-1 and iNOS methylation, and positively associated with APC methylations in the DNA from lung tissues but not blood. These findings show that TRAP exposure is associated with decreased methylation of LINE-1 and iNOS, and increased methylation of p16(CDKN2A) and APC. PMID:26778509

  14. Biological monitoring and allergic sensitization in traffic police officers exposed to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, L; Carrus, A; Bisceglia, L; Tatò, I; Bellotta, M R; Russo, A; Martina, G; Daprile, C; Di Leo, E; Nettis, E; Assennato, G

    2006-01-01

    Urban air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the occupational exposure to urban pollution through biological monitoring of PAHs and CO airborne levels in 122 traffic wardens in Bari, Italy and to investigate sensitization to inhaled allergens in a subgroup of workers. After filling in a questionnaire on lifestyle habits and occupational history, a medical examination, spirometry were carried out and blood samples were taken; the measurement of exhaled CO and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) was performed and data on the air quality of Bari Municipality were obtained. Specific IgE dosage and skin prick tests were done on 18 workers giving altered values of spirometry or anamnestic allergic symptoms. Urinary 1-HOP showed median levels of 0.1 microMol/Mol(creat) (range 0.02-6.68) and was not influenced by smoking habits, work tasks, area of the city and environmental levels of PM10. Exhaled CO, with median value of 1 ppm (range 0-27), was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, while no other variable seemed to play a role in modifying the levels. Specific IgE production versus inhalant allergens was found in 6 cases. Positive skin prick test results were observed in 11 cases. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 6 cases. At least one of the allergometric tests performed was positive in 61 percent of the subjects. In conclusion, our results suggest the importance of introducing allergic status evaluation in this class of workers, exposed to several urban air pollutants. PMID:17291408

  15. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Haplotypes and Residential Traffic-Related Air Pollution Jointly Influence Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level in Children

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Muhammad T.; Lin, Pi-Chu; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Gauderman, W. James; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    this haplotype and local road lengths within 200m buffer on FeNO were also observed. Conclusions Higher exposure from residential traffic nullifies the protective effect of one common NOS2 promoter haplotype on FeNO level. Regulation of traffic-related pollution may protect children’s respiratory health. PMID:26714306

  16. Exposure to traffic pollution, acute inflammation and autonomic response in a panel of car commuters

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mirabelli, Maria C.; Zora, Jennifer E.; Bergin, Michael H.; Yip, Fuyuen

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic pollution has been linked to numerous adverse health endpoints. Despite this, limited data examining traffic exposures during realistic commutes and acute response exists. Objectives: We conducted the Atlanta Commuters Exposures (ACE-1) Study, an extensive panel-based exposure and health study, to measure chemically-resolved in-vehicle exposures and corresponding changes in acute oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation and autonomic response. Methods We recruited 42 adults (21 with and 21 without asthma) to conduct two 2-h scripted highway commutes during morning rush hour in the metropolitan Atlanta area. A suite of in-vehicle particulate components were measured in the subjects’ private vehicles. Biomarker measurements were conducted before, during, and immediately after the commutes and in 3 hourly intervals after commutes. Results At measurement time points within 3 h after the commute, we observed mild to pronounced elevations relative to baseline in exhaled nitric oxide, C-reactive-protein, and exhaled malondialdehyde, indicative of pulmonary and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress initiation, as well as decreases relative to baseline levels in the time-domain heart-rate variability parameters, SDNN and rMSSD, indicative of autonomic dysfunction. We did not observe any detectable changes in lung function measurements (FEV1, FVC), the frequency-domain heart-rate variability parameter or other systemic biomarkers of vascular injury. Water soluble organic carbon was associated with changes in eNO at all post-commute time-points (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Our results point to measureable changes in pulmonary and autonomic biomarkers following a scripted 2-h highway commute. PMID:24906070

  17. Populations potentially exposed to traffic-related air pollution in seven world cities.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Apte, Joshua S; Lipsitt, Jonah; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A; Beckerman, Bernardo S; de Nazelle, Audrey; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Jerrett, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) likely exerts a large burden of disease globally, and in many places, traffic is increasing dramatically. The impact, however, of urban form on the portion of population potentially exposed to TRAP remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimate portions of population potentially exposed to TRAP across seven global cities of various urban forms. Data on population distributions and road networks were collected from the best available sources in each city and from remote sensing analysis. Using spatial mapping techniques, we first overlaid road buffers onto population data to estimate the portions of population potentially exposed for four plausible impact zones. Based on a most likely scenario with impacts from highways up to 300meters and major roadways up to 50meters, we identified that the portions of population potentially exposed for the seven cities ranged from 23 to 96%. High-income North American cities had the lowest potential exposure portions, while those in Europe had the highest. Second, we adjusted exposure zone concentration levels based on a literature suggested multiplier for each city using corresponding background concentrations. Though Beijing and Mexico City did not have the highest portion of population exposure, those in their exposure zones had the highest levels of exposure. For all seven cities, the portion of population potentially exposed was positively correlated with roadway density and, to a lesser extent, with population density. These analyses suggest that urban form may influence the portion of population exposed to TRAP and vehicle emissions and other factors may influence the exposure levels. Greater understanding of urban form and other factors influencing potential exposure to TRAP may help inform interventions that protect public health. PMID:25770919

  18. Acute effects of motor vehicle traffic-related air pollution exposures on measures of oxidative stress in human airways

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked exposure to traffic-related air pollutants to increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Evidence from human, animal, and in vitro studies supports an important role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiological pathways underlying the adverse health effects of air pollutants. In controlled-exposure studies of animals and humans, emissions from diesel engines, a major source of traffic-related air pollutants, cause pulmonary and systemic inflammation that is mediated by redox-sensitive signaling pathways. Assessment of human responses to traffic-related air pollution under realistic conditions is challenging due to the complex, dynamic nature of near-roadway exposure. Noninvasive measurement of biomarkers in breath and breath condensate may be particularly useful for evaluating the role of oxidative stress in acute responses to exposures that occur in vehicles or during near-roadway activities. Promising biomarkers include nitric oxide in exhaled breath, and nitrite/nitrate, malondialdehyde, and F2-isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate. PMID:20716291

  19. Local-Area Based Traffic Splitter for Improving Performance Using Subnetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Meenakshi; Mittal, Mohit Kumar

    2010-11-01

    This document provides an overview of LAN traffic splitter. The tool "Local-Area based Traffic splitter" is based on subnetting techniques. It is basically used for calculating subnets for sub-dividing the LAN. Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic. There are various techniques for calculating subnets that are considered by this tool. This paper will explore the various features of this tool and will also check the effect of subnetting after implementing it on the LAN. These instructions give you basic guidelines for preparing camera-ready papers for conference proceedings.

  20. Mobile monitoring of particle number concentration and other traffic-related air pollutants in a near-highway neighborhood over the course of a year

    PubMed Central

    Padró-Martínez, Luz T.; Patton, Allison P.; Trull, Jeffrey B.; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate quantification of exposures to traffic-related air pollution in near-highway neighborhoods is challenging due to the high degree of spatial and temporal variation of pollutant levels. The objective of this study was to measure air pollutant levels in a near-highway urban area over a wide range of traffic and meteorological conditions using a mobile monitoring platform. The study was performed in a 2.3-km2 area in Somerville, Massachusetts (USA), near Interstate I-93, a highway that carries 150,000 vehicles per day. The mobile platform was equipped with rapid-response instruments and was driven repeatedly along a 15.4-km route on 55 days between September 2009 and August 2010. Monitoring was performed in 4–6-hour shifts in the morning, afternoon and evening on both weekdays and weekends in winter, spring, summer and fall. Measurements were made of particle number concentration (PNC; 4–3,000 nm), particle size distribution, fine particle mass (PM2.5), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO and NOx). The highest pollutant concentrations were measured within 0–50 m of I-93 with distance-decay gradients varying depending on traffic and meteorology. The most pronounced variations were observed for PNC. Annual median PNC 0–50 m from I-93 was two-fold higher compared to the background area (>1 km from I-93). In general, PNC levels were highest in winter and lowest in summer and fall, higher on weekdays and Saturdays compared to Sundays, and higher during morning rush hour compared to later in the day. Similar spatial and temporal trends were observed for NO, CO and BC, but not for PM2.5. Spatial variations in PNC distance-decay gradients were non-uniform largely due to contributions from local street traffic. Hour-to-hour, day-to-day and season-to-season variations in PNC were of the same magnitude as spatial variations. Datasets containing fine-scale temporal and spatial

  1. Time-space modeling of journey-time exposure to traffic-related air pollution using GIS.

    PubMed

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David J

    2005-01-01

    Journey-time exposures represent an important, though as yet little-studied, component of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution, potentially with important health effects. Methods for assessing journey-time exposures, either as part of epidemiological studies or for policy assessment, are, however, poorly developed. This paper describes the development and testing of a GIS-based system for modeling human journey-time exposures to traffic-related air pollution: STEMS (Space-Time Exposure Modeling System). The model integrates data on source activity, pollutant dispersion, and travel behavior to derive individual- or group-level exposure measures to atmospheric pollution. The model, which is designed to simulate exposures of people as they move through a changing air pollution field, was developed, validated, and trialed in Northampton, UK. The system currently uses ArcInfo to couple four separate submodels: a source activity/emission model (SATURN), a proprietary atmospheric dispersion model (ADMS-Urban), an empirically derived background air pollution model, and a purposely designed time-activity-based exposure model (TOTEM). This paper describes the structure of the modeling system; presents results of field calibration, validation, and sensitivity analysis; and illustrates the use of the model to analyze journey-time exposures of schoolchildren. PMID:15476729

  2. Traffic pollution affects P. pinea growth according to tree ring width and C and N isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Altieri, Simona; Strumia, Sandro; Cherubini, Paolo; Cotrufo, M. Francesca

    2010-05-01

    Urbanization and industrialization are rapidly growing, as a consequence roads and their associated vehicular traffic exerts major and increasing impacts on adjacent ecosystems. Various studies have shown the impact of vehicle exhausts on road side vegetation through their visible and non-visible effects (Farmer and Lyon 1977, Sarkar et al., 1986, Angold 1997, Nuhoglu 2005) but, presently there is little known about the long term effect of air pollution on vegetation and on trees, in particular. Developing proxies for atmospheric pollution that would be used to identify the physiological responses of trees under roadside car exhaust pollution stress is needed. In this context we propose a novel method to determine the effect of car exhaust pollution on tree growth, coupling classical dendrochronological analyses and analyses of 15N and 13C in tree rings, soils and leaves with tree ring radiocarbon (14C) data. Pinus pinea individuals, adjacent to main roads in the urban area of Caserta (South Italy) and exposed to large amounts of traffic exhausts since 1980, were sampled and the time-related trend in the growth residuals was estimated. We found a consistent decrease in the ring width starting from 1980, with a slight increase in δ13C value, which was considered to be a consequence of environmental stress. No clear pattern was identified in δ15N, while an increasing effect of the fossil fuel dilution on the atmospheric bomb-enriched 14C background was detected in tree rings, as a consequence of the increase in traffic exhausts. Our findings suggest that radiocarbon is a very sensitive tool to investigate small-scale (i.e. traffic exhaust at the level crossing) and large-scale (urban area pollution) induced disturbances. References Angold PG. Impact of a road upon adjacent heathland vegetations: effect on plant species compositions. J Appl Ecol 1997; 34 (2): 409-417. Farmer JC, Lyon TDB. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil. Sci Tot Environ 1977; 8: 89-93. Nuhoglu

  3. Traffic-related air pollution and alveolar nitric oxide in southern California children.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Sandrah P; Zhang, Zilu; Habre, Rima; Rappaport, Edward B; Linn, William S; Berhane, Kiros; Zhang, Yue; Bastain, Theresa M; Gilliland, Frank D

    2016-05-01

    Mechanisms for the adverse respiratory effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) have yet to be established. We evaluated the acute effects of TRAP exposure on proximal and distal airway inflammation by relating indoor nitric oxide (NO), a marker of TRAP exposure in the indoor microenvironment, to airway and alveolar sources of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO).FeNO was collected online at four flow rates in 1635 schoolchildren (aged 12-15 years) in southern California (USA) breathing NO-free air. Indoor NO was sampled hourly and linearly interpolated to the time of the FeNO test. Estimated parameters quantifying airway wall diffusivity (DawNO) and flux (J'awNO) and alveolar concentration (CANO) sources of FeNO were related to exposure using linear regression to adjust for potential confounders.We found that TRAP exposure indoors was associated with elevated alveolar NO. A 10 ppb higher indoor NO concentration at the time of the FeNO test was associated with 0.10 ppb higher average CANO (95% CI 0.04-0.16) (equivalent to a 7.1% increase from the mean), 4.0% higher J'awNO (95% CI -2.8-11.3) and 0.2% lower DawNO (95% CI -4.8-4.6).These findings are consistent with an airway response to TRAP exposure that was most marked in the distal airways. PMID:26797034

  4. Do Variants in GSTs Modify the Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Asthma in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Erbas, Bircan; Dennekamp, Martine; Marks, Guy B.; Perret, Jennifer; Hui, Jennie; Wjst, Matthias; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Allen, Katrina J.; Abramson, Michael J.; Matheson, Melanie C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. TRAP exposure during the first year of life was defined as the cumulative length of major roads within 150 m of each participant’s residence during the first year of life. Wheeze, asthma and hay fever were measured at ages 12 (n = 370) and 18 (n = 434) years. The associations and interactions with glutathione S-transferases (GST s) were investigated using regression models. Overall, there was no relationship between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and current asthma, wheeze and hay fever at ages 12 or 18 years. However, in GSTT1 null carriers, every 100 m increase in cumulative lengths of major road exposure during the first year of life was associated with a 2.31-fold increased risk of wheeze and a 2.15-fold increased risk of asthma at 12 years. TRAP is associated with some respiratory outcomes in carriers of genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress metabolism genes. PMID:27043549

  5. Traffic-related air pollution and sleep in the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shona C; Schwartz, Joel; Yang, May; Yaggi, H Klar; Bliwise, Donald L; Araujo, Andre B

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about environmental determinants of sleep. We investigated the association between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and sleep measures among participants of the Boston Area Community Health Survey. We also sought to assess the impact of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and season on associations. Residential 24-h BC was estimated from a validated land-use regression model for 3821 participants and averaged over 1-6 months and 1 year. Sleep measures included questionnaire-assessed sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep apnea. Linear and logistic regression models controlling for confounders estimated the association between sleep measures and BC. Effect modification was tested with interaction terms. Main effects were not observed between BC and sleep measures. However, in stratified models, males experienced 0.23 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.42, -0.03) and those with low SES 0.25 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.48, -0.01) per IQR increase in annual BC (0.21 μg/m(3)). In blacks, sleep duration increased with annual BC (β=0.34 per IQR; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.57). Similar findings were observed for short sleep (≤5 h). BC was not associated with sleep apnea or sleep latency, however, long-term exposure may be associated with shorter sleep duration, particularly in men and those with low SES, and longer sleep duration in blacks. PMID:24984980

  6. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P.; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Durant, John L.; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2016-01-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning. PMID:27413416

  7. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    PubMed

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another. PMID:25146911

  8. [Epidemiological studies of air pollution and health effects in areas near roadways with heavy traffic in Tokyo].

    PubMed

    Ono, M; Murakami, M; Nitta, H; Nakai, S; Maeda, K

    1990-05-01

    Recent concern regarding health effects of air pollution in Japan has concentrated mainly on traffic-induced air pollution and its health effects in large cities. In Japan, where many people in large cities have been living near major roadways, the increase of automobile exhaust due to heavy traffic congestion will predictably cause a greater impact on people living near major roadways. We surveyed the characterization of residential suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations along the major roadways in Tokyo, along with a health survey on the respiratory conditions of residents living in the same area, to examine the relationships between indoor pollutant levels, prevalence of respiratory symptoms and distance from roadways. The environmental monitoring was conducted in five phases. Using a newly developed SPM sampler and NO2 filter badge, continuous 4 day (96 hours) measurements were conducted in two hundred residential homes for four weeks. NO2 was measured in the living room, kitchen and outside of each home, while SPM was monitored in the living room. Health information was collected in October 1987 using ATS-DLD self-administered questionnaires. Of the 1,093 homes investigated, responses from 805 homes were received. The following results were obtained. SPM and NO2 concentrations showed large variations. Indoor pollution levels mostly depended on indoor sources, i.e. cigarette smoking and unventilated space heaters, and the effects of those indoor sources were influenced by the building structure with respect to air tightness. An association between increase in pollutant levels and the distance from the roadway was observed. However its effect is small compared to indoor source effects. The prevalence rate of respiratory symptoms was higher in those areas nearest roadways with heavy traffic both in children and adults. These results suggest the presence of a relationship between automobile exhaust and health effects. PMID

  9. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson’s Disease in Denmark: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Very little is currently known about air pollutants’ adverse effects on neurodegenerative diseases even though recent studies have linked particulate exposures to brain pathologies associated with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Objective In the present study, we investigated long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and Parkinson’s disease. Methods In a case–control study of 1,696 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996–2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by sex and year of birth, we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant exposures (represented by nitrogen dioxide; NO2) from a dispersion model, using residential addresses from 1971 to the date of diagnosis or first cardinal symptom for cases and the corresponding index date for their matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with logistic regression, adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. Results We found ambient air pollution from traffic sources to be associated with risk of PD, with a 9% higher risk (95% CI: 3, 16.0%) per interquartile range increase (2.97 μg/m3) in modeled NO2. For participants living for ≥ 20 years in the capital city, ORs were larger (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.31) than in provincial towns (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.26), whereas there was no association among rural residents. Conclusions Our findings raise concerns about potential effects of air pollution from traffic and other sources on the risk of PD, particularly in populations with high or increasing exposures. Citation Ritz B, Lee PC, Hansen J, Funch Lassen C, Ketzel M, Sørensen M, Raaschou-Nielsen O. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution and Parkinson’s disease in Denmark: a case–control study. Environ Health Perspect 124:351–356; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409313 PMID:26151951

  10. Parental stress increases the effect of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma incidence

    PubMed Central

    Shankardass, Ketan; McConnell, Rob; Jerrett, Michael; Milam, Joel; Richardson, Jean; Berhane, Kiros

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related pollution (TRP) and tobacco smoke have been associated with new onset asthma in children. Psychosocial stress-related susceptibility has been proposed to explain social disparities in asthma. We investigated whether low socioeconomic status (SES) or high parental stress modified the effect of TRP and in utero tobacco smoke exposure on new onset asthma. We identified 2,497 children aged 5–9 years with no history of asthma or wheeze at study entry (2002–2003) into the Children's Health Study, a prospective cohort study in southern California. The primary outcome was parental report of doctor-diagnosed new onset asthma during 3 years of follow-up. Residential exposure to TRP was assessed using a line source dispersion model. Information about maternal smoking during pregnancy, parental education (a proxy for SES), and parental stress were collected in the study baseline questionnaire. The risk of asthma attributable to TRP was significantly higher for subjects with high parental stress (HR 1.51 across the interquartile range for TRP; 95% CI 1.16–1.96) than for subjects with low parental stress (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.74–1.49; interaction P value 0.05). Stress also was associated with larger effects of in utero tobacco smoke. A similar pattern of increased risk of asthma was observed among children from low SES families who also were exposed to either TRP or in utero tobacco smoke. These results suggest that children from stressful households are more susceptible to the effects of TRP and in utero tobacco smoke on the development of asthma. PMID:19620729

  11. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study.

    PubMed

    Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Schouten, Leo; Bausch-Goldbohm, Sandra; Fischer, Paul; Armstrong, Ben; Hughes, Edward; Jerrett, Michael; van den Brandt, Piet

    2009-03-01

    Evidence is increasing that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases. In a 2002 pilot study, we reported clear indications that traffic-related air pollution, especially at the local scale, was related to cardiopulmonary mortality in a randomly selected subcohort of 5000 older adults participating in the ongoing Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) on diet and cancer. In the current study, referred to as NLCS-AIR, our objective was to obtain more precise estimates of the effects of traffic-related air pollution by analyzing associations with cause-specific mortality, as well as lung cancer incidence, in the full cohort of approximately 120,000 subjects. Cohort members were 55 to 69 years of age at enrollment in 1986. Follow-up was from 1987 through 1996 for mortality (17,674 deaths) and from late 1986 through 1997 for lung cancer incidence (2234 cases). Information about potential confounding variables and effect modifiers was available from the questionnaire that subjects completed at enrollment and from publicly available data (including neighborhood-scale information such as income distributions). The NLCS was designed for a case-cohort approach, which makes use of all the cases in the full cohort, while data for the random subcohort are used to estimate person-time experience in the study. Full information on confounders was available for the subjects in the random subcohort and for the emerging cases of mortality and lung cancer incidence during the follow-up period, and in NLCS-AIR we used the case-cohort approach to examine the relation between exposure to air pollution and cause-specific mortality and lung cancer. We also specified a standard Cox proportional hazards model within the full cohort, for which information on potential confounding variables was much more limited. Exposure to air pollution was estimated for the subjects' home addresses at baseline in 1986. Concentrations were estimated for

  12. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN EL PASO AND DETROIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypotheses -Specific Agent • Diesel exhaust particles • Ultrafine particles • Coarse-mode particles (road dust) • Noise and stress • Nonspecific irritants Previous Epidemiology • Kanawha Valley Health Study • Munich Traffic Study • Dutch Traffic Studies • S....

  13. Associations between Traffic Noise, Particulate Air Pollution, Hypertension, and Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Adults: The KORA Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Kathrin; Petz, Markus; Heinrich, Joachim; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases have rarely considered air pollution as a covariate in the analyses. Isolated systolic hypertension has not yet been in the focus of epidemiological noise research. Methods: The association between traffic noise (road and rail) and the prevalence of hypertension was assessed in two study populations with a total of 4,166 participants 25–74 years of age. Traffic noise (weighted day–night average noise level; LDN) at the facade of the dwellings was derived from noise maps. Annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations at residential addresses were estimated by land-use regression. Hypertension was assessed by blood pressure readings, self-reported doctor-diagnosed hypertension, and antihypertensive drug intake. Results: In the Greater Augsburg, Germany, study population, traffic noise and air pollution were not associated with hypertension. In the City of Augsburg population (n = 1,893), where the exposure assessment was more detailed, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 10-dB(A) increase in noise was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.35), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.30) after additional adjustment for PM2.5. The adjusted OR for a 1-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.27) after additional adjustment for noise. For isolated systolic hypertension, the fully adjusted OR for noise was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.86) and for PM2.5 was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.34). Conclusions: Traffic noise and PM2.5 were both associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. Mutually adjusted associations with hypertension were positive but no longer statistically significant. Citation: Babisch W, Wolf K, Petz M, Heinrich J, Cyrys J, Peters A. 2014. Associations between traffic noise, particulate air pollution, hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension in adults: the KORA Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:492–498; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306981 PMID:24602804

  14. Home outdoor models for traffic-related air pollutants do not represent personal exposure measurements in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducret-Stich, R.; Delfino, R. J.; Tjoa, T.; Gemperli, A.; Ineichen, A.; Wu, J.; Phuleria, H. C.; Liu, L.-J. S.

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies have used measurements or estimates of traffic-related air pollutants at home or school locations to link associations between exposure and health. However, little is known about the validity of these outdoor concentrations as an estimate for personal exposure to traffic. This paper compares modelled outdoor concentrations at home with personal exposure to traffic air pollution of 63 children in two areas in Los Angeles in 2003/2004. Exposure monitoring consisted of sixteen 10-day monitoring runs, with each run monitoring 4 subjects concurrently with the active personal DataRAM for particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM25), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). One child per run had concurrent indoor/outdoor home monitoring. Measurements at central sites (24-hr PM25, EC, OC) were taken daily and concentrations of PM25, EC, and OC from traffic sources were calculated using the CALINE4 model for individual residences. We modelled outdoor concentrations of PM2 5, EC and OC with multilinear regression including GIS and meteorological parameters and adjusted for auto-correlation between repeated measurements. The model fit (R2) for home outdoor estimates was 0.94, 0.74 and 0.80 for PM25, EC and OC, respectively. Comparisons between these outdoor estimates and the personal measurements showed a good agreement for PM25 (R2=0.65-0.70) with a mean bias of -0.7±11.8|ag for the smog receptor area, and 18.9±16.2|ag for the traffic impacted area. However the outdoor estimates were not related to personal exposure for EC (R2=0.01-0.29) and OC (R2=0.03- 0.14). Conclusions: Predictions of outdoor concentrations can be used as approximations of personal exposure to PM25. However, they are not appropriate for estimating personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants including EC and OC in studies of acute exposure-response relationships.

  15. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  16. The use of lidar for the evaluation of traffic-related urban pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, W.; Cooper, D.; Buttler, W.; Cottingame, W.; Tellier, L.

    1993-10-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) is demonstrated as a tool for the detection and tracking of sources of aerosol pollution. Existing elastic lidars have been used to demonstrate the potential of the application of this technology in urban areas. Data from several experiments is shown along with analysis methods used for interpretation of the data. The goal of the project is to develop a light-weight, low-cost, lidar system and data analysis methods which can be used by urban planners and local air quality managers. The ability to determine the sources, i.e. causes, of non-attainment may lead to more effective use of tax dollars. Future directions for the project are also discussed.

  17. Is long-term exposure to traffic pollution associated with mortality? A small-area study in London.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Ghosh, Rebecca; Anderson, H Ross; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J; Wilkinson, Paul; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants may be harmful for health but few studies have investigated effects on mortality. We examined associations for six primary traffic pollutants with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 2003-2010 at small-area level using linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models. In linear models most pollutants showed negative or null association with all-cause, cardiovascular or respiratory mortality. In the piecewise models we observed positive associations in the lowest exposure range (e.g. relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality 1.07 (95% credible interval (CI) = 1.00-1.15) per 0.15 μg/m(3) increase in exhaust related primary particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5)) whereas associations in the highest exposure range were negative (corresponding RR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91-0.96). Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations with mortality. That we found the strongest positive associations in the lowest exposure group may reflect residual confounding by unmeasured confounders that varies by exposure group. PMID:26160423

  18. Mitochondrial Genetic Background Modifies the Relationship between Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure and Systemic Biomarkers of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopp, Sharine; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Gillen, Daniel; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human mitochondrial haplogroups are linked to differences in ROS production and oxidative-stress induced inflammation that may influence disease pathogenesis, including coronary artery disease (CAD). We previously showed that traffic-related air pollutants were associated with biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a cohort panel of subjects with CAD in the Los Angeles air basin. Objective We tested whether air pollutant exposure-associated inflammation was stronger in mitochondrial haplogroup H than U (high versus low ROS production) in this panel (38 subjects and 417 observations). Methods Inflammation biomarkers were measured weekly in each subject (≤12 weeks), including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 soluble receptor and tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor II. We determined haplogroup by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Air pollutants included nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), organic carbon, elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and particulate matter mass, three size fractions (<0.25 µm, 0.25–2.5 µm, and 2.5–10 µm in aerodynamic diameter). Particulate matter extracts were analyzed for organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and in vitro oxidative potential of aqueous extracts. Associations between exposures and biomarkers, stratified by haplogroup, were analyzed by mixed-effects models. Results IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PAH), and with mass and oxidative potential of quasi-ultrafine particles <0.25 µm. These associations were stronger for haplogroup H than haplogroup U. Conclusions Results suggest that mitochondrial haplogroup U is a novel protective factor for air pollution-related systemic inflammation in this small group of subjects. PMID:23717615

  19. The Contributions To The Study Of Carbon Monoxide Pollution Due To Car Traffic In A Densely Populated Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorin, Borza

    2015-07-01

    Air quality monitoring is the most important environmental factor to be considered because it is the fastest way that helps pollutant transport into the environment. The development of human society has led to a negative anthropogenic and technogenic impact on air quality, resulting into a significant series of adverse effects on human health, flora, fauna and ecosystems in general. In this paper it is presentd the research work performed to monitor carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles in traffic, in a densely populated area in Sibiu. Also, in the paper it is described, the research findings conducted in accordance with national and European legislation. In our research we used GIS software, Geomedia Professional.

  20. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Acute Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Respiratory Function in Urban Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Kulka, Ryan; Dubeau, Aimee; Martin, Christina; Wang, Daniel; Dales, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the acute health effects of air pollution exposures experienced while cycling in traffic. Objectives: We conducted a crossover study to examine the relationship between traffic pollution and acute changes in heart rate variability. We also collected spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide measures. Methods: Forty-two healthy adults cycled for 1 hr on high- and low-traffic routes as well as indoors. Health measures were collected before cycling and 1–4 hr after the start of cycling. Ultrafine particles (UFPs; ≤ 0.1 μm in aerodynamic diameter), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), black carbon, and volatile organic compounds were measured along each cycling route, and ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels were recorded from a fixed-site monitor. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between air pollutants and changes in health outcome measures relative to precycling baseline values. Results: An interquartile range increase in UFP levels (18,200/cm3) was associated with a significant decrease in high-frequency power 4 hr after the start of cycling [β = –224 msec2; 95% confidence interval (CI), –386 to –63 msec2]. Ambient NO2 levels were inversely associated with the standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (β = –10 msec; 95% CI, –20 to –0.34 msec) and positively associated with the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power (β = 1.4; 95% CI, 0.35 to 2.5) 2 hr after the start of cycling. We also observed significant inverse associations between ambient O3 levels and the root mean square of successive differences in adjacent NN intervals 3 hr after the start of cycling. Conclusions: Short-term exposures to traffic pollution may contribute to altered autonomic modulation of the heart in the hours immediately after cycling. PMID:21672679

  1. Development and investigation of a pollution control pit for treatment of stormwater from metal roofs and traffic areas.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, C; Göbel, P; Lohmann, M; Coldewey, W G

    2006-01-01

    Source control by on-site retention and infiltration of stormwater is a sustainable and proven alternative to classical drainage methods. Unfortunately, sedimentary particles and pollutants from drained surfaces cause clogging and endanger soil and groundwater during long-term operation of infiltration devices. German water authorities recommend the use of infiltration devices, such as swales or swale-trench-systems. Direct infiltration by underground facilities, such as pipes, trenches or sinks, without pretreatment of runoff is generally not permitted. Problems occur with runoff from metal roofs, traffic areas and industrial sites. However, due to site limitations, underground systems are often the only feasible option. To overcome this situation, a pollution control pit was developed with a hydrodynamic separator and a multistage filter made of coated porous concrete. The system treats runoff at source and protects soil, groundwater and receiving waterways. Typically, more than 90% of the pollutants such as sedimentary particles, hydrocarbons and heavy metals can be removed. Filters have been developed to treat even higher polluted stormwater loads from metal roofs and industrial sites. The treatment process is based on sedimentation, filtration, adsorption and chemical precipitation. Sediments are trapped in a special chamber within the pit and can be removed easily. Other pollutants are captured in the concrete filter upstream of the sediment separator chamber. Filters can be easily replaced. PMID:17120661

  2. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect ...

  3. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  4. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  5. High Blood Pressure and Long-Term Exposure to Indoor Noise and Air Pollution from Road Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Nino; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Vila, Joan; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Basagaña, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traffic noise has been associated with prevalence of hypertension, but reports are inconsistent for blood pressure (BP). To ascertain noise effects and to disentangle them from those suspected to be from traffic-related air pollution, it may be essential to estimate people’s noise exposure indoors in bedrooms. Objectives: We analyzed associations between long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise in bedrooms and prevalent hypertension and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, considering long-term exposure to outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Methods: We evaluated 1,926 cohort participants at baseline (years 2003–2006; Girona, Spain). Outdoor annual average levels of nighttime traffic noise (Lnight) and NO2 were estimated at postal addresses with a detailed traffic noise model and a land-use regression model, respectively. Individual indoor traffic Lnight levels were derived from outdoor Lnight with application of insulations provided by reported noise-reducing factors. We assessed associations for hypertension and BP with multi-exposure logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results: Median levels were 27.1 dB(A) (indoor Lnight), 56.7 dB(A) (outdoor Lnight), and 26.8 μg/m3 (NO2). Spearman correlations between outdoor and indoor Lnight with NO2 were 0.75 and 0.23, respectively. Indoor Lnight was associated both with hypertension (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.13) and SBP (β = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.15) per 5 dB(A); and NO2 was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.36), SBP (β = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.21, 2.25), and DBP (β⊇= 0.56; 95% CI: –0.03, 1.14) per 10 μg/m3. In the outdoor noise model, Lnight was associated only with hypertension and NO2 with BP only. The indoor noise–SBP association was stronger and statistically significant with a threshold at 30 dB(A). Conclusion: Long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise was associated with prevalent hypertension and SBP, independently of NO2. Associations were less

  6. Spatial Distribution of Traffic Air Pollution and Evaluation of Transport Vehicle Emission Dispersion in Ambient Air in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costabile, Francesca; Wang, Fenjuan; Hong, Weimin; Liu, Fenglei; Allegrini, Ivo

    Vertical distribution of traffic-related pollutants inside an open street-canyon were observed in Suzhou, P.R. China, in 2005. The aim was to explore transfer and diffusion characteristics of vehicular exhaust emissions, as well as monitoring constraints associated with street canyons, courtyards and enclosed spaces. Vertical wind speed was found to strongly affect the fluctuation of all the pollutants. Daily average concentrations of NOx, NO2 and NO, as well as NO2/NOx ratio, were found to vary significantly alongside the vertical, proportionate to different average daily trends. Oxidation processes and photochemical activity are discussed to explain these phenomena. Daily CO trends were found to track closely with both NOx and Benzene, while the corresponding ratios were different relative to other published works. Different emission factors and driving conditions, as well as other emission sources types (especially for Benzene) are used to explain this point.

  7. Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Järup, L

    2001-01-01

    A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods. PMID:11445519

  8. Local-Scale Exposure Assessment of Air Pollutants in Source-Impacted Neighborhoods in Detroit, MI (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vette, A. F.; Bereznicki, S.; Sobus, J.; Norris, G.; Williams, R.; Batterman, S.; Breen, M.; Isakov, V.; Perry, S.; Heist, D.; Community Action Against Asthma Steering Committee

    2010-12-01

    There has been growing interest in improving local-scale (< 1-km) exposure assessments to better understand the impact of local sources of air pollutants on adverse health outcomes. This paper describes two research studies aimed at understanding the impact of local sources contributing to spatial gradients at the neighborhood-scale in Detroit, MI. The first study, the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), was designed to assess the variability in concentrations of air pollutants derived from local and regional sources on community, neighborhood and personal exposures to air pollutants. Homes were identified at random in six different neighborhoods throughout Wayne County, MI that varied proximally to local industrial and mobile sources. Data were collected in summer (July-August) and winter (January-March) at a total of 135 homes over a three-year period (2004-2007). For five consecutive days at each home in summer and winter concurrent samples were collected of personal exposures, residential indoor and outdoor concentrations, and at a community monitoring site. The samples were analyzed for PM2.5 (mass and composition), air toxics, O3 and NO2. The second study is on-going and focuses on characterizing the impacts of mobile sources on near-road air quality and exposures among a cohort of asthmatic children. The Near-road EXposures and effects from Urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS) is designed to examine the relationship between near-road exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PM components) and respiratory health of asthmatic children who live close to major roadways. The study will investigate the effects of traffic-associated exposures on exaggerated airway responses, biomolecular responses of inflammatory and oxidative stress, and how these exposures affect the frequency and severity of adverse respiratory outcomes. The study will also examine different near-road exposure assessment metrics, including monitoring and

  9. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Other Traffic-Related Airborne Pollutants in New York City

    PubMed Central

    NARVÁEZ, RAFAEL F.; HOEPNER, LORI; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.; YAN, BEIZHAN; GARFINKEL, ROBIN; WHYATT, ROBIN; CAMANN, DAVID; PERERA, FREDERICA P.; KINNEY, PATRICK L.; MILLER, RACHEL L.

    2008-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. We hypothesized that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon (EC, diesel indicator), particulate matter (PM2.5), and a suite of metals declined from 1998 to 2006 in NYC due to policy interventions. PAH levels from personal monitoring of pregnant mothers participating in the Columbia’s Center for Children’s Environmental Health birth cohort study, and EC, PM2.5, and metal data from five New York State Department of Environmental Conservation stationary monitors were compared across sites and over time (1998–2006). Univariate analysis showed a decrease in personal PAHs exposures from 1998 to 2006 (p < 0.0001). After controlling for environmental tobacco smoke, indoor heat, and cooking, year of personal monitoring remained a predictor of decline in Σ8PAHs (β = −0.269, p < 0.001). Linear trend analysis also suggested that PM2.5 declined (p = 0.09). Concentrations of EC and most metals measured by stationary site monitors, as measured by ANOVA, did not decline. Across stationary sites, levels of airborne EC and metals varied considerably. By contrast PM2.5 levels were highly intercorrelated (values ranged from 0.725 to 0.922, p < 0.01). Further policy initiatives targeting traffic-related air pollutants may be needed for a greater impact on public health. PMID:18939566

  10. A synchronous fiber optic ring local area network for multigigabit/s mixed-traffic communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Eng, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    A synchronous-ring fiber optic local area network is reported that facilitates the simultaneous transmission of packet and real-time traffic at gigabit/s rates, minimizes the amount of high-speed logic, and simplifies the user interface to the network. The novelty of the technique is based on (1) suspending in transit around the ring's circumference an integral number of data frames and (2) achieving this condition by skewing the frame clock rate a small amount. Rather than use the whole data frame as one packet destined to a specific user, many individual channels are instead time-multiplexed into the data frame. This technique only becomes feasible for local networks as data rates approach the Gbit/s range. This departure from other synchronous rings results in several advantages both in terms of system performance and hardware simplicity.

  11. Local sources of pollution and their impacts in Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molders, N.

    2013-12-01

    The movie 'Into the Wilde' evoke the impression of the last frontier in a great wide and pristine land. With over half a million people living in Alaska an area as larger as the distance from the US West to the East Coast, this idea comes naturally. The three major cities are the main emission source in an otherwise relative clean atmosphere. On the North Slope oil drilling and production is the main anthropogenic emission sources. Along Alaska's coasts ship traffic including cruises is another anthropogenic emission source that is expected to increase as sea-ice recedes. In summer, wildfires in Alaska, Canada and/or Siberia may cause poor air quality. In winter inversions may lead poor air quality and in spring. In spring, aged polluted air is often advected into Alaska. These different emission sources yield quite different atmospheric composition and air quality impacts. While this may make understanding Alaska's atmospheric composition at-large a challenging task, it also provides great opportunities to examine impacts without co-founders. The talk will give a review of the performed research, and insight into the challenges.

  12. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  13. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  14. Assessing traffic and industrial contributions to ambient nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds in a low pollution urban environment.

    PubMed

    Oiamo, Tor H; Johnson, Markey; Tang, Kathy; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2015-10-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is an effective method for estimating fine-scale distributions of ambient air pollutants. The objectives of this study are to advance the methodology for use in urban environments with relatively low levels of industrial activity and provide exposure assessments for research on health effects of air pollution. Intraurban distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene and m- and p-xylene were characterized based on spatial monitoring and LUR modeling in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Passive samplers were deployed at 50 locations throughout Ottawa for two consecutive weeks in October 2008 and May 2009. Land use variables representing point, area and line sources were tested as predictors of pooled pollutant distributions. LUR models explained 96% of the spatial variability in NO2 and 75-79% of the variability in the VOC species. Proximity to highways, green space, industrial and residential land uses were significant in the final models. More notably, proximity to industrial point sources and road network intersections were significant predictors for all pollutants. The strong contribution of industrial point sources to VOC distributions in Ottawa suggests that facility emission data should be considered whenever possible. The study also suggests that proximity to road network intersections may be an effective proxy in areas where reliable traffic data are not available. PMID:26022404

  15. Traffic-related air pollution associated with prevalence of asthma and COPD/chronic bronchitis. A cross-sectional study in Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Anna; Stroh, Emilie; Montnémery, Peter; Nihlén, Ulf; Jakobsson, Kristina; Axmon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that air pollution from traffic has adverse long-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in children, but there are few studies and more inconclusive results in adults. We examined associations between residential traffic and asthma and COPD in adults in southern Sweden. A postal questionnaire in 2000 (n = 9319, 18–77 years) provided disease status, and self-reported exposure to traffic. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to link geocoded residential addresses to a Swedish road database and an emission database for NOx. Results Living within 100 m of a road with >10 cars/minute (compared with having no heavy road within this distance) was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04–1.89), and COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.11–2.4), as well as asthma and chronic bronchitis symptoms. Self-reported traffic exposure was associated with asthma diagnosis and COPD diagnosis, and with asthma symptoms. Annual average NOx was associated with COPD diagnosis and symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. Conclusion Living close to traffic was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis, COPD diagnosis, and symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. This indicates that traffic-related air pollution has both long-term and short-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in adults, even in a region with overall low levels of air pollution. PMID:19154599

  16. Correlations between short-term mobile monitoring and long-term passive sampler measurements of traffic-related air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Erin A.; Schaal, LaNae; Sasakura, Miyoko; Crampton, Robert; Gould, Timothy R.; Hartin, Kris; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Simpson, Christopher D.; Yost, Michael G.

    2016-05-01

    Mobile monitoring has provided a means for broad spatial measurements of air pollutants that are otherwise impractical to measure with multiple fixed site sampling strategies. However, the larger the mobile monitoring route the less temporally dense measurements become, which may limit the usefulness of short-term mobile monitoring for applications that require long-term averages. To investigate the stationarity of short-term mobile monitoring measurements, we calculated long term medians derived from a mobile monitoring campaign that also employed 2-week integrated passive sampler detectors (PSD) for NOx, Ozone, and nine volatile organic compounds at 43 intersections distributed across the entire city of Baltimore, MD. This is one of the largest mobile monitoring campaigns in terms of spatial extent undertaken at this time. The mobile platform made repeat measurements every third day at each intersection for 6-10 min at a resolution of 10 s. In two-week periods in both summer and winter seasons, each site was visited 3-4 times, and a temporal adjustment was applied to each dataset. We present the correlations between eight species measured using mobile monitoring and the 2-week PSD data and observe correlations between mobile NOx measurements and PSD NOx measurements in both summer and winter (Pearson's r = 0.84 and 0.48, respectively). The summer season exhibited the strongest correlations between multiple pollutants, whereas the winter had comparatively few statistically significant correlations. In the summer CO was correlated with PSD pentanes (r = 0.81), and PSD NOx was correlated with mobile measurements of black carbon (r = 0.83), two ultrafine particle count measures (r = 0.8), and intermodal (1-3 μm) particle counts (r = 0.73). Principal Component Analysis of the combined PSD and mobile monitoring data revealed multipollutant features consistent with light duty vehicle traffic, diesel exhaust and crankcase blow by. These features were more consistent

  17. Correlations between short-term mobile monitoring and long-term passive sampler measurements of traffic-related air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Erin A.; Schaal, LaNae; Sasakura, Miyoko; Crampton, Robert; Gould, Timothy R.; Hartin, Kris; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Simpson, Christopher D.; Yost, Michael G.

    2016-05-01

    Mobile monitoring has provided a means for broad spatial measurements of air pollutants that are otherwise impractical to measure with multiple fixed site sampling strategies. However, the larger the mobile monitoring route the less temporally dense measurements become, which may limit the usefulness of short-term mobile monitoring for applications that require long-term averages. To investigate the stationarity of short-term mobile monitoring measurements, we calculated long term medians derived from a mobile monitoring campaign that also employed 2-week integrated passive sampler detectors (PSD) for NOx, Ozone, and nine volatile organic compounds at 43 intersections distributed across the entire city of Baltimore, MD. This is one of the largest mobile monitoring campaigns in terms of spatial extent undertaken at this time. The mobile platform made repeat measurements every third day at each intersection for 6-10 min at a resolution of 10 s. In two-week periods in both summer and winter seasons, each site was visited 3-4 times, and a temporal adjustment was applied to each dataset. We present the correlations between eight species measured using mobile monitoring and the 2-week PSD data and observe correlations between mobile NOx measurements and PSD NOx measurements in both summer and winter (Pearson's r = 0.84 and 0.48, respectively). The summer season exhibited the strongest correlations between multiple pollutants, whereas the winter had comparatively few statistically significant correlations. In the summer CO was correlated with PSD pentanes (r = 0.81), and PSD NOx was correlated with mobile measurements of black carbon (r = 0.83), two ultrafine particle count measures (r = 0.8), and intermodal (1-3 μm) particle counts (r = 0.73). Principal Component Analysis of the combined PSD and mobile monitoring data revealed multipollutant features consistent with light duty vehicle traffic, diesel exhaust and crankcase blow by. These features were more

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Ultrasound Measures of Fetal Growth in the INMA Sabadell Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Rodríguez, Àgueda; Paez, Montserrat; Ballester, Ferran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have used longitudinal ultrasound measurements to assess the effect of traffic-related air pollution on fetal growth. Objective We examined the relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and aromatic hydrocarbons [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX)] on fetal growth assessed by 1,692 ultrasound measurements among 562 pregnant women from the Sabadell cohort of the Spanish INMA (Environment and Childhood) study. Methods We used temporally adjusted land-use regression models to estimate exposures to NO2 and BTEX. We fitted mixed-effects models to estimate longitudinal growth curves for femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and estimated fetal weight (EFW). Unconditional and conditional SD scores were calculated at 12, 20, and 32 weeks of gestation. Sensitivity analyses were performed considering time–activity patterns during pregnancy. Results Exposure to BTEX from early pregnancy was negatively associated with growth in BPD during weeks 20–32. None of the other fetal growth parameters were associated with exposure to air pollution during pregnancy. When considering only women who spent < 2 hr/day in nonresidential outdoor locations, effect estimates were stronger and statistically significant for the association between NO2 and growth in HC during weeks 12–20 and growth in AC, BPD, and EFW during weeks 20–32. Conclusions Our results lend some support to an effect of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants from early pregnancy on fetal growth during mid-pregnancy. PMID:20103496

  19. Consideration of Exposures to Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Smart Growth Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    We address the near-road pollution problem as it relates to smart growth design strategies. Studies have shown that pollution levels tend to be high near heavily traveled roads and that road proximity is related to adverse health effects. These findings can conflict with urban ...

  20. Greater Athens PM pollution: Local or regional origin;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pateraki, Stella; Maggos, Thomas; Assimakopoulos, Demosthenis; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Vasilakos, Christos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    During the last decades, the Particulate Matter (PM) pollution has become one of most challenging environmental problems worldwide. Along with their impact on global climate change and ecosystems, particles, especially for the smaller one, are indicated by numerous epidemiological studies to pose a great risk to human health with acute or long-term effects. Being located at the intersection of air masses circulating among three continents, the Mediterranean Basin is one of the areas heavily affected by aerosols with both natural and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore, the complex prevailing meteorology favours the aging of polluted air masses and induces high level of PM and photooxidant gases. In line with such scientific demands, the aim of the specific work is to elucidate the main characteristics of PM2.5 and PM1 nature (mass and chemical composition (Cl-, , SO , , K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, OC, EC)) of the Greater Athens Area (GAA) to elucidate the factors controlling the PM pollution and enable the policy makers to develop effective air quality remediation plans. Taking into consideration that PM measured at a specific site is the result of combined features and processes, at a local or a larger scale, as well as the air quality degradation by particulate matter over polluted areas which is often characterized by high levels of regional background aerosols, the main goal of this study is the identification and estimation of the local or regional contribution to the PM burden at GAA during different meteorological driven scenarios. Focusing on the changes in the prevailing atmospheric circulation patterns (mesoscale/synoptic wind regimes), a mass closure study of the available chemical species in conjunction with the observed PM mass is also attempted, in order to differentiate the relative contributions of the constituents. Special attention is also given to the high PM concentration (exceedances) days. The experimental campaign was held in parallel, during the period of

  1. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Skjetne, Erik; Kobernus, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  2. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  3. Influence of avenue-trees on air quality at the urban neighborhood scale. Part II: traffic pollutant concentrations at pedestrian level.

    PubMed

    Gromke, Christof; Blocken, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Flow and dispersion of traffic-emitted pollutants were studied in a generic urban neighborhood for various avenue-tree layouts by employing 3D steady RANS simulations with the realizable k-ε turbulence model. In comparison to the tree-free situation quantitative and qualitative changes with flow reversal in the wind field were observed. Low to moderate increases (<13.2%) in the neighborhood-averaged pollutant concentration were found at pedestrian level. An approximately 1% increase in the neighborhood-averaged concentration was obtained with each percent of the street canyon volumes being occupied by vegetation for occupation fractions between 4 and 14%. The overall pattern of concentration changes relative to the tree-free situation was similar for all avenue-tree layouts. However, pronounced locally restricted decreases or increases in concentration (-87 to +1378%) occurred. The results indicate the necessity to account for existing or planned avenue-trees in neighborhood scaled is dispersion studies. Their consideration is prerequisite for reliable urban air quality assessment. PMID:25463712

  4. Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures and Congenital Heart Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Yang, Wei; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. Methods We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to estimate the odds of 27 congenital heart defects with respect to quartiles of 7 ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in California during the first two months of pregnancy, 1997–2006 (N=813 cases and N=828 controls). Results Particulate matter <10 microns (PM10) was associated with pulmonary valve stenosis (aOR4th Quartile=2.6; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.7) and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR3rd Quartile=2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9) after adjusting for maternal race-ethnicity, education and multivitamin use. PM2.5 was associated with transposition of the great arteries (aOR3rd Quartile=2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.5) and inversely associated with perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR4th Quartile=0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9). Secundum atrial septal defects were inversely associated with carbon monoxide (aOR4th Quartile=0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) and PM2.5 (aOR4th Quartile=0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). Traffic density was associated with muscular ventricular septal defects (aOR4th Quartile=3.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 7.8) and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR3rd Quartile =2.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.6), and inversely associated with transposition of the great arteries (aOR4th Quartile=0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). Conclusions PM10 and traffic density may contribute to the occurrence of pulmonary valve stenosis and ventricular septal defects, respectively. The results were mixed for other pollutants and had little consistency with previous studies. PMID:23772934

  5. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures With Selected Congenital Anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant mortality and are important contributors to subsequent morbidity. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate whether ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in early gestation contribute to the risk of selected congenital anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997–2006. Seven exposures and 5 outcomes were included for a total of 35 investigated associations. We observed increased odds of neural tube defects when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of exposure for several pollutants after adjusting for maternal race/ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. The adjusted odds ratio for neural tube defects among those with the highest carbon monoxide exposure was 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 3.2) compared with those with the lowest exposure, and there was a monotonic exposure-response across quartiles. The highest quartile of nitrogen oxide exposure was associated with neural tube defects (adjusted odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.8). The adjusted odds ratio for the highest quartile of nitrogen dioxide exposure was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.7). Ozone was associated with decreased odds of neural tube defects. Our results extend the limited body of evidence regarding air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:23538941

  6. Traffic pollution exposure is associated with altered brain connectivity in school children.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Macià, Dídac; Fenoll, Raquel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; Forns, Joan; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Capellades, Jaume; Querol, Xavier; Deus, Joan; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Children are more vulnerable to the effects of environmental elements due to their active developmental processes. Exposure to urban air pollution has been associated with poorer cognitive performance, which is thought to be a result of direct interference with brain maturation. We aimed to assess the extent of such potential effects of urban pollution on child brain maturation using general indicators of vehicle exhaust measured in the school environment and a comprehensive imaging evaluation. A group of 263 children, aged 8 to 12years, underwent MRI to quantify regional brain volumes, tissue composition, myelination, cortical thickness, neural tract architecture, membrane metabolites, functional connectivity in major neural networks and activation/deactivation dynamics during a sensory task. A combined measurement of elemental carbon and NO2 was used as a putative marker of vehicle exhaust. Air pollution exposure was associated with brain changes of a functional nature, with no evident effect on brain anatomy, structure or membrane metabolites. Specifically, a higher content of pollutants was associated with lower functional integration and segregation in key brain networks relevant to both inner mental processes (the default mode network) and stimulus-driven mental operations. Age and performance (motor response speed) both showed the opposite effect to that of pollution, thus indicating that higher exposure is associated with slower brain maturation. In conclusion, urban air pollution appears to adversely affect brain maturation in a critical age with changes specifically concerning the functional domain. PMID:26825441

  7. Symptoms and Medication Use in Children with Asthma and Traffic-Related Sources of Fine Particle Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Janneane F.; Koutrakis, Petros; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Holford, Theodore R.; Bracken, Michael B.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient fine particles [particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm diameter (PM2.5)] is a potential factor in the exacerbation of asthma. National air quality particle standards consider total mass, not composition or sources, and may not protect against health impacts related to specific components. Objective We examined associations between daily exposure to fine particle components and sources, and symptoms and medication use in children with asthma. Methods Children with asthma (n = 149) 4–12 years of age were enrolled in a year-long study. We analyzed particle samples for trace elements (X-ray fluorescence) and elemental carbon (light reflectance). Using factor analysis/source apportionment, we identified particle sources (e.g., motor vehicle emissions) and quantified daily contributions. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on study diaries. Repeated measures logistic regression models examined associations between health outcomes and particle exposures as elemental concentrations and source contributions. Results More than half of mean PM2.5 was attributed to traffic-related sources motor vehicles (42%) and road dust (12%). Increased likelihood of symptoms and inhaler use was largest for 3-day averaged exposures to traffic-related sources or their elemental constituents and ranged from a 10% increased likelihood of wheeze for each 5-μg/m3 increase in particles from motor vehicles to a 28% increased likelihood of shortness of breath for increases in road dust. Neither the other sources identified nor PM2.5 alone was associated with increased health outcome risks. Conclusions Linking respiratory health effects to specific particle pollution composition or sources is critical to efforts to protect public health. We associated increased risk of symptoms and inhaler use in children with asthma with exposure to traffic-related fine particles. PMID:19654929

  8. A cooperative transponder system for improved traffic safety, localizing road users in the 5 GHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, B.; Kalverkamp, G.; Chaabane, M.; Biebl, E. M.

    2012-09-01

    We present a multi-user cooperative mobile transponder system which enables cars to localize pedestrians, bicyclists and other road users in order to improve traffic safety. The system operates at a center frequency of 5.768 GHz, offering the ability to test precision localization technology at frequencies close to the newly designated automotive safety related bands around 5.9 GHz. By carrying out a roundtrip time of flight measurement, the sensor can determine the distance from the onboard localization unit of a car to a road user who is equipped with an active transponder, employing the idea of a secondary radar and pulse compression. The onboard unit sends out a pseudo noise coded interrogation pulse, which is answered by one or more transponders after a short waiting time. Each transponder uses a different waiting time in order to allow for time division multiple access. We present the system setup as well as range measurement results, achieving an accuracy up to centimeters for the distance measurement and a range in the order of hundred meters. We also discuss the effect of clock drift and offset on distance accuracy for different waiting times and show how the system can be improved to further increase precision in a multiuser environment.

  9. Characterization of traffic-related air pollutant metrics at four schools in El Paso, Texas, USA: Implications for exposure assessment and siting schools in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Stock, Thomas H.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Montoya Sosa, Teresa; Ebelt Sarnat, Stefanie; Holguin, Fernando; Greenwald, Roby; Johnson, Brent; Li, Wen-Whai

    2013-12-01

    Children spend substantial amount of time within school microenvironments; therefore, assessing school-based exposures is essential for characterizing and preventing children's health risks to air pollutants. Indeed, the importance of characterizing children's exposures in schools is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency's recent initiative to promote outdoor air monitoring networks near schools. As part of a health effects study investigating the impact of traffic-related air pollution on asthmatic children along the US-Mexico border, this research examines children's exposures to, and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in concentrations of, traffic-related air pollutants at four elementary schools in El Paso, Texas. Three schools were located in an area of high traffic density and one school in an area of low traffic density. Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of 48-h fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5), 48-h black carbon (BC), 96-h nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 96-h volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured for 13 weeks at each school. Outdoor concentrations of PM, NO2, BC, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene) compounds were similar among the three schools in the high-traffic zone in contrast to the school in the low-traffic zone. Results from this study and previous studies in this region corroborate the fact that PM pollution in El Paso is dominated by coarse PM (PM10-2.5) and fine fraction (PM2.5) accounts for only 25-30% of the total PM mass in PM10. BTEX species and BC are better surrogates for traffic air pollution in this region. Correlation analyses indicate a range of association between indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations due to uncontrollable factors like student foot traffic and varying building and ventilation configurations across the four schools. Results suggest the need of micro-scale monitoring for children's exposure assessment, which may not be adequately characterized

  10. A dynamic urban air pollution population exposure assessment study using model and population density data derived by mobile phone traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Pelliccioni, Armando; Bolignano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic city-wide air pollution exposure assessment study has been carried out for the urban population of Rome, Italy, by using time resolved population distribution maps, derived by mobile phone traffic data, and modelled air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) concentrations obtained by an integrated air dispersion modelling system. More than a million of persons were tracked during two months (March and April 2015) for their position within the city and its surroundings areas, with a time resolution of 15 min and mapped over an irregular grid system with a minimum resolution of 0.26 × 0.34 Km2. In addition, demographics information (as gender and age ranges) were available in a separated dataset not connected with the total population one. Such BigData were matched in time and space with air pollution model results and then used to produce hourly and daily resolved cumulative population exposures during the studied period. A significant mobility of population was identified with higher population densities in downtown areas during daytime increasing of up to 1000 people/Km2 with respect to nigh-time one, likely produced by commuters, tourists and working age population. Strong variability (up to ±50% for NO2) of population exposures were detected as an effect of both mobility and time/spatial changing in pollutants concentrations. A comparison with the correspondent stationary approach based on National Census data, allows detecting the inability of latter in estimating the actual variability of population exposure. Significant underestimations of the amount of population exposed to daily PM2.5 WHO guideline was identified for the Census approach. Very small differences (up to a few μg/m3) on exposure were detected for gender and age ranges population classes.

  11. Personal Exposures to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Health among Bronx Schoolchildren with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Spira-Cohen, Ariel; Chen, Lung Chi; Kendall, Michaela; Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported relationships between adverse respiratory health outcomes and residential proximity to traffic pollution, but have not shown this at a personal exposure level. Objective We compared, among inner-city children with asthma, the associations of adverse asthma outcome incidences with increased personal exposure to particulate matter mass ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) air pollution versus the diesel-related carbonaceous fraction of PM2.5. Methods Daily 24-hr personal samples of PM2.5, including the elemental carbon (EC) fraction, were collected for 40 fifth-grade children with asthma at four South Bronx schools (10 children per school) during approximately 1 month each. Spirometry and symptom scores were recorded several times daily during weekdays. Results We found elevated same-day relative risks of wheeze [1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–2.04)], shortness of breath (1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.99), and total symptoms (1.30; 95% CI, 1.04–1.62) with an increase in personal EC, but not with personal PM2.5 mass. We found increased risk of cough, wheeze, and total symptoms with increased 1-day lag and 2-day average personal and school-site EC. We found no significant associations with school-site PM2.5 mass or sulfur. The EC effect estimate was robust to addition of gaseous pollutants. Conclusion Adverse health associations were strongest with personal measures of EC exposure, suggesting that the diesel “soot” fraction of PM2.5 is most responsible for pollution-related asthma exacerbations among children living near roadways. Studies that rely on exposure to PM mass may underestimate PM health impacts. PMID:21216722

  12. A Near-Road Modeling System for Community-Scale Assessments of Traffic-Related AirPollution in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system estimates emissions and dispersion of toxic air pollutants for roadways within the continental United States. It accesses publicly available traffic and meteorological datasets, and is optimized for use on community-sized areas (...

  13. A novel mobile monitoring approach to characterize spatial and temporal variation in traffic-related air pollutants in an urban community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Fan, Zhihua; Lioy, Paul J.; Baptista, Ana; Greenberg, Molly; Laumbach, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    .27-46.5] μg/m3, and CO concentrations were 1.22 ± 0.60 [0.22-6.29] ppm in the community. The traffic-related air pollutants, BC and PNC, but not PM2.5 or CO, varied spatially depending on proximity to local stationary/mobile sources. Seasonal differences were observed for all four TRAPs, significantly higher in colder months than in warmer months. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in concurrent measurements from two parallel routes were calculated around 0.21 ± 0.17, and variations were attributed by meteorological variation (25%), temporal variability (19%), concentration level (6%), and spatial variability (2%), respectively. Overall study findings suggest this mobile monitoring approach could effectively capture and distinguish spatial/temporal characteristics in TRAP concentrations for communities impacted by heavy motor vehicle traffic and mixed urban air pollution sources.

  14. Benzene exposure and the effect of traffic pollution in Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, Henrik; Hansen, Asger B.; Lorenzen, Gitte; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Løfstrøm, Per; Christensen, Carsten S.

    Benzene is a carcinogenic compound, which is emitted from petrol-fuelled cars and thus is found ubiquitous in all cities. As part of the project Monitoring of Atmospheric Concentrations of Benzene in European Towns and Homes (MACBETH) six campaigns were carried out in the Municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. The campaigns were distributed over 1 year. In each campaign, the personal exposure to benzene of 50 volunteers (non-smokers living in non-smoking families) living and working in Copenhagen was measured. Simultaneously, benzene was measured in their homes and in an urban network distributed over the municipality. The Radiello diffusive sampler was applied to sample 5 days averages of benzene and other hydrocarbons. Comparison of the results with those from a BTX-monitor showed excellent agreement. The exposure and the concentrations in homes and in the urban area were found to be close to log-normal distribution. The annual averages of the geometrical mean values were 5.22, 4.30 and 2.90 μg m -3 for personal exposure, home concentrations and urban concentrations, respectively. Two main parameters are controlling the general level of benzene in Copenhagen: firstly, the emission from traffic and secondly, dispersion due to wind speed. The general level of exposure to benzene and home concentrations of benzene were strongly correlated with the outdoor level of benzene, which indicated that traffic is an important source for indoor concentrations of benzene and for the exposure to benzene.

  15. Nrf2-related gene expression and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in elderly subjects with cardiovascular disease: An exploratory panel study.

    PubMed

    Wittkopp, Sharine; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Stinchcombe, Timothy; Daher, Nancy; Schauer, James J; Shafer, Martin M; Sioutas, Constantinos; Gillen, Daniel L; Delfino, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression changes are linked to air pollutant exposures in in vitro and animal experiments. However, limited data are available on how these outcomes relate to ambient air pollutant exposures in humans. We performed an exploratory analysis testing whether gene expression levels were associated with air pollution exposures in a Los Angeles area cohort of elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Candidate genes (35) were selected from published studies of gene expression-pollutant associations. Expression levels were measured weekly in 43 subjects (≤ 12 weeks) using quantitative PCR. Exposures included gaseous pollutants O3, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and CO; particulate matter (PM) pollutants elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and size-fractionated PM mass. We measured organic compounds from PM filter extracts, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and determined the in vitro oxidative potential of particle extracts. Associations between exposures and gene expression levels were analyzed using mixed-effects regression models. We found positive associations of traffic-related pollutants (EC, BC, primary organic carbon, PM 0.25-2.5 PAH and/or PM 0.25 PAH, and NOx) with NFE2L2, Nrf2-mediated genes (HMOX1, NQO1, and SOD2), CYP1B1, IL1B, and SELP. Findings suggest that NFE2L2 gene expression links associations of traffic-related air pollution with phase I and II enzyme genes at the promoter transcription level. PMID:25564368

  16. Nrf2-related gene expression and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in elderly subjects with cardiovascular disease: An exploratory panel study

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopp, Sharine; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Stinchcombe, Timothy; Daher, Nancy; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Gillen, Daniel L.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression changes are linked to air pollutant exposures in in vitro and animal experiments. However, limited data are available on how these outcomes relate to ambient air pollutant exposures in humans. We performed an exploratory analysis testing whether gene expression levels were associated with air pollution exposures in a Los Angeles area cohort of elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Candidate genes (35) were selected from published studies of gene expression-pollutant associations. Expression levels were measured weekly in 43 subjects (≤12 weeks) using quantitative PCR. Exposures included gaseous pollutants O3, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and CO; particulate matter (PM) pollutants elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and size-fractionated PM mass. We measured organic compounds from PM filter extracts, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and determined the in vitro oxidative potential of particle extracts. Associations between exposures and gene expression levels were analyzed using mixed-effects regression models. We found positive associations of traffic-related pollutants (EC, BC, primary organic carbon, PM0.25-2.5 PAH and/or PM0.25 PAH, and NOx) with NFE2L2, Nrf2-mediated genes (HMOX1, NQO1, and SOD2), CYP1B1, IL1B, and SELP. Findings suggest that NFE2L2 gene expression links associations of traffic-related air pollution with phase I and II enzyme genes at the promoter transcription level. PMID:25564368

  17. Contribution of Urban Road Traffic to PM2.5 Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of PM2.5 measurements from EPA's NAAQS monitoring sites across the US. The few measurements that exist show increased PM2.5 mass levels at near-road sites, consistent with measurements of other pollutants emitted by motor vehicles.

  18. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    PubMed

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area. PMID:24288064

  19. Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Relation to Progression in Physical Disability among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Weuve, Jennifer; Kaufman, Joel D.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Curl, Cynthia; Puett, Robin C.; Beck, Todd; Evans, Denis A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical disability is common though not inevitable in older age and has direct bearing on a person’s ability to perform activities essential for self-care and independent living. Air pollution appears to increase the risk of several chronic diseases that contribute to the progression of disability. Objective: We evaluated long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in relation to progression in physical disability. Methods: We conducted our investigation within the Chicago Health and Aging Project. We measured participants’ exposures to TRAP using two surrogates: residential proximity to major roads (1993 onwards) and ambient concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOX; 1999 onwards), predicted via a geographic information systems-based spatiotemporal smoothing model (cross-validation R2 = 0.87) that incorporated community-based monitoring and resolved intraurban exposure gradients at a spatial scale of tens of meters. Participants’ lower-extremity physical ability was assessed every 3 years (1993–2012) via tandem stand, chair stand, and timed walking speed. Results: In multivariable-adjusted analyses (n = 5,708), higher long-term NOX exposure was associated with significantly faster progression in disability. Compared with the 5-year decline in physical ability score among participants in the lowest quartile of NOX exposure, decline among those in the highest exposure quartile was 1.14 units greater (95% confidence interval [CI]: –1.86, –0.42), equivalent to 3 additional years of decline among those in the lowest exposure quartile. The association was linear across the continuum of NOX exposure: per 10-ppb increment in exposure, the 5-year decline in physical ability score was 0.87 unit greater (95% CI: –1.35, –0.39). Proximity to a major road was not associated with disability progression (n = 9,994). Conclusions: These data join a growing body of evidence suggesting that TRAP exposures may accelerate aging

  20. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. Methods: We evaluated children 7–11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012–2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Results: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. Conclusion: In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Citation: Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona

  1. Self-organizing feature map (neural networks) as a tool to select the best indicator of road traffic pollution (soil, leaves or bark of Robinia pseudoacacia L.).

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Stankiewicz, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J

    2009-07-01

    Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the leaves and bark of Robinia pseudoacacia and the soil in which it grew, in the town of Oleśnica (SW Poland) and at a control site. We selected this town because emission from motor vehicles is practically the only source of air pollution, and it seemed interesting to evaluate its influence on soil and plants. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) yielded distinct groups of soils and R. pseudoacacia leaves and bark, depending on traffic intensity. Only the map classifying bark samples identified an additional group of highly polluted sites along the main highway from Wrocław to Warszawa. The bark of R. pseudoacacia seems to be a better bioindicator of long-term cumulative traffic pollution in the investigated area, while leaves are good indicators of short-term seasonal accumulation trends. PMID:19282074

  2. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria-Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Texcalac, Jose-Luis; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR) of PM2.5 (24-h average) was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%); an increase of 34 ppb (IQR) of NO2 (1-h maximum) was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4%) and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR) in O3 levels (1 hr maximum) to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%). Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average). Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles. PMID:19014608

  3. CO Pollution: a comparative study during high traffic conditions in the cities of Athens, Naples and Islamabad. Health impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichetti, Juliano; Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Khan, Ubaidullah

    2010-05-01

    Since the 19th century anthropogenic activities in urban areas have increased dramatically due to socio-economic evolution, increased urbanization and transport needs. Fifty seven years ago London experienced the impacts of an acute atmospheric pollution episode, due to elevated levels of black carbon aerosols (BC) and SO2, leading to the realization that uncontrolled emissions to the atmosphere lead to severe impacts on human health. Many large cities (Mega cities) in the developed and developing world have, for the last two decades, been plagued by high levels of atmospheric pollution, a problem that the European and worldwide scientific community are at present studying with measurable success. However, due to rapid industrial development and the ever increasing traffic, many more studies are required to support decision makers and governments on measures to reduce atmospheric pollution and mitigate the associated serious health effects on the population. Registered health problems are numerous and dramatic in all ages groups, but particularly so in infants, and patients suffering from chronic diseases due to increased levels of pollutants and nocive substance inhaled, entering the lungs and blood stream and finally being deposited in several organs. Recent studies indicate that cardiac arrhythmias associated to increased atmospheric pollution pose a serious threat to human health. K.N.Grigoropoulos,et al.2008. This study is based on monitoring and mapping CO levels in six areas 3 different cities i.e. Athens, Naples and Islamabad, the objective being to present and analyze the spatial and temporal variability of carbon monoxide (CO) levels leading to the estimation of the concentration levels and the quantities inhaled by pedestrians on a daily basis. It is well know that exposure to carbon monoxide concentration values in excess of 200ppm for 2-3 h usually create headaches, tiredness, fatigue and nausea, whereas human exposure of values of 800 ppm for over

  4. Influence of photochemical processes on traffic-related airborne pollutants in urban street canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Střižík, Michal; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel; Civiš, Svatopluk; Bestová, Iva; Nevrlý, Václav; Kadeřábek, Petr; Čadil, Jan; Berger, Pavel; Černý, Alexandr; Engst, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The urban street canyon of Legerova Street is part of the north-south trunk road that passes through the centre of Prague and remains an unresolved environmental issue for the capital of the Czech Republic. As many as one hundred thousand cars move through this region per day, and mortality has increased as a result of dust, NOx and other exhaust pollutants. The spatial distribution of pollutants (i.e., NO2, NO, and O3) during a day was measured by combined DIAL/SODAR techniques and spot analyzers that were appropriately located near the bottom of the street canyon. The measurements were performed under different meteorological conditions (autumn versus summer period). A purely physical approach does not provide a true description of reality due to photochemical processes that take place in the street canyon atmosphere. Sunlight in the summer triggers the production of ozone and thereby influences the concentration of NO2. The formation of an inverse non-diffuse vertical concentration distribution of NO2 in the morning hours was found to be related to the direct emission of O3 in the street and its background concentration. Rapid changes of NO2 concentrations were observed over time and in the vertical profile. An approach using a photochemical reactor to describe processes in a street canyon atmosphere was developed and verified as a useful tool for prediction purposes.

  5. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction: Disclosing Benzene as a Trigger? A Small-Area Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Denis; Kihal, Wahida; Schillinger, Charles; Fermanian, Christophe; Ségala, Claire; Glorion, Sophie; Arveiler, Dominique; Weber, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Exposure to traffic is an established risk factor for the triggering of myocardial infarction (MI). Particulate matter, mainly emitted by diesel vehicles, appears to be the most important stressor. However, the possible influence of benzene from gasoline-fueled cars has not been explored so far. Methods and Results We conducted a case-crossover study from 2,134 MI cases recorded by the local Coronary Heart Disease Registry (2000–2007) in the Strasbourg Metropolitan Area (France). Available individual data were age, gender, previous history of ischemic heart disease and address of residence at the time of the event. Nitrogen dioxide, particles of median aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10), ozone, carbon monoxide and benzene air concentrations were modeled on an hourly basis at the census block level over the study period using the deterministic ADMS-Urban air dispersion model. Model input data were emissions inventories, background pollution measurements, and meteorological data. We have found a positive, statistically significant association between concentrations of benzene and the onset of MI: per cent increase in risk for a 1 µg/m3 increase in benzene concentration in the previous 0, 0–1 and 1 day was 10.4 (95% confidence interval 3–18.2), 10.7 (2.7–19.2) and 7.2 (0.3–14.5), respectively. The associations between the other pollutants and outcome were much lower and in accordance with the literature. Conclusion We have observed that benzene in ambient air is strongly associated with the triggering of MI. This novel finding needs confirmation. If so, this would mean that not only diesel vehicles, the main particulate matter emitters, but also gasoline-fueled cars –main benzene emitters–, should be taken into account for public health action. PMID:24932584

  6. Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution, Proximity to Traffic, and Aortic Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ryan W.; Criqui, Michael H.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Allison, Matthew; Shea, Steven; Detrano, Robert; Sheppard, Lianne; Wong, Nathan D.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The initiation and acceleration of atherosclerosis is hypothesized as a physiologic mechanism underlying associations between air pollution and cardiovascular effects. Despite toxicologic evidence, epidemiologic data are limited. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis we investigated exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and residential proximity to major roads in relation to abdominal aortic calcification a sensitive indicator of systemic atherosclerosis. Aortic calcification was measured by computed tomography among 1147 persons, in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas, enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The presence and quantity of aortic calcification were modeled using relative risk regression and linear regression, respectively, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results We observed a slightly elevated risk of aortic calcification (RR = 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 0.96–1.16) with a 10-μg/m3 contrast in PM2.5. The PM2.5-associated risk of aortic calcification was stronger among participants with long-term residence near a PM2.5 monitor (RR = 1.11; 1.00–1.24) and among participants not recently employed outside the home (RR = 1.10; 1.00–1.22). PM2.5 was not associated with an increase in the quantity of aortic calcification (Agatston score) and no roadway proximity effects were noted. There was indication of PM2.5 effect modification by lipid-lowering medication use, with greater effects among users, and PM2.5 associations were observed most consistently among Hispanics. Conclusions Although we did not find persuasive associations across our full study population, associations were stronger among participants with less exposure misclassification. These findings support the hypothesis of a relationship between particulate air pollution and systemic atherosclerosis. PMID:19129730

  7. Effects of Exposure Measurement Error in the Analysis of Health Effects from Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Laden, Francine; Suh, Helen H.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-01-01

    In large epidemiological studies, many researchers use surrogates of air pollution exposure such as geographic information system (GIS)-based characterizations of traffic or simple housing characteristics. It is important to evaluate quantitatively these surrogates against measured pollutant concentrations to determine how their use affects the interpretation of epidemiological study results. In this study, we quantified the implications of using exposure models derived from validation studies, and other alternative surrogate models with varying amounts of measurement error, on epidemiological study findings. We compared previously developed multiple regression models characterizing residential indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations to models with less explanatory power that may be applied in the absence of validation studies. We constructed a hypothetical epidemiological study, under a range of odds ratios, and determined the bias and uncertainty caused by the use of various exposure models predicting residential indoor exposure levels. Our simulations illustrated that exposure models with fairly modest R2 (0.3 to 0.4 for the previously developed multiple regression models for PM2.5 and NO2) yielded substantial improvements in epidemiological study performance, relative to the application of regression models created in the absence of validation studies or poorer-performing validation study models (e.g. EC). In many studies, models based on validation data may not be possible, so it may be necessary to use a surrogate model with more measurement error. This analysis provides a technique to quantify the implications of applying various exposure models with different degrees of measurement error in epidemiological research. PMID:19223939

  8. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Thamires Marques; Kazama, Cristiane Mayumi; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Macchione, Mariangela; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Bueno-Garcia, Maria Lucia; Zanetta, Dirce Maria; de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study). RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively). Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers. PMID:24473505

  9. Long-Term Exposure to Primary Traffic Pollutants and Lung Function in Children: Cross-Sectional Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Dent, Jennifer E.; Dajnak, David; Beevers, Sean; Anderson, H Ross; Kelly, Frank J.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is widespread concern about the possible health effects of traffic-related air pollution. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a convenient marker of primary pollution. We investigated the associations between lung function and current residential exposure to a range of air pollutants (particularly NO2, NO, NOx and particulate matter) in London children. Moreover, we placed the results for NO2 in context with a meta-analysis of published estimates of the association. Methods and Findings Associations between primary traffic pollutants and lung function were investigated in 4884 children aged 9–10 years who participated in the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). A systematic literature search identified 13 studies eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis. We combined results from the meta-analysis with the distribution of the values of FEV1 in CHASE to estimate the prevalence of children with abnormal lung function (FEV1<80% of predicted value) expected under different scenarios of NO2 exposure. In CHASE, there were non-significant inverse associations between all pollutants except ozone and both FEV1 and FVC. In the meta-analysis, a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 was associated with an 8 ml lower FEV1 (95% CI: -14 to -1 ml; p: 0.016). The observed effect was not modified by a reported asthma diagnosis. On the basis of these results, a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 level would translate into a 7% (95% CI: 4% to 12%) increase of the prevalence of children with abnormal lung function. Conclusions Exposure to traffic pollution may cause a small overall reduction in lung function and increase the prevalence of children with clinically relevant declines in lung function. PMID:26619227

  10. Comparison of Road Traffic Injury Characteristics between Local versus Floating Migrant Patients in a Tertiary Hospital between 2007 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chungui; Wang, Yanhua; Han, Na; Kou, Yuhui; Yin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Zhang, Dianying; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to give a description of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) characteristics of floating migrant population by comparing with those of local residents in a harbor city of China. Methods A population-based descriptive study was carried out between 2007 and 2010 with RTI patient records from the Fifth Center Hospital of Tianjin. Inpatient diagnoses of RTI patients were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes. We analyzed the demographics and general characteristics of RTI patients that were in the hospital during the four years. In order to compare the group differences between local resident patients and floating migrant patients, the distribution of their ages, diagnoses, severity of injuries, duration of inpatient stays, hospitalization cost were analyzed. Results People between the ages of 16 and 55 were the most likely to suffer RTIs. The floating migrant patients between the ages of 16 and 45 had a higher incidence of accidents, while local resident patients between 46 and 55 had a higher incidence of accidents. Compared to local resident patients, floating migrant patients were more vulnerable to open injuries and severe traffic injuries. With the severity of injuries ranked from mild to severe, floating migrant patients had lower duration of inpatient stay, but higher hospitalization costs compared to local resident patients. Conclusions Floating migrant patients had a different age distribution, severity of injuries, diseases, inpatient duration and hospitalization cost compared with local resident patients. Compared to local resident patients, floating migrants had a higher risk to RTIs and were more vulnerable to severer traffic accidents at lower ages. PMID:24475023

  11. Research on time-space distribution feature and control strategy for traffic, pollution of Zhengzhou City in China

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Zhongdang; Li Wencai; Qu Chunfang; Zhang Yufent; Zheng Shaojun

    1998-12-31

    The authors have carried out the on-the-spot investigation and live survey on the fume concentration of the tail-gas of automobiles, traffic discharge and meteorological elements at the section of Nongye Road and Wenhua Road crossing which is a representative one of Zhengzhou. On the basis of this, the authors analyze the corresponding relationships between them and between traffic discharge and noise by using one-dimensional uniform motion and equidistant traffic models. The results show: (1) The traffic discharge changes obviously during the whole day, which is concentrated in the daytime to midnight. Among the traffic discharge surveyed, taxis account for 56.4% and motorcycles 20.6%. (2) There is a close relationship between fumes concentration in tail-gas and traffic discharge. That is to say, the concentration of fumes rises by the increase of traffic discharge. (3) The concentration of CO and NO{sub x} in the fumes decrease as the wind velocity up and temperature rises whereas the TSP increases as the wind velocity up, and changes little with the variations of temperature. (4) Traffic noise and the value of sound level increase with the increase of traffic discharge. The substantive factors which affect traffic noise are the velocity and the distance of automobiles.

  12. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 2: Impact of vehicle emission on urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianjun; Wu, Lin; Mao, Hongjun; Liu, Hongli; Jing, Boyu; Yu, Ye; Ren, Peipei; Feng, Cheng; Liu, Xuehao

    2016-03-01

    A companion paper developed a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution (HTSVE) with a bottom-up methodology based on local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of COPERT model and near-real-time (NRT) traffic data on a specific road segment for 2013 in urban Beijing (Jing et al., 2016), which is used to investigate the impact of vehicle pollution on air pollution in this study. Based on the sensitivity analysis method of switching on/off pollutant emissions in the Chinese air quality forecasting model CUACE, a modelling study was carried out to evaluate the contributions of vehicle emission to the air pollution in Beijing's main urban areas in the periods of summer (July) and winter (December) 2013. Generally, the CUACE model had good performance of the concentration simulation of pollutants. The model simulation has been improved by using HTSVE. The vehicle emission contribution (VEC) to ambient pollutant concentrations not only changes with seasons but also changes with time. The mean VEC, affected by regional pollutant transports significantly, is 55.4 and 48.5 % for NO2 and 5.4 and 10.5 % for PM2.5 in July and December 2013 respectively. Regardless of regional transports, relative vehicle emission contribution (RVEC) to NO2 is 59.2 and 57.8 % in July and December 2013, while it is 8.7 and 13.9 % for PM2.5. The RVEC to PM2.5 is lower than the PM2.5 contribution rate for vehicle emission in total emission, which may be due to dry deposition of PM2.5 from vehicle emission in the near-surface layer occuring more easily than from elevated source emission.

  13. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Middle-Aged Residents of Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Chen; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Shen, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) have inconsistent findings. Objectives In this study we aimed to evaluate association between 1-year average exposure to traffic-related air pollution and CIMT in middle-aged adults in Asia. Methods CIMT was measured in Taipei, Taiwan, between 2009 and 2011 in 689 volunteers 35–65 years of age who were recruited as the control subjects of an acute coronary heart disease cohort study. We applied land-use regression models developed by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) to estimate each subject’s 1-year average exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with particulate matter diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and the absorbance levels of PM2.5 (PM2.5abs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the urban environment. Results One-year average air pollution exposures were 44.21 ± 4.19 μg/m3 for PM10, 27.34 ± 5.12 μg/m3 for PM2.5, and (1.97 ± 0.36) × 10–5/m for PM2.5abs. Multivariate regression analyses showed average percentage increases in maximum left CIMT of 4.23% (95% CI: 0.32, 8.13) per 1.0 × 10–5/m increase in PM2.5abs; 3.72% (95% CI: 0.32, 7.11) per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM10; 2.81% (95% CI: 0.32, 5.31) per 20-μg/m3 increase in NO2; and 0.74% (95% CI: 0.08, 1.41) per 10-μg/m3 increase in NOx. The associations were not evident for right CIMT, and PM2.5 mass concentration was not associated with the outcomes. Conclusions Long-term exposures to traffic-related air pollution of PM2.5abs, PM10, NO2, and NOx were positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged adults. Citation Su TC, Hwang JJ, Shen YC, Chan CC. 2015. Carotid intima–media thickness and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution in middle-aged residents of Taiwan: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect 123:773–778; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408553 PMID:25793433

  14. Traffic density and stationary sources of air pollution associated with wheeze, asthma, and immunoglobulin E from birth to age 5 years among New York City children

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Molini M.; Quinn, James W.; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Diaz, Diurka; Perzanowski, Matthew; Rundle, Andrew; Kinney, Patrick L.; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    Exposures to ambient air traffic-related pollutants and their sources have been associated with respiratory and asthma morbidity in children. However, longitudinal investigation of the effects of traffic-related exposures during early childhood is limited. We examined associations of residential proximity and density of traffic and stationary sources of air pollution with wheeze, asthma, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E among New York City children between birth and age 5 years. Subjects included 593 Dominican and African American participants from the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health cohort. Prenatally, through age 5 years, residential and respiratory health data were collected every 3-6 months. At ages 2, 3, and 5 years, serum IgE was measured. Spatial data on the proximity and density of roadways and built environment were collected for a 250 meter buffer around subjects’ homes. Associations of wheeze, asthma, total IgE, and allergen-specific IgE with prenatal, earlier childhood, and concurrent exposures to air pollution sources were analyzed using generalized estimating equations or logistic regression. In repeated measures analyses, concurrent residential density of four-way intersections was associated significantly with wheeze (odds ratio: 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.57). Age 1 exposures also were associated with wheeze at subsequent ages. Concurrent proximity to highway was associated more strongly with total IgE (ratio of the geometric mean levels: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.42) than were prenatal or earlier childhood exposures. Positive associations also were observed between percent commercial building area and asthma, wheeze, and IgE and between proximity to stationary sources of air pollution and asthma. Longitudinal investigation suggests that among Dominican and African American children living in Northern Manhattan and South Bronx during ages 0 to 5 years, residence in neighborhoods with high density of traffic and

  15. Sensitivity of in-situ trace gas profiles to air traffic and local urban sources as seen by MOZAIC and DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, M. L.; Crawford, J. H.; Szykman, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Montzka, D.; Knapp, D. J.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Nedelec, P.; Cammas, J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the mid-90's the MOZAIC (Measurements of OZone, water vapor, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides by in-service AIrbus airCraft) program has been providing vertical profiles of reactive gases into and out of major airports. In 2001, NOy instruments were added to the aircraft providing a means to assess the influence of aircraft traveling along constant flight corridors. Recent interest in using MOZAIC data to validate air quality models such as CMAQ raises questions regarding the suitability of the data for this purpose. Specifically, to what degree are aircraft data influenced by aviation emissions versus local pollution along approach and departure flight paths at lower altitudes. From 2002-2004, there were 14 flights into Dulles International Airport with available NOy measurements. Additional profiles with similar characteristics are available from airports along the eastern seaboard. Appropriate data for comparison with these profiles has become available with the recent completion of phase-I of DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality) during which the NASA's P-3B aircraft performed over 250 profiles, including one landing at the Baltimore Washington International Airport. These profiles offer comparative observations of O3, CO, and reactive nitrogen both near and away from major air traffic patterns in the Baltimore-DC region. Similarities and differences in the MOZAIC and DISCOVER-AQ data sets are assessed to evaluate their sensitivity to emission from air traffic versus local urban sources. Acknowledging the lack of temporal overlap in the two datasets, historical surface measurements will also be used to estimate any temporal trends related to changing emission levels.

  16. Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatari, Michael; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter; Kinney, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the absence of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations of particulate matter in SSA cities, severely limits our ability to assess the real extent of air quality problems. Emitted fine particles by on-road vehicles may be particularly important in SSA cities because large concentrations of poorly maintained vehicles operate in close proximity to commercial and other activities of low-income urban residents. This scenario provokes major air quality concerns and its investigation should be of priority interest to policy makers, city planners and managers, and the affected population. As part of collaboration between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, a PM2.5 air monitoring study was carried out over two weeks in July 2009. The objectives of the study were 1) to assess average daytime PM2.5 concentrations on a range of Nairobi streets that represent important hot-spots in terms of the joint distribution of traffic, commercial, and resident pedestrian activities, 2) to relate those concentrations to motor vehicle counts, 3) to compare urban street concentrations to urban and rural background levels, and 4) to assess vertical and horizontal dispersion of PM2.5 near roadways. Portable, battery-operated PM2.5 samplers were carried by field teams at each of the five sites (three urban, one commuter highway, and one rural site), each of which operated from 7 AM to 7 PM during 10 weekdays in July 2009. Urban background monitoring took place on a rooftop at the University of Nairobi. Preliminary findings suggest highly elevated PM2.5 concentrations at the urban sites where the greatest pedestrian traffic was observed. These findings underscore the need for air

  17. Presence of other allergic disease modifies the effect of early childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure on asthma prevalence.

    PubMed

    Dell, Sharon D; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernard; Brook, Jeffrey R; Foty, Richard G; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Marshall, Laura; Miller, J David; To, Teresa; Walter, Stephen D; Stieb, David M

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a surrogate measure of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), has been associated with incident childhood asthma. Timing of exposure and atopic status may be important effect modifiers. We collected cross-sectional data on asthma outcomes from Toronto school children aged 5-9years in 2006. Lifetime home, school and daycare addresses were obtained to derive birth and cumulative NO2 exposures for a nested case-control subset of 1497 children. Presence of other allergic disease (a proxy for atopy) was defined as self-report of one or more of doctor-diagnosed rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for potential confounders, and examine hypothesized effect modifiers while accounting for clustering by school. In children with other allergic disease, birth, cumulative and 2006 NO2 were associated with lifetime asthma (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08-1.98; 1.37, 95% CI 1.00-1.86; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.09-2.36 respectively per interquartile range increase) and wheeze (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10-1.89; 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.67; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.16-2.21). No or weaker effects were seen in those without allergic disease, and effect modification was amplified when a more restrictive algorithm was used to define other allergic disease (at least 2 of doctor diagnosed allergic rhinitis, eczema or food allergy). The effects of modest NO2 levels on childhood asthma were modified by the presence of other allergic disease, suggesting a probable role for allergic sensitization in the pathogenesis of TRAP initiated asthma. PMID:24472824

  18. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (<100nm), a noticeable decrease in particle concentrations indoors with increasing distance from the road is observed due to Brownian and turbulent diffusion. In addition, the indoor concentration strongly depends on the distance between the roadway and building, particle size, wind condition, and window size and location. A break-even point is observed at D'~2.1 (normalized distance from the roadway by the width of the road). The indoor particle concentration is greater than that at the highway where D'<2.1, and vice versa. For new building planning, the distance from the roadway and the ambient wind condition need to be considered at the early design stage whereas the size and location of the window openings, the interior layout, and the placement of fresh air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways. PMID:26829764

  19. A wind tunnel study of the effect of roadway configurations on the dispersion of traffic-related pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heist, D. K.; Perry, S. G.; Brixey, L. A.

    In this paper we examine the effect of different roadway configurations, including noise barriers and roadway elevation or depression relative to the surrounding terrain, on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants for winds perpendicular to the roadway. A wind tunnel experiment modeling 12 different configurations was performed to study the flow fields and the concentration distributions resulting from emissions from a simulated six-lane highway. All of the configurations examined here reduced the downwind ground-level concentrations relative to that for a flat, unobstructed roadway; however, the degree to which the concentrations were reduced varied widely depending on the particular situation. Ground-level concentration data from the cases considered in this research indicate that a constant entrainment velocity can be used over the region beginning downwind of any initial disturbance to the flow resulting from the roadway configuration (e.g., a recirculation region behind a noise barrier) and extending at least to the end of our measurements. For example, for the case of a single noise barrier on the downwind side of the road, this region extends from approximately four barrier heights downwind of the roadway to 40 barrier heights. It was also found that the virtual origin concept is useful in describing the initial mixing created by the particular roadway configuration. To effectively model the influence of the roadway configuration on the dispersion, a combination of a virtual origin and an entrainment velocity may be effective. The magnitude of the virtual origin shift appears to depend on the particular roadway configuration, while the entrainment velocity appears to be a function of the friction velocity and the roadway geometry. These results suggest that road configuration must be taken into account in modeling near-road air quality.

  20. Effect of road blockages on local air pollution during the Hong Kong protests and its implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Roadside air quality in urban areas is largely affected by the traffic emissions. Changes in emissions and transport control policy are often assumed to yield benefits in air quality, but have often not always been effective in producing perceptible improvements due to the complexity of meteorological conditions. This study evaluates the air quality before, during and after a temporary roadway blockage event in Hong Kong that took place during Hong Kong protests from late September to mid-December, 2014. The local regulatory air quality monitoring data from both roadside and general ambient stations were used to assess the impact of roadway blockages on the air quality. There was a public perception of improved air quality, but analysis of the data shows the changes can be difficult to discern. This study showed some benefits deriving from road blockages on the local air quality, but the impact was not always apparent because of seasonal variation in meteorological conditions and synoptic transport of pollutants. The finding suggests care is required before making policy changes based on claimed benefits of shifting transport routes. The study highlights the needs to remove seasonal and meteorological change when examining air pollution data to develop strategies to improve air quality. PMID:26245533

  1. Air pollution information activities at state and local agencies--United States, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-08

    Because air pollution is a pervasive environmental health problem in the United States, one of the national health objectives for the year 2000 is to increase from 49.7% to 85.0% the proportion of persons who live in counties that have not exceeded any air quality standard during the previous 12 months (1). Public support for air pollution control efforts is critical if this national health objective is to be achieved. To characterize public health information activities related to air pollution, in 1992, the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators (STAPPA) and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (ALAPCO), with the assistance of CDC, conducted a survey of state and local air pollution control agencies. This report summarizes the findings of that survey.

  2. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on acute changes in cardiac autonomic modulation during rest and physical activity: a cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Weichenthal, Scott; Kubesch, Nadine; Foraster, Maria; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Bouso, Laura; Martínez, David; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during physical activity (PA), but it is not clear if PA modifies the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic modulation. We conducted a panel study among 28 healthy adults in Barcelona, Spain to examine how PA may modify the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic regulation. Participants completed four 2-h exposure scenarios that included either rest or intermittent exercise in high- and low-traffic environments. Time- and frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during each exposure period along with continuous measures of TRAP. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the impact of TRAP on HRV as well as potential effect modification by PA. Exposure to TRAP was associated with consistent decreases in HRV; however, exposure-response relationships were not always linear over the broad range of exposures. For example, each 10 μg/m(3) increase in black carbon was associated with a 23% (95% CI: -31, -13) decrease in high frequency power at the low-traffic site, whereas no association was observed at the high-traffic site. PA modified the impact of TRAP on HRV at the high-traffic site and tended to weaken inverse associations with measures reflecting parasympathetic modulation (P ≤ 0.001). Evidence of effect modification at the low-traffic site was less consistent. The strength and direction of the relationship between TRAP and HRV may vary across exposure gradients. PA may modify the impact of TRAP on HRV, particularly at higher concentrations. PMID:26486990

  3. Associations of short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Samoli, Evangelia; Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian; Anderson, H Ross; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is evidence of adverse associations between short-term exposure to traffic-related pollution and health, but little is known about the relative contribution of the various sources and particulate constituents. Methods For each day for 2011–2012 in London, UK over 100 air pollutant metrics were assembled using monitors, modelling and chemical analyses. We selected a priori metrics indicative of traffic sources: general traffic, petrol exhaust, diesel exhaust and non-exhaust (mineral dust, brake and tyre wear). Using Poisson regression models, controlling for time-varying confounders, we derived effect estimates for cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions at prespecified lags and evaluated the sensitivity of estimates to multipollutant modelling and effect modification by season. Results For single day exposure, we found consistent associations between adult (15–64 years) cardiovascular and paediatric (0–14 years) respiratory admissions with elemental and black carbon (EC/BC), ranging from 0.56% to 1.65% increase per IQR change, and to a lesser degree with carbon monoxide (CO) and aluminium (Al). The average of past 7 days EC/BC exposure was associated with elderly (65+ years) cardiovascular admissions. Indicated associations were higher during the warm period of the year. Although effect estimates were sensitive to the adjustment for other pollutants they remained consistent in direction, indicating independence of associations from different sources, especially between diesel and petrol engines, as well as mineral dust. Conclusions Our results suggest that exhaust related pollutants are associated with increased numbers of adult cardiovascular and paediatric respiratory hospitalisations. More extensive monitoring in urban centres is required to further elucidate the associations. PMID:26884048

  4. Traffic-related air pollution in the community of San Ysidro, CA, in relation to northbound vehicle wait times at the US-Mexico border Port of Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Dumbauld, Jill J.; Garnica, Lynelle; Chowdhury, M. Zohir; Velascosoltero, José; Mota-Raigoza, Arturo; Flores, David; Rodríguez, Edgar; Panagon, Nicolas; Gamble, Jamison; Irby, Travis; Tran, Cuong; Elder, John; Galaviz, Vanessa E.; Hoffman, Lisa; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.

    2014-05-01

    The San Diego/Tijuana US-Mexico border crossing at the San Ysidro Port of Entry (POE) is the world's busiest international land border crossing (GSA, 2013). San Ysidro, California, is the US community immediately adjacent to the border crossing. More than 90% of San Ysidro residents are Hispanic, and the average household income is less than 60% of the San Diego regional average. This study investigated the San Ysidro POE as a source of traffic-related air pollutants in San Ysidro, especially in relation to wind direction and northbound vehicle wait times. The pollutants ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), black carbon (BC), and particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were periodically sampled through the course of 2010 at four rooftop locations: one commercial establishment near the POE, two elementary schools in San Ysidro, and a coastal estuary reference site. Weather data from two nearby sites and northbound border wait times were also collected. Results indicate consistently higher daytime BC and UFP concentrations at the measurement sites near the POE. Pollution concentrations were higher during low wind speeds or when wind was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro. In February, March and November measurements, black carbon pollution appeared to be significantly positively associated with the POE northbound wait times when the wind direction was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro or during low wind speeds, but not when the wind direction was from the west/northwest towards the POE. This pilot study is the first to investigate the potential effect of the POE, especially the long northbound traffic delays, on the nearby community of San Ysidro. Disparities in traffic exposures are an environmental justice issue and this should be taken into account during planning and operation of POEs.

  5. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    PubMed Central

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes the intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Adverse effects of air pollution (AP) on cognitive functions have been proposed, but investigations of simultaneous exposure to noise are scarce. Objectives: We analyzed the cross-sectional associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with overall MCI and amnestic (aMCI) and nonamnestic (naMCI) MCI. Methods: At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, cognitive assessment was completed in 4,086 participants who were 50–80 years old. Of these, 592 participants were diagnosed as having MCI (aMCI, n = 309; naMCI, n = 283) according to previously published criteria using five neuropsychological subtests. We assessed long-term residential concentrations for size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides with land use regression, and for traffic noise [weighted 24-hr (LDEN) and night-time (LNIGHT) means]. Logistic regression models adjusted for individual risk factors were calculated to estimate the association of environmental exposures with MCI in single- and two-exposure models. Results: Most air pollutants and traffic noise were associated with overall MCI and aMCI. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and a 10 A-weighted decibel [dB(A)] increase in LDEN were associated with overall MCI as follows [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: 1.16 (1.05, 1.27) and 1.40 (1.03, 1.91), respectively, and with aMCI as follows: 1.22 (1.08, 1.38) and 1.53 (1.05, 2.24), respectively. In two-exposure models, AP and noise associations were attenuated [e.g., for aMCI, PM2.5 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) and LDEN 1.46 (1.11, 1.92)]. Conclusions: Long-term exposures to air pollution and traffic noise were positively associated with MCI, mainly with the amnestic subtype. Citation: Tzivian L, Dlugaj M, Winkler A, Weinmayr G, Hennig F, Fuks KB, Vossoughi M, Schikowski T, Weimar C, Erbel R, Jöckel KH

  6. Study of intracellular localization and traffic of newly synthesized ceruloplasmin receptor in cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sasina, L K; Puchkova, L V; Gaitskhoki, V S

    1998-10-01

    Ceruloplasmin (Cp) receptor in cells of non-hepatocyte lineage (human HT-1080 fibroblasts) is synthesized by membrane-bound polyribosomes and then becomes a resident of the plasma membrane. The intracellular traffic of [14C]Cp receptor was followed in pulse-chase experiments using specific antibodies. It was shown that pulse-labeled Cp receptor, after reaching the place of its residence in the plasma membrane, is retained there for 90 min and then appears in the cytosol. Immunoactive 20-kD fragments of Cp receptor were found in the culture medium 1.5 h later. The intracellular traffic of 125I-labeled Cp bound to the fibroblast cell surface was traced in parallel chase experiments. It was shown that the internalized Cp receptor was recovered from the floating fraction of the cytosol. Comparison of the dynamics of the retention of internalized [14C]Cp receptor and 125I-labeled Cp in the subcellular compartments demonstrated that the traffic of both proteins within the fibroblasts is coordinated in time and proceeds via a common route. The role of Cp receptor in copper uptake by non-hepatocyte cells is discussed. PMID:9864451

  7. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  8. Turbulent Dispersion of Traffic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, R. M.; Gordon, M.; Liggio, J.; Makar, P.; Mihele, C.; Brook, J.; Wentzell, J. J.; Gong, S.; Lu, G.; Lee, P.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from the transportation sector are a significant source of air pollution. Ongoing efforts to reduce the impacts require tools to provide guidance on policies regarding fuels, vehicle types and traffic control. The air quality models currently used to predict the effectiveness of policies typically treat traffic emissions as a source uniformly distributed across the surface of a model grid. In reality, emissions occur along lines above the surface, in an initially highly concentrated form, and are immediately mixed by traffic-enhanced turbulence. Differences between model and reality in terms of both chemistry and dispersion are to be expected. The ALMITEE (Advancing Local-scale Modeling through Inclusion of Transportation Emission Experiments) subproject FEVER (Fast Evolution of Vehicle Emissions from Roadways), conducted on multi-lane highways in the Toronto area in the summer of 2010, included measurements to quantify the evolution and dispersion of traffic emissions. Continuous micro-meteorological data (heat and momentum fluxes, temperature, humidity and incoming solar radiation) were collected 10m from the road, next to a traffic camera used to determine traffic density, composition and speed. Sonic anemometers and an aircraft turbulence probe mounted on a mobile lab provided measurements of turbulent dispersion both directly in traffic on the highway as well as on perpendicular side roads, as a function of distance from the highway. The mobile lab was equipped with instruments to characterize the aerosol size and mass distributions, aerosol composition including black carbon content, NO, NO2, CO2, CO, SO2 and VOCs at high time resolution. Preliminary results on the consequences of turbulent dispersion of traffic emissions levels under a variety of conditions will be disseminated.

  9. Nitric oxide and superoxide mediate diesel particle effects in cytokine-treated mice and murine lung epithelial cells — implications for susceptibility to traffic-related air pollution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies associate childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution with increased respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The strongest associations between traffic exposure and negative health impacts are observed in individuals with respiratory inflammation. We hypothesized that interactions between nitric oxide (NO), increased during lung inflammatory responses, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased as a consequence of traffic exposure ─ played a key role in the increased susceptibility of these at-risk populations to traffic emissions. Methods Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) were used as surrogates for traffic particles. Murine lung epithelial (LA-4) cells and BALB/c mice were treated with a cytokine mixture (cytomix: TNFα, IL-1β, and IFNγ) to induce a generic inflammatory state. Cells were exposed to saline or DEP (25 μg/cm2) and examined for differential effects on redox balance and cytotoxicity. Likewise, mice undergoing nose-only inhalation exposure to air or DEP (2 mg/m3 × 4 h/d × 2 d) were assessed for differential effects on lung inflammation, injury, antioxidant levels, and phagocyte ROS production. Results Cytomix treatment significantly increased LA-4 cell NO production though iNOS activation. Cytomix +  DEP-exposed cells incurred the greatest intracellular ROS production, with commensurate cytotoxicity, as these cells were unable to maintain redox balance. By contrast, saline + DEP-exposed cells were able to mount effective antioxidant responses. DEP effects were mediated by: (1) increased ROS including superoxide anion (O2˙-), related to increased xanthine dehydrogenase expression and reduced cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity; and (2) increased peroxynitrite generation related to interaction of O2˙- with cytokine-induced NO. Effects were partially reduced by superoxide dismutase (SOD) supplementation or by blocking iNOS induction. In mice, cytomix +  DEP

  10. Association between traffic-related air pollution and asthma in preschool children in a national Japanese nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Hideki; Sato, Tosiya; Iwata, Tsutomu; Kohno, Yoichi; Nitta, Hiroshi; Odajima, Hiroshi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Omori, Takashi; Ono, Masaji; Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There has been little study on the effect of traffic-related air pollution on the incidence and persistence of asthma in preschool children. We evaluated the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution with the incidence/persistence of asthma during the first 3 years of life using a population-based study. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in 1½-year-old children (n=63 266). A follow-up survey at 3 years of age (n=43 343) identified new-onset asthma cases (n=853) and persistence of asthma (n=214). In the prevalence/persistence study, the outdoor concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC) at home during the first 1½ years of life were estimated by a dispersion model. In the nested case–control study, which regarded incidence of asthma as cases, the personal exposure levels were estimated by dispersion model including time-activity pattern. Results There was no statistically significant association between the incidence of asthma between age 1½ and 3 years and personal exposure levels to NOx nor EC. However, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms (between 1½ and 3 years) was significantly associated with outdoor concentrations of NOx. ORs for the persistence of asthmatic symptoms were 6.02 (95% CI 1.51 to 23.92) for the comparison between the upper 5th and lower 25th centiles of NOx. Conclusions While no statistically significant association was observed for the incidence of asthma, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms in preschool children was significantly associated with traffic-related air pollution. This supports its importance as a risk factor in childhood airway disease. PMID:26916696

  11. Quality of life in relation to the traffic pollution indicators NO2 and NOx: results from the Swedish GA2LEN survey

    PubMed Central

    Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Ek, Alexandra; Middelveld, Roelinde; Bjerg, Anders; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Janson, Christer; Forsberg, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic disease that may affect daily activities and quality of life. Asthmatics have higher incidence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma is associated with sinonasal inflammation and nasal symptoms, that all impair quality of life. Worsening of asthma has been found associated with levels of nitrogen dioxide as traffic indicator. Aims The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of traffic pollution indicated by nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) on quality of life in asthmatic persons, individuals with CRS and controls. Methods Within the Swedish Ga2len (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network), 605 asthmatics with and without CRS, 110 individuals with CRS only and 226 controls from four cities were surveyed. The mini Asthma Quality of life Questionnaire (mAQLQ) and the Euro Quality of Life (EQ-5D) health questionnaire were used. Air pollution concentrations at the home address were modelled using dispersion models. Results Levels of NO2 (geometric mean 10.1 μg/m3 (95% CI 9.80 to 10.5) and NOx (12.1 μg/m3, 11.7 to 12.6) were similar among conditions (controls, asthmatics, individuals with CRS and asthmatics with CRS). The mAQLQ overall score was not found associated with levels of NO2 or NOx, with or without adjustments, and neither was scores within each of the four domains of mAQLQ: symptoms, activity limitations, emotional functions and effects of environmental stimuli. The mean EQ-5D index value, based on the five dimensions mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety depression, was also found unrelated to NO2 and NOx. Conclusions At moderate exposure levels traffic pollution appears not to affect quality of life. PMID:25478186

  12. Identifying and quantifying transported vs. local sources of New York City PM 2.5 fine particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    New York City (NYC) is presently in violation of the nation's PM 2.5 annual mass standard, and will have to take actions to control the sources contributing to these violations. This paper seeks to differentiate the impact of long-range transported aerosols on the air quality of downtown NYC, so that the roles of local sources can more clearly be evaluated. Past source apportionment studies have considered single sites individually in their source apportionment analyses to identify and determine sources affecting that site, often finding secondary sulfates to be an important contributor, but not being able to quantify the portion that is transported vs. local. In this study, a rural site located in Sterling Forest, NY, which is near to the NYC area, but unaffected by local NYC sources, is instead used as a reference to separate the portion of the aerosol that is transported to our Manhattan, NYC site before conducting the source apportionment analysis. Sterling Forest is confirmed as a background site via elemental comparisons with NYC during regional transport episodes of Asian and Sahara sandstorm dusts, as well as by comparisons with a second background site in Chester, NJ. Two different approaches that incorporate Sterling Forest background data into the NYC source apportionment analysis are then applied to quantify local vs. transported aerosols. Six source categories are identified for NYC: regional transported sulfate, trans-continental desert dust, traffic, residual oil, "local" dust and World Trade Center fires pollution. Of these, the transported sulfates and trans-continental desert dust accounted for nearly half of the total PM 2.5 mass in Manhattan during 2001, with more than half coming from these transported sources during the summer months. More than 90% of the Manhattan elemental carbon was found to be of local origins. Conversely, roughly 90% of the NYC sulfate mass was identified as transported into the city. Our results indicate that transported

  13. Cost comparison of competing local distribution systems for communication satellite traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dopfel, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    The boundaries of market areas which favor various means for distributing communications satellite traffic are considered. The distribution methods considered are: control Earth station with cable access, rooftop Earth stations, Earth station with radio access, and various combinations of these methods. The least cost system for a hypothetical region described by number of users and the average cable access mileage is discussed. The region is characterized by a function which expresses the distribution of users. The results indicate that the least cost distribution is central Earth station with cable access for medium to high density areas of a region combined with rooftop Earth stations or (for higher volumes) radio access for remote users.

  14. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between −10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NOx), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM2.5, due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  15. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NO(x), PM(2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between -10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NO(x)), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM(2.5), due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  16. Modelling reacting localized air pollution using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, A. A.; Nolan, P. F.

    2011-02-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is used to model reacting NO 2 dispersion of vehicle pollutants released from a dual carriageway in Maidstone, UK. The simulations are carried out over the course of one full day during January, 2008. The developed CFD model utilizes a modified k- ɛ turbulence model and Arrhenius reaction kinetics with source terms for the reactions which include a photo-stationary set with peroxy radicals. An approach is taken whereby the reactions are solved specific to the rush hour period corresponding to the availability of certain hydrocarbons released from the vehicles. The results of the simulation are compared with field measurements taken at the site which is made up of several, different sized buildings on varying terrain in Maidstone UK. The predictions and field measurements are considered over a 12 h period with averaged hourly results. It was found that the reactive pollutant approach greatly improves the predictions as compared to the experiments. Furthermore the effect of peroxy radicals during rush hour periods is found to be a major disturbance to the photo-stationary set and its inclusion improved the predictions further.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide and traffic-related air pollutants in association with increased mortality: a case-crossover study in Reykjavik, Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Finnbjornsdottir, Ragnhildur Gudrun; Elvarsson, Bjarki Thor; Gislason, Thorarinn; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between daily mortality and short-term increases in air pollutants, both traffic-related and the geothermal source-specific hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Design Population-based, time stratified case-crossover. A lag time to 4 days was considered. Seasonal, gender and age stratification were calculated. Also, the best-fit lag when introducing H2S >7 µg/m3 was selected by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Setting The population of the greater Reykjavik area (n=181 558) during 2003–2009. Participants Cases were defined as individuals living in the Reykjavik capital area, 18 years or older (N=138 657), who died due to all natural causes (ICD-10 codes A00-R99) other than injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes, or cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 codes I00-I99) during the study period. Main outcome measure Percentage increases in risk of death (IR%) following an interquartile range increase in pollutants. Results The total number of deaths due to all natural causes was 7679 and due to cardiovascular diseases was 3033. The interquartile range increased concentrations of H2S (2.6 µg/m3) were associated with daily all natural cause mortality in the Reykjavik capital area. The IR% was statistically significant during the summer season (lag 1: IR%=5.05, 95% CI 0.61 to 9.68; lag 2: IR%=5.09, 95% CI 0.44 to 9.97), among males (lag 0: IR%=2.26, 95% CI 0.23 to 4.44), and among the elderly (lag 0: IR%=1.94, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.04; lag 1: IR%=1.99, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.04), when adjusted for traffic-related pollutants and meteorological variables. The traffic-related pollutants were generally not associated with statistical significant IR%s. Conclusions The results suggest that ambient H2S air pollution may increase mortality in Reykjavik, Iceland. To the best of our knowledge, ambient H2S exposure has not previously been associated with increased mortality in population-based studies and therefore the results

  18. A national study of the association between traffic-related air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Canada, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Stieb, David M; Chen, Li; Hystad, Perry; Beckerman, Bernardo S; Jerrett, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael; Crouse, Daniel L; Omariba, D Walter; Peters, Paul A; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Burnett, Richard T; Liu, Shiliang; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Dugandzic, Rose M

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have examined the association of air pollution with preterm birth and birth weight outcomes. Traffic-related air pollution has also increasingly been identified as an important contributor to adverse health effects of air pollution. We employed a national nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure model to examine the association between NO2 and pregnancy outcomes in Canada between 1999 and 2008. National models for NO2 (and particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) as a covariate) were developed using ground-based monitoring data, estimates from remote-sensing, land use variables and, for NO2, deterministic gradients relative to road traffic sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations with preterm birth, term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and term birth weight, adjusting for covariates including infant sex, gestational age, maternal age and marital status, parity, urban/rural place of residence, maternal place of birth, season, year of birth and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and per cent visible minority. Associations were reduced considerably after adjustment for individual covariates and neighbourhood per cent visible minority, but remained significant for SGA (odds ratio 1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06 per 20ppb NO2) and term birth weight (16.2g reduction, 95% CI 13.6-18.8g per 20ppb NO2). Associations with NO2 were of greater magnitude in a sensitivity analysis using monthly monitoring data, and among births to mothers born in Canada, and in neighbourhoods with higher incomes and a lower proportion of visible minorities. In two pollutant models, associations with NO2 were less sensitive to adjustment for PM2.5 than vice versa, and there was consistent evidence of a dose-response relationship for NO2 but not PM2.5. In this study of approximately 2.5 million Canadian births between 1999 and 2008, we found significant associations of NO2 with SGA and term birth weight which

  19. Associations between Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure and birth weight: Modification by sex and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Coull, Brent A.; Just, Allan C.; Maxwell, Sarah L.; Schwartz, Joel; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Wright, Rosalind J.; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure is linked to adverse birth outcomes. However, modifying effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) and infant sex remain virtually unexplored. Objectives We examined whether associations between prenatal air pollution and birth weight differed by sex and maternal BMI in 670 urban ethnically mixed mother-child pairs. Methods Black carbon (BC) levels were estimated using a validated spatio-temporal land-use regression (LUR) model; fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was estimated using a hybrid LUR model incorporating satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth measures. Using stratified multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, we examined whether associations between prenatal air pollution and calculated birth weight for gestational age (BWGA) z-scores varied by sex and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Results Median birth weight was 3.3±0.6 kg; 33% of mothers were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m3). In stratified analyses, the association between higher PM2.5 and lower birth weight was significant in males of obese mothers (−0.42 unit of BWGA z-score change per IQR increase in PM2.5, 95%CI: −0.79 to −0.06) ( PM2.5 × sex × obesity Pinteraction=0.02). Results were similar for BC models (Pinteraction=0.002). Conclusions Associations of prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and reduced birth weight were most evident in males born to obese mothers. PMID:25601728

  20. An examination of population exposure to traffic related air pollution: Comparing spatially and temporally resolved estimates against long-term average exposures at the home location.

    PubMed

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Faghih-Imani, Ahmadreza; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution in metropolitan areas is mainly caused by traffic emissions. This study presents the development of a model chain consisting of a transportation model, an emissions model, and atmospheric dispersion model, applied to dynamically evaluate individuals' exposure to air pollution by intersecting daily trajectories of individuals and hourly spatial variations of air pollution across the study domain. This dynamic approach is implemented in Montreal, Canada to highlight the advantages of the method for exposure analysis. The results for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic related air pollution, reveal significant differences when relying on spatially and temporally resolved concentrations combined with individuals' daily trajectories compared to a long-term average NO2 concentration at the home location. We observe that NO2 exposures based on trips and activity locations visited throughout the day were often more elevated than daily NO2 concentrations at the home location. The percentage of all individuals with a lower 24-hour daily average at home compared to their 24-hour mobility exposure is 89.6%, of which 31% of individuals increase their exposure by more than 10% by leaving the home. On average, individuals increased their exposure by 23-44% while commuting and conducting activities out of home (compared to the daily concentration at home), regardless of air quality at their home location. We conclude that our proposed dynamic modelling approach significantly improves the results of traditional methods that rely on a long-term average concentration at the home location and we shed light on the importance of using individual daily trajectories to understand exposure. PMID:26970897

  1. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Boyu; Wu, Lin; Mao, Hongjun; Gong, Sunning; He, Jianjun; Zou, Chao; Song, Guohua; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Zhong

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near-real-time traffic data on road segments to develop a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution (HTSVE) for the Beijing urban area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Based on the results of this study, improved air quality simulation and the contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient pollutant concentration in Beijing have been investigated in a companion paper (He et al., 2016).

  2. Diurnal concentrations variations, size distributions for ambient air particles and metallic pollutants (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb) during summer season at a traffic area.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    This study characterized and discussed particulate ambient air particulate concentrations and seasonal variations for PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 during June 2013-July 2013 at this traffic sampling site. In addition, this study also characterized the ambient air particulates size distributions by using MOUDI-100S4 sampler to collect 1-day the ambient suspended particles (PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) at this sampling site. In addition, the study also showed that the main pollutants contributions were from traffic and residual areas. As for the pollutants seasonal concentrations variations, the results indicated that the average particle concentrations orders were all displayed as daytime > nighttime for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at this characteristic sampling site. The results further indicated that the mean highest of metal concentrations in this study indicated that the average metal concentration were all displayed as Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on daytime and nighttime at this characteristic sampling site. PMID:24619364

  3. Traffic pollutant exposures experienced by pedestrians waiting to enter the U.S. at a major U.S.-Mexico border crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaviz, V. E.; Yost, M. G.; Simpson, C. D.; Camp, J. E.; Paulsen, M. H.; Elder, J. P.; Hoffman, L.; Flores, D.; Quintana, P. J. E.

    2014-05-01

    Pedestrians waiting to cross into the US from Mexico at Ports of Entry experience long wait times near idling vehicles. The near-road environment is associated with elevated pollutant levels and adverse health outcomes. This is the first exposure assessment conducted to quantify northbound pedestrian commuter exposure to traffic-related air pollutants at the U.S.-Mexico border San Ysidro Port of Entry (SYPOE). Seventy-three persons who regularly crossed the SYPOE in the pedestrian line and 18 persons who did not cross were recruited to wear personal air monitors for 24-h to measure traffic pollutants particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) - a marker for diesel exhaust - and carbon monoxide (CO). Fixed site concentrations were collected at SYPOE and occurred during the time subjects were crossing northbound to approximate their exposure to 1-NP, ultrafine particles (UFP), PM2.5, CO, and black carbon (BC) while standing in line during their border wait. Subjects who crossed the border in pedestrian lanes had a 6-fold increase in exposure to 1-NP, a 3-fold increase in exposure to CO, and a 2-fold increase in exposure to gravimetric PM2.5, vs. non-border commuters. Univariate regression analysis for UFP (median 40,000 # cm-3) found that border wait time for vehicles explained 21% of variability and relative humidity 13%, but when modeled together neither predictor remained significant. Concentrations at the SYPOE of UFP, PM2.5, CO, and BC are similar to those in other near-roadway studies that show associations with acute and chronic adverse health effects. Although results are limited by small sample numbers, these findings warrant concern for adverse health effects experienced by pedestrian commuters waiting in a long northbound queue at SYPOE and demonstrates a potential health benefit of reduced wait times at the border.

  4. Implementation and Evaluation of a Mobile Mapping System Based on Integrated Range and Intensity Images for Traffic Signs Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, M.; Sattari, M.; Homayouni, S.; Saadatseresht, M.

    2012-07-01

    Recent advances in positioning techniques have made it possible to develop Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) for detection and 3D localization of various objects from a moving platform. On the other hand, automatic traffic sign recognition from an equipped mobile platform has recently been a challenging issue for both intelligent transportation and municipal database collection. However, there are several inevitable problems coherent to all the recognition methods completely relying on passive chromatic or grayscale images. This paper presents the implementation and evaluation of an operational MMS. Being distinct from the others, the developed MMS comprises one range camera based on Photonic Mixer Device (PMD) technology and one standard 2D digital camera. The system benefits from certain algorithms to detect, recognize and localize the traffic signs by fusing the shape, color and object information from both range and intensity images. As the calibrating stage, a self-calibration method based on integrated bundle adjustment via joint setup with the digital camera is applied in this study for PMD camera calibration. As the result, an improvement of 83% in RMS of range error and 72% in RMS of coordinates residuals for PMD camera, over that achieved with basic calibration is realized in independent accuracy assessments. Furthermore, conventional photogrammetric techniques based on controlled network adjustment are utilized for platform calibration. Likewise, the well-known Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) is applied to integrate the navigation sensors, namely GPS and INS. The overall acquisition system along with the proposed techniques leads to 90% true positive recognition and the average of 12 centimetres 3D positioning accuracy.

  5. Implementation and Evaluation of a Mobile Mapping System Based on Integrated Range and Intensity Images for Traffic Signs Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, M.; Sattari, M.; Homayouni, S.; Saadatseresht, M.

    2012-07-01

    Recent advances in positioning techniques have made it possible to develop Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) for detection and 3D localization of various objects from a moving platform. On the other hand, automatic traffic sign recognition from an equipped mobile platform has recently been a challenging issue for both intelligent transportation and municipal database collection. However, there are several inevitable problems coherent to all the recognition methods completely relying on passive chromatic or grayscale images. This paper presents the implementation and evaluation of an operational MMS. Being distinct from the others, the developed MMS comprises one range camera based on Photonic Mixer Device (PMD) technology and one standard 2D digital camera. The system benefits from certain algorithms to detect, recognize and localize the traffic signs by fusing the shape, color and object information from both range and intensity images. As the calibrating stage, a self-calibration method based on integrated bundle adjustment via joint setup with the digital camera is applied in this study for PMD camera calibration. As the result, an improvement of 83 % in RMS of range error and 72 % in RMS of coordinates residuals for PMD camera, over that achieved with basic calibration is realized in independent accuracy assessments. Furthermore, conventional photogrammetric techniques based on controlled network adjustment are utilized for platform calibration. Likewise, the well-known Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) is applied to integrate the navigation sensors, namely GPS and INS. The overall acquisition system along with the proposed techniques leads to 90 % true positive recognition and the average of 12 centimetres 3D positioning accuracy.

  6. Overview of the Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study: theoretical background and model for design of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Intaek; Wiener, Russell W; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Brixey, Laurie A; Henkle, Stacy W

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically in a theoretical model that was constructed to develop the experimental objectives of the B-TRAPPED study. In the study, simultaneous and continuous time-series PM concentration and meteorological data collected at multiple outdoor and indoor monitoring locations were used to characterize both temporal and spatial patterns of the PM concentration movements within microscale distances (<500 m) from the highway. Objectives of the study included (1) characterizing the temporal and spatial PM concentration fluctuation and distribution patterns in the urban street canyon; (2) investigating the effects of urban structures such as a tall building or an intersection on the transport and dispersion of PM; (3) studying the influence of meteorological variables on the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes; (4) characterizing the relationships between the building parameters and the infiltration mechanisms; (5) establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between outdoor-released PM and indoor PM concentrations and identifying the dominant mechanisms involved in the infiltration process; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of a shelter-in-place area for protection against outdoor-released PM pollutants; and (7) understanding the predominant airflow and pollutant dispersion patterns within the neighborhood using wind tunnel and CFD simulations. The 10 papers in this first set of papers presenting the results from the B-TRAPPED study address these objectives. This paper describes the theoretical background and models representing the interrelated processes of

  7. Air pollution in the last 50 years - From local to global

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Air pollution in the industrialised world has in the last 50 years undergone drastic changes. Until after World War II the most important urban compound was sulphur dioxide combined with soot from the use of fossil fuels in heat and power production. When that problem was partly solved by cleaner fuels, higher stacks and flue gas cleaning in urban areas, the growing traffic gave rise to nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds and in some areas photochemical air pollution, which may be abated by catalytic converters. Lately the interest has centred on small particles and more exotic organic compounds that can be detected with new sophisticated analytical techniques. Simultaneously with the development in compounds, the time and geographical scale of interest have increased. First to transboundary air pollution, which in decades and on continents can degrade ecosystems, later to the depletion of the ozone layer and especially to the increasing greenhouse effect with climate change that will change the conditions for nature and mankind on the entire globe. The possibilities to study these large scale phenomena have been greatly enhanced by the development of electronic computers that can handle large data sets and calculate various scenarios. All these processes take place in the thin layer of gases around the Earth, the atmosphere. Although the abatement is often restricted to a single aspect, they are often connected and should when possible be treated as whole.

  8. Contribution of the road traffic to air pollution in the Prague city (busy speedway and suburban crossroads)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondráček, J.; Schwarz, J.; Ždímal, V.; Andělová, L.; Vodička, P.; Bízek, V.; Tsai, C.-J.; Chen, S.-C.; Smolík, J.

    2011-09-01

    Two measurement campaigns near busy freeway and suburban crossroad (different traffic intensity) were carried out in Prague city. Both of the two traffic related campaigns were supported with simultaneous measurements at suburban background site to compare measured values with corresponding city background. Extensive set of aerosol instrumentation was used during both campaigns at both measurement sites. Two aerosol spectrometer sets (SMPS and APS) were used to monitor aerosol particle number size distribution. Two BLPI provided information about mass size distribution and chemical composition of collected size resolved aerosol samples. The crossroad campaign was also supported by two EC/OC field analysers providing information about elemental and organic carbon concentrations. Consequent chemical analysis of collected size resolved samples comprised of ion chromatography (water soluble ions), PIXE (elements) and RBS (carbon). Results obtained from spectrometers and BLPIs showed that the main contribution of traffic in ultrafine size range can be attributed to direct exhaust emissions, while the coarse fraction was dominated mainly by regional background aerosol with small traces of brake and tyre abrasion as well as the resuspension of the road dust. Chemical analysis demonstrated that most of the water soluble ions can be found in fine fraction of mass distribution and mostly comes from regional background and long range transport. Most of major elements were found in coarse fraction of mass size distribution and it can be attributed to three different sources: abrasion of different vehicle parts (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn), resuspension of the road dust (Si, Al, Ca) and long range transport or regional background (Ca and K). Elemental carbon concentration (diesel engine emissions) was found to be proportional to traffic intensity.

  9. Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1 Year of Age in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ryan W.; Becker, Allan; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mandhane, Piush; Scott, James A.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Subbarao, Padmaja; Takaro, Tim K.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Brauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure in the development of allergic sensitization in children is unclear, and few birth cohort studies have incorporated spatiotemporal exposure assessment. Objectives We aimed to examine the association between TRAP and atopy in 1-year-old children from an ongoing national birth cohort study in four Canadian cities. Methods We identified 2,477 children of approximately 1 year of age with assessment of atopy for inhalant (Alternaria, Der p, Der f, cat, dog, cockroach) and food-related (milk, eggs, peanuts, soy) allergens. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated from city-specific land use regression models accounting for residential mobility and temporal variability in ambient concentrations. We used mixed models to examine associations between atopy and exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life, including adjustment for covariates (maternal atopy, socioeconomic status, pets, mold, nutrition). We also conducted analyses stratified by time-location patterns, daycare attendance, and modeled home ventilation. Results Following spatiotemporal adjustment, TRAP exposure after birth increased the risk for development of atopy to any allergens [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10 μg/m3 NO2 = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41], but not during pregnancy (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22). This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28). Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76). Conclusion Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy. Citation Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE

  10. Industry/Government Teleconference on Pollution Control. Proceedings National Telecast and Local Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY.

    Proceedings of the closed-circuit Teleconference on Pollution Control conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers on May 26, 1971 are supplied in this compendium. Edited transcripts are provided for the national programs and local panel sessions. Seeking to bring business and government together for cooperative problem solving, the…

  11. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  12. A new exposure metric for traffic-related air pollution? An analysis of determinants of hopanes in settled indoor house dust

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) can adversely impact health but epidemiologic studies are limited in their abilities to assess long-term exposures and incorporate variability in indoor pollutant infiltration. Methods In order to examine settled house dust levels of hopanes, engine lubricating oil byproducts found in vehicle exhaust, as a novel TRAP exposure measure, dust samples were collected from 171 homes in five Canadian cities and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. To evaluate source contributions, the relative abundance of the highest concentration hopane monomer in house dust was compared to that in outdoor air. Geographic variables related to TRAP emissions and outdoor NO2 concentrations from city-specific TRAP land use regression (LUR) models were calculated at each georeferenced residence location and assessed as predictors of variability in dust hopanes. Results Hopanes relative abundance in house dust and ambient air were significantly correlated (Pearson’s r=0.48, p<0.05), suggesting that dust hopanes likely result from traffic emissions. The proportion of variance in dust hopanes concentrations explained by LUR NO2 was less than 10% in Vancouver, Winnipeg and Toronto while the correlations in Edmonton and Windsor explained 20 to 40% of the variance. Modeling with household factors such as air conditioning and shoe removal along with geographic predictors related to TRAP generally increased the proportion of explained variability (10-80%) in measured indoor hopanes dust levels. Conclusions Hopanes can consistently be detected in house dust and may be a useful tracer of TRAP exposure if determinants of their spatiotemporal variability are well-characterized, and when home-specific factors are considered. PMID:23782977

  13. Passive Sensor Integration for Vehicle Self-Localization in Urban Traffic Environment.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanlei; Hsu, Li-Ta; Kamijo, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    This research proposes an accurate vehicular positioning system which can achieve lane-level performance in urban canyons. Multiple passive sensors, which include Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, onboard cameras and inertial sensors, are integrated in the proposed system. As the main source for the localization, the GNSS technique suffers from Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) propagation and multipath effects in urban canyons. This paper proposes to employ a novel GNSS positioning technique in the integration. The employed GNSS technique reduces the multipath and NLOS effects by using the 3D building map. In addition, the inertial sensor can describe the vehicle motion, but has a drift problem as time increases. This paper develops vision-based lane detection, which is firstly used for controlling the drift of the inertial sensor. Moreover, the lane keeping and changing behaviors are extracted from the lane detection function, and further reduce the lateral positioning error in the proposed localization system. We evaluate the integrated localization system in the challenging city urban scenario. The experiments demonstrate the proposed method has sub-meter accuracy with respect to mean positioning error. PMID:26633420

  14. Passive Sensor Integration for Vehicle Self-Localization in Urban Traffic Environment †

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yanlei; Hsu, Li-Ta; Kamijo, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    This research proposes an accurate vehicular positioning system which can achieve lane-level performance in urban canyons. Multiple passive sensors, which include Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, onboard cameras and inertial sensors, are integrated in the proposed system. As the main source for the localization, the GNSS technique suffers from Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) propagation and multipath effects in urban canyons. This paper proposes to employ a novel GNSS positioning technique in the integration. The employed GNSS technique reduces the multipath and NLOS effects by using the 3D building map. In addition, the inertial sensor can describe the vehicle motion, but has a drift problem as time increases. This paper develops vision-based lane detection, which is firstly used for controlling the drift of the inertial sensor. Moreover, the lane keeping and changing behaviors are extracted from the lane detection function, and further reduce the lateral positioning error in the proposed localization system. We evaluate the integrated localization system in the challenging city urban scenario. The experiments demonstrate the proposed method has sub-meter accuracy with respect to mean positioning error. PMID:26633420

  15. The effect of local circulations on the variation of atmospheric pollutants in the northwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Pay-Liam Lin; Hsin-Chih Lai

    1996-12-31

    A field experiment was held in the northwestern Taiwan as a part of a long-term research program for studying Taiwan`s local circulation. The program has been named as Taiwan Regional-circulation Experiment (TREX). The particular goal of this research is to investigate characteristics of boundary layer and local Circulation and their impact on the distribution and Variation of pollutants in the northwestern Taiwan during Mei-Yu season. It has been known for quite sometime that land-sea breeze is very pronounced under hot and humid conditions. Extensive network includes 11 pilot ballon stations, 3 acoustic sounding sites, and 14 surface stations in about 20 km by 20 km area centered at National Central University, Chung-Li. In addition, there are ground temperature measurements at 3 sites, Integrated Sounding System (ISS) at NCU, air plane observation, tracer experiment with 10 collecting stations, 3 background upper-air sounding stations, 2 towers etc. NOAA and GMS satellite data, sea surface temperature radar, and precipitation data are collected. The local circulations such as land/sea breezes and mountain/valley winds, induced by thermal and topographical effects often play an important role in transporting, redistributing and transforming atmospheric pollutants. This study documents the effects of the development of local circulations and the accompanying evolution of boundary layer on the distribution and the variation of the atmospheric pollutants in the north western Taiwan during Mei-Yu season.

  16. The associations between traffic-related air pollution and noise with blood pressure in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Fuertes, Elaine; Tiesler, Carla M T; Birk, Matthias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Hoffmann, Barbara; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Although traffic emits both air pollution and noise, studies jointly examining the effects of both of these exposures on blood pressure (BP) in children are scarce. We investigated associations between land-use regression modeled long-term traffic-related air pollution and BP in 2368 children aged 10 years from Germany (1454 from Munich and 914 from Wesel). We also studied this association with adjustment of long-term noise exposure (defined as day-evening-night noise indicator "Lden" and night noise indicator "Lnight") in a subgroup of 605 children from Munich inner city. In the overall analysis including 2368 children, NO2, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm), PM10 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) and PM2.5 absorbance were not associated with BP. When restricting the analysis to the subgroup of children with noise information (N=605), a significant association between NO2 and diastolic BP was observed (-0.88 (95% confidence interval: -1.67, -0.08)). However, upon adjusting the models for noise exposure, only noise remained independently and significantly positively associated with diastolic BP. Diastolic BP increased by 0.50 (-0.03, 1.02), 0.59 (0.05, 1.13), 0.55 (0.03, 1.07), and 0.58 (0.05, 1.11)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lden and by 0.59 (-0.05, 1.22), 0.69 (0.04, 1.33), 0.64 (0.02, 1.27), and 0.68 (0.05, 1.32)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lnight, in different models of NO2, PM2.5 mass, PM10 mass and PM2.5 absorbance as the main exposure, respectively. In conclusion, air pollution was not consistently associated with BP with adjustment for noise, noise was independently and positively associated with BP in children. PMID:24183515

  17. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, B. Y.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Gong, S. L.; He, J. J.; Zou, C.; Song, G. H.; Li, X. Y.; Wu, Z.

    2015-10-01

    As the ownership of vehicles and frequency of utilization increase, vehicle emissions have become an important source of air pollution in Chinese cities. An accurate emission inventory for on-road vehicles is necessary for numerical air quality simulation and the assessment of implementation strategies. This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near real time (NRT) traffic data on road segments to develop a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for the urban Beijing area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg, respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Additionally, the on-road vehicle emission inventory model and control effect assessment system in Beijing, a vehicle emission inventory model, was established based on this study in a companion paper (He et al., 2015).

  18. Hrs, a FYVE finger protein localized to early endosomes, is implicated in vesicular traffic and required for ventral folding morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Komada, Masayuki; Soriano, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    Hrs is an early endosomal protein homologous to Vps27p, a yeast protein required for vesicular trafficking. Hrs has a FYVE double zinc finger domain, which specifically binds phosphatidylinositol(3)-phosphate and is conserved in several proteins involved in vesicular traffic. To understand the physiological role of Hrs, we generated mice carrying a null mutation of the gene. Hrs homozygous mutant embryos developed with their ventral region outside of the yolk sac, had two independent bilateral heart tubes (cardia bifida), lacked a foregut, and died around embryonic day 11 (E11). These phenotypes arise from a defect in ventral folding morphogenesis that occurs normally around E8.0. Significant apoptosis was detected in the ventral region of mutant embryos within the definitive endoderm, suggesting an important role of this germ layer in ventral folding morphogenesis. Abnormally enlarged early endosomes were detected in the mutants in several tissues including definitive endoderm, suggesting that a deficiency in vesicular transport via early endosomes underlies the mutant phenotype. The vesicular localization of Hrs was disrupted in cells treated with wortmannin, implicating Hrs in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway of membrane trafficking. PMID:10364163

  19. A Modeling Investigation of Human Exposure to Select Traffic-Related Air Pollutants in the Tampa Area: Spatiotemporal Distributions of Concentrations, Social Distributions of Exposures, and Impacts of Urban Design on Both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haofei

    Increasing vehicle dependence in the United States has resulted in substantial emissions of traffic-related air pollutants that contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. Exposure to urban air pollutants trigger a number of public health concerns, including the potential of inequality of exposures and health effects among population subgroups. To better understand the impact of traffic-related pollutants on air quality, exposure, and exposure inequality, modeling methods that can appropriately characterize the spatiotemporally resolved concentration distributions of traffic-related pollutants need to be improved. These modeling methods can then be used to investigate the impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, pollution exposures, and related inequality. This work will address these needs with three objectives: 1) to improve modeling methods for investigating interactions between city and transportation design choices and air pollution exposures, 2) to characterize current exposures and the social distribution of exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the case study area of Hillsborough County, Florida, and 3) to determine expected impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, air pollution exposures, and exposure inequality. To achieve these objectives, the impacts of a small-scale transportation management project, specifically the '95 Express' high occupancy toll lane project, on pollutant emissions and nearby air quality was investigated. Next, a modeling method capable of characterizing spatiotemporally resolved pollutant emissions, concentrations, and exposures was developed and applied to estimate the impact of traffic-related pollutants on exposure and exposure inequalities among several population subgroups in Hillsborough County, Florida. Finally, using these results as baseline, the impacts of sprawl and compact urban forms, as well as vehicle fleet electrification

  20. Traffic contribution to air pollution in urban street canyons: Integrated application of the OSPM, moss biomonitoring and spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazić, Lazar; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Mijić, Zoran; Vuković, Gordana; Ilić, Luka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the air pollutant distribution within the ambient of urban street canyon, Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) was used to predict hourly content of NOX, NO, NO2, O3, CO, BNZ and PM10. The study was performed in five street canyons in Belgrade (Serbia) during 10-week summer period. The model receptors were located on each side of street canyons at 4 m, 8 m and 16 m height. To monitor airborne trace element content, the moss bag biomonitors were simultaneously exposed with the model receptors at two heights-4 m and 16 m. The results of both methods, modelling and biomonitoring, showed significantly decreasing trend of the air pollutants with height. The results indirectly demonstrate that biomonitoring, i.e., moss bag technique could be a valuable tool to verify model performance. In addition, spectral analysis was applied to investigate weekly variation of the daily background and modelled data set. Typical periodicities and weekend effect, caused by anthropogenic influences, have been identified.

  1. Bandwidth characteristics of multimedia data traffic on a local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Shery L.; Doubek, Sharon; Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Limited spacecraft communication links call for users to investigate the potential use of video compression and multimedia technologies to optimize bandwidth allocations. The objective was to determine the transmission characteristics of multimedia data - motion video, text or bitmap graphics, and files transmitted independently and simultaneously over an ethernet local area network. Commercial desktop video teleconferencing hardware and software and Intel's proprietary Digital Video Interactive (DVI) video compression algorithm were used, and typical task scenarios were selected. The transmission time, packet size, number of packets, and network utilization of the data were recorded. Each data type - compressed motion video, text and/or bitmapped graphics, and a compressed image file - was first transmitted independently and its characteristics recorded. The results showed that an average bandwidth of 7.4 kilobits per second (kbps) was used to transmit graphics; an average bandwidth of 86.8 kbps was used to transmit an 18.9-kilobyte (kB) image file; a bandwidth of 728.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 15 frames per second (fps); and a bandwidth of 75.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 1.5 fps. Average packet sizes were 933 bytes for graphics, 498.5 bytes for the image file, 345.8 bytes for motion video at 15 fps, and 341.9 bytes for motion video at 1.5 fps. Simultaneous transmission of multimedia data types was also characterized. The multimedia packets used transmission bandwidths of 341.4 kbps and 105.8kbps. Bandwidth utilization varied according to the frame rate (frames per second) setting for the transmission of motion video. Packet size did not vary significantly between the data types. When these characteristics are applied to Space Station Freedom (SSF), the packet sizes fall within the maximum specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The uplink of imagery to SSF may be performed at

  2. The lead (Pb) isotope signature, behaviour and fate of traffic-related lead pollution in roadside soils in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Walraven, N; van Os, B J H; Klaver, G Th; Middelburg, J J; Davies, G R

    2014-02-15

    In this study the origin, behaviour and fate of anthropogenic Pb in sandy roadside soils were assessed by measuring soil characteristics, Pb isotope composition and content. In 1991 and 2003 samples were taken at different depth intervals at approximately 8 and 75 m from two highways in The Netherlands. The Pb isotope composition of the litter layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.12-1.14) differs from the deeper soil samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.20-1.21). Based on a mixing model it is concluded that the samples contain two Pb sources: natural Pb and anthropogenic Pb, the latter mainly derived from gasoline. (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios demonstrate that the roadside soils were polluted to a depth of ~15 cm. Within this depth interval, anthropogenic Pb content is associated with organic matter. Although Pb pollution only reached a depth of ~15 cm, this does not mean that the topsoils retain all anthropogenic Pb. Due to the low pH and negligible binding capacity of soils at depths >15 cm, anthropogenic Pb migrated towards groundwater after reaching depths of >15 cm. The Pb isotope composition of the groundwater ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.135-1.185) establishes that groundwater is polluted with anthropogenic Pb. The contribution of anthropogenic Pb to the groundwater varies between ~30 and 100%. Based on the difference in soil Pb content and Pb isotope compositions over a period of 12 years, downward Pb migration is calculated to vary from 72 ± 95 to 324 ± 279 mg m(-2)y(-1). Assuming that the downward Pb flux is constant over time, it is calculated that 35-90% of the atmospherically delivered Pb has migrated to the groundwater. PMID:24342096

  3. Time-dependency of mice lung recovery after a 4-week exposure to traffic or biomass air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Oliveira, Vinícius Rosa; Barcellos, Bárbara Chaves; Moreira, Dayse Kelly Molina; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araújo

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependency of lung recovery after 3 intranasal instillations per week during four weeks of distilled water (C groups) or particles (15μg) from traffic (U groups) or biomass burning (B groups) was observed in BALB/c mice. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est), viscoelastic component of elastance (ΔE), lung resistive (ΔP1) and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous (ΔP2) pressures] and histology were analyzed 1 (C1, U1, B1), 2 (C2, U2, B2), 7 (C7, U7, B7) or 14 days (C14, U14, B14) after the last instillation. Est, ΔE, ΔP1 and ΔP2 were higher in U1 and B1 than in C1, returning to control values at day 2, except for ΔP1 that normalized after 7 days. Alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction index and alveolar lesion were larger in U1 and B1 than in C1, however collapse returned to baseline at 7 days, while the others normalized in 2 days. A 4-week exposure to U and B induced lung impairment that resolved 7 days after the last exposure. PMID:27179431

  4. Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traffic-related air pollution is a potential risk factor for human respiratory health. A Geographical Information System (GIS) approach was used to examine whether distance from a main road (the Tosco-Romagnola road) affected respiratory health status. Methods We used data collected during an epidemiological survey performed in the Pisa-Cascina area (central Italy) in the period 1991-93. A total of 2841 subjects participated in the survey and filled out a standardized questionnaire on health status, socio-demographic information, and personal habits. A variable proportion of subjects performed lung function and allergy tests. Highly exposed subjects were defined as those living within 100 m of the main road, moderately exposed as those living between 100 and 250 m from the road, and unexposed as those living between 250 and 800 m from the road. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the risks for respiratory symptoms and diseases between exposed and unexposed. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results The study comprised 2062 subjects: mean age was 45.9 years for men and 48.9 years for women. Compared to subjects living between 250 m and 800 m from the main road, subjects living within 100 m of the main road had increased adjusted risks for persistent wheeze (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.08-2.87), COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03-3.08), and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.11-3.87) among males, and for dyspnea (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.13-2.27), positivity to skin prick test (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11-3.00), asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.97-2.88) and attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.98-2.84) among females. Conclusion This study points out the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health status, including lung function impairment. It also highlights the added value of GIS in environmental health research. PMID:21362158

  5. A multi-site analysis of the association between black carbon concentrations and vehicular idling, traffic, background pollution, and meteorology during school dismissals.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Bukiewicz, L; Kalin, R; Galarraga, C; Mirer, F

    2011-05-01

    A study was performed to assess the relationship between black carbon (BC), passing traffic, and vehicular idling outside New York City (NYC) schools during student dismissal. Monitoring was performed at three school sites in East Harlem, the Bronx, and Brooklyn for 1month per year over a two-year period from November 2006-October 2008. Monitoring at each site was conducted before and after the Asthma Free School Zone (AFSZ) asthma reduction education program was administered. Real-time equipment with a one-minute averaging interval was used to obtain the BC data, while volume counts of idling and passing school busses, trucks, and automobiles were collected each minute by study staff. These data were matched to ambient PM(2.5) and meteorology data obtained from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. A generalized additive model (GAM) model was run to examine the relationship between BC concentration and each variable while accounting for site-to-site differences. F-tests were employed to assess the significance of each of the predictor variables. The model results suggested that variability in ambient PM(2.5) concentration contributed 24% of the variability in transformed BC concentration, while variability in the number of idling busses and trucks on the street during dismissal contributed 20% of the variability in transformed BC concentration. The results of this study suggest that a combination of urban scale and local traffic control approaches in combination with cessation of school bus idling will produce improved local BC concentration outside schools. PMID:21406309

  6. Spatial analysis of urban form and pedestrian exposure to traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ni; Tang, U Wa

    2011-06-01

    In the Macao Peninsula, the high population density (49,763 inhabitants/km2) and the lack of control over the number of vehicles (460 vehicles/km) have led to an increase in urban pollution. To provide useful information to local government and urban planners, this paper investigates the spatial distribution of traffic noise in the Macao Peninsula. The interactions among urban form, traffic flow and traffic noise are addressed. Considering the spatial nature of urban geometry and traffic, a high-resolution GIS-based traffic noise model system is applied. Results indicate that the Macao Peninsula has fallen into a situation of serious traffic noise pollution. About 60% of traffic noise levels along the major pedestrian sidewalks in the evening peak hour exceed the National Standard of 70 dB(A) in China. In particular, about 21% of traffic noise levels along the pedestrian sidewalks are above the National Standard by 5 dB(A). Noticeably, the high pedestrian exposure to traffic noise in the historical urban area reduces the comfort of tourists walking in the historic centre and is ruining the reputation of the area as a World Cultural Heritage site. PMID:21776213

  7. Spatial Analysis of Urban Form and Pedestrian Exposure to Traffic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ni; Tang, U. Wa

    2011-01-01

    In the Macao Peninsula, the high population density (49,763 inhabitants/km2) and the lack of control over the number of vehicles (460 vehicles/km) have led to an increase in urban pollution. To provide useful information to local government and urban planners, this paper investigates the spatial distribution of traffic noise in the Macao Peninsula. The interactions among urban form, traffic flow and traffic noise are addressed. Considering the spatial nature of urban geometry and traffic, a high-resolution GIS-based traffic noise model system is applied. Results indicate that the Macao Peninsula has fallen into a situation of serious traffic noise pollution. About 60% of traffic noise levels along the major pedestrian sidewalks in the evening peak hour exceed the National Standard of 70 dB(A) in China. In particular, about 21% of traffic noise levels along the pedestrian sidewalks are above the National Standard by 5 dB(A). Noticeably, the high pedestrian exposure to traffic noise in the historical urban area reduces the comfort of tourists walking in the historic centre and is ruining the reputation of the area as a World Cultural Heritage site. PMID:21776213

  8. An Integrated Modelling Approach to Estimate Urban Traffic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aarshabh

    Vehicular emissions contribute significantly to poor air quality in urban areas. An integrated modelling approach is adopted to estimate microscale urban traffic emissions. The modelling framework consists of a traffic microsimulation model, a microscopic emissions model, and two dispersion models. This framework is applied to a traffic network in downtown Toronto to evaluate summer time morning peak traffic emissions during weekdays for carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. The model predicted results are validated against sensor observations with a reasonably good fit. Availability of local estimates of ambient concentration is useful for accurate comparisons of total predicted concentrations with observed concentrations. Both predicted and observed concentrations are significantly smaller than the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives established by Environment Canada. Sensitivity analysis is performed on a set of input parameters and horizontal wind speed is found to be the most influential factor in pollutant dispersion.

  9. Impact of Local and Non-local Sources of Pollution on Background US ozone: Potential Role of the Atmospheric Composition Constellation of Geostationary Sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Lee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Dramatic changes in the global distribution of emissions over the last decade have fundamentally altered source-receptor pollution impacts. The projected deployment of the European Space Agency Sentinel 4, Korean Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Geostationary GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) and Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) sounders provides a unique opportunity to quantify the current and future trajectory of emissions and their impact on global pollution. We examine the potential of this constellation of air quality sounders to quantify the role of local and non-local sources of pollution on background ozone in the US. Based upon an adjoint sensitivity method, we compute the role of synoptic scale transport of spatially-resolved non-US pollution on US background ozone over months representative of different source-receptor relationships. This analysis allows us to compute potential emission trajectories of megacities, e.g. Beijing, or regions, e.g., western China, on downwind ozone. We subsequently explore how reductions of emission uncertainties from constellation observations could improve attribution of local versus non-local contributors to US background ozone. These results show how this unprecedented new international ozone observing system can monitor the changing structure of emissions and their impact on global pollution.

  10. The influence of childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure on asthma, allergy and sensitization: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of birth cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Bowatte, G; Lodge, C; Lowe, A J; Erbas, B; Perret, J; Abramson, M J; Matheson, M; Dharmage, S C

    2015-03-01

    The impact of early childhood traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure on development of asthma and allergies remains unclear. Birth cohort studies are the best available study design to answer this question, but the evidence from such studies has not been synthesized to date. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of published birth cohort studies to understand the association between early childhood TRAP exposure, and subsequent asthma, allergies and sensitization. Increased longitudinal childhood exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon was associated with increasing risk of subsequent asthma in childhood (PM2.5 : OR 1.14, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.30 per 2 μg/m(3) and black carbon: OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.38 per 1 × 10(-5) m(-1) ). Also, early childhood exposure to TRAP was associated with development of asthma across childhood up to 12 years of age. The magnitude of these associations increased with age, and the pattern was prominent for PM2.5 . Increasing exposure to PM2.5 was associated with sensitization to both aero- and food allergens. There was some evidence that TRAP was associated with eczema and hay fever. In summary, exposure to TRAP was related to asthma and allergic diseases. However, the substantial variability across studies warrants long-term birth cohort studies with regular repeated follow-ups to confirm these findings. PMID:25495759

  11. An investigation of the effects of traffic induced local dynamics on global damping estimates using operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewick, P. T.; Smyth, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of estimating the modal damping on a bridge from hour-long records of traffic loading were conducted by combining physics-based finite element modeling and signal processing. The finite element method was used to model a bridge consisting of a series of stringer beams resting atop a larger girder. The traffic loads were separated into trains and cars, with the trains modeled as partially distributed moving masses traveling along the girder and the cars modeled as point loads moving along the stringers. From the acceleration time histories, different operational modal analysis (OMA) techniques were used to find estimates for the modal coefficients of damping. The results demonstrated that a quasi-periodic component in the traffic loading introduces significant error to the damping estimates. This error could be observed in the distortion of the peaks for the power spectral densities (PSD) generated from the responses to the traffic simulations. The main OMA technique explored for the damping estimates was Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD), but it could not compensate or correct for any alterations to the PSD. Other techniques such as the Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSID) method and curve-fitting frequency domain analysis were evaluated, but they produced comparable damping ratio estimates to EFDD and similarly resulted in large errors for the distorted modes. The influence of quasi-periodic loads was perceptible, which means that for certain cases, the nature of traffic loads may result in damping estimates that are considerably inaccurate no matter what OMA technique is chosen.

  12. Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.

  13. Repeated measures of inflammation, blood pressure, and heart rate variability associated with personal traffic exposures in healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Previous human exposure studies of traffic-related air pollutants have demonstrated adverse health effects in human populations by comparing areas of high and low traffic, but few studies have utilized microenvironmental monitoring of pollutants at multiple traffic lo...

  14. Report of Workshop on Traffic, Health, and Infrastructure Planning

    PubMed Central

    White, Ronald H.; Spengler, John D.; Dilwali, Kumkum M.; Barry, Brenda E.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent air pollutant measurement data document unique aspects of the air pollution mixture near roadways, and an expanding body of epidemiological data suggests increased risks for exacerbation of asthma and other respiratory diseases, premature mortality, and certain cancers and birth outcomes from air pollution exposures in populations residing in relatively close proximity to roadways. The Workshop on Traffic, Health, and Infrastructure Planning, held in February 2004, was convened to provide a forum for interdisciplinary discussion of motor vehicle emissions, exposures and potential health effects related to proximity to motor vehicle traffic. This report summarizes the workshop discussions and findings regarding the current science on this issue, identifies planning and policy issues related to localized motor vehicle emissions and health concerns, and provides recommendations for future research and policy directions. PMID:16983859

  15. Heavy vehicle traffic is related to wheeze among schoolchildren: a population-based study in an area with low traffic flows

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An association between traffic air pollution and respiratory symptoms among children has been reported. However, the effects of traffic air pollution on asthma and wheeze have been very sparsely studied in areas with low traffic intensity in cold climate with poor dispersion. We evaluated the impact of vehicle traffic on childhood asthma and wheeze by objective exposure assessment. Methods As a part of the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending first or second grade in Luleå (72,000 inhabitants) in Northern Sweden in 2006. The age of the children was 7-8 years and the participation rate was 98% (n = 1357). Skin prick tests were performed in 1224 (89%) children. The home addresses were given geographical coordinates and traffic counts were obtained from the local traffic authorities. A proximity model of average daily traffic and average daily heavy vehicle traffic within 200 meters from each participant's home address was used. The associations between traffic exposure and asthma and wheeze, respectively, were analysed in an adjusted multiple logistic regression model. Results Exposure to high traffic flows was uncommon in the study area; only 15% of the children lived within 200 meters from a road with a traffic flow of ≥8000 vehicles per day. Living closer than 200 meters from a road with ≥500 heavy vehicles daily was associated with current wheeze, odds ratio 1.7 (confidence interval 1.0-2.7). A dose-response relation was indicated. An increased risk of asthma was also seen, however not significant, odds ratio 1.5 (confidence interval 0.8-2.9). Stratified analyses revealed that the effect of traffic exposure was restricted to the non-sensitized phenotype of asthma and wheeze. The agreement between self-reported traffic exposure and objective measurements of exposure was moderate. Conclusions This study showed that already at low levels of exposure, vehicle

  16. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... here: EPA Home Air and Radiation Noise Pollution Noise Pollution This page has moved. You should be ... epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/title-iv-noise-pollution Local Navigation Air & Radiation Home Basic Information ...

  17. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  18. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. PMID:25872705

  19. Albatross as Sentinels of Heavy Metal Pollution: Local and Global Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentman, W.; Edwards, S. V.; Vo, A. E.; Bank, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution in the Pacific Ocean has garnered significant attention in recent years, especially with regard to rising mercury emissions from Asia. Uncertainty exists over the extent to which mercury in biota may have resulted from increases in anthropogenic emissions over time. Albatrosses, including those inhabiting the North Pacific, are wide-ranging, long-lived, keystone, avian predators. Consequently, they serve as ideal sentinel species for investigating the effects of historical and contemporary pollution as well as local and global factors related to heavy metal bioaccumulation, exposure, and ecotoxicological risk. To date, high levels of mercury and lead have been documented in albatross species throughout the Pacific. To address biotic exposure to these multiple stressors, here we synthesize and conduct meta-analyses of total mercury, methylmercury, and lead exposure data in Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) and Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis). Our approach uses data from the field and literature and for methyl mercury uses museum feathers spanning the past 130 years for Black-Footed albatross. We discuss the use and application of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) as a way to control for temporal changes in trophic structure and diet and the importance of conducting speciation analyses, for mercury, to account for curator mediated inorganic mercury in older specimens. Our data showed higher levels of inorganic mercury in older specimens of Black-Footed albatross as well as two non-pelagic species (control samples) lacking historical sources of bioavailable mercury exposure, which suggests that studies on bioaccumulation should measure methylmercury rather than total mercury when utilizing museum collections. Additionally, at the local scale, previous research has reported that lead paint exposure from buildings was also an important environmental stressor for Laysan albatross, suggesting that albatross species face heavy

  20. Response of SO2 and particulate air pollution to local and regional emission controls: A case study in Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Vinnikov, Konstantin Y.; Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Jongeward, Andrew R.; Li, Zhanqing; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Hains, Jennifer C.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the questions of what effect local regulations can have on pollutants with different lifetimes and how surface observations and remotely sensed data can be used to determine the impacts. We investigated the decadal trends of tropospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) and aerosol pollution over Maryland and its surrounding states, using surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Aircraft measurements indicated fewer isolated SO2 plumes observed in summers, a ˜40% decrease of column SO2, and a ˜20% decrease of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) over Maryland after the implementation of local regulations on sulfur emissions from power plants (˜90% reduction from 2010). Surface observations of SO2 and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Maryland show similar trends. OMI SO2 and MODIS AOD observations were used to investigate the column contents of air pollutants over the eastern U.S.; these indicate decreasing trends in column SO2 (˜60% decrease) and AOD (˜20% decrease). The decrease of upwind SO2 emissions also reduced aerosol loadings over the downwind Atlantic Ocean near the coast by ˜20%, while indiscernible changes of the SO2 column were observed. A step change of SO2 emissions in Maryland starting in 2009-2010 had an immediate and profound benefit in terms of local surface SO2 concentrations but a modest impact on aerosol pollution, indicating that short-lived pollutants are effectively controlled locally, while long-lived pollutants require regional measures.

  1. Combining measurements and modelling to quantify the contribution of atmospheric fallout, local industry and road traffic to PAH stocks in contrasting catchments.

    PubMed

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-06-01

    Various sources supply PAHs that accumulate in soils. The methodology we developed provided an evaluation of the contribution of local sources (road traffic, local industries) versus remote sources (long range atmospheric transport, fallout and gaseous exchanges) to PAH stocks in two contrasting subcatchments (46-614 km²) of the Seine River basin (France). Soil samples (n = 336) were analysed to investigate the spatial pattern of soil contamination across the catchments and an original combination with radionuclide measurements provided new insights into the evolution of the contamination with depth. Relationships between PAH concentrations and the distance to the potential sources were modelled. Despite both subcatchments are mainly rural, roadside areas appeared to concentrate 20% of the contamination inside the catchment while a local industry was found to be responsible for up to 30% of the stocks. Those results have important implications for understanding and controlling PAH contamination in rural areas of early-industrialized regions. PMID:24662001

  2. Association of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in an Adult Population–Based Cohort in Spain (the REGICOR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Vila, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase blood pressure (BP) and induce hypertension. However, evidence supporting these associations is limited, and they may be confounded by exposure to traffic noise and biased due to inappropriate control for use of BP-lowering medications. Objectives: We evaluated the associations of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension, adjusting for transportation noise and assessing different methodologies to control for BP-lowering medications. Methods: We measured systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) at baseline (years 2003–2005) in 3,700 participants, 35–83 years of age, from a population-based cohort in Spain. We estimated home outdoor annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with a land-use regression model. We used multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results: A 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 levels was associated with 1.34 mmHg (95% CI: 0.14, 2.55) higher SBP in nonmedicated individuals, after adjusting for transportation noise. Results were similar in the entire population after adjusting for medication, as commonly done, but weaker when other methods were used to account for medication use. For example, when 10 mmHg were added to the measured SBP levels of medicated participants, the association was β = 0.78 (95% CI: –0.43, 2.00). NO2 was not associated with hypertension. Associations of NO2 with SBP and DBP were stronger in participants with cardiovascular disease, and the association with SBP was stronger in those exposed to high traffic density and traffic noise levels ≥ 55 dB(A). Conclusions: We observed a positive association between long-term exposure to NO2 and SBP, after adjustment for transportation noise, which was sensitive to the methodology used to account for medication. Citation: Foraster M, Basagaña X, Aguilera I, Rivera M, Agis D, Bouso L, Deltell A, Marrugat J, Ramos R, Sunyer J, Vila J, Elosua R, Künzli N. 2014

  3. Feasibility of Assessing Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution Reduction Programs on a Local Scale: New Haven Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Lobdell, Danelle T.; Isakov, Vlad; Baxter, Lisa; Touma, Jawad S.; Smuts, Mary Beth; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2011-01-01

    Background New approaches to link health surveillance data with environmental and population exposure information are needed to examine the health benefits of risk management decisions. Objective We examined the feasibility of conducting a local assessment of the public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities from federal, state, local, and voluntary actions in the City of New Haven, Connecticut (USA). Methods Using a hybrid modeling approach that combines regional and local-scale air quality data, we estimated ambient concentrations for multiple air pollutants [e.g., PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), NOx (nitrogen oxides)] for baseline year 2001 and projected emissions for 2010, 2020, and 2030. We assessed the feasibility of detecting health improvements in relation to reductions in air pollution for 26 different pollutant–health outcome linkages using both sample size and exploratory epidemiological simulations to further inform decision-making needs. Results Model projections suggested decreases (~ 10–60%) in pollutant concentrations, mainly attributable to decreases in pollutants from local sources between 2001 and 2010. Models indicated considerable spatial variability in the concentrations of most pollutants. Sample size analyses supported the feasibility of identifying linkages between reductions in NOx and improvements in all-cause mortality, prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations. Conclusion Substantial reductions in air pollution (e.g., ~ 60% for NOx) are needed to detect health impacts of environmental actions using traditional epidemiological study designs in small communities like New Haven. In contrast, exploratory epidemiological simulations suggest that it may be possible to demonstrate the health impacts of PM reductions by predicting intraurban pollution gradients within New Haven using coupled models. PMID:21335318

  4. Impact of Local Pollution Versus Long Range Transported Aerosols on Clouds and Precipitation over California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols form cloud droplets and ice crystals in clouds and can profoundly impact precipitation processes. In-situ aircraft measurements of the composition of individual cloud residuals have been used to study the impact of different aerosol sources including sea spray, dust, soot, and biomass burning on cloud microphysics and precipitation processes. Aircraft studies in 2011 as part of the CalWater project showed that long range transport of dust aerosols from as far away as Africa and biological particles can lead to an increase in the amount of snowfall over California. This presentation will describe results from CalWater-2015 involving aircraft and ground-based measurements at a coastal site. A discussion of the aerosol sources measured in clouds will be presented detailing the relative impacts of local versus long range transported pollution aerosols over California.

  5. Analysis of particles and carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes in an urban area: Correlation with traffic rate and local micrometeorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, D.; Donateo, A.; Elefante, C.; Grasso, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Number particle concentrations and fluxes were measured, synchronously with CO 2 concentrations and fluxes, in an urban area. Measurements were taken with an eddy-correlation station located near the busiest road of the town of Lecce (Italy). Upward fluxes dominate completely over deposition and the area behaved as a source of aerosol and CO 2 with an average particle flux F N = 71,100 #/cm 2 s (median 64,000 #/cm 2 s) and an average CO 2 flux F C = 0.76 mg/m 2 s (median 0.46 mg/m 2 s). Pronounced diurnal and weekly cycles of F N and F C were observed, well correlated with measured traffic rate, T R, indicating that traffic is the main source of CO 2 and particles in the area. Biogenic cycle on CO 2 fluxes and concentrations was also distinguishable, decreasing the correlation between F N and F C. The relationships between particle and CO 2 fluxes with T R, friction velocity and atmospheric stability were analysed. Measured F N/ T R increased when friction velocity increased and, correspondingly, number concentration decreased. Particle fluxes showed a dependence on the atmospheric stability. These dependencies were used to derive an empirical parameterisation of aerosol concentration and fluxes, based on T R and micrometeorological parameters, that could be used to estimate traffic emissions, in real operating conditions, for applications in dispersion and climate modelling. Measured F C/ T R showed a limited correlation with friction velocity and stability, because of the influence of the biogenic cycle, thereby micrometeorological parameters were not used in the parameterisation of F C.

  6. Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tal; Phahlane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, Gert J. R.

    2002-10-01

    In August and September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and other fire-related activities lead to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. The first ozone soundings in the heart of the southern African burning region were taken at Lusaka, Zambia (15.5S, 28E) in early September 2000. Maximum surface ozone was over 90 ppbv and column tropospheric ozone exceeded 50 DU. These values are higher than concurrent measurements over Nairobi (1S, 38E) and Irene (25S, 28E, near Pretoria). At least 30% of Lusaka surface ozone appears to be from local sources. A layer at 800-500 hPa has ozone >120 ppbv and originates from trans-boundary recirculation. Starting out over Zambia, Angola, and Namibia, ozone-rich air travels east to the Indian Ocean, before heading back toward Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Thus, Lusaka collects local and imported pollution, consistent with its location within the southern African gyre.

  7. Multi-step approach for comparing the local air pollution contributions of conventional and innovative MSW thermo-chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, M; Rada, E C

    2012-10-01

    In the sector of municipal solid waste management the debate on the performances of conventional and novel thermo-chemical technologies is still relevant. When a plant must be constructed, decision makers often select a technology prior to analyzing the local environmental impact of the available options, as this type of study is generally developed when the design of the plant has been carried out. Additionally, in the literature there is a lack of comparative analyses of the contributions to local air pollution from different technologies. The present study offers a multi-step approach, based on pollutant emission factors and atmospheric dilution coefficients, for a local comparative analysis. With this approach it is possible to check if some assumptions related to the advantages of the novel thermochemical technologies, in terms of local direct impact on air quality, can be applied to municipal solid waste treatment. The selected processes concern combustion, gasification and pyrolysis, alone or in combination. The pollutants considered are both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic. A case study is presented concerning the location of a plant in an alpine region and its contribution to the local air pollution. Results show that differences among technologies are less than expected. Performances of each technology are discussed in details. PMID:22795304

  8. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 2: Impact of vehicle emission on urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. J.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Liu, H. L.; Jing, B. Y.; Yu, Y.; Ren, P. P.; Feng, C.; Liu, X. H.

    2015-07-01

    In a companion paper (Jing et al., 2015), a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for 2013 in Beijing has been established based on near real time (NRT) traffic data and bottom up methodology. In this study, based on the sensitivity analysis method of switching on/off pollutant emissions in the Chinese air quality forecasting model CUACE, a modeling study was carried out to evaluate the contributions of vehicle emission to the air pollution in Beijing main urban areas in the periods of summer (July) and winter (December) 2013. Generally, CUACE model had good performance of pollutants concentration simulation. The model simulation has been improved by using HTSVE. The vehicle emission contribution (VEC) to ambient pollutant concentrations not only changes with seasons but also changes over moment. The mean VEC, affected by regional pollutant transports significantly, is 55.4 and 48.5 % for NO2, while 5.4 and 10.5 % for PM2.5 in July and December 2013, respectively. Regardless of regional transports, relative vehicle emission contribution (RVEC) to NO2 is 59.2 and 57.8 % in July and December 2013, while 8.7 and 13.9 % for PM2.5. The RVEC to PM2.5 is lower than PM2.5 contribution rate for vehicle emission in total emission, which may be caused by easily dry deposition of PM2.5 from vehicle emission in near-surface layer compared to elevated source emission.

  9. Virginia's traffic management system

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.; Marber, S. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that Northern Virginia, like most other urban areas, faces the challenge of moving more and more vehicles on roads that are already overloaded. Traffic in Northern Virginia is continually increasing, but the development surrounding Interstate 395, 495, and 66 makes little room available for roadway expansion. Even if land were unlimited, the strict requirement of the Clean Air Act make building roads difficult. This paper reports that ensuring the most efficient use of the interstate highways is the goal of the Virginia Department of Transportation's (VDOT's) traffic management system (TMS). TMS is a computerized highway surveillance and control system that monitors 30 interstate miles on I-395, I-495, and I-66. The system helps squeeze the most use from these interstates by detecting and helping clear accidents or disabled vehicles and by smoothing traffic flow. TMS spots and helps clear an average of two incidents a day and prevents accidents caused by erratic traffic flow from ramps onto the main line. For motorists, these TMS functions translate into decreased travel time, vehicle operating costs, and air pollution. VDOT's TMS is the foundation for the intelligent vehicle-highway systems of tomorrow. It employs several elements that work together to improve traffic flow.

  10. Estimation of the Hydrogen local traffic source and soil uptake using atmospheric in-situ measurements at Gif-sur-Yvette (Paris region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yver, C.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.

    2009-04-01

    Molecular Hydrogen (H2) is one of the most abundant trace gases in the atmosphere with a mean ratio of 530 ppb. Its possible use in the future energy chain would increase its mixing ratio through leakage and influence the lifetime and mixing ratio of some greenhouse gases such as methane. However uncertainties on its budget are still large. A better understanding of the hydrogen cycle and of its budget is then essential to provide a better estimation of its impact on other trace gases. In 2006, a new gas chromatograph with reduction gas detector (PP1, Peak Laboratories, LLC, California, USA) was optimized to measure H2 and CO, and coupled with an Agilent gas chromatograph, which already measures CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 in the frame of RAMCES greenhouse gases monitoring network at LSCE. Since June 2006 semi-continuous measurements of tropospheric molecular hydrogen have been performed at Gif-sur-Yvette, a suburban sampling site in France, 25 km south west of Paris. Here we present data analysis of nearly 3 years in-situ measurements at Gif-sur-Yvette. From these data we have estimated the local traffic source and soil sink. The traffic source is calculated from the H2/CO ratio during typical situation with strong correlation and large concentration variation. The soil uptake is calculated using the radon-tracer method during night time inversions with anti-correlation of H2 and Radon.

  11. Spatial biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Iran: a study using locally produced butter.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Amirali; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-07-01

    Butter is a readily collected, integrative and inexpensive sampling matrix for the spatial mapping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the national or regional scale. As air-plant-animal transfers generally supply the POPs reaching butter lipid, this study used butter for an initial evaluation of the occurrence, levels and distribution of POPs (selected organochlorine pesticides and PCBs) in Iran, a country for which very little information on usage, emissions and environmental burdens of these compounds exists. Fifty samples from rural and urban areas, in the north, west and central regions of the country were collected from local farms in spring 2007. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE varied widely by a factor of approximately 1000 and approximately 370 (8450 pg g(-1) lipid and 46 800 pg g(-1) lipid on average). The highest levels, found mainly in urban areas in the centre of the country, were amongst the highest reported in the world. PCB concentrations (4320 pg g(-1) lipid on average) varied by a factor of approximately 160 and were highest close to urban centres and lowest in the rural northwest. Although Iran is not known for widespread PCB usage in the past, concentrations were higher than a 'global average' reported in a butter survey in 2001. This simple sampling approach could be adopted in other regions where cows graze, as part of an initial screening to help meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention. PMID:18688454

  12. Traffic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mestech's X-15 "Eye in the Sky," a traffic monitoring system, incorporates NASA imaging and robotic vision technology. A camera or "sensor box" is mounted in a housing. The sensor detects vehicles approaching an intersection and sends the information to a computer, which controls the traffic light according to the traffic rate. Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages aided in the company's development of the system. The X-15's "smart highway" can also be used to count vehicles on a highway and compute the number in each lane and their speeds, important information for freeway control engineers. Additional applications are in airport and railroad operations. The system is intended to replace loop-type traffic detectors.

  13. GIS-modeled indicators of traffic-related air pollutants and adverse pulmonary health among children in El Paso, Texas, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children?s Health Study examined 5,654 children enrolled in the El Paso, Texas public school district by questionnaire in 2001. Exposure measurements were first collected in the late fall of 1999. Then school-level and residence-level exposures to traffic-related air ...

  14. Pannexin2 oligomers localize in the membranes of endosomal vesicles in mammalian cells while Pannexin1 channels traffic to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Boassa, Daniela; Nguyen, Phuong; Hu, Junru; Ellisman, Mark H.; Sosinsky, Gina E.

    2015-01-01

    Pannexin2 (Panx2) is the largest of three members of the pannexin proteins. Pannexins are topologically related to connexins and innexins, but serve different functional roles than forming gap junctions. We previously showed that pannexins form oligomeric channels but unlike connexins and innexins, they form only single membrane channels. High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS) have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1) is fairly ubiquitous and Pannexin3 (Panx3) is found in skin and connective tissue, both are fully glycosylated, traffic to the plasma membrane and have functions correlated with extracellular ATP release. Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa, and HEK 293T cells as well as endogenous Panx1 and Panx2 patterns in the CNS. Panx2 was found in intracellular localizations, was partially N-glycosylated, and localizations were non-overlapping with Panx1. Confocal images of hippocampal sections immunolabeled for the astrocytic protein GFAP, Panx1 and Panx2 demonstrated that the two isoforms, Panx1 and Panx2, localized at different subcellular compartments in both astrocytes and neurons. Using recombinant fusions of Panx2 with appended genetic tags developed for correlated light and electron microscopy and then expressed in different cell lines, we determined that Panx2 is localized in the membrane of intracellular vesicles and not in the endoplasmic reticulum as initially indicated by calnexin colocalization experiments. Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. In electron tomographic volumes, cross-sections of these vesicles displayed fine structural details and close proximity to actin filaments. Thus, pannexins expressed at different subcellular compartments likely exert distinct functional roles, particularly in the nervous system

  15. Simulating Local and Intercontinental Pollutant Effects of Biomass Burning: Integration of Several Remotely Sensed Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Vastano, John A.; Guild, Liane; Hlavka, Christine; Brass, James A.; Russell, Philip B. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Burning to clear land for crops and to destroy pests is an integral and largely unavoidable part of tropical agriculture. It is easy to note but difficult to quantify using remote sensing. This report describes our efforts to integrate remotely sensed data into our computer model of tropical chemical trace-gas emissions, weather, and reaction chemistry (using the MM5 mesoscale model and our own Global-Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Simulator). The effects of burning over the continents of Africa and South America have been noticed in observations from several satellites. Smoke plumes hundreds of kilometers long may be seen individually, or may merge into a large smoke pall over thousands of kilometers of these continents. These features are related to intense pollution in the much more confined regions with heavy burning. These emissions also translocate nitrogen thousands of kilometers in the tropical ecosystems, with large fixed-nitrogen losses balanced partially by locally intense fertilization downwind, where nitric acid is rained out. At a much larger scale, various satellite measurements have indicated the escape of carbon monoxide and ozone into large filaments which extend across the Tropical and Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our work relates the source emissions, estimated in part from remote sensing, in part from conventional surface reports, to the concentrations of these gases over these intercontinental regions. We will mention work in progress to use meteorological satellite data (AVHRR, GOES, and Meteosat) to estimate the surface temperature and extent and height of clouds, and explain why these uses are so important in our computer simulations of global biogeochemistry. We will compare our simulations and interpretation of remote observations to the international cooperation involving Brazil, South Africa, and the USA in the TRACE-A (Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator - Atlantic) and SAFARI (Southern Africa Fire Atmosphere Research

  16. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies. PMID:22878358

  17. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  18. Integration of real-time air pollution parameters into the decision making process regarding highway construction work zone traffic flow. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fatagoma, O.; Premo, T.; Jacko, R.B.

    1998-05-15

    The main objective of this research is to develop a real-time modal exhaust emission concentration model for light and medium duty vehicles using real-time emission concentration, traffic, and meteorological data. The data were collected during the Purdue Vehicle Emission Monitoring and Modeling Project (PVEMP) field experiments conducted in the spring and summer 1997 on the Borman Expressway. The implementation of the model and the results of the project integrate air quality as another parameter in the traffic flow improvement of the Borman Expressway, especially in construction zones. This paper presents the results of the monitoring program, the data reduction and analysis effort, the development of the real-time modal exhaust emission concentration model, and the implementation suggestions of the research.

  19. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice. PMID:26681325

  20. Proceedings of the ITE's 1987 national conference on strategies to alleviate traffic congestion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the papers presented at the conference on the subject of traffic congestion. The topics discussed were: Surveillance control and driver information system; fiber optics for traffic surveillance; solutions to traffic problems; traffic management in Texas; truck operations; traffic engineering; parking standards and requirements; and planning of improving traffic flow on local streets.

  1. State Traffic Data: Traffic Safety Facts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NHTSA), Washington, DC.

    This brief provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents delineated by state. A map details the 2001 traffic fatalities by state and the percent change from 2000. Data tables include: (1) traffic fatalities and fatality rates, 2001; (2) traffic fatalities and percent change, 1975-2001; (3) alcohol involvement in fatal traffic crashes,…

  2. Percolation properties in a traffic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feilong; Li, Daqing; Xu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Ruoqian; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-11-01

    As a dynamical complex system, traffic is characterized by a transition from free flow to congestions, which is mostly studied in highways. However, despite its importance in developing congestion mitigation strategies, the understanding of this common traffic phenomenon in a city scale is still missing. An open question is how the traffic in the network collapses from a global efficient traffic to isolated local flows in small clusters, i.e. the question of traffic percolation. Here we study the traffic percolation properties on a lattice by simulation of an agent-based model for traffic. A critical traffic volume in this model distinguishes the free state from the congested state of traffic. Our results show that the threshold of traffic percolation decreases with increasing traffic volume and reaches a minimum value at the critical traffic volume. We show that this minimal threshold is the result of longest spatial correlation between traffic flows at the critical traffic volume. These findings may help to develop congestion mitigation strategies in a network view.

  3. Traffic Driven Analysis of Cellular and WiFi Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Utpal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Since the days Internet traffic proliferated, measurement, monitoring and analysis of network traffic have been critical to not only the basic understanding of large networks, but also to seek improvements in resource management, traffic engineering and security. At the current times traffic in wireless local and wide area networks are facing…

  4. Space Monitoring of air pollution using satellite time series: from a global view down to local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, Antonio; Aromando, Angelo; Desantis, Fortunato; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Assessment of air pollution has been performed by different means over the years and, recently, the use of satellite data for detecting and monitoring atmospheric pollution has received considerable attention especially for application in industrial and urban areas. Methods based on satellite data (such as Landsat TM, SPOT MODIS images) are focused on the estimation of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that is a measure of aerosol loading in the atmosphere, and therefore, it is considered as the main significant parameter of the presence/absence of atmospheric pollutants. A higher AOT value expresses the degree to which aerosols prevent the transmission of light, therefore, higher columnar of aerosol loading means lower visibility and higher aerosol concentration Several state-of-art aerosol retrieval techniques provide aerosol properties in global scale, as for example products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites. The current aerosol optical thickness (AOT) products from MODIS (available free of charge by the NASA web site) is 10 km. This product is suitable for global research, but it faces difficulty in local area research, especially in urban areas However, new aerosol retrieval algorithm for the (MODIS) 500m resolution data have been developed to retrieve aerosol properties over land, which helps on addressing the aerosol climatic issues in local/urban scale. Over the years, several algorithms for determining the aerosol optical thickness have been developed using several approaches and satellite sensors including medium (Landsat; ASTER) and high resolution imagery (IKONOS and Quickbird). A comparison of results from these methods and independent data sets has been performed in the Basilicata region in the framework of the MITRA project (ref). This research activity was conducted in order to analyze their temporal dynamics and reliability for systematically using them

  5. Traffic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Intelligent Vision Systems, Inc. (InVision) needed image acquisition technology that was reliable in bad weather for its TDS-200 Traffic Detection System. InVision researchers used information from NASA Tech Briefs and assistance from Johnson Space Center to finish the system. The NASA technology used was developed for Earth-observing imaging satellites: charge coupled devices, in which silicon chips convert light directly into electronic or digital images. The TDS-200 consists of sensors mounted above traffic on poles or span wires, enabling two sensors to view an intersection; a "swing and sway" feature to compensate for movement of the sensors; a combination of electronic shutter and gain control; and sensor output to an image digital signal processor, still frame video and optionally live video.

  6. Fine and coarse PM composition and sources in rural and urban sites in Switzerland: local or regional pollution?

    PubMed

    Minguillón, M C; Querol, X; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2012-06-15

    The chemical composition and sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Switzerland were studied. PM(1) and PM(10) samples were collected in winter and summer at an urban background site in Zurich and a rural background site in Payerne. Concentrations of major and trace elements, NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), organic and elemental carbon were determined. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM(10) and PM(1) concentrations varied similarly at both sites, with average PM(10) concentrations 24-25 μg/m(3) and 13-14 μg/m(3) in winter and summer, respectively, and average PM(1) concentrations 12-17 μg/m(3) and 6-7 μg/m(3). The influence of local sources was found to be higher in winter. PM was dominated by nitrate and organic matter in winter, and by mineral matter and organic matter in summer. Trace element concentrations related to road traffic (Zn, Cu, Sb, Sn) were higher at Zurich. Concentrations of Tl and Cs, attributed to the influence of a glass industry, were higher at Payerne. The elements mainly present in the coarse fraction were those related to mineral matter and brake and tyre abrasion (Cu, Mn, Ti, Sb, Sr, Bi, Li, La, Nd), and those in the fine fraction were related to high temperature anthropogenic processes (Pb, As, Cd, Tl, Cs). Common PM(1) and PM(1-10) sources identified by PMF were: ammonium nitrate, present in winter, negligible in summer; ammonium sulfate+K(biomass burning)+road traffic; and road traffic itself, related to exhaust emissions in PM(1) and to road dust resuspension in PM(1-10). Size-fraction specific sources were: a PM(1) glass industry source characterized by Cs, Tl, Rb, Li and Na, only present in Payerne; a PM(1) background source characterized by V, Ni, sulfate and Fe; two PM(1-10) mineral-related sources, with higher contribution in summer; a PM(1-10) salt source; and a PM(1-10) organic source, with higher contribution in summer, attributed to bioaerosols. PMID:22572211

  7. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation. PMID:26378910

  8. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I.; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation. PMID:26378910

  9. Dynamics of traffic flow with real-time traffic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoya, Yasushi

    2004-01-01

    We studied dynamics of traffic flow with real-time information provided. Provision of the real-time traffic information based on advancements in telecommunication technology is expected to facilitate the efficient utilization of available road capacity. This system has a potentiality of not only engineering for road usage but also the science of complexity series. In the system, the information plays a role of feedback connecting microscopic and macroscopic phenomena beyond the hierarchical structure of statistical physics. In this paper, we tried to clarify how the information works in a network of traffic flow from the perspective of statistical physics. The dynamical feature of the traffic flow is abstracted by a contrastive study between the nonequilibrium statistical physics and a computer simulation based on cellular automaton. We found that the information disrupts the local equilibrium of traffic flow by a characteristic dissipation process due to interaction between the information and individual vehicles. The dissipative structure was observed in the time evolution of traffic flow driven far from equilibrium as a consequence of the breakdown of the local-equilibrium hypothesis.

  10. [Research progress in health impact of traffic noise].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    Traffic noise pollution problem is increasingly emerging with the rapid development of urban traffic. Researchers have paid close attention to the health effects of traffic noise. This review has summarized the recent research progress in the health effects of traffic noise both at home and abroad. Traffic noise can have various adverse health effects, and most of them are extra-auditory effects. The main aspects include that traffic noise can affect the cardiovascular system, which is verified by the evidence that exposure to traffic noise significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases, such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and so on. In addition, traffic noise can induce adverse effects on nervous system, leading to the increasing levels of anxiety, noise annoyance, and occurrence of insomnia. Furthermore, traffic noise is significantly associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, and can affect the endocrine system and digestive system. As traffic noise and traffic related air pollutants co-exist in the traffic environment, whether there are joint effects between these two factors have become areas of research focus nowadays. Although there is sufficient evidence that traffic noise has adverse health effects, inadequacies still existe. Analysis of the shortages of current studies and the prospects of the future studies are pointed out in this review. PMID:26080892

  11. Nomograms for calculating pollution within street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckland, A. T.; Middleton, D. R.

    The Environment Act 1995 has introduced the notion of local air quality management which requires that air quality in towns be reviewed and assessed. There is a need to identify those streets that are worst affected by vehicular pollutants. Such worst cases are likely to be narrow congested streets with tall buildings on each side. A nomogram presented here allows rapid screening of pollution in congested street canyons. The strong dependence on wind direction is reduced to the two extremes, namely wind along and wind across the canyon. Then canyon concentrations are estimated according to street geometry and traffic flow. The nomogram is designed for use by local authorities, is quick and easy to use, and paper or computer versions are available. It is suggested that detailed monitoring or modelling may only be required when simple screening methods predict high air pollution.

  12. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... and air pollution . Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... exposure to pollutants. Learn more about disparities and air pollution . Living Near Highways Being in heavy traffic, or ...

  13. The possible role of local air pollution in climate change in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, Peter; Evans, Mat J.; Field, Paul R.; Fink, Andreas H.; Liousse, Catherine; Marsham, John H.

    2015-09-01

    The climate of West Africa is characterized by a sensitive monsoon system that is associated with marked natural precipitation variability. This region has been and is projected to be subject to substantial global and regional-scale changes including greenhouse-gas-induced warming and sea-level rise, land-use and land-cover change, and substantial biomass burning. We argue that more attention should be paid to rapidly increasing air pollution over the explosively growing cities of West Africa, as experiences from other regions suggest that this can alter regional climate through the influences of aerosols on clouds and radiation, and will also affect human health and food security. We need better observations and models to quantify the magnitude and characteristics of these impacts.

  14. Study of the retention of organic pollutants starting from aqueous solutions by adsorption on local clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dali-Youcef, Z.; Queneudec, M.; Dheilly, R. M.

    2010-11-01

    A new adsorbent, mud activated with ammonium chloride, was characterized and employed for the removal of organic pollutants such as phenol and red dye used in the industry of textile, from aqueous solutions. The elaborated material is then used in the treatment of a textile industry waste-water. The use of ammonium chloride activates the mud by increasing its specific surface and thus increases its moisture-holding capacity of phenol and red dye. The experimental data for removal of phenol were analyzed by the Freundlich isotherm and the Langmuir isotherm. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacity of 40.81 mg/g. The use of column with high diameter facilitates the retention of the red dye.

  15. Mercury isotope signatures in contaminated sediments as a tracer for local industrial pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Drott, Andreas; Jiskra, Martin; Jonsson, Sofi; Björn, Erik; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) may cause characteristic isotope signatures of different mercury (Hg) sources and help understand transformation processes at contaminated sites. Here, we present Hg isotope data of sediments collected near industrial pollution sources in Sweden contaminated with elemental liquid Hg (mainly chlor-alkali industry) or phenyl-Hg (paper industry). The sediments exhibited a wide range of total Hg concentrations from 0.86 to 99 μg g(-1), consisting dominantly of organically-bound Hg and smaller amounts of sulfide-bound Hg. The three phenyl-Hg sites showed very similar Hg isotope signatures (MDF δ(202)Hg: -0.2‰ to -0.5‰; MIF Δ(199)Hg: -0.05‰ to -0.10‰). In contrast, the four sites contaminated with elemental Hg displayed much greater variations (δ(202)Hg: -2.1‰ to 0.6‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0.19‰ to 0.03‰) but with distinct ranges for the different sites. Sequential extractions revealed that sulfide-bound Hg was in some samples up to 1‰ heavier in δ(202)Hg than organically-bound Hg. The selectivity of the sequential extraction was tested on standard materials prepared with enriched Hg isotopes, which also allowed assessing isotope exchange between different Hg pools. Our results demonstrate that different industrial pollution sources can be distinguished on the basis of Hg isotope signatures, which may additionally record fractionation processes between different Hg pools in the sediments. PMID:25437501

  16. The Influence of Traffic on Air Quality in an Urban Neighborhood: A Community–University Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Harrison J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the spatial and temporal patterns of traffic-related air pollutants in an urban neighborhood to determine factors contributing to elevated concentrations and to inform environmental justice concerns. Methods. In the summer of 2007, we continuously monitored multiple air pollutants at a community site in the Mission Hill neighborhood of Boston, Massachussetts, and local high school students conducted mobile continuous monitoring throughout the neighborhood. We used regression models to explain variability in concentrations, considering various attributes of traffic, proximity to major roadways, and meteorology. Results. Different attributes of traffic explained variability in fixed-site concentrations of ultrafine particles, fine particulate matter, and black carbon, with diurnal patterns and meteorological effects indicative of a greater local effect on ultrafine particles and black carbon. Mobile monitoring demonstrated that multiple traffic variables predict elevated levels of ultrafine particles, with concentrations of ultrafine particles decreasing by 50% within 400 meters of 2 major roadways. Conclusions. Unlike fine particulate matter, ultrafine particles demonstrate significant spatial and temporal variability within an urban neighborhood, contributing to environmental justice concerns, and patterns can be well characterized with a community-based participatory research design. PMID:19890168

  17. Blood lead levels in lactating cows reared around polluted localities; transfer of lead into milk.

    PubMed

    Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Puneet; Shekhar, Pallav

    2005-10-15

    Lead is pervasive environmental pollutant with potential public health hazard as a contaminant of food from animal origin. The present study examines the blood and milk lead level in animals reared in areas around different industrial activities and to find out correlation between blood and milk lead levels in lactating cows. Blood and milk samples (n = 149) were collected from animals reared around steel processing unit (n = 22), lead-zinc smelter (n = 21), aluminum processing plant (n = 25), rock phosphate mining area cum phosphate fertilizer plant (n = 21), coal mining areas (n = 46) and closed lead but functional zinc smelter (n = 14). Samples were also collected from randomly chosen 52 lactating cows reared in non-polluted areas to serve as controls. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher blood lead level was recorded in animals reared around lead-zinc smelting factories followed by closed lead but functional zinc smelter, aluminum processing unit and steel manufacturing plant, as compared to values recorded for control animals. The highest milk lead level (0.84 +/- 0.11 microg/ ml) was detected in animals reared in the vicinity of lead-zinc smelting unit followed by aluminum processing plant and steel processing unit. Analysis of correlation between blood lead levels and lead excretion in milk through sorting the blood lead values into 9 different ranges irrespective of site of collection of samples (n = 201) revealed significant correlation (r = 0.469 at P < 0.01) between blood and milk lead concentrations. The lactating cows with blood lead levels above 0.20 microg/ml (groups 5-9) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher milk lead excretion than those with blood lead levels from non detectable to 0.20 microg/ml (groups 1-4). Pearson correlation analysis between blood and milk lead concentrations in 122 animals with blood lead <0.20 microg/ml showed non-significant correlation (r = 0.030 at P < 0.05) but a significant correlation was observed between these two

  18. Blood lead levels in lactating cows reared around polluted localities; transfer of lead into milk.

    PubMed

    Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Puneet; Shekhar, Pallav

    2005-07-15

    Lead is pervasive environmental pollutant with potential public health hazard as a contaminant of food from animal origin. The present study examines the blood and milk lead level in animals reared in areas around different industrial activities and to find out correlation between blood and milk lead levels in lactating cows. Blood and milk samples (n=149) were collected from animals reared around steel processing unit (n=22), lead-zinc smelter (n=21), aluminum processing plant (n=25), rock phosphate mining area cum phosphate fertilizer plant (n=21), coal mining areas (n=46) and closed lead but functional zinc smelter (n=14). Samples were also collected from randomly chosen 52 lactating cows reared in non-polluted areas to serve as controls. Significantly (P<0.05) higher blood lead level was recorded in animals reared around lead-zinc smelting factories followed by closed lead but functional zinc smelter, aluminum processing unit and steel manufacturing plant, as compared to values recorded for control animals. The highest milk lead level (0.84+/-0.11 microg/ml) was detected in animals reared in the vicinity of lead-zinc smelting unit followed by aluminum processing plant and steel processing unit. Analysis of correlation between blood lead levels and lead excretion in milk through sorting the blood lead values into nine different ranges irrespective of site of collection of samples (n=201) revealed significant correlation (r=0.469 at P<0.01) between blood and milk lead concentrations. The lactating cows with blood lead levels above 0.20 microg/ml (Groups 5 to 9) had significantly (P<0.05) higher milk lead excretion than those with blood lead levels from non-detectable to 0.20 microg/ml (Groups 1 to 4). Pearson correlation analysis between blood and milk lead concentrations in 122 animals with blood lead

  19. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterization facility for "next-generation" soil sampling aimed, for example, at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity in quantification of a set of exemplar parameters is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The theory of sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a more general fit-for-purpose soil heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale transect (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-0.5 m) replication sampling point variability. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results from a specific well-mixed soil type show that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among other soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas, e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  20. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterisation facility for "next generation" sampling aimed at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity on quantification of a set of exemplar parameters, organic matter, loss on ignition (LOI), biomass, soil microbiology, MCPA sorption and mineralization is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a fit-for-purpose heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale profile (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-1 m) replication sampling pattern. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results concludes that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  1. Bjerknes Lecture "Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change, A Local and Global Perspective"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    About half of the world's population is now living in urban areas, exposing millions of residents to harmful levels of air pollutants caused mainly by emissions from motor vehicles and industries. Slash-and-burn agricultural practices and forests fires also contribute to worsening air quality on broad regional scales. Emissions from all these fossil fuel and bio-mass burning activities have lead to increases in the amount of atmospheric particulate matter, as well as in the concentration of species such as nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide. Emissions of these relatively short-lived compounds in turn lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, which together with particulate matter may also contribute to regional climate change. This deteriorating air quality problem is expected to reach global proportions in the coming decades, with potentially detrimental effects on ecological systems and on human health. On the other hand, improving air quality effectively anywhere in the world requires a holistic approach involving not only science and technology, but also a consideration of economic, social, and political factors.

  2. Magnetic susceptibility of dust-loaded leaves as a proxy of traffic-related heavy metal pollution in Kathmandu city, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Pitambar; Blaha, Ulrich; Appel, Erwin

    Dust-loaded tree leaves from Kathmandu have been analyzed for magnetic susceptibility ( χ) and heavy metal (HM) contents. For 221 samples of leaves of cypress (mainly Cupressus corneyana), silky oak ( Grevillea robusta) and bottlebrush ( Callistemon lanceolatus), χ has a range of (0.01-54)×10 -8 m 3 kg -1 with a median of about 10.0×10 -8 m 3 kg -1. Trees situated close to the busy road intersections, near the main bus station and sectors of roads with steep slope yield elevated susceptibility. Chemical analysis of 20 samples of varying susceptibility by atomic absorption spectrometry yields the following maximum HM contents: Fe (1.3 wt%), Mn (281.9 ppm), Zn (195.2 ppm), Cu (41.5 ppm), Pb (38.4 ppm), Ni (8.1 ppm), Cr (6.4 ppm), Co (4.1 ppm) and Cd (1.2 ppm). The logarithmic susceptibility on dry mass basis ( χ) shows significant linear relationship with HM contents: Pearson's correlation coefficient r>0.8 with Zn, Fe, Cr; r>0.7 with Mn, Cu; r>0.6 with Pb, Ni. Magnetic phases are of soft (magnetite/maghemite) and hard (hematite) coercivities. Microscopy of magnetic extracts reveals spherules (mostly of 2-20 μm diameter) originated from vehicle exhausts through the combustion process as well as crystalline grains of lithogenic origin. The dust accumulation in leaves took place mainly after monsoon (beginning of October 2001) till the sampling period (first half of February 2002). Despite the dependence of susceptibility and HM contents on a variety of spatial and temporal factors (amount of particulate matter (PM), efficiency of deposition/removal of PM by wind, precipitation, birds etc.), a significant correlation of susceptibility to HM implies that the former serves as an effective proxy of metallic pollution. Hence, susceptibility-based bio-monitoring technique is recommended as an economic and rapid tool for assessment of environmental pollution in urban areas like Kathmandu.

  3. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  4. Biomonitoring seasonal changes in the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution around junction 16 of the M25 London Orbital Motorway (a high traffic area), United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sims, Ian; Crane, Mark; Johnson, Ian; Credland, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Larvae of a lichenophagous bagworm moth, Luffia ferchaultella [Stephens 1850], were used to monitor the potential environmental impact of pollutants from a diffuse emission source, exhaust emission products, around Junction 16 of the M25 London Orbital motorway where it interchanges with the M40 motorway. Larvae were fed terrestrial epiphytic algae, collected on four occasions over a 3.5-year period, from 17 sites located within a 16 km(2) survey area. After 10 days of exposure to algae from certain sites, large reductions in the amount of fecal material (frass) produced by the larvae were noted. These reductions correlated with the concentrations of exhaust-related metals in the algae. On all four sampling occasions one site, located close to the junction, had some of the highest levels of exhaust related contaminants and resulted in significantly reduced larval frass production. Geostatistics were used to map the extent of the affected areas. On all four sampling occasions sites located down wind, to the east of the interchange, were statistically significantly affected. This area of impact increased in extent from 1998 to 2000, when a second area of contamination developed to the south west of the junction. By January 2001 the extent of the impacted area in the south west of Junction 16 had increased, while that to the east had declined. By September 2001 the extent of the impacted area to the west of the junction had spread still further, while the impacted area to the east remained reduced when compared with the situation found in 1998. PMID:21046463

  5. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    PubMed Central

    Aliane, Nourdine; Fernandez, Javier; Mata, Mario; Bemposta, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR) for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations. PMID:25421737

  6. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  7. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  8. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  9. 49 CFR 384.209 - Notification of traffic violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of traffic violations. 384.209... § 384.209 Notification of traffic violations. (a) Required notification with respect to CLP or CDL... any State or local law relating to motor vehicle traffic control (other than parking, vehicle...

  10. 49 CFR 384.209 - Notification of traffic violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of traffic violations. 384.209... § 384.209 Notification of traffic violations. (a) Required notification with respect to CLP or CDL... any State or local law relating to motor vehicle traffic control (other than parking, vehicle...

  11. 49 CFR 384.209 - Notification of traffic violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of traffic violations. 384.209... § 384.209 Notification of traffic violations. (a) Required notification with respect to CLP or CDL... State or local law relating to motor vehicle traffic control (other than parking, vehicle weight...

  12. 49 CFR 384.209 - Notification of traffic violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of traffic violations. 384.209... § 384.209 Notification of traffic violations. (a) Required notification with respect to CLP or CDL... State or local law relating to motor vehicle traffic control (other than parking, vehicle weight...

  13. Measurement of black carbon concentration as an indicator of air quality benefits of traffic restriction policies within the ecopass zone in Milan, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; De Marco, Cinzia; Močnik, Griša; Sioutas, Costantinos; Westerdahl, Dane

    2011-07-01

    Traffic restrictions are an unpopular tool to mitigate urban air pollution, and a measurable improvement in air quality is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this measure. Previous attempts failed to detect measurable reductions of PM mass pollution within the areas subject to traffic restriction. However black carbon, which is emitted primarily by traffic sources, could be a PM metric more suitable than PM mass to demonstrate pollutant reductions. In this study we report the results of a black carbon monitoring campaign carried out in Milan, Italy, with the aim to detect - and demonstrate more suitably than PM mass - differences in local urban air quality among three zones located very closely with different traffic intensity. The study was carried out in three different days by measuring simultaneously black carbon and PM mass concentrations with fixed monitoring stations located in three main radial roads connecting the outskirts to the city center, each with three segments: 1) an outer one, with no traffic restrictions 2) an intermediate one, subject to the congestion traffic charge called "Ecopass", where a ticket is required to enter for cars equipped with engines prior to Euro 4 standard; 3) the pedestrian zone (no cars admitted) of Duomo Square in the city center, where each of the three main roads ends. The results demonstrated a sharply declining gradient in black carbon levels from the outer zone, without traffic restrictions, to the more central areas, for all of the three radial main roads. The differences in mean black carbon levels in the same day in the different traffic scheme locations were highly significant for each comparison. In contrast to the Black carbon results, mean PM 10, PM 2.5, PM 1 concentrations did not show significant differences among the different traffic zones on the different campaign days. The ratio of black carbon to PM 10 decreased by 47% and 62% in the Ecopass zone and in the pedestrian zone, respectively, as

  14. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  15. Application of meteorology-based methods to determine local and external contributions to particulate matter pollution: A case study in Venice (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    The air quality is influenced by the potential effects of meteorology at meso- and synoptic scales. While local weather and mixing layer dynamics mainly drive the dispersion of sources at small scales, long-range transports affect the movements of air masses over regional, transboundary and even continental scales. Long-range transport may advect polluted air masses from hot-spots by increasing the levels of pollution at nearby or remote locations or may further raise air pollution levels where external air masses originate from other hot-spots. Therefore, the knowledge of ground-wind circulation and potential long-range transports is fundamental not only to evaluate how local or external sources may affect the air quality at a receptor site but also to quantify it. This review is focussed on establishing the relationships among PM2.5 sources, meteorological condition and air mass origin in the Po Valley, which is one of the most polluted areas in Europe. We have chosen the results from a recent study carried out in Venice (Eastern Po Valley) and have analysed them using different statistical approaches to understand the influence of external and local contribution of PM2.5 sources. External contributions were evaluated by applying Trajectory Statistical Methods (TSMs) based on back-trajectory analysis including (i) back-trajectories cluster analysis, (ii) potential source contribution function (PSCF) and (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT). Furthermore, the relationships between the source contributions and ground-wind circulation patterns were investigated by using (iv) cluster analysis on wind data and (v) conditional probability function (CPF). Finally, local source contribution have been estimated by applying the Lenschow' approach. In summary, the integrated approach of different techniques has successfully identified both local and external sources of particulate matter pollution in a European hot-spot affected by the worst air quality.

  16. Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution vs. long-range transported dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Leung, L. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Comstock, J. M.; Singh, B.; Rosenfeld, D.; Tomlinson, J. M.; White, A.; Prather, K. A.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Q.

    2013-07-01

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter/spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on 16 February (FEB16) and 2 March (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust or dust/biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust/biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a 40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  17. Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Leung, L. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Comstock, J. M.; Singh, B.; Rosenfeld, D.; Tomlinson, J. M.; White, A.; Prather, K. A.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and the Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in order to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases (from the CalWater 2011 field campaign) with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on 16 February (FEB16) and 2 March (MAR02). In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by a few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present, but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology, including cloud dynamics and the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental

  18. Diurnal and seasonal variations of NO, NO2 and PM2.5 mass as a function of traffic volumes alongside an urban arterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Christine M.; Koonce, Peter; George, Linda A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban arterial corridors are landscapes that give rise to short and long-term exposures to transportation-related pollution. With high traffic volumes and a wide mix of road users, urban arterial environments are important targets for improved exposure assessment to traffic-related pollution. A common method to estimate exposure is to use traffic volumes as a proxy. The study presented here analyzes a unique yearlong dataset of simultaneous roadside air quality and traffic observations for a U.S. arterial to assess the reliability of using traffic volumes as a proxy for traffic-related exposure. Results show how the relationships of traffic volumes with NO and NO2 vary not only by time of day and season but also by time aggregation. At short-term aggregations (15 min) nitrogen oxides were found to have a significant linear relationship with traffic volumes during morning hours for all seasons although variability was still high (r2 = 0.1-0.45 NO, r2 = 0.14-0.27 NO2), and little to no relationship during evening periods (r2 < 0.01-0.03 NO, r2 < 0.01-0.05 NO2). Comparisons with coarse annual results validate the use of traffic volumes to estimate annual exposure concentrations for morning periods (r2 = 0.89 NO, r2 = 0.87 NO2) and evening NO2 (r2 = 0.46). Traffic volumes are a weak or poor predictor for annual evening NO (r2 = -0.09) and short-term 15 min aggregations. Seasonal and diurnal characterizations show that roadside PM2.5 (mass) measurements do not have a relationship with local traffic volumes, leading us to conclude that PM2.5 mass is more tied to regional sources and meteorological conditions. As epidemiology and personal exposure assessment research aims to study health impacts and pollutant levels encountered by pedestrians, bicyclists, those waiting for transit, and other road users, these results show when traffic volumes alone can be a reliable proxy for exposure and when this approach is not warranted.

  19. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries.

    PubMed

    Thevenon, Florian; Graham, Neil D; Chiaradia, Massimo; Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2011-12-15

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (>100 μg Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. PMID:22047737

  20. Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China. PMID:24083613

  1. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related a...

  2. Combining a road pollution dispersion model with GIS to determine carbon monoxide concentration in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Pantaleoni, Eva

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop an air pollution model that is independent from pollution monitoring sites and highly accurate through space and time. Total carbon monoxide concentration is computed with the use of traffic flow data, vehicle speed and dimensions, emission rates, wind speed, and temperature. The data are interpolated using a geographic information system universal kriging technique, and the end results produce state level air pollution maps with high local accuracy. The model is validated against Environment Protection Agency (EPA) pollution data. Overall, the model has 71 % agreement with EPA, overestimating values of carbon monoxide for less than 1 ppm. The model has three advantages over already assessed air pollution models. First, it is completely independent of any air pollution monitoring stations; thus, possible temporary or permanent unreliability or lack of the data is avoided. Second, being based on a 5,710 traffic count network, the problem of remote places coverage is avoided. Third, it is based on a straightforward equation, where minimal preprocessing of traffic and climatic data is required. PMID:22760791

  3. Traffic Flow Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Vincent G.

    1981-01-01

    Two examples are given of ways traffic engineers estimate traffic flow. The first, Floating Car Method, involves some basic ideas and the notion of relative velocity. The second, Maximum Traffic Flow, is viewed to involve simple applications of calculus. The material provides insight into specialized applications of mathematics. (MP)

  4. Traffic placement policies for a multi-band network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maly, Kurt J.; Foudriat, E. C.; Game, David; Mukkamala, R.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Recently protocols were introduced that enable the integration of synchronous traffic (voice or video) and asynchronous traffic (data) and extend the size of local area networks without loss in speed or capacity. One of these is DRAMA, a multiband protocol based on broadband technology. It provides dynamic allocation of bandwidth among clusters of nodes in the total network. A number of traffic placement policies for such networks are proposed and evaluated. Metrics used for performance evaluation include average network access delay, degree of fairness of access among the nodes, and network throughput. The feasibility of the DRAMA protocol is established through simulation studies. DRAMA provides effective integration of synchronous and asychronous traffic due to its ability to separate traffic types. Under the suggested traffic placement policies, the DRAMA protocol is shown to handle diverse loads, mixes of traffic types, and numbers of nodes, as well as modifications to the network structure and momentary traffic overloads.

  5. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  6. Regional and local contributions to ambient non-methane volatile organic compounds at a polluted rural/coastal site in Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Wang, T.; Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Kwok, Y. H.; Li, Y. S.

    Identification of major sources of airborne pollutants and their contribution to pollutant loadings are critical in developing effective pollution control and mitigation strategies. In this study, a comprehensive dataset of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) collected from August 2001 to December 2002 at a polluted rural/coastal site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is analyzed to assess the relative contributions of major pollution sources to ambient NMVOC mixing ratios. A unique approach based on emission ratios of individual chemical species was used to classify the bulk air samples in order to apportion regional and local source contributions to the measured mixing ratios. The collected air samples fell into four major groups, including air masses from the inner PRD region and Hong Kong (HK) urban area. To estimate the source apportionment of NMVOCs, a principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores receptor model was applied to the classified data points. The results indicate that the regional and local source contributions to ambient NMVOC levels at the site were significantly different due to the differences in local versus regional energy use and industrial activities. For air masses originating from HK, vehicular emissions accounted for approximately 39% of the total NMVOC levels, followed by industrial emissions (35%), gasoline evaporation (14%) and commercial/domestic liquefied petroleum gas/natural gas use (12%). By contrast, for air masses originating from the PRD the industrial emissions accounted for 43% of the total NMVOC burden, followed by vehicular emissions (32%) and biomass burning (25%). In particular, the higher regional contribution of biomass burning found in this study as compared to existing emission inventories suggests that further efforts are necessary to refine the emission inventories of NMVOCs in the PRD region.

  7. Nurses join pollution fight.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Catharine

    2016-08-10

    Most of us are aware of outdoor air pollution: spend time in any traffic-clogged street, and you can taste the chemicals. Even spring days in the countryside can be spoiled by ozone haze. But a report published earlier this year by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) revealed that air pollution is much more than an inconvenience - it is a major health risk. PMID:27507373

  8. A Novel Approach in Quantifying the Effect of Urban Design Features on Local-Scale Air Pollution in Central Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Miskell, Georgia; Salmond, Jennifer; Longley, Ian; Dirks, Kim N

    2015-08-01

    Differences in urban design features may affect emission and dispersion patterns of air pollution at local-scales within cities. However, the complexity of urban forms, interdependence of variables, and temporal and spatial variability of processes make it difficult to quantify determinants of local-scale air pollution. This paper uses a combination of dense measurements and a novel approach to land-use regression (LUR) modeling to identify key controls on concentrations of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at a local-scale within a central business district (CBD). Sixty-two locations were measured over 44 days in Auckland, New Zealand at high density (study area 0.15 km(2)). A local-scale LUR model was developed, with seven variables identified as determinants based on standard model criteria. A novel method for improving standard LUR design was developed using two independent data sets (at local and "city" scales) to generate improved accuracy in predictions and greater confidence in results. This revised multiscale LUR model identified three urban design variables (intersection, proximity to a bus stop, and street width) as having the more significant determination on local-scale air quality, and had improved adaptability between data sets. PMID:26151151

  9. Modeling Application Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, Ismet; King, Thomas; Mengi, Cem

    Communication networks require a deep understanding of the source of generated traffic, i.e., the application. A multitude number of applications exist that generate different types of traffic, for example web, peer-to-peer, voice, and video traffic. Within the scope of performance analysis of protocols for communication networks, modeling and generating of such traffic is essential to achieve accurate and credible results. This requires that the most relevant aspects are captured by analyzing the traffic and subsequently properly represented in the application model.

  10. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 aerosol collected during CAREBeijing-2007: an effect of traffic restriction on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Huang, R.-J.; Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, S. S. H.; Zhu, T.; Tian, L.

    2015-03-01

    Thirty water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid were determined as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 samples collected during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2007 (CAREBeijing-2007) in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during summer. PM2.5 samples collected with or without traffic restriction in Beijing are selected to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on air pollution reduction. The average concentrations of the total quantified bifunctional organic compounds (TQBOCs), total fatty acids and benzoic acid during the entire sampling period were 1184±241, 597±159 and 1496±511 ng m-3 in Peking University (PKU), and 1050±303, 475±114 and 1278±372 ng m-3 in Yufa, Beijing. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant dicarboxylic acid at PKU and Yufa followed by phthalic acid (Ph). A strong even carbon number predominance with the highest level at stearic acid (C18:0), followed by palmitic acid (C16:0) was found for fatty acids. According to the back trajectories modeling results, the air masses were found to originate mainly from the northeast, passing over the southeast or south of Beijing (heavily populated, urbanized and industrialized areas), during heavier pollution events, whereas they are mainly from the north or northwest sector (mountain areas without serious anthropogenic pollution sources) during less pollution events. The data with wind only from the same sector (minimizing the difference from regional contribution) but with and without traffic restriction in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on the reduction of local air pollution in Beijing. The results suggested

  11. Integrated traffic system

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, H. ); Allen, R.; Stewart, S.; Hayto, S. )

    1990-11-01

    The traffic congestion on our roads today is becoming a critical problem. There is increased fuel consumption as cars wait along poorly timed arterials. Safety is threatened as poor traffic flow leads to collisions. This paper reports that Transport Canada and the Ministry of Transportation Ontario has developed an integrated traffic system (ITS). The system is designed to enable the optimization of traffic flow on existing roadways. The ITS system contains a data-base management system for traffic data (including accidents, roadway volumes, and signal timing details) and links this data base to the traffic analysis programs. This will ease the data management situation within the municipalities and standardize the traffic operations and reduce duplication of computerization development efforts.

  12. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  13. Shanghai alleviates noise pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Runling

    1983-07-14

    ''Environmental noise is now under control in Shanghai, the level of environmental noise is basically holding steady, and in some areas industrial and traffic noise has decreased.'' These were the conclusions of research by Hong Zonghui (3163 1350 6540) and Wang Shixian (3769 6164 6343) of Tongji University's Acoustics Laboratory, as put forward at a recent public academic lecture at Tongji University. In order to eliminate noise from the environment, Tongji University in the early 1970's began conducting investigations and research on noise pollution and its control together with concerned units in this city. After tests in a network of 2,117 points throughout the city, they determined that the most common form of noise pollution is traffic, which accounts for 50 percent of all noise. Since 1979, this city has adopted successive measures in the area of traffic control in order to eliminate the source of noise. Traffic noise has now dropped about 3 decibels in the city. This research report also pointed out that according to the results of regional environmental noise tests, this city does not meet the noise pollution standards set by the state. Tugboats on the Suzhou He blow their whistles late at night, and the noise at riverside homes can reach 82 decibels; the Fangua Lane residential district is close to a railroad where engine noise can reach 89 decibels and affect the residents' health. In addition, rather serious noise pollution is produced by more than 300 handicraft, light industry, textile, and electrical machinery plants.

  14. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  15. The transport sector as a source of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvile, R. N.; Hutchinson, E. J.; Mindell, J. S.; Warren, R. F.

    Transport first became a significant source of air pollution after the problems of sooty smog from coal combustion had largely been solved in western European and North American cities. Since then, emissions from road, air, rail and water transport have been partly responsible for acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Most recently, road traffic exhaust emissions have been the cause of much concern about the effects of urban air quality on human health and tropospheric ozone production. This article considers the variety of transport impacts on the atmospheric environment by reviewing three examples: urban road traffic and human health, aircraft emissions and global atmospheric change, and the contribution of sulphur emissions from ships to acid deposition. Each example has associated with it a different level of uncertainty, such that a variety of policy responses to the problems are appropriate, from adaptation through precautionary emissions abatement to cost-benefit analysis and optimised abatement. There is some evidence that the current concern for road transport contribution to urban air pollution is justified, but aircraft emissions should also give cause for concern given that air traffic is projected to continue to increase. Emissions from road traffic are being reduced substantially by the introduction of technology especially three-way catalysts and also, most recently, by local traffic reduction measures especially in western European cities. In developing countries and Eastern Europe, however, there remains the possibility of great increase in car ownership and use, and it remains to be seen whether these countries will adopt measures now to prevent transport-related air pollution problems becoming severe later in the 21st Century.

  16. Consequences of long-term severe industrial pollution for aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools in northern taiga forests at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Zverev, Vitali; Bergman, Igor; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-12-01

    Boreal coniferous forests act as an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The overall tree carbon (C) sink in the forests of Europe has increased during the past decades, especially due to management and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition; however, industrial atmospheric pollution, primarily sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, still negatively affect forest biomass production at different spatial scales. We report local and regional changes in forest aboveground biomass, C and N concentrations in plant tissues, and C and N pools caused by long-term atmospheric emissions from a large point source, the nickel-copper smelter in Monchegorsk, in north-western Russia. An increase in pollution load (assessed as Cu concentration in forest litter) caused C to increase in foliage but C remained unchanged in wood, while N decreased in foliage and increased in wood, demonstrating strong effects of pollution on resource translocation between green and woody tissues. The aboveground C and N pools were primarily governed by plant biomass, which strongly decreased with an increase in pollution load. In our study sites (located 1.6-39.7 km from the smelter) living aboveground plant biomass was 76 to 4888 gm(-2), and C and N pools ranged 35-2333 g C m(-2) and 0.5-35.1 g N m(-2), respectively. We estimate that the aboveground plant biomass is reduced due to chronic exposure to industrial air pollution over an area of about 107,200 km2, and the total (aboveground and belowground) loss of phytomass C stock amounts to 4.24×10(13) g C. Our results emphasize the need to account for the overall impact of industrial polluters on ecosystem C and N pools when assessing the C and N dynamics in northern boreal forests because of the marked long-term negative effects of their emissions on structure and productivity of plant communities. PMID:26254064

  17. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Leung, L.; DeMott, P. J.; Comstock, J. M.; Singh, B.; Rosenfeld, D.; Tomlinson, J. M.; White, A. B.; Prather, K. A.; Minnis, P.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter/spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust or dust/biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust/biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB06 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including

  18. Estimated long-term outdoor air pollution concentrations in a cohort study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Fischer, Paul; Brandt, Piet A. van den; Brunekreef, Bert

    Several recent studies associated long-term exposure to air pollution with increased mortality. An ongoing cohort study, the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS), was used to study the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and mortality. Following on a previous exposure assessment study in the NLCS, we improved the exposure assessment methods. Long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), nitrogen oxide (NO), black smoke (BS), and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) was estimated. Exposure at each home address ( N=21 868) was considered as a function of a regional, an urban and a local component. The regional component was estimated using inverse distance weighed interpolation of measurement data from regional background sites in a national monitoring network. Regression models with urban concentrations as dependent variables, and number of inhabitants in different buffers and land use variables, derived with a Geographic Information System (GIS), as predictor variables were used to estimate the urban component. The local component was assessed using a GIS and a digital road network with linked traffic intensities. Traffic intensity on the nearest road and on the nearest major road, and the sum of traffic intensity in a buffer of 100 m around each home address were assessed. Further, a quantitative estimate of the local component was estimated. The regression models to estimate the urban component explained 67%, 46%, 49% and 35% of the variances of NO 2, NO, BS, and SO 2 concentrations, respectively. Overall regression models which incorporated the regional, urban and local component explained 84%, 44%, 59% and 56% of the variability in concentrations for NO 2, NO, BS and SO 2, respectively. We were able to develop an exposure assessment model using GIS methods and traffic intensities that explained a large part of the variations in outdoor air pollution concentrations.

  19. PM10 source apportionment in a Swiss Alpine valley impacted by highway traffic.

    PubMed

    Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Thimmaiah, Devraj; Künzli, Nino; Hopke, Philip K; Phuleria, Harish C

    2013-09-01

    Although trans-Alpine highway traffic exhaust is one of the major sources of air pollution along the highway valleys of the Alpine regions, little is known about its contribution to residential exposure and impact on respiratory health. In this paper, source-specific contributions to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm (PM10) and their spatio-temporal distribution were determined for later use in a pediatric asthma panel study in an Alpine village. PM10 sources were identified by positive matrix factorization using chemical trace elements, elemental, and organic carbon from daily PM10 filters collected between November 2007 and June 2009 at seven locations within the village. Of the nine sources identified, four were directly road traffic-related: traffic exhaust, road dust, tire and brake wear, and road salt contributing 16 %, 8 %, 1 %, and 2 % to annual PM10 concentrations, respectively. They showed a clear dependence with distance to highway. Additional contributions were identified from secondary particles (27 %), biomass burning (18 %), railway (11 %), and mineral dust including a local construction site (13 %). Comparing these source contributions with known source-specific biomarkers (e.g., levoglucosan, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) showed high agreement with biomass burning, moderate with secondary particles (in winter), and lowest agreement with traffic exhaust. PMID:23608980

  20. Assessment of Traffic Noise on Highway Passing from Urban Agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kori, Chandan; Kumar, Manoj; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Assessment of traffic noise pollution in developing countries is complex due to heterogeneity in traffic conditions like traffic volume, road width, honking, etc. To analyze the impact of such variables, a research study was carried out on a national highway passing from an urban agglomeration. Traffic volume and noise levels (L10, Lmin, Lmax, Leq and L90) were measured during morning and evening peak hours. Contribution of noise by individual vehicle was estimated using passenger car noise unit. Extent of noise pollution and impact of noisy vehicles were estimated using noise pollution level and traffic noise index, respectively. Noise levels were observed to be above the prescribed Indian and International standards. As per audio spectrum analysis of traffic noise, honking contributed an additional 3-4 dB(A) noise. Based on data analysis, a positive relationship was observed between noise levels and honking while negative correlation was observed between noise levels and road width. The study suggests that proper monitoring and analysis of traffic data is required for better planning of noise abatement measures.

  1. Understanding how roadside concentrations of NOx are influenced by the background levels, traffic density, and meteorological conditions using Boosted Regression Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayegh, Arwa; Tate, James E.; Ropkins, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered principal traffic-related pollutants affecting human health. This study investigates the influence of background concentrations of NOx, traffic density, and prevailing meteorological conditions on roadside concentrations of NOx at UK urban, open motorway, and motorway tunnel sites using the statistical approach Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). BRT models have been fitted using hourly concentration, traffic, and meteorological data for each site. The models predict, rank, and visualise the relationship between model variables and roadside NOx concentrations. A strong relationship between roadside NOx and monitored local background concentrations is demonstrated. Relationships between roadside NOx and other model variables have been shown to be strongly influenced by the quality and resolution of background concentrations of NOx, i.e. if it were based on monitored data or modelled prediction. The paper proposes a direct method of using site-specific fundamental diagrams for splitting traffic data into four traffic states: free-flow, busy-flow, congested, and severely congested. Using BRT models, the density of traffic (vehicles per kilometre) was observed to have a proportional influence on the concentrations of roadside NOx, with different fitted regression line slopes for the different traffic states. When other influences are conditioned out, the relationship between roadside concentrations and ambient air temperature suggests NOx concentrations reach a minimum at around 22 °C with high concentrations at low ambient air temperatures which could be associated to restricted atmospheric dispersion and/or to changes in road traffic exhaust emission characteristics at low ambient air temperatures. This paper uses BRT models to study how different critical factors, and their relative importance, influence the variation of roadside NOx concentrations. The paper

  2. A CFD study on the effectiveness of trees to disperse road traffic emissions at a city scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanjean, A. P. R.; Hinchliffe, G.; McMullan, W. A.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effectiveness of trees at dispersing road traffic emissions on a city scale. CFD simulations of air-pollutant concentrations were performed using the OpenFOAM software platform using the k-ε model. Results were validated against the CODASC wind tunnel database before being applied to a LIDAR database of buildings and trees representing the City of Leicester (UK). Most other CFD models in the literature typically use idealised buildings to model wind flow and pollution dispersion. However, the methodology used in this study uses real buildings and trees data from LIDAR to reconstruct a 3D representation of Leicester City Centre. It focuses on a 2 × 2 km area which is on a scale larger than those usually used in other CFD studies. Furthermore, the primary focus of this study is on the interaction of trees with wind flow dynamics. It was found that in effect, trees have a regionally beneficial impact on road traffic emissions by increasing turbulence and reducing ambient concentrations of road traffic emissions by 7% at pedestrian height on average. This was an important result given that previous studies generally concluded that trees trapped pollution by obstructing wind flow in street canyons. Therefore, this study is novel both in its methodology and subsequent results, highlighting the importance of combining local and regional scale models for assessing the impact of trees in urban planning.

  3. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Batterman, Stuart; Bereznicki, Sarah; Burke, Janet; Dionisio, Kathie; Garcia, Val; Heist, David; Perry, Steve; Snyder, Michelle; Vette, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA). Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined “mini-grids” of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon) were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area. PMID:25166917

  4. Air quality modeling in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS).

    PubMed

    Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Batterman, Stuart; Bereznicki, Sarah; Burke, Janet; Dionisio, Kathie; Garcia, Val; Heist, David; Perry, Steve; Snyder, Michelle; Vette, Alan

    2014-09-01

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA). Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined "mini-grids" of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon) were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area. PMID:25166917

  5. Sputum induced cellularity in a group of traffic policemen.

    PubMed

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Musti, Marina; Izzo, Carmelina; Esposito, Luisa Maria; Foschino Barbaro, Maria Pia; Resta, Onofrio; Spanevello, Antonio

    2006-08-15

    It has been demonstrated that a group of workers (e.g. waste handlers) daily exposed to a traffic related air pollution present airway inflammation in term of an increase of neutrophilic inflammation. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of airways inflammation detected by induced sputum in a population of traffic policemen (TP) in the city of Bari, compared to a group of healthy subjects (HS) without any occupational exposure to inhalation of traffic-related air pollution. Twelve non smokers, non atopics, healthy traffic policemen with a history of exposure to airway pollution and 12 HS underwent sputum induction. TP show a statistically significant increase in the percentage neutrophil cell count (median and IQ range) compared to the HS (65 and 13.5 vs. 40.5 and 9.5; p<0.01). In conclusion we have found that policemen chronically exposed to air pollution presented airway neutrophilic inflammation and the results of this pilot study could be strictly considered for the long term effect of a traffic pollution in airway inflammation and the lung function. PMID:16687164

  6. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  7. Computers in Traffic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, O. P.

    1983-01-01

    Traffic education covers basic road skills, legal/insurance aspects, highway code, accident causation/prevention, and vehicle maintenance. Microcomputer applications to traffic education are outlined, followed by a selected example of programs currently available (focusing on drill/practice, simulation, problem-solving, data manipulation, games,…

  8. Regulation of air traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DEVALUEZ

    1922-01-01

    The ways in which the international and internal French air traffic accords interact with each other is outlined in this report. The principal questions covered by the present legislation are as follows: 1) Conditions of safety which must be fulfilled by aircraft; 2) Licenses for members of the crew; 3) Traffic rules to be observed by French and foreign aircraft.

  9. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. The Traffic Light Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic lights are an important part of the transportation infrastructure, regulating traffic flow and maintaining safety when crossing busy streets. When they go awry or become nonfunctional, a great deal of havoc and danger can be present. During power outages, the street lights go out all over the affected area. It would be good to be able to…

  11. Trafficability and workability of soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trafficability and workability are soil capabilities supporting operations of agricultural machinery. Trafficability is a soil's capability to support agricultural traffic without degrading soils and ecosystems. Workability is a soil capability supporting tillage. Agriculture is associated with mech...

  12. Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid Leukemia (CALM) Protein: Localization in Endocytic-coated Pits, Interactions with Clathrin, and the Impact of Overexpression on Clathrin-mediated Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Tebar, Francesc; Bohlander, Stefan K.; Sorkin, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    The clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM) gene encodes a putative homologue of the clathrin assembly synaptic protein AP180. Hence the biochemical properties, the subcellular localization, and the role in endocytosis of a CALM protein were studied. In vitro binding and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that the clathrin heavy chain is the major binding partner of CALM. The bulk of cellular CALM was associated with the membrane fractions of the cell and localized to clathrin-coated areas of the plasma membrane. In the membrane fraction, CALM was present at near stoichiometric amounts relative to clathrin. To perform structure–function analysis of CALM, we engineered chimeric fusion proteins of CALM and its fragments with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP–CALM was targeted to the plasma membrane–coated pits and also found colocalized with clathrin in the Golgi area. High levels of expression of GFP–CALM or its fragments with clathrin-binding activity inhibited the endocytosis of transferrin and epidermal growth factor receptors and altered the steady-state distribution of the mannose-6-phosphate receptor in the cell. In addition, GFP–CALM overexpression caused the loss of clathrin accumulation in the trans-Golgi network area, whereas the localization of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 in the trans-Golgi network remained unaffected. The ability of the GFP-tagged fragments of CALM to affect clathrin-mediated processes correlated with the targeting of the fragments to clathrin-coated areas and their clathrin-binding capacities. Clathrin–CALM interaction seems to be regulated by multiple contact interfaces. The C-terminal part of CALM binds clathrin heavy chain, although the full-length protein exhibited maximal ability for interaction. Altogether, the data suggest that CALM is an important component of coated pit internalization machinery, possibly involved in the regulation of clathrin recruitment to the membrane and/or the

  13. Evaluation and analysis of noise levels at traffic intersections of Nagpur city, India.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Popat, Rishabh; Pisode, Mayur; Sharma, Asheesh; Manoj, Kumar; Chakrabarti, T; Gupta, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor and assess the noise levels at traffic intersections in Napgur city under heterogenic traffic activities. For this, traffic volume and noise level were measured at intersections on highways, major roads andring road during morning and evening peak hours. Traffic volume was categorized in light, medium and heavy vehicles while noise levels were measured for Lmin, Lmax, Leq , L10 and L90. Equivalent noise was observed in the range of 71.3 to 79.3 dB(A) at the traffic intersections. Due to heterogenic traffic conditions and activities at the intersection like honking, idling, gear noise, bearing noise, breaking noise, tyre-road noise and exhaust noise, no correlation was established between traffic volume and observed noise levels except West High Court road. A strong correlation was found at West High Court road due to controlled traffic flow and less impact of heavy vehicles. Impact of noisy vehicles on general traffic was also assessed at the traffic intersections based on noise pollution levels and traffic noise index. The study suggests that control measures are required at the traffic intersections to minimize noise pollution levels. PMID:25464696

  14. Evaluation and analysis of noise levels at traffic intersections of Nagpur city, India.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Popat, Rishabh; Pisode, Mayur; Sharma, Asheesh; Manoj, Kumar; Chakrabarti, T; Gupta, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor and assess the noise levels at traffic intersections in Napgur city under heterogenic traffic activities. For this, traffic volume and noise level were measured at intersections on highways, major roads andring road during morning and evening peak hours. Traffic volume was categorized in light, medium and heavy vehicles while noise levels were measured for Lmin, Lmax, Leq , L10 and L90. Equivalent noise was observed in the range of 71.3 to 79.3 dB(A) at the traffic intersections. Due to heterogenic traffic conditions and activities at the intersection like honking, idling, gear noise, bearing noise, breaking noise, tyre-road noise and exhaust noise, no correlation was established between traffic volume and observed noise levels except West High Court road. A strong correlation was found at West High Court road due to controlled traffic flow and less impact of heavy vehicles. Impact of noisy vehicles on general traffic was also assessed at the traffic intersections based on noise pollution levels and traffic noise index. The study suggests that control measures are required at the traffic intersections to minimize noise pollution levels. PMID:25508327

  15. Application of alternative spatiotemporal metrics of ambient air pollution exposure in a time-series epidemiological study in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Mulholland, James; Isakov, Vlad; Özkaynak, Halûk; Chang, Howard H; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige E

    2013-01-01

    Exposure error in studies of ambient air pollution and health that use city-wide measures of exposure may be substantial for pollutants that exhibit spatiotemporal variability. Alternative spatiotemporal metrics of exposure for traffic-related and regional pollutants were applied in a time-series study of ambient air pollution and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits in Atlanta, GA, USA. Exposure metrics included daily central site monitoring for particles and gases; daily spatially refined ambient concentrations obtained from regional background monitors, local-scale dispersion, and hybrid air quality models; and spatially refined ambient exposures from population exposure models. Health risk estimates from Poisson models using the different exposure metrics were compared. We observed stronger associations, particularly for traffic-related pollutants, when using spatially refined ambient concentrations compared with a conventional central site exposure assignment approach. For some relationships, estimates of spatially refined ambient population exposures showed slightly stronger associations than corresponding spatially refined ambient concentrations. Using spatially refined pollutant metrics, we identified socioeconomic disparities in concentration-response functions that were not observed when using central site data. In some cases, spatially refined pollutant metrics identified associations with health that were not observed using measurements from the central site. Complexity and challenges in incorporating modeled pollutant estimates in time-series studies are discussed. PMID:23963512

  16. ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE AND POLLUTANT DISPERSION NEAR ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objectives of this investigation are: (1) to determine the time and space scales of the eddies generated by the traffic, (2) to study the effects of traffic-induced turbulence on the near-field dispersion of pollutants, (3) to evaluate several commonly used highway air ...

  17. Fast Drawing of Traffic Sign Using Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Q.; Tan, B.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS) becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare event of having a

  18. Influence of local air pollution on the deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate to a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravek, A.; Stella, P.; Foken, T.; Trebs, I.

    2015-01-01

    Dry deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is known to have a phytotoxic impact on plants under photochemical smog conditions, but it may also lead to higher productivity and threaten species richness of vulnerable ecosystems in remote regions. However, underlying mechanisms or controlling factors for PAN deposition are not well understood and studies on dry deposition of PAN are limited. In this study, we investigate the impact of PAN deposition on a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem situated at the edge of an urban and industrialized region in Germany. PAN mixing ratios were measured within a 3.5 months summer to early autumn period. In addition, PAN fluxes were determined with the modified Bowen ratio technique for a selected period. The evaluation of both stomatal and non-stomatal deposition pathways was used to model PAN deposition over the entire summer-autumn period. We found that air masses at the site were influenced by two contrasting pollution regimes, which led to median diurnal PAN mixing ratios ranging between 50 and 300 ppt during unpolluted and between 200 and 600 ppt during polluted episodes. The measured PAN fluxes showed a clear diurnal cycle with maximal deposition fluxes of ~-0.1 nmol m-2 s-1 (corresponding to a deposition velocity of 0.3 cm s-1) during daytime and a significant non-stomatal contribution was found. The ratio of PAN to ozone deposition velocities was found to be ~0.1, which is much larger than assumed by current deposition models. The modelled PAN flux over the entire period revealed that PAN deposition over an entire day was 333 μg m-2 d-1 under unpolluted and 518 μg m-2 d-1 under polluted episodes. Additionally, thermochemical decomposition PAN deposition accounted for 32% under unpolluted episodes and 22% under polluted episodes of the total atmospheric PAN loss. However, the impact of PAN deposition as a nitrogen source to the nutrient-poor grassland was estimated to be only minor, under both unpolluted and

  19. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 using PMF and CMB: Comparison of the Effects of Transboundary and Local Pollutions in the Western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, A.; Sugata, S.

    2014-12-01

    PM2.5 has become one of the most important aspects in recent air pollution issues. In Japan, the achievement rate of the environmental quality standard for PM2.5 is in a worse situation so far (43.3% for ambient air monitoring station, 33.3% for roadside air pollution monitoring station in FY2012). Therefore, source apportionment will be essential to policy and decision making for improving the PM2.5 pollution. Since 2011, we started the field monitoring study called "Current Status Elucidation and Source Contribution Assessment of PM2.5 Pollution in Collaboration with Environmental Research Institutes across Japan" which was granted by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (5B-1101) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan. PM2.5 samples were collected at 14 sites during four campaigns. Chemical analyses of carbonaceous compounds, ionic species, and elements were conducted. Source apportionment was performed by using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF, EPA PMF 3.0) and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB, EPA CMB 8.1) models. PMF model resolved a six-factor solution. Each of these factors has a distinctive grouping of species that can be associated with a specific source sector (F1: Biomass burning, F2: Sulfate + Oil combustion, F3: Industry, F4: Nitrate, F5: Sulfate + Coal combustion, and F6: Chloride). In the winter campaign (Jan. 24 to Feb. 7) in 2013, F5 accounted for 50% of total PM2.5 mass at Tsushima (34.2°N 129.3°E, the westernmost remote site). The contribution of F5 tended to decrease toward the eastern sites (27% at Fukuoka (33.5°N 130.5°E, urban site), 22% at Higashi-Osaka (34.7°N 135.6°E, urban site)). CMB model showed similar results in the same campaign. Coal combustion accounted for 49%, 30%, and 22% of total PM2.5 mass at Tsushima, Fukuoka, and Higashi-Osaka, respectively (Fig.1). On the other hand, at urban sites, higher contributions from local sources such as secondary nitrate (16% at Fukuoka, 21% at Higashi-Osaka), diesel fuel

  20. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Özkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue. PMID:23632992

  1. Noise measurements as proxies for traffic parameters in monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Can, A; Dekoninck, L; Rademaker, M; Van Renterghem, T; De Baets, B; Botteldooren, D

    2011-12-01

    The present research describes how microphones could be used as proxies for traffic parameter measurements for the estimation of airborne pollutant emissions. We consider two distinct measurement campaigns of 7 and 12 days, at two different locations along the urban ring road in Antwerp, Belgium, where sound pressure levels and traffic parameters were measured simultaneously. Noise indicators are calculated and used to construct models to estimate traffic parameters. It is found that relying on different statistical levels and selecting specific sound frequencies permits an accurate estimation of traffic intensities and mean vehicle speeds, both for light and heavy vehicles. Estimations of R(2) values ranging between 0.81 and 0.92 are obtained, depending on the location and traffic parameters. Furthermore, the usefulness of these estimated traffic parameters in a monitoring strategy is assessed. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions are calculated with the airborne pollutant emission model Artemis. The Artemis outputs fed with directly measured and estimated traffic parameters (based on noise measurements) are very similar. Finally, a method is proposed to enable using a model calibrated at one location at another location without the need for new calibration, making it straightforward to include new measurement locations in a monitoring network. PMID:22000916

  2. Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: Key findings and future recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Dionisio, Kathie L.; Burke, Janet; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Hodas, Natasha; Rich, David Q.; Turpin, Barbara J.; Jones, Rena R.; Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Kumar, Naresh; Beevers, Sean D.; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution use measurements from central-site monitors as their exposure estimate. However, measurements from central-site monitors may lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture exposure variability in a study population, thus resulting in exposure error and biased estimates. Articles in this dedicated issue examine various approaches to predict or assign exposures to ambient pollutants. These methods include: combining existing central-site pollution measurements with local- and/or regional-scale air quality models to create new or “hybrid” models for pollutant exposure estimates, and using exposure models to account for factors such as infiltration of pollutants indoors and human activity patterns. Key findings from these articles are summarized to provide lessons learned and recommendations for additional research on improving exposure estimation approaches for future epidemiological studies. In summary, when compared to use of central-site monitoring data, the enhanced spatial resolution of air quality or exposure models can have an impact on resultant health effect estimates, especially for pollutants derived from local sources such as traffic (e.g. EC, CO, and NOx). In addition, the optimal exposure estimation approach also depends upon the epidemiological study design. We recommend that future research develop pollutant-specific infiltration data (including for PM species), and improve existing data on human time-activity patterns, and exposure to local source (e.g. traffic), in order to enhance human exposure modeling estimates. We also recommend comparing how various approaches to exposure estimation characterize relationships between multiple pollutants in time and space, and investigating the impact of improved exposure estimates in chronic health studies. PMID:24084756

  3. Percolation transition in dynamical traffic network with evolving critical bottlenecks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daqing; Fu, Bowen; Wang, Yunpeng; Lu, Guangquan; Berezin, Yehiel; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    A critical phenomenon is an intrinsic feature of traffic dynamics, during which transition between isolated local flows and global flows occurs. However, very little attention has been given to the question of how the local flows in the roads are organized collectively into a global city flow. Here we characterize this organization process of traffic as “traffic percolation,” where the giant cluster of local flows disintegrates when the second largest cluster reaches its maximum. We find in real-time data of city road traffic that global traffic is dynamically composed of clusters of local flows, which are connected by bottleneck links. This organization evolves during a day with different bottleneck links appearing in different hours, but similar in the same hours in different days. A small improvement of critical bottleneck roads is found to benefit significantly the global traffic, providing a method to improve city traffic with low cost. Our results may provide insights on the relation between traffic dynamics and percolation, which can be useful for efficient transportation, epidemic control, and emergency evacuation. PMID:25552558

  4. Percolation transition in dynamical traffic network with evolving critical bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daqing

    A critical phenomenon is an intrinsic feature of traffic dynamics, during which transition between isolated local flows and global flows occurs. However, very little attention has been given to the question of how the local flows in the roads are organized collectively into a global city flow. Here we characterize this organization process of traffic as ``traffic percolation,'' where the giant cluster of local flows disintegrates when the second largest cluster reaches its maximum. We find in real-time data of city road traffic that global traffic is dynamically composed of clusters of local flows, which are connected by bottleneck links. This organization evolves during a day with different bottleneck links appearing in different hours, but similar in the same hours in different days. A small improvement of critical bottleneck roads is found to benefit significantly the global traffic, providing a method to improve city traffic with low cost. Our results may provide insights on the relation between traffic dynamics and percolation, which can be useful for efficient transportation, epidemic control, and emergency evacuation.

  5. [Current data on atmospheric pollutions].

    PubMed

    Festy, B; Petit-Coviaux, F; Le Moullec, Y

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutions (AP) are very important for human health and ecological equilibrium. They may be natural or anthropogenic and in this later case they can appear outdoor or indoor. Urban air pollution is the most known form of AP. Its main sources are industries, individual and collective heating and now mainly automobile traffic in most cities. Classical AP indicators are SO2, particles, NOx, CO and Pb measured in networks. Important factors of AP are amounts of pollutants emitted and local climatic and meteorological characteristics. Health effects of AP peaks and of AP background levels are not well known. But generally, mean AP levels of SO2 and particles decreased in the last years in most towns as the consequence of collective actions on the three main sources of AP and on fuels, emission and immission levels; but more is wanted about motor-cars. Progress are necessary for limitation of three major ecological risks: "acid-rain" (SO2 and NOx derivatives, ozone,...) which participates in lake and forest attacks; "green house" effects whose air CO2 concentration increase is the main responsible, and stratospheric ozone depletion mainly due to freons (CFC); the consequences of these two last phenomena are not well known but ecological and health risk exist. Besides, indoor air pollution (IAP) is very important because we live more than 20 h a day indoor. IAP may be occupational (a lot of chemical or biological agents) or not. In the later case air pollutants are very various: CO, NOx and particles from heating or cooking, formaldehyde from wood glue, plywood or urea-formol foams, radon and derivatives in some granitic countries, odd jobs products, cosmetics, aero-allergens of chemical or biological origins, microbes,... Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is also an important pollutant complex. Risks of IAP are real or potential: acute risk is obvious for CO, aero-allergens, formaldehyde, NOx,...); irritations are produced by ETS, formaldehyde, solvants

  6. The Traffic Management Advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedell, William; Erzberger, Heinz; Neuman, Frank

    1990-01-01

    The traffic management advisor (TMA) is comprised of algorithms, a graphical interface, and interactive tools for controlling the flow of air traffic into the terminal area. The primary algorithm incorporated in it is a real-time scheduler which generates efficient landing sequences and landing times for arrivals within about 200 n.m. from touchdown. A unique feature of the TMA is its graphical interface that allows the traffic manager to modify the computer-generated schedules for specific aircraft while allowing the automatic scheduler to continue generating schedules for all other aircraft. The graphical interface also provides convenient methods for monitoring the traffic flow and changing scheduling parameters during real-time operation.

  7. Air Traffic Network Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The high level requirement of the Air Traffic Network (ATN) project is to provide a mechanism for evaluating the impact of router scheduling modifications on a networks efficiency, without implementing the modifications in the live network.

  8. Data-driven nonlinear optimisation of a simple air pollution dispersion model generating high resolution spatiotemporal exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuval; Bekhor, Shlomo; Broday, David M.

    2013-11-01

    Spatially detailed estimation of exposure to air pollutants in the urban environment is needed for many air pollution epidemiological studies. To benefit studies of acute effects of air pollution such exposure maps are required at high temporal resolution. This study introduces nonlinear optimisation framework that produces high resolution spatiotemporal exposure maps. An extensive traffic model output, serving as proxy for traffic emissions, is fitted via a nonlinear model embodying basic dispersion properties, to high temporal resolution routine observations of traffic-related air pollutant. An optimisation problem is formulated and solved at each time point to recover the unknown model parameters. These parameters are then used to produce a detailed concentration map of the pollutant for the whole area covered by the traffic model. Repeating the process for multiple time points results in the spatiotemporal concentration field. The exposure at any location and for any span of time can then be computed by temporal integration of the concentration time series at selected receptor locations for the durations of desired periods. The methodology is demonstrated for NO2 exposure using the output of a traffic model for the greater Tel Aviv area, Israel, and the half-hourly monitoring and meteorological data from the local air quality network. A leave-one-out cross-validation resulted in simulated half-hourly concentrations that are almost unbiased compared to the observations, with a mean error (ME) of 5.2 ppb, normalised mean error (NME) of 32%, 78% of the simulated values are within a factor of two (FAC2) of the observations, and the coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.6. The whole study period integrated exposure estimations are also unbiased compared with their corresponding observations, with ME of 2.5 ppb, NME of 18%, FAC2 of 100% and R2 that equals 0.62.

  9. Ant traffic rules.

    PubMed

    Fourcassié, Vincent; Dussutour, Audrey; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2010-07-15

    Many animals take part in flow-like collective movements. In most species, however, the flow is unidirectional. Ants are one of the rare group of organisms in which flow-like movements are predominantly bidirectional. This adds to the difficulty of the task of maintaining a smooth, efficient movement. Yet, ants seem to fare well at this task. Do they really? And if so, how do such simple organisms succeed in maintaining a smooth traffic flow, when even humans experience trouble with this task? How does traffic in ants compare with that in human pedestrians or vehicles? The experimental study of ant traffic is only a few years old but it has already provided interesting insights into traffic organization and regulation in animals, showing in particular that an ant colony as a whole can be considered as a typical self-organized adaptive system. In this review we will show that the study of ant traffic can not only uncover basic principles of behavioral ecology and evolution in social insects but also provide new insights into the study of traffic systems in general. PMID:20581264

  10. The Effect of Road Traffic Noise on Reaction Time

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Iraj; Zokaei, Mojtaba; Sandrock, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traffic noise is one of the main important sources in urban noise pollution, which causes various physiological and psychological effects that can cause disturbs in performance, sleep disturbances, hearing loss and impact on job performance. This study was conducted to verify the impact of road traffic noise on reaction time in terms of extraversion and sex. Methods: Traffic noise was measured and recorded in 10 arterial streets in Tehran, and then the recorded noise was emitted towards participants in an acoustic room. The participants were 80 (40 cases and 40 controls) students. Personality type was determined by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) questioner. Reaction time before and after exposure to traffic noise was measured. Results: Reaction time before exposure to traffic noise did not differ (P=0.437) significantly between introverts and extraverts. However, it was increased significantly in both groups after exposure to traffic noise (P<0.01). Introvert’s reaction time was more increased than that of extraverts. Conclusion: Traffic noise augmented reaction time of both males and females. This study also revealed that exposure to traffic noise leads to increase in reaction time. PMID:26634199

  11. The comfortable driving model revisited: traffic phases and phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Florian; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-07-01

    We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast them with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides ‘hard’ rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow to a wide moving jam often involves an intermediate transition: first from free flow to synchronized flow and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so-called F → S transition (from free flow to synchronized traffic) is much more likely than a direct F → J transition. The model under consideration has a functional relationship between traffic flow and traffic density. The fundamental hypothesis of the three-phase traffic theory, however, postulates that the steady states of synchronized flow occupy a two-dimensional region in the flow-density plane. Due to the obvious discrepancy between the model investigated here and the postulate of the three-phase traffic theory, the good agreement that we found could not be expected. For a more detailed analysis, we also studied vehicle dynamics at a microscopic level and provide a comparison of real detector data with simulated data of the identical highway segment.

  12. Creating Locally-Resolved Mobile-Source Emissions Inputs for Air Quality Modeling in Support of an Exposure Study in Detroit, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25501000

  13. Creating locally-resolved mobile-source emissions inputs for air quality modeling in support of an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources,are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25587603

  14. Creating locally-resolved mobile-source emissions inputs for air quality modeling in support of an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25501000

  15. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  16. Designing a Decentralized Traffic Information System — AutoNomos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Axel; Hellbrück, Horst; Fischer, Stefan; Hendriks, Björn; Schmidt, Christiane; Fekete, Sándor P.

    We propose a decentralized traffic information system—Auto-Nomos—that is based on a thorough investigation of the properties of traffic and recommends a hierarchical data aggregation and forwarding for providing individualized information and support to road users. Our approach differs from work in the field by consequently applying local rules and local decentralized data processing, which turns out to be a key property of robust and scalable computing systems. We present a flexible VANET middleware that assists the application development by providing generic functionality for traffic applications. We discuss the architectural design of the overall system and provide solutions of important design concepts demonstrating the innovation of the approach.

  17. The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Phil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

  18. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. PMID:22445920

  19. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1–NPP6. Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2–GFP and NPP6–GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER–Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate that the trans-Golgi compartments participate in the Golgi to plastid trafficking and targeting mechanism of NPPs. PMID:27335351

  20. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1-NPP6 Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2-GFP and NPP6-GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER-Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate that the trans-Golgi compartments participate in the Golgi to plastid trafficking and targeting mechanism of NPPs. PMID:27335351

  1. Trace gas composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia: Examining the influence of long-range transport and convection of local pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Traud, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Hoor, P. M.; Neumaier, M.; Oram, D.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schloegl, S.; Sprung, D.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Wernli, H.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2013-12-01

    Between May 2005 and March 2008 the CARIBIC observatory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) was deployed to make atmospheric observations during 21 round-trip flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Manila, the Philippines with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. This nearly 3 year flight series provides us with information about atmospheric composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia during all seasons and was used to investigate seasonal and regional differences in trace gas distributions and the relative influences of long range transport and convected local air masses on composition. The flight route was separated into three different regions having unique characteristics in transport and composition; these were Western Asia (5°E to 70°E), Central Asia (70°E to 100°E) and East Asia (100°E to 125°E). The region over Western Asia was heavily influenced by long range transport of air masses from North America and had elevated levels of NOy and acetone, while the region over East Asia was mostly influenced by convected local (South East Asian) pollution, particularly from biomass/biofuel burning as indicated by high levels of acetonitrile and carbon monoxide. Air masses over Central Asia were found to be influenced by both recently convected air masses from the Indian subcontinent and mid-range transport from Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Elevated levels of propane and other non-methane hydrocarbons, both with and without concommitant elevations in other trace gases (i.e. carbon monoxide, acetonitrile) were a persisent feature of this region in all seasons except summer, and were particularly prominent in fall. Influences on composition over Central Asia were investigated more thoroughly in a case study from a series of flights in October 2006, and elevated levels of pollutants were found to be the result of convective transport of both biomass/biofuel burning and urban emissions from

  2. Phases of scaling and cross-correlation behavior in traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Fullerton, Matthew; Kämpf, Mirko; Beltran-Ruiz, Cristina; Busch, Fritz

    2013-11-01

    While many microscopic models of traffic flow describe transitions between different traffic phases, such transitions are difficult to quantify in measured traffic data. Here we study long-term traffic recordings consisting of ≈2900 days of flow, density, and velocity time series with minute resolution from a Spanish motorway. We calculate fluctuations, cross-correlations, and long-term persistence properties of these quantities in the flow-density diagram. This leads to a data-driven definition of (local) traffic states based on the dynamical properties of the data, which differ from those given in standard guidelines. We find that detrending techniques must be used for persistence analysis because of non-stationary daily and weekly traffic flow patterns. We compare our results for the measured data with analysis results for a microscopic traffic model, finding good agreement in most quantities. However, the simulations cannot easily reproduce the congested traffic states observed in the data. We show how fluctuations and cross-correlations in traffic data may be used for prediction, i.e., as indications of increasing or decreasing velocities.

  3. A superstatistical model of vehicular traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosun, Caglar; Ozdemir, Serhan

    2016-02-01

    In the analysis of vehicular traffic flow, a myriad of techniques have been implemented. In this study, superstatistics is used in modeling the traffic flow on a highway segment. Traffic variables such as vehicular speeds, volume, and headway were collected for three days. For the superstatistical approach, at least two distinct time scales must exist, so that a superposition of nonequilibrium systems assumption could hold. When the slow dynamics of the vehicle speeds exhibit a Gaussian distribution in between the fluctuations of the system at large, one speaks of a relaxation to a local equilibrium. These Gaussian distributions are found with corresponding standard deviations 1 /√{ β }. This translates into a series of fluctuating beta values, hence the statistics of statistics, superstatistics. The traffic flow model has generated an inverse temperature parameter (beta) distribution as well as the speed distribution. This beta distribution has shown that the fluctuations in beta are distributed with respect to a chi-square distribution. It must be mentioned that two distinct Tsallis q values are specified: one is time-dependent and the other is independent. A ramification of these q values is that the highway segment and the traffic flow generate separate characteristics. This highway segment in question is not only nonadditive in nature, but a nonequilibrium driven system, with frequent relaxations to a Gaussian.

  4. VASCULAR RESPONSE TO TRAFFIC-DERIVED INHALATION IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    By coordinating closely with Center Projects 1-3, we will determine whether specific aspects of traffic-derived exposure (primary vs. secondary organics, particulate vs. gases, spark-ignition vs. diesel engine vs. a mixture) enhance the human vascular response to pollutants. W...

  5. Monitoring intraurban spatial patterns of multiple combustion air pollutants in New York City: design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Matte, Thomas D; Ross, Zev; Kheirbek, Iyad; Eisl, Holger; Johnson, Sarah; Gorczynski, John E; Kass, Daniel; Markowitz, Steven; Pezeshki, Grant; Clougherty, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    Routine air monitoring provides data to assess urban scale temporal variation in pollution concentrations in relation to regulatory standards, but is not well suited to characterizing intraurban spatial variation in pollutant concentrations from local sources. To address these limitations and inform local control strategies, New York City developed a program to track spatial patterns of multiple air pollutants in each season of the year. Monitor locations include 150 distributed street-level sites chosen to represent a range of traffic, land-use and other characteristics. Integrated samples are collected at each distributed site for one 2-week session each season and in every 2-week period at five reference locations to track city-wide temporal variation. Pollutants sampled include PM(2.5) and constituents, nitrogen oxides, black carbon, ozone (summer only) and sulfur dioxide (winter only). During the first full year of monitoring more than 95% of designed samples were completed. Agreement between colocated samples was good (absolute mean % difference 3.2-8.9%). Street-level pollutant concentrations spanned a much greater range than did concentrations at regulatory monitors, especially for oxides of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide. Monitoring to characterize intraurban spatial gradients in ambient pollution usefully complements regulatory monitoring data to inform local air quality management. PMID:23321861

  6. Magnetic Properties and Heavy Metals in topsoils from Mexico City: Implications for Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton-Bermea, O.; Hernandez-Alvarez, E.; Acosta, T.; Martinez, E.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2006-12-01

    Initial results of a long-term geochemical and magnetic mineralogy study of the heavy metal pollution as recorded in topsoils in Mexico City are reported. We concentrate on investigating the contents and distribution of heavy metals and magnetic minerals in sediments associated to atmospheric particulate pollutants. The geological setting, environmental characteristics and development history of Mexico City make this extensive urban and industrial area a natural laboratory to investigate air-, land- and water-pollution. Thirty-eight samples from surface soils were collected from localities within the metropolitan area, which represent different traffic conditions and heavy metal pollution levels. Elemental determinations are made with induced-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Magnetic mineralogy is investigated by low-field susceptibility, remanence intensity, magnetic hysteresis and coercivity spectra analyses on natural and laboratory-induced magnetizations. Soils show high pollution levels indicated by increase concentrations of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd, and by high contents of iron minerals (iron-titanium oxides). Urban soils close to dense slow traffic condition zones show the higher heavy metal concentrations, like it was to be expected, some of them exceeding the allowed limits.

  7. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  8. Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  9. [Hidden statistics of traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, E L; Larsen, C F; Jørgensen, H R

    1989-10-23

    Only 19% of the 3,071 injured persons who were treated in the casualty department of Odense Hospital following traffic accidents in 1987 could be found again in the police registers of traffic accidents from the same region. All of the registrations from the police registers from the central region could be found again in the casualty department. In 1971, the corresponding coverage was 36%. The degree of coverage is particularly low for single bicycle accidents, other bicycle accidents, other single accidents and the hours immediately after midnight. Considerable disagreement exists concerning registration of the use of safety belts and crash helmets. In Odense, the municipal road authorities utilize the localization of the accidents reported by the casualty department. The decrease in the degree of coverage is due mainly to an increasing proportion of bicycle accidents. Where casualties require admission to hospital, the coverage is approximately 75%. This has remained unchanged throughout the years and it is therefore suggested that this proportion should be employed as indicator of the effect of the majority of prophylactic measures. In addition, proposals are made for simplification of the police registration forms. PMID:2588362

  10. Modeling the Impact of Arctic Shipping Pollution on Air Quality off the Coast of Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Marelle, L.; Raut, J.; Jalkanen, J.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Fast, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    As the Arctic is undergoing rapid and potentially irreversible changes, such as the shrinking and thinning of sea-ice cover, the levels of atmospheric pollution are expected to rise dramatically due to the emergence of local pollution sources including shipping. Shipping routes through the Arctic (such as Russia's Northern Sea Route) are already used as an alternative to the traditional global transit shipping routes. In summer 2012, the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society) aircraft campaign focused on studying pollution sources off the coast of northern Norway to quantify emissions from shipping and other anthropogenic pollution sources. To complement these measurements, a regional chemical transport model is used to study the impact of shipping pollution on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. WRF-Chem (The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry, which simulates gas and aerosols simultaneously with meteorology) is run with real time shipping emissions from STEAM (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model) for July 2012. The STEAM model calculates gas and aerosol emissions of marine traffic based on the ship type and location provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). Use of real time position, speed, and ship specific information allows for development of emissions with very high spatial (1x1 km) and temporal (30 min) resolution, which are used in the regional model runs. STEAM emissions have been specifically generated for shipping off the coast of Norway during the entire ACCESS campaign period. Simulated ship plumes from high-resolution model runs are compared to aircraft measurements. The regional impact of current summertime shipping is also examined. At present, relatively light ship traffic off the coast of northern Norway results in only a small impact of shipping pollution on regional atmospheric chemistry. The impact of increased future shipping on regional atmospheric chemistry is also assessed.

  11. Application of XAD-resin based passive air samplers to assess local (roadside) and regional patterns of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Paul; Thuens, Sabine; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-01

    We used XAD-resin based passive air samplers (PAS) to measure atmospheric levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at five ombrotrophic bogs in Eastern Canada. The aims of our study were to investigate the influence of local roads on contaminant levels in the bogs, to derive the regional pattern of atmospheric concentrations, and to assess the uncertainties of the method. Expanded uncertainties based on the duplicate PAS deployed at 24 sites were good for the PAHs, while the deployment period of approx. 100 days was too short to yield acceptable uncertainties for PCBs. The regional PAH distribution was in good agreement with the calculated source proximity of the sampled bogs. We conclude that XAD-resin based PAS deployed for comparatively short periods are well suited for measuring atmospheric concentrations of volatile PAHs, while in remote regions longer deployment is necessary for less volatile PAHs and for PCBs. PMID:22516712

  12. Method for measuring pollutant formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annen, Kurt (Inventor); Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Diagnostic methods for determining an instantaneous rate of pollutant formation in a combustion system are based on measurement of chemiluminescence intensity generated simultaneously with the formation of the pollutant. The chemiluminescent signal is generated by an analog reaction which occurs in parallel with a key step in the formation of a specific pollutant of interest. The connection between the analog reaction and the pollution reaction is such that the chemiluminescent signal indicates the local, instantaneous formation rate of the pollutant of interest.

  13. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Ferreira, Andressa Maria Coelho; Szeremetta, Bani

    2006-07-01

    The present study provides an evaluation of noise pollution in six Urban Parks located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Equivalent noise levels (L(eq)) were measured in 303 points (each point measured during 3 min) spread throughout the Parks. Measured values were confronted with local legislation (Law 10625) allowed limits, and the Parks were thus classified as "acoustically polluted or unpolluted". Measured values were also evaluated according to international legislation: Decree no. 12 of the City Council of Rome, DIN 18005 for German cities, the World Health Organization, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Urban parks in the downtown area of Curitiba, surrounded by roads of heavy traffic and in the midst of intense commercial activities, do not satisfy any of the standards used. The most noise-polluted parks in Curitiba were the Public Walk Park and the Botanical Garden Park, with measured L(eq) of 64.8 dB(A) and 67 dB(A). PMID:16897555

  14. The Classroom Traffic Jam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Arthur W.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of energy conservation is developed in this simulation. Children draw an automobile and then are asked to drive it through the classroom roadways. When a traffic jam results, students offer ways to eliminate it. The importance of mass transportation and car pools is stressed by the teacher. (MA)

  15. Surface Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoo Chul

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses an overview of the surface traffic management research conducted by NASA Ames. The concept and human-in-the-loop simulation of the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA), an integrated decision support tool for the tower controllers and airline ramp operators, is also discussed.

  16. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  17. Pedestrians. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving pedestrians. Data tables include: (1) trends in pedestrian and total traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (2) pedestrians killed and injured, by age group, 2000; (3) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (4) pedestrian fatalities, by time of day and day of week,…

  18. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Pedestrians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving pedestrians. Data tables include: (1) trends in pedestrian and total traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (2) pedestrians killed and injured, by age group, 2001; (3) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (4) pedestrian fatalities, by time of day and day of week,…

  19. Traffic flow theory and characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, E.; Pagitsas, E.; Shin, B.T.; Maze, T.H.; Hurley, J.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Estimation of turning flows from automatic counts; a probabilistic model of gap acceptance behavior; sensitivity of fuel-consumption and delay values from traffic simulation; traffic data acquisition from small-format photography; decentralized control of congested street networks; improved estimation of traffic flow for real-time control; Maxband, a program for setting signals on arteries and triangular networks are discussed.

  20. Spatial air pollution modelling for a West-African town.

    PubMed

    Gebreab, Sirak Zenebe; Vienneau, Danielle; Feigenwinter, Christian; Bâ, Hâmpaté; Cissé, Guéladio; Tsai, Ming-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling is a common approach used in European and Northern American epidemiological studies to assess urban and traffic related air pollution exposures. Studies applying LUR in Africa are lacking. A need exists to understand if this approach holds for an African setting, where urban features, pollutant exposures and data availability differ considerably from other continents. We developed a parsimonious regression model based on 48-hour nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations measured at 40 sites in Kaédi, a medium sized West-African town, and variables generated in a geographic information system (GIS). Road variables and settlement land use characteristics were found to be important predictors of 48-hour NO2 concentration in the model. About 68% of concentration variability in the town was explained by the model. The model was internally validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and it was found to perform moderately well. Furthermore, its parameters were robust to sampling variation. We applied the model at 100 m pixels to create a map describing the broad spatial pattern of NO2 across Kaédi. In this research, we demonstrated the potential for LUR as a valid, cost-effective approach for air pollution modelling and mapping in an African town. If the methodology were to be adopted by environmental and public health authorities in these regions, it could provide a quick assessment of the local air pollution burden and potentially support air pollution policies and guidelines. PMID:26618306

  1. Stochastic Model of Traffic Jam and Traffic Signal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Cui, Cheng-You; Lee, Tae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Traffic signal control is an effective method to solve the traffic jam. and forecasting traffic density has been known as an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The several methods of the traffic signal control are known such as random walk method, Neuron Network method, Bayesian Network method, and so on. In this paper, we propose a new method of a traffic signal control using a predicted distribution of traffic jam based on a Dynamic Bayesian Network model. First, a forecasting model to predict a probabilistic distribution of the traffic jam during each period of traffic lights is built. As the forecasting model, the Dynamic Bayesian Network is used to predict the probabilistic distribution of a density of the traffic jam. According to measurement of two crossing points for each cycle, the inflow and outflow of each direction and the number of standing vehicles at former cycle are obtained. The number of standing vehicle at k-th cycle will be calculated synchronously. Next, the probabilistic distribution of the density of standing vehicle in each cycle will be predicted using the Dynamic Bayesian Network constructed for the traffic jam. And then a control rule to adjust the split and the cycle to increase the probability between a lower limit and ceiling of the standing vehicles is deduced. As the results of the simulation using the actual traffic data of Kitakyushu city, the effectiveness of the method is shown.

  2. Residential Exposure to Urban Traffic Is Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Weigel, M. Margaret; Myers, Orrin B.; Li, Wen-Whai; Racines, Marcia; Berwick, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to urban traffic pollution is documented to promote atherosclerosis in adults but little is known about its potential effects in children. Our study examined the association of long-term exposure to traffic with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 287 healthy children. Residential proximity and distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) were used as proximity markers for traffic-related air pollution exposure. The multivariable analyses revealed that children residing <100 meters from the nearest heavily trafficked road had cIMT mean and maximum measurements that were increased by 15% and 11% compared to those living ≥ 200 meters away (P = 0.0001). Similar increases in cIMT were identified for children in the highest versus lowest DWTD tertile. Children who resided 100–199 meters from traffic or in the middle DWTD tertile also exhibited increased cIMT but these differences were not statistically significant. No statistically significant differences were identified between residential distance to traffic or DWTD and systemic inflammation indicators (CRP, IL-6). The study results suggest that exposure to urban traffic promotes arterial remodeling in children. This finding is important since even small increases in cIMT over time can potentially lead to earlier progression to atherosclerosis. It is also important because traffic-related pollution is potentially modifiable. PMID:25685160

  3. Adaptive traffic management in cities--comparing decision-making methods.

    PubMed

    van den Elshout, Sef; Molenaar, Rinkje; Wester, Bart

    2014-08-01

    Traffic is the dominant source of air pollution in cities. We simulated 'adaptive traffic management' (temporary traffic interventions that are invoked based on preset conditions such as high ambient concentrations) aimed at reducing traffic related air pollution. We compared these results with the effect of permanent temporary traffic interventions (measures that are always invoked for a few hours, irrespective of other criteria). The potential impact of the traffic interventions was assessed using Black Carbon and NOx-concentration observations in a busy urban street in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Results show that generic traffic information (counts, speed, composition) in combination with general knowledge about the atmospheric conditions, provide sufficient information for operational decision making. However, the results also show that the overall net benefits of temporary measures are very small. The impact of permanent measures such as lowering the traffic density during rush hours is higher than measures taken for short time periods when air pollution is high or expected to be high. PMID:24468187

  4. Improving traffic noise simulations using space syntax: preliminary results from two roadway systems.

    PubMed

    M Dzhambov, Angel; D Dimitrova, Donka; H Turnovska, Tanya

    2014-09-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. In order to implement adequate strategies for noise control, assessment of traffic-generated noise is essential in city planning and management. The aim of this study was to determine whether space syntax could improve the predictive power of noise simulation. This paper reports a record linkage study which combined a documentary method with space syntax analysis. It analyses data about traffic flow as well as field-measured and computer-simulated traffic noise in two Bulgarian agglomerations. Our findings suggest that space syntax might have a potential in predicting traffic noise exposure by improving models for noise simulations using specialised software or actual traffic counts. The scientific attention might need to be directed towards space syntax in order to study its further application in current models and algorithms for noise prediction. PMID:25222575

  5. Corrigendum to Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 81–101, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, A.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-05-01

    In the paper “Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust” by J. Fan et al., wrong versions of Fig. 8 and Fig. 12 were published. Please find the correct figures below.

  6. Contribution of traffic emissions to indoor airborne VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Otson, R.; Williams, D.T.; Fellin, P.

    1998-12-31

    The contribution of nearby vehicle traffic to indoor airborne volatile organic compound levels and to personal exposures was examined to determine the importance of this source. Indoor and outdoor levels of selected VOCs, aldehydes, ketones, and ethanol were measured at 10 homes in Toronto, on sidewalks near the traffic source, indoors and in the backyards or balconies of apartments (outdoors). Concurrently, air exchange rates were measured at each home with a perfluorocarbon tracer method. All the residences were within 1 km of urban intersections with traffic counts of more than 20,000 vehicles per day. Average concentrations of hexane, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, benzene and propionaldehyde decreased in the order: street level > indoor > outdoor. These compounds occur in vehicle emissions, and the contribution of outdoor to indoor concentrations ranged from 24 to 88 % suggesting that traffic emissions contributed to indoor pollutant level through the process of air exchange. For other compounds different trends were observed. Indoors concentrations were greater than outdoors for ethylacetate, tetrachlorethane, pinene, limonene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and ethanol, for example. These compounds are common in consumer products, and the contribution of outdoor to indoor concentrations ranged from 2 to 44%. The differences in street and backyard (outdoor) concentrations for some compounds were large due to the presence of nearby vehicles at street level sampling sites, indicating that the impact of traffic on human exposures (pedestrians on sidewalks and occupants of vehicles) is potentially large, compared to the impact of general background urban air pollutants.

  7. A numerical experiment of roadside diffusion under traffic-produced flow and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Hiroaki; Tomizuka, Takayuki

    Roadside air pollution due to heavy traffic is one of the unsettled issues in the atmospheric environment in urban areas. As a practical application of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, a coupled mesoscale-CFD model was applied to the Ikegamicho area of Kawasaki City, Japan. For this study, the effects of traffic-produced flow and turbulence (TPFT) on the dispersion of the pollutants near the heavy traffic road were mainly investigated in an actual urban area. First, a series of preliminary CFD calculations was conducted for a road tunnel field experiment to obtain a fitting parameter for the traffic-produced flow. The calculation was then performed for 24 h in December 2005 around Ikegamicho, and the results were compared with the data at a roadside monitoring post in the area, located 10 m from the boundary of the ground road. In general, the effect of traffic-produced flow and turbulence was limited at the downstream side of the roads. The maximum concentration of NO x was reduced and smoothed out along the traffic flow by the traffic-produced flow and turbulence on the road. The effects of traffic-produced turbulence on the dispersion of pollutants were greater than those of traffic-produced flow; however, the effects of traffic-produced flow were not negligible. The concentration of pollutants was not particularly dependent on the turbulent Schmidt number because most of the emission sources were introduced as volume sources in the present calculations, and the effect caused by differences in the material diffusion coefficient was not particularly significant at the outside of the road.

  8. Bangkok: Anatomy of a traffic disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Poboon, C.; Kenworthy, J.; Barter, P.

    1995-12-31

    Traditional urban and transport policy which relies on road-base planning has been proven inadequate for tackling Bangkok`s traffic chaos. After employing such policy for more than three decades Bangkok traffic has become a disaster and the city has become notorious world-wide for its traffic congestion and air pollution. The simplistic application of theses largely American models took little consideration if any of the walking city and transi