Science.gov

Sample records for local ultraluminous infrared

  1. Silicates in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirocky, M. M.; Levenson, N. A.; Elitzur, M.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Armus, L.

    2008-05-01

    We analyze the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph. Dust emission dominates the MIR spectra of ULIRGs, and the reprocessed radiation that emerges is independent of the underlying heating spectrum. Instead, the resulting emission depends sensitively on the geometric distribution of the dust, which we diagnose with comparisons of numerical simulations of radiative transfer. Quantifying the silicate emission and absorption features that appear near 10 and 18 μm requires a reliable determination of the continuum, and we demonstrate that including a measurement of the continuum at intermediate wavelength (between the features) produces accurate results at all optical depths. With high-quality spectra, we successfully use the silicate features to constrain the dust chemistry. The observations of the ULIRGs and local sight lines require dust that has a relatively high 18 μm/10 μm absorption ratio of the silicate features (around 0.5). Specifically, the cold dust of Ossenkopf et al. is consistent with the observations, while other dust models are not. We use the silicate feature strengths to identify two families of ULIRGs, in which the dust distributions are fundamentally different. Optical spectral classifications are related to these families. In ULIRGs that harbor an active galactic nucleus, the spectrally broad lines are detected only when the nuclear surroundings are clumpy. In contrast, the sources of lower ionization optical spectra are deeply embedded in smooth distributions of optically thick dust.

  2. A multiwavelength and multiscale study of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    This dissertation deals with the multiwavelength study of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) in the local Universe under different spatial scales. The work is focused on the properties of massive starbursts, the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the interplay between both phenomena. The study of local (U)LIRGs is the best scenario where to understand the properties of these objects at cosmological distances, where their luminosity contribution dominates the cosmic infrared background. Our first approach to the study of (U)LIRGs consisted of a spectral line study in the millimeter range, obtained with the IRAM 30m radio-telescope in Pico Veleta, Granada of a subsample of 56 (U)LIRGs from the GOALS project sample. We observed and analyzed spectra of several molecular features, focusing in the study of carbon monoxide (CO), a well-known tracer of cold molecular gas. We explored the relation between them as well as the properties of molecular gas. Besides of the sample characterization, we confirmed the increase of the isotopic ratio 12CO/13CO with the dust temperature, explained by the 12CO optical depth decreasing with temperature. We have also studied the kinematics and gas distribution using the spectral profiles of several molecular transitions. In a second part of this thesis, we analyzed the central kiloparsec region of a sample of 12 LIRGs, stressing the importance of the multiwavelength approach, aimed at deriving the star formation processes of these galaxies, as well as to study the contribution of the putative AGN to the bolometric luminosity in our sample. For one of these LIRGs, NGC1614, we performed a deep multiwavelength study, including data from radio, infrared, optical and X-rays. These data allowed us to establish that the the IR emission in the circumnuclear region is completely dominated by a powerful starburst and, in case it hosts an AGN, its contribution is irrelevant. We also performed

  3. MOLECULAR GAS IN INFRARED ULTRALUMINOUS QSO HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, X. Y.; Hao, C.-N.; Gao, Y.; Tan, Q. H.; Mao, S.; Omont, A.; Flaquer, B. O.; Leon, S.; Cox, P.

    2012-05-10

    We report CO detections in 17 out of 19 infrared ultraluminous QSO (IR QSO) hosts observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The cold molecular gas reservoir in these objects is in a range of (0.2-2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} (adopting a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO} = 0.8 M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}). We find that the molecular gas properties of IR QSOs, such as the molecular gas mass, star formation efficiency (L{sub FIR}/L'{sub CO}), and CO (1-0) line widths, are indistinguishable from those of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). A comparison of low- and high-redshift CO-detected QSOs reveals a tight correlation between L{sub FIR} and L'{sub CO(1-0)} for all QSOs. This suggests that, similar to ULIRGs, the far-infrared emissions of all QSOs are mainly from dust heated by star formation rather than by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), confirming similar findings from mid-infrared spectroscopic observations by Spitzer. A correlation between the AGN-associated bolometric luminosities and the CO line luminosities suggests that star formation and AGNs draw from the same reservoir of gas and there is a link between star formation on {approx}kpc scale and the central black hole accretion process on much smaller scales.

  4. Hα Velocity Mapping of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Bothun, Gregory D.

    1998-06-01

    We use imaging Fabry-Pérot observations to explore the dynamical conditions in four southern ultraluminous (LIR >~ 1012 L⊙) infrared galaxies. These galaxies all show morphological and kinematic features indicative of a major merger, but they span a wide range of inferred dynamical ages: the youngest system is just past the first encounter, while the oldest has already merged into a single object. This diversity in dynamical states indicates that ultraluminous activity is not confined solely to late-stage mergers. The Hα emission is more spatially concentrated in the later stage mergers, in agreement with models that show that mergers drive gas inward toward the nucleus, but high luminosities are achieved even in young interactions where the Hα is quite extended. Our data indicate that physical details other than the dynamical phase--such as the internal structure or gas content of the galaxies--can play a strong role in determining the luminosity evolution of merging galaxies. We also find evidence for massive star-forming complexes at large radius in the tidal debris, which reaffirms the notion that some dwarf galaxies may be spawned during the merger of more massive disk galaxies.

  5. Hα Velocity Mapping of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihos, C.; Bothun, G.

    1997-12-01

    We use imaging Fabry-Perot observations to explore the dynamical conditions in four southern ultraluminous (LIR > 10(12) Lsun) infrared galaxies. These galaxies all show morphological and kinematic features indicative of a major merger, but span a wide range of inferred dynamical ages: the youngest system is just past the first encounter, while the oldest has already merged into a single object. This diversity in dynamical states indicates that ultraluminous activity is not confined solely to late-stage mergers. The Hα emission is more spatially concentrated in the later stage mergers, in agreement with models which show that mergers drive gas inwards towards the nucleus, but high luminosities are achieved even in young interactions where the Hα is quite extended. Our data indicate that physical details other than the dynamical phase -- such as the internal structure or gas content of the galaxies -- can play a strong role in determining the luminosity evolution of merging galaxies. We also find evidence for massive star-forming complexes at large radius in the tidal debris, reaffirming the notion that some dwarf galaxies may be spawned during the merger of more massive disk galaxies.

  6. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, L. G.; Han, J. L.; Kong, M. Z.; Wu Xuebing

    2011-05-10

    Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are classified into several types depending on the dominance of starburst or active galactic nucleus (AGN) components. We conducted a stellar population analysis for a sample of 160 ULIRGs to study the evolution of ULIRGs. We found that the dominance of intermediate-age and old stellar populations increases along the sequence of H II-like ULIRGs, Seyfert-H II composite ULIRGs, and Seyfert 2 ULIRGs. Consequently, the typical mean stellar age and stellar mass increase along the sequence. Comparing the gas mass estimated from the CO measurements to the stellar mass estimated from the optical spectra, we found that the gas fraction is anti-correlated with stellar mass. Even so, the total masses of H II-like ULIRGs with small stellar masses and a large fraction of gas are not comparable to the small masses of Seyfert 2 ULIRGs. This indicates that H II-like ULIRGs with small stellar masses have no evolutionary connections with massive Seyfert 2 ULIRGs. Only massive ULIRGs may follow the evolution sequence toward AGNs, and massive H II-like ULIRGs are probably in an earlier stage of the sequence.

  7. Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.

    2001-12-01

    We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Buried Quasars in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, David B.

    2004-01-01

    We were awarded l00OkS of INTEGRAL spacecraft time (Priority A) to observe the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIG) Mrk 2273 in order io measure the integrated flux of the 20-1003 KeV gamma-Ray emission, and to use this information to search for the presence of an highly obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). With this observation we hope to be able to better assess the role of AGN in the complete class of ULIGs and therefore to better constrain their contribution to the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray backgrounds. Our Priority A 100 kS observation of Mrk 273 was successfully carried out during revolution #73 using 4 separate exposures with the IBIS camera during May, 2003. Our IBIS observations of Mrk 273 were successfully executed, and the source was properly centered in the Field-of-view of the detectors. We are still in the process of interpreting the IBIS gamma-ray data.

  9. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the AKARI all-sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kilerci Eser, E.; Goto, T.; Doi, Y. E-mail: doi@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-12-10

    We present a new catalog of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and one hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIRG) by cross-matching the AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the final data release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey. Forty of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing or postmergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the active galactic nucleus fraction and infrared luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large offset from the main sequence up to z ∼ 1; their offset from the z ∼ 2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a result consistent with the previous studies showing that, compared to local star-forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We demonstrate for the first time that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR). The scatter of ULIRGs around the FMR (0.09 dex-0.5 dex) is comparable to the scatter of z ∼ 2-3 galaxies. We provide the largest local (0.050

  10. ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES IN THE WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Shanshan; Kong, Xu; Li, Jinrong; Fang, Guanwen E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-11-20

    In this paper, we present a large catalog of 419 Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), carefully selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey eighth data release, and classify them into three subsamples, based on their emission line properties: H II-like ULIRGs, Seyfert 2 ULIRGs, and composite ULIRGs. We apply our new efficient spectral synthesis technique, which is based on mean field approach to Bayesian independent component analysis (MF-ICA) method, to the galaxy integrated spectra. We also analyze the stellar population properties, including percentage contribution, stellar age, and stellar mass, for these three types of ULIRGs, and explore the evolution among them. We find no significant difference between the properties of stellar populations in ULIRGs with or without active galactic nucleus components. Our results suggest that there is no evolutionary link among these three type ULIRGs.

  11. A NuSTAR Survey of Nearby Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Stacy H.

    2014-08-01

    Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are typically weak in the X-rays based on previous surveys of ULIRGs at energies below 10 keV. It is thought that the poor detection statistics is a result of either the low luminosity nature of their central engines or the purported Compton-thick columns that obscure their nuclei. This is consistent with the idea that ULIRGs are part of an evolutionary paradigm where gas-rich galaxies collide, rapidly form stars and feed a buried active nucleus. The nucleus then shines as an unobscured quasar once the obscuring material is removed through galactic-scale winds. The ULIRG phase occurs during the most obscured period when the central black hole is growing most rapidly. Taking advantage of NuSTAR's sensitivity at energies above 10 keV, we conducted a survey of nine of the nearest ULIRGs. Here, we present the results from our imaging and spectral analysis of these data.

  12. H(2) emission arises outside photodissociation regions in ultraluminous infrared galaxies.

    PubMed

    Zakamska, Nadia L

    2010-05-01

    Ultraluminous infrared galaxies are among the most luminous objects in the local Universe and are thought to be powered by intense star formation. It has been shown that in these objects the rotational spectral lines of molecular hydrogen observed at mid-infrared wavelengths are not affected by dust obscuration, but left unresolved was the source of excitation for this emission. Here I report an analysis of archival Spitzer Space Telescope data on ultraluminous infrared galaxies and demonstrate that dust obscuration affects star formation indicators but not molecular hydrogen. I thereby establish that the emission of H(2) is not co-spatial with the buried starburst activity and originates outside the obscured regions. This is unexpected in light of the standard view that H(2) emission is directly associated with star-formation activity. I propose the alternative view that H(2) emission in these objects traces shocks in the surrounding material that are excited by interactions with nearby galaxies. Large-scale shocks cooling by means of H(2) emission may accordingly be more common than previously thought. In the early Universe, a boost in H(2) emission by this process may have accelerated the cooling of matter as it collapsed to form the first stars and galaxies, and would make these first structures more readily observable. PMID:20445624

  13. Warm molecular hydrogen in outflows from ultraluminous infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Matthew J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2014-04-01

    Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) show on average three times more emission in the rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen than expected based on their star formation rates. Using Spitzer archival data, we investigate the origin of excess warm H2 emission in 115 ULIRGs of the IRAS 1 Jy sample. We find a strong correlation between H2 and [Fe II] line luminosities, suggesting that excess H2 is produced in shocks propagating within neutral or partially ionized medium. This view is supported by the correlations between H2 and optical line ratios diagnostic of such shocks. The galaxies powered by star formation and those powered by active nuclei follow the same relationship between H2 and [Fe II], with emission line width being the major difference between these classes (˜500 and ˜1000 km s-1, respectively). We conclude that excess H2 emission is produced as the supernovae and active nuclei drive outflows into the neutral interstellar medium of the ULIRGs. A weak positive correlation between H2 and the length of the tidal tails indicates that these outflows are more likely to be encountered in more advanced mergers, but there is no evidence for excess H2 produced as a result of the collision shocks during the final coalescence.

  14. Buried Quasars in Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    We were awarded l00kS of INTEGRAL spacecraft time (Priority A) to observe the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIG) Mrk 2273 in order to measure the integrated flux of the 20-1003 KeV gamma-Ray emission, and to use this information to search for the presence of an highly obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). With this observation we hope to be able to better assess the role of AGN in the complete class of ULIGs and therefore to better constrain their contribution to the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray backgrounds. Our Priority A 100 kS observation of Mrk 273 was successfully carried out during revolution #73 using 4 separate exposures with the IBIS camera during May, 2003. Our IBIS observations of Mrk 273 were successfully executed, and the source was properly centered in the Field-of-view of the detectors. We are still in the process of interpreting the IBIS gamma-ray data.

  15. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF FAR-INFRARED COOLING LINES IN INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT (ULTRA)-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G. E.; Thatte, N.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Pearson, C.; Farrah, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A.; Wang, L.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.

    2014-01-20

    We report the first results from a spectroscopic survey of the [C II] 158 μm line from a sample of intermediate redshift (0.2 ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies, (U)LIRGs (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}), using the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver-Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This is the first survey of [C II] emission, an important tracer of star formation, at a redshift range where the star formation rate density of the universe increases rapidly. We detect strong [C II] 158 μm line emission from over 80% of the sample. We find that the [C II] line is luminous, in the range (0.8-4) × 10{sup –3} of the far-infrared continuum luminosity of our sources, and appears to arise from photodissociation regions on the surface of molecular clouds. The L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} ratio in our intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs is on average ∼10 times larger than that of local ULIRGs. Furthermore, we find that the L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} and L{sub [CII]}/L{sub CO(1-0)} ratios in our sample are similar to those of local normal galaxies and high-z star-forming galaxies. ULIRGs at z ∼ 0.5 show many similarities to the properties of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Our findings strongly suggest that rapid evolution in the properties of the star-forming regions of (U)LIRGs is likely to have occurred in the last 5 billion years.

  16. A NuSTAR Survey of Nearby Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Stern, Daniel; Ptak, Andrew; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Stephen E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Christensen, Finn E.; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Koss, Michael; Luo, Bin; Treister, Ezequiel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-11-01

    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously possible. Six of the nine sources observed were detected sufficiently well by NuSTAR to model in detail their broadband X-ray spectra, and recover the levels of obscuration and intrinsic X-ray luminosities. Only one source (IRAS 13120-5453) has a spectrum consistent with a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), but we cannot rule out that a second source (Arp 220) harbors an extremely highly obscured AGN as well. Variability in column density (reduction by a factor of a few compared to older observations) is seen in IRAS 05189-2524 and Mrk 273, altering the classification of these borderline sources from Compton-thick to Compton-thin. The ULIRGs in our sample have surprisingly low observed fluxes in high-energy (>10 keV) X-rays, especially compared to their bolometric luminosities. They have lower ratios of unabsorbed 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity, and unabsorbed 2-10 keV to mid-IR [O iv] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths.

  17. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies and the radio-optical correlation for quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Smith, Harding E.; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    1995-01-01

    Through analysis of available optical spectrophotometric data and radio flux density measurements in the literature, it is demonstrated that a good correlation exists between the radio power and bolometric luminosity of the optically-selected OSOs in the Bright Quasar Sample (BOS) of Schmidt and Green (1983). We have recently used VLBI measurements of a sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies to infer the likely existence of radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) deeply enshrouded in dust within their nuclei (Lonsdale, Smith, and Lonsdale 1993). We employ the radio-bolometric luminosity correlation for the BQS quasars to test whether these hypothetical buried AGNs can be energetically responsible for the observed far-infrared luminosities of the ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The ultraluminous infrared galaxies are shown to follow the same relation between radio core power and bolometric luminosity as the radio-quiet QSOs, suggesting that buried AGNs can account for essentially all the observed infrared luminosity, and raising the possibility that any starburst which may be in progress may not be energetically dominant. The broader implications of the radio-optical correlation in quasars for AGNs and luminous infrared galaxy models and the use of radio astronomy as a probe of the central powerhouse in radio quiet AGNs and luminous infrared galaxies are briefly discussed.

  18. OSSE observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxies ARP 220 and MRK 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.; Shier, L. M.; Sturner, S. J.; McNaron-Brown, K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1997-01-01

    The results of oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment (OSSE) observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxies Arp 220 and Mrk 273 are reported. The pointings of Arp 220 and Mrk 273 concentrated on their upper limits. The gamma ray luminosities from these sources were found to be between one and two orders of magnitude smaller than the infrared luminosities. Multiwavelength luminosity spectra are produced from the radio to the gamma ray regime, and are compared with the typical multiwavelength spectra of active galactic nuclei. The lack of measured gamma ray emission provides no evidence for the existence of buried active galactic nuclei in these ultraluminous infrared galaxies, but is consistent with an origin of the infrared luminosity from starburst activity.

  19. The Modes of Star Formation in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Candels Team

    2015-01-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, LIR>1012 Lsun) are all interacting and merging systems. To date, studies of ULIRGs at high redshift have found a variety of results due to their varying selection effects and small sample sizes. Some studies have found that mergers still dominate the galaxy morphology while others have found a high fraction of morphologically normal or clumpy star forming disks. Near-infrared imaging is crucial for interpreting galaxy structure at high redshift since it probes the rest frame optical light of a galaxy and thus we can compare directly to studies in the local universe. We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z~2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers?

  20. The Origin and Evolution of (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR>10^12 L_sun) are all interacting and merging systems. To date, studies of ULIRGs at high redshift have found a variety of results due to their varying selection effects and small sample sizes. Some studies have found that mergers still dominate the galaxy morphology while others have found a high fraction of morphologically normal or clumpy star forming disks. Near-infrared imaging is crucial for interpreting galaxy structure at high redshift since it probes the rest frame optical light of a galaxy and thus we can compare directly to studies in the local universe. We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  1. Evolutionary Paths along the BPT Diagram for Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie L.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna E.; Liu, Charles T.

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, we present and examine new spectrophotometric data for five U/LIRGs (1011 < L IR < 1013 L ⊙) within the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.05 <~ z <~ 0.07. We show that our sample consists almost entirely of composite objects—thus hosting both a nuclear starburst and an AGN—using the BPT diagrams. We then show that for our sample of U/LIRGs the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGNs (e.g., star formation rate, L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hδ)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these parameters and the object locations on the BPT diagrams. Finally, we derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving {[N\\,{\\scriptsize{II}}]/H\\alpha } that are based on how these parameters vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points of these paths. The U/LIRGs at the end-points of a given path represent the beginning and end states of a U/LIRG evolving along that path. These paths may be able to specifically explain how all local U/LIRGs evolve along the BPT diagram, and serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis on the evolution of U/LIRGs.

  2. Evolutionary paths along the BPT diagram for luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorenza, Stephanie L.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna E.; Liu, Charles T.

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, we present and examine new spectrophotometric data for five U/LIRGs (10{sup 11} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) within the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.05 ≲ z ≲ 0.07. We show that our sample consists almost entirely of composite objects—thus hosting both a nuclear starburst and an AGN—using the BPT diagrams. We then show that for our sample of U/LIRGs the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGNs (e.g., star formation rate, L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hδ)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these parameters and the object locations on the BPT diagrams. Finally, we derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Hα that are based on how these parameters vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points of these paths. The U/LIRGs at the end-points of a given path represent the beginning and end states of a U/LIRG evolving along that path. These paths may be able to specifically explain how all local U/LIRGs evolve along the BPT diagram, and serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis on the evolution of U/LIRGs.

  3. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2015-08-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR > 10^12 L⊙) are all interacting and merging systems. We explore the evolution of the morphological and nuclear properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Her- schel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z ˜ 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We also use rest-frame optical emission line diagnostics, X-ray luminosity, and MIR colors to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy’s position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers? We investigate how AGN identified with different methods correspond to different morphologies and merger stages as well as position on the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  4. An HST surface photometric study of ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Wu, H.; Mao, S.; Xia, X.-Y.; Deng, Z.-G.; Zou, Z.-L.

    1999-09-01

    We study the surface photometry for 13 single-nucleus ultraluminous IRAS galaxies (ULIRGs), selected from a parent sample of 58 galaxies obtained in a Hubble Space Telescope I-band snapshot survey. These galaxies can be classified into two classes using a quantitative chi (2) criterion based on whether their surface brightness profiles are well fitted by the R(1) / 4 law. The surface brightness profiles of all four galaxies in the first class are well fitted by the R(1) / 4 law. Their isophotes are all disky at R <~ 1 h(-1) kpc, consistent with the molecular disks/rings found in nearby ULIRGs from CO observations. For the nine class II objects, their surface brightness profiles are less well fitted by the R(1) / 4 law. Qualitatively, the class II objects can be further divided into two sub-classes (IIa and IIb) based on their photometric behaviors. The four galaxies in class IIa have a bright nucleus, an inner R(1) / 4 component and an outer extension. Remarkably all these four galaxies are Seyfert 1 galaxies with luminosities in the quasar regime and with relatively narrow permitted and strong FeII emission lines. The remaining five galaxies in Class IIb have surface brightness profiles deviating to various degrees from the R(1) / 4 law, including one galaxy that is well fitted by an exponential law. In contrast to class IIa, spectral classifications of galaxies in class IIb are mostly HII regions or LINERs. We also present new spectroscopic observations for some of these galaxies. We establish the redshift of IR 09427+1929 to be 0.284, instead of 0.149 as adopted in the literature. Our analyzes support the idea that mergings of disk galaxies produce elliptical or S0 galaxies. These observations also suggest that the formation of QSOs may be an integral part of elliptical galaxy formation (at low redshifts). This research was based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by

  5. The Ly(alpha) Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina L.; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Wong, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Ly(alpha) emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Ly(alpha) profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding -1000 km/s in three H II-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Ly(alpha) line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Ly(alpha) attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Ly(alpha) photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Ly(alpha) and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Ly(alpha) emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1-1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H II-dominated ULIRGs.

  6. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Ultraviolet/Optical Spectroscopy of ``Warm'' Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrah, D.; Surace, J. A.; Veilleux, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Vacca, W. D.

    2005-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy, obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, of nuclear structures within four ``warm'' ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We find an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in at least three and probably all four in our sample, hosted in a compact, optically luminous ``knot.'' In three cases these knots were previously identified as a putative AGN from multiband optical imaging. Three objects of the sample also harbor a starburst in one or more knots, suggesting that the optically luminous knots seen in local ULIRGs are the most likely sites of the dust-shrouded starburst and AGN activity that power the infrared emission. The four AGNs have a diverse range of properties: two are classical narrow-line AGNs, one shows both broad and narrow lines and evidence for lines of sight from the narrow- to the broad-line regions, and one is plausibly an FeLoBAL AGN. The probable presence in one object of an FeLoBAL AGN, which are extremely rare in the QSO population, supports the idea that LoBAL AGNs may be youthful systems shrouded in gas and dust rather than AGNs viewed along a certain line of sight. The three starbursts for which detailed constraints are possible show a smaller range in properties; all three bursts are young, with two having ages of ~4 Myr and the third having an age of 20 Myr, suggesting that ULIRGs undergo several bursts of star formation during their lifetimes. None of the starbursts show evidence for initial mass function slopes steeper than about 3.3. The metallicities of the knots for which metallicities can be derived are all at least 1.5 Zsolar. The properties of one further starburst knot are consistent with it being the forming core of an elliptical galaxy. Our results suggest that detailed studies of the knots seen in ULIRGs can give important insights into the most violent starburst and AGN activity at both low and high redshift.

  7. FAR-INFRARED FINE-STRUCTURE LINE DIAGNOSTICS OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Farrah, D.; Petty, S. M.; Harris, K.; Lebouteiller, V.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pearson, C.; Rigopoulou, D.; Smith, H. A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Clements, D. L.; Efstathiou, A.; Cormier, D.; Afonso, J.; Hurley, P.; Borys, C.; Verma, A.; Cooray, A.; Salvatelli, V.

    2013-10-10

    We present Herschel observations of 6 fine-structure lines in 25 ultraluminous infrared galaxies at z < 0.27. The lines, [O III]52 μm, [N III]57 μm, [O I]63 μm, [N II]122 μm, [O I]145 μm, and [C II]158 μm, are mostly single Gaussians with widths <600 km s{sup –1} and luminosities of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} L{sub ☉}. There are deficits in the [O I]63/L{sub IR}, [N II]/L{sub IR}, [O I]145/L{sub IR}, and [C II]/L{sub IR} ratios compared to lower luminosity systems. The majority of the line deficits are consistent with dustier H II regions, but part of the [C II] deficit may arise from an additional mechanism, plausibly charged dust grains. This is consistent with some of the [C II] originating from photodissociation regions or the interstellar medium (ISM). We derive relations between far-IR line luminosities and both the IR luminosity and star formation rate. We find that [N II] and both [O I] lines are good tracers of the IR luminosity and star formation rate. In contrast, [C II] is a poor tracer of the IR luminosity and star formation rate, and does not improve as a tracer of either quantity if the [C II] deficit is accounted for. The continuum luminosity densities also correlate with the IR luminosity and star formation rate. We derive ranges for the gas density and ultraviolet radiation intensity of 10{sup 1} < n < 10{sup 2.5} and 10{sup 2.2} < G{sub 0} < 10{sup 3.6}, respectively. These ranges depend on optical type, the importance of star formation, and merger stage. We do not find relationships between far-IR line properties and several other parameters: active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, merger stage, mid-IR excitation, and SMBH mass. We conclude that these far-IR lines arise from gas heated by starlight, and that they are not strongly influenced by AGN activity.

  8. A Near-Infrared Search for Hidden Broad-Line Regions in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain; Sanders, D. B.; Kim, D.-C.

    1997-07-01

    We report the results of a sensitive new near-infrared search for hidden broad-line regions (BLRs: ΔVFWHM >~ 2000 km s-1) in a sample of 25 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs) selected for their lack of BLRs at optical wavelengths. These objects constitute a representative subset of the (non-Seyfert 1) 1 Jy sample of 111 ULIGs (Kim & Sanders), both in terms of their redshift and infrared luminosity distributions. In contrast to previous studies of ULIGs at lower redshift, the redshifts for our current subsample (z ~ 0.1-0.2) allow us to search for broad-line emission from the strong Paα λ1.8751 μm and [Si VI] λ1.962 μm emission lines, two powerful AGN diagnostic lines which are generally inaccessible in lower redshift objects. Broad Paα emission is detected for the first time in two sources--PKS 1345+12, F23499+2423 (object names that begin with ``F'' are sources identified in the IRAS Faint Source Catalog, Version 2), and the presence of a hidden BLR is confirmed in two additional sources--F20460+1925, F23060+0505. Broad Paα emission may also be present in three other sources--F08559+1053, F17179+5444, F23233+2817--but new data are needed to make sure that H2 λλ1.8665, 1.8721 is not contributing to this excess emission. In addition, the [Si VI] feature appears to be present in three objects--F12072-0444, PKS 1345+12, F23233+2817--and perhaps also in F17179+5444. Combining our new data with previously published spectra for Mrk 463E, we find that all of the galaxies with evidence for a hidden BLR at near-infrared wavelengths present an optical Seyfert 2 spectrum. Overall, seven (and perhaps nine) of the 10 optical Seyfert 2 galaxies in our sample present either a BLR or strong [Si VI] emission. Also, galaxies with ``warm'' IRAS colors (f25/f60 > 0.2) (the quantities f25, f60 are the IRAS flux densities in Jy at 25 and 60 μm, respectively) show a tendency to harbor obscured BLRs in the near-infrared and to have large Paα-to-infrared luminosity ratios

  9. Selection and mid-infrared spectroscopy of ultraluminous star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guanwen; Kong, Xu; Chen, Yang; Lin, Xuanbin; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Willner, S. P.; Wang, Tao E-mail: jhuang@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-02-01

    Starting from a sample of 24 μm sources in the Extended Groth Strip, we use 3.6-8 μm color criteria to select ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ∼ 2. Spectroscopy from 20-38 μm of 14 objects verifies their nature and gives their redshifts. Multi-wavelength data for these objects imply stellar masses >10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} and star formation rates ≥410 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Four objects of this sample observed at 1.6 μm (rest-frame visible) with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 show diverse morphologies, suggesting that multiple formation processes create ULIRGs. Of the 14 objects, 4 show signs of active galactic nuclei, but the luminosity appears to be dominated by star formation in all cases.

  10. Hard X-Rays from a Complete Sample of the Brightest Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, David B.

    2003-01-01

    We were awarded 70kS of XMM-Newton spacecraft time using the Epic pn camera to observe three ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs) in order to measure the spectral shape of their hard X-Ray emission, and to use this information to search for the presence of an highly obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN), and to separate out the contributions from a putative starburst. By observing three objects we hope to be able to better assess the role of AGN in the complete class of ULIGs and therefore to better constrain their contribution to the X-ray background. XMM-Newton was deemed to be better suited to our proposed measurements of ULIGs than the Chandra X-ray observatory due to its larger aperture and better sensitivity to hard (2-10 keV) X-rays.

  11. Evidence for Multiple Mergers among Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Remnants of Compact Groups?

    PubMed

    Borne; Bushouse; Lucas; Colina

    2000-02-01

    In a large sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a significant subsample that shows evidence for multiple mergers. The evidence is seen among two classes of ULIRGs: (1) those with multiple remnant nuclei in their core, sometimes accompanied by a complex system of tidal tails, and (2) those that are in fact dense groupings of interacting (soon-to-merge) galaxies. We conservatively estimate that, in the redshift range 0.05

  12. Faint CO Line Wings in Four Star-forming (Ultra)luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Bolatto, Alberto; Zschaechner, Laura; Weiss, Axel

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a search for large velocity width, low-intensity line wings—a commonly used signature of molecular outflows—in four low redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies that appear to be dominated by star formation. The targets were drawn from a sample of fourteen targets presented in Chung et al., who showed the stacked CO spectrum of the sample to exhibit 1000 km s-1-wide line wings. We obtained sensitive, wide bandwidth imaging of our targets using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We detect each target at very high significance but do not find the claimed line wings in these four targets. Instead, we constrain the flux in the line wings to be only a few percent. Casting our results as mass outflow rates following Cicone et al. we show them to be consistent with a picture in which very high mass loading factors preferentially occur in systems with high active galactic nucleus contributions to their bolometric luminosity. We identify one of our targets, IRAS 05083 (VII Zw 31), as a candidate molecular outflow.

  13. The radio emission from the ultraluminous far-infrared galaxy NGC 6240

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbert, Edward J. M.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    We present new radio observations of the 'prototypical' ultraluminous far-infrared galaxy NGC 6240, obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) at lambda = 20 cm in B-configuration and at lambda = 3.6 cm in A-configuration. These data, along with those from four previous VLA observations, are used to perform a comprehensive study of the radio emission from NGC 6240. Approximately 70% (approximately 3 x 10(exp 23) W/Hz) of the total radio power at 20 cm originates from the nuclear region (approximately less than 1.5 kpc), of which half is emitted by two unresolved (R approximately less than 36 pc) cores and half by a diffuse component. The radio spectrum of the nuclear emission is relatively flat (alpha approximately equals 0.6; S(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -alpha). The supernova rate required to power the diffuse component is consistent with that predicted by the stellar evolution models of Rieke et al. (1985). If the radio emission from the two compact cores is powered by supernova remnants, then either the remnants overlap and form hot bubbles in the cores, or they are very young (approximately less than 100 yr.) Nearly all of the remaining 30% of the total radio power comes from an 'armlike' region extending westward from the nuclear region. The western arm emission has a steep spectrum (alpha approximately equals 1.0), suggestive of aging effects from synchrotron or inverse-Compton losses, and is not correlated with starlight; we suggest that it is synchrotron emission from a shell of material driven by a galactic superwind. Inverse Compton scattering of far-infrared photons in the radio sources is expected to produce an X-ray flux of approximately 2 - 6 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm in the 2 - 10 keV band. No significant radio emission is detected from or near the possible ultramassive 'dark core'.

  14. The IRAS 1 Jy Sample of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-C.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Sanders, D. B.

    1998-12-01

    This is the second paper in a series discussing the properties of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs: LIR > 1012 L⊙ H0 = 75 km s-1 Mpc-1 and q0 = 0.0) from the 1 Jy sample of Kim. This paper presents the first results of a spectroscopic survey at optical wavelengths of a randomly selected subset of 45 ULIGs from Kim & Sanders. These new data are combined with previous data from Veilleux et al. to determine the spectral properties of luminous infrared galaxies (LIGs) with LIR ~ 1010.5-1013 L⊙. We find that the fraction of Seyfert galaxies among LIGs increases dramatically above LIR ~ 1012.3 L⊙--nearly one-half of the galaxies with LIR > 1012.3 L⊙ present Seyfert characteristics. Many of the optical properties of these Seyfert galaxies are consistent with the presence of genuine active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the cores of these objects. The continuum colors and strengths of the stellar Hβ and Mg I b features in and out of the nuclei of ULIGs indicate that star formation has recently (~107 yr) taken place in the nuclear and circumnuclear regions of many of these objects. As expected, photoionization by hot stars appears to be the dominant source of ionization in the objects with H II region-like spectra. Evidence is presented that the ionization source in infrared-selected galaxies with nuclear LINER-like spectra (38% of the ULIGs in our sample) is likely to be shocks or of stellar origins rather than AGNs. Shock ionization associated with starburst-driven outflows may also explain the LINER-like emission detected outside the nuclei of some galaxies. No significant differences are found between the mean color excess of ULIGs and that of IRAS galaxies of lower infrared luminosity. However, in contrast to what was found in low-luminosity infrared galaxies, the color excess in the nuclei of ULIGs does not seem to depend on spectral types. The reddening in ULIGs is generally observed to decrease with distance from the nucleus as in their low

  15. Nustar Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt. W. N.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Gandhi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Madsen, K. K.; Ptak, A. F.; Rigby, Jane Rebecca; Risaliti, G.; Saz, C.; Stern, D.; Veilleux, S.; Walton, D. J.; Wik, D. R.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin N(sub H) approx. 1.2(sup +0.3) sub-0.3) x 10(exp 23) / sq cm) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity L(sub 0.5-30 Kev) approx. 1.0 x 10(exp 43) erg /s) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is approx. 0.03% compared to the typical values of 2-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope alpha(sub 0X) approx. -1.7. It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  16. THE REDSHIFT SEARCH RECEIVER OBSERVATIONS OF {sup 12}CO J = 1 {yields} 0 IN 29 ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Aeree; Narayanan, Gopal; Yun, Min S.; Heyer, Mark; Erickson, Neal R. E-mail: gopal@astro.umass.edu E-mail: heyer@astro.umass.edu

    2009-09-15

    We present {sup 12} CO J = 1 {yields} 0 observations of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) obtained using the Redshift Search Receiver (RSR) on the 14 m telescope of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory. The RSR is a novel, dual-beam, dual-polarization receiver equipped with an ultra-wideband spectrometer backend that is being built as a facility receiver for the Large Millimeter Telescope. Our sample consists of 29 ULIRGs in the redshift range of 0.04-0.11, including 10 objects with no prior {sup 12} CO measurements. We have detected 27 systems (a detection rate of 93%), including 9 ULIRGs that are detected in CO for the first time. Our study has increased the number of local ULIRGs with CO measurements by {approx}15%. The CO line luminosity L'{sub CO}, correlates well with far-infrared luminosity L {sub FIR}, following the general trend of other local ULIRGs. However, compared to previous surveys we probe deeper into the low CO luminosity end of the ULIRG population as a single study by including a number of CO faint objects in the sample. As a result, we find (1) a smoother transition between the ULIRG population and local quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) in L {sub FIR}-L'{sub CO} ('star formation efficiency') space, and (2) a broader range of L {sub FIR}/L'{sub CO} flux ratio ({approx} 60-10{sup 3} L {sub sun}/(K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2})) than previously reported. In our new survey, we also have found a small number of ULIRGs with extreme L {sub FIR}/L'{sub CO}, which had been known to be rare. The mid-IR color and radio-excess of 56 local ULIRGs as a function of FIR-to-CO flux ratio is examined and compared with those of spirals/starburst galaxies and low-z QSOs. In this paper, using a large sample of local ULIRGs we explore the origin of their current power source and potential evolution to QSOs.

  17. Revealing an Energetic Galaxy-Wide Outflow in a z ≍ 2 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, I.; McDermid, R.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.

    2010-10-01

    Leading models of galaxy formation require large-scale energetic outflows to regulate the growth of distant galaxies and their central black holes. However, current observational support for this hypothesis at high redshift is mostly limited to rare z > 2 radio galaxies. Here we present Gemini-North NIFS Intregral Field Unit (IFU) observations of the [O iii] λ5007 emission from a z ≍ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG; LIR > 1012 Lodot;) with an optically identified Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The spatial extent (≍ 4-8 kpc) of the high velocity and broad [O iii] emission are consistent with that found in z > 2 radio galaxies, indicating the presence of a large-scale energetic outflow in a galaxy population potentially orders of magnitude more common than distant radio galaxies. The low radio luminosity of this system indicates that radio- bright jets are unlikely to be responsible for driving the outflow. However, the estimated energy input required to produce the large-scale outflow signatures (of order ≍ 1059 ergs over ≍ 30 Myrs) could be delivered by a wind radiatively driven by the AGN and/or supernovae winds from intense star formation. The energy injection required to drive the outflow is comparable to the estimated binding energy of the galaxy spheroid, suggesting that it can have a significant impact on the evolution of the galaxy. We argue that the outflow observed in this system is likely to be comparatively typical of the high-redshift ULIRG population and discuss the implications of these observations for galaxy formation models.

  18. METAL-ENRICHED OUTFLOWS IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED QUASAR Q1321+058

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Tinggui; Zhou Hongyan; Lu HongLin; Dong Xiaobo; Yuan Weimin; Shan Hongguang

    2009-09-10

    Quasar outflows may play important role in the evolution of its host galaxy and central black hole, and are most often studied in absorption lines. In this paper, we present a detailed study of multiple outflows in the obscured ultraluminous infrared quasar Q1321+058. The outflows reveal themselves in the complex optical and ultraviolet (UV) emission-line spectrum, with a broad component blueshifted by 1650 km s{sup -1} and a narrow component by 360 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The higher velocity component shows ever strong N III] (N III]/C III] = 3.8 {+-} 0.3 and N III]/C IV = 0.53) and strong Si III] (Si III]/C III] {approx_equal} 1), in addition to strong [O III]{lambda}5007 and [Ne III]{lambda}3869 emission. A comparison of these line ratios with photoionization models suggests an overabundance of N and Si relative to C. The abundance pattern is consistent with a fast chemical enriching process associated with a recent starburst, triggered by a recent galaxy merger. The outflow extends to several tens to hundred parsecs from the quasar, and covers only a very small sky. We find that the outflow with line emitting gas is energetically insufficient to remove the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, but total kinetic energy may be much larger than suggested by the emission lines. The velocity range and the column density suggest that the outflow might be part of the low-ionization broad absorption line region as seen in a small class of quasars. The optical and UV continuum is starlight dominated and can be modeled with a young-aged (1 Myr) plus an intermediate-aged ({approx}0.5-1 Gyr) stellar populations, suggesting a fast building of the stellar mass in the host galaxy, consistent with the starburst-type metal abundances inferred from the high-velocity outflow spectrum. The broadband spectral energy distribution shows that it is an obscured quasar with its bulk emission in the middle infrared. The star formation rate, independently estimated from UV, far-infrared

  19. The [C II] 158 Micron Line in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, M. L.; Satyapal, S.; Fischer, J.; Wolfire, M. G.; Sturm, E.; Dudley, C. C.; Lutz, D.; Genzel, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a study of the [C II] 157.74 micron fine-structure line in a sample of 15 ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (IR luminosity L(sub IR greater than or equal to 10(exp 12)L.; ULIRGs) using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We confirm the observed order of magnitude deficit (compared to normal and starburst galaxies) in the strength of the [C II] line relative to the far-infrared (FIR) dust continuum emission found in our initial report, but here with a sample that is twice as large. This result suggests that the deficit is a general phenomenon affecting 4 out of 5 ULIRGs. We present an analysis using observations of generally acknowledged photodissociation region (PDR) tracers ([C II], [OI] 63 and 145 micron, and FIR continuum emission), which suggests that a high ultraviolet flux G(sub 0) incident on a moderate density n PDR could explain the deficit. However, comparisons with other ULIRG observations, including CO (1-0), [C I] (1-0), and 6.2 micron polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, suggest that high G(sub 0)/n PDRs alone cannot produce a self-consistent solution that is compatible with all of the observations. We propose that non-PDR contributions to the FIR continuum can explain the apparent [C II] deficiency. Here, unusually high G(sub 0) and/ or n physical conditions in ULIRGs as compared to those in normal and starburst galaxies are not required to explain the [C II] deficit. Dust-bounded photoionization regions, which generate much of the FIR emission but do not contribute significant [C II] emission, offer one possible physical origin for this additional non-PDR component. Such environments may also contribute to the observed suppression of FIR fine-structure emission from ionized gas and PAHs, as well as the warmer FIR colors found in ULIRGs. The implications for observations at higher redshifts are also revisited.

  20. High Resolution Optical/Near-Infrared Imaging of Cool Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surace, J.; Sanders, D.; Evans, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present here new multiwavelength observations with 1.5 and 4x the spatial resolution of previous ground-based observations at optical and near-infrared wavelengths; despite being ground-based, they allow us to isolate interesting features such as the star-forming knots detected in the warm ULIG sample.

  1. SPITZER QUASAR AND ULIRG EVOLUTION STUDY (QUEST). IV. COMPARISON OF 1 Jy ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH PALOMAR-GREEN QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Kim, D.-C. E-mail: drupke@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2009-06-15

    We report the results from a comprehensive study of 74 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and 34 Palomar-Green (PG) quasars within z {approx} 0.3 observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). The contribution of nuclear activity to the bolometric luminosity in these systems is quantified using six independent methods that span a range in wavelength and give consistent results within {approx}{+-}10%-15% on average. This agreement suggests that deeply buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs) invisible to Spitzer IRS but bright in the far-infrared are not common in this sample. The average derived AGN contribution in ULIRGs is {approx}35%-40%, ranging from {approx}15%-35% among 'cool' (f {sub 25}/f {sub 60} {<=} 0.2) optically classified H II-like and LINER ULIRGs to {approx}50 and {approx}75% among warm Seyfert 2 and Seyfert 1 ULIRGs, respectively. This number exceeds {approx}80% in PG QSOs. ULIRGs fall in one of three distinct AGN classes: (1) objects with small extinctions and large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths are highly starburst-dominated; (2) systems with large extinctions and modest PAH equivalent widths have larger AGN contributions, but still tend to be starburst-dominated; and (3) ULIRGs with both small extinctions and small PAH equivalent widths host AGN that are at least as powerful as the starbursts. The AGN contributions in class 2 ULIRGs are more uncertain than in the other objects, and we cannot formally rule out the possibility that these objects represent a physically distinct type of ULIRGs. A morphological trend is seen along the sequence (1)-(2)-(3), in general agreement with the standard ULIRG-QSO evolution scenario and suggestive of a broad peak in extinction during the intermediate stages of merger evolution. However, the scatter in this sequence, including the presence of a significant number of AGN-dominated systems prior to coalescence and starburst-dominated but fully merged systems, implies that black

  2. Spectroscopy of luminous infrared galaxies at 2 microns: 1. The ultraluminous galaxies (L(sub IR) approximately greater than 10 (exp 12) solar luminosity)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.; Joseph, R. D.; Doyon, Rene; Sanders, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    We present high-quality spectra covering the K window at a resolving power of 340 for a sample of 13 ultraluminous (L(sub IR) approximately greater than 10(exp 12) solar luminosity) infrared-selected galaxies, and line fluxes for a comparison sample of 24 lower luminosity galaxies. The 2 micrometers spectra of 10 of the ultraluminous galaxies are characterized by emission and absorption features commonly associated with stars and star formation; two others have the red power-law spectra and Br gamma line widths of Seyfert 1 galaxies; the final galaxy has strong emission from hot dust. We have found no broad-line active nuclei not already known from optical observations, despite the fact that the extinction at 2 micrometers is 1/10 that at optical wavelengths; any putative Seyfert 1 nuclei must be deeply buried. Powerful continua and emission lines from H2 and Br gamma are detected in all the ultraluminous galaxies. Comparing the H2 1-0 S(1), Br gamma, and 2 micrometers and far-infrared luminosities to those of the lower luminosity galaxies yields several major results. First, the dereddened Br gamma emission, relative to the far-infrared luminosity is significantly depressed in the ultraluminous sample, when compared to the lower luminosity galaxies. Five of the ultraluminous galaxies have L(sub Br gamma)L(sub IR) ratios lower than for any of the comparison objects. Second, the H2 1-0 S(1) luminosity is also responsible, directly or indirectly, for producing the excited H2, and that the H2 apparently comes from optically thin regions in both classes of objects. Third, eight of the 13 ultraluminous systems have lower 2 micrometers/far-infrared luminosity ratios than any of the lower luminosity galaxies, and five of these are the galaxies also deficient in Br gamma. These three findings may be understood if the the H2, Br gamma, and 2 mircometers continua in the ultraluminous galaxies arise from spatially distinct regions, with the continuum and Br gamma largely

  3. THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES VIEWED BY XMM-NEWTON's OPTICAL MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Tincher, J.; Winter, L. M. E-mail: rachel.dudik@usno.navy.mil

    2013-10-20

    We have used XMM-Newton's Optical Monitor (OM) images to study the local environment of a sample of 27 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies. UVW1 fluxes were extracted from 100 pc regions centered on the ULX positions. We find that at least 4 ULXs (out of 10 published) have spectral types that are consistent with previous literature values. In addition, the colors are similar to those of young stars. For the highest-luminosity ULXs, the UVW1 fluxes may have an important contribution from the accretion disk. We find that the majority of ULXs are associated with recent star formation. Many of the ULXs in our sample are located inside young OB associations or star-forming regions (SFRs). Based on their colors, we estimated ages and masses for SFRs located within 1 kpc from the ULXs in our sample. The resolution of the OM was insufficient to detect young dense superclusters, but some of these SFRs are massive enough to contain such clusters. Only three ULXs have no associated SFRs younger than ∼50 Myr. The age and mass estimates for clusters were used to test runaway scenarios. The data are, in general, compatible with stellar-mass binaries accreting at super-Eddington rates and ejected by natal kicks. We also tested the hypothesis that ULXs are sub-Eddington accreting intermediate mass black holes ejected by three-body interactions; however, this is not supported well by the data.

  4. The radio core of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy F00183-7111: watching the birth of a quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Lenc, Emil; Roy, Alan L.; Spoon, Henrik

    2012-05-01

    F00183-7111 is one of the most extreme ultraluminous infrared galaxies known, with a bolometric luminosity of 9 × 1012 L⊙. Here we present a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)_ image which shows a compact core-jet active galactic nucleus (AGN) in its core, with a radio luminosity (L2.3 GHz= 6 × 1025 W Hz-1) typical of powerful radio galaxies. Although already radio loud, the quasar jets are only 1.7 kpc long, boring through the dense gas and starburst activity that confine them. This source therefore appears to be powered by a combination of a compact radio-loud AGN surrounded by vigorous starburst activity.

  5. PROBING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF z {approx} 1 ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES THROUGH INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF CO AND SPITZER MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Alexandra; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Wagg, Jeff; Frayer, David; Armus, Lee; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Desai, Vandana; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared

    2013-08-01

    We explore the relationship between gas, dust, and star formation in a sample of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at high-redshift compared to a similar sample of local galaxies. We present new CO observations and/or Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy for six 70 {mu}m selected galaxies at z {approx} 1 in order to quantify the properties of the molecular gas reservoir, the contribution of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to the mid-IR luminosity, and the star formation efficiency (SFE = L{sub IR}/L{sup '}{sub CO}). The mid-IR spectra show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and our spectral decomposition suggests that the AGN makes a minimal contribution (<25%) to the mid-IR luminosity. The 70 {mu}m selected ULIRGs, which we find to be spectroscopic close pairs, are observed to have high SFE, similar to local ULIRGs and high-redshift submillimeter galaxies, consistent with enhanced IR luminosity due to an ongoing major merger. Combined with existing observations of local and high-redshift ULIRGs, we further compare the PAH, IR, and CO luminosities. We show that the ratio L{sub PAH,6.2}/L{sub IR} decreases with increasing IR luminosity for both local and high-redshift galaxies, but the trend for high-redshift galaxies is shifted to higher IR luminosities; the average L{sub PAH,6.2}/L{sub IR} ratio at a given L{sub IR} is {approx}3 times higher at high-redshift. When we normalize by the molecular gas, we find this trend to be uniform for galaxies at all redshifts and that the molecular gas is correlated with the PAH dust emission. The similar trends seen in the [C II] to molecular gas ratios in other studies suggests that PAH emission, like [C II], continues to be a good tracer of photodissociation regions even at high-redshift. Together the CO, PAH, and far-IR fine structure lines should be useful for constraining the interstellar medium conditions in high-redshift galaxies.

  6. IRAS F13308+5946: A POSSIBLE TRANSITION PHASE FROM TYPE I ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY TO OPTICAL QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Xianmin; Wu Hong; Wang Jing; Gu Qiusheng; Cao Chen

    2010-08-01

    We present a stellar population synthesis study of a type I luminous infrared galaxy: IRAS F13308+5946. It is a quasar with absolute magnitude M{sub i} = -22.56 and has the spectral feature of a Seyfert 1.5 galaxy. Optical images show characteristics of later stages of a merger. With the help of the stellar synthesis code STARLIGHT and both Calzetti et al.'s and Leitherer et al.'s extinction curves, we estimate the past infrared (IR) luminosities of the host galaxy and find that it may have experienced an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) phase for nearly 300 Myr, so this galaxy has probably experienced a type I ULIRG phase. Both nuclear starburst (SB) and active galactic nuclei contribute to the present IR luminosity budget, with the SB contributing {approx}70%. The mass of the supermassive black hole is M{sub BH} = 1.8 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} and the Eddington ratio L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} is 0.12, both of which are approximate typical values of Palomar-Green QSOs. These results indicate that IRAS F13308+5946 is probably at the transitional phase from a type I ULIRG to a classical QSO.

  7. X-Raying the Ultraluminous Infrared Starburst Galaxy and Broad Absorption Line QSO Markarian 231 with Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, S. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Garmire, G. P.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    With 40 ks of Clzandra ACIS-S3 exposure, new information on both the starburst and QSO components of the X-ray emission of Markarian 231, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy and broad absorption line QSO, has been obtained. The bulk of the X-ray luminosity is emitted from an unresolved nuclear point source, and the spectrum is remarkably hard, with the majority of the flux emitted above 2 keV. Most notably, significant nuclear variability (a decrease of -45% in approximately 6 hr) at energies above 2 keV indicates that Chuizdra has probed within light-hours of the central black hole. Although we concur with Maloney & Reynolds that the direct continuum is not observed, this variability coupled with the 188 eV upper limit on the equivalent width of the Fe K o emission line argues against the reflection-dominated model put forth by these authors based on their ASCA data. Instead, we favor a model in which a small, Compton-thick absorber blocks the direct X-rays, and only indirect, scattered X-rays from multiple lines of sight can reach the observer. Extended soft, thermal emission encompasses the optical extent of the galaxy and exhibits resolved structure. An off-nuclear X-ray source with a 0.35-8.0 keV luminosity of Lx = 7 x 10 sup39 ergs s sup -1 , consistent with the ultraluminous X-ray sources in other nearby starbursts, is detected. We also present an unpublished Faint Object Spectrograph spectrum from the Hirhhle Spuce Telescope archive showing the broad C IV absorption.

  8. Optical-faint, Far-infrared-bright Herschel Sources in the CANDELS Fields: Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies at z > 1 and the Effect of Source Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Somerville, Rachel; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven "SDSS-invisible," very bright 250 μm sources (S 250 > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ~ 1-2 whose high L IR is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  9. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Somerville, Rachel; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  10. A Chandra X-Ray Investigation of the Violent Interstellar Medium: From Dwarf Starbursts to Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, J. P.; Heckman, T.; Strickland, D.; Ptak, A.

    2005-07-01

    We have analyzed observations with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory of the diffuse emission by hot gas in seven dwarf starburst galaxies, six edge-on starburst galaxies, and nine ultraluminous infrared galaxies. These systems cover ranges of ~104 in X-ray luminosity, and several thousand in star formation rate and K-band luminosity (a proxy for stellar mass). Despite this range in fundamental parameters, we find that the properties of the diffuse X-ray emission are very similar in all three classes of starburst galaxies. The spectrum of the diffuse emission is well fitted by thermal emission from gas with kT~0.25-0.8 keV and with several times solar abundance ratios of α-elements to Fe. The ratio of the thermal X-ray to far-infrared luminosity is roughly constant, as is the characteristic surface brightness of the diffuse X-ray emission. The size of the diffuse X-ray source increases systematically with both far-infrared and K-band luminosity. All three classes show strong morphological relationships between the regions of hot gas probed by the diffuse X-ray emission and the warm gas probed by optical line emission. These findings suggest that the same physical mechanism is producing the diffuse X-ray emission in the three types of starbursts. These results are consistent with that mechanism being shocks driven by a galactic ``superwind,'' which is powered by the kinetic energy collectively supplied by stellar winds and supernovae in the starburst.

  11. Detection and Mapping of Decoupled Stellar and Ionized Gas Structures in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 12112+0305.

    PubMed

    Colina; Arribas; Borne; Monreal

    2000-04-10

    Integral field optical spectroscopy with the INTEGRAL fiber-fed system and Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging are used to map the complex stellar and warm ionized gas structure in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 12112+0305. Images reconstructed from wavelength-delimited extractions of the integral field spectra reveal that the observed ionized gas distribution is decoupled from the stellar main body of the galaxy, with the dominant continuum and emission-line regions separated by projected distances of up to 7.5 kpc. The two optical nuclei are detected as apparently faint emission-line regions, and their optical properties are consistent with being dust-enshrouded weak [O i] LINERs. The brightest emission-line region is associated with a faint (mI=20.4), giant H ii region of 600 pc diameter, in which a young ( approximately 5 Myr) massive cluster of about 2x107 M middle dot in circle dominates the ionization. Internal reddening toward the line-emitting regions and the optical nuclei ranges from 1 to 8 mag in the visual. Taking the reddening into account, the overall star formation in IRAS 12112+0305 is dominated by starbursts associated with the two nuclei and corresponds to a star formation rate of 80 M middle dot in circle yr-1. PMID:10727379

  12. Searching for evidence of energetic feedback in distant galaxies: a galaxy wide outflow in a z ~ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; McDermid, R.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.

    2010-03-01

    Leading models of galaxy formation require large-scale energetic outflows to regulate the growth of distant galaxies and their central black holes. However, current observational support for this hypothesis at high redshift is mostly limited to rare z > 2 radio galaxies. Here, we present Gemini-North Near-Infrared Field Spectrometer (NIFS) observations of the [OIII]λ5007 emission from a z ~ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG; LIR > 1012Lsolar) with an optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGN). The spatial extent (~4-8 kpc) of the high velocity and broad [OIII] emission is consistent with that found in z > 2 radio galaxies, indicating the presence of a large-scale energetic outflow in a galaxy population potentially orders of magnitude more common than distant radio galaxies. The low radio luminosity of this system indicates that radio-bright jets are unlikely to be responsible for driving the outflow. However, the estimated energy input required to produce the large-scale outflow signatures (of the order of ~1059 erg over ~30 Myr) could be delivered by a wind radiatively driven by the AGN and/or supernovae winds from intense star formation. The energy injection required to drive the outflow is comparable to the estimated binding energy of the galaxy spheroid, suggesting that it can have a significant impact on the evolution of the galaxy. We argue that the outflow observed in this system is likely to be comparatively typical of the high-redshift ULIRG population and discuss the implications of these observations for galaxy formation models.

  13. NuSTAR reveals an intrinsically X-ray weak broad absorption line quasar in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, J. R.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Ptak, A. F.; and others

    2014-04-10

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin (N{sub H}∼1.2{sub −0.3}{sup +0.3}×10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity (L {sub 0.5–30} {sub keV} ∼ 1.0 × 10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1}) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is ∼0.03% compared to the typical values of 2%-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope (α{sub OX} ∼ –1.7). It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  14. Unveiling the hearts of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxy mergers with laser guide star adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medling, Anne M.

    2013-03-01

    Gas-rich galaxies across cosmic time exhibit one or both of two phenomena: ongoing star formation and an active galactic nucleus indicating current black hole accretion. These two processes are important mechanisms through which galaxies evolve and grow, but their effects are difficult to disentangle. Both will use up some available gas, and both are capable of producing winds strong enough to eject remaining gas from the galaxy. One must look at high spatial resolutions in order to separate the dynamical effects of star formation going on near the nucleus of a galaxy from the black hole growth going on in the nucleus. We present high spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of fifteen nearby luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. These systems are extremely bright in the infrared exactly because they host powerful starbursts and active nuclei, which in turn heat the surrounding dust. Our data provide resolved stellar and gaseous kinematics of the central kiloparsec of each of these systems by removing atmospheric blurring with adaptive optics, an observing technique that measures the turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere and then uses a deformable mirror to correct the resulting distortions. Our kinematic maps reveal nuclear disks of gas and stars with radii ˜ a few hundred parsecs surrounding the central black holes. Because the stellar and gas kinematics match well, we conclude that the stars are forming in situ from the gas in the disks. These disks may be the progenitors of kinematically decoupled cores seen in many isolated elliptical galaxies, and may have a significant effect on the merger rate of binary black holes. Additionally, these disks may be used to measure black hole masses which, when combined with host galaxy properties and placed on scaling relations, indicate that black holes grow as or more quickly than their host galaxies during a merger. This suggests that a sudden burst of black hole growth at in the final stages of the merger

  15. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of Spitzer-selected ultra-luminous starbursts at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiolet, N.; Omont, A.; Lagache, G.; Bertincourt, B.; Fadda, D.; Baker, A. J.; Beelen, A.; Berta, S.; Boulanger, F.; Farrah, D.; Kovács, A.; Lonsdale, C.; Owen, F.; Polletta, M.; Shupe, D.; Yan, L.

    2010-12-01

    Context. Spitzer's wide-field surveys and followup capabilities have allowed a new breakthrough in mid-IR spectroscopy up to redshifts ≥ 2, especially for 24 μm detected sources. Aims: We want to study the mid-infrared properties and the starburst and AGN contributions, of 24 μm sources at z ~ 2, through analysis of mid-infrared spectra combined with millimeter, radio, and infrared photometry. Mid-infrared spectroscopy allows us to recover accurate redshifts. Methods: A complete sample of 16 Spitzer-selected sources (ULIRGs) believed to be starbursts at z ~ 2 (“5.8 μm-peakers”) was selected in the (0.5 deg2) J1064+56 SWIRE Lockman Hole field (“Lockman-North”). These sources have S24µ > 0.5 mJy, a stellar emission peak redshifted to 5.8 μm, and r'Vega > 23. The entire sample was observed with the low resolution units of the Spitzer/IRS infrared spectrograph. These sources have 1.2 mm observations with IRAM 30 m/MAMBO and very deep 20 cm observations from the VLA. Nine of our sources also benefit from 350 μm observation and detection from CSO/SHARC-II. All these data were jointly analyzed. Results: The entire sample shows good quality IRS spectra dominated by strong PAH features. The main PAH features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm have high S/N average luminosities of 2.90±0.31, 10.38±1.09, 3.62±0.27, and 2.29±0.26×1010 L⊙, respectively. Thanks to their PAH spectra, we derived accurate redshifts spanning from 1.750 to 2.284. The average of these redshifts is 2.017±0.038. This result confirms that the selection criteria of “5.8 μm-peakers” associated with a strong detection at 24 μm are reliable to select sources at z ~ 2. We have analyzed the different correlations between PAH emission and infrared, millimeter, and radio emissions. Practically all our sources are strongly dominated by starburst emission, with only one source showing an important AGN contribution. We have also defined two subsamples based on the equivalent width at 7.7

  16. The blueshifted Pa alpha broad line component and the origin of strong iron emission in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 07598+6508

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawara, Kimiaki; Murayama, Takashi; Sato, Yasunori

    1994-01-01

    We present the Pa alpha emission profile of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULFIRG) IRAS 07598+6508 which is an unusually strong Fe II emitter in the optical. The Pa alpha emission line profile shows a blueshifted broad component (FWHM approximately equal to 3900 km/sec) together with a narrow core (FWHM less than or equal to 530 km/sec). The presence of the broad line component strongly suggests that IRAS 07598+6508 has an active galactic nucleus, supporting a scenario of merger-induced quasar formation proposed by Sanders et al. (1988), although we cannot rule out the possibility of a supernova-driven high speed wind. Possible detection of (Fe II) 1.893 micrometer emission is also reported. It is shown that strong Fe II emitters such as IRAS 07598+6508 have intermediate IRAS color properties between normal quasars and cold ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We thus suggest an evolutionary link from cold ULFIRG through warm ULFIRG and Fe II ULFIRG to quasars.

  17. ALMA Investigation of Vibrationally Excited HCN/HCO+/HNC Emission Lines in the AGN-Hosting Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 20551‑4250

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Izumi, Takuma

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551‑4250 at HCN/HCO+/HNC J = 3–2 lines at both vibrational ground (v = 0) and vibrationally excited (v 2 = 1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v 2 = 1f J = 4–3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO+/HNC J = 3–2 emission lines at v = 0 are clearly detected. The HCN and HNC v 2 = 1f J = 3–2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO+ v 2 = 1f J = 3–2 emission line is not. Given the high energy level of v 2 = 1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5–35 μm spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO+ and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation temperature between v 2 = 1f and v = 0, after correction for possible line opacity, suggests that infrared radiative pumping affects rotational (J-level) excitation at v = 0 at least for HCN and HNC. The HCN-to-HCO+ v = 0 flux ratio is higher than those of starburst-dominated regions, and will increase even more when the derived high HCN opacity is corrected. The enhanced HCN-to-HCO+ flux ratio in this AGN-hosting galaxy can be explained by the high HCN-to-HCO+ abundance ratio and sufficient HCN excitation at up to J = 4, rather than the significantly higher efficiency of infrared radiative pumping for HCN than HCO+.

  18. First Detection of GeV Emission from an Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy: Arp 220 as Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) in starburst galaxies produce high-energy gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. Arp 220 is the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy that has star formation at extreme levels, so it has long been predicted to emit high-energy gamma-rays. However, no evidence of gamma-ray emission was found despite intense search efforts. Here we report the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from Arp 220 at a confidence level of ∼6.3σ using 7.5 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations. The gamma-ray emission shows no significant variability over the observation period and it is consistent with the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, suggesting that these gamma-rays arise from CR interactions. As the high-density medium of Arp 220 makes it an ideal CR calorimeter, the gamma-ray luminosity can be used to measure the efficiency of powering CRs by supernova (SN) remnants given a known supernova rate in Arp 220. We find that this efficiency is about 4.2 ± 2.6% for CRs above 1 GeV.

  19. Mapping Large-Scale Gaseous Outflows in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies with Keck II ESI Spectra: Spatial Extent of the Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Crystal L.

    2006-08-01

    The kinematics of neutral gas and warm ionized gas have been mapped across ultraluminous starburst galaxies using the Na I λλ5890, 5896 absorption-line and Hα emission-line profiles, respectively, in Keck II ESI spectra. Blueshifted, interstellar absorption is found over extended regions, exceeding 15 kpc in several systems. An outflow diverging from the nuclear starburst would have to reach large heights to cover this area in projection. The scale height of the absorbing material could be lower, however, if the outflow emanates from a larger region of the galaxy. The large velocity gradient discovered across several outflows is inconsistent with a flow diverging from the nuclear starburst. Widespread star formation, triggered by the merger, probably drives these extended outflows via mechanical feedback from supernovae, although shocks generated by the galaxy-galaxy merger may also contribute to the formation of a hot wind. In a typical ULIG, the mass carried by the cool phase of the outflow is ~108 Msolar i.e., a few percent of the dynamical mass in the starburst region. Assuming the starburst activity has persisted for 10 Myr, the kinetic energy of the cool outflows is a few percent of the supernova energy. The cool wind is expected to be accelerated by momentum deposition, possibly from radiation pressure as well as the ram pressure of the hot, supernova-induced wind. The turnaround radii of the cool outflows are at least ~30-90 kpc, which presents a significant Na I absorption cross section. If most L>0.1L* galaxies pass through a luminous starburst phase, then relics of cool outflows will create a significant redshift-path density. Galaxy formation models should include this cool phase of the outflow in addition to a hot wind in feedback models. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National

  20. Exploring the overabundance of ultraluminous X-ray sources in metal- and dust-poor local Lyman break analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu-Zych, Antara; Lehmer, Bret; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Zezas, Andreas; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We have studied high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) populations within two low-metallicity, starburst galaxies, Haro 11 and VV 114. These galaxies serve as analogs to high-redshift (z > 2) Lyman break galaxies, and within the larger sample of Lyman break analogs (LBAs) are sufficiently nearby (< 87 Mpc) to be spatially-resolved by Chandra. Previous studies of the X-ray emission in LBAs have found that the 2-10 keV luminosity per star formation rate (SFR) in these galaxies is elevated, potentially because of their low metallicities (12+log[O/H]=8.3-8.4). Theoretically, the progenitors of XRBs forming in lower metallicity environments lose less mass from stellar winds over their lifetimes, producing more massive compact objects (i.e., neutron stars and black holes), and thus resulting in more numerous and luminous HMXBs per SFR. In this talk, I present our in-depth study of the only two LBAs that have spatially-resolved 2-10 keV emission with Chandra to present the bright end of the X-ray luminosity distribution of HMXBs (LX>1039 erg s-1 ultraluminous X-ray sources, ULXs) in these low-metallicity galaxies, based on 8 detected ULXs. Comparing with the star-forming galaxy X-ray luminosity function (XLF), Haro 11 and VV 114 host ~4 times more LX>1040 erg s-1 sources than expected given their SFRs. We simulate the effects of source blending from crowded lower luminosity HMXBs using the star-forming galaxy XLF and then vary the XLF normalizations and bright-end slopes until we reproduce the observed point source luminosity distributions. Based on this analysis, we find that these LBAs have a shallower bright end slope than the standard XLF.

  1. The evolution of and starburst-agn connection in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies and their link to globular cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie Lynn

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; 1011 < LIR < 1012 L[special character omitted]) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; 1012 < LIR < 1013 L[special character omitted]), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, I first spectroscopically examine U/LIRGs (1011 < LIR < 1013 L[special character omitted]) within the IRAS 2 Jansky Redshift Survey with 0.05 < z < 0.16. Using new spectrophotometric data, I classify the primary source of IR radiation as being a nuclear starburst or a type of AGN by using the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagrams. I show that for the U/LIRGs in my sample the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGN (e.g. star formation rate (SFR), L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hdelta)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these properties and objects' locations on the BPT diagrams. I then derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Halpha that are based on how these properties vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points. The paths involve U/LIRGs that decrease in SFR and increase in AGN activity. Paths with U/LIRGs that evolve into high luminosity AGN likely do so due to recent, strong starbursts. Second, to study how the properties of the IR power sources in U/LIRGs vary, I use a combination of photometric data points that I carefully measure (using photometry from SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer) and that I retrieve from catalogues (IRAS, AKARI, and ISO) to perform UV to FIR SED-fitting with CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) for 34 U/LIRGs from the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.01 < z < 0.16. I find evidence that the nuclear starburst forms first in U/LIRGs, and also find that U/LIRGs with relatively similar SFRs show

  2. A Chandra Observation of the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 19254-7245 (THE SUPERANTENNAE): X-Ray Emission From the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and the Diffuse Starburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew Francis; Heckman, Timothy M.; Braito, Valantina; Reeves, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a Chandra observation of IRAS 19254-7245, a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy also known as the Superantennae. The high spatial resolution of Chandra allows us to disentangle for the first time the diffuse starburst (SB) emission from the embedded Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the southern nucleus. No AGN activity is detected in the northern nucleus. The 2-10 keV spectrum of the AGN emission is fitted by a flat power law (G = 1.3) and an He-like Fe Ka line with equivalent width 1.5 keV, consistent with previous observations. The Fe Ka line profile could be resolved as a blend of a neutral 6.4 keV line and an ionized 6.7 keV (He-like) or 6.9 keV (H-like) line. Variability of the neutral line is detected compared with the previous XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations, demonstrating the compact size of the iron line emission. The spectrum of the galaxy-scale extended emission excluding the AGN and other bright point sources is fitted with a thermal component with a best-fit kT of 0.8 keV. The 2-10 keV luminosity of the extended emission is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the AGN. The basic physical and structural properties of the extended emission are fully consistent with a galactic wind being driven by the SB. A candidate ultraluminous X-ray source is detected 8 south of the southern nucleus. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity of this off-nuclear point source is 6 × 1040 erg s-1 if the emission is isotropic and the source is associated with the Superantennae.

  3. A Chandra Observation of the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 19254-7245 (The Superantennae): X-Ray Emission from the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and the Diffuse Starburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a Chandra observation of IRAS 19254-7245, a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy also known as the Superantennae. The high spatial resolution of Chandra allows us to disentangle for the first time the diffuse starburst (SB) emission from the embedded Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the southern nucleus. No AGN activity is detected in the northern nucleus. The 2-10 keV spectrum of the AGN emission is fitted by a flat power law (TAU = 1.3) and an He-like Fe Kalpha line with equivalent width 1.5 keV, consistent with previous observations. The Fe K line profile could be resolved as a blend of a neutral 6.4 keV line and an ionized 6.7 keV (He-like) or 6.9 keV (H-like) line. Variability of the neutral line is detected compared with the previous XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations, demonstrating the compact size of the iron line emission. The spectrum of the galaxy-scale extended emission excluding the AGN and other bright point sources is fitted with a thermal component with a best-fit kT of approximately 0.8 keV. The 2-10 keV luminosity of the extended emission is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the AGN. The basic physical and structural properties of the extended emission are fully consistent with a galactic wind being driven by the SB. A candidate ultraluminous X-ray source is detected 8 south of the southern nucleus. The 0.3 - 10 keV luminosity of this off-nuclear point source is approximately 6 x 10(exp 40) erg per second if the emission is isotropic and the source is associated with the Superantennae.

  4. MID-INFRARED DETERMINATION OF TOTAL INFRARED LUMINOSITY AND STAR FORMATION RATES OF LOCAL AND HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rujopakarn, W.; Rieke, G. H.; Weiner, B. J.; Perez-Gonzalez, P.; Rex, M.; Walth, G. L.; Kartaltepe, J. S.

    2013-04-10

    We demonstrate estimating the total infrared luminosity, L(TIR), and star formation rates (SFRs) of star-forming galaxies at redshift 0 < z < 2.8 from single-band 24 {mu}m observations, using local spectral energy distribution (SED) templates without introducing additional free parameters. Our method is based on characterizing the SEDs of galaxies as a function of their L(TIR) surface density, which is motivated by the indications that the majority of IR luminous star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 3 have extended star-forming regions, in contrast to the strongly nuclear concentrated, merger-induced starbursts in local luminous and ultraluminous IR galaxies. We validate our procedure for estimating L(TIR) by comparing the resulting L(TIR) with those measured from far-IR observations, such as those from Herschel in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) and Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN), as well as L(TIR) measured from stacked far-IR observations at redshift 0 < z < 2.8. Active galactic nuclei were excluded using X-ray and 3.6-8.0 {mu}m observations, which are generally available in deep cosmological survey fields. The Gaussian fits to the distribution of the discrepancies between the L(TIR) measurements from single-band 24 {mu}m and Herschel observations in the ECDFS and HDFN samples have {sigma} < 0.1 dex, with {approx}10% of objects disagreeing by more than 0.2 dex. Since the 24 {mu}m estimates are based on SEDs for extended galaxies, this agreement suggests that {approx}90% of IR galaxies at high z are indeed much more physically extended than local counterparts of similar L(TIR), consistent with recent independent studies of the fractions of galaxies forming stars in the main-sequence and starburst modes, respectively. Because we have not introduced empirical corrections to enhance these estimates, in principle, our method should be applicable to lower luminosity galaxies. This will enable use of the 21 {mu}m band of the Mid-Infrared Instrument on board

  5. Mid-infrared Determination of Total Infrared Luminosity and Star Formation Rates of Local and High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Rieke, G. H.; Weiner, B. J.; Pérez-González, P.; Rex, M.; Walth, G. L.; Kartaltepe, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate estimating the total infrared luminosity, L(TIR), and star formation rates (SFRs) of star-forming galaxies at redshift 0 < z < 2.8 from single-band 24 μm observations, using local spectral energy distribution (SED) templates without introducing additional free parameters. Our method is based on characterizing the SEDs of galaxies as a function of their L(TIR) surface density, which is motivated by the indications that the majority of IR luminous star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 3 have extended star-forming regions, in contrast to the strongly nuclear concentrated, merger-induced starbursts in local luminous and ultraluminous IR galaxies. We validate our procedure for estimating L(TIR) by comparing the resulting L(TIR) with those measured from far-IR observations, such as those from Herschel in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) and Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN), as well as L(TIR) measured from stacked far-IR observations at redshift 0 < z < 2.8. Active galactic nuclei were excluded using X-ray and 3.6-8.0 μm observations, which are generally available in deep cosmological survey fields. The Gaussian fits to the distribution of the discrepancies between the L(TIR) measurements from single-band 24 μm and Herschel observations in the ECDFS and HDFN samples have σ < 0.1 dex, with ~10% of objects disagreeing by more than 0.2 dex. Since the 24 μm estimates are based on SEDs for extended galaxies, this agreement suggests that ~90% of IR galaxies at high z are indeed much more physically extended than local counterparts of similar L(TIR), consistent with recent independent studies of the fractions of galaxies forming stars in the main-sequence and starburst modes, respectively. Because we have not introduced empirical corrections to enhance these estimates, in principle, our method should be applicable to lower luminosity galaxies. This will enable use of the 21 μm band of the Mid-Infrared Instrument on board the James Webb Space Telescope

  6. A Bridge from Optical to Infrared Galaxies: Explaining Local Properties and Predicting Galaxy Counts and the Cosmic Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, Tomonori; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.

    2002-05-01

    We give an explanation for the origin of various properties observed in local infrared galaxies and make predictions for galaxy counts and cosmic background radiation (CBR) using a new model extended from that for optical/near-infrared galaxies. Important new characteristics of this study are that (1) mass scale dependence of dust extinction is introduced based on the size-luminosity relation of optical galaxies and that (2) the large-grain dust temperature Tdust is calculated based on a physical consideration for energy balance rather than by using the empirical relation between Tdust and total infrared luminosity LIR found in local galaxies, which has been employed in most previous works. Consequently, the local properties of infrared galaxies, i.e., optical/infrared luminosity ratios, LIR-Tdust correlation, and infrared luminosity function are outputs predicted by the model, while these have been inputs in a number of previous models. Our model indeed reproduces these local properties reasonably well. Then we make predictions for faint infrared counts (in 15, 60, 90, 170, 450, and 850 μm) and CBR using this model. We found results considerably different from those of most previous works based on the empirical LIR-Tdust relation; especially, it is shown that the dust temperature of starbursting primordial elliptical galaxies is expected to be very high (40-80 K), as often seen in starburst galaxies or ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the local and high-z universe. This indicates that intense starbursts of forming elliptical galaxies should have occurred at z~2-3, in contrast to the previous results that significant starbursts beyond z~1 tend to overproduce the far-infrared (FIR) CBR detected by COBE/FIRAS. On the other hand, our model predicts that the mid-infrared (MIR) flux from warm/nonequilibrium dust is relatively weak in such galaxies making FIR CBR, and this effect reconciles the prima facie conflict between the upper limit on MIR CBR from TeV gamma

  7. A comparison of the morphological properties between local and z ∼ 1 infrared luminous galaxies: Are local and high-z (U)LIRGs different?

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, Kirsten L.; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Yanxia; Lockhart, Kelly; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Barnes, Joshua E.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Koss, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Smith, Howard A.

    2014-08-10

    Ultraluminous and luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs and LIRGs) are the most extreme star-forming galaxies in the universe and dominate the total star formation rate density at z > 1. In the local universe (z < 0.3), the majority of ULIRGs and a significant portion of LIRGs are triggered by interactions between gas-rich spiral galaxies, yet it is unclear if this is still the case at high z. To investigate the relative importance of galaxy interactions in infrared luminous galaxies, we carry out a comparison of optical morphological properties between local (U)LIRGs and (U)LIRGs at z = 0.5-1.5 based on the same sample selection, morphology classification scheme, and optical morphology at similar rest-frame wavelengths. In addition, we quantify the systematics in comparing local and high-z data sets by constructing a redshifted data set from local (U)LIRGs, in which its data quality mimics the high-z data set. Based on the Gini-M{sub 20} classification scheme, we find that the fraction of interacting systems decreases by ∼8% from local to z ≲ 1, and it is consistent with the reduction between local and redshifted data sets (6{sub −6}{sup +14}%). Based on visual classifications, the merger fraction of local ULIRGs is found to be ∼20% lower compared to published results, and the reduction due to redshifting is 15{sub −8}{sup +10}%. Consequently, the differences of merger fractions between local and z ≲ 1 (U)LIRGs is only ∼17%. These results demonstrate that there is no strong evolution in the fraction of (U)LIRGs classified as mergers at least out to z ∼ 1. At z > 1, the morphology types of ∼30% of (U)LIRGs cannot be determined due to their faintness in the F814W band; thus, the merger fraction measured at z > 1 suffers from large uncertainties.

  8. The [NII] 205 μm Emission in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Lord, Steven D.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Evans, Aaron; Howell, Justin; Petric, Andreea O.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Sanders, David B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present the measurements of the [N ii] 205 μm line for a flux-limited sample of 122 (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] and 20 additional normal galaxies, obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel). We explore the far-infrared (FIR) color dependence of the [N ii] 205 μm (L[N ii]205 μm) to the total infrared (LIR) luminosity ratio, and find that L[N ii]205 μm/LIR only depends modestly on the 70-160 μm flux density ratio ({f}70/{f}160) when {f}70/{f}160≲ 0.6, whereas such dependence becomes much steeper for {f}70/{f}160\\gt 0.6. We also investigate the relation between L[N ii]205 μm and star formation rate (SFR), and show that L[N ii]205 μm has a nearly linear correlation with SFR, albeit the intercept of such a relation varies somewhat with {f}60/{f}100, consistent with our previous conclusion that [N ii] 205 μm emission can serve as an SFR indicator with an accuracy of ˜0.4 dex, or ˜0.2 dex if {f}60/{f}100 is known independently. Furthermore, together with the Infrared Space Observatory measurements of [N ii], we use a total of ˜200 galaxies to derive the local [N ii] 205 μm luminosity function (LF) by tying it to the known IR LF with a bivariate method. As a practical application, we also compute the local SFR volume density ({\\dot{ρ }}{{SFR}}) using the newly derived SFR calibrator and LF. The resulting {log} {\\dot{ρ }}{{SFR}}=-1.96+/- 0.11 {M}⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 agrees well with previous studies. Finally, we determine the electron densities (ne) of the ionized medium for a subsample of 12 (U)LIRGs with both [N ii] 205 μm and [N ii] 122 μm data, and find that ne is in the range of ˜1-100 cm-3, with a median value of 22 cm-3. Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. Ultraluminous galaxies: monsters or babies? Proceedings. Workshop, Schloss Ringberg (Germany), 20 - 26 Sep 1998.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.

    The following topics were dealt with: ultraluminous infrared galaxies, surveys, galaxy formation, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, (SOFIA), X-ray observations, optical spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, photometry, interacting galaxies, radio observations, starbursts, AGN, morphological classification, ULIRGs, theoretical aspects, and the link to high redshift.

  10. The far-infrared emitting region in local galaxies and QSOs: Size and scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Contursi, A.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Netzer, H.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Veilleux, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use Herschel 70 to 160 μm images to study the size of the far-infrared emitting region in about 400 local galaxies and quasar (QSO) hosts. The sample includes normal "main-sequence" star-forming galaxies, as well as infrared luminous galaxies and Palomar-Green QSOs, with different levels and structures of star formation. Assuming Gaussian spatial distribution of the far-infrared (FIR) emission, the excellent stability of the Herschel point spread function (PSF) enables us to measure sizes well below the PSF width, by subtracting widths in quadrature. We derive scalings of FIR size and surface brightness of local galaxies with FIR luminosity, with distance from the star-forming main-sequence, and with FIR color. Luminosities LFIR~ 1011 L⊙ can be reached with a variety of structures spanning 2 dex in size. Ultraluminous LFIR≳ 1012 L⊙ galaxies far above the main-sequence inevitably have small Re,70~ 0.5 kpc FIR emitting regions with large surface brightness, and can be close to optically thick in the FIR on average over these regions. Compared to these local relations, first ALMA sizes for the dust emission regions in high redshift galaxies, measured at somewhat longer rest wavelengths, suggest larger sizes at the same IR luminosity. We report a remarkably tight relation with 0.15 dex scatter between FIR surface brightness and the ratio of [Cii] 158 μm emission and FIR emission - the so-called [Cii]-deficit is more tightly linked to surface brightness than to FIR luminosity or FIR color. Among 33 z ≤ 0.1 PG QSOs with typical LFIR/LBol,AGN ≈ 0.1, 19 have a measured 70 μm half light radius, with median Re,70 = 1.1 kpc. This is consistent with the FIR size for galaxies with similar LFIR but lacking a QSO, in accordance with a scenario where the rest FIR emission of these types of QSOs is, in most cases, due to host star formation.

  11. VLT-VIMOS integral field spectroscopy of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. II. Evidence for shock ionization caused by tidal forces in the extra-nuclear regions of interacting and merging LIRGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal-Ibero, A.; Arribas, S.; Colina, L.; Rodríguez-Zaurín, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; García-Marín, M.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are an important class of objects in the low-z universe bridging the gap between normal spirals and the strongly interacting and starbursting ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). Since a large fraction of the stars in the Universe have been formed in these objects, LIRGs are also relevant in a high-z context. Studies of the two-dimensional physical properties of LIRGs are still lacking. Aims: We aim to understand the nature and origin of the ionization mechanisms operating in the extra-nuclear regions of LIRGs as a function of the interaction phase and infrared luminosity. Methods: This study uses optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data obtained with VIMOS. Our analysis is based on over 25 300 spectra of 32 LIRGs covering all types of morphologies (isolated galaxies, interacting pairs, and advanced mergers), and the entire 1011-1012 L⊙ infrared luminosity range. Results: We found strong evidence for shock ionization, with a clear trend with the dynamical status of the system. Specifically, we quantified the variation with interaction phase of several line ratios indicative of the excitation degree. While the [N ii]λ6584/Hα ratio does not show any significant change, the [S ii]λλ6717,6731/Hα and [O i]λ6300/Hα ratios are higher for more advanced interaction stages. Velocity dispersions are higher than in normal spirals and increase with the interaction class (medians of 37, 46, and 51 km s-1 for class 0-2, respectively). We constrained the main mechanisms causing the ionization in the extra-nuclear regions (typically for distances ranging from ~0.2-2.1 kpc to ~0.9-13.2 kpc) using diagnostic diagrams. Isolated systems are mainly consistent with ionization caused by young stars. Large fractions of the extra-nuclear regions in interacting pairs and more advanced mergers are consistent with ionization caused by shocks of vs ⪉ 200 km s-1. This is supported by the relation between the excitation degree and

  12. Morphological classification of local luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psychogyios, A.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Le Floc'h, E.; Petty, S. M.; Evans, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    We present analysis of the morphological classification of 89 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample, using non-parametric coefficients and compare their morphology as a function of wavelength. We rely on images that were obtained in the optical (B- and I-band) as well as in the infrared (H-band and 5.8 μm). Our classification is based on the calculation of Gini and the second order of light (M20) non-parametric coefficients, which we explore as a function of stellar mass (M⋆), infrared luminosity (LIR), and star formation rate (SFR). We investigate the relation between M20, the specific SFR (sSFR) and the dust temperature (Tdust) in our galaxy sample. We find that M20 is a better morphological tracer than Gini, as it allows us to distinguish systems that were formed by double systems from isolated and post-merger LIRGs. The effectiveness of M20 as a morphological tracer increases with increasing wavelength, from the B to H band. In fact, the multi-wavelength analysis allows us to identify a region in the Gini-M20 parameter space where ongoing mergers reside, regardless of the band used to calculate the coefficients. In particular, when measured in the H band, a region that can be used to identify ongoing mergers, with minimal contamination from LIRGs in other stages. We also find that, while the sSFR is positively correlated with M20 when measured in the mid-infrared, i.e. star-bursting galaxies show more compact emission, it is anti-correlated with the B-band-based M20. We interpret this as the spatial decoupling between obscured and unobscured star formation, whereby the ultraviolet/optical size of an LIRG experience an intense dust-enshrouded central starburst that is larger that in the mid-infrared since the contrast between the nuclear to the extended disk emission is smaller in the mid-infrared. This has important implications for high redshift surveys of dusty sources, where sizes of galaxies

  13. The Ultraluminous GRB 110918A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiks, D. D.; Hurley, K.; Svinkin, D. S.; Pal'shin, V. D.; Mangano, V.; Oates, S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, Ph. P.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Ulanov, M. V.; Kokomov, A. A.; Cline, T. L.; Burrows, D. N.; Krimm, H. A.; Pagani, C.; Sbarufatti, B.; Siegel, M. H.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K.; Enos, H.; Starr, R.; von Kienlin, A.; Rau, A.; Zhang, X.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    GRB 110918A is the brightest long gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Konus-WIND during its almost 19 yr of continuous observations and the most luminous GRB ever observed since the beginning of the cosmological era in 1997. We report on the final Interplanetary Network localization of this event and its detailed multiwavelength study with a number of space-based instruments. The prompt emission is characterized by a typical duration, a moderate peak energy of the time-integrated spectrum, and strong hard-to-soft evolution. The high observed energy fluence yields, at z = 0.984, a huge isotropic-equivalent energy release E iso = (2.1 ± 0.1) × 1054 erg. The record-breaking energy flux observed at the peak of the short, bright, hard initial pulse results in an unprecedented isotropic-equivalent luminosity L iso = (4.7 ± 0.2) × 1054 erg s-1. A tail of the soft γ-ray emission was detected with temporal and spectral behavior typical of that predicted by the synchrotron forward-shock model. The Swift/X-Ray Telescope and the Swift/Ultraviolet Optical Telescope observed the bright afterglow from 1.2 to 48 days after the burst and revealed no evidence of a jet break. The post-break scenario for the afterglow is preferred from our analysis, with a hard underlying electron spectrum and interstellar-medium-like circumburst environment implied. We conclude that, among the multiple reasons investigated, the tight collimation of the jet must have been a key ingredient to produce this unusually bright burst. The inferred jet opening angle of 1.°7-3.°4 results in reasonable values of the collimation-corrected radiated energy and the peak luminosity, which, however, are still at the top of their distributions for such tightly collimated events. We estimate a detection horizon for a similar ultraluminous GRB of z ~ 7.5 for Konus-WIND and z ~ 12 for the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, which stresses the importance of GRBs as probes of the early Universe.

  14. The ultraluminous GRB 110918A

    SciTech Connect

    Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Pal'shin, V. D.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, Ph. P.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Ulanov, M. V.; Kokomov, A. A.; Hurley, K.; Mangano, V.; Burrows, D. N.; Sbarufatti, B.; Siegel, M. H.; Oates, S.; Cline, T. L.; Krimm, H. A.; Pagani, C.; Mitrofanov, I. G. [Space Research Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84 and others

    2013-12-20

    GRB 110918A is the brightest long gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Konus-WIND during its almost 19 yr of continuous observations and the most luminous GRB ever observed since the beginning of the cosmological era in 1997. We report on the final Interplanetary Network localization of this event and its detailed multiwavelength study with a number of space-based instruments. The prompt emission is characterized by a typical duration, a moderate peak energy of the time-integrated spectrum, and strong hard-to-soft evolution. The high observed energy fluence yields, at z = 0.984, a huge isotropic-equivalent energy release E {sub iso} = (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10{sup 54} erg. The record-breaking energy flux observed at the peak of the short, bright, hard initial pulse results in an unprecedented isotropic-equivalent luminosity L {sub iso} = (4.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}. A tail of the soft γ-ray emission was detected with temporal and spectral behavior typical of that predicted by the synchrotron forward-shock model. The Swift/X-Ray Telescope and the Swift/Ultraviolet Optical Telescope observed the bright afterglow from 1.2 to 48 days after the burst and revealed no evidence of a jet break. The post-break scenario for the afterglow is preferred from our analysis, with a hard underlying electron spectrum and interstellar-medium-like circumburst environment implied. We conclude that, among the multiple reasons investigated, the tight collimation of the jet must have been a key ingredient to produce this unusually bright burst. The inferred jet opening angle of 1.°7-3.°4 results in reasonable values of the collimation-corrected radiated energy and the peak luminosity, which, however, are still at the top of their distributions for such tightly collimated events. We estimate a detection horizon for a similar ultraluminous GRB of z ∼ 7.5 for Konus-WIND and z ∼ 12 for the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, which stresses the importance of GRBs as probes of the early

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAS 1Jy sample of ultraluminous galaxies. II. (Veilleux+, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, S.; Kim, D.-C.; Sanders, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    An R and K' atlas of the IRAS 1 Jy sample of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs) was presented in a companion paper (our Paper I, Kim et al., 2002, Cat. ). The present paper discusses the results from the analysis of these images supplemented with new spectroscopic data obtained at Keck. (2 data files).

  16. An ultraluminous nascent millisecond pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluźniak, Włodek; Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    If the ultraluminous source (ULX) M82 X-2 sustains its measured spin-up value of dot{ν }= 10^{-10} s^{-2}, it will become a millisecond pulsar in less than 105 yr. The observed (isotropic) luminosity of 1040 erg s-1 also supports the notion that the neutron star will spin up to a millisecond period upon accreting about 0.1 M⊙ - the reported hard X-ray luminosity of this ULX, together with the spin-up value, implies torques consistent with the accretion disc extending down to the vicinity of the stellar surface, as expected for low values of the stellar dipole magnetic field (B ≲ 109 G). This suggests a new channel of millisecond pulsar formation - in high-mass X-ray binaries - and may have implications for studies of gravitational waves, and possibly for the formation of low-mass black holes through accretion-induced collapse.

  17. THE SPITZER LOCAL VOLUME LEGACY: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Block, M.; Marble, A. R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; Van Zee, L.; Walter, F.

    2009-09-20

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Halpha, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Halpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  18. An infrared imaging study of galaxies in the local universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Albert D.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Mcleod, Kim K.

    1995-01-01

    This poster was a preliminary report on a survey of galaxies in the local universe at J and K using a NICMOS3 256 x 256 infrared photometric camera attached to the 61 inch telescope on Mt. Bigelow. Deep images are being obtained for a representative sample of galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue. Structural and color parameters are determined for a wide variety of galactic types. These data should prove to be valuable in characterizing stellar populations within disks and bulges, determining if IR-active galaxies have unusual global as well as- nuclear properties, and understanding the effects of evolution and redshift dimming in distant galaxies.

  19. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Fuzzy clustering of infrared images applied in air leak localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Nan; Peng, Guang-zheng; Jiang, Mu-zhou

    2009-07-01

    Most current research into the localization of leaks is focused on leaks of petroleum and natural gas pipelines, while there is very little new work being done on the leakage of vessels. A novel air-leak diagnosis and localization method based on infrared thermography is described in this paper, which is developed in an attempt to overcome the disadvantages of low efficiency and poor anti-jamming ability associated with the traditional approaches to localization of leaks from a vessel. The method achieves leak positioning through a factor θ based kernelized fuzzy clustering segmentation done to weighted differential thermal images of the test objects. The temperature difference factor θ is inventively built as a parameter changed with temperature range of the target region, in order to enhance the robustness and the interference proof ability of the algorithm. Heat transfer simulation with air-leak flow is addressed by the finite element analysis. The experimental results indicate that the method proposed is effective and sensitive. The purpose of air-leak localization has been reached.

  1. Infrared face recognition based on intensity of local micropattern-weighted local binary pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhihua; Liu, Guodong

    2011-07-01

    The traditional local binary pattern (LBP) histogram representation extracts the local micropatterns and assigns the same weight to all local micropatterns. To combine the different contributions of local micropatterns to face recognition, this paper proposes a weighted LBP histogram based on Weber's law. First, inspired by psychological Weber's law, intensity of local micropattern is defined by the ratio between two terms: one is relative intensity differences of a central pixel against its neighbors and the other is intensity of local central pixel. Second, regarding the intensity of local micropattern as its weight, the weighted LBP histogram is constructed with the defined weight. Finally, to make full use of the space location information and lessen the complexity of recognition, the partitioning and locality preserving projection are applied to get final features. The proposed method is tested on our infrared face databases and yields the recognition rate of 99.2% for same-session situation and 96.4% for elapsed-time situation compared to the 97.6 and 92.1% produced by the method based on traditional LBP.

  2. Resolved Molecular Gas Properties in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe are mergers of gas-rich galaxies. The merger event funnels the molecular gas towards the central kiloparsec, compressing the gas, and triggering an extreme starburst, making LIRGs the perfect laboratory for studying extreme modes of star formation. We use the Submillimeter Array sample and observations of Wilson et al. (2008), supplemented with new CARMA and ALMA observations, to constrain the physical conditions such as temperature, density and column density of the molecular gas in the sample of 7 LIRGs. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX (van der Tak et al. 2007) and a Bayesian likelihood code to fit the most probable physical conditions. Comparison of the molecular gas physical conditions shows that earlier merger stage LIRGs such as Arp 299 and NGC 1614 have denser (> 103cm-1) molecular gas than a later stage merger such as VV 114 and NGC 2623. We measure the CO luminosity to H2 mass conversion factor, αCO, using the radiative transfer analysis results and find that the values are a factor of 4-10 times lower than the Galactic value of 4.3 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1. We also find unusually large 12CO-to-13CO abundance ratios (> 130), more than 2 times the local Galactic value.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAS 1Jy sample of ultraluminous galaxies. I. (Kim+, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-C.; Veilleux, S.; Sanders, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    An imaging survey of the IRAS 1Jy sample of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies was conducted at optical (R) and near-infrared (K') wavelengths using the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. The methods of observation and data reduction are described. An R and K' atlas of the entire sample is presented along with some of the basic astrometric and photometric parameters derived from these images. A more detailed analysis of these data is presented in a companion paper (Veilleux et al., 2002, Cat. ). (3 data files).

  4. Star-formation histories of local luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Arribas, Santiago; Bellocchi, Enrica; Cazzoli, Sara; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Piqueras López, Javier

    2015-05-01

    We present analysis of the integrated spectral energy distribution (SED) from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared and Hα of a sample of 29 local systems and individual galaxies with infrared (IR) luminosities between 1011L⊙ and 1011.8L⊙. We combined new narrow-band Hα + [N ii] and broad-band g, r optical imaging taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), with archival GALEX, 2MASS, Spitzer, and Herschel data. Their SEDs(photometry and integrated Hα flux) were fitted simultaneously with a modified version of the magphys code using stellar population synthesis models for the UV-near-IR range and thermal emission models for the IR emission taking the energy balance between the absorbed and re-emitted radiation into account. From the SED fits, we derive the star-formation histories (SFH) of these galaxies. For nearly half of them, the star-formation rate appears to be approximately constant during the last few Gyr. In the other half, the current star-formation rate seems to be enhanced by a factor of 3-20 with respect to what occurred ~1 Gyr ago. Objects with constant SFH tend to be more massive than starbursts, and they are compatible with the expected properties of a main-sequence (M-S) galaxy. Likewise, the derived SFHs show that all our objects were M-S galaxies ~1 Gyr ago with stellar masses between 1010.1 and 1011.5 M⊙. We also derived the average extinction (Av = 0.6-3 mag) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon luminosity to LIR ratio (0.03-0.16) from our fits. We combined the Av with the total IR and Hα luminosities into a diagramthat can be used to identify objects with rapidly changing (increasing or decreasing) SFR during the past 100 Myr. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFITS files for all the reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A78

  5. Optically thick outflows in ultraluminous supersoft sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, R.; Soria, R.

    2016-02-01

    Ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are defined by a thermal spectrum with colour temperatures ˜0.1 keV, bolometric luminosities ˜ a few 1039 erg s-1, and almost no emission above 1 keV. It has never been clear how they fit into the general scheme of accreting compact objects. To address this problem, we studied a sample of seven ULSs with extensive Chandra and XMM-Newton coverage. We find an anticorrelation between fitted temperatures and radii of the thermal emitter, and no correlation between bolometric luminosity and radius or temperature. We compare the physical parameters of ULSs with those of classical supersoft sources, thought to be surface-nuclear-burning white dwarfs, and of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), thought to be super-Eddington stellar-mass black holes. We argue that ULSs are the sub-class of ULXs seen through the densest wind, perhaps an extension of the soft-ultraluminous regime. We suggest that in ULSs, the massive disc outflow becomes effectively optically thick and forms a large photosphere, shrouding the inner regions from our view. Our model predicts that when the photosphere expands to ≳ 105 km and the temperature decreases below ≈50 eV, ULSs become brighter in the far-UV but undetectable in X-rays. Conversely, we find that harder emission components begin to appear in ULSs when the fitted size of the thermal emitter is smallest (interpreted as a shrinking of the photosphere). The observed short-term variability and absorption edges are also consistent with clumpy outflows. We suggest that the transition between ULXs (with a harder tail) and ULSs (with only a soft thermal component) occurs at blackbody temperatures of ≈150 eV.

  6. Infrared moving point target detection based on spatial-temporal local contrast filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lizhen; Zhu, Hu; Tao, Chao; Wei, Yantao

    2016-05-01

    Infrared moving point target detection is a challenging task. In this paper, we define a novel spatial local contrast (SLC) and a novel temporal local contrast (TLC) to enhance the target's contrast. Based on the defined spatial local contrast and temporal local contrast, we propose a simple but powerful spatial-temporal local contrast filter (STLCF) to detect moving point target from infrared image sequences. In order to verify the performance of spatial-temporal local contrast filter on detecting moving point target, different detection methods are used to detect the target from several infrared image sequences for comparison. The experimental results show that the proposed spatial-temporal local contrast filter has great superiority in moving point target detection.

  7. DIRECT DETECTION OF AN ULTRALUMINOUS ULTRAVIOLET SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaret, Philip; Feng Hua; Wong, Diane S.; Tao Lian

    2010-05-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope observations in the far UV of the ultraluminous X-ray source in NGC 6946 associated with the optical nebula MF 16. Both a point-like source coincident with the X-ray source and the surrounding nebula are detected in the FUV. The point source has a flux of 5 x 10{sup -16} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} A{sup -1}, and the nebula has a flux of 1.6 x 10{sup -15} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} A{sup -1}, quoted at 1533 A and assuming an extinction of A{sub V} = 1.54. Thus, MF 16 appears to host the first directly detected ultraluminous UV source. The flux of the point-like source is consistent with a blackbody with T{approx} 30,000 K, possibly from a massive companion star, but this spectrum does not create sufficient ionizing radiation to produce the nebular He II flux, and a second, hotter emission component would be required. A multicolor disk blackbody spectrum truncated with an outer disk temperature of {approx}16,000 K provides an adequate fit to the FUV, B, V, I, and He II fluxes and can produce the needed ionizing radiation. Additional observations are required to determine the physical nature of the source.

  8. Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of IR QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, X. Y.; Cao, C.; Mao, S.; Deng, Z. G.

    2008-10-10

    We analyse mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic properties for 19 ultra-luminous infrared quasars (IR QSOs) in the local universe based on the spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIR properties of IR QSOs are compared with those of optically-selected Palomar-Green QSOs (PG QSOs) and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The average MIR spectral features from {approx}5 to 30 {mu}m, including the spectral slopes, 6.2 {mu}m PAH emission strengths and [NeII] 12.81 {mu}m luminosities of IR QSOs, differ from those of PG QSOs. In contrast, IR QSOs and ULIRGs have comparable PAH and [NeII] luminosities. These results are consistent with IR QSOs being at a transitional stage from ULIRGs to classical QSOs. We also find the correlation between the EW (PAH 6.2 {mu}m) and outflow velocities suggests that star formation activities are suppressed by feedback from AGNs and/or supernovae.

  9. Real-time automatic small infrared target detection using local spectral filtering in the frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Jiafeng; Yuan, Ding; Sun, Mingui

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and fast detection of small infrared target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. Based on human visual attention mechanism, an automatic detection algorithm for small infrared target is presented. In this paper, instead of searching for infrared targets, we model regular patches that do not attract much attention by our visual system. This is inspired by the property that the regular patches in spatial domain turn out to correspond to the spikes in the amplitude spectrum. Unlike recent approaches using global spectral filtering, we define the concept of local maxima suppression using local spectral filtering to smooth the spikes in the amplitude spectrum, thereby producing the pop-out of the infrared targets. In the proposed method, we firstly compute the amplitude spectrum of an input infrared image. Second, we find the local maxima of the amplitude spectrum using cubic facet model. Third, we suppress the local maxima using the convolution of the local spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale. At last, the detection result in spatial domain is obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the log amplitude spectrum by suppressing local maxima. The experiments are performed for some real-life IR images, and the results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be further used for real-time detection and tracking.

  10. Localization of wood floor structure by infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochior Plescanu, C.; Klein, M.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2008-03-01

    One of our industrial partners, Assek Technologie, is interested in developing a technique that would improve the drying process of wood floor in basements after flooding. In order to optimize the procedure, the floor structure and the damaged (wet) area extent must first be determined with minimum intrusion (minimum or no dismantling). The present study presents the use of infrared thermography to reveal the structure of (flooded) wood floors. The procedure involves opening holes in the floor. Injecting some hot air through those holes reveals the framing structure even if the floor is covered by vinyl or ceramic tiles. This study indicates that thermal imaging can also be used as a tool to validate the decontamination process after drying. Thermal images were obtained on small-scale models and in a demonstration room.

  11. Localization of methane distributions by spectrally tuned infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Werner; Hierl, Thomas; Scheuerpflug, H.; Schirl, U.; Schreer, Oliver; Schulz, Max J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a novel method, the Gas Imaging (GIm) method, developed for the localization of gas distributions in the atmosphere. The method is suitable for the detection of a gases which exhibit at least one absorption line in the IR spectral range. In this paper the GIm method is demonstrated for methane released into the atmosphere from leaks along natural gas pipelines. Methane distributions in the atmosphere around the leaky pipeline are detected and visualized by spectrally tuned IR imaging. In contrast to conventional techniques which utilize laser radiation sources or scanning, we irradiate the overall region under investigation by 1 kW halogen lamps. The scene background is subtracted by a real-time computer evaluation of the image. The methane gas emitted from the leak creates a flickering cloud in the image which is easily recognized. Methane concentrations as low as 0.03 percent by volume are visible. The method was successfully tested under realistic conditions on a buried pipeline by a natural gas provider.

  12. Initial states and infrared physics in locally de Sitter spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.

    2012-02-01

    The long wavelength physics in a de Sitter region depends on the initial quantum state. While such long wavelength physics is under control for massive fields near the Hartle-Hawking vacuum state, such initial states make unnatural assumptions about initial data outside the region of causal contact of a local observer. We argue that a reasonable approximation to a maximum entropy state, one that makes minimal assumptions outside an observer’s horizon volume, is one where a cutoff is placed on a surface bounded by timelike geodesics, just outside the horizon. For sufficiently early times, such a cutoff induces secular logarithmic divergences with the expansion of the region. For massive fields, these effects sum to finite corrections at sufficiently late times. The difference between the cutoff correlators and Hartle-Hawking correlators provides a measure of the theoretical uncertainty due to lack of knowledge of the initial state in causally disconnected regions. These differences are negligible for primordial inflation, but can become significant during epochs with very long-lived de Sitter regions, such as we may be entering now.

  13. A portable mid-range localization system using infrared LEDs for visually impaired people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Suhyeon; Choi, In-Mook; Kim, Sang-Soo; Kim, Sung-Mok

    2014-11-01

    A versatile indoor/outdoor pedestrian guidance system with good mobility is necessary in order to aid visually impaired pedestrians in indoor and outdoor environments. In this paper, distance estimation methods for portable wireless localization systems are verified. Two systems of a fixed active beacon and a receiver using an ultrasound time-of-flight method and a differential infrared intensity method are proposed. The infrared localization system was appropriate for the goal of this study. It was possible to use the infrared intensity method to generate a uniform signal field that exceeded 30 m. Valid distance estimations which were within 30 m of coverage indoors and within 20 m of coverage outdoors were made. Also, a pocket-sized receiver which can be adapted to a smartphone was found to be suitable for use as a portable device.

  14. Regression models based on new local strategies for near infrared spectroscopic data.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, F; Fernández Pierna, J A; Fragoso, W D; Olivieri, A C; Baeten, V; Dardenne, P

    2016-08-24

    In this work, a comparative study of two novel algorithms to perform sample selection in local regression based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) is presented. These methodologies were applied for Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) quantification of five major constituents in corn seeds and are compared and contrasted with global PLS calibrations. Validation results show a significant improvement in the prediction quality when local models implemented by the proposed algorithms are applied to large data bases. PMID:27496996

  15. MID- AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Gandhi, Poshak; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuta, Keiko

    2012-07-20

    We investigate the mid- (MIR) to far-infrared (FIR) properties of a nearly complete sample of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected in the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey, based on the cross correlation with the AKARI infrared survey catalogs complemented by those with Infrared Astronomical Satellite and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Out of 135 non-blazer AGNs in the Swift/BAT nine-month catalog, we obtain the MIR photometric data for 128 sources either in the 9, 12, 18, 22, and/or 25 {mu}m band. We find good correlation between their hard X-ray and MIR luminosities over three orders of magnitude (42 < log {lambda}L{sub {lambda}}(9, 18 {mu}m) < 45), which is tighter than that with the FIR luminosities at 90 {mu}m. This suggests that thermal emission from hot dusts irradiated by the AGN emission dominate the MIR fluxes. Both X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs follow the same correlation, implying isotropic infrared emission, as expected in clumpy dust tori rather than homogeneous ones. We find excess signals around 9 {mu}m in the averaged infrared spectral energy distribution from heavy obscured 'new type' AGNs with small scattering fractions in the X-ray spectra. This could be attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission feature, suggesting that their host galaxies have strong starburst activities.

  16. A New Local Modelling Approach Based on Predicted Errors for Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Haitao; Lou, Xiaoping; Meng, Xiaochen; Guo, Yangkuan; Wang, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, near-infrared spectroscopy, together with the use of chemometrics models, has been widely employed as an analytical tool in several industries. However, most chemical processes or analytes are multivariate and nonlinear in nature. To solve this problem, local errors regression method is presented in order to build an accurate calibration model in this paper, where a calibration subset is selected by a new similarity criterion which takes the full information of spectra, chemical property, and predicted errors. After the selection of calibration subset, the partial least squares regression is applied to build calibration model. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated through a near-infrared spectroscopy dataset of pharmaceutical tablets. Compared with other local strategies with different similarity criterions, it has been shown that the proposed local errors regression can result in a significant improvement in terms of both prediction ability and calculation speed. PMID:27446631

  17. Single infrared image super-resolution combining non-local means with kernel regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Chen, Fu-sheng; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Wang, Chen-sheng

    2013-11-01

    In many infrared imaging systems, the focal plane array is not sufficient dense to adequately sample the scene with the desired field of view. Therefore, there are not enough high frequency details in the infrared image generally. Super-resolution (SR) technology can be used to increase the resolution of low-resolution (LR) infrared image. In this paper, a novel super-resolution algorithm is proposed based on non-local means (NLM) and steering kernel regression (SKR). Based on that there are a large number of similar patches within an infrared image, NLM method can abstract the non-local similarity information and then the value of high-resolution (HR) pixel can be estimated. SKR method is derived based on the local smoothness of the natural images. In this paper the SKR is used to give the regularization term which can restrict the image noise and protect image edges. The estimated SR image is obtained by minimizing a cost function. In the experiments the proposed algorithm is compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. The comparison results show that the proposed method is robust to the noise and it can restore higher quality image both in quantitative term and visual effect.

  18. Morphology and Molecular Gas Fractions of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Infrared Luminosity and Merger Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, K. L.; Sanders, D. B.; Barnes, J. E.; Ishida, C. M.; Evans, A. S.; U, V.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Kim, D.-C.; Privon, G. C.; Mirabel, I. F.; Flewelling, H. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new, detailed analysis of the morphologies and molecular gas fractions (MGFs) for a complete sample of 65 local luminous infrared galaxies from Great Observatories All-Sky Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRG) Survey using high resolution I-band images from The Hubble Space Telescope, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m Telescope and the Pan-STARRS1 Survey. Our classification scheme includes single undisturbed galaxies, minor mergers, and major mergers, with the latter divided into five distinct stages from pre-first pericenter passage to final nuclear coalescence. We find that major mergers of molecular gas-rich spirals clearly play a major role for all sources with {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11.5{L}ȯ ; however, below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. Additionally, galaxies do not reach {L}{IR}\\gt {10}12.0{L}ȯ until late in the merger process when both disks are near final coalescence. The mean MGF ({MGF} = {M}{{{H}}2}/({M}* +{M}{{{H}}2})) for non-interacting and early-stage major merger LIRGs is 18 ± 2%, which increases to 33 ± 3%, for intermediate stage major merger LIRGs, consistent with the hypothesis that, during the early-mid stages of major mergers, most of the initial large reservoir of atomic gas (HI) at large galactocentric radii is swept inward where it is converted into molecular gas (H2).

  19. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Soria, Roberto; Tennant, Allyn F.; Yukita, Mihoko

    2011-11-01

    One hundred seven ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with 0.3-10.0 keV luminosities in excess of 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} are identified in a complete sample of 127 nearby galaxies. The sample includes all galaxies within 14.5 Mpc above the completeness limits of both the Uppsala Galaxy Catalogue and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite survey. The galaxy sample spans all Hubble types, a four-decade range in mass, 7.5 < log (M/M{sub sun}) < 11.4, and in star formation rate, 0.0002 < SFR(M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) {<=} 3.6. ULXs are detected in this sample at rates of one per 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, one per {approx}0.5 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} star formation rate, and one per 57 Mpc{sup 3} corresponding to a luminosity density of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3}. At these rates we estimate as many as 19 additional ULXs remain undetected in fainter dwarf galaxies within the survey volume. An estimated 14 objects, or 13%, of the 107 ULX candidates are expected to be background sources. The differential ULX luminosity function shows a power-law slope {alpha} {approx} -0.8 to -2.0 with an exponential cutoff at {approx}20 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} with precise values depending on the model and on whether the ULX luminosities are estimated from their observed numbers of counts or, for a subset of candidates, from their spectral shapes. Extrapolating the observed luminosity function predicts at most one very luminous ULX, L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, within a distance as small as 100 Mpc. The luminosity distribution of ULXs within the local universe cannot account for the recent claims of luminosities in excess of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, requiring a new population class to explain these extreme objects.

  20. [Pseudo color method for the infrared thermogram display of local breast focus tissue].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-Wu; Ding, Hai-Shu; Teng, Yi-Chao

    2009-03-01

    An infrared thermogram which reflects the human body surface temperature distribution can be obtained through detecting the infrared thermal radiation from each point on the human body surface. When a malignant tumor occurs in a breast, it will cause an increase in the prominent temperature in the breast surface focus region due to the abnormal blood transmission state of local focus tissue. Breast cancer can be detected through the visual analysis of the focus regions by physicians. In order to help physicians better find these focus regions, the present paper improved the traditional pseudo color display method by introducing visual effect factor and made the focus regions have a better display effect. The efficacy of this method was verified in the breast infrared thermograms of 47 breast cancer patients. The result from visual analysis of the focus region in infrared thermogram by this method can also be compared with the tissue blood transmission state from near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and other methods. It will be helpful to obtain more accurate diagnostic information. PMID:19455784

  1. Luminous Infrared Sources in the Local Group: Identifying the Missing Links in Massive Star Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britavskiy, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Mehner, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first systematic survey of dusty massive stars (RSGs, LBVs, sgB[e]) in nearby galaxies, with the goal of understanding their importance in massive star evolution. Using the fact that these stars are bright in mid-infrared colors due to dust, we provide a technique for selecting and identifying dusty evolved stars based on the results of Bonanos et al. (2009, 2010), Britavskiy et al. (2014), and archival Spitzer/IRAC photometry. We present the results of our spectroscopic follow-up of luminous infrared sources in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies: Pegasus, Phoenix, Sextans A and WLM. The survey aims to complete the census of dusty massive stars in the Local Group.

  2. Analysis of local warm forming of high strength steel using near infrared ray energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. H.; Lee, K.; Lee, E. H.; Yang, D. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The automotive industry has been pressed to satisfy more rigorous fuel efficiency requirements to promote energy conservation, safety features and cost containment. To satisfy this need, high strength steel has been developed and used for many different vehicle parts. The use of high strength steels, however, requires careful analysis and creativity in order to accommodate its relatively high springback behavior. An innovative method, called local warm forming with near infrared ray, has been developed to help promote the use of high strength steels in sheet metal forming. For this method, local regions of the work piece are heated using infrared ray energy, thereby promoting the reduction of springback behavior. In this research, a V-bend test is conducted with DP980. After springback, the bend angles for specimens without local heating are compared to those with local heating. Numerical analysis has been performed using the commercial program, DEFORM-2D. This analysis is carried out with the purpose of understanding how changes to the local stress distribution will affect the springback during the unloading process. The results between experimental and computational approaches are evaluated to assure the accuracy of the simulation. Subsequent numerical simulation studies are performed to explore best practices with respect to thermal boundary conditions, timing, and applicability to the production environment.

  3. Analysis of local warm forming of high strength steel using near infrared ray energy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. H.; Lee, K.; Lee, E. H. E-mail: dyyang@kaist.ac.kr; Yang, D. Y. E-mail: dyyang@kaist.ac.kr

    2013-12-16

    The automotive industry has been pressed to satisfy more rigorous fuel efficiency requirements to promote energy conservation, safety features and cost containment. To satisfy this need, high strength steel has been developed and used for many different vehicle parts. The use of high strength steels, however, requires careful analysis and creativity in order to accommodate its relatively high springback behavior. An innovative method, called local warm forming with near infrared ray, has been developed to help promote the use of high strength steels in sheet metal forming. For this method, local regions of the work piece are heated using infrared ray energy, thereby promoting the reduction of springback behavior. In this research, a V-bend test is conducted with DP980. After springback, the bend angles for specimens without local heating are compared to those with local heating. Numerical analysis has been performed using the commercial program, DEFORM-2D. This analysis is carried out with the purpose of understanding how changes to the local stress distribution will affect the springback during the unloading process. The results between experimental and computational approaches are evaluated to assure the accuracy of the simulation. Subsequent numerical simulation studies are performed to explore best practices with respect to thermal boundary conditions, timing, and applicability to the production environment.

  4. The Mid-Infrared Cepheid Distance Scale: A Reconnaissance Program of Cepheids in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madore, Barry; Freedman, Wendy; Mager, Violet; Rigby, Jane

    2008-03-01

    We request archival funding to search for serendipitous IRAC detections of known Cepheids in Local Group galaxies. This archival proposal is a parallel study in support of a Cycle 5 GO proposal (PI: Freedman) to re-calibrate the Cepheid distance scale from the ground up using new IRAC photometry of ten Galactic Cepheids having HST trigonometric parallaxes (Benedict et al. 2007), in combination with eighty LMC Cepheids (from Persson et al. 2004), to establish the slope and secure the zero point of the Cepheid Period-Luminosity Relation at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Here we intend to characterize the mid-infrared detectability of Cepheids in Local Group galaxies, by examining upwards of 8,000 archival images containing cataloged Cepheids with known periods and predicted luminosities. The Cepheids in these images exhibit a wide range of background intensity, often have complex crowding, and have a wide range of apparent magnitudes. From this reconnaissance survey we will be able to directly assess the ability of Spitzer to obtain high signal-to-noise observations of Cepheids in individual Local Group galaxies, and we will select the least crowded and least confused of the serendipitously--obserserved Cepheids. We plan to target this sample in the Warm Mission, with the goal of putting the Local Group securely onto the mid-infrared Cepheid distance scale.

  5. Spectral response of localized surface plasmon in resonance with mid-infrared light

    SciTech Connect

    Kusa, Fumiya; Ashihara, Satoshi

    2014-10-21

    We study spectral responses of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in gold nanorods, which resonate at mid-infrared frequencies, by transmission spectroscopy and electromagnetic field analyses. The resonance linewidth is found to be linearly proportional to the resonance frequency, indicating that the dephasing due to Drude relaxation is suppressed and that the overall dephasing is dominated by radiative damping. Owing to the reduced radiative/non-radiative damping and large geometrical length of the nanorod, near-field intensity enhancement exceeds several hundred times. Nonetheless the resonance linewidth is comparable with or larger than the bandwidth of a 100-fs pulse, and therefore the enhanced near-field as short as 100-fs can be created upon pulsed excitation. The large enhancements with appropriate bandwidths make LSPs promising for enhanced nonlinear spectroscopies, coherent controls, and strong-field light-matter interactions in the mid-infrared range.

  6. Localized surface plasmon resonances in graphene ribbon arrays for sensing of dielectric environment at infrared frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, Borislav; Isić, Goran; Gajić, Radoš

    2013-01-01

    High confinement of surface plasmon polaritons in graphene at infrared frequencies enhances the light-matter interaction and can be used for the sensing of the environment. The considered sensing platform consists of parallel graphene ribbons which enables efficient coupling of an electromagnetic field into localized surface plasmons. Changes in the environment are then detected by measuring the resulting frequency shifts of the plasmonic resonances. It is shown that the graphene ribbons have the sensitivity comparable to the sensitivity of noble metal nanoparticles at visible frequencies, which enable sensing of only several nanometers thick films at wavelengths around ten microns. At the same time, the tunability of graphene plasmons enables a design of broadband substrates for surface enhanced infrared absorption of thin films. By changing the Fermi level in graphene, the plasmonic resonance of graphene ribbons can be adjusted to desired vibrational mode which facilitates detection of multiple absorption bands.

  7. An infrared small target detection algorithm based on high-speed local contrast method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zheng; Yang, Jingli; Jiang, Shouda; Li, Junbao

    2016-05-01

    Small-target detection in infrared imagery with a complex background is always an important task in remote sensing fields. It is important to improve the detection capabilities such as detection rate, false alarm rate, and speed. However, current algorithms usually improve one or two of the detection capabilities while sacrificing the other. In this letter, an Infrared (IR) small target detection algorithm with two layers inspired by Human Visual System (HVS) is proposed to balance those detection capabilities. The first layer uses high speed simplified local contrast method to select significant information. And the second layer uses machine learning classifier to separate targets from background clutters. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm pursue good performance in detection rate, false alarm rate and speed simultaneously.

  8. Localization of buildings in airborne forward-looking infrared image using template matching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yueming; Cao, Zhiguo; Li, Hansong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to localize buildings from forward looking infrared (FLIR) images. The proposed approach can localize not only large buildings, but also small buildings. Furthermore, the proposed approach is also robust with those FLIR images degraded by clouds. This breakthrough is due to the following improvements: (1) the Histogram of Oriented Gradients approach is improved to match FLIR images with our templates; (2) a new kind of feature image is presented to reduce the difference between template and target; (3) we project 3D building models into images, with different colors on different sides, distinguishing those sides apart; (4) we generate templates which contain all buildings in the visual field. As a result, the FLIR images can be matched with the big templates at a high correct rate, and then target buildings can be localized. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  9. Are infrared and thermistor thermometers interchangeable for measuring localized skin temperature?

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Michel, Yvonne; Wiseman, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Localized skin temperature must be measured by accurate and reliable thermometers to effectively evaluate treatment outcomes, monitor changes, and predict potential complications. This study compared localized skin temperature measurements with a contact thermistor thermometer used as a reference standard and a noncontact infrared (IR) skin thermometer to determine their interchangeability with calculated Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Fifty-five adults ages 50 to 89 participated in the study in which data were collected in a climate-controlled room over 3 measurement periods, 1 week apart. The thermistor and IR thermometers were interchangeable with a limit of agreement of +/- 1.5 degrees C. This limit of agreement is acceptable as a reference standard for IR thermometers to measure localized skin temperature in clinical settings. PMID:16764175

  10. Imaging Local Chemical Microstructure of Germinated Wheat with Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Koc,H.; Wetzel, D.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial resolution enabled by in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy as predicted from our earlier report in Spectroscopy (1) is applied to localized chemical analysis in this vital biological process of seed germination. Germination includes several different biochemical and structural processes. Ultimately, the entire seed is consumed in sustaining the new life that results after sprouting and growth (2-4). Alpha amylase production is the standard evidence for detection of sprouted (germinated) wheat at harvest. Moist preharvest conditions can cause devastating losses and render the harvested wheat unfit for flour production. Dormancy of dry seeds following harvest retards sprouting under proper storage.

  11. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. III. CO-EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang Yiping; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-10

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} using [Ne III] 15.56 {mu}m and optical [O III] {lambda}5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear {approx}1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy.

  12. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang, Yiping; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 × 107 M ⊙ using [Ne III] 15.56 μm and optical [O III] λ5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ~1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  13. High dynamic range infrared images detail enhancement based on local edge preserving filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiong; Wang, Yuehuan; Bai, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In the field of infrared (IR) image processing, displaying a high dynamic range (HDR) image on a low dynamic range display equipment with a natural visual effect, clear details on local areas and less artifacts is an important issue. In this paper, we present a new approach to display HDR IR images with contrast enhancement. First, the local edge-preserving filter (LEPF) is utilized to separate the image into a base layer and detail layer(s). After the filtering procedure, we use an adaptive Gamma transformation to adjust the gray distribution of the base layer, and stretch the detail layer based on a human visual effect principle. Then, we recombine the detail layer and base layer to obtain the enhance output. Finally, we adjust the luminance of output by applying multiple exposure fusion method. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can provide a significant performance in terms of enhancing details and less artifacts than the state of the arts.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Subarcsecond mid-infrared atlas of local AGN (Asmus+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, D.; Hoenig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.; Smette, A.; Duschl, W. J.

    2014-03-01

    The Subarcsecond mid-infrared (MIR) atlas of local active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a collection of all available N- and Q-band images obtained at ground-based 8-meter class telescopes with public archives (Gemini/Michelle, Gemini/T-ReCS, Subaru/COMICS, and VLT/VISIR). It includes in total 895 images, of which 60% are perviously unpublished. These correspond to 253 local AGN with a median redshift of 0.016. The atlas contains the uniformly processed and calibrated images and nuclear photometry obtained through Gauss and PSF fitting for all objects and filters. This also includes measurements of the nuclear extensions. In addition, the classifications of extended emission (if present) and derived nuclear monochromatic 12 and 18 micron continuum fluxes are available. Finally, flux ratios with the circumnuclear MIR emission (measured by Spitzer) and total MIR emission of the galaxy (measured by IRAS) are presented. The observations have been taken in the mid-infrared (N-band, 7-13micron, and Q-band, 17-20micron) between 2003-12-02 and 2011-06-15 and cover the whole sky. The objects have redshifts between -0.0001 and 0.3571. (2 data files).

  15. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  16. Infrared object detection using global and local cues based on LARK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2016-05-01

    Object detection has become a challenging problem in computer vision. Locally Adaptive Regression Kernel (LARK) based detection methods are able to produce visually pleasing results without any training. We in this paper present an effective object detection method by exploring global and local cues based on LARK features. First, we encode the local context similarity by exploiting region Structural LARK (SLARK) features, which measure the likeness of a pixel to its surroundings in the query image and the test image. Second, a global constraint based on SLARK features via Heat equation is learned to detect similar features in the test image. Results from matrix cosine similarity are computed to estimate similar regions between these computed features. A compactness score is provided to refine these regions. Next, we detect the location of objects in the test image using non-maxima suppression. We show in experiments that the proposed method significantly outperforms other methods on the infrared image datasets, localizing the objects in the test images effectively.

  17. Simulation of Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy of Peptides Using Localized Normal Modes.

    PubMed

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W D; Husseini, Fouad S; Hirst, Jonathan D; Besley, Nicholas A

    2016-04-12

    Nonlinear two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR) is most commonly simulated within the framework of the exciton method. The key parameters for these calculations include the frequency of the oscillators within their molecular environments and coupling constants that describe the strength of coupling between the oscillators. It is shown that these quantities can be obtained directly from harmonic frequency calculations by exploiting a procedure that localizes the normal modes. This approach is demonstrated using the amide I modes of polypeptides. For linear and cyclic diamides and hexapeptide Z-Aib-L-Leu-(Aib)2-Gly-Aib-OtBu, the computed parameters are compared with those from existing schemes, and the resulting 2DIR spectra are consistent with experimental observations. The incorporation of conformational averaging of structures from molecular dynamics simulations is discussed, and a hybrid scheme wherein the Hamiltonian matrix from the quantum chemical local-mode approach is combined with fluctuations from empirical schemes is shown to be consistent with experiment. The work demonstrates that localized vibrational modes can provide a foundation for the calculation of 2DIR spectra that does not rely on extensive parametrization and can be applied to a wide range of systems. For systems that are too large for quantum chemical harmonic frequency calculations, the local-mode approach provides a convenient platform for the development of site frequency and coupling maps. PMID:26913672

  18. Near-infrared phase cancellation instrument for fast and accurate localization of fluorescent heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Mu, Chenpeng; Intes, Xavier; Blessington, Dana; Chance, Britton

    2003-07-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical imaging has become a promising method for noninvasive in vivo detection of breast cancer with intrinsic chromophores. Recent developments in molecular specific targeting fluorescent contrast agents offer high tumor to normal tissue contrast, and are capable of selectively labeling various precancer/cancer signatures, thus enhancing both the sensitivity and specificity of cancer detection. To detect a subsurface tumor labeled by fluorescent contrast agents, we have developed a phase cancellation imaging system for fast localization of fluorescent object embedded several centimeters deep inside the turbid media. The instrument is a frequency domain (50 MHz) phase modulation system with dual out-of-phase sources. The excitation wavelength is 780 nm and the fluorescence photons are collected through an 830±10 nm band-pass filter. Localization of fluorescent objects inside the scattering media is accurate using a phase cancellation device. The localization error for a 5 mm diameter sphere filled with 1 nanomole fluorescent dye and 3 cm deep inside the turbid media is about 2 mm. The accuracy of the localization suggests that this system could be helpful in guiding clinical fine-needle biopsy, and would benefit the early detection of breast tumors.

  19. The subarcsecond mid-infrared view of local active galactic nuclei - II. The mid-infrared-X-ray correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hönig, S. F.; Smette, A.; Duschl, W. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present an updated mid-infrared (MIR) versus X-ray correlation for the local active galactic nuclei (AGN) population based on the high angular resolution 12 and 18μm continuum fluxes from the AGN subarcsecond MIR atlas and 2-10 keV and 14-195 keV data collected from the literature. We isolate a sample of 152 objects with reliable AGN nature and multi-epoch X-ray data and minimal MIR contribution from star formation. Although the sample is not homogeneous or complete, we show that our results are unlikely to be affected by significant biases. The MIR-X-ray correlation is nearly linear and within a factor of 2 independent of the AGN type and the wavebands used. The observed scatter is <0.4 dex. A possible flattening of the correlation slope at the highest luminosities probed (˜1045 erg s-1) towards low MIR luminosities for a given X-ray luminosity is indicated but not significant. Unobscured objects have, on average, an MIR-X-ray ratio that is only ≤0.15 dex higher than that of obscured objects. Objects with intermediate X-ray column densities (22 < log NH < 23) actually show the highest MIR-X-ray ratio on average. Radio-loud objects show a higher mean MIR-X-ray ratio at low luminosities while the ratio is lower than average at high luminosities. This may be explained by synchrotron emission from the jet contributing to the MIR at low luminosities and additional X-ray emission at high luminosities. True Seyfert 2 candidates do not show any deviation from the general behaviour suggesting that they possess a dusty obscurer as in other AGN. Double AGN also do not deviate. Finally, we show that the MIR-X-ray correlation can be used to investigate the AGN nature of uncertain objects. Specifically, we give equations that allow us to determine the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosities and column densities for objects with complex X-ray properties to within 0.34 dex. These techniques are applied to the uncertain objects of the remaining AGN MIR atlas, demonstrating the

  20. A Bridge from Optical to Infrared Galaxies: Explaining Local Properties, Predicting Galaxy Counts and the Cosmic Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, T.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    A new model of infrared galaxy counts and the cosmic background radiation (CBR) is developed by extending a model for optical/near-infrared galaxies. Important new characteristics of this model are that mass scale dependence of dust extinction is introduced based on the size-luminosity relation of optical galaxies, and that the big grain dust temperature T dust is calculated based on a physical consideration for energy balance, rather than using the empirical relation between T dust and total infrared luminosity L IR found in local galaxies, which has been employed in most of previous works. Consequently, the local properties of infrared galaxies, i.e., optical/infrared luminosity ratios, L IR-T dust correlation, and infrared luminosity function are outputs predicted by the model, while these have been inputs in a number of previous models. Our model indeed reproduces these local properties reasonably well. Then we make predictions for faint infrared counts (in 15, 60, 90, 170, 450, and 850 μ m) and CBR by this model. We found considerably different results from most of previous works based on the empirical L IR-T dust relation; especially, it is shown that the dust temperature of starbursting primordial elliptical galaxies is expected to be very high (40--80K). This indicates that intense starbursts of forming elliptical galaxies should have occurred at z ~ 2--3, in contrast to the previous results that significant starbursts beyond z ~ 1 tend to overproduce the far-infrared (FIR) CBR detected by COBE/FIRAS. On the other hand, our model predicts that the mid-infrared (MIR) flux from warm/nonequilibrium dust is relatively weak in such galaxies making FIR CBR, and this effect reconciles the prima facie conflict between the upper limit on MIR CBR from TeV gamma-ray observations and the COBE\\ detections of FIR CBR. The authors thank the financial support by the Japan Society for Promotion of Science.

  1. THE ROLE OF MERGER STAGE ON GALAXY RADIO SPECTRA IN LOCAL INFRARED-BRIGHT STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Eric J.

    2013-11-01

    An investigation of the steep, high-frequency (i.e., ν ∼ 12 GHz) radio spectra among a sample of 31 local infrared-bright starburst galaxies is carried out in light of their Hubble-Space-Telescope-based merger classifications. Radio data covering as many as 10 individual bands allow for spectral indices to be measured over three frequency bins between 0.15 and 32.5 GHz. Sources having the flattest spectral indices measured at ∼2 and 4 GHz, arising from large free-free optical depths among the densest starbursts, appear to be in ongoing through post-stage mergers. The spectral indices measured at higher frequencies (i.e., ∼12 GHz) are steepest for sources associated with ongoing mergers in which their nuclei are distinct, but share a common stellar envelope and/or exhibit tidal tails. These results hold after excluding potential active galactic nuclei based on their low 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon equivalent widths. Consequently, the low-, mid-, and high-frequency spectral indices each appear to be sensitive to the exact merger stage. It is additionally shown that ongoing mergers, whose progenitors are still separated and share a common envelope and/or exhibit tidal tails, also exhibit excess radio emission relative to what is expected given the far-infrared/radio correlation, suggesting that there may be a significant amount of radio emission that is not associated with ongoing star formation. The combination of these observations, along with high-resolution radio morphologies, leads to a picture in which the steep high-frequency radio spectral indices and excess radio emission arise from radio continuum bridges and tidal tails that are not associated with star formation, similar to what is observed for so-called 'taffy' galaxies. This scenario may also explain the seemingly low far-infrared/radio ratios measured for many high-z submillimeter galaxies, a number of which are merger-driven starbursts.

  2. Non-local means-based nonuniformity correction for infrared focal-plane array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Chen, Fu-sheng; Wang, Chen-sheng

    2014-11-01

    The infrared imaging systems are normally based on the infrared focal-plane array (IRFPA) which can be considered as an array of independent detectors aligned at the focal plane of the imaging system. Unfortunately, every detector on the IRFPA may have a different response to the same input infrared signal which is known as the nonuniformity problem. Then we can observe the fixed pattern noise (FPN) from the resulting images. Standard nonuniformity correction (NUC) methods need to be recalibrated after a short period of time due the temporal drift of the FPN. Scene-based nonuniformity correction (NUC) techniques eliminate the need for calibration by correction coefficients based on the scene being viewed. However, in the scene-based NUC method the problem of ghosting artifacts widely seriously decreases the image quality, which can degrade the performance of many applications such as target detection and track. This paper proposed an improved scene-based method based on the retina-like neural network approach. The method incorporates the use of non-local means (NLM) method into the estimation of the gain and the offset of each detector. This method can not only estimates the accurate correction coefficient but also restrict the ghosting artifacts efficiently. The proposed method relies on the use of NLM method which is a very successful image denoising method. And then the NLM used here can preserve the image edges efficiently and obtain a reliable spatial estimation. We tested the proposed NUC method by applying it to an IR sequence of frames. The performance of the proposed method was compared the other well-established adaptive NUC techniques.

  3. Fault localization and analysis in semiconductor devices with optical-feedback infrared confocal microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Raymund; Cemine, Vernon Julius; Tagaca, Imee Rose; Salvador, Arnel; Mar Blanca, Carlo; Saloma, Caesar

    2007-11-01

    We report on a cost-effective optical setup for characterizing light-emitting semiconductor devices with optical-feedback confocal infrared microscopy and optical beam-induced resistance change.We utilize the focused beam from an infrared laser diode to induce local thermal resistance changes across the surface of a biased integrated circuit (IC) sample. Variations in the multiple current paths are mapped by scanning the IC across the focused beam. The high-contrast current maps allow accurate differentiation of the functional and defective sites, or the isolation of the surface-emittingp-i-n devices in the IC. Optical beam-induced current (OBIC) is not generated since the incident beam energy is lower than the bandgap energy of the p-i-n device. Inhomogeneous current distributions in the IC become apparent without the strong OBIC background. They are located at a diffraction-limited resolution by referencing the current maps against the confocal reflectance image that is simultaneously acquired via optical-feedback detection. Our technique permits the accurate identification of metal and semiconductor sites as well as the classification of different metallic structures according to thickness, composition, or spatial inhomogeneity.

  4. The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Hacking, Perry

    1993-01-01

    More than 30% of current star formation is taking place ingalaxies known as starburst galaxies. Do starburst galaxies play a central role in the evolution of all galaxies, and can they lead us to the birth of galaxies and the source of quasars? We have proposed to build the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), capable of detecting typical starburst galaxies at a redshift of 0.5, ultraluminous infrared galaxies behond a redshift of 2, and luminous protogalaxies beyond a redshift of 5.

  5. A Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Infrared Luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; GOALS FTS Team

    2013-03-01

    We describe an on-going 194-671 μm spectroscopic survey of a flux-limited sample of 125 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The survey targets primarily the CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED), from J = 4-3 up to J = 13-12, to probe dense and warm molecular gas that should play an intimate role in star formation and/or active galactic nuclear activities in these galaxies. The program is about 75% finished. At S/N > 5, besides the CO lines, we also detected [N ii] 205 μm and [C i] 370 μm (3 P 2 - 3P1) lines in every target observed. In about half of the observed targets, we also detected [C i] 609 μm (3 P 1 - 3P0).

  6. A Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Issak, K.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S. D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Petric, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J. A.; Van der Werf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe an on-going Herschel 194-671 micron spectroscopic survey of a flux-limited sample of 125 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), targeting primarily at the spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the CO rotational line emission (from J=4-3 up to J=13-12) from warm and dense molecular gas, the [NII] 205 micron line from ionized gas, and the [CI] 370 and 609 micron lines arising mainly from less dense and colder molecular gas where the CO (J=1-0) line is also strong. We present observational results for the first set of 65 sample galaxies that are more or less point sources with respect to the Herschel beams, and show statistical correlations among the shape of the CO SLED, CO line luminosities, IR dust luminosity, and whether a target is known to harbor AGN or not.

  7. Mapping the gas kinematics and ionization structure of four ultraluminous IRAS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilman, R. J.; Crawford, C. S.; Abraham, R. G.

    1999-10-01

    We present a study of the morphology, kinematics and ionization structure of the extended emission-line regions in four intermediate-redshift (0.118ultraluminous infrared galaxies, derived from ARGUS two-dimensional fibre spectroscopy. The gas kinematics in the hyperluminous system IRAS F20460+1925 lack coherent structure, with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) >1000kms-1 within 1arcsec of the nucleus, suggesting that any merger is well-advanced. Emission-line intensity ratios point to active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization for the excitation of this gas at the systemic velocity. An isolated blob ~8kpc from the nucleus with a much smaller velocity dispersion may lie in a structure similar to the photoionization cones seen in lower-luminosity objects. A second, spatially unresolved, narrow-line component is also present on nucleus, blueshifted by ~=990kms-1 from the systemic and plausibly powered by photoionizing shocks. IRAS F23060+0505 has more ordered kinematics, with a region of increased FWHM coincident with the blue half of a dipolar velocity field. The systemic velocity rotation curve is asymmetric in appearance, as a result either of the on-going merger or of nuclear dust obscuration. From a higher-resolution ISIS spectrum, we attribute the blue asymmetry in the narrow-line profiles to a spatially resolved nuclear outflow. Emission-line intensity ratios suggest shock+precursor ionization for the systemic component, consistent with the X-ray view of a heavily obscured AGN. The lower-luminosity objects IRAS F01217+0122 and F01003-2238 complete the sample. The former has a featureless velocity field with a high FWHM, a high-ionization AGN spectrum and a ~1Gyr old starburst continuum. IRAS F01003-2238 has a dipolar velocity field and an Hii region emission-line spectrum with a strong blue continuum. After correction for intrinsic extinction, the latter can be reproduced with ~107 O5 stars, sufficient to power the bolometric luminosity of the

  8. Ultraluminous X-ray sources - three exciting years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachetti, M.

    2015-09-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are off-nuclear extragalactic sources with (apparent) luminosities exceeding the Eddington limit for a stellar-mass black hole. This naturally suggests an association with the elusive class of intermediate-mass black holes, or with super-Eddington accreting black holes. As it turns out, this peculiar class of sources is actually a variegated zoo, including both classes of accreting black holes mentioned above and, rather unexpectedly, neutron stars. In this talk I will overview the astrophysical properties of these objects, and give an update on the many breakthroughs appeared in the literature in the last three years.

  9. Strong restriction on inflationary vacua from the local gauge invariance III: Infrared regularity of graviton loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro; Urakawa, Yuko

    2014-07-01

    It has been claimed that the super-Hubble modes of the graviton generated during inflation can make loop corrections diverge. Even if we introduce an infrared (IR) cutoff at a comoving scale as an ad hoc but practical method of regularization, we encounter secular growth, which may lead to the breakdown of perturbative expansion for a sufficiently long-lasting inflation. In this paper, we show that the IR pathology concerning the graviton can be attributed to the presence of residual gauge degrees of freedom in the local observable universe, as in the case of the adiabatic curvature perturbation. We will show that choosing the Euclidean vacuum as the initial state ensures invariance under the above-mentioned residual gauge transformations. We will also show that, as long as we consider a gauge invariant quantity in the local universe, we encounter neither IR divergence nor secular growth. The argument in this paper applies to general single-field models of inflation up to a sufficiently high order in perturbation.

  10. Localization of polyhydroxybutyrate in sugarcane using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Smith-Moritz, Andreia; Singh, Seema; McQualter, Richard; Scheller, Henrik V.; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-07-10

    Background: Slow-degrading, fossil fuel-derived plastics can have deleterious effects on the environment, especially marine ecosystems. The production of bio-based, biodegradable plastics from or in plants can assist in supplanting those manufactured using fossil fuels. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one such biodegradable polyester that has been evaluated as a possible candidate for relinquishing the use of environmentally harmful plastics. Results: PHB, possessing similar properties to polyesters produced from non-renewable sources, has been previously engineered in sugarcane, thereby creating a high-value co-product in addition to the high biomass yield. This manuscript illustrates the coupling of a Fourier-transform infrared microspectrometer, equipped with a focal plane array (FPA) detector, with multivariate imaging to successfully identify and localize PHB aggregates. Principal component analysis imaging facilitated the mining of the abundant quantity of spectral data acquired using the FPA for distinct PHB vibrational modes. PHB was measured in the chloroplasts of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, acquiescent with previously evaluated plant samples. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the power of IR microspectroscopy to rapidly image plant sections to provide a snapshot of the chemical composition of the cell. While PHB was localized in sugarcane, this method is readily transferable to other value-added co-products in different plants.

  11. Localization of polyhydroxybutyrate in sugarcane using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate imaging

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Smith-Moritz, Andreia; Singh, Seema; McQualter, Richard; Scheller, Henrik V.; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-07-10

    Background: Slow-degrading, fossil fuel-derived plastics can have deleterious effects on the environment, especially marine ecosystems. The production of bio-based, biodegradable plastics from or in plants can assist in supplanting those manufactured using fossil fuels. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one such biodegradable polyester that has been evaluated as a possible candidate for relinquishing the use of environmentally harmful plastics. Results: PHB, possessing similar properties to polyesters produced from non-renewable sources, has been previously engineered in sugarcane, thereby creating a high-value co-product in addition to the high biomass yield. This manuscript illustrates the coupling of a Fourier-transform infrared microspectrometer, equipped with a focalmore » plane array (FPA) detector, with multivariate imaging to successfully identify and localize PHB aggregates. Principal component analysis imaging facilitated the mining of the abundant quantity of spectral data acquired using the FPA for distinct PHB vibrational modes. PHB was measured in the chloroplasts of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, acquiescent with previously evaluated plant samples. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the power of IR microspectroscopy to rapidly image plant sections to provide a snapshot of the chemical composition of the cell. While PHB was localized in sugarcane, this method is readily transferable to other value-added co-products in different plants.« less

  12. Handheld low-frequency phased array near-infrared (NIR) breast cancer localizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Chen, Yu; Luo, Qingming

    2003-07-01

    A system for rapid and precise localization of breast cancer using low frequency phased array near-infrared technique has been developed. In this system, in-phase and out-of-phase of sine-wave signals at 3 kHz modulate two light emitting diode (LED) sources respectively. And amplitude cancellation of two photon density waves will occur in the silicon-detector at the mid-plane of two sources reference. Cancellation signal is displayed by an embedded amplitude and phase detector and is displayed acoustically. The whole system is pocket-size, handheld with the dimension of 6.0cm×5.0cm×2.5cm and the weight is 140g. Experiments with phantom and animals show that the system can provide real time detection and localization of small hidden absorbing-fluorescent objects inside the highly scattering medium at the depth of 2cm with high accuracy of +/-1 ~ 2mm. The limit of object detection with 20 mA LED current is 1cm and with 40 mA is 2cm. The potential application is that it can be used for early breast cancer detection as a convenient self-examination device.

  13. Local, regional, and global views of tropospheric carbon monoxide from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, W. Wallace; Yurganov, Leonid

    2008-04-01

    More than five years of CO retrievals from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite reveal variations in tropospheric CO on timescales from twelve hours to five years and on spatial scales from local to global. The shorter timescales are invaluable to monitor daily variations in CO emissions, to enable three-dimensional tracking of atmospheric motions, and to enhance insights into atmospheric mixing. Previous studies have utilized AIRS CO retrievals over the course of days to weeks to track plumes from large forest fires. On the local scale, we will present AIRS observations of pollution from several northern hemisphere Megacities. On the regional scale, we will present AIRS observations of the Mexico City pollution plume. We will illustrate global scale AIRS CO observations of interannual variations linked to the influence of large-scale atmospheric perturbations from the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In particular, we observe a quasi-biennial variation in CO emissions from Indonesia with varying magnitudes in peak emission occurring in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Examining satellite rainfall measurements over Indonesia, we find the enhanced CO emission correlates with occasions of less rainfall during the month of October. Continuing this satellite record of tropospheric CO with measurements from the European IASI instrument will permit construction of a long time-series useful for further investigations of climatological variations in CO emissions and their impact on the health of the atmosphere.

  14. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-20

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ∼ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L {sub C} {sub II}–L {sub FIR} relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratio and the far-IR color L {sub 60}/L {sub 100} observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L {sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} or L {sub IR}/M{sub H{sub 2}}), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the

  15. Intraoperative Localization of Insulinoma and Normal Pancreas using Invisible Near-Infrared Fluorescent Light

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Joshua; Choi, Hak Soo; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Colson, Yolonda L.; Frangioni, John V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas, such as insulinoma, are difficult to localize and complete resection is essential for cure. Our hypothesis is that a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore exhibiting uptake in insulinoma could provide high sensitivity detection intraoperatively. Methods: The optical properties of methylene blue (MB) were measured in vitro in 100% serum at 37°C, and in vivo after tissue uptake. MB was injected as a rapid intravenous bolus at doses ranging from 0.25 to 2 mg/kg into wildtype rats and pigs, and into insulinoma-bearing transgenic mice. The FLARE™ imaging system was used to acquire color video and NIR fluorescence images simultaneously, and in real-time. The signal-to-background ratios (SBR) of tissues and tumors were quantified using FLARE™ software. Results: When appropriately diluted, MB exhibits moderate NIR fluorescence emission peaking at 688 nm. At doses ≥ 1 mg/kg, certain normal tissues, such as pancreas, accumulate MB and remain NIR fluorescent for up to 1 hr with an SBR ≥ 1.6. MB spectral properties are maintained after uptake into tissue. Interestingly, insulinoma exhibits even higher uptake for MB than normal pancreas, resulting in insulinoma-to-pancreas ratios of 3.7 and insulinoma-to-muscle ratios of 16.2. MB permitted high-sensitivity, real-time localization of primary, multi-centric, and metastatic insulinoma, and permitted differentiation among tumor, normal pancreas, and other abdominal structures. Conclusion: A single intravenous injection of a clinically available, commonly used NIR fluorophore provides prolonged intraoperative localization of normal pancreas and insulinoma using invisible NIR fluorescent light. PMID:20033320

  16. The Subarcsecond Mid-infrared View of Local Active Galactic Nuclei. III. Polar Dust Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, D.; Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.

    2016-05-01

    Recent mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations have shown that in a few active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the bulk of the infrared emission originates from the polar region above the putative torus, where only a little dust should be present. Here, we investigate whether such strong polar dust emission is common in AGNs. Out of 149 Seyferts in the MIR atlas of local AGNs, 21 show extended MIR emission on single-dish images. In 18 objects, the extended MIR emission aligns with the position angle (PA) of the system axis, established by [O iii], radio, polarization, and maser-based PA measurements. The relative amount of resolved MIR emission is at least 40% and scales with the [O iv] fluxes, implying a strong connection between the extended continuum and [O iv] emitters. These results together with the radio-quiet nature of the Seyferts support the scenario that the bulk of MIR emission is emitted by dust in the polar region and not by the torus, which would demand a new paradigm for the infrared emission structure in AGNs. The current low detection rate of polar dust in the AGNs of the MIR atlas is explained by the lack of sufficient high-quality MIR data and the requirements on the orientation, strength of narrow-line region, and distance of the AGNs. The James Webb Space Telescope will enable much deeper nuclear MIR studies with comparable angular resolution, allowing us to resolve the polar emission and surroundings in most of the nearby AGNs. Based on European Southern Observatory (ESO) observing programmes 60.A-9242, 074.A-9016, 075.B-0182, 075.B-0621, 075.B-0631, 075.B-0727, 075.B-0791, 075.B-0844, 076.B-0194, 076.B-0468, 076.B-0599, 076.B-0621, 076.B-0656, 076.B-0696, 076.B-0743, 077.B-0060, 077.B-0135, 077.B-0137, 077.B-0728, 078.B-0020, 078.B-0173, 078.B-0255, 078.B-0303, 080.B-0240, 080.B-0860, 081.B-0182, 082.B-0299, 083.B-0239, 083.B-0452, 083.B-0536, 083.B-0592, 084.B-0366, 084.B-0606, 084.B-0974, 085.B-0251, 085.B-0639, 086.B-0242, 086.B-0257, 086

  17. [Influence of laser -- infrared irradiation on local complications of early postoperative period in hernias of anterior abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Gasymov, E M

    2005-01-01

    Results of laser-infrared irradiation (LIRI) of postoperative wound after surgical treatment of recurrent hernias of anterior abdominal wall were analyzed. LIRI decreased number of local complications in early postoperative period in patients both with recurrent and primary hernias. The method was more effective for the treatment of local complication in patients with recurrent hernia that is confirmed by reduced of frequency of infiltrates, seromas and suppurations. PMID:16247383

  18. The local stellar luminosity function and mass-to-light ratio in the near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, A.; Fuchs, B.; Jahreiß, H.; Flynn, C.; Dettbarn, C.; Rybizki, J.

    2015-07-01

    A new sample of stars, representative of the solar neighbourhood luminosity function (LF), is constructed from the Hipparcos catalogue and the Fifth Catalogue of Nearby Stars. We have cross-matched to sources in the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalogue so that for all stars individually determined near-infrared (NIR) photometry is available on a homogeneous system (typically Ks). The spatial completeness of the sample has been carefully determined by statistical methods, and the NIR LF of the stars has been derived by direct star counts. We find a local volume luminosity of 0.121 ± 0.004 LK⊙ pc-3, corresponding to a volumetric mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of M/L_K = 0.31 ± 0.02 {M}_{⊙}/L_{K⊙}, where giants contribute 80 per cent to the light but less than 2 per cent to the stellar mass. We derive the surface brightness of the solar cylinder with the help of a vertical disc model. We find a surface brightness of 99 LK⊙ pc-2 with an uncertainty of approximately 10 per cent. This corresponds to an M/L for the solar cylinder of M/L_K = 0.34 {M}_{⊙}/L_{K⊙}. The M/L for the solar cylinder is only 10 per cent larger than the local value despite the fact that the local population has a much larger contribution of young stars. It turns out that the effective scaleheights of the lower main sequence carrying most of the mass is similar to that of the giants, which are dominating the NIR light. The corresponding colour for the solar cylinder is V - K = 2.89 mag compared to the local value of V - K = 2.46 mag. An extrapolation of the local surface brightness to the whole Milky Way yields a total luminosity of MK = -24.2 mag. The Milky Way falls in the range of K band Tully-Fisher relations from the literature.

  19. NGC 2276: a remarkable galaxy with a large number of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Anna; Esposito, Paolo; Mapelli, Michela; Pizzolato, Fabio; Ripamonti, Emanuele

    2015-03-01

    The starbusting, nearby (D = 32.9 Mpc) spiral (Sc) galaxy NGC 2276 belongs to the sparse group dominated by the elliptical galaxy NGC 2300. NGC 2276 is a remarkable galaxy, as it displays a disturbed morphology at many wavelengths. This is possibly due to gravitational interaction with the central elliptical galaxy of the group. Previous ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations resulted in the detection of extended hot gas emission and of a single very bright (˜1041 erg s-1) ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate. Here, we report on a study of the X-ray sources of NGC 2276 based on Chandra data taken in 2004. Chandra was able to resolve 16 sources, 8 of which are ULXs, and to reveal that the previous ULX candidate is actually composed of a few distinct objects. We construct the luminosity function of NGC 2276, which can be interpreted as dominated by high-mass X-ray binaries, and estimate the star formation rate (SFR) to be ˜5-15 M⊙ yr-1, consistent with the values derived from optical and infrared observations. By means of numerical simulations, we show that both ram pressure and viscous transfer effects are necessary to produce the distorted morphology and the high SFR observed in NGC 2276, while tidal interaction have a marginal effect.

  20. EXTENDED [C II] EMISSION IN LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Charmandaris, V.; Stacey, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Haan, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Evans, A. S.; Malhotra, S.; Appleton, P.; Inami, H.; Magdis, G. E.; Elbaz, D.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Meijerink, R.; and others

    2014-06-10

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of extended [C II] 157.7 μm line emission detected on ∼1-10 kpc scales in 60 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. We find that most of the extra-nuclear emission show [C II]/FIR ratios ≥4 × 10{sup –3}, larger than the mean ratio seen in the nuclei, and similar to those found in the extended disks of normal star-forming galaxies and the diffuse interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The [C II] ''deficits'' found in the most luminous local LIRGs are therefore restricted to their nuclei. There is a trend for LIRGs with warmer nuclei to show larger differences between their nuclear and extra-nuclear [C II]/FIR ratios. We find an anti-correlation between [C II]/FIR and the luminosity surface density, Σ{sub IR}, for the extended emission in the spatially resolved galaxies. However, there is an offset between this trend and that found for the LIRG nuclei. We use this offset to derive a beam filling-factor for the star-forming regions within the LIRG disks of ∼6% relative to their nuclei. We confront the observed trend to photo-dissociation region models and find that the slope of the correlation is much shallower than the model predictions. Finally, we compare the correlation found between [C II]/FIR and Σ{sub IR} with measurements of high-redshift starbursting IR-luminous galaxies.

  1. OT1_nlu_1: Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.

    2010-07-01

    We propose to survey CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED), from J=4-3 up to J=13-12, on 93 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L_{IR} > 1.0E11 L_{sun}) with Herschel SPIRE FTS spectrometer. These galaxies, plus 32 additional LIRGs that will have similar data from existing Herschel programs (mainly the HerCULES project), form a flux-limited subset of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS) sample. Our proposal is built on the legacy of GOALS and extends beyond the existing Herschel HerCULES program, which emphasizes more on ULIRGs, to a much needed sample coverage of the more numerous and diverse population of less luminous LIRGs. The data from the proposed observations will not only provide much needed local LIRG templates for future ALMA studies of high-redshift counterparts, but also lend us a powerful diagnostic tool to probe the warm and dense molecular gas that are more closely related to the starburst or AGN activity in the nuclei of LIRGs. The data from this proposal will provide important statistical clues to the interplay between the cold and warm molecular gas, IR luminosity, star formation rate and efficiency, and the diverse properties of LIRGs. Specifically, using the homogeneous CO SLED data from this proposal, together with ground-base, low-order CO line data (mainly J=1-0) and other data that have been compiled for the GOALS sample, we will address the following questions: (1) What is the dominant nuclear power source in individual sample galaxy: starburst or AGN? (2) What are the typical physical properties of warm molecular gas in the nuclei of LIRGs? (3) How do the nuclear warm gas components correlate to the cold gas component, star formation rate and efficiency, dust temperature, etc? and (4) How does molecular gas excitation change along a merger sequence?

  2. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chu Shan; Loh, Yean Chun; Ahmad, Mariam; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd.; Yam, Mun Fei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King) for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR) macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR), second-derivative IR (SD-IR), and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR) analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect. PMID:27386148

  3. Local changes in arterial oxygen saturation induced by visible and near-infrared light radiation.

    PubMed

    Yesman, S S; Mamilov, S O; Veligotsky, D V; Gisbrecht, A I

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the efficiency of laser radiation on oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) rate in blood vessels and its wavelength dependence. The results of in vivo experimental measurements of the laser-induced photodissociation of HbO2 in cutaneous blood vessels in the visible and near-infrared (IR) spectral range are presented. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) was measured by a method of fingertip pulse oximetry, which is based on the measurement of the modulated pulse wave of the blood. The light irradiating the finger was provided by corresponding light-emitting diodes (LED) at 15 wavelengths in the 400-940 nm spectrum range. Statistical results with a value of p < 0.05 were viewed as being significant for all volunteers. The results show that there is a decrease in SpO2 in the blood under the influence of the transcutaneous laser irradiation. Three maxima in the spectral range (530, 600, and 850 nm) are revealed, wherein decrease in the relative concentration of SpO2 reaches 5 % ± 0.5 %. Near-IR radiation plays a dominant role in absorption of laser radiation by oxyhemoglobin in deeper layers of tissue blood vessels. The obtained data correlate with the processes of light propagation in biological tissue. The observed reduction in SpO2 indicates the process of photodissociation of HbO2 in vivo and may result in local increase in O2 in the tissue. Such laser-induced enrichment of tissue oxygenation can be used in phototherapy of pathologies, where the elimination of local tissue hypoxia is critical. PMID:26637304

  4. Posture estimation for improved photogrammetric localization of pedestrians in monocular infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundegorski, Mikolaj E.; Breckon, Toby P.

    2015-10-01

    Target tracking complexity within conventional video imagery can be fundamentally attributed to the ambiguity associated with actual 3D scene position of a given tracked object in relation to its observed position in 2D image space. Recent work, within thermal-band infrared imagery, has tackled this challenge head on by returning to classical photogrammetry as a means of recovering the true 3D position of pedestrian targets. A key limitation in such approaches is the assumption of posture - that the observed pedestrian is at full height stance within the scene. Whilst prior work has shown the effects of statistical height variation to be negligible, variations in the posture of the target may still pose a significant source of potential error. Here we present a method that addresses this issue via the use of Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression based pedestrian posture estimation operating on Histogram of Orientated Gradient (HOG) feature descriptors. Within an existing tracking framework, we demonstrate improved target localization that is independent of variations in target posture (i.e. behaviour) and within the statistical error bounds of prior work for pedestrian height posture varying from 0.4-2.4m over a distance to target range of 7-30m.

  5. Classifying the Zoo of Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Cropper, Mark; Motch, Christian

    2005-06-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are likely to include different physical types of objects. We discuss some possible subclasses, reviewing the properties of a sample of ULXs recently observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Sources with an isotropic X-ray luminosity up to a few times 1039 erg s-1 are consistent with ``normal'' stellar-mass X-ray binaries (mostly high-mass X-ray binaries in star-forming regions). Higher black hole (BH) masses (≈ 50-100 M⊙) may be the end product of massive stellar evolution in peculiar environments: they may explain ULXs with luminosities ≈ 1-2 × 1040 erg s-1. Only a handful of ULXs require a true intermediate-mass BH (M ⪆ 500 M⊙). Finally, a small subclass of ULXs shows flaring or rapid variability in its power-law spectral component.

  6. Resolving Gas Flows in the Ultraluminous Starburst IRAS 23365+3604 with Keck LGSAO/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Soto, Kurt T.

    2016-03-01

    Keck OSIRIS/LGSAO observations of the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS 23365+3604 resolve a circumnuclear bar (or irregular disk) of semimajor axis 0.″42 (520 pc) in Paα emission. The line-of-sight velocity of the ionized gas increases from the northeast toward the southwest; this gradient is perpendicular to the photometric major axis of the infrared emission. Two pairs of bends in the zero-velocity line are detected. The inner bend provides evidence for gas inflow onto the circumnuclear disk/bar structure. We interpret the gas kinematics on kiloparsec scales in relation to the molecular gas disk and multiphase outflow discovered previously. In particular, the fast component of the ouflow (detected previously in line wings) is not detected, adding support to the conjecture that the fast wind originates well beyond the nucleus. These data directly show the dynamics of gas inflow and outflow in the central kiloparsec of a late-stage, gas-rich merger and demonstrate the potential of integral field spectroscopy to improve our understanding of the role of gas flows during the growth phase of bulges and supermassive black holes. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The data were obtained with the OH Supressing Infrared Spectrograph (OSIRIS) behind the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System.

  7. SPATIALLY RESOLVED STAR FORMATION IMAGE AND THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE POPULATION IN NGC 2207/IC 2163

    SciTech Connect

    Mineo, S.; Rappaport, S.; Steinhorn, B.; Levine, A.; Gilfanov, M.; Pooley, D. E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: bsteinho@mit.edu E-mail: gilfanov@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-07-10

    The colliding galaxy pair NGC 2207/IC 2163, at a distance of {approx}39 Mpc, was observed with Chandra, and an analysis reveals 28 well resolved X-ray sources, including 21 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with L{sub X} {approx}> 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}, as well as the nucleus of NGC 2207. The number of ULXs is comparable with the largest numbers of ULXs per unit mass in any galaxy yet reported. In this paper we report on these sources, and quantify how their locations correlate with the local star formation rates seen in spatially resolved star formation rate density images that we have constructed using combinations of GALEX FUV and Spitzer 24 {mu}m images. We show that the numbers of ULXs are strongly correlated with the local star formation rate densities surrounding the sources, but that the luminosities of these sources are not strongly correlated with star formation rate density.

  8. Warm molecular gas temperature distribution in six local infrared bright Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; van der Werf, Paul P.; Piqueras López, Javier

    2014-06-01

    We simultaneously analyze the spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of CO and H2 of six local luminous infrared (IR) Seyfert galaxies. For the CO SLEDs, we used new Herschel/SPIRE FTS data (from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12) and ground-based observations for the lower-J CO transitions. The H2 SLEDs were constructed using archival mid-IR Spitzer/IRS and near-IR VLT/SINFONI data for the rotational and ro-vibrational H2 transitions, respectively. In total, the SLEDs contain 26 transitions with upper level energies between 5 and 15 000 K. A single, constant density, model (nH2 ~ 104.5-6 cm-3) with a broken power-law temperature distribution reproduces well both the CO and H2 SLEDs. The power-law indices are β1 ~ 1-3 for warm molecular gas (20 K 100 K). We show that the steeper temperature distribution (higher β) for hot molecular gas can be explained by shocks and photodissociation region (PDR) models; however, the exact β values are not reproduced by PDR or shock models alone and a combination of both is needed. We find that the three major mergers among our targets have shallower temperature distributions for warm molecular gas than the other three spiral galaxies. This can be explained by a higher relative contribution of shock excitation, with respect to PDR excitation, for the warm molecular gas in these mergers. For only one of the mergers, IRASF 05189-2524, the shallower H2 temperature distribution differs from that of the spiral galaxies. The presence of a bright active galactic nucleus in this source might explain the warmer molecular gas observed. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. The SCUBA-2 cosmology legacy survey: Ultraluminous star-forming galaxies in a z = 1.6 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Simpson, J. M.; Geach, J. E.; Tadaki, K.; Arumugam, V.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Hartley, W.; Almaini, O.; Conselice, C.; Bremer, M. N.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Scott, D.; Simpson, C. J.; Karim, A.; Kodama, T.; and others

    2014-02-10

    We analyze new SCUBA-2 submillimeter and archival SPIRE far-infrared imaging of a z = 1.62 cluster, Cl 0218.3–0510, which lies in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey/Ultra-Deep Survey field of the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. Combining these tracers of obscured star-formation activity with the extensive photometric and spectroscopic information available for this field, we identify 31 far-infrared/submillimeter-detected probable cluster members with bolometric luminosities ≳10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and show that by virtue of their dust content and activity, these represent some of the reddest and brightest galaxies in this structure. We exploit ALMA submillimeter continuum observations, which cover one of these sources, to confirm the identification of a SCUBA-2-detected ultraluminous star-forming galaxy in this structure. Integrating the total star-formation activity in the central region of the structure, we estimate that it is an order of magnitude higher (in a mass-normalized sense) than clusters at z ∼ 0.5-1. However, we also find that the most active cluster members do not reside in the densest regions of the structure, which instead host a population of passive and massive, red galaxies. We suggest that while the passive and active populations have comparable near-infrared luminosities at z = 1.6, M{sub H} ∼ –23, the subsequent stronger fading of the more active galaxies means that they will evolve into passive systems at the present day that are less luminous than the descendants of those galaxies that were already passive at z ∼ 1.6 (M{sub H} ∼ –20.5 and M{sub H} ∼ –21.5, respectively, at z ∼ 0). We conclude that the massive galaxy population in the dense cores of present-day clusters were already in place at z = 1.6 and that in Cl 0218.3–0510 we are seeing continuing infall of less extreme, but still ultraluminous, star-forming galaxies onto a pre-existing structure.

  10. A small dim infrared maritime target detection algorithm based on local peak detection and pipeline-filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Dong, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Xu, Wenhai

    2015-12-01

    In order to realize accurate detection for small dim infrared maritime target, this paper proposes a target detection algorithm based on local peak detection and pipeline-filtering. This method firstly extracts some suspected targets through local peak detection and removes most of non-target peaks with self-adaptive threshold process. And then pipeline-filtering is used to eliminate residual interferences so that only real target can be retained. The experiment results prove that this method has high performance on target detection, and its missing alarm rate and false alarm rate can basically meet practical requirements.

  11. IR Fine-Structure Line Signatures of Central Dust-Bounded Nebulae in Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J.; Allen, R.; Dudley, C. C.; Satyapal, S.; Luhman, M.; Wolfire, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    To date, the only far-infrared spectroscopic observations of ultraluminous infrared galaxies have been obtained with the European Space Agency s Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer. The spectra of these galaxies are characterized by molecular absorption lines and weak emission lines from photodissociation regions (PDRs), but no far-infrared (greater than 40 microns) lines from ionized regions have been detected. ESA s Herschel Space Observatory, slated for launch in 2007, will likely be able to detect these lines in samples of local and moderate redshift ultra luminous galaxies and to enable measurement of the ionization parameters, the slope of the ionizing continuum, and densities present in the ionized regions of these galaxies. The higher spatial resolution of proposed observatories discussed in this workshop will enable isolation of the central regions of local galaxies and detection of these lines in high-redshift galaxies for study of the evolution of galaxies. Here we discuss evidence for the e.ects of absorption by dust within ionized regions and present the spectroscopic signatures predicted by photoionization modeling of dust-bounded regions.

  12. Improving the light quantification of near infrared (NIR) diffused light optical tomography with ultrasound localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman

    According to the statistics published by the American Cancer Society, currently breast cancer is the second most common cancer after skin cancer and the second cause of cancer death after lung cancer in the female population. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared (NIR) light, guided by ultrasound localization, has shown great promise in distinguishing benign from malignant breast tumors and in assessing the response of breast cancer to chemotherapy. Our ultrasound-guided DOT system is based on reflection geometry, with patients scanned in supine position using a hand-held probe. For patients with chest-wall located at a depth shallower than 1 to 2cm, as in about 10% of our clinical cases, the semi-infinite imaging medium is not a valid assumption and the chest-wall effect needs to be considered in the imaging reconstruction procedure. In this dissertation, co-registered ultrasound images were used to model the breast-tissue and chest-wall as a two-layer medium. The effect of the chest wall on breast lesion reconstruction was systematically investigated. The performance of the two-layer model-based reconstruction, using the Finite Element Method, was evaluated by simulation, phantom experiments and clinical studies. The results show that the two-layer model can improve the accuracy of estimated background optical properties, the reconstructed absorption map and the total hemoglobin concentration of the lesion. For patients' data affected by chest wall, the perturbation, which is the difference between measurements obtained at lesion and normal reference sites, may include the information of background mismatch between these two sites. Because the imaging reconstruction is based on the perturbation approach, the effect of this mismatch between the optical properties at the two sites on reconstructed optical absorption was studied and a guideline for imaging procedure was developed to reduce these effects during data capturing. To reduce the artifacts

  13. Probing the dusty inhabitants of the Local Group Galaxies: JWST/MIRI colors of infrared stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Olivia; Meixner, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of galaxies involves the life cycle of mass, metal enrichment and dust that JWST will probe. Detailed studies of nearby galaxies provides guidance for interpreting the more distant forming galaxies. JWST/MIRI will enable stellar population studies akin to work done with HST on the Local Group galaxies but over a new wavelength range. MIRI's imaging capability over nine photometric bands from 5 to 28 microns is particularly suited to survey stars with an infrared excess and to detangle the extinction or thermal emission from various species of dust. These dusty stellar populations include young stellar objects, evolved stars and supernovae that are bright in the infrared. Using the rich Spitzer-IRS spectroscopic dataset and spectral classifications from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Spectroscopic survey of over a thousand objects in the Magellanic Clouds, we calculate the expected flux -densities and colors in the MIRI broadband filters for these prominent infrared sources. We uses these fluxes to illustrate what JWST will see in stellar population studies for other Local Group galaxies. JWST/MIRI observations of infrared sources in Local Group Galaxies will constrain the life cycle of galaxies through their dust emission. For example, how much of the interstellar dust is supplied by dying stars? Do the number of young stellar objects agree with star formation diagnostic for the galaxy? We discuss the locations of the post- and pre-main-sequence populations in MIRI color-color and color-magnitude space and examine which filters are best for identifying populations of sources. We connect these results to existing galaxies with HST data for instance Andromeda and M33.

  14. The complex evolutionary paths of local infrared bright galaxies: a high angular resolution mid-infrared view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Poulton, R.; Roche, P. F.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Aretxaga, I.; Martínez-Paredes, M.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Levenson, N. A.; Packham, C.; Colina, L.; Esquej, P.; González-Martín, O.; Ichikawa, K.; Imanishi, M.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Telesco, C.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the evolutionary connection between local IR-bright galaxies (log LIR ≥ 11.4 L⊙) and quasars. We use high angular resolution (˜ 0.3-0.4 arcsec˜ few hundred parsecs) 8 - 13 μm ground-based spectroscopy to disentangle the AGN mid-IR properties from those of star formation. The comparison between the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH feature emission and that measured with Spitzer/IRS indicates that the star formation is extended over a few kpc in the IR-bright galaxies. The AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity of IR-bright galaxies is lower than in quasars. Although the dust distribution is predicted to change as IR-bright galaxies evolve to IR-bright quasars and then to optical quasars, we show that the AGN mid-IR emission of all the quasars in our sample is not significantly different. In contrast, the nuclear emission of IR-bright galaxies with low AGN contributions appears more heavily embedded in dust although there is no clear trend with the interaction stage or projected nuclear separation. This suggests that the changes in the distribution of the nuclear obscuring material may be taking place rapidly and at different interaction stages washing out the evidence of an evolutionary path. When compared to normal AGN, the nuclear star formation activity of quasars appears to be dimming whereas it is enhanced in some IR-bright nuclei, suggesting that the latter are in an earlier star-formation dominated phase.

  15. Thermal monitoring of transport infrastructures by infrared thermography coupled with inline local atmospheric conditions survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, J.

    2013-09-01

    An infrared system architecture (software and hardware) has been studied and developed to allow long term monitoring of transport infrastructures in a standalone configuration. It is based on the implementation of low cost infrared thermal cameras (equipped with uncooled microbolometer focal plane array) available on the market coupled with other measurement systems. All data collected feed simplified radiative models running on GPU available on small PC to produce corrected thermal map of the surveyed structure at selected time step. Furthermore, added Web-enabled capabilities of this new infrared measurement system are also presented and discussed. A prototype of this system was tested and evaluated on real infrastructure opened to traffic. Results obtained by image and signal processing are presented. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for new implementation and new functionalities are presented and discussed.

  16. ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE MOST METAL POOR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, A. H.; Zezas, A.; Jackson, F.; Tsantaki, Maria; Roberts, T. P.; Foltz, R.; Linden, T.; Kalogera, V.

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULX) are X-ray binaries with L{sub x} >10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}. The most spectacular examples of ULX occur in starburst galaxies and are now understood to be young, luminous high mass X-ray binaries. The conditions under which ULX form are poorly understood, but recent evidence suggests they may be more common in low metallicity systems. Here we investigate the hypothesis that ULX form preferentially in low metallicity galaxies by searching for ULX in a sample of extremely metal poor galaxies (XMPG) observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. XMPG are defined as galaxies with log(O/H) + 12 < 7.65, or less than 5% solar. These are the most metal-deficient galaxies known, and a logical place to find ULX if they favor metal poor systems. We compare the number of ULX (corrected for background contamination) per unit of star formation (N{sub ULX}(SFR)) in the XMPG sample with N{sub ULX}(SFR) in a comparison sample of galaxies with higher metallicities taken from the Spitzer Infrared Galaxy Sample. We find that ULX occur preferentially in the metal poor sample with a formal statistical significance of 2.3{sigma}. We do not see strong evidence for a trend in the formation of ULX in the high metallicity sample: above 12+log(O/H) {approx} 8.0 the efficiency of ULX production appears to be flat. The effect we see is strongest in the lowest metallicity bin. We discuss briefly the implications of these results for the formation of black holes in low metallicity gas.

  17. Spectral variability of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kajava, Jari J. E.; Poutanen, Juri

    2008-09-30

    We study spectral variability of 11 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX) using archived XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We use three models to describe the observed spectra; a power-law, a multi-colour disk (MCD) and a combination of these two models. We find that out of the 11 ULXs in our sample, 7 ULXs show a correlation between the luminosity and the photon index {gamma}(hereafter L--{gamma} correlation). Furthermore, out of the 7 ULXs that have the L--{gamma} correlation, 4 ULXs also show spectral pivoting in the observed energy band. We also find that two ULXs show an L--{gamma} anti-correlation. The spectra of 4 ULXs in the sample can be adequately fitted with a MCD model. We compare these sources to known black hole binaries (BHB) and find that they follow similar paths in their luminosity-temperature (hereafter L--T) diagrams. Finally we show that the 'soft excess' reported for many of these ULXs at {approx}0.2 keV seem to follow a trend L {proportional_to} T{sup -4} when modeled with a power-law plus a 'cool' MCD model. This is contrary to the expected L {proportional_to} T{sup 4} relation that is expected from theory and what is seen for many accreting BHBs.

  18. COMPACT OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Lian; Feng Hua; Grise, Fabien; Kaaret, Philip

    2011-08-20

    Using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging data, we report the multiband photometric properties of 13 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that have a unique compact optical counterpart. Both magnitude and color variation are detected at timescales of days to years. The optical color, variability, and X-ray to optical flux ratio indicate that the optical emission of most ULXs is dominated by X-ray reprocessing on the disk, similar to that of low-mass X-ray binaries. For most sources, the optical spectrum is a power law, F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}} with {alpha} in the range 1.0-2.0 and the optically emitting region has a size on the order of 10{sup 12} cm. Exceptions are NGC 2403 X-1 and M83 IXO 82, which show optical spectra consistent with direct emission from a standard thin disk, M101 ULX-1 and M81 ULS1, which have X-ray to optical flux ratios more similar to high-mass X-ray binaries, and IC 342 X-1, in which the optical light may be dominated by the companion star. Inconsistent extinction between the optical counterpart of NGC 5204 X-1 and the nearby optical nebulae suggests that they may be unrelated.

  19. The Lack of Halo Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    The premise that Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) exist beyond the optical extent of nearby galaxies is investigated. A published catalog containing 41 ULX candidates located between 1 and approx. 3 times the standard D-{25} isophotal radius of their putative host galaxies is examined. Twenty-one of these sources have spectroscopically-confirmed distances. All 21 are background objects giving a 95\\% probability that at least 37 of the 41 candidates are background sources. Thirty-nine of the 41 sources have X-ray-to-optical flux ratios, -1.61.6.) The uniform spatial distribution of the sample is also consistent with a background population. This evidence suggests that ULXs rarely, if at all, exist beyond the distribution of luminous matter in nearby galaxies and, as a consequence, there is no correlation between the population of ULXs and halo objects such as old globular clusters or Population III remnants.

  20. ULX behaviour: The ultraluminous state, winds and interesting anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.; Sutton, A. D.; Mezcua, M.; Walton, D. J.; Heil, L. M.

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence - in particular the hard X-ray spectra obtained by {NuSTAR}, and the large amplitude hard X-ray variability observed when ULXs show soft spectra - reveals that common ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) behaviour is inconsistent with known sub-Eddington accretion modes, as would be expected for an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). Instead, it appears that the majority of ULXs are powered by super-Eddington accretion onto stellar-mass black holes. Here, we will review work that delves deeper into ULX spectral-timing behaviour, demonstrating it remains consistent with the expectations of super-Eddington accretion. One critical missing piece from this picture is the direct detection of the massive, radiatively-driven winds expected from ULXs as atomic emission/absorption line features in ULX spectra; we will show it is very likely these have already been detected as residuals in the soft X-ray spectra of ULXs. Finally, we will discuss ULXs that do not appear to conform to the emerging ULX behaviour patterns. In particular we discuss the implications of the identification of a good IMBH candidate as a background QSO; and the confirmation of an IMBH/ULX candidate in the galaxy NGC 2276 via the radio/X-ray fundamental plane.

  1. Survey for Radio Nebulae Around Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Neal A.; Heil, Martha Nicole; Mushotzky, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX) is an ongoing debate. As such sources appear to violate the Eddington Limit for the expected masses of stellar remnants, ULX may represent a class of super-Eddington objects, "intermediate" mass black holes (IMBH) emitting at sub-Eddington levels, or a diverse population including examples of both. Most initial efforts to search for radio emission associated with ULX did so with high angular resolution in hopes of applying the "fundamental plane of black hole activity" which relates X-ray luminosity, radio luminosity, and black hole mass. The predicted radio flux densities for such compact radio emission are quite low meaning that even non-detections leave open much of the mass range associated with IMBH. However, a small number of ULX have been associated with extended radio emission and these radio nebulae have sizes and energetics that differentiate them from more common classes of extended objects such as HII regions and supernova remnants. We report here on the results of a cohesive study to identify and characterize ULX radio nebula associated with unbiased samples of ULX. This study has two prongs: one relying upon archival Very Large Array data and one using new, dedicated Jansky Very Large Array observations. Several new candidate ULX radio nebulae are identified and characterized, and along with limits from non-detections we discuss implications for the overall population of ULX.

  2. Ultraluminous X-ray sources: Three exciting years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachetti, M.

    2016-05-01

    The extreme extragalactic sources known as Ultraluminous X-ray Sources (ULX) represent a unique testing environment for compact objects population studies and the accretion process. Their nature has long been disputed. Their luminosity, well above the Eddington luminosity for a stellar-mass black hole, can imply the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole or a stellar black hole accreting above the Eddington limit. Both these interpretations are important to understand better the accretion process and the evolution of massive black holes. The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement of our knowledge of these sources. In particular, the super-Eddington interpretation for the bulk of the ULX population has gained a strong consensus. Nonetheless, exceptions to this general trend do exist, and in particular one ULX was shown to be a neutron star, and another was shown to be a very likely IMBH candidate. In this paper, I will review the most relevant results in this field of research in the last few years.

  3. Chilled disks in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Kuncic, Zdenka; Gonçalves, Anabela C.

    2007-04-01

    The "soft-excess" component fitted to the X-ray spectra of many ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) remains a controversial finding, which may reveal fundamental information either on the black hole (BH) mass or on the state of the accretion flow. In the simplest model, it was explained as thermal emission from a cool accretion disk around an intermediate-mass BH (about 1000 solar masses). We argue that this scenario is highly implausible, and discuss and compare the two most likely alternatives. 1) The soft-excess does come from a cool disk; however, the temperature is low not because of a high BH mass but because most of the accretion power is drained from the inner disk via magnetic torques, and channelled into jets and outflows ("chilled disk" scenario). Using a phenomenological model, we infer that ULXs contain BHs of about 50 solar masses accreting gas at about 10 times their Eddington rate. 2) The soft excess is in fact a soft deficit, if the power-law continuum is properly fitted. Such broad absorption features are caused by smeared absorption lines in fast, highly ionized outflows. This scenario has already been successfully applied to the soft excess in AGN. If so, this spectral feature reveals details of disk outflows,but is unrelated to the BH mass.

  4. ULX behaviour: the ultraluminous state, winds and interesting anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, T.; Middleton, M.; Sutton, A.; Mezcua, M.; Walton, D.; Heil, L.

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence - in particular the hard X-ray spectra obtained by NuSTAR, and the large amplitude hard X-ray variability when ULXs show soft spectra - reveals that common ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) behaviour is inconsistent with known sub-Eddington accretion modes, as would be expected for an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). Instead, it appears that the majority of ULXs are powered by super-Eddington accretion onto stellar-mass black holes. Here, we will delve deeper into ULX spectral-timing behaviour, demonstrating it remains consistent with the expectations of super-Eddington accretion. One critical missing piece from this picture is the direct detection of the massive, radiatively-driven winds expected from ULXs as atomic emission/absorption line features in ULX spectra; we will show it is very likely these have already been detected as residuals in the soft X-ray spectra of ULXs. Finally, we will discuss ULXs that do not appear to conform to the emerging ULX behaviour patterns. In particular we discuss the implications of the identification of a good IMBH candidate in IC 4320 as a background QSO; and the confirmation of an IMBH/ULX in the galaxy NGC 2276 via the radio/X-ray fundamental plane.

  5. Near-infrared optical absorption enhanced in black silicon via Ag nanoparticle-induced localized surface plasmon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Due to the localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect induced by Ag nanoparticles inside black silicon, the optical absorption of black silicon is enhanced dramatically in near-infrared range (1,100 to 2,500 nm). The black silicon with Ag nanoparticles shows much higher absorption than black silicon fabricated by chemical etching or reactive ion etching over ultraviolet to near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR, 250 to 2,500 nm). The maximum absorption even increased up to 93.6% in the NIR range (820 to 2,500 nm). The high absorption in NIR range makes LSP-enhanced black silicon a potential material used for NIR-sensitive optoelectronic device. PACS 78.67.Bf; 78.30.Fs; 78.40.-q; 42.70.Gi PMID:25285058

  6. DIAGNOSIS OF EDGE LOCALIZED MODE EVOLUTION IN DIII-D USING FAST-GATED CID AND INFRARED CAMERAS

    SciTech Connect

    M. GROTH; M.E. FENSTERMACHER; C.J. LASNIER; R. HERNANDEZ; J.M. MOELLER; R.A. STURZ

    2002-08-01

    The tangentially viewing visible and vertically viewing infrared cameras systems on DIII-D were upgraded to permit emission measurements during edge localized modes (ELMs) with integration times as short as 1 and 100 {micro}s respectively. The visible system was used to obtain 2-D poloidal profiles of CIII (465 nm) and D{sub {alpha}} (656.3 nm) emission with 20 {micro}s integration during various stages of ELM events in the lower DIII-D divertor. The infrared (IR) system was used to measure the heat flux to the divertor targets at 10 kHz with 100 {micro}s exposure. Upgrades to the data processing and storage systems permitted efficient comparison of the temporal evolution of these measurements.

  7. Electrochemical redox-based tuning of near infrared localized plasmons of CuS nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Asami, Keisuke; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2016-08-01

    Fast and reversible control of the plasmonic properties of compound nanoparticles (i.e. CuS nanoplates) was achieved through electrochemical redox reactions. Their electrochemical tunability can be applied to fast-switching near infrared electrochromic devices, whose visible appearance is not changed by switching. PMID:27396728

  8. Star formation and dust extinction properties of local galaxies from the AKARI-GALEX all-sky surveys . First results from the most secure multiband sample from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, T. T.; Buat, V.; Heinis, S.; Giovannoli, E.; Yuan, F.-T.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Murata, K. L.; Burgarella, D.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We explore spectral energy distributions (SEDs), star formation (SF), and dust extinction properties of galaxies in the Local Universe. Methods: The AKARI all-sky survey provided the first bright point source catalog detected at 90 μm. Beginning with this catalog, we selected galaxies by matching the AKARI sources with those in the IRAS point source catalog redshift survey. We measured the total GALEX FUV and NUV flux densities with a photometry software we specifically developed for this purpose. In a further step we matched this sample with the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) and 2 micron all sky survey (2MASS) galaxies. With this procedure we obtained a basic sample which consists of 776 galaxies. After removing objects whose photometry was contaminated by foreground sources (mainly in the SDSS), we defined the “secure sample” which contains 607 galaxies. Results: The sample galaxies have redshifts of ⪉0.15, and their 90-μm luminosities range from 106 to 1012 L_⊙, with a peak at 1010 L_⊙. The SEDs display a large variety, especially more than four orders of magnitude at the mid-far-infrared (M-FIR), but if we sort the sample with respect to 90 μm, the average SED shows a coherent trend: the more luminous an SED at 90 μm, the redder the global SED becomes. The Mr - NUV - r color-magnitude relation of our sample does not show bimodality, and the distribution is centered on the green valley. We established formulae to convert the FIR luminosity from the AKARI bands to the total IR (TIR) luminosity LTIR. The luminosity related to the SF activity (LSF) is dominated by LTIR even if we take into account the FIR emission from dust heated by old stars. At a high SF rate (SFR) (>20 M_⊙ yr-1), the fraction of the directly visible SFR, SFRFUV, decreases. We also estimated the FUV attenuation AFUV from the FUV-to-TIR luminosity ratio. We examined the LTIR/LFUV-UV slope (FUV - NUV) relation. The majority of the sample has LTIR/LFUV ratios five to ten

  9. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate. PMID:25719667

  10. A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Sustained Attention to Local and Global Target Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Joux, Neil; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long history of vigilance research, the role of global and local feature discrimination in vigilance tasks has been relatively neglected. In this experiment participants performed a sustained attention task requiring either global or local shape stimuli discrimination. Reaction time to local feature discriminations was characterized by a…

  11. Infrared thermography based studies on the effect of age on localized cold stress induced thermoregulation in human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Nishanthi, K.; Mohanalakshmi, K.; Veni, L.; Saumya; Yacin, S. M.; Philip, John

    2016-05-01

    Thermoregulatory control of blood flow plays an important role in maintaining the human body temperature and it provides physiological resistance against extreme environmental thermal stresses. To understand the role of age on thermal signals from veins and the thermoregulatory mechanism, the dynamic variation of the vein temperature on the hands of 17 human subjects, under a localized cold stress, was studied using infrared thermography. It was observed that the vein temperature of the stimulated hand initially decreased with time up to a time interval (called 'inversion time'), which was attributed to the localized cutaneous vasoconstriction. Beyond inversion time, a rise in the vein temperature of the stimulated hand was observed. A shift in the inversion time to higher values was observed for the older subjects, which was attributed to the reduced efficiency and responsiveness of the cutaneous vasoconstriction mechanism in these subjects. Our studies indicated that the inversion time increased linearly with subject age with strong positive Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.94. It was also observed that the contralateral symmetry in vasoconstriction was much lower in older subjects than the younger subjects. The absolute difference between the left and right inversion time varied between 11-118 s and 5-28 s for the older and younger subjects, respectively. Our study clearly demonstrated that infrared thermography is one of the most effective experimental tool for studying dynamic variation in vein pixel temperature under localized thermal stresses.

  12. Local excitation and interference of surface phonon polaritons studied by near-field infrared microscopy.

    PubMed

    Huber, A J; Ocelic, N; Hillenbrand, R

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate that mid-infrared surface phonon polariton excitation, propagation and interference can be studied by scattering-type near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). In our experiments we image surface phonon polaritons (SPPs) propagating on flat SiC crystals. They are excited by weakly focused illumination of single or closely spaced metal disks we fabricated on the SiC surface by conventional photolithography. SPP imaging is performed by pseudo-heterodyne interferometric detection of infrared light scattered by the metal tip of our s-SNOM. The pseudo-heterodyne technique simultaneously yields optical amplitude and phase images which allows us to measure the SPP wave vector--including its sign--and the propagation length and further to study SPP interference. High resolution imaging of SPPs could be applied to investigate for example SPP focusing or heat transfer by SPPs in low dimensional nanostructures. PMID:18331484

  13. Electrochemical redox-based tuning of near infrared localized plasmons of CuS nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Keisuke; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2016-07-01

    Fast and reversible control of the plasmonic properties of compound nanoparticles (i.e. CuS nanoplates) was achieved through electrochemical redox reactions. Their electrochemical tunability can be applied to fast-switching near infrared electrochromic devices, whose visible appearance is not changed by switching.Fast and reversible control of the plasmonic properties of compound nanoparticles (i.e. CuS nanoplates) was achieved through electrochemical redox reactions. Their electrochemical tunability can be applied to fast-switching near infrared electrochromic devices, whose visible appearance is not changed by switching. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, absorption spectra and electrochromic response of CuS nanoplates and the relationship between the relative amount of CuS and absorbance change. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03709g

  14. From local to global analysis of defect detectability in infrared non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez-Ospina, J. F.; Benitez, H. D.

    2014-03-01

    Several image processing techniques are employed in Infrared Non-Destructive Testing (IRNDT) to enhance defect detectability. To date, there is no adequate global measurement that objectively assesses defect visibility in processed frames. In this work, a Global Signal to Noise Ratio (GSNR) that comprehensively evaluates defect detectability in processed infrared (IR) images is proposed, as well as a defect visibility measure named Infrared Image Quality Index (IRIQI) that compares the structural information of defective and sound areas. In addition, GSNR and IRIQI are validated by using the area under ROC curve (AUC). AUC quantitatively assesses defect visibility by comparing the outcomes of processing techniques to human judgements. The remarkable benefit of this global approach is that it allows one to determine the frame at which processing techniques reveals the majority of the defects by evaluating the times at which AUC curves reach their maxima. The test pieces were a Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) sample containing delaminations and a honeycomb specimen with delaminations, skin unbonds, excessive adhesive, and crushed core.

  15. Chandra Observation of Luminous and Ultraluminous X-ray Binaries in M101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, K.; Pence, W. D.; Snowden, S. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    X-ray binaries in the Milky Way are among the brightest objects on the X-ray sky. With the increasing sensitivity of recent missions, it is now possible to study X-ray binaries in nearby galaxies. We present data on six ultraluminous binaries in the nearby spiral galaxy, M101, obtained with Chandra ACIS-S. Of these, five appear to be similar to ultraluminous sources in other galaxies, while the brightest source, P098, shows some unique characteristics. We present our interpretation of the data in terms of an optically thick outflow, and discuss implications.

  16. OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF THE NEAREST ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Gladstone, Jeanette C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Cartwright, Taylor F.; Copperwheat, Chris; Roberts, Timothy P.; Levan, Andrew J.; Goad, Mike R.

    2013-06-01

    We present a photometric survey of the optical counterparts of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in nearby ({approx}<5 Mpc) galaxies. Of the 33 ULXs with HST and Chandra data, 9 have no visible counterpart, placing limits on their M{sub V} of {approx} -4 to -9, enabling us to rule out O-type companions in 4 cases. The refined positions of two ULXs place them in the nucleus of their host galaxy. They are removed from our sample. Of the 22 remaining ULXs, 13 have one possible optical counterpart, while multiple are visible within the error regions of other ULXs. By calculating the number of chance coincidences, we estimate that 13 {+-} 5 are the true counterparts. We attempt to constrain the nature of the companions by fitting the spectral energy distribution and M{sub V} to obtain candidate spectral types. We can rule out O-type companions in 20 cases, while we find that one ULX (NGC 253 ULX2) excludes all OB-type companions. Fitting with X-ray irradiated models provides constraints on the donor star mass and radius. For seven ULXs, we are able to impose inclination-dependent upper and/or lower limits on the black holes' mass, if the extinction to the assumed companion star is not larger than the Galactic column. These are NGC 55 ULX1, NGC 253 ULX1, NGC 253 ULX2, NGC 253 XMM6, Ho IX X-1, IC342 X-1, and NGC 5204 X-1. This suggests that 10 ULXs do not have O companions, while none of the 18 fitted rule out B-type companions.

  17. SPECTRAL STATES AND EVOLUTION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Hua; Kaaret, Philip

    2009-05-10

    We examined spectral evolution in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with apparent luminosities of about 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}. Based on new results in this paper, and those reported in the literature, two common spectral behaviors were found. Some ULXs in starburst galaxies have varying luminosity (L) but remain in the hard state with power-law spectra and a constant, hard photon index ({gamma}). Other ULXs, such as NGC 5204 X-1, show a correlation between L and {gamma}. We interpret this L-{gamma} correlated phase as an intermediate state with hybrid properties from the thermal dominant and steep power-law states. When the spectra of NGC 5204 X-1 are fitted with a multicolor disk blackbody plus power-law model, the X-ray luminosity increases with the effective temperature of the accretion disk in a manner similar to that found in stellar-mass black hole X-ray binaries, suggesting that the emission arises from an accretion disk. The luminosity, disk size, and temperature suggest that NGC 5204 X-1 harbors a compact object more massive than stellar-mass black holes. In contrast, the disk model in IC 342 X-1 is ruled out because the luminosity decreases as the temperature increases; sources with such behavior may represent a class of objects with super-Eddington accretion. Also, we report a peculiar soft spectral feature from IC 342 X-2 and variability on a timescale of 20 ks from Holmberg II X-1. More observations are needed to test these results.

  18. Application of local gene induction by infrared laser-mediated microscope and temperature stimulator to amphibian regeneration study.

    PubMed

    Kawasumi-Kita, Aiko; Hayashi, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nagayama, Chikashi; Hayashi, Shinichi; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Morishita, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Takashi; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2015-12-01

    Urodele amphibians (newts and salamanders) and anuran amphibians (frogs) are excellent research models to reveal mechanisms of three-dimensional organ regeneration since they have exceptionally high regenerative capacity among tetrapods. However, the difficulty in manipulating gene expression in cells in a spatially restricted manner has so far hindered elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of organ regeneration in amphibians. Recently, local heat shock by laser irradiation has enabled local gene induction even at the single-cell level in teleost fishes, nematodes, fruit flies and plants. In this study, local heat shock was made with infrared laser irradiation (IR-LEGO) by using a gene expression inducible system in transgenic animals containing a heat shock promoter, and gene expression was successfully induced only in the target region of two amphibian species, Xenopus laevis and Pleurodeles waltl (a newt), at postembryonic stages. Furthermore, we induced spatially restricted but wider gene expression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets by applying local heat shock by a temperature-controlled metal probe (temperature stimulator). The local gene manipulation systems, the IR-LEGO and the temperature stimulator, enable us to do a rigorous cell lineage trace with the combination of the Cre-LoxP system as well as to analyze gene function in a target region or cells with less off-target effects in the study of amphibian regeneration. PMID:26510480

  19. Mechanism of oxidative stress generation in cells by localized near-infrared femtosecond laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Chan, Kam Tai; Kong, Siu Kai; Lee, Rebecca Kit Ying

    2009-12-01

    We examined the effect of femtosecond (fs) and continuous wave (CW) lasers at near-infrared range on the creation of reactive oxygen species in a human liver cancer cell line. By controlling the mitochondria electron transport chain (ETC), it was found that a major part of the oxidative stress was generated by the laser induced thermal effect on the mitochondria while the remaining part was created by direct free electron liberation by the fs pulses, which could be observed after breaking the ETC. The study helps clarify the major effects produced on animal cells when excited by fs lasers.

  20. The sharpest view of the local AGN population at mid-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, Daniel; Hönig, Sebastian F.; Gandhi, Poshak; Smette, Alain; Duschl, Wolfgang J.

    2014-07-01

    We present the largest mid-infrared (MIR) atlas of active galactic nuclei at sub-arcsec spatial scales containing 253 objects with a median redshift of 0.016. It comprises all available ground-based high-angular resolution MIR observations performed to date with 8-meter class telescopes and includes 895 photometric measurements. All types of AGN are present in the atlas, which also includes 80 per cent of the 9-month BAT AGN sample. Therefore, this atlas and its subsamples are very well-suited for AGN unification studies. A first application of the atlas is the extension of the MIR-X-ray luminosity correlation for AGN.

  1. Finger Vein Segmentation from Infrared Images Based on a Modified Separable Mumford Shah Model and Local Entropy Thresholding.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Marios; Dermatas, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for finger vein pattern extraction from infrared images is presented. This method involves four steps: preprocessing which performs local normalization of the image intensity, image enhancement, image segmentation, and finally postprocessing for image cleaning. In the image enhancement step, an image which will be both smooth and similar to the original is sought. The enhanced image is obtained by minimizing the objective function of a modified separable Mumford Shah Model. Since, this minimization procedure is computationally intensive for large images, a local application of the Mumford Shah Model in small window neighborhoods is proposed. The finger veins are located in concave nonsmooth regions and, so, in order to distinct them from the other tissue parts, all the differences between the smooth neighborhoods, obtained by the local application of the model, and the corresponding windows of the original image are added. After that, veins in the enhanced image have been sufficiently emphasized. Thus, after image enhancement, an accurate segmentation can be obtained readily by a local entropy thresholding method. Finally, the resulted binary image may suffer from some misclassifications and, so, a postprocessing step is performed in order to extract a robust finger vein pattern. PMID:26120357

  2. Finger Vein Segmentation from Infrared Images Based on a Modified Separable Mumford Shah Model and Local Entropy Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    Vlachos, Marios; Dermatas, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for finger vein pattern extraction from infrared images is presented. This method involves four steps: preprocessing which performs local normalization of the image intensity, image enhancement, image segmentation, and finally postprocessing for image cleaning. In the image enhancement step, an image which will be both smooth and similar to the original is sought. The enhanced image is obtained by minimizing the objective function of a modified separable Mumford Shah Model. Since, this minimization procedure is computationally intensive for large images, a local application of the Mumford Shah Model in small window neighborhoods is proposed. The finger veins are located in concave nonsmooth regions and, so, in order to distinct them from the other tissue parts, all the differences between the smooth neighborhoods, obtained by the local application of the model, and the corresponding windows of the original image are added. After that, veins in the enhanced image have been sufficiently emphasized. Thus, after image enhancement, an accurate segmentation can be obtained readily by a local entropy thresholding method. Finally, the resulted binary image may suffer from some misclassifications and, so, a postprocessing step is performed in order to extract a robust finger vein pattern. PMID:26120357

  3. Cathodic-controlled and near-infrared organic upconverter for local blood vessels mapping

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Liu, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Su, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shao-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Li, Yan-De; Chang, Wen-Chang; Li, Ya-Ze; Su, Tsung-Hao; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Shun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Organic materials are used in novel optoelectronic devices because of the ease and high compatibility of their fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a low-driving-voltage cathodic-controlled organic upconverter with a mapping application that converts near-infrared images to produce images of visible blood vessels. The proposed upconverter has a multilayer structure consisting of a photosensitive charge-generation layer (CGL) and a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) for producing clear images with a high resolution of 600 dots per inch. In this study, temperature-dependent electrical characterization was performed to analyze the interfacial modification of the cathodic-controlled upconverter. The result shows that the upconverter demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 3.46% because of reduction in the injection barrier height at the interface between the CGL and the OLED. PMID:27578199

  4. Cathodic-controlled and near-infrared organic upconverter for local blood vessels mapping.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Liu, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Su, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shao-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Li, Yan-De; Chang, Wen-Chang; Li, Ya-Ze; Su, Tsung-Hao; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Shun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Organic materials are used in novel optoelectronic devices because of the ease and high compatibility of their fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a low-driving-voltage cathodic-controlled organic upconverter with a mapping application that converts near-infrared images to produce images of visible blood vessels. The proposed upconverter has a multilayer structure consisting of a photosensitive charge-generation layer (CGL) and a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) for producing clear images with a high resolution of 600 dots per inch. In this study, temperature-dependent electrical characterization was performed to analyze the interfacial modification of the cathodic-controlled upconverter. The result shows that the upconverter demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 3.46% because of reduction in the injection barrier height at the interface between the CGL and the OLED. PMID:27578199

  5. Determination of subsurface tumor localization in animal models with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Blessington, Dana M.; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Lanlan; Mu, Chenpeng; Intes, Xavier; Achilefu, Samuel I.; Li, Hui; Zhang, Min Z.; Zheng, Gang; Chance, Britton

    2003-07-01

    We have developed a novel imaging system for determining the localization of tumors labeled by fluorescent contrast agents and embedded several centimeters inside the highly scattered medium. This frequency-domain system utilizes the phased cancellation configuration with a goniometric probe. The instrumentation performance on the phantom test can detect 3 mm diameter sphere filled with 1 nM fluorescent dye, Indocyanine Green (ICG), and 3 cm deep inside the scattering medium with similar optical properties as human breast tissue within a 1 mm localization confidence. Mouse tumor model immersed in appropriate scattering/absorbing medium is used for animal test. Intra-tumor injection of ICG demonstrates the localization of the tumor (5 mm in diameter) submerged 3 cm deep inside the highly scattered medium with 2 mm position error. Results with NIR804-D-Glucosamide on the AR42J tumor bearing nude mouse are also presented with 3 mm localization error. The accuracy of the localization suggest that this system would be helpful to guide the clinical fine-needle biopsy for early breast cancer detection.

  6. FIRST results of FIFI-LS Far Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging of Local Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Suzanne C.; Krabbe, Alfred; Beckmann, Simon; Bryant, Aaron; Colditz, Sebastian; Fischer, Christian; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Henning, Thomas; Honle, Rainer; Iserlohe, Christoph; Klein, Randolf; Looney, Leslie; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Raab, Walfried; Rebell, Felix; Vacca, William D.

    2016-01-01

    The FIFI-LS imaging spectrometer on SOFIA gives access to the most important cooling lines of the ISM, providing mapping capability of the FIR fine-structure lines as well as molecules in local galaxies. The valuable diagnostics available with FIFI-LS span a wide range of critical densities and ionization energies and thus, along with the velocity information, can link the local star formation with the energetics of the gas in the extended neutral and ionized gas. Since the commissioning of FIFI-LS in 2015, new results have emerged on star forming galaxies, both metal-rich and metal poor. We will present some of the new results of local galaxies observed with FIFI-LS.

  7. Ultraluminous X-ray Sources in NGC 6946.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Cruces, Mónica; Rosado, Margarita; Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura L.

    2016-07-01

    Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are the most X-ray luminous off-nucleus objects in nearby galaxies with X-ray luminosities between 10^{39} - 10^{41} erg s^{-1} in the 0.5-10 keV band. Since these luminosities cannot be explained by the standard accretion of a stellar mass black hole, these sources are often associated with intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, 10^{2}-10^{4} solar masses). However significantly beamed stellar binary systems could also explain these luminosities. Observational knowledge of the angular distribution of the source emission is essential to decide between these two scenarios. In this work, we present the X-ray analysis of five ULXs in the spiral galaxy NGC 6949, along with the kinematical analysis of the ionized gas surrounding each of these sources. For all sources, X-ray observations reveal a typical ULX spectral shape (with a soft excess below 2 keV and a hard curvature above 2 keV) which can be fit with a power-law + multi-color disk model. However, even if ULXs are classified as point-like objects, one of the sources in this galaxy displays an elongated shape in the Chandra images. Regarding the analysis of the emission lines of the surrounding ˜300 pc around each ULX, scanning Fabry-Perot observations show composite profiles for three of the five ULXs. The main component of these profiles follows the global rotation of the galaxy, while the faint secondary component seems to be associated with asymmetrical gas expansion. These sources have also been located in archive images of NGC 6946 in different wavelengths in order to relate them to different physical processes occurring in this galaxy. Though ULXs are usually located in star formation regions, we find that two of the sources lie a few tenths of parsecs away from different HII regions. Based on the X-ray morphology of each ULX, the velocities and distribution of the surrounding gas, as well as the location of the source in the context of the whole galaxy, we give the most

  8. Infrared Polarimetry of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    Imaging polarimetry at near infrared wavelengths can probe the magnetic field geometry in external galaxies in regions of high extinction inaccessible to optical techniques. Polarization of starlight from deep into dustlanes, blowouts, and dust enshrouded nuclei can be measured. A total of twelve galaxies showing only interstellar polarization have been observed to date. Normal galaxies such as NGC 4565 show a magnetic field geometry lying in the plane of the disk and a polarization strength very similar to what is observed in the Milky Way. Ultraluminous galaxies and galaxies with starburst nuclei show a polar magnetic field geometry in the nucleus, causing a crossed polaroid effect and reduced polarization. Interestingly, galaxies with active disks, but otherwise normal, such as NGC 891 show the effects of blowouts in the polarization maps.

  9. C≡N stretching vibration of 5-cyanotryptophan as an infrared probe of protein local environment: what determines its frequency?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenkai; Markiewicz, Beatrice N; Doerksen, Rosalie S; Smith Iii, Amos B; Gai, Feng

    2016-03-14

    Recently it has been suggested that the C≡N stretching vibration of a tryptophan analog, 5-cyanotryptophan, could be used as an infrared probe of the local environment, especially the hydration status, of tryptophan residues in proteins. However, the factors that influence the frequency of this vibrational mode are not understood. To determine these factors, herein we carried out linear and nonlinear infrared measurements on the C≡N stretching vibration of the sidechain of 5-cyanotryptophan, 3-methyl-5-cyanoindole, in a series of protic and aprotic solvents. We found that while the C≡N stretching frequencies obtained in these solvents do not correlate well with any individual Kamlet-Taft solvent parameter, i.e., π* (polarizability), β (hydrogen bond accepting ability), and α (hydrogen bond donating ability), they do however, collapse on a straight line when plotted against σ = π* + β - α. This linear relationship provides a firm indication that both specific interactions, i.e., hydrogen-bonding interactions with the C≡N (through α) and indole N-H (through β) groups, and non-specific interactions with the molecule (through π*) work together to determine the C≡N stretching frequency, thus laying a quantitative framework for applying 5-cyanotryptophan to investigate the microscopic environment of proteins in a site-specific manner. Furthermore, two-dimensional and pump-probe infrared measurements revealed that a significant portion (∼31%) of the ground state bleach signal has a decay time constant of ∼12.3 ps, due to an additional vibrational relaxation channel, making it possible to use 5-cyanotryptophan to probe dynamics occurring on a timescale on the order of tens of picoseconds. PMID:26343769

  10. Defect localization in CuInSe2 solar modules by thermal infrared microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Werner; Scheuerpflug, H.; Zettner, Juergen; Hierl, Thomas; Schulz, Max J.; Karg, Franz

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the IR Microscopy Thermosensoric Defect Localization method ((mu) -TDL) is presented. This technique is based on a novel IR microscopy lens which permits to take IR images with a spatial resolution of better than 10 micrometer, which is close to the theoretical limit. The (mu) -TDL method is demonstrated on defective CuInSe2 solar modules consisting of several solar cells serially interconnected and having solar efficiencies considerably below the average. By using the accurate localization of the defects by the (mu) -TDL method further investigations were performed and the origin for the defect was found. The (mu) -TDL method is also applicable to solar cells and modules consisting of other materials, such as amorphous Si or CdTe. The (mu) TDL method is suitable for the solar module development as well as for non- destructive production control.

  11. The local structure, infrared phonon modes and the origin of the dielectric constant in La2Hf2O7 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zeming; Cheng, Xuerui; Zhang, Guobin; Li, Tingting; Wang, Yuyin; Shao, Tao; Li, Chengxiang; He, Bo

    2012-03-01

    The local structure and dielectric properties of crystalline and amorphous La2Hf2O7 (LHO) thin film were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The basic infrared phonon modes with most contributions to the static dielectric constant of crystal LHO are preserved, which causes the considerable value of the static dielectric constant in the amorphous thin film. The preservation of the main infrared phonon modes in the amorphous thin film is because it has similar the nearest local structures around Hf and La atoms as the crystal LHO. This inheritance of the local structural and vibrational features of the crystal phase is the origin of the dielectric constant of the LHO thin film.

  12. Simultaneous epidural functional near-infrared spectroscopy and cortical electrophysiology as a tool for studying local neurovascular coupling in primates.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Ali Danish; Munk, Matthias H J; Schmidt, Andreas; Risueno-Segovia, Cristina; Bernard, Rebekka; Fetz, Eberhard; Logothetis, Nikos; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2015-10-15

    Simultaneous measurements of intra-cortical electrophysiology and hemodynamic signals in primates are essential for relating human neuroimaging studies with intra-cortical electrophysiology in monkeys. Previously, technically challenging and resourcefully demanding techniques such as fMRI and intrinsic-signal optical imaging have been used for such studies. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy is a relatively less cumbersome neuroimaging method that uses near-infrared light to detect small changes in concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO), deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) and total hemoglobin (HbT) in a volume of tissue with high specificity and temporal resolution. FNIRS is thus a good candidate for hemodynamic measurements in primates to acquire local hemodynamic signals during electrophysiological recordings. To test the feasibility of using epidural fNIRS with concomitant extracellular electrophysiology, we recorded neuronal and hemodynamic activity from the primary visual cortex of two anesthetized monkeys during visual stimulation. We recorded fNIRS epidurally, using one emitter and two detectors. We performed simultaneous cortical electrophysiology using tetrodes placed between the fNIRS sensors. We observed robust and reliable responses to the visual stimulation in both [HbO] and [HbR] signals, and quantified the signal-to-noise ratio of the epidurally measured signals. We also observed a positive correlation between stimulus-induced modulation of [HbO] and [HbR] signals and strength of neural modulation. Briefly, our results show that epidural fNIRS detects single-trial responses to visual stimuli on a trial-by-trial basis, and when coupled with cortical electrophysiology, is a promising tool for studying local hemodynamic signals and neurovascular coupling. PMID:26169323

  13. NUSTAR Unveils a Heavily Obscured Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6286

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Treister, E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Arevalo, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Privon, G. C.; Sanders, D. B.; Schawinski, K.; Stern, D.; Imanishi, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of a heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 6286 identified in a 17.5 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation. The source is in an early merging stage and was targeted as part of our ongoing NuSTAR campaign observing local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages. NGC 6286 is clearly detected above 10 keV and by including the quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data, we find that the source is heavily obscured (NH ≃(0.95-1.32) × 1024 cm-2) with a column density consistent with being Compton-thick (CT, {log}({N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2)≥slant 24). The AGN in NGC 6286 has a low absorption-corrected luminosity (L2-10 keV ˜ 3-20 × 1041 erg s-1) and contributes ≲1% to the energetics of the system. Because of its low luminosity, previous observations carried out in the soft X-ray band (<10 keV) and in the infrared did not notice the presence of a buried AGN. NGC 6286 has multiwavelength characteristics typical of objects with the same infrared luminosity and in the same merger stage, which might imply that there is a significant population of obscured low-luminosity AGNs in LIRGs that can only be detected by sensitive hard X-ray observations.

  14. Using nitrile-derivatized amino acids as infrared probes of local environment.

    PubMed

    Getahun, Zelleka; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Wang, Ting; De León, Brenda; DeGrado, William F; Gai, Feng

    2003-01-15

    It is well-known that the C=N stretching vibration in acetonitrile is sensitive to solvent. Therefore, we proposed in this contribution to use this vibrational mode to report local environment of a particular amino acid in proteins or local environmental changes upon binding or folding. We have studied the solvent-induced frequency shift of two nitrile-derivatized amino acids, which are, AlaCN and PheCN, in H(2)O and tetrahydrofuran (THF), respectively. Here, THF was used to approximate a protein's hydrophobic interior because of its low dielectric constant. As expected, the C=N stretching vibrations of both AlaCN and PheCN shift as much as approximately 10 cm(-1) toward higher frequency when THF was replaced with H2O, indicative of the sensitivity of this vibration to solvation. To further test the utility of nitrile-derivatized amino acids as probes of the environment within a peptide, we have studied the binding between calmodulin (CaM) and a peptide from the CaM binding domain of skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK(579-595)), which contains a single PheCN. MLCK(579-595) binds to CaM in a helical conformation. When the PheCN was substituted on the polar side of the helix, which was partially exposed to water, the C=N stretching vibration is similar to that of PheCN in water. In constrast, when PheCN is introduced at a site that becomes buried in the interior of the protein, the C=N stretch is similar to that of PheCN in THF. Together, these results suggest that the C=N stretching vibration of nitrile-derivatized amino acids can indeed be used as local internal environmental markers, especially for protein conformational studies. PMID:12517152

  15. Heat localization for targeted tumor treatment with nanoscale near-infrared radiation absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bin; Singh, Ravi; Torti, F. M.; Keblinski, Pawel; Torti, Suzy

    2012-09-01

    Focusing heat delivery while minimizing collateral damage to normal tissues is essential for successful nanoparticle-mediated laser-induced thermal cancer therapy. We present thermal maps obtained via magnetic resonance imaging characterizing laser heating of a phantom tissue containing a multiwalled carbon nanotube inclusion. The data demonstrate that heating continuously over tens of seconds leads to poor localization (∼ 0.5 cm) of the elevated temperature region. By contrast, for the same energy input, heat localization can be reduced to the millimeter rather than centimeter range by increasing the laser power and shortening the pulse duration. The experimental data can be well understood within a simple diffusive heat conduction model. Analysis of the model indicates that to achieve 1 mm or better resolution, heating pulses of ∼2 s or less need to be used with appropriately higher heating power. Modeling these data using a diffusive heat conduction analysis predicts parameters for optimal targeted delivery of heat for ablative therapy.

  16. Specific local induction of DNA strand breaks by infrared multi-photon absorption

    PubMed Central

    Träutlein, D.; Deibler, M.; Leitenstorfer, A.; Ferrando-May, E.

    2010-01-01

    Highly confined DNA damage by femtosecond laser irradiation currently arises as a powerful tool to understand DNA repair in live cells as a function of space and time. However, the specificity with respect to damage type is limited. Here, we present an irradiation procedure based on a widely tunable Er/Yb : fiber femtosecond laser source that favors the formation of DNA strand breaks over that of UV photoproducts by more than one order of magnitude. We explain this selectivity with the different power dependence of the reactions generating strand breaks, mainly involving reactive radical intermediates, and the direct photochemical process leading to UV-photoproducts. Thus, localized multi-photon excitation with a wavelength longer than 1 µm allows for the selective production of DNA strand breaks at sub-micrometer spatial resolution in the absence of photosensitizers. PMID:19906733

  17. Robust detection of small infrared objects in maritime scenarios using local minimum patterns and spatio-temporal context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Baojun; Wu, Tao; He, Hangen

    2012-02-01

    Here, we describe a novel approach for small surface object detection with an onboard infrared (IR) camera working in maritime scenes. First, we propose a simple but effective tool called the local minimum patterns (LMP), which are theoretically the approximated coefficients of some stationary wavelet transforms, for single image background estimation. Second, potential objects are segmented by an adaptive threshold estimated from the saliency map, which is obtained by background subtraction. Using the LMP based wavelet transforms and the histogram of the saliency map, the threshold can be automatically determined by singularity analysis. Next, we localize potential objects by our proposed fast clustering algorithm, which, compared with popular K-Means, is much faster and less sensitive to noises. To make the surveillance system more reliable, we finally discuss how to integrate multiple cues, such as scene geometry constraints and spatio-temporal context, into detections by Bayesian inference. The proposed method has shown to be both effective and efficient by our extensive experiments on some challenging data sets with a competitive performance over some state-of-the-art techniques.

  18. Monitoring Local Regional Hemodynamic Signal Changes during Motor Execution and Motor Imagery Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Iso, Naoki; Moriuchi, Takefumi; Sagari, Akira; Kitajima, Eiji; Iso, Fumiko; Tanaka, Koji; Kikuchi, Yasuki; Tabira, Takayuki; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the topographical localization of motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), as this technique is more clinically expedient than established methods (e.g., fMRI). Twenty right-handed healthy subjects participated in this study. The experimental protocol was a blocked design consisting of 3 cycles of 20 s of task performance and 30 s of rest. The tapping sequence task was performed with their fingers under 4 conditions: ME and MI with the right or left hand. Hemodynamic brain activity was measured with NIRS to monitor changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration. Oxy-Hb in the somatosensory motor cortex (SMC) increased significantly only during contralateral ME and showed a significant interaction between task and hand. There was a main effect of hand in the left SMC. Although there were no significant main effects or interactions in the supplemental motor area (SMA) and premotor area (PMA), oxy-Hb increased substantially under all conditions. These results clarified the topographical localization by motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during ME and MI by using NIRS. PMID:26793118

  19. SYNTHETIC SPECTRA OF RADIO, MILLIMETER, SUB-MILLIMETER, AND INFRARED REGIMES WITH NON-LOCAL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM APPROXIMATION

    SciTech Connect

    De la Luz, Victor; Lara, Alejandro; Raulin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-08-10

    We use a numerical code called PAKALMPI to compute synthetic spectra of the solar emission in quiet conditions at millimeter, sub-millimeter, and infrared wavelengths. PAKALMPI solves the radiative transfer equation, with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE), in a three-dimensional geometry using a multiprocessor environment. The code is able to use three opacity functions: classical bremsstrahlung, H{sup -}, and inverse bremsstrahlung. In this work, we have computed and compared two synthetic spectra, one in the common way: using bremsstrahlung opacity function and considering a fully ionized atmosphere; and a new one considering bremsstrahlung, inverse bremsstrahlung, and H{sup -} opacity functions in NLTE. We analyzed in detail the local behavior of the low atmospheric emission at 17, 212, and 405 GHz (frequencies used by the Nobeyama Radio Heliograph and the Solar Submillimeter Telescope). We found that the H{sup -} is the major emission mechanism at low altitudes (below 500 km) and that at higher altitudes the classical bremsstrahlung becomes the major mechanism of emission. However, the brightness temperature remains unalterable. Finally, we found that the inverse bremsstrahlung process is not important for radio emission at these heights.

  20. A Simple Way to Achieve Legible and Local Controllable Patterning for Polymers Based on a Near-Infrared Pulsed Laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihai; Zhou, Tao; Wen, Liang; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Aiming

    2016-01-27

    This study developed a simple way to achieve legible and local controllable patterning for polymers based on a near-infrared (NIR) pulsed laser. The polycarbonate-coated nano antimony-doped tin oxide (nano ATO) was designed as a core-shell structure that was tailored to be responsive to a 1064 nm NIR laser. The globular morphology of polycarbonate-coated nano ATO with a diameter of around 2-3 μm was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This core-shell structure combined the excellent photothermal conversion efficiency of nano ATO and the high char (carbon) residue of polycarbonate. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of a polymer-patterning plate after laser irradiation demonstrated that, through local controlled photochromism, the well-defined legible patterns can be fabricated on the polymer surfaces contribute to the synergistic effect consisting of polycarbonate carbonization and nano ATO photothermal conversion. Furthermore, polymers doped with a minimal content of polycarbonate-coated nano ATO can achieve a remarkable patterning effect. This novel laser-patterning approach will have wide promising applications in the field of polymer NIR pulsed-laser patterning. PMID:26717082

  1. Near-Infrared Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances Arising from Free Carriers in Doped Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Prashant K.; Luther, Joey; Ewers, Trevor; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-10-12

    Quantum confinement of electronic wavefunctions in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) yields discrete atom-like and tunable electronic levels, thereby allowing the engineering of excitation and emission spectra. Metal nanoparticles, on the other hand, display strong resonant interactions with light from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) oscillations of free carriers, resulting in enhanced and geometrically tunable absorption and scattering resonances. The complementary attributes of these nanostructures lends strong interest toward integration into hybrid nanostructures to explore enhanced properties or the emergence of unique attributes arising from their interaction. However, the physicochemical interface between the two components can be limiting for energy transfer and synergistic coupling within such a hybrid nanostructure. Therefore, it is advantageous to realize both attributes, i.e., LSPRs and quantum confinement within the same nanostructure. Here, we describe well-defined LSPRs arising from p-type carriers in vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots. This opens up possibilities for light harvesting, non-linear optics, optical sensing and manipulation of solid-state processes in single nanocrystals.

  2. Sub-kpc star formation law in the local luminous infrared galaxy IC 4687 as seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, M.; Colina, L.; García-Burillo, S.; Planesas, P.; Usero, A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Cazzoli, S.; Emonts, B.; Piqueras López, J.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the spatially resolved (250 pc scales) and integrated star formation (SF) law in the local luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) IC 4687. This is one of the first studies of the SF law on a starburst LIRG at these small spatial scales. We combined new interferometric ALMA CO(2-1) data with existing HST/NICMOS Paα narrowband imaging and VLT/SINFONI near-IR integral field spectroscopy to obtain accurate extinction-corrected SF rate (SFR) and cold molecular gas surface densities (Σgas and ΣSFR). We find that IC 4687 forms stars very efficiently with an average depletion time (tdep) of 160 Myr for the individual 250 pc regions. This is approximately one order of magnitude shorter than the tdep of local normal spirals and also shorter than that of main-sequence high-z objects, even when we use a Galactic αCO conversion factor. This result suggests a bimodal SF law in the ΣSFR∝ΣgasN representation. A universal SF law is recovered if we normalize the Σgas by the global dynamical time. However, at the spatial scales studied here, we find that the SF efficiency (or tdep) does not depend on the local dynamical time for this object. Therefore, an alternative normalization (e.g., free-fall time) should be found if a universal SF law exists at these scales. A FITS file for the reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A44

  3. The Araucaria Project: The Distance to the Local Group Galaxy IC 1613 from Near-Infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Soszyński, Igor; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Storm, Jesper; Bono, Giuseppe

    2006-05-01

    We have measured accurate near-infrared magnitudes in the J and K bands of 39 Cepheid variables in the irregular Local Group galaxy IC 1613 with well-determined periods and optical VI light curves. Using the template light curve approach of Soszyński, Gieren, & Pietrzyński, accurate mean magnitudes were obtained from these data, which allowed us to determine the distance to IC 1613 relative to the LMC from a multiwavelength period-luminosity solution in the optical VI and near-IR JK bands with an unprecedented accuracy. Our result for the IC 1613 distance is (m-M)0=24.291+/-0.035 (random error) mag, with an additional systematic uncertainty smaller than 2%. From our multiwavelength approach, we find for the total (average) reddening to the IC 1613 Cepheids E(B-V)=0.090+/-0.019 mag, which is significantly higher than the foreground reddening of about 0.03 mag, showing the presence of appreciable dust extinction inside the galaxy. Our data suggest that the extinction law in IC 1613 is very similar to the Galactic one. Our distance result agrees, within the uncertainties, with two earlier infrared Cepheid studies in this galaxy, of Macri et al. (from HST data on 4 Cepheids) and McAlary et al. (from ground-based H-band photometry of 10 Cepheids), but our result has reduced the total uncertainty on the distance to IC 1613 (relative to the LMC) to less than 3%. With distances to nearby galaxies from Cepheid infrared photometry at this level of accuracy, which are currently being obtained in our Araucaria Project, it seems possible to significantly reduce the systematic uncertainty of the Hubble constant, as derived from the HST Key Project approach, by improving the calibration of the metallicity effect on PL relation zero points and by improving the distance determination to the LMC. Based on observations obtained with the New Technology Telescope (NNT) at ESO La Silla for programs 074.D-0318(B) and 074.D-0505(B).

  4. Infrared Narrowband Tomography of the Local Starburst NGC 1569 with the Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, A.; Bik, A.; Zibetti, S.; Ageorges, N.; Seifert, W.; Brandner, W.; Rix, H.-W.; Jütte, M.; Knierim, V.; Buschkamp, P.; Feiz, C.; Gemperlein, H.; Germeroth, A.; Hofmann, R.; Laun, W.; Lederer, R.; Lehmitz, M.; Lenzen, R.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Müller, P.; Naranjo, V.; Polsterer, K.; Quirrenbach, A.; Schäffner, L.; Storz, C.; Weiser, P.

    2011-04-01

    We used the near-IR imager/spectrograph LUCIFER mounted on the Large Binocular Telescope to image, with subarcsecond seeing, the local dwarf starburst NGC 1569 in the JHK bands and He I 1.08 μm, [Fe II] 1.64 μm, and Brγ narrowband filters. We obtained high-quality spatial maps of He I 1.08 μm, [Fe II] 1.64 μm, and Brγ emission across the galaxy, and used them together with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images of NGC 1569 in the Hα filter to derive the two-dimensional spatial map of the dust extinction and surface star formation rate (SFR) density. We show that dust extinction (as derived from the Hα/Brγ flux ratio) is rather patchy and, on average, higher in the northwest (NW) portion of the galaxy (E g(B - V) ~= 0.71 mag) than in the southeast (E g(B - V) ~= 0.57 mag). Similarly, the surface density of SFR (computed from either the dereddened Hα or dereddened Brγ image) peaks in the NW region of NGC 1569, reaching a value of about 4 × 10-6 M sun yr-1 pc-2. The total SFR as estimated from the integrated, dereddened Hα (or, alternatively, Brγ) luminosity is about 0.4 M sun yr-1, and the total supernova rate from the integrated, dereddened [Fe II] 1.64 μm luminosity is about 0.005 yr-1 (assuming a distance of 3.36 Mpc). The azimuthally averaged [Fe II] 1.64 μm/Brγ flux ratio is larger at the edges of the central, gas-deficient cavities (encompassing the superstar clusters A and B) and in the galaxy outskirts. If we interpret this line ratio as the ratio between the average past star formation (as traced by supernovae) and ongoing activity (represented by OB stars able to ionize the interstellar medium), it would then indicate that star formation has been quenched within the central cavities and lately triggered in a ring around them. The number of ionizing hydrogen and helium photons as computed from the integrated, dereddened Hα and He I 1.08 μm luminosities suggests that the latest burst of star formation occurred about 4 Myr

  5. Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso

    2012-08-01

    We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales. PMID:22859481

  6. Chandra and NuSTAR studies of the ultraluminous X-ray sources in M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, Murray; Harrison, Fiona; Walton, Dom; Fuerst, Felix; Bachetti, Matteo; Zezas, Andreas; Ptak, Andrew; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Yukita, Mihoko; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Grefenstette, Brian

    2016-04-01

    With the discovery of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsar in M82 by Bachetti et al (2014), there has been renewed interest in the galaxy, which also hosts one of the best candidates for an intermediate-mass black hole. We present results on the spectral and temporal properties of the pulsar from 15 years of Chandra observations with implications for theoretical modeling of the source, as well as the high-energy constraints on both sources from NuSTAR.

  7. XMM-Newton reveals extreme winds in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, C.; Middleton, M.; Fabian, A.

    2016-06-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are extragalactic, off-nucleus, point sources with X-ray luminosities above 10^{39} erg/s, thought to be powered by accretion onto compact objects. Viable solutions include accretion onto neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, stellar-mass black holes at or in excess of the Eddington limit or intermediate-mass black holes. The lack of sufficient energy resolution in previous analyses has prevented an unambiguous identification of any emission or absorption lines in the X-ray band, thereby precluding a detailed analysis of the accretion flow. In this talk, I will show the discovery of rest-frame emission and blueshifted (˜0.2c) absorption lines arising from highly ionized gas in the deep high-resolution XMM-Newton spectra of two ultraluminous X-ray sources. The blueshifted absorption lines occurs in a fast outflowing gas, whereas the emission lines originate in slow-moving gas around the source. The compact object is therefore surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2c as predicted by models of hyper-accreting black holes. Further, deep, XMM-Newton observations will reveal powerful winds in many other ultraluminous X-ray sources and provide important hints to estimate the energetics of the wind, the geometry of the system, and the black hole masses.

  8. Gas phase structures and charge localization in small aluminum oxide anions: Infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaowei; Fagiani, Matias R.; Gewinner, Sandy; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Asmis, Knut R.; Bischoff, Florian A.; Berger, Fabian; Sauer, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    We use cryogenic ion trap vibrational spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations to study the structure of mono- and dialuminum oxide anions. The infrared photodissociation spectra of D2-tagged AlO1-4- and Al2O3-6- are measured in the region from 400 to 1200 cm-1. Structures are assigned based on a comparison to simulated harmonic and anharmonic IR spectra derived from electronic structure calculations. The monoaluminum anions contain an even number of electrons and exhibit an electronic closed-shell ground state. The Al2O3-6- anions are oxygen-centered radicals. As a result of a delicate balance between localization and delocalization of the unpaired electron, only the BHLYP functional is able to qualitatively describe the observed IR spectra of all species with the exception of AlO3-. Terminal Al-O stretching modes are found between 1140 and 960 cm-1. Superoxo and peroxo stretching modes are found at higher (1120-1010 cm-1) and lower energies (850-570 cm-1), respectively. Four modes in-between 910 and 530 cm-1 represent the IR fingerprint of the common structural motif of dialuminum oxide anions, an asymmetric four-member Al-(O)2-Al ring.

  9. Gas phase structures and charge localization in small aluminum oxide anions: Infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaowei; Fagiani, Matias R; Gewinner, Sandy; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Asmis, Knut R; Bischoff, Florian A; Berger, Fabian; Sauer, Joachim

    2016-06-28

    We use cryogenic ion trap vibrational spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations to study the structure of mono- and dialuminum oxide anions. The infrared photodissociation spectra of D2-tagged AlO1-4 (-) and Al2O3-6 (-) are measured in the region from 400 to 1200 cm(-1). Structures are assigned based on a comparison to simulated harmonic and anharmonic IR spectra derived from electronic structure calculations. The monoaluminum anions contain an even number of electrons and exhibit an electronic closed-shell ground state. The Al2O3-6 (-) anions are oxygen-centered radicals. As a result of a delicate balance between localization and delocalization of the unpaired electron, only the BHLYP functional is able to qualitatively describe the observed IR spectra of all species with the exception of AlO3 (-). Terminal Al-O stretching modes are found between 1140 and 960 cm(-1). Superoxo and peroxo stretching modes are found at higher (1120-1010 cm(-1)) and lower energies (850-570 cm(-1)), respectively. Four modes in-between 910 and 530 cm(-1) represent the IR fingerprint of the common structural motif of dialuminum oxide anions, an asymmetric four-member Al-(O)2-Al ring. PMID:27369513

  10. A new method to measure local oxygen consumption in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Cooper, Chris E; Wittekind, Anna L; Beneke, Ralph; Elwell, Clare E; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Leung, Terence S

    2010-09-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can readily report on changes in blood volume and oxygenation. However, it has proved more problematic to measure real-time changes in blood flow and oxygen consumption. Here we report the development of a novel method using NIRS to measure local oxygen consumption in human muscle. The method utilizes the blood volume changes induced by the muscle pump during rhythmically contracting exercising skeletal muscle. We found that the saturation of the blood during the contraction phase was lower than that during the relaxation phase. The calculated oxygen drop was then divided by the contraction time to generate a value for the muscle oxygen consumption in the optical region of interest. As a test we measured the muscle oxygen consumption in the human vastus lateralis during exercise on a cycle ergometer by 11 trained male athletes (32 +/- 11 years old) at 40% and 110% peak aerobic power. We saw an increase from 13.78 micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1) to 19.72 micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1) with the increase in power. The measurements are theoretically exempt from usual NIRS confounders such as myoglobin and adipose tissue and could provide a useful tool for studying human physiology. PMID:20702918

  11. A Spitzer Survey of Mid-infrared Molecular Emission from Protoplanetary Disks. II. Correlations and Local Thermal Equilibrium Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salyk, C.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Blake, G. A.; Najita, J. R.; Carr, J. S.

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2, and CO2 emission, and Keck-NIRSPEC observations of CO emission, from a diverse sample of T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be circumstellar disks. We find that detections and strengths of most mid-IR molecular emission features are correlated with each other, suggesting a common origin and similar excitation conditions for this mid-infrared line forest. Aside from the remarkable differences in molecular line strengths between T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be, and transitional disks discussed in Pontoppidan et al., we note that the line detection efficiency is anti-correlated with the 13/30 μm spectral slope, which is a measure of the degree of grain settling in the disk atmosphere. We also note a correlation between detection efficiency and Hα equivalent width, and tentatively with accretion rate, suggesting that accretional heating contributes to line excitation. If detected, H2O line fluxes are correlated with the mid-IR continuum flux, and other co-varying system parameters, such as L sstarf. However, significant sample variation, especially in molecular line ratios, remains, and its origin has yet to be explained. Local thermal equilibrium (LTE) models of the H2O emission show that line strength is primarily related to the best-fit emitting area, and this accounts for most source-to-source variation in H2O emitted flux. Best-fit temperatures and column densities cover only a small range of parameter space, near ~1018 cm-2 and 450 K for all sources, suggesting a high abundance of H2O in many planet-forming regions. Other molecules have a range of excitation temperatures from ~500to1500 K, also consistent with an origin in planet-forming regions. We find molecular ratios relative to water of ~10-3 for all molecules, with the exception of CO, for which n(CO)/n(H2O) ~ 1. However, LTE fitting caveats and differences in the way thermo-chemical modeling results are reported make comparisons with

  12. A SPITZER SURVEY OF MID-INFRARED MOLECULAR EMISSION FROM PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. CORRELATIONS AND LOCAL THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Salyk, C.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Blake, G. A.; Najita, J. R.; Carr, J. S.

    2011-04-20

    We present an analysis of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of H{sub 2}O, OH, HCN, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} emission, and Keck-NIRSPEC observations of CO emission, from a diverse sample of T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be circumstellar disks. We find that detections and strengths of most mid-IR molecular emission features are correlated with each other, suggesting a common origin and similar excitation conditions for this mid-infrared line forest. Aside from the remarkable differences in molecular line strengths between T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be, and transitional disks discussed in Pontoppidan et al., we note that the line detection efficiency is anti-correlated with the 13/30 {mu}m spectral slope, which is a measure of the degree of grain settling in the disk atmosphere. We also note a correlation between detection efficiency and H{alpha} equivalent width, and tentatively with accretion rate, suggesting that accretional heating contributes to line excitation. If detected, H{sub 2}O line fluxes are correlated with the mid-IR continuum flux, and other co-varying system parameters, such as L{sub *}. However, significant sample variation, especially in molecular line ratios, remains, and its origin has yet to be explained. Local thermal equilibrium (LTE) models of the H{sub 2}O emission show that line strength is primarily related to the best-fit emitting area, and this accounts for most source-to-source variation in H{sub 2}O emitted flux. Best-fit temperatures and column densities cover only a small range of parameter space, near {approx}10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} and 450 K for all sources, suggesting a high abundance of H{sub 2}O in many planet-forming regions. Other molecules have a range of excitation temperatures from {approx}500to1500 K, also consistent with an origin in planet-forming regions. We find molecular ratios relative to water of {approx}10{sup -3} for all molecules, with the exception of CO, for which n(CO)/n(H{sub 2}O) {approx} 1. However, LTE

  13. The Far-Infrared Energy Distributions of Seyfert and Starburst Galaxies in the Local Universe: Infrared Space Observatory Photometry of the 12 Micron Active Galaxy Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Andreani, Paola; Malkan, Matthew A.

    2002-06-01

    New far-infrared photometry with ISOPHOT aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is presented for 58 galaxies with homogeneous published data for another 32 galaxies, all belonging to the 12 μm galaxy sample-in total, 29 Seyfert 1 galaxies, 35 Seyfert 2 galaxies, and 12 starburst galaxies, or about half of the 12 μm active galaxy sample, plus 14 normal galaxies for comparison. ISO and Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data are used to define color-color diagrams and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Thermal dust emission at two temperatures (one cold at 15-30 K and one warm at 50-70 K) can fit the 60-200 μm SED, with a dust emissivity law proportional to the inverse square of the wavelength. Seyfert 1 galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies are indistinguishable longward of 100 μm, while, as already seen by IRAS, the former have flatter SEDs shortward of 60 μm. A mild anticorrelation is found between the [200-100] color and the ``60 μm excess.'' We infer that this is due to the fact that galaxies with a strong starburst component and thus a strong 60 μm flux have a steeper far-infrared turnover. In non-Seyfert galaxies, increasing the luminosity corresponds to increasing the star formation rate, which enhances the 25 and 60 μm emission. This shifts the peak emission from around 150 μm in the most quiescent spirals to shorter than 60 μm in the strongest starburst galaxies. To quantify these trends further, we identified with the IRAS colors three idealized infrared SEDs: pure quiescent disk emission, pure starburst emission, and pure Seyfert nucleus emission. Even between 100 and 200 μm, the quiescent disk emission remains much cooler than the starburst component. Seyfert galaxies have 100-200 μm SEDs ranging from pure disks to pure starbursts, with no apparent contribution from their active nuclei at those wavelengths. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France

  14. The Central Regions of Local (U)LIRGs Viewed with Big Radio Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Torres, Miguel Ángel

    I review some of the main results obtained by our team in the last few years on high-angular resolution radio studies of nearby Luminous and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively). These galaxies are expected to form stars at rates ≳ (10-100) M_{⊙} {year}^{-1}, and produce core-collapse supernovae at rates ≳ (0.3-3) year- 1. (U)LIRGs are also expected to be bright at radio wavelengths, thanks to the ubiquitous Far-Infrared Radio correlation, which makes high-angular resolution (≲ 0.1^'') radio observations an excellent tool for probing the inner ≃ 100 pc region of local (U)LIRGs. I justify the need for this high-angular resolution radio studies of local (U)LIRGs and, among other results, I present the impressive discovery of an extremely prolific supernova factory in the central ˜ 150 pc of the galaxy Arp 299-A (D = 45 Mpc) and the monitoring of a large number of very compact radio sources in it, the detection and precise location of the long-sought AGN in Arp 299-A and, more recently, the evidence for the existence of nuclear disks (≲ 100 pc in size) in starburst galaxies from their radial distribution of supernovae. All those results show that very-high angular resolution studies of nearby (U)LIRGs are of high relevance for the comprehension of both local and high-z starbursting galaxies.

  15. The subarcsecond mid-infrared view of local active galactic nuclei - I. The N- and Q-band imaging atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, D.; Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.; Smette, A.; Duschl, W. J.

    2014-04-01

    We present the first subarcsecond-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) atlas of local active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our atlas contains 253 AGN with a median redshift of z = 0.016, and includes all publicly available MIR imaging performed to date with ground-based 8-m class telescopes, a total of 895 independent measurements. Of these, more than 60 per cent are published here for the first time. We detect extended nuclear emission in at least 21 per cent of the objects, while another 19 per cent appear clearly point-like, and the remaining objects cannot be constrained. Where present, elongated nuclear emission aligns with the ionization cones in Seyferts. Subarcsecond resolution allows us to isolate the AGN emission on scales of a few tens of parsecs and to obtain nuclear photometry in multiple filters for the objects. Median spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the different optical AGN types are constructed and individual MIR 12 and 18 μm continuum luminosities are computed. These range over more than six orders of magnitude. In comparison to the arcsecond-scale MIR emission as probed by Spitzer, the continuum emission is much lower on subarcsecond scales in many cases. The silicate feature strength is similar on both scales and generally appears in emission (absorption) in type I (II) AGN. However, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission appears weaker or absent on subarcsecond scales. The differences of the MIR SEDs on both scales are particularly large for AGN/starburst composites and close-by (and weak) AGN. The nucleus dominates over the total emission of the galaxy only at luminosities ≳1044 erg s-1. The AGN MIR atlas is well suited not only for detailed investigation of individual sources but also for statistical studies of AGN unification.

  16. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. II. Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here we perform detailed photoionization modeling of they infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter-bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 1040 erg per second would be needed to produce the measured [O IV] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shacks likely contribute very little, if at all, to the high excitation line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on they predicted strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] hi some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  17. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. 2; Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter-bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 10(exp 40) erg/s would be needed to produce the measured [O IV] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shocks likely contribute very little, if at all, to the high-excitation line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on the predicted strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] in some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  18. The First Detection of (O IV) from an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source with Spitzer. 2. Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C T.; Dudik, R P.; Weaver, K A.; Kallman, T R.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here, we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [Oiv] 25.89 micronmeters emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter bounded both in the line-of-sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 10(exp 40) erg s(exp -1) would be needed to produce the measured [O iv] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shocks likely contribute very little, if at all,to the high-ionization line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on the predicted strength of the [O iv] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O iv] in some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  19. Exploratory Chandra Observation of the Ultraluminous Quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at Redshift 6.30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yanli; Dou, Liming; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Bian, Fuyan

    2016-06-01

    We report exploratory Chandra observations of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.30. The quasar is clearly detected by Chandra with a possible component of extended emission. The rest-frame 2–10 keV luminosity is {9.0}-4.5+9.1 × 1045 erg s‑1 with an inferred photon index of Γ = {3.03}-0.70+0.78. This quasar is X-ray bright, with an inferred X-ray-to-optical flux ratio {α }{ox} = -{1.22}-0.05+0.07, higher than the values found in other quasars of comparable ultraviolet luminosity. The properties inferred from this exploratory observation indicate that this ultraluminous quasar might be growing with super-Eddington accretion and probably viewed with a small inclination angle. Deep X-ray observations will help to probe the plausible extended emission and better constrain the spectral features for this ultraluminous quasar.

  20. Detection of CO(1 to 0) emission from infrared quasars and luminous Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Zensus, A.; Soifer, B. T.; Wilson, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    CO(1 to 0) emission has been detected from the infrared quasar IRAS 07598+6508 and the luminous Seyfert galaxies IRAS 08572+3915 and Markarian 463 with the IRAM 30-m telescope. These objects were selected from a complete list of warm ultraluminous IRAS sources. The maximum redshift observed was 0.149 (cz = 44.621 km/s , IRAS 07598+6508). Assuming the same empirical relationship between CO brightness and H2 surface mass density as has been found for giant molecular clouds in the Milky Way, the mass of H2 gas in these objects is in the range 0.7 - 6 x 10 to the 10th solar masses, more than 2 - 20 times the H2 content of the Galaxy. The infrared and molecular gas properties of these galaxies are similar to other 'warm' ultraluminous infrared galaxies such as Mrk 231, and the UV-excess quasar Mrk 1014. It is suggested that objects such as these represent an important link in the evolution of ultraluminous infrared galaxies into UV-excess quasars.

  1. Insight into the Local Solvent Environment of Biologically Relevant Iron-nitroysl Systems through Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Jennifer Faith

    Iron-nitrosyl systems, particularly in the form of heme proteins, with their iron metal active sites play an important role in biological systems. Heme proteins act as storage, transporters, and receptors for nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule that is important in immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems of mammals. By better understanding the local environment of the active site of NO binding heme proteins we can gain insight into disease in which the NO pathways have been implicated. This is an important step to being able to develop pharmaceuticals targeting NO pathways in humans. Sodium nitroprusside ((SNP, Na2[Fe(CN)5is NO]·2H 2O) investigated as a model system for the active site of nitric oxide binding heme proteins. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) to obtain dephasing dynamics of the nitrosyl stretch (nuNO) in a series of solvents we are able to better understand the local environment of the more complicated metalloproteins. Rigorous line shape analysis is performed by using nonlinear response theory to simulate 2D IR spectra which are then fit to experimental data in an iterative process to extract frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs). The time scales obtained are then correlated to empirical solvent polarity parameters. The analysis of the 2D IR lineshapes reveal that the spectral diffusion timescale of the nuNO in SNP varies from 0.8 -- 4 ps and is negatively correlated with the empirical solvent polarity scales. We continue to investigate NO binding of metalloproteins through 2D IR experiments on nitrophorin 4 (NP4). NP4 is a pH-sensitive NO transporter protein present in the salivary gland of the blood sucking insect Rhodius prolixus which undergoes a pH sensitive structural change between a closed and open conformation allowing for the storage and delivery of NO. The two structures are observed spectroscopically as two distinct pH-dependent nu NO frequencies at ~1904 and ~1917 cm-1. We obtain FFCFs by globally

  2. Bifurcation timescales in power spectra of black hole binaries and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Taishan; Li, Tipei

    2010-01-01

    For black hole binaries (BHBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), bifurcation timescales (BTs) Δ t b exist, below which time-domain power is significantly higher than the corresponding Fourier power. Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are removed from the Fourier spectra of BHBs. A relationship between BT, black hole mass and bolometric luminosity is derived. Strong anti-correlation between BT and luminosity of Cyg X-1 is found. After removing the QPOs, BTs are also obtained for two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M82 X-1 and NGC5408 X-1. The results support that they harbor intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs).

  3. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2012-09-01

    We present the AKARI near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-5 {mu}m) spectroscopic study of 36 (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at z = 0.01-0.4. We measure the NIR spectral features including the strengths of 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and hydrogen recombination lines (Br{alpha} and Br{beta}), optical depths at 3.1 and 3.4 {mu}m, and NIR continuum slope. These spectral features are used to identify optically elusive, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that half of the (U)LIRGs optically classified as non-Seyferts show AGN signatures in their NIR spectra. Using a combined sample of (U)LIRGs with NIR spectra in the literature, we measure the contribution of buried AGNs to the infrared luminosity from the spectral energy distribution fitting to the IRAS photometry. The contribution of these buried AGNs to the infrared luminosity is 5%-10%, smaller than the typical AGN contribution of (U)LIRGs including Seyfert galaxies (10%-40%). We show that NIR continuum slopes correlate well with WISE [3.4]-[4.6] colors, which would be useful for identifying a large number of buried AGNs using the WISE data.

  4. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2005-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H(sub 2)O, CH, NH, and NH(sub 3), as well as in the [O I] 63 micron line and emission in the [C II] 158 micron line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 microns is modeled as a warm (106 K) nuclear region that is optically thick in the far-infrared, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus (2 - 6 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and the extended region (approximately 2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)). The H(sub 2)O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH(sub 3) toward the nucleus, with values of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2) and approximately 3 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2), respectively, whereas the NH(sub 2) column density is lower than approximately 2 x 10(exp 15) cm(exp -2). A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H(sub 2)O photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H(sub 2)O, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 micron line is well reproduced by our models and its deficit relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to

  5. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2004-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H 2 0 , CH, NH, and "3, well as in the [0 I] 63 pm line and emission in the [C 111 158 pm line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 pm is modeled AS A WARM (106 K) NUCLEAR REGION THAT IS OPTICALLY THICK IN THE FAR-INFRARED, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus and the extended region (about 2 x 10 sup 17 cm sup-2). The H2O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 1017 cm-2) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH3 toward the nucleus, with values of about 1.5 x 10supl6 cmsup-2 and about 3 x 10supl6 cmsup-2, respectively, whereas the NH2 column density is lower than about 2 x 10sup15 cmsup-2. A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H20 photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H20, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 pm line is well reproduced by our models and its "deficit" relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to be mainly a consequence of the dominant non-PDR component of far- infrared radiation, ALTHOUGH OUR MODELS ALONE CANNOT RULE OUT EXTINCTION EFFECTS IN THE

  6. An Optical Study of Stellar and Interstellar Environments of Seven Luminous and Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Caitlin J.; Williams, Rosa M.; Gruendl, Robert A.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Chu, You-Hua; Wang, Q. Daniel

    2006-04-01

    We have studied the stellar and interstellar environments of two luminous X-ray sources and five ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in order to gain insight into their nature. Archival Hubble Space Telescope images were used to identify the optical counterparts of the ULXs Ho IX X-1 and NGC 1313 X-2, and to make photometric measurements of the local stellar populations of these and the luminous source IC 10 X-1. We obtained high-dispersion spectroscopic observations of the nebulae around these seven sources to search for He II λ4686 emission and to estimate the expansion velocities and kinetic energies of these nebulae. Our observations did not detect nebular He II emission from any source, with the exception of LMC X-1 this is either because we missed the He III regions or because the nebulae are too diffuse to produce He II surface brightnesses that lie within our detection limit. We compare the observed ionization and kinematics of the supershells around the ULXs Ho IX X-1 and NGC 1313 X-2 with the energy feedback expected from the underlying stellar population to assess whether additional energy contributions from the ULXs are needed. In both cases, we find insufficient UV fluxes or mechanical energies from the stellar population; thus these ULXs may be partially responsible for the ionization and energetics of their supershells. All seven sources that we studied are in young stellar environments, and six of them have optical counterparts with masses >~7 Msolar thus, these sources are most likely high-mass X-ray binaries.

  7. An Ultraluminous Lyα Emitter with a Blue Wing at z = 6.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; Songaila, A.; Barger, A. J.; Rosenwasser, B.; Wold, I. G. B.

    2016-07-01

    We report the detection of the most luminous high-redshift Lyα emitting galaxy (LAE) yet seen, with {log}L({{Ly}}α )=43.9\\quad {erg} {{{s}}}-1. The galaxy—COSMOS Lyα1, or COLA1—was detected in a search for ultraluminous LAEs with Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope. It was confirmed as lying at z = 6.593, based on a Lyα line detection obtained from follow-up spectroscopy with the DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck II. COLA1 is the first very high-redshift LAE to show a multi-component Lyα line profile with a blue wing, which suggests that it could lie in a highly ionized region of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and could have significant infall. If this interpretation is correct, then ultraluminous LAEs like COLA1 offer a unique opportunity to determine the properties of the H ii regions around these galaxies, which will help in understanding the ionization of the z ˜ 7 IGM.

  8. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. I. Observational Results for Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    We presen the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the [O IV] 25.89 um emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map shows that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the ULX. The ratios of the [O IV] to lower ionization lines are similar to those observed in AGN, suggesting that a strong UV and X-ray source is responsible for the, photoionization. The best XMM-Newton data is used to model the X-ray band which is then extrapolated into the UV. We perform infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and use its previously published optical and radio data to construct the full SED for the ULX and its companion. The preferred model to describe the SED includes an accretion disk which dominates the soft X-rays but contributes little at UV and optical wavelengths. The optical counterpart is consistent with a B supergiant as previously suggested in other studies. The bolometric luminosity of the ULX suggests the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >85 M for sub-Eddington accretion or, alternatively, a stellar-mass black hole that is accreting at super-Eddington rates. In a follow-up second paper we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines in order to constrain the bolometric luminosity of the ULX.

  9. Over half of the far-infrared background light comes from galaxies at z >or= 1.2.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Mark J; Ade, Peter A R; Aretxaga, Itziar; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Ngo, Henry; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2009-04-01

    Submillimetre surveys during the past decade have discovered a population of luminous, high-redshift, dusty starburst galaxies. In the redshift range 1 local Universe. Half of the starlight from this highly energetic process is absorbed and thermally re-radiated by clouds of dust at temperatures near 30 K with spectral energy distributions peaking at 100 microm in the rest frame. At 1 infrared backgrounds with approximately equal energy densities. Since the initial detection of the far-infrared background (FIRB), higher-resolution experiments have sought to decompose this integrated radiation into the contributions from individual galaxies. Here we report the results of an extragalactic survey at 250, 350 and 500 microm. Combining our results at 500 microm with those at 24 microm, we determine that all of the FIRB comes from individual galaxies, with galaxies at z >or= 1.2 accounting for 70% of it. As expected, at the longest wavelengths the signal is dominated by ultraluminous galaxies at z > 1. PMID:19360081

  10. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer: Evidence of High Unbeamed Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation, usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map shows that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the Holmberg II ULX. We find that the luminosity and the morphology of the line emission is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is radiation bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the west, and probably matter bounded to the east. Evidence for a massive black hole (BH) in this ULX is mounting. Detailed photoionization models favor an intermediate mass black hole of at least 85 Solar Mass as the ionization source for the [OIV] emission. We find that the spectral type of the companion star strongly affects the expected strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] in some starburst galaxies containing black hole binaries.

  11. ULTRA-DEEP MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z{approx} 1 AND z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fadda, Dario; Yan Lin; Frayer, David T.; Helou, George; Lagache, Guilaine; Marcillac, Delphine; Sajina, Anna; Lutz, Dieter; Wuyts, Stijn; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Caputi, Karina; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Blain, Andrew E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.ed

    2010-08-10

    We present ultra-deep mid-infrared spectra of 48 infrared-luminous galaxies in the GOODS-south field obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. These galaxies are selected among faint infrared sources (0.14-0.5 mJy at 24 {mu}m) in two redshift bins (0.76-1.05 and 1.75-2.4) to sample the major contributors to the cosmic infrared background at the most active epochs. We estimate redshifts for 92% of the sample using polycyclic aromatic (PAH) and Si absorption features obtaining, in particular, eight new redshifts difficult to measure from ground-based observations. Only a few of these galaxies (5% at z {approx} 1 and 12% at z {approx} 2) have their total infrared luminosity dominated by emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The averaged mid-IR spectrum of the z {approx} 1 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) is a very good match to the averaged spectrum of local starbursts. The averaged spectrum of the z {approx} 2 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), because of a deeper Si absorption, is better fitted by the averaged spectrum of H II-like local ULIRGs. Combining this sample with other published data, we find that 6.2 {mu}m PAH equivalent widths (EW) reach a plateau of {approx} 1 {mu}m for L {sub 24{mu}m} {approx}< 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}. At higher luminosities, EW{sub 6.2{mu}m} anti-correlates with L{sub 24{mu}m}. Intriguingly, high-z ULIRGs and sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) lie above the local EW{sub 6.2{mu}m}-L{sub 24{mu}m} relationship suggesting that, at a given luminosity, high-z ULIRGs have AGN contributions to their dust emission lower than those of local counterparts. A quantitative analysis of their morphology shows that most of the luminous IR galaxies have morphologies similar to those of IR-quiet galaxies at the same redshift. All z {approx} 2 ULIRGs of our sample are IR-excess BzK galaxies and most of them have L{sub FIR}/L{sub 1600A} ratios higher than those of starburst galaxies at a given UV slope. The 'IR

  12. Ultra-deep Mid-infrared Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies at z ~ 1 and z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadda, Dario; Yan, Lin; Lagache, Guilaine; Sajina, Anna; Lutz, Dieter; Wuyts, Stijn; Frayer, David T.; Marcillac, Delphine; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Caputi, Karina; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Blain, Andrew; Helou, George

    2010-08-01

    We present ultra-deep mid-infrared spectra of 48 infrared-luminous galaxies in the GOODS-south field obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. These galaxies are selected among faint infrared sources (0.14-0.5 mJy at 24 μm) in two redshift bins (0.76-1.05 and 1.75-2.4) to sample the major contributors to the cosmic infrared background at the most active epochs. We estimate redshifts for 92% of the sample using polycyclic aromatic (PAH) and Si absorption features obtaining, in particular, eight new redshifts difficult to measure from ground-based observations. Only a few of these galaxies (5% at z ~ 1 and 12% at z ~ 2) have their total infrared luminosity dominated by emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The averaged mid-IR spectrum of the z ~ 1 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) is a very good match to the averaged spectrum of local starbursts. The averaged spectrum of the z ~ 2 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), because of a deeper Si absorption, is better fitted by the averaged spectrum of H II-like local ULIRGs. Combining this sample with other published data, we find that 6.2 μm PAH equivalent widths (EW) reach a plateau of ~ 1 μm for L 24 μm <~ 1011 L sun. At higher luminosities, EW6.2 μm anti-correlates with L 24 μm. Intriguingly, high-z ULIRGs and sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) lie above the local EW6.2 μm-L 24 μm relationship suggesting that, at a given luminosity, high-z ULIRGs have AGN contributions to their dust emission lower than those of local counterparts. A quantitative analysis of their morphology shows that most of the luminous IR galaxies have morphologies similar to those of IR-quiet galaxies at the same redshift. All z ~ 2 ULIRGs of our sample are IR-excess BzK galaxies and most of them have L FIR/L 1600 Å ratios higher than those of starburst galaxies at a given UV slope. The "IR excess" is mostly due to strong 7.7 μm PAH emission and underestimation of UV dust extinction. On the basis of

  13. Infrared thermography system for transport infrastructures survey with inline local atmospheric parameter measurements and offline model for radiation attenuation evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Jean; Boucher, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    An infrared system has been developed to monitor transport infrastructures in a standalone configuration. It is based on low cost infrared thermal cameras linked with a calculation unit in order to produce a corrected thermal map of the surveyed structure at a selected time step. With the inline version, the data collected feed simplified radiative models running a GPU. With the offline version, the thermal map can be corrected when data are collected under different atmospheric conditions up to foggy night conditions. A model for radiative transmission prediction is proposed and limitations are addressed. Furthermore, the results obtained by image and signal processing methods with data acquired on the transport infrastructure opened to traffic are presented. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for new implementation and new functionalities are presented and discussed.

  14. DEEP K{sub s} -NEAR-INFRARED SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF 80 DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXIES IN THE LOCAL VOLUME

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerhut, Robin L.; McCall, Marshall L.; Argote, Mauricio; Cluver, Michelle E.; Nishiyama, Shogo; Rekola, Rami T. F.; Richer, Michael G.; Vaduvescu, Ovidiu; Woudt, Patrick A. E-mail: mccall@yorku.c E-mail: mcluver@ipac.caltech.ed E-mail: rareko@utu.f E-mail: ovidiuv@ing.iac.e

    2010-06-10

    We present deep near-infrared (K{sub s}) images and surface photometry for 80 dwarf irregular galaxies (dIs) within {approx}5 Mpc of the Milky Way. The galaxy images were obtained at five different facilities between 2004 and 2006. The image reductions and surface photometry have been performed using methods specifically designed for isolating faint galaxies from the high and varying near-infrared sky level. Fifty-four of the 80 dIs have surface brightness profiles which could be fit to a hyperbolic-secant (sech) function, while the remaining profiles could be fit to the sum of a sech and a Gaussian function. From these fits, we have measured central surface brightnesses, scale lengths, and integrated magnitudes. This survey is part of a larger study of the connection between large-scale structure and the global properties of dIs, the hypothesized building-blocks of more massive galaxies.

  15. Opportunities for Live Cell FT-Infrared Imaging: Macromolecule Identification with 2D and 3D Localization

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Eric C.; Aboualizadeh, Ebrahim; Barabas, Marie E.; Stucky, Cheryl L.; Hirschmugl, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectromicroscopy, or chemical imaging, is an evolving technique that is poised to make significant contributions in the fields of biology and medicine. Recent developments in sources, detectors, measurement techniques and speciman holders have now made diffraction-limited Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging of cellular chemistry in living cells a reality. The availability of bright, broadband IR sources and large area, pixelated detectors facilitate live cell imaging, which requires rapid measurements using non-destructive probes. In this work, we review advances in the field of FTIR spectromicroscopy that have contributed to live-cell two and three-dimensional IR imaging, and discuss several key examples that highlight the utility of this technique for studying the structure and chemistry of living cells. PMID:24256815

  16. Shining new light on old principles: localization of evanescent field interactions at infrared-attenuated total reflection sensing interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Gary T; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2006-06-01

    A combined experimental and spectral ray tracing approach for identifying and evaluating evanescent field interactions with discrete surface deposits along a horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) element is presented. By experimentally depositing poly(styrene-co-butadiene) (PSCB) residues at fixed intervals along the measurement surface of a HATR crystal, distinct regions of evanescent field interaction with the surface deposits along the multi-reflection waveguide are visualized via infrared absorption features of PSCB. The infrared-attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) measurements were confirmed by spectral ray tracing analysis simulating transmission-absorption spectra after modeling the polymeric surface deposits as thin-film IR absorbing cylinders. The presented analytical procedures and simulations provide a generic strategy for identifying and evaluating "active" sensing regions along ATR elements. Additionally, the simulated ATR setup along with the presented spectral ray tracing procedures provide a virtual platform aiding the development, optimization, and integration of deep-sea IR-ATR sensor probes with submersible mid-infrared spectrometers for in situ marine monitoring applications, which was the initial motivation for these studies. PMID:16808857

  17. Mid-infrared luminosity function of local star-forming galaxies in the North Ecliptic Pole-Wide survey field of AKARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Im, Myungshin; Shim, Hyunjin; Kim, Min Gyu; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2015-12-01

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity functions (LFs) of local (z < 0.3) star-forming (SF) galaxies in the AKARI's North Ecliptic Pole (NEP)-Wide survey field. In order to derive more accurate LF, we used spectroscopic sample only. Based on the NEP-Wide point source catalogue containing a large number of infrared (IR) sources distributed over the wide (5.4 deg2) field, we incorporated the spectroscopic redshift (z) data for ˜1790 selected targets obtained by optical follow-up surveys with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra. The AKARI's continuous 2-24 μm wavelength coverage as well as photometric data from optical u* band to near-infrared H band with the spectroscopic redshifts for our sample galaxies enable us to derive accurate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the MIR. We carried out SED fit analysis and employed 1/Vmax method to derive the MIR (e.g. 8, 12, and 15 μm rest-frame) LFs. We fit our 8 μm LFs to the double power-law with the power index of α = 1.53 and β = 2.85 at the break luminosity 4.95 × 109 L⊙. We made extensive comparisons with various MIR LFs from several literatures. Our results for local galaxies from the NEP region are generally consistent with other works for different fields over wide luminosity ranges. The comparisons with the results from the NEP-Deep data as well as other LFs imply the luminosity evolution from higher redshifts towards the present epoch.

  18. Monitoring of Ultraluminous X-ray sources in the Antennae Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hua

    2006-10-01

    Spectral state transitions are a key signature of black hole binaries (BHBs) and reflect the properties of the accretion flow and the central compact object. They have been systematically studied in Galactic BHBs and found to follow well-defined patterns. Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are either intermediate-mass black holes or a special class of stellar-mass black holes, and should follow a set pattern of spectral evolution which is essentially associated with their natures. We propose 6 XMM observations of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) with an exposure of 20 ksec each and at intervals of weeks to months to see if state transitions of ULXs have the same, or different, pattern as Galactic BHBs.

  19. Propeller effect in action in the ultraluminous accreting magnetar M82 X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Poutanen, Juri

    2016-03-01

    We present here the first convincing observational manifestation of a magnetar-like magnetic field in an accreting neutron star in binary system - the first pulsating ultraluminous X-ray source X-2 in the galaxy M82. Using the Chandra X-ray observatory data, we show that the source exhibit the bimodal distribution of the luminosity with two well-defined peaks separated by a factor of 40. This behaviour can be interpreted as the action of the `propeller regime' of accretion. The onset of the propeller in a 1.37 s pulsar at luminosity of ˜1040 erg s-1 implies the dipole component of the neutron star magnetic field of ˜1014 G.

  20. Accretion mode of the Ultra-Luminous X-ray source M82 X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karino, S.; Miller, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Periodic pulsations have been found in emission from the ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-2, strongly suggesting that the emitter is a rotating neutron star rather than a black hole. However, the radiation mechanisms and accretion mode involved have not yet been clearly established. In this paper, we examine the applicability to this object of standard accretion modes for high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). We find that spherical wind accretion, which drives OB-type HMXBs, cannot apply here but that there is a natural explanation in terms of an extension of the picture for standard Be-type HMXBs. We show that a neutron star with a moderately strong magnetic field, accreting from a disc-shaped wind emitted by a Be-companion, could be compatible with the observed relation between spin and orbital period. A Roche lobe overflow picture is also possible under certain conditions.

  1. Resolved atomic lines reveal outflows in two ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Ciro; Middleton, Matthew J.; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2016-05-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are extragalactic, off-nucleus, point sources in galaxies, and have X-ray luminosities in excess of 3 × 1039 ergs per second. They are thought to be powered by accretion onto a compact object. Possible explanations include accretion onto neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, onto stellar-mass black holes (of up to 20 solar masses) at or in excess of the classical Eddington limit, or onto intermediate-mass black holes (103-105 solar masses). The lack of sufficient energy resolution in previous analyses has prevented an unambiguous identification of any emission or absorption lines in the X-ray band, thereby precluding a detailed analysis of the accretion flow. Here we report the presence of X-ray emission lines arising from highly ionized iron, oxygen and neon with a cumulative significance in excess of five standard deviations, together with blueshifted (about 0.2 times light velocity) absorption lines of similar significance, in the high-resolution X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 5408 X-1. The blueshifted absorption lines must occur in a fast-outflowing gas, whereas the emission lines originate in slow-moving gas around the source. We conclude that the compact object in each source is surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2 times that of light, as predicted by models of accreting supermassive black holes and hyper-accreting stellar-mass black holes.

  2. Irradiated, colour-temperature-corrected accretion discs in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Andrew D.; Done, Chris; Roberts, Timothy P.

    2014-11-01

    Although attempts have been made to constrain the stellar types of optical counterparts to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), the detection of optical variability instead suggests that they may be dominated by reprocessed emission from X-rays which irradiate the outer accretion disc. Here, we report results from a combined X-ray and optical spectral study of a sample of ULXs, which were selected for having broadened disc-like X-ray spectra and known optical counterparts. We simultaneously fit optical and X-ray data from ULXs with a new spectral model of emission from an irradiated, colour-temperature-corrected accretion disc around a black hole, with a central Comptonizing corona. We find that the ULXs require reprocessing fractions of ˜10-3, which is similar to sub-Eddington thermal dominant state black hole binaries (BHBs), but less than has been reported for ULXs with soft ultraluminous X-ray spectra. We suggest that the reprocessing fraction may be due to the opposing effects of self-shielding in a geometrically thick supercritical accretion disc and reflection from far above the central black hole by optically thin material ejected in a natal super-Eddington wind. Then, the higher reprocessing fractions reported for ULXs with wind-dominated X-ray spectra may be due to enhanced scattering on to the outer disc via the stronger wind in these objects. Alternatively, the accretion discs in these ULXs may not be particularly geometrically thick, rather they may be similar in this regard to the thermal dominant state BHBs.

  3. Resolved atomic lines reveal outflows in two ultraluminous X-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ciro; Middleton, Matthew J; Fabian, Andrew C

    2016-05-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are extragalactic, off-nucleus, point sources in galaxies, and have X-ray luminosities in excess of 3 × 10(39) ergs per second. They are thought to be powered by accretion onto a compact object. Possible explanations include accretion onto neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, onto stellar-mass black holes (of up to 20 solar masses) at or in excess of the classical Eddington limit, or onto intermediate-mass black holes (10(3)-10(5) solar masses). The lack of sufficient energy resolution in previous analyses has prevented an unambiguous identification of any emission or absorption lines in the X-ray band, thereby precluding a detailed analysis of the accretion flow. Here we report the presence of X-ray emission lines arising from highly ionized iron, oxygen and neon with a cumulative significance in excess of five standard deviations, together with blueshifted (about 0.2 times light velocity) absorption lines of similar significance, in the high-resolution X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 5408 X-1. The blueshifted absorption lines must occur in a fast-outflowing gas, whereas the emission lines originate in slow-moving gas around the source. We conclude that the compact object in each source is surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2 times that of light, as predicted by models of accreting supermassive black holes and hyper-accreting stellar-mass black holes. PMID:27120159

  4. Science with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final member of NASA's series of Great Observatories, is scheduled to launch on April 15,2003. Together with the Hubbie Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma ray Telescope, and the Chandra X-Ray Telescope this series of observatories offers observational capabilities across the electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared to high-energy gamma rays. SIRTF is based on three focal plane instruments - an infrared spectrograph and two infrared imagers - coupled to a superfluid-helium cooled telescope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity from 3 to 180 microns. Although SIRTF is a powerful general-purpose infrared observatory, its design was based on the capability to address four broad science themes: (1) understanding the structure and composition of the early universe, (2) understanding the nature of brown dwarfs and super-planets, (3) probing protostellar, protoplanetary, and planetary debris disk systems, and (4) understanding the origin and structure of ultraluminous infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This talk will address the design and capabilities of the SIRTF observatory, provide an overview of some of the initial science investigations planned by the SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers, and give a brief overview of the General Observer proposal process.

  5. The high angular resolution view of local X-ray selected AGN in the mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Asmus, D.; Hönig, S. F.; Smette, A.; Duschl, W. J.; Matsuta, K.; Ichikawa, K.; Ueda, Y.; Terashima, Y.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.

    2012-09-01

    Hard X-ray and mid-infrared observations probe the peaks in broadband spectra of active galactic nucle (AGN), sampling the bulk of their accretion energy. But bolometric emission measurements of Seyfert galaxies can be strongly biased by unresolved nuclear stellar emission. Disentangling these components using emission line proxies for the intrinsic AGN power suffers from various uncertainties. Here, we show that fundamental new insights into AGN are enabled by using high angular resolution observations of Seyferts with the largest telescopes currently available. We have imaged the 9 month Swift/BAT selected AGN sample using the VLT, Gemini and Subaru at their diffraction-limit at 12°. Collecting all high angular resolution data yields a large database of 150 AGN of all types with a point-like detected nucleus. This sample serves as a benchmark for studies on unification issues and accurate (unbiased) AGN bolometric corrections. We discuss some key results, including new inferences on the structures of Seyfert nuclei from the enlarged infrared/Xray correlation and show that the MIR to X-ray flux ratio is independent of the Eddington fraction (lEdd) over about 4 orders of magnitude down to lEdd 10^{-4} at least, which appears to be the threshold below which accretion properties change.

  6. The dynamics of thermal regime changes of a local working zone in conditions of its heating by gas infrared radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nee, A.

    2015-10-01

    Mathematical modeling of unsteady heat transfer in a closed rectangular area with a local heat supply object in a conjugate formulation in working conditions of radiation source of energy is passed. Fields of temperatures and stream functions, illustrating the influence of a local typical object on thermal regime are received. The effect of Grashof number on dimensionless heat transfer coefficient - Nusselt number is investigated. The influence of nonconducted heat supply object on heat transfer rate in solution domain is showed.

  7. Near-infrared imaging of Markarian 231: Evidence for a double nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Graham, J. R.; Larkin, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Near-infrared (1.2-2.4 micrometers) images are presented for the central 10 arcsec of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Markarian 231. We find a faint, but intrinsically luminous (M(sub k) approximately -20.7) secondary peak in the near-infrared light distribution approximately 3.5 arcsec (2.7 kpc) south of the primary Seyfert 1 nucleus. Since there is no optical or infrared evidence for ongoing star formation at the location of this secondary peak, and its near-infrared luminosity and color are comparable to slightly reddened spiral bulges or elliptical nuclei, we identify this peak with the stripped nucleus of the companion galaxy involved in the Mrk 231 merger event. Depending upon the exact ratio of the masses of the primary and secondary nucleus in the Mrk 231 system we estimate a merger time scale of less than or equal to 10(exp 9) yr. The morphology of the southern nucleus suggests that it may have recently survived a close passage (r less than 200 pc) with the Seyfert 1 nucleus on a highly elliptical orbit, in which case the merger time scale may be significantly shorter (approximately 10(exp 7) yr. We re-calculate the average merger time scale for the seven ultraluminous infrared galaxies with double nuclei in the Bright Galaxy Sample (the BGS) of Soifer et al. (AJ, 98, 766 (1989)) and derive a value of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. Since seven of ten of the ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the BGS are now known to be double, we estimate the ultraluminous 'phase' may be close to this value. Along with Arp 220 and Mrk 273, Mrk 231 is the third member of the class to possess a high brightness temperature non-thermal radio core and a double nucleus, suggesting the time scale for the generation or fueling of the active nucleus can be much less than the dynamical time scale for the merger of the progenitor nuclei.

  8. [INTRAOPERATIVE DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODES USING INFRARED IMAGING SYSTEM IN LOCAL NON-SMALL CELL CARCINOMA OF LUNG].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V; Karlson, A; Gerasin, A V; Agishev, A S

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of the first domestic experience of intraoperative fluorescence mapping of sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer. The research included 10 patients, who underwent surgery over the period of time from September 2013 to May 2014. After performing thoracotomy, the solution of indocyanine green (ICG) was injected using subpleural position above the tumor in 3-4 points. Fluorescence (ICG) image guided surgery was carried out by using infrared radiation (wave length 808 nm) on lung surface, root of lung, mediastinum in real time. Fluorescence lymph nodes were mapped. In case that metastatic lesions weren't revealed in sentinel lymph nodes, they weren't noted in other nodes. Method specificity consisted of 100%. Biopsy and histological study of sentinel lymph nodes mapped during fluorescence (ICG) image guided surgery could be useful for prevention of lymphodissection in patients with non-small cell carcinoma of lung. PMID:26601511

  9. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA FOR THE GOALS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J.; Charmandaris, V.; Kim, D. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Veilleux, S.; Evans, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Appleton, P.; Bothun, G.; Bridge, C. R.; and others

    2013-05-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present low resolution Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra covering 5-38 {mu}m and provide a basic analysis of the mid-IR spectral properties observed for nearby LIRGs. In a companion paper, we discuss detailed fits to the spectra and compare the LIRGs to other classes of galaxies. The GOALS sample of 244 nuclei in 180 luminous (10{sup 11} {<=} L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 12}) and 22 ultraluminous (L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} {>=} 10{sup 12}) IR galaxies represents a complete subset of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample and covers a range of merger stages, morphologies, and spectral types. The majority (>60%) of the GOALS LIRGs have high 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} > 0.4 {mu}m) and low levels of silicate absorption (s {sub 9.7{mu}m} > -1.0). There is a general trend among the U/LIRGs for both silicate depth and mid-infrared (MIR) slope to increase with increasing L {sub IR}. U/LIRGs in the late to final stages of a merger also have, on average, steeper MIR slopes and higher levels of dust obscuration. Together, these trends suggest that as gas and dust is funneled toward the center of a coalescing merger, the nuclei become more compact and more obscured. As a result, the dust temperature increases also leading to a steeper MIR slope. The sources that depart from these correlations have very low PAH equivalent width (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} < 0.1 {mu}m) consistent with their emission being dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the MIR. These extremely low PAH EQW sources separate into two distinct types: relatively unobscured sources with a very hot dust component (and thus very shallow MIR slopes) and heavily dust obscured nuclei with a steep temperature gradient. The most heavily dust obscured sources are also the most compact in their MIR

  10. Accuracy of an infrared marker-based patient positioning system (ExacTrac®) for stereotactic body radiotherapy in localizing the planned isocenter using fiducial markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes-Rodríguez, María de los Ángeles; Hernández-Bojórquez, Mariana; Martínez-Gómez, Alma Angélica; Contreras-Pérez, Agustín; Negrete-Hernández, Ingrid Mireya; Hernández-Oviedo, Jorge Omar; Mitsoura, Eleni; Santiago-Concha, Bernardino Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) requires a controlled immobilization and position monitoring of patient and target. The purpose of this work is to analyze the performance of the imaging system ExacTrac® (ETX) using infrared and fiducial markers. Materials and methods: In order to assure the accuracy of isocenter localization, a Quality Assurance procedure was applied using an infrared marker-based positioning system. Scans were acquired of an inhouse-agar gel and solid water phantom with infrared spheres. In the inner part of the phantom, three reference markers were delineated as reference and one pellet was place internally; which was assigned as the isocenter. The iPlan® RT Dose treatment planning system. Images were exported to the ETX console. Images were acquired with the ETX to check the correctness of the isocenter placement. Adjustments were made in 6D the reference markers were used to fuse the images. Couch shifts were registered. The procedure was repeated for verification purposes. Results: The data recorded of the verifications in translational and rotational movements showed averaged 3D spatial uncertainties of 0.31 ± 0.42 mm respectively 0.82° ± 0.46° in the phantom and the first correction of these uncertainties were of 1.51 ± 1.14 mm respectively and 1.37° ± 0.61°. Conclusions: This study shows a high accuracy and repeatability in positioning the selected isocenter. The ETX-system for verifying the treatment isocenter position has the ability to monitor the tracing position of interest, making it possible to be used for SBRT positioning within uncertainty ≤1mm.