Sample records for localized heat production

  1. Nanoparticles heat through light localization.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Nathaniel J; Urban, Alexander S; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-08-13

    Aqueous solutions containing light-absorbing nanoparticles have recently been shown to produce steam at high efficiencies upon solar illumination, even when the temperature of the bulk fluid volume remains far below its boiling point. Here we show that this phenomenon is due to a collective effect mediated by multiple light scattering from the dispersed nanoparticles. Randomly positioned nanoparticles that both scatter and absorb light are able to concentrate light energy into mesoscale volumes near the illuminated surface of the liquid. The resulting light absorption creates intense localized heating and efficient vaporization of the surrounding liquid. Light trapping-induced localized heating provides the mechanism for low-temperature light-induced steam generation and is consistent with classical heat transfer. PMID:24960442

  2. Fluctuating local thermoelectric heat in dirty metals

    SciTech Connect

    DiVincenzo, D.P. (IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States))

    1993-07-15

    Using a recently developed multilead theory of dephasing in mesoscopic conductors, the mean-squared magnitude of the local Peltier heat in a uniform disordered metal is calculated diagrammatically. A heuristic estimate based on conductance fluctuation theory is also developed, and gives the same results. The generation and absorption of local thermoelectric heats require both phase-coherent elastic scattering to produce local conductance fluctuations and phase-breaking inelastic scattering to transport heat to and from the reservoirs. This phenomenon can cause substantial spatial variations in the electron temperature of low-carrier-density, clean, quasi-two-dimensional metals.

  3. Free forming of locally heated specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Okman; M. Özmen; H. Huwiler; A. E. Tekkaya

    2007-01-01

    A novel manufacturing method is investigated, in which a steep temperature gradient within the workpiece is induced to facilitate material flow locally. By this method, complex shapes can be formed without complicated dies. The feasibility of the idea is analyzed experimentally and numerically. Local heating is realized either by means of induction or laser heating. Experiments using materials 16MnCr5, X5CrNi18\\/9,

  4. MEMS post-packaging by localized heating and bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lin

    2000-01-01

    This work addresses important post-packaging issues for microsystems and recommends specific research directions by localized heating and bonding. Micropackaging has become a major subject for both scientific research and industrial applications in the emerging field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Establishing a versatile post-packaging process not only advances the field but also speeds up the product commercialization cycle. A review of

  5. Implantable apparatus for localized heating of tissue

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1985-05-20

    With the object of repetitively treating deep-seated, inoperable tumors by hyperthermia as well as locally heating other internal tissue masses repetitively, a receiving antenna, transmission line and electrode arrangement are implanted completely within the patient's body, with the receiving antenna just under the surface of the skin and with the electrode arrangement being located so as to most effectively heat the tissue to be treated. An external, transmitting antenna, driven by an external radio-frequency energy source, is closely coupled to the implanted receiving antenna so that the energy coupled across the air-skin interface provides electromagnetic energy suitable for heating the tissue in the vicinity of the implanted electrodes. The resulting increase in tissue temperature may be estimated by an indirect measurement of the decrease in tissue resistivity in the heat region. This change in resistivity appears as a change in the loading of the receiving antenna which can be measured by either determining the change in the phase relationship between the voltage and the current appearing on the transmitting antenna or by measuring the change in the magnitude of the impedance thereof. Optionally, multiple electrode arrays may be activated or inactivated by the application of magnetic fields to operate implanted magnetic reed swtiches. 5 figs.

  6. DNA transformation via local heat shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sha; Meadow Anderson, L.; Yang, Jui-Ming; Lin, Liwei; Yang, Haw

    2007-07-01

    This work describes transformation of foreign DNA into bacterial host cells by local heat shock using a microfluidic system with on-chip, built-in platinum heaters. Plasmid DNA encoding ampicillin resistance and a fluorescent protein can be effectively transformed into the DH5? chemically competent E. coli using this device. Results further demonstrate that only one-thousandth of volume is required to obtain transformation efficiencies as good as or better than conventional practices. As such, this work complements other lab-on-a-chip technologies for potential gene cloning/therapy and protein expression applications.

  7. Solar steam generation by heat localization

    E-print Network

    Ghasemi, Hadi

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated ...

  8. PROTEIN INTAKE AND HEAT PRODUCTION1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERNEST B. FORBES; RAYMOND W. SWIFT; LAWSON F. MARCY; MARY T. DAVENPORT

    During recent years the authors and their associates have conducted six experiments, five with growing and one with mature albino rats, for the purpose of determining the influence of the protein content of equicaloric diets on the heat production under conditions representing normal nutritive practice ; and in these experiments the heat production diminished, at moderate rates, in the increasing

  9. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Chehade, Ali Ahmad; Gualous, Hasna Louahlia; Le Masson, Stephane; Fardoun, Farouk; Besq, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on nanofluid convective boiling heat transfer in parallel rectangular minichannels of 800 ?m hydraulic diameter. Experiments are conducted with pure water and silver nanoparticles suspended in water base fluid. Two small volume fractions of silver nanoparticles suspended in water are tested: 0.000237% and 0.000475%. The experimental results show that the local heat transfer coefficient, local heat flux, and local wall temperature are affected by silver nanoparticle concentration in water base fluid. In addition, different correlations established for boiling flow heat transfer in minichannels or macrochannels are evaluated. It is found that the correlation of Kandlikar and Balasubramanian is the closest to the water boiling heat transfer results. The boiling local heat transfer enhancement by adding silver nanoparticles in base fluid is not uniform along the channel flow. Better performances and highest effect of nanoparticle concentration on the heat transfer are obtained at the minichannels entrance. PMID:23506445

  10. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on nanofluid convective boiling heat transfer in parallel rectangular minichannels of 800 ?m hydraulic diameter. Experiments are conducted with pure water and silver nanoparticles suspended in water base fluid. Two small volume fractions of silver nanoparticles suspended in water are tested: 0.000237% and 0.000475%. The experimental results show that the local heat transfer coefficient, local heat flux, and local wall temperature are affected by silver nanoparticle concentration in water base fluid. In addition, different correlations established for boiling flow heat transfer in minichannels or macrochannels are evaluated. It is found that the correlation of Kandlikar and Balasubramanian is the closest to the water boiling heat transfer results. The boiling local heat transfer enhancement by adding silver nanoparticles in base fluid is not uniform along the channel flow. Better performances and highest effect of nanoparticle concentration on the heat transfer are obtained at the minichannels entrance. PMID:23506445

  11. Localized electron heating and density peaking in downstream helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Barada, K. K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Bora, D.

    2015-06-01

    Localized electron temperature and density peaking at different axial locations in the downstream helicon plasma have been observed in a linear helicon device with both geometrical and magnetic expansion. The discharge is produced with an m=+1 right helical antenna powered by a RF source operating at 13.56 MHz. Axial wave field measurement shows the presence of damped helicon waves with standing wave character folded into it even at low densities (? {{10}16} m-3 ). The measured helicon wavelength is just about twice the antenna length and the phase velocity ?ft({{v}p}\\right) is almost the speed required for electron impact ionization. These experimental observations strongly advocate the Landau damping heating and density production by the helicon waves, particularly in low density plasma such as ours. The electron temperature maximizes at 35–45?cm away from the antenna center in our experiments indicating a local source of heating at those locations. Different mechanisms responsible for this additional heating at a particular spatial location have been discussed for their possible roles. Further downstream from the location of the maximum electron temperature, a density peak located 55–65?cm away from the antenna is observed. This downstream density peaking can be explained through pressure balance in the system.

  12. Technological Developments for Combined Heat and Power Production from Biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sachau

    1997-01-01

    The main technological paths for combined heat and power production are outlined in the frame of the European bio-energy research and technological development activities. Key favourable aspects for local systems of flexible size and their integration are addressed from the point of view of contributing to sustainable energy supply and the considerable external benefits for the environment and employment.

  13. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  14. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF HEAT PRODUCTION USING THE \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmund Storms

    Additional evidence is presented to show that heat production resulting from the Pons-Fleis- chmann Effect has a positive temperature coefficient, has a critical onset current density, and originates at the palladium cathode.

  15. Local heating-induced plastic deformation in resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Kamaladasa, R. J.; Lu, Y. M.; Vicari, A.; Berechman, R.; Salvador, P. A.; Bain, J. A.; Picard, Y. N.; Skowronski, M.

    2011-09-01

    Resistive switching is frequently associated with local heating of the switching structure. The mechanical effect of such heating on Pt/SrTiO3 (001) Schottky barriers and on Pt/SrZrO3/SrRuO3/SrTiO3 switching devices was examined. The extent and magnitude of Joule heating was assessed using IR microscopy at power dissipation levels similar to what others have reported during electroforming. Lines aligned along the [100] and [010] directions were observed spreading laterally around the locally heated area imaged by IR. Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy. and electron channeling contrast imaging suggest these lines are slip lines due to the plastic deformation induced by the local compressive stresses created by Joule heating. The deformation pattern is identical to that produced by nanoindentation. The implications of deformation for resistive switching systems are discussed.

  16. Local heating-induced plastic deformation in resistive switching devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jiang; R. J. Kamaladasa; Y. M. Lu; A. Vicari; R. Berechman; P. A. Salvador; J. A. Bain; Y. N. Picard; M. Skowronski

    2011-01-01

    Resistive switching is frequently associated with local heating of the switching structure. The mechanical effect of such heating on Pt\\/SrTiO3 (001) Schottky barriers and on Pt\\/SrZrO3\\/SrRuO3\\/SrTiO3 switching devices was examined. The extent and magnitude of Joule heating was assessed using IR microscopy at power dissipation levels similar to what others have reported during electroforming. Lines aligned along the [100] and

  17. Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters.

    PubMed

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Pressl, Helga; Papst, Thomas; Hrassnigg, Norbert; Crailsheim, Karl

    2003-01-01

    In order to survive cold northern winters, honeybees crowd tightly together in a winter cluster. Present models of winter cluster thermoregulation consider the insulation by the tightly packed mantle bees as the decisive factor for survival at low temperatures, mostly ignoring the possibility of endothermic heat production. We provide here direct evidence of endothermic heat production by 'shivering' thermogenesis. The abundance of endothermic bees is highest in the core and decreases towards the surface. This shows that core bees play an active role in thermal control of winter clusters. We conclude that regulation of both the insulation by the mantle bees and endothermic heat production by the inner bees is necessary to achieve thermal stability in a winter cluster. PMID:12477904

  18. Local cloning of two product states

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Zhengfeng; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Intelligent Technology and Systems, Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2005-09-15

    Local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) put considerable constraints on many quantum information processing tasks such as cloning and discrimination. Surprisingly, however, discrimination of any two pure states survives such constraints in some sense. We show that cloning is not that lucky; namely, probabilistic LOCC cloning of two product states is strictly less efficient than global cloning. We prove our result by giving explicitly the efficiency formula of local cloning of any two product states.

  19. A Local Heat Flux Measurement Technique for Inclined Heat Exchanger Tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wu; K. Vierow

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the design, fabrication, and calibration of thermocouple pairs for local heat flux measurement. The intended application of the thermocouple pairs is on the tubes of phase-change heat exchangers experiencing heat fluxes on the order of 10 W\\/m. Particular advantages of this technique are that it is accurate even for thin-wall tubes, there are no restrictions on the

  20. Approaches For a Successful Product Localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Sturm

    The aim of this paper is to present different approaches for a successful localization of technical products. The initial overview covers four levels that need to be taken into consideration while designing a product for international audiences: a technical level, a linguistic level, a cultural level and a cognitive level. Based on this model, two ap- proaches for the cognitive

  1. Determinants of heat production in newborn lambs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, F. A.; Small, J.

    1980-06-01

    Measurement of summit metabolism (the maximum rate of heat production) in lambs aged 1 or 4h revealed considerable between animal variation. Summit metabolism per unit body weight decreased as body weight increased whereas summit metabolism per unit body surface area was independent of body weight. Severe pre-partum hypoxia was apparently associated with a low summit metabolism at 1 or 4h of age which made such lambs very susceptible to hypothermia. This deficiency in heat production capacity did not appear to be a permanent featuresince most lambs so affected recovered full thermoregulatory ability by 12h of age. Feeding of colostrum conferred an immediate 18% increase in summit metabolism. The significance of these findings to the prevention of hypothermia in the newborn lamb is discussed.

  2. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  3. Analysis of the performance of heat pipes and phase-change materials with multiple localized heat sources for space applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Faghri; Won S. Chang; Edward T. Mahefkey

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the performance characteristics of heat pipes and phase-change materials with multiple localized heat sources as well as the fundamental problems related to their specific applications. A numerical analysis is presented for the overall performance of heat pipes with single or multiple heat sources. The analysis includes the heat conduction in the wall

  4. Heat flow and crustal heat production near the Sudbury neutrino observatory: implications for geoneutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaneuf, C.; Mareschal, J.; Jaupart, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    One of the scientific objectives of the Sudbury neutrino observatory (SNO) is to measure the flux of geo-neutrinos, anti-neutrinos produced in the chain decay of U and Th in the Earth. It is expected that such measurements will put new and direct constraints on the concentration in heat producing elements in the mantle. Radioactive elements in the continental crust are the main component of geo-neutrino flux to be observed in land observatories and must be precisely accounted for in order to determine the flux of mantle geo-neutrinos. Estimates of the crustal component of the geo-neutrino flux based on global models such as CRUST2.0 are inadequate because they poorly account for variations in composition. Models based on heat flow allow more accurate predictions of the crustal geoneutrino flux, at least in stable continental regions where most of the surface heat flux comes from crustal radio-activity. In several regions of the world, predictions from global crustal models and heat flux differ by a factor of 2. There is no correlation between crustal thickness and heat flow because lateral variations in heat production can be important even within a single geological province. In several areas, thick crustal roots are associated with low values of heat flux because of the depletion of the crustal column in heat producing elements. Heat flux measurements available in the Sudbury region come mostly from the edge of the structure where most of mineral exploration activity was focused. The average surface heat flux in the Sudbury region (52mW m-2) is higher than the average Canadian Shield (41mW m-2). The higher heat flux around Sudbury is due to enhanced crustal radioactivity, in the Archean Cartier batholith and in the heterogeneous Huronian sedimentary packages. Enhanced crustal radioactivity causes a local increase in the geoneutrino flux larger than the expected signal from the mantle. Heat flux measurements are necessary to determine crustal radioactivity outside the Sudbury structure and properly estimate its contribution to the geo-neutrino flux.

  5. Local and nonlocal parallel heat transport in general magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B [ORNL; Chacon, Luis [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for the study of parallel transport in magnetized plasmas is presented. The method avoids numerical pollution issues of grid-based formulations and applies to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields with local or nonlocal parallel closures. In weakly chaotic fields, the method gives the fractal structure of the devil's staircase radial temperature profile. In fully chaotic fields, the temperature exhibits self-similar spatiotemporal evolution with a stretched-exponential scaling function for local closures and an algebraically decaying one for nonlocal closures. It is shown that, for both closures, the effective radial heat transport is incompatible with the quasilinear diffusion model.

  6. Local and Nonlocal Parallel Heat Transport in General Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)

    2011-05-13

    A novel approach for the study of parallel transport in magnetized plasmas is presented. The method avoids numerical pollution issues of grid-based formulations and applies to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields with local or nonlocal parallel closures. In weakly chaotic fields, the method gives the fractal structure of the devil's staircase radial temperature profile. In fully chaotic fields, the temperature exhibits self-similar spatiotemporal evolution with a stretched-exponential scaling function for local closures and an algebraically decaying one for nonlocal closures. It is shown that, for both closures, the effective radial heat transport is incompatible with the quasilinear diffusion model.

  7. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

  8. Heat transfer in food processing: ensuring product quality and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Fryer; Phillip T. Robbins

    2005-01-01

    Heat transfer to foods is commonplace but critical; heating develops flavour and texture and ensures product safety. The food industry must ensure that all parts of the product have all been processed sufficiently, without unacceptable loss of quality. Conventionally, food is significantly over-processed to ensure safety. This paper reviews some problems which heat-transfer engineers face in the food industry, and

  9. Compressed air production with waste heat utilization in industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nolting

    1984-01-01

    The centralized power-heat coupling (PHC) technique using block heating power stations, is presented. Compressed air production in PHC technique with internal combustion engine drive achieves a high degree of primary energy utilization. Cost savings of 50% are reached compared to conventional production. The simultaneous utilization of compressed air and heat is especially interesting. A speed regulated drive via an internal

  10. One dimensional global and local solution for ICRF heating

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.; Batchelor, D.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Carter, M.D.

    1995-02-01

    A numerical code GLOSI [Global and Local One-dimensional Solution for Ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating] is developed to solve one-dimensional wave equations resulting from the use of radio frequency (RF) waves to heat plasmas. The code uses a finite difference method. Due to its numerical stability, the code can be used to find both global and local solutions when imposed with appropriate boundary conditions. Three types of boundary conditions are introduced to describe wave scattering, antenna wave excitation, and fixed tangential wave magnetic field. The scattering boundary conditions are especially useful for local solutions. The antenna wave excitation boundary conditions can be used to excite fast and slow waves in a plasma. The tangential magnetic field boundary conditions are used to calculate impedance matrices, which describe plasma and antenna coupling and can be used by an antenna code to calculate antenna loading. These three types of boundary conditions can also be combined to describe various physical situations in RF plasma heating. The code also includes plasma thermal effects and calculates collisionless power absorption and kinetic energy flux. The plasma current density is approximated by a second-order Larmor radius expansion, which results in a sixth-order ordinary differential equation.

  11. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the local condensation heat transfer in a plate heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabenstein, V.; Kabelac, S.

    2012-11-01

    Plate heat exchanger (PHE) are today widely used in industrial heat transfer applications due to their good thermal performance, modest space requirement, easy accessibility to all areas and their lower capital and operating costs as compared to shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Although authoritative models for the design of PHE used as condensers are missing, the number of applications where a PHE is operating as a condenser increases. On the way to a reliable model based on physical approaches for the prediction of heat transfer and pressure drop during the condensation process inside a PHE, the flow and heat interactions as well as their dependence on the geometrical parameters of the corrugated plates and the operating conditions must be studied in detail. In this work the stepwise procedure for the fundamental construction of such a model is described. An experimental setup was built to analyze the characteristics of the two-phase-flow in PHE. A single gap, consisting of two transparent corrugated plates, was tested with a two-phase flow of air/water and also with boiling refrigerant R365mfc. Flow pattern maps were constructed for plates with corrugation angles of 27 and 63 degrees relative to the direction of flow. Investigations of the local heat transfer coefficients and the pressure drop were done with the same plates. The measurement of the local heat transfer coefficients was carried out by the use of the "Temperature Oscillation InfraRed Thermography" (TOIRT) method. Based on these results three main flow patterns are defined: film flow, bubbly flow and slug flow. For each of the three flow patterns an own model for the heat transfer and pressure drop mechanism are developed and the heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor is calculated with different equations depending on the actual steam quality, mass flow and geometrical parameters by means of a flow pattern map. The theory of the flow pattern based prediction models is proved with own experimental data. The measurements were carried out with an experimental setup in a technical scale. The refrigerant cycle works with R134a as refrigerant and involves two PHEs, used as condenser and evaporator, and a 55 kWel compressor for the compression of the vapor phase. The setup allows the measurement of quasi-local heat transfer coefficients inside the PHEs. Additional heat exchangers assure saturated vapor at the inlet and saturated liquid at the outlet of the condenser.

  12. The erosion of a salinity step by a localized heat source

    E-print Network

    Dalziel, Stuart

    The erosion of a salinity step by a localized heat source D.M. Leppinen and S.B. Dalziel Department compare the erosion a salinity step by a localized heat source with the erosion of the same salinity step layers and it is shown that a localized heat source is more e cient at eroding a salinity step than

  13. Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths.

    PubMed

    Sääskilahti, K; Oksanen, J; Tulkki, J

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations. PMID:23944435

  14. Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sääskilahti, K.; Oksanen, J.; Tulkki, J.

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-006-9235-3 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations.

  15. Direct contact heat exchangers in geothermal power production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Sheinbaum

    1975-01-01

    The direct contact cycle can be advantageously utilized in the production of power from liquid dominated geothermal resources. The heat from the geothermal resource is transferred to a selected working fluid by direct countercurrent contact in a vertical perforated trayed tower. The direct contactor is divided into three heat transfer zones where heat is extracted from the hot water by

  16. Local algorithms for the prime factorization of strong product graphs

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    Local algorithms for the prime factorization of strong product graphs Marc Hellmuth, Wilfried-linear algorithm for the prime factorization of "locally unrefined graphs with respect to the strong product Classification (2000). Primary 99Z99; Secondary 00A00. Keywords. strong product graphs, local covering, backbone

  17. Strong contributions of local background climate to urban heat islands.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Lee, Xuhui; Smith, Ronald B; Oleson, Keith

    2014-07-10

    The urban heat island (UHI), a common phenomenon in which surface temperatures are higher in urban areas than in surrounding rural areas, represents one of the most significant human-induced changes to Earth's surface climate. Even though they are localized hotspots in the landscape, UHIs have a profound impact on the lives of urban residents, who comprise more than half of the world's population. A barrier to UHI mitigation is the lack of quantitative attribution of the various contributions to UHI intensity (expressed as the temperature difference between urban and rural areas, ?T). A common perception is that reduction in evaporative cooling in urban land is the dominant driver of ?T (ref. 5). Here we use a climate model to show that, for cities across North America, geographic variations in daytime ?T are largely explained by variations in the efficiency with which urban and rural areas convect heat to the lower atmosphere. If urban areas are aerodynamically smoother than surrounding rural areas, urban heat dissipation is relatively less efficient and urban warming occurs (and vice versa). This convection effect depends on the local background climate, increasing daytime ?T by 3.0 ± 0.3 kelvin (mean and standard error) in humid climates but decreasing ?T by 1.5 ± 0.2 kelvin in dry climates. In the humid eastern United States, there is evidence of higher ?T in drier years. These relationships imply that UHIs will exacerbate heatwave stress on human health in wet climates where high temperature effects are already compounded by high air humidity and in drier years when positive temperature anomalies may be reinforced by a precipitation-temperature feedback. Our results support albedo management as a viable means of reducing ?T on large scales. PMID:25008529

  18. Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden

    E-print Network

    . There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of windTechnologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden Wind Energy ­ in perspective Morthorst December 2008 #12;Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden Wind Energy

  19. Crustal composition and mantle heat flow: Implications from surface heat flow and radiogenic heat production in the Variscan Erzgebirge (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FöRster, Andrea; FöRster, Hans-Jürgen

    2000-12-01

    From an enlarged data set of temperature logs and thermal conductivity measurements, surface heat flow (qs) in the Erzgebirge was determined to range from 61 to 112 mW m-2. U-Th-K2O data show that the heat flow pattern is controlled to first order by the occurrence of high heat production Variscan granites within a metamorphic basement. Highest heat flow correlates with granite plutons and sharply decreases off granite. These granites display variable but typically high radiogenic heat production (A), usually between 4 and 10 ?W m-3, depending on their chemical type and degree of fractionation. U accounts for 40-90% of the total heat production in the granites, whereas U and Th contribute equally to the radioactivity in the metamorphic basement. Compositional heterogeneity in the upper crust, owing to variation of conductive heat transfer, required corrections of measured surface heat flow up to 20 mW m-2, depending on location of the heat flow site. Heat budget calculations, considering crustal models derived from seismic and gravimetric surveys, define the thickness (D) of crust enriched in radioactive elements to 15 km, the rate of reduced heat flow (q*) to 30-34 mW m-2, and the mantle heat flow to 20-30 mW m-2, in contradiction to what is implied from qs - A plots. In fact, D (5-8 km) and q* (45-52 mW m-2) from these plots represent the thickness of, and the heat flow beneath, the (granite) layer that is most enriched in heat- producing elements. For a crustal section strongly heterogeneous in upper crustal heat production, traditional interpretation of qs - A plots is misleading and should be supplemented routinely by heat budget calculations.

  20. Localizing heat-generating defects using fluorescent microthermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tangyunyong, P.; Liang, A.Y.; Righter, A.W.; Barton, D.L.; Soden, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    Fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) involves coating a sample surface with a thin fluorescent film that, upon exposure to UV light source, emits temperature-dependent fluorescence. The principle behind FMI was thoroughly reviewed at the ISTFA in 1994. In two recent publications, we identified several factors in film preparation and data processing that dramatically improved the thermal resolution and sensitivity of FMI. These factors include signal averaging, the use of base mixture films, film stabilization and film curing. These findings significantly enhance the capability of FMI as a failure analysis tool. In this paper, we show several examples that use FMI to quickly localize heat-generating defects (``hot spots``). When used with other failure analysis techniques such as focused ion beam (FIB) cross sectioning and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, we demonstrate that FMI is a powerful tool to efficiently identify the root cause of failures in complex ICs. In addition to defect localization, we use a failing IC to I determine the sensitivity of FMI (i.e., the lowest power that can be detected) in an ideal situation where the defects are very localized and near the surface.

  1. Adapting poultry production to solar heat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-15

    During 1982 a floor heating system has been installed in a 40 ft. x 300 ft. chicken house (15,000 birds). The floor heating system consists of EPDM synthetic rubber tubing buried in a 4-inch concrete slab. Hot water is supplied to the tubing from a 4000 gallon storage tank which is insulated and buried outside the chicken house. The storage tank is heated by 24 solar collectors which are ground mounted on the south side of the chicken house. A propane fired boiler is in line between the storage tank and the floor. The boiler adds heat to the water entering the floor if the water is not hot enough.

  2. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

  3. Homogeneous Thermal Cloak with Constant Conductivity and Tunable Heat Localization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tiancheng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogeneous and finite conductivity only employing naturally available materials. It is demonstrated that the thermal localization inside the coating layer can be tuned and controlled robustly by anisotropy, which enables an incomplete cloak to function perfectly. Practical realization of such homogeneous thermal cloak has been suggested by using two naturally occurring conductive materials, which provides an unprecedentedly plausible way to flexibly realize thermal cloak and manipulate heat flow with phonons. PMID:23549139

  4. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io: the HISAKI observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshioka, K.; Kimura, T.; Murakami, G.; Kagitani, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Yoshikawa, I.; Nozawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in Io plasma torus (IPT) has been discovered by Voyager and show an evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, the amount of observation data is still limited to investigate its detail properties. In addition, the clear Io-correlated change has not been detected by EUVE and Cassini observations. Cause of the Io-correlated effect is still open issue. The HISAKI satellite was launched on Sep. 14, 2013 and started observation of IPT and Jovian aurora for more than two months since the end of Dec. 2013. EUV spectrograph onboard the HISAKI satellite covers wavelength range from 55 to 145 nm, a wide slit which had a field of view of 400 x 140 arc-second was chosen to measure radial distribution and time variation of IPT. Observation of IPT with HISAKI showed clear Io-correlated brightness change since the Voyager observation. The amplitude of the periodic variation associated with Io's orbital period was found. It also showed long-term variation during the HISAKI's observation period. Through the observation period, the amplitude was larger in the short wavelength than in long wavelength. The wavelength dependence suggests significant electron heating and/or hot electron production. The Io phase dependence shows that bright region is located just downstream of Io. These are evidence of local electron heating around/downstream of Io and consistent with the Voyager result. The brightness also depends on system-III longitude and has local maximum around 120 and 300 degrees. Based on an empirical model of IPT, electron density at Io also shows maxima around the same longitudes. This suggests that the electron heating process is related with plasma density at Io. Candidate mechanisms which are responsible for the electron heating will be discussed.

  5. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  6. Rural tourism and visitors' expenditures for local food products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitris Skuras; Efthalia Dimara; Anastasia Petrou

    2006-01-01

    Skuras D., Dimara E. and Petrou A (2006) Rural tourism and visitors' expenditures for local food products, Regional Studies40, 769–779. European rural development policy has supported the production of local and regionally denominated food as a means to differentiate agricultural production, and rural tourism as a means to diversify rural employment. The aim of the present work is to address

  7. Rubisco activase and wheat productivity under heat stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubisco activase (RCA) constrains the photosynthetic potential of plants at high temperature (heat stress). We hypothesized that endogenous levels of RCA could serve as an important determinant of plant productivity under heat stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the possible relation...

  8. Extraction of Natural Products Using Microwaves as a Heat Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meghal Desai; Jigisha Parikh; P. A. Parikh

    2010-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is the process of using microwave energy to heat the moisture present in the plant material or solvents in contact in order to extract natural products from the plant materials. A typical microwave-assisted extraction is completed within few minutes with higher yield and less solvent consumption. This review gives a brief theoretical background of microwave heating along with

  9. Apparent Specific Heat Capacity of Chilled and Frozen Meat Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebnem Tavman; Seher Kumcuoglu; Volker Gaukel

    2007-01-01

    In this article, apparent specific heat capacities of meat and meat products, minced beef, hamburger patties, soudjouk, minced turkey meat, turkey sausage, and turkey soudjouk, were measured at temperatures ranging from ?60°C to +40°C, using a differential scanning calorimeter. Experimental data were compared with values calculated from different predictive models given in the literature. Measured apparent specific heat capacities were

  10. 77 FR 39735 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products Containing...circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing...circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products...

  11. 77 FR 33486 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ...Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products Containing...Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products Containing...circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products...

  12. Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating

    E-print Network

    McDougal, Fred William

    1987-01-01

    OIL PRODUCTION RESPONSE TO I? SITU ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING A Thesis by FRED WILLIAM MCDOUGAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering OIL PRODUCTION RESPONSE TO IN SITV ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING A Thesis by FRED WILLIAM MCDOUGAL Approved to style and content by: R. A. Wattenbar (Chair of Commi ee) L. D. Piper (Member) D. D. Van...

  13. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  14. Zirconium alloy heat treatment process and product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Black; R. A. Proebstle; A. W. Urquhart; J. L. Walker; C. D. Williams

    1980-01-01

    Zirconium-base alloy channels and fuel cladding tubes having unique resistance to accelerated pustular corrosion in the boiling water reactor environment are produced by a heat treatment causing segregation of intermetallic particulate precipitate phase in two dimensional arrays preferably located along grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries throughout the alloy body.

  15. Method of heat treating a formed powder product material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.; Ashbrook, R. L. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    Heat treating a product material of prealloyed powders after shaping by superplastic deformation restores the ability of the material to resist deformation at high temperatures. Heat treating is accomplished by heating to a temperature between the solidus and liquidus with the application of isostatic pressure to close any voids. This pressure may be simultaneously applied while the material is at the heat treating temperature. The pressure may also be applied when the material cools to a temperature between that at which it is shaped and the solidus.

  16. Heat-Pipe-Associated Localized Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pan-Jo; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Jang, Ju-Chan; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The present study focused on how to improve the maximum power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system and move heat to any suitable space using a TEG associated with a loop thermosyphon (loop-type heat pipe). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the power output, the temperature difference of the thermoelectric module (TEM), and the heat transfer performance associated with the characteristic of the researched heat pipe. Currently, internal combustion engines lose more than 35% of their fuel energy as recyclable heat in the exhaust gas, but it is not easy to recycle waste heat using TEGs because of the limited space in vehicles. There are various advantages to use of TEGs over other power sources, such as the absence of moving parts, a long lifetime, and a compact system configuration. The present study presents a novel TEG concept to transfer heat from the heat source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any location. This simple and novel design for a TEG can be applied to future hybrid cars. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate power of around 1.8 V with T TEM = 58°C. The heat transfer performance of a loop-type heat pipe with various working fluids was investigated, with water at high heat flux (90 W) and 0.05% TiO2 nanofluid at low heat flux (30 W to 70 W) showing the best performance in terms of power generation. The heat pipe can transfer the heat to any location where the TEM is installed.

  17. Fully-Integrated Numerical Analysis of Micro-Injection Molding with Localized Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keun; Eom, Hyeju; Ik Lee, Sang

    2010-06-01

    High-frequency induction is an efficient way to heat mold surface by electromagnetic induction in a non-contact procedure. Due to its capability of rapid heating and cooling of mold surface, it has been recently applied to the injection molding of micro/nano structures. The present study investigates a localized heating method involving the selective use of mold materials to enhance the heating efficiency of high-frequency induction heating. A composite injection mold consisting of ferromagnetic material and paramagnetic material is used for localized induction heating. The feasibility of the localized heating method is investigated through numerical analyses in terms of its heating efficiency for localized mold surfaces and the resulting flow characteristics in a micro-channel. To take into account the effects of thermal boundary conditions of the localized induction heating, a fully-integrated numerical analysis effectively connecting electromagnetic field calculation, heat transfer analysis, thermal stress analysis, and injection molding simulation is carried out. The proposed integrated simulation is applied to the injection molding of a rectangular strip containing micro-channels, and the resulting mold heating capacity and replication characteristics of the micro-channels are compared with experimental findings in order to verify the validity of the proposed simulation.

  18. Heat Flow on the Creeping Section of the San Andreas Fault: A Localized Transient Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Brune

    2002-01-01

    Most analyses of predicted frictional heat flow along the San Andreas fault have been carried out in terms of line source models. This is clearly not an adequate approximation in the frictional heat source is very localized. In addition most studies have focused on the heat flow expected if the source has been active for a very long time,--near steady

  19. Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav V. Bohac; Dennis N. Assanis

    When automobile hydrocarbons are exhausted into the atmosphere in the presence of NOx and sunlight, ground- level ozone is formed. While researchers have used Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) factors to estimate ozone production, this procedure often overestimates Local Ozone Production (LOP) because it does not consider local atmospheric conditions. In this paper, an enhanced MIR methodology for estimating actual LOP

  20. THE IMPACT OF HURRICANE STRIKES ON LOCAL CROPLAND PRODUCTIVITY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE IMPACT OF HURRICANE STRIKES ON LOCAL CROPLAND PRODUCTIVITY: EVIDENCE FROM THE CARIBBEAN Eric://www.enseignement.polytechnique.fr/economie/ mailto:chantal.poujouly@polytechnique.edu hal-00393883,version1-10Jun2009 #12;THE IMPACT OF HURRICANE° 2009-14 Abstract: We empirically estimate the impact of hurricane strikes on local crop productivity

  1. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  2. Influence of cooling conditions on the local parameters of heat and mass transfer in condensation heat-utilization units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodulya, V. A.; Malevich, V. L.; Sinkevich, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the earlier developed model of calculation of the local parameters of heat and mass transfer in deep cooling of flue gases (a vapor-gas mixture) in a bundle of tubes of a condensation heat-utilization unit, the distribution of the parameters of a condensing vapor-gas mixture both along the length of the tubes and in the depth of the tube bundle in a crossflow under various cooling conditions corresponding to the working parameters of heat-utilization units at industrial thermoelectric plants (TEP) and in boiler houses has been obtained. A comparison of the calculated values of the heating efficiency of the indicated heat-utilization unit with the results of tests of the condensation heat-utilization unit at the Ul'yanovsk TEP-3 (Russia) has demonstrated their satisfactory agreement.

  3. The Direct Contact Heat Exchanger: Experiences on Ice Slurry Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raksit Thitipatanapong; Bundit Limmeechokchai

    An experimental pilot scale of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHE) for ice slurry production was fabricated and evaluated. The study investigated the DCHE of Ø114mm and 1000 mm height using evaporated refrigerant as disperse phase and solidified water as continuous phase. The heat transfer rate across the DCHE was varied between 3.0 and 6.5 kW while the water flow rate

  4. Heat production during contraction in skeletal muscle of hypothyroid mice

    SciTech Connect

    Leijendekker, W.J.; van Hardeveld, C.; Elzinga, G. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1987-08-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism on tension-independent and -dependent heat produced during a twitch and a tetanic contraction of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle of mice was examined. The amount of heat produced during a twitch and the rate of heat development during a tetanus of EDL and soleus were measured at and above optimal length. The effect of hypothyroidism on force production was <30%. Straight lines were used to fit the relation between heat production and force. Hypothyroidism significantly decreases tension-independent heat during contraction of EDL and soleus muscle. Because the tension-independent heat is considered to be related to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling, these findings suggest that ATP splitting due to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling is reduced in hypothyroid mice. This conclusion was strengthened by the observation that the oxalate-supported {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-uptake activity and {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-loading capacity of muscle homogenates from hypothyroid mice were reduced, respectively, to 51 and to 65% in soleus and to 63 and 73% in EDL muscle as compared with euthyroid mice. The tension-dependent rate of heat development during a tetanus was also decreased in soleus muscle of hypothyroid mice. This suggests a lower rate of ATP hydrolysis related to cross-bridge cycling in this muscle due to the hypothyroid state.

  5. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37 degrees C, and whole-body heating similarly attenuate cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction responsiveness.

  6. Ohmic heated sheet for the Ca ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.; Bogomolov, S.; Kazarinov, N.; Kochagov, O.; Loginov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    The production of intense accelerated {sup 48}Ca ion beams is the key problem in the experiments on the synthesis of new superheavy nuclei. For this purpose in the FLNR (JINR), an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used at the U-400 cyclotron. The combination of a micro oven with a hot tantalum sheet inside the discharge chamber allowed the production of the intense {sup 48}Ca{sup 5+} ion beam at the {sup 48}Ca consumption of about 0.5 mg/h. In this case, the tantalum sheet is heated by microwaves and plasma electrons. The microwave power of up to 500 W is required to heat the sheet to the temperature of about 500 deg. C. To decrease the required microwave power, a new sheet with a direct Ohmic heating was designed. The present paper describes the method, technique, and preliminary experimental results on the production of the Ca ion beam.

  7. Glove thermal insulation: local heat transfer measures and relevance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayet Sari; Maurice Gartner; Alain Hoeft; Victor Candas

    2004-01-01

    When exposed to cold, the hands need to be protected against heat loss not only in order to reduce thermal discomfort, but also to keep their efficiency. Although gloves are usually the most common protection, their thermal insulation is generally unknown. The aim of this study was to measure the heat losses from a gloved hand with a special interest

  8. Local aerodynamics and heat transfer in beds of packed spheres, simulating spherical fuel elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Zadanavicius; L. A. Margis

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study of the three-dimensional distribution of pressure coefficients and the coefficients of local heat transfer in beds of staggered spheres proved that the local characteristics depend strongly on the value of design factor kappa and on the location of the sphere within the packed bed. It was proved that largest changes in the local characteristics occur in regions

  9. Using Forecast and Observed Weather Data to Assess Performance of Forecast Products in Identifying Heat Waves and Estimating Heat Wave Effects on Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Schwartz, Joel D.; Rood, Richard B.; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heat wave and health warning systems are activated based on forecasts of health-threatening hot weather. Objective: We estimated heat–mortality associations based on forecast and observed weather data in Detroit, Michigan, and compared the accuracy of forecast products for predicting heat waves. Methods: We derived and compared apparent temperature (AT) and heat wave days (with heat waves defined as ? 2 days of daily mean AT ? 95th percentile of warm-season average) from weather observations and six different forecast products. We used Poisson regression with and without adjustment for ozone and/or PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 ?m) to estimate and compare associations of daily all-cause mortality with observed and predicted AT and heat wave days. Results: The 1-day-ahead forecast of a local operational product, Revised Digital Forecast, had about half the number of false positives compared with all other forecasts. On average, controlling for heat waves, days with observed AT = 25.3°C were associated with 3.5% higher mortality (95% CI: –1.6, 8.8%) than days with AT = 8.5°C. Observed heat wave days were associated with 6.2% higher mortality (95% CI: –0.4, 13.2%) than non–heat wave days. The accuracy of predictions varied, but associations between mortality and forecast heat generally tended to overestimate heat effects, whereas associations with forecast heat waves tended to underestimate heat wave effects, relative to associations based on observed weather metrics. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that incorporating knowledge of local conditions may improve the accuracy of predictions used to activate heat wave and health warning systems. Citation: Zhang K, Chen YH, Schwartz JD, Rood RB, O’Neill MS. 2014. Using forecast and observed weather data to assess performance of forecast products in identifying heat waves and estimating heat wave effects on mortality. Environ Health Perspect 122:912–918;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306858 PMID:24833618

  10. Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device

    E-print Network

    Giuseppe Levi; Evelyn Foschi; Torbjörn Hartman; Bo Höistad; Roland Pettersson; Lars Tegnér; Hanno Essén

    2013-06-07

    An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments. The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input. Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources.

  11. Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device

    E-print Network

    Levi, Giuseppe; Hartman, Torbjörn; Höistad, Bo; Pettersson, Roland; Tegnér, Lars; Essén, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments. The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input. Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be fa...

  12. Local nucleation propagation on heat transfer uniformity during subcooled convective boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Seok; Yang, Gang Mo; Shin, Sangwoo; Choi, Geehong; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Convective boiling heat transfer is an efficient cooling mechanism to dissipate amount of thermal energy by accompanying the phase transition of the working fluids. Particularly, the amount of heat dissipation capacity can be readily extensible by increasing the degree of subcooling due to initial demands requiring for coolant saturation. Under severely subcooled condition of 60°, we investigate boiling heat transfer phenomena regarding spatial heat transfer uniformity and stability on a planar surface. Severe subcooling can induce locally concentrated thermal loads due to poor spatial uniformity of the heat transfer. For reliable cooling, a high degree of spatial uniformity of the heat transfer should be guaranteed with minimized spatial deviation of heat transfer characteristics. Under pre-requisite safeguards below CHF, we experimentally elucidate the principal factors affecting the spatial uniformity of the heat transfer for a flow/thermal boundary layer considering heat transfer domains from a single-phase regime to a fully-developed boiling regime. Based on the local heat transfer evaluation, we demonstrate that full nucleation boiling over the entire heat transfer surface under subcooling conditions is favorable in terms of the uniformity of heat dissipation through the phase-change of the working fluid.

  13. Thermal response of a flat heat pipe sandwich structure to a localized heat flux

    E-print Network

    Wadley, Haydn

    ­8]. Designs have been optimized using theoretical models of heat pipes that range from thermal resistance was analyzed. Faghri [15,16] has performed numerical studies on vapor flow in concentric double walled heat publications, focusing on many aspects of heat pipe design and operation have appeared in the liter- ature [5

  14. Production of evaporated tungsten foils on resistively heated substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, John O.; Jolivet, C. S.

    2006-05-01

    Pure natural tungsten (W) circular mounted foils with an unsupported diameter of 20 mm, thickness of 100-300 nm, and as flat and smooth as possible were needed. Vacuum evaporation was used as the method of production. Copper-coated Ta, Mo and mica strips were heated to the necessary high temperatures by passing current directly through them and used as removable substrates for W foils. Characteristics of this method of production are described.

  15. Antioxidants in heat-processed koji and the production mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okutsu, Kayu; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Ikeda, Natsumi; Kusano, Tatsuro; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takamine, Kazunori

    2015-11-15

    We previously developed antioxidative heat-processed (HP)-koji via two-step heating (55°C/2days?75°C/3days) of white-koji. In this study, we isolated antioxidants in HP-koji and investigated their formation mechanisms. The antioxidants were identified to be 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) and 5-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-2-furfural (GMF) based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. HMF and GMF were not present in intact koji, but were formed by heating at 75°C. As production of these antioxidants was more effective by two-step heating than by constant heating at 55°C or 75°C, we presumed that the antioxidant precursors are derived enzymatically at 55°C and that the antioxidants are formed subsequently by thermal reaction at 75°C. The heating assay of saccharide solutions revealed glucose and isomaltose as HMF and GMF precursors, respectively, and thus the novel finding of GMF formation from isomaltose. Finally, HMF and GMF were effectively formed by two-step heating from glucose and isomaltose present in koji. PMID:25977038

  16. 1. -HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT Colostrum consumption, thermoregulation and heat production

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1. - HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT Colostrum consumption, thermoregulation and heat production in newborn sur 1'Elevage des Porcs, Centre de Rennes-Saint-Gilles, F 35590 L'Hermitage Colostrum consumption.8 p. 100 more colostrum than at 18-20 °C (290 and 212 g/day, respectively). Similarly, rectal

  17. Product structure of heat phase space and Branching Brownian motion

    E-print Network

    Bath, University of

    Product structure of heat phase space and Branching Brownian motion Frederic P. Schuller Department. The resulting ring-valued quantum #12;eld theory is applied to binary branching Brownian motion, whose Dyson of quantum #12;eld theory to Brownian processes. Key Words: Brownian motion, branching process, Markov

  18. Conservation of Heat Energy at Hot Petroleum Products Terminals

    E-print Network

    Powell, J. C.; Graham, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Exxon operates several terminals which store asphalt and heavy fuel oil. Due to the rising cost of fuels, Exxon initiated a study to identify economic investments which would reduce the fuel needed to heat these products. First, fuel usage at four...

  19. INTRODUCTION Metabolic heat production, a byproduct of muscle contraction, can

    E-print Network

    Sponberg, Simon

    . Metabolic heat production paired with convective and radiative cooling to the surrounding environment can uniform temperature? Work-loop studies, where muscle is cyclically oscillated and periodically stimulated and Daniel, 2004b; Donley et al., 2007). Although these work-loop studies have elucidated how muscle

  20. Production of evaporated tungsten foils on resistively heated substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O. Stoner; C. S. Jolivet

    2006-01-01

    Pure natural tungsten (W) circular mounted foils with an unsupported diameter of 20 mm, thickness of 100 300 nm, and as flat and smooth as possible were needed. Vacuum evaporation was used as the method of production. Copper-coated Ta, Mo and mica strips were heated to the necessary high temperatures by passing current directly through them and used as removable

  1. Analysis of Max-Product via Local Maxifiers Stephan Winkler

    E-print Network

    Tatikonda, Sekhar

    Analysis of Max-Product via Local Maxifiers Stephan Winkler Program in Applied Mathematics Yale University New Haven, CT 06520, USA Email: stephan.winkler@yale.edu Sekhar Tatikonda Department of Electrical

  2. Indigenous algae for local bioresource production: Phycoprospecting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann C. Wilkie; Scott J. Edmundson; James G. Duncan

    Photosynthetic algae represent a large and diverse group of organisms that have only a limited history of characterization and exploitation. The application of resource production from algae is relatively untapped, with the potential to produce fuels, food, fibers and nutraceuticals on a large scale. Methods to screen for indigenous species of algae have improved and can allow communities to prospect

  3. Mapping Creative Local Production Systems in Italy and Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Lazzeretti; Rafael Boix; Francesco Capone

    An important debate on the role of creativity and culture as factors of local economic development is distinctly emerging. Despite the emphasis put on the theoretical definition of these concepts, it is necessary to strengthen comparative research for the identification and analysis of the kind of creativity embedded in the territory as well as its determinants. Creative local production systems

  4. Local warming of groundwaters caused by the urban heat island effect in Istanbul, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tolga Yalcin; Omer Yetemen

    2009-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a result of urbanization, causing local microclimatologic changes such as increase in ambient\\u000a temperature. Factors causing the UHI effect are anthropogenic energy release, energy absorption by concrete, tarmac structures\\u000a and traffic, although the main factor is the replacement of vegetation with man-made structures. These factors cause heating\\u000a of not only local air but also

  5. Local heat transfer distribution in a triangular channel with smooth walls and staggered ejection holes 

    E-print Network

    Moon, Sung-Won

    1999-01-01

    Subject: Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT Local Heat Transfer Distribution in a Triangular Channel with Smooth Walls and Staggered Ejection Holes. (December 1999) Sung-Won Moon, B. S. , Inha University, Korea Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. S. C. Lau...LOCAL HEAT TRANSFER DISTRIBUTION IN A TRIANGULAR CHANNEL WITH SMOOTH WALLS AND STAGGERED E JECTION HOLES A Thesis by SUNG-WON MOON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  6. Inverse estimation of the local heat transfer coefficient in curved tubes: a numerical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzoli, F.; Cattani, L.; Corradi, C.; Mordacci, M.; Rainieri, S.

    2014-04-01

    Wall curvature represents one of the most used passive techniques to enhance convective heat transfer. The effectiveness of wall curvature is due to the fact that it gives origin to the centrifugal force: this phenomenon induces local maxima in the velocity distribution that locally increase the temperature gradients at the wall by then maximizing the heat transfer. This fact brings to a significant variation of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux along the circumferential coordinate. The convective heat transfer coefficient is consequently not uniformly distributed along the tube's perimeter and is characterized by higher values at the extrados wall surface in comparison to the ones at the intrados wall surface. Therefore, for predicting the overall performance of heat transfer apparatuses that involve the use of curved tubes, it becomes important to know the local distribution of the convective heat transfer coefficient not only along the axis of the heat transfer section, but also on the internal tube's surface along the cross section circumference. The present paper is intended to the assessment of a procedure developed to evaluate the local convective heat transfer coefficient, along the circumferential coordinate, at the internal wall of a coiled pipe.

  7. Turbulent natural convection in an enclosure with localized heating from below

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Kumar Sharma; K. Velusamy; C. Balaji

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the results of a numerical investigation of turbulent natural convection in a square enclosure with localized heating from below and symmetrical cooling from the vertical side walls. The present study simulates the case of an accidental heat generation due to fire in a typical isolated building of a nuclear reactor or electronic components cabin. The source of

  8. Observation of localized heating phenomena during microwave heating of mixed powders using in situ x-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sabelström, N., E-mail: sabelstrom.n.aa@m.titech.ac.jp; Hayashi, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Nagata, K. [Department of Conservation Science, Tokyo University of the Arts, 12-8 Ueno Park, Taito-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    In materials processing research using microwave heating, there have been several observations of various phenomena occurring known as microwave effects. One significant example of such a phenomenon is increased reaction kinetics. It is believed that there is a possibility that this might be caused by localized heating, were some reactants would attain a higher than apparent temperature. To examine whether such thermal gradients are indeed possible, mixed powders of two microwave non-absorbers, alumina and magnesia, were mixed with graphite, a known absorber, and heated in a microwave furnace. During microwave irradiation, the local temperatures of the respective sample constituents were measured using an in situ x-ray diffraction technique. In the case of the alumina and graphite sample, a temperature difference of around 100?°C could be observed.

  9. Observation of localized heating phenomena during microwave heating of mixed powders using in situ x-ray diffraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabelström, N.; Hayashi, M.; Watanabe, T.; Nagata, K.

    2014-10-01

    In materials processing research using microwave heating, there have been several observations of various phenomena occurring known as microwave effects. One significant example of such a phenomenon is increased reaction kinetics. It is believed that there is a possibility that this might be caused by localized heating, were some reactants would attain a higher than apparent temperature. To examine whether such thermal gradients are indeed possible, mixed powders of two microwave non-absorbers, alumina and magnesia, were mixed with graphite, a known absorber, and heated in a microwave furnace. During microwave irradiation, the local temperatures of the respective sample constituents were measured using an in situ x-ray diffraction technique. In the case of the alumina and graphite sample, a temperature difference of around 100 °C could be observed.

  10. Arc heater nozzle heating test with hydrogen combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bernard S. C.; Stoy, Stanley L.; Fivel, Herschel J.

    1991-06-01

    A single-edge expansion test nozzle was tested to obtain hypersonic vehicle flight-level nozzle heating data with simulated hydrogen combustion products. The test objectives were to extend the database for nozzle design and computer code validation, and also to analyze flow patterns using oil flow visualizations. A total of 34 runs were made for 15 and 25 degree nozzle ramp angles and water content of zero and 15 mole percent. Higher water produced higher heating rates, as did a higher enthalpy and lower ramp angle. Test data compared favorably with BARTZ and BLIMPK88 computer code predictions.

  11. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  12. The effects of localized absorption on the mode conversion process in the RF heating of plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Swanson

    1980-01-01

    The effects of localized absorption processes on mode conversion in the various RF heating schemes for fusion plasmas are analyzed. An asymptotic separation technique separates local and asymptotic behavior and leads to an integral equation through use of a fourth-order Green's function. Detailed calculations are presented for the deuterium ion cyclotron harmonic case with a hydrogen impurity ranging from impurities

  13. Numerical assessment of local forcing on the heat transfer in a turbulent channel flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Araya; Stefano Leonardi; Luciano Castillo

    2008-01-01

    The influence of local forcing on an incompressible turbulent channel flow is numerically investigated. The extensive information provided by the direct numerical simulations enables us to have a better understanding of the physical mechanism responsible for local heat transfer enhancement. Time-periodic blowing\\/suction is applied by means of thin spanwise slots located at the lower and upper walls. The molecular Prandtl

  14. Heating of Ferrite Powder by an AC Magnetic Field for Local Hyperthermia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsunehiro Maehara; Kensuke Konishi; Tatsuo Kamimori; Hiromichi Aono; Takashi Naohara; Hiroyuki Kikkawa; Yuji Watanabe; Kanji Kawachi

    2002-01-01

    To develop materials for achieving local hyperthermia, we investigate the heating of various ferrite and metal powders by applying an external AC magnetic field. In comparison with magnetite powder, which has often been used in previous experiments, Mg-ferrite powder is more applicable for achieving local hyperthermia.

  15. Investigation of local BWR instabilities with a four heated-channel Reduced Order Model

    E-print Network

    Demazière, Christophe

    of a four-heated channels ROM in order to reconstruct the behavior of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) ``core ROM Local instabilities DWO DR a b s t r a c t This paper deals with the modeling of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) local instabilities via so-called Reduced Order Models (ROMs). More specifically, a four

  16. The Therapeutic Use of Local Heat and Cold

    PubMed Central

    Tepperman, Perry S.; Devlin, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Thermotherapy and cryotherapy are often valuable in the treatment of pain, inflammation and muscle spasm. Safe use of available modalities depends on specific knowledge of their contraindications. The choice of method requires an understanding of the physiological effects of heat and cold. The choice of any individual thermal modality depends on several factors including size of the area to be treated, ease of application, affordability, duration of application and depth of penetration. PMID:21267207

  17. Measurement of local connective heat transfer coefficients of four ice accretion shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. E.; Armilli, R. V.; Keshock, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    In the analytical study of ice accretions that form on aerodynamic surfaces (airfoils, engine inlets, etc.) it is often necessary to be able to calculate convective heat transfer rates. In order to do this, local convective heat transfer coefficients for the ice accretion shapes must be known. In the past, coefficients obtained for circular cylinders were used as an approximation to the actual coefficients since no better information existed. The purpose of this experimental study was to provide local convective heat transfer coefficients for four shapes that represent ice accretions. The shapes were tested with smooth and rough surfaces. The experimental method chosen was the thin-skin heat rate technique. Using this method local Nusselt numbers were determined for the ice shapes. In general it was found that the convective heat transfer was higher in regions where the model's surfaces were convex and lower in regions where the model's surfaces were concave. The effect of roughness was to increase the heat transfer in the high heat transfer regions by approximately 100% while little change was apparent in the low heat transfer regions.

  18. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality. PMID:12295121

  19. Large spectral tuning of liquid microdroplets by local heating with a focused infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraz, Alper; Karada?, Yasin; Yorulmaz, Saime Ç.; Murado?lu, Metin

    2008-08-01

    Large deformations can easily be introduced in liquid microdroplets by applying relatively small external forces or controlling the evaporation/condensation kinetics. This makes liquid microdroplets attractive to serve as the building blocks of largely tunable optical switches or filters that are essential in optical communication systems based on wavelength division multiplexing. Solid optical microcavities have not found large use in these applications, mainly due to their rigid nature. The fact that liquid microdroplets are low-cost and disposable can also prove to be important in mass production of these photonic devices. Here, we show that local heating with an infrared laser can be used to largely tune the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of water/glycerol or salty water microdroplets standing on a superhydrophobic surface. In the scheme presented, a liquid microdroplet kept in a humidity chamber is stabilized on a superhydrophobic surface, and an infrared laser beam is focused near the center of the microdroplet. As a result of the local heating, the temperature of the liquid microdroplet increases, and the water content in the liquid microdroplet evaporates until a new equilibrium is reached. At the new equilibrium state, the non-volatile component (i.e. glycerol or salt) attains a higher concentration in the liquid microdroplet. We report tunability over large spectral ranges up to 30 nm at around 590 nm. For salty water microdroplets the reported spectral tuning mechanism is almost fully reversible, while for the case of glycerol/water microdroplets the spectral tuning mechanism can be made highly reversible when the chamber is saturated with glycerol vapor and the relative water humidity approaches unity.

  20. Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cheng, D.K.; Sonek, G.J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, California 92717 (United States); Berns, M.W.; Chapman, C.F.; Tromberg, B.J. [Department of Biophysics, and Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, California 92717 (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The confinement of liposomes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by infrared (IR) optical tweezers is shown to result in sample heating and temperature increases by several degrees centigrade, as measured by a noninvasive, spatially resolved fluorescence detection technique. For micron-sized spherical liposome vesicles having bilayer membranes composed of the phospholipid 1,2-diacyl-pentadecanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (15-OPC), a temperature rise of {similar_to}1.45{plus_minus}0.15 {degree}C/100 mW is observed when the vesicles are held stationary with a 1.064 {mu}m optical tweezers having a power density of {similar_to}10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2} and a focused spot size of {similar_to}0.8 {mu}m. The increase in sample temperature is found to scale linearly with applied optical power in the 40 to 250 mW range. Under the same trapping conditions, CHO cells exhibit an average temperature rise of nearly 1.15{plus_minus}0.25 {degree}C/100 mW. The extent of cell heating induced by infrared tweezers confinement can be described by a heat conduction model that accounts for the absorption of infrared (IR) laser radiation in the aqueous cell core and membrane regions, respectively. The observed results are relevant to the assessment of the noninvasive nature of infrared trapping beams in micromanipulation applications and cell physiological studies. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  1. Production of evaporated tungsten foils on resistively heated substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O. Stoner; C. S. Jolivet

    2006-01-01

    Pure natural tungsten (W) circular mounted foils with an unsupported diameter of 20mm, thickness of 100–300nm, and as flat and smooth as possible were needed. Vacuum evaporation was used as the method of production. Copper-coated Ta, Mo and mica strips were heated to the necessary high temperatures by passing current directly through them and used as removable substrates for W

  2. Future Production of Transport Fuel, Power and Heat from Biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Franzén

    Abstract To reduce,the emissions,of the greenhouse,gas carbon,dioxide,(CO2) to the atmosphere different measures can be applied, for example a reduced energy use and ashift from fossil fuels to renewable,fuels such as biomass. An energy,efficient way of utilising biomass could be for production of transport fuel, electric power and heat ina so-called energy combine. In this report a vision,of how,a large-scale biomass-

  3. Local heat flow and temperature fluctuations in wall and fluid in nucleate boiling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, P.; Fuchs, T.

    2009-05-01

    Recent numerical and experimental investigations to improve the understanding of the nucleate boiling heat transfer process mainly concentrate on the description or measurement of local transport phenomena. It is known from these investigations that the interaction between microscale evaporation and macroscale transient heat flow in the wall and the thermal boundary layer is a key aspect for our physical understanding of boiling processes. However reliable quantitative data on the local and transient heat distribution and storage in the heater wall and thermal boundary layer is rare. In this paper we summarize recent developments and present new numerical and experimental results in this specific field of research. A fully transient numerical model has been developed based on a previous quasi stationary model of Kern and Stephan (ASME J Heat Transf 125,1106-1115). It allows describing the transient heat and fluid flow during the entire periodic cycle of a growing, detaching and rising bubble including the waiting time between two successive bubbles from a single nucleation site. It contains a multiscale approach ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale for the detailed description of the relevant local phenomena. The detailed analysis of the computed transient temperature profiles in wall and fluid gives accurate information about the heat supply, temporal energy storage and evaporation. It is shown that during the bubble growth and detachment period more heat is consumed by evaporation than heat supplied to the overall system. Thus the wall and liquid thermal boundary layer cool down. After detachment, during the bubble rise period and waiting time, the evaporative heat flow decreases. In this period more heat is supplied to the overall system than consumed by evaporation, thus the wall and liquid thermal boundary layer heat up again. Experimental investigations with high resolution wall temperature measurements underneath a vapor bubble were performed in a micro-g environment and qualitatively confirm these numerical observations.

  4. Thermal model of local ultrasound heating of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedogovor, V. A.; Sigal, V. L.; Popsuev, E. I.

    1996-09-01

    Possibilities of creation of controlled temperature fields in deep-seated biological tissue with the use of an endocavity ultrasound applicator with surface cooling are considered. Mathematical models are proposed and calculated that make it possible to construct acoustic and thermal fields in biotissues depending on the thermophysical and ultrasound characteristics of the medium being irradiated and to reveal situations and effects that are important for solving problems of practical medicine in the field of local ultrasound hyperthermia and thermotherapy of tissue.

  5. 77 FR 74027 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products Containing Same; Commission...of certain integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same by reason...

  6. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...of Energy (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedures for direct heating equipment...DOE's statutory obligation to review its test procedures for covered products at...

  7. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Monahan, Christopher J.; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standardmore »operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.« less

  8. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Monahan, Christopher J. [College of William & Mary; Orginos, Kostas [William and Mary College, JLAB

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standard operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.

  9. Effects of heat on workers' health and productivity in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Background The impact of global warming on population health is a growing concern and has been widely discussed. The issue of heat stress disorders and consequent productivity reduction among workers has not yet been widely addressed. Taiwan is an island straddling the Tropic of Cancer in the West Pacific and has both subtropical and tropical climates. As of 2008, the economy of Taiwan accounts for 1.1% of the world gross domestic product at purchasing power parity and is listed as 19th in the world and eighth in Asia, according to International Monetary Fund data. Objective The aim of this paper is to identify occupations at risk and the potential health impacts of heat on workers in Taiwan. Design Historical data relating to meteorology, population, the labour force and economy were obtained from publicly available databases from the Taiwanese government. Results Hot seasons with an average maximum temperature above 30°C and relative humidity above 74%, lasting for four to six months from May to October, pose health threats to construction, farming and fishery workers. In particular, populations of ageing farmers and physically overloaded construction workers are the two most vulnerable worker categories in which high temperature impacts on health and productivity. Conclusions Currently, regulations and preventive actions for heat relief are difficult to enforce for several reasons, including lack of equipment for measuring environmental conditions, lack of awareness of potential hazards and strict time constraints imposed on workers. There is an urgent need to systematically and comprehensively assess the impact of a warming climate on workers’ health and productivity to provide effective prevention strategies for a better working and living environment in Taiwan. PMID:20052376

  10. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1985 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed, and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 F. A possible scenario combining the relatively abundant and low-cost Western coal deposits with the Gulf Coast hydrogen users is presented which provides high-energy density transportation utilizing coal liquids and uranium.

  11. The Heat is On: Understanding Local Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dan Zalles

    The is a curriculum module from the project Data Sets and Inquiry in Geoscience Education (DIGS). The module consists of a week-long unit and two-day performance assessment in which students apply the inquiry skills to problem-based investigations of urban micro-climates. The unit and performance assessment present semi-parallel tasks but about different cities (Phoenix and Chicago). Sudents draw conclusions about the extent to which multiple decades of temperature data about Phoenix suggest that a shift in local climate is taking place as opposed to exhibiting nothing more than natural variability. The data are from the Global Climate Historical Network (GHCN) database. GHCN is a large, multi-year, international project to measure temperature, precipitation, and air pressure from near the ground. Each monthly maximum and minimum temperature is the highest and lowest temperature reading for the month, measured in Celsius. In Phoenix and in most other places, the temperature data are collected at local airports. The performance assessment for this module requires that students apply the methods and findings from the investigation of the climate data for Phoenix to climate data for Chicago. The Chicago data shows less evidence of trends in temperature change, and this is most evident comparing the night-time minimum temperature fluctuations between the two cities. Chicago also exhibits less increase in urban development and population growth than does Phoenix. In contrast to the curriculum unit, which primarily uses constructed-response tasks to encourage student explanation and discussion, the climate assessment tasks pose explicit selected- and constructed-response questions to ensure that the items elicit the intended thinking and hence provide evidence of the targeted standards-aligned skills and understandings.

  12. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat, phase 1 design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The system consists of 42,420 sq ft of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors are oriented in a North-South configuration and track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) is circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370 F and 450 F respectively. These temperatures are constantly maintained via a variable flow rate through the collectors (the flow rate varies in direct proportion to the level of insolation). Superheated steam is the final product of the solar energy system. Final steam quality at the steam generator is 420 F and 165 Psia.

  13. Industrial restructuring as class restructuring: Production decentralization and local uniqueness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doreen Massey

    1983-01-01

    Massey D. (1983) Industrial restructuring as class restructuring: production decentralization and local uniqueness, Reg. Studies17, 73–89. Industrial change is also a process of social change. This article examines the impact on two very different kinds of area of the entry of new forms of economic activity. It points out that, although in each case the new industry was the same

  14. Hybrid Quasicrystals, Transport and Localization in Products of Minimal Sets

    E-print Network

    Hybrid Quasicrystals, Transport and Localization in Products of Minimal Sets T´ulio O. Carvalho of such anomalous behavior are the above cited models of quasicrystals, among which the most prominent. A particular model of quasicrystal, as a substitution sequence, is an almost periodic sequence that grows up

  15. Identification and Localization of Polycystin, the PKD1 Gene Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Geng; Yoav Segal; Bernard Peissel; Nanhua Deng; York Pei; Frank Carone; Helmut G. Rennke; Alexandra M. Glücksmann-Kuis; Michael C. Schneider; Maria Ericsson; Stephen T. Reeders; Jing Zhou

    1996-01-01

    Polycystin, the product of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) 1 gene ( PKD1 ) is the cardinal member of a novel class of proteins. As a first step towards elucidating the function of polycystin and the pathogenesis of ADPKD, three types of information were collected in the current study: the subcellular localization of polycystin, the spatial and temporal distribution

  16. Localized mold heating with the aid of selective induction for injection molding of high aspect ratio micro-features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keun; Lee, Sang-Ik

    2010-03-01

    High-frequency induction is an efficient, non-contact means of heating the surface of an injection mold through electromagnetic induction. Because the procedure allows for the rapid heating and cooling of mold surfaces, it has been recently applied to the injection molding of thin-walled parts or micro/nano-structures. The present study proposes a localized heating method involving the selective use of mold materials to enhance the heating efficiency of high-frequency induction heating. For localized induction heating, a composite injection mold of ferromagnetic material and paramagnetic material is used. The feasibility of the proposed heating method is investigated through numerical analyses in terms of its heating efficiency for localized mold surfaces and in terms of the structural safety of the composite mold. The moldability of high aspect ratio micro-features is then experimentally compared under a variety of induction heating conditions.

  17. A comparative study of the local heat transfer distributions around various surface mounted obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyssmann, Robert; Ullmer, Dirk; Terzis, Alexandros; Ott, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In many engineering applications, heat transfer enhancement techniques are of vital importance in order to ensure reliable thermal designs of convective heat transfer applications. This study examines experimentally the heat transfer characteristics on the base plate around various surface mounted obstacles. Local convection coefficients are evaluated in the vicinity of each individual protruding body with great spatial resolution using the transient liquid crystal technique. Five different obstacles of constant height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (˜1.3) are considered. These include: a cylinder, a square, a triangle, a diamond and a vortex generator of delta wing shape design. The experiments were carried out over a range of freestream Reynolds numbers, based on the hydraulic diameter of each obstacle, varying from 4,000 to 13,000. The results indicate a negligible effect of the flow speed on the heat transfer topological structure and a considerable effect of the obstacle geometry on the level and distribution of heat transfer enhancement.

  18. Local kinetic interpretation of entropy production through reversed diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porporato, A.; Kramer, P. R.; Cassiani, M.; Daly, E.; Mattingly, J.

    2011-10-01

    The time reversal of stochastic diffusion processes is revisited with emphasis on the physical meaning of the time-reversed drift and the noise prescription in the case of multiplicative noise. The local kinematics and mechanics of free diffusion are linked to the hydrodynamic description. These properties also provide an interpretation of the Pope-Ching formula for the steady-state probability density function along with a geometric interpretation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Finally, the statistics of the local entropy production rate of diffusion are discussed in the light of local diffusion properties, and a stochastic differential equation for entropy production is obtained using the Girsanov theorem for reversed diffusion. The results are illustrated for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

  19. Local kinetic interpretation of entropy production through reversed diffusion.

    PubMed

    Porporato, A; Kramer, P R; Cassiani, M; Daly, E; Mattingly, J

    2011-10-01

    The time reversal of stochastic diffusion processes is revisited with emphasis on the physical meaning of the time-reversed drift and the noise prescription in the case of multiplicative noise. The local kinematics and mechanics of free diffusion are linked to the hydrodynamic description. These properties also provide an interpretation of the Pope-Ching formula for the steady-state probability density function along with a geometric interpretation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Finally, the statistics of the local entropy production rate of diffusion are discussed in the light of local diffusion properties, and a stochastic differential equation for entropy production is obtained using the Girsanov theorem for reversed diffusion. The results are illustrated for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. PMID:22181122

  20. Measurements of bremsstrahlung production and x-ray cryostat heating in VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.; Virostek, S.; Loew, T.; Heinen, A.; Tarvainen, O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse, 9, D-48149, Muenster (Germany); Department of Physics (JYFL), FI-40014, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2006-03-15

    The VENUS superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is designed to operate at 28 GHz with up to 10 kW of rf power. Most of this power is absorbed by the plasma electrons and then dumped onto the plasma chamber wall. The distribution of heating and bremsstrahlung production is highly nonuniform and reflects the geometry of the magnetic confinement fields. The nonuniform distribution of electron losses to the wall results in localized heating on the aluminum chamber walls, which can lead to burnout. In addition, part of the bremsstrahlung produced by the collision of the hot-electrons with the walls is absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet leading to an additional heat load in the cryostat in the order of several watts. Therefore a new plasma chamber has been installed that incorporates a high-Z tantalum shield to reduce the cryostat heating and enhance water cooling to minimize the chance of burnout. In order to better understand the heat load, the spectrum of the bremsstrahlung has been carefully measured as a function of rf power, magnetic confinement, and rf frequency. In addition, the distribution of electron heating in VENUS magnetic field has been simulated with a three-dimensional computer code [H. Heinen and H. J. Andra, Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on ECR Sources (CERN, Geneva, 1999), 224; H. J. Andra and A. Heinen, Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on ECR lon Sources, ECRIS'02 (Jyvaeskylae, Finland 2002), 85.] to better understand the heat load distribution on the plasma chamber wall. The new plasma chamber design, results of the bremsstrahlung measurements, and the effectiveness of the high-Z shielding are described.

  1. Laser production and heating of plasma for MHD application

    SciTech Connect

    Jalufka, N.W.

    1988-03-01

    Experiments have been made on the production and heating of plasmas by the absorption of laser radiation. These experiments were performed to ascertain the feasibility of using laser-produced or laser-heated plasmas as the input for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. Such a system would have a broad application as a laser-to-electricity energy converter for space power transmission. Experiments with a 100-J-pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser were conducted to investigate the breakdown of argon gas by a high-intensity laser beam, the parameters (electron density and temperature) of the plasma produced, and the formation and propagation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. Experiments were also carried out using a 1-J-pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser to heat the plasma produced in a shock tube. The shock-tube hydrogen plasma reached electron densities of approximately 10 to the 17th/cu cm and electron temperatures of approximately 1 eV. Absorption of the CO/sub 2/ laser beam by the plasma was measured, and up to approximately 100 percent absorption was observed. Measurements with a small MHD generator showed that the energy extraction efficiency could be very large with values up to 56 percent being measured.

  2. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single and Small Multi-element Coaxial Element-Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support NASA's Vision for Space Exploration mission, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines with regeneratively cooled chamber walls, as well as in small thrust chambers with few elements in the injector. In this program, single and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges, Injector configurations were tested with both shear coaxial elements and swirl coaxial elements. Both a straight and a scarfed single element swirl injector were tested. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three coaxial shear and swirl elements. Detailed geometry and test results the for shear coax elements has already been published. Detailed test result for the remaining 6 swirl coax element for the will be published in a future JANNAF presentation to provide well-defined data sets for development and model validation.

  3. Application of Thin-Film Thermocouples to Localized Heat Transfer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Smith, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a proof-of-concept experiment on thin-film thermocouples used for localized heat transfer measurements applicable to experiments on hot parts of turbine engines. The paper has three main parts. The first part describes the thin-film sensors and manufacturing procedures. Attention is paid to connections between thin-film thermocouples and lead wires, which has been a source of problems in the past. The second part addresses the test arrangement and facility used for the heat transfer measurements modeling the conditions for upcoming warm turbine tests at NASA LeRC. The paper stresses the advantages of a modular approach to the test rig design. Finally, we present the results of bulk and local heat flow rate measurements, as well as overall heat transfer coefficients obtained from measurements in a narrow passage with an aspect ratio of 11.8. The comparison of bulk and local heat flow rates confirms applicability of thin-film thermocouples to upcoming warm turbine tests.

  4. Active control of turbulent heat transfer by local forcing: an energy assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Araya; Stefano Leonardi; Luciano Castillo

    2007-01-01

    The influence of local forcing on a turbulent channel flow is numerically investigated. The high level of information provided by Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) allows an exhaustive analysis of the physical mechanism responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Budgets and energy spectra of the velocity and temperature correlations are computed at several forcing frequencies and compared with the unperturbed channel results.

  5. DNS of heat transfer in a high Reynolds number turbulent channel flow with local forcing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Araya; Stefano Leonardi; Luciano Castillo

    Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of the velocity\\/temperature fields at a Reynolds number of 10400 (based on the centerline velocity) in a turbulent channel flow, with periodic normal blowing\\/suction velocity disturbances located cyclically along the channel at both walls, are presented. In this opportunity, we include the analysis of the local forcing influence on the turbulent heat transfer as a continuation

  6. Room Temperature Lead-Free Soldering of Microelectronic Components using a Local Heat Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Levin; Timothy R. Rude; Jai Subramanian; Etienne Besnoin; Timothy P. Weihs; Omar M. Knio; David Van Heerden; Michael T. Powers; Christina D. Enns

    This paper describes a new joining process that enables fluxless, lead-free soldering of similar and dissimilar materials at room temperature with no thermal damage to surrounding components. The joining process is based on the use of a reactive multilayer foil as a local heat source. The foils are a new class of nano-engineered materials, which consist of thousands of alternating

  7. Computer-based areal surface temperature and local heat transfer measurements with thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Platzer; C. Hirsch; D. E. Metzger; S. Wittig

    1992-01-01

    The experimental technique presented is designed to obtain detailed local heat transfer data on both stationary as well as rotating disc-cavity surfaces applicable to gas turbines. The method employed utilizes thin coatings of thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) as surface temperature indicators under aerodynamically steady but thermally transient experimental conditions. The color display of the liquid crystals is monitored by a

  8. Development of a new device to measure local heat exchange by evaporation and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakitsuba, N.; Katsuura, T.

    1992-06-01

    According to the principles of heat and mass transfer, the rate of local heat exchange by convection (C) and local heat loss by evaporation (E) can be estimated if temperature and vapor concentration profiles in the boundary layer are measured. In addition, temperature (Ts) and vapor concentration (rho s) at the surface may be predicted from the measured profiles. On this basis, a new device was developed to measure parabolic profiles by incorporating three relative humidity sensors coupled with thermistors into its probe. It has been evaluated from various tests including human experiments. The results showed that the device, with humidity sensors arranged perpendicular to the surface, could estimate C, E, Ts, and rho s in closer agreement with direct measurements when compared with the conventional gradient method. This confirmed that our method had clear advantages over the conventional gradient method under laminar air flow conditions.

  9. Relations for local radiative heat transfer between rectangular boundaries of an absorbing-emitting medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical solution was obtained by Siegel (1991, 1992) for local boundary heat fluxes by a radiating medium at uniform temperature in a 2D rectangular region. It is shown here that, after local fluxes from the medium to the walls have been evaluated, it is very easy to compute local fluxes arriving from the adjacent and opposite walls. This extends the previous analysis and provides convenient relations to include radiation from a black boundary, each side of the rectangle being at a different uniform temperature. The final expressions are helpful in performing spectral calculations that must be made for many spectral bands.

  10. Current localization, non-uniform heating, and failures of ZnO varistors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartkowiak, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

    1997-11-01

    Metal oxide varistors have highly nonlinear electrical characteristics and are widely used as devices for over-voltage protection. Varistor applications range from the use of small varistors to protect delicate electronic components to the use of much larger varistors for the protection of electrical-power-distribution systems. Non-uniform heating of ZnO varistors by electrical pulses occurs on three different spatial scales: (1) microscopic (sub-micron), (2) intermediate (sub-millimeter), and (3) macroscopic (of order of millimeters or centimeters). Heating on these scales has different origins and different consequences for device failure in large and small varistors. On the microscopic scale, the heating localizes in strings of tiny hot spots. They occur at the grain boundaries in a conducting path where the potential is dropped across Schottky-type barriers. These observations are interpreted by applying transport theory and using computer simulations. It is shown that the heat transfer on a scale of the grain size is too fast to permit temperature differences that could cause a varistor failure. On an intermediate size scale, the heating is most intense along localized electrical paths. The high electrical conductivity of these paths has microstructural origin, i.e., it derives from the statistical fluctuations of grain sizes and grain boundary properties. Current localization on the intermediate size scale appears to be significant only in small varistors. On the macroscopic scale, current localization in large blocks can be attributed to inhomogeneities in the electrical properties which originate during ceramic processing. The resulting non-uniform heating is shown to cause destructive failures of large varistor blocks.

  11. Characterization of Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) Product Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Linden; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Alba, Richard Gilbert; Pace, Gregory S.; Fisher, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) is designed to sterilize and process wastes produced during space missions. Benefits of the HMC include reduction of biohazards to the crew, reduction in volume of wastes that would otherwise require storage, production of radiation shielding tiles, and recovery of water and other resources. Water reuse is critical onboard spacecrafts; it reduces the need for resupply missions and saves valuable storage space. The main sources of water in HMC batches are food, beverages, shampoo, disinfecting wipes, toothpaste, and diapers. Water reclaimed by the HMC was analyzed for concentrations of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-­-, NO2-­-, Br-­-, NO3-­-, PO43-­-, SO42-­-, total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), % total solids, and pH. The data are discussed in relation to the current water input characteristics established for the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly system. Batches with higher than average amounts of food produced HMC product water with higher sulfate content, and batches with higher proportions of disinfectant wipes and food yielded HMC product water with higher ammonium concentration. We also compared theoretical chemical composition of HMC product water based on food labels and literature values to experimental results.

  12. Hybrid Quasicrystals, Transport and Localization in Products of Minimal Sets

    E-print Network

    Tulio O. Carvalho; Cesar R. de Oliveira

    2007-06-12

    We consider convex combinations of finite-valued almost periodic sequences (mainly substitution sequences) and put them as potentials of one-dimensional tight-binding models. We prove that these sequences are almost periodic. We call such combinations {\\em hybrid quasicrystals} and these studies are related to the minimality, under the shift on both coordinates, of the product space of the respective (minimal) hulls. We observe a rich variety of behaviors on the quantum dynamical transport ranging from localization to transport.

  13. Local Energy Dissipation Rate Balances Local Heat Flux in the Center of Turbulent Thermal Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Rui; Huang, Shi-Di; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2011-10-01

    The local kinetic energy dissipation rate ?u,c in Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell was measured experimentally using the particle tracking velocimetry method, with varying Rayleigh number Ra, Prandtl number Pr, and cell height H. It is found that ?u,c/(?3H-4)=1.05×10-4Ra1.55±0.02Pr1.15±0.38. The Ra and H dependencies of the measured results are found to be consistent with the assumption made for the bulk energy dissipation rate ?u,bulk in the Grossmann-Lohse model. A remarkable finding of the study is that ?u,c balances the directly measured local Nusselt number Nuc in the cell center, not only scalingwise but also in magnitude.

  14. Local energy dissipation rate balances local heat flux in the center of turbulent thermal convection.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rui; Huang, Shi-Di; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2011-10-21

    The local kinetic energy dissipation rate ?(u,c) in Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell was measured experimentally using the particle tracking velocimetry method, with varying Rayleigh number Ra, Prandtl number Pr, and cell height H. It is found that ?(u,c)/(?(3)H(-4))=1.05×10(-4)Ra(1.55±0.02)Pr(1.15±0.38). The Ra and H dependencies of the measured results are found to be consistent with the assumption made for the bulk energy dissipation rate ?(u,bulk) in the Grossmann-Lohse model. A remarkable finding of the study is that ?(u,c) balances the directly measured local Nusselt number Nu(c) in the cell center, not only scalingwise but also in magnitude. PMID:22107524

  15. Noninvasive measurement of local thermal diffusivity using backscattered ultrasound and focused ultrasound heating.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ajay; Kaczkowski, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    Previously, noninvasive methods of estimating local tissue thermal and acoustic properties using backscattered ultrasound have been proposed in the literature. In this article, a noninvasive method of estimating local thermal diffusivity in situ during focused ultrasound heating using beamformed acoustic backscatter data and applying novel signal processing techniques is developed. A high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer operating at subablative intensities is employed to create a brief local temperature rise of no more than 10 degrees C. Beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data are collected during heating and cooling using a clinical ultrasound scanner. Measurements of the time-varying "acoustic strain", that is, spatiotemporal variations in the RF echo shifts induced by the temperature related sound speed changes, are related to a solution of the heat transfer equation to estimate the thermal diffusivity in the heated zone. Numerical simulations and experiments performed in vitro in tissue mimicking phantoms and excised turkey breast muscle tissue demonstrate agreement between the ultrasound derived thermal diffusivity estimates and independent estimates made by a traditional hot-wire technique. The new noninvasive ultrasonic method has potential applications in thermal therapy planning and monitoring, physiological monitoring and as a means of noninvasive tissue characterization. PMID:18450361

  16. Efficient localized heating of silver nanoparticles by low-fluence femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Sivayoganathan, M.; Duley, W. W.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Highly localized heating can be obtained in plasmonic nanomaterials using laser excitation but the high fluences required often produce unacceptable damage in and near irradiated components and structures. In this work we show that plasmonic nanostructures involving aggregated Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) can be heated effectively without attendant damage to the surrounding material when these structures are irradiated with many overlapping femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at very low fluence. Under these conditions, the effectiveness of heating is such that the temperature of 50 nm Ag NPs can be raised to their melting point from room temperature. Aggregates of these NPs are then observed to grow into larger spherical particles as laser heating continues. Imaging of these materials shows that the initiation of melting in individual Ag NPs depends on the local geometry surrounding each NP and on the polarization of the incident laser radiation. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations indicate that melting is triggered by localized surface plasmon (LSP)-induced electric field enhancement at "hotspots".

  17. A Fresnel collector process heat experiment at Capitol Concrete Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauger, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is planned, conducted and evaluated to determine the feasibility of using a Power Kinetics' Fresnel concentrator to provide process heat in an industrial environment. The plant provides process steam at 50 to 60 psig to two autoclaves for curing masonry blocks. When steam is not required, the plant preheats hot water for later use. A second system is installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory parabolic dish test site for hardware validation and experiment control. Experiment design allows for the extrapolation of results to varying demands for steam and hot water, and includes a consideration of some socio-technical factors such as the impact on production scheduling of diurnal variations in energy availability.

  18. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose nonlocal operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of nonlocal operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standard operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.

  19. Identification and localization of the FMR-1 protein product

    SciTech Connect

    Verheij, C.; Hoogeveen, A.T.; Verkerk, A.J.M.H.; DeGraaf, E.; Bakker, C.; Reuser, A.J.J. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-07-15

    The fragile X syndrome results from amplification of the CGG repeat found in the FMR-1 gene. As a first step in the identification and localization of the FMR-1 gene product, antibodies were raised against different regions of the FMR-1 protein (FMRP). These antibodies were used to analyze FMRP in lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients (n=5) and controls (n=3). FMRP was immunoprecipated and subsequently analyzed by immunoblotting. Four molecular species (67-74 kDa) were found which were absent in 4 of the 5 patients. The lack is in agreement with the absence of FMR-1 mRNA. The patient expressing FMRP`s shows a mosaic DNA pattern with part of the cells carrying a premutation and others carrying a full mutation. The premutation allele is preceded by an unmethylated CpG island and is expressed into FMR-1 mRNA which is subsequently translated into protein. The four different FMRPs most likely result from alternative splicing of the FMR-1 mRNA. Two splice products were mimicked in cDNA constructs transiently expressed in COS-1 cells. Both splice products appeared to encode for stable protein products and were recognized by the antibodies. The molecular weight of the protein products was in agreement with two of the protein products found in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, indicating that the FMRPs detected in lymphoblasts are the result of alternative splicing. The intracellular localization of FMRP in COS-1 cells was cytoplasmatic. The finding of four FMRPs of the same molecular weight in controls and the mosaic patient indicate that the CGG repeat is not translated.

  20. Flow field and heat transfer analysis of local structure for regenerative cooling panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Huang, Hongyan; Li, Tao; Zhang, Duo; Wang, Zhongqi

    2012-04-01

    Local structure of cooling panel has great effects on the heat transfer in the cooling channel for the scramjet. The problems of flow dead area and mass flow rate non-uniform distribution caused by the local structure effect the cooling effectiveness in the channel seriously. Numerical simulation to the flow field of scramjet cold panel with four different fuel injection island structures respectively has been carried out using the CFD commercial software-CFX in this research. The results reveal that flow dead area has been eliminated and flow field has been improved for the optimized structure. Furthermore, local resistance loss has been decreased and the mass flow rate non-uniform distribution in the channel has been reduced. Based on the optimized results, some suggestions about the local design of cooling panel have been proposed in this research.

  1. A method for the simultaneous determination of local effectiveness and heat transfer distributions in three-temperature convection situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Vedula; D. E. Metzger

    1991-01-01

    An experimental method is described that enables the simultaneous determination of both local effectiveness and local heat-transfer information on surfaces involved in three-temperature convection situations, where the local surface temperature and heat transfer rate is under the influence of two interacting fluid streams at different temperatures. Film cooling through a single row of discrete flush-injection holes is used as the

  2. Influence of surface heating condition on local heat transfer in a rotating square channel with smooth walls and radial outward flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. C.; Zhang, Y. M.; Lee, C. P.

    1992-06-01

    The study investigates the effect of the surface heating condition on the local heat transfer coefficient in a rotating square channel with smooth walls and radial outward flow for Reynolds numbers from 2500 and 25,000 and rotation numbers from 0 to 0.352. Four surface heating conditions were tested: (1) four walls uniform temperature, (2) temperature ratio of leading surface to side wall and trailing surface to side wall is 1.05 and 1.10, respectively, (3) trailing surface hot and remaining three walls cold, and (4) leading surface hot and remaining three walls cold. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficients on the leading surface are much lower than that of the trailing surface due to rotation. It is suggested that the local wall heating condition creates the local buoyancy forces which reduce the effects of the bulk buoyancy and Coriolis forces. Therefore, the local heat transfer coefficients on the leading and trailing surfaces are altered by the surface local heating condition.

  3. Electron correlation effects on the diode properties and the local heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Yoshihiro

    2012-02-01

    Single molecular bridge junctions and atomic wires provide one of the best test fields for non-equilibrium transport theories whose progress gives benefits over wide range of physics. Experimental progresses in inelastic tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) and break junction techniques have played very important roles to make this possible. Inelastic scatterings between electrons and phonons give ``local heating'' of the junctions. The effective temperature due to the local heating was discussed successfully in terms of a fully self-consistent theory treating energy dissipation processes as well as inelastic heat generation on equal footing [1]. Recently, we found two cases where electron correlation gives distinct changes. The first case was found in the local heating problem in the resonant systems, where phonon damping due to its coupling with electron-hole excitation is suppressed by the correlation. The suppression enhances heat release to electrodes leading to the effective temperature suppression [2]. Another example is the single molecular rectifier. First principle NEGF-GGA calculation fails to explain the large rectification ratio (RR) at high bias voltage. Separate GW calculation based on Keldysh Green's function gives clear enhancement of RR over the mean field NEGF results suggesting that RR could be enhanced by the electron correlation effect [3]. Thus latest non-equilibrium transport theories enable us to treat the important physical processes accompanying electric conduction allowing us to make more direct comparisons with experimental phenomena at nano-scale. [4pt] [1] Y. Asai, Phys. Rev. B78, 045434 (2008).[0pt] [2] Y. Asai, Phys. Rev. B84, 085436 (2011).[0pt] [3] Y. Asai, H. Nakamura, J. Hihath, C. Bruot, and N.J Tao, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115436 (2011).

  4. Thermal parameters determination of battery cells by local heat flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashko, K. A.; Mityakov, A. V.; Pyrhönen, J.; Mityakov, V. Y.; Sapozhnikov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    A new approach to define of the thermal parameters, such as heat capacity and through-plane thermal conductivity, of pouch-type cells is introduced. Application of local heat flux measurement with a gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS) allows determination of the cell thermal parameters in different surface points of the cell. The suggested method is not cell destructive as it does not require deep discharge of the cell or application of any charge/discharge cycles during the measurements of the thermal parameters of the cell. The complete procedure is demonstrated on a high-power lithium-ion (Li-ion) pouch cell, and it is verified on a sample with well-known thermal parameters. A comparison of the experimental results with conventional thermal characterization methods shows an acceptably low error. The dependence of the cell thermal parameters on the state of charge (SoC) and measurement points on the surface was studied by the proposed measurement approach.

  5. Local stress and heat flux in atomistic systems involving three-body forces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youping

    2006-02-01

    Local densities of fundamental physical quantities, including stress and heat flux fields, are formulated for atomistic systems involving three-body forces. The obtained formulas are calculable within an atomistic simulation, in consistent with the conservation equations of thermodynamics of continuum, and can be applied to systems with general two- and three-body interaction forces. It is hoped that this work may correct some misuse of inappropriate formulas of stress and heat flux in the literature, may clarify the definition of site energy of many-body potentials, and may serve as an analytical link between an atomistic model and a continuum theory. Physical meanings of the obtained formulas, their relation with virial theorem and heat theorem, and the applicability are discussed. PMID:16468857

  6. The effect of heat transfer on local solidification kinetics of eutectic Al-Si cast alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. González-Rivera; M. H. Cruz; H. A. García; J. A. Juarez-Islas

    1999-01-01

    Recently, Fourier thermal analysis (FTA) has been proposed as a suitable technique to obtain information about local solidification\\u000a kinetics in casting alloys. In this work, FTA was applied to a near-eutectic aluminum-silicon cast alloy in order to seek\\u000a experimental evidence supporting the solidification kinetics obtained from this method. Also, a heat-transfer\\/solidification-kinetics\\u000a model was used to compare predictions with experimental results.

  7. Differential heat shock tolerance and expression of heat shock inducible proteins in two stored-product psocids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent recognition of psocid infestations as a major concern in stored products, where their management with fumigants and conventional insecticides has proven difficult, and also the recent reemergence of heat treatment as a potential tactic for control of stored-product insects led to the pres...

  8. THERM 2.0: a PC Program for Analyzing Two-Dimensional HeatTransfer through Building Products

    SciTech Connect

    Windows and Daylighting Group

    1997-12-08

    THERM is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows{trademark}-based computer program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for use by building component manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others interested in heat transfer. Using THERM, you can model two-dimensional heat-transfer effects in building components such as windows, walls, foundations, roofs, and doors; appliances; and other products where thermal bridges are of concern. THERM's heat-transfer analysis allows you to evaluate a product's energy efficiency and local temperature patterns, which may relate directly to problems with condensation, moisture damage, and structural integrity. THERM's two-dimensional conduction heat-transfer analysis is based on the finite-element method, which can model the complicated geometries of building products. The program's graphic interface allows you to draw cross sections of products or components to be analyzed. To create the cross sections, you can trace imported files in DXF or bitmap format, or input the geometry from known dimensions. Each cross section is represented by a combination of polygons. You define the material properties for each polygon and introduce the environmental conditions to which the component is exposed by defining the boundary conditions surrounding the cross section. Once the model is created, the remaining analysis (mesher and heat transfer) is automatic. You can view results from THERM in several forms, including U-factors, isotherms, heat-flux vectors, and local temperatures. This version of THERM includes several new technical and user interface features; the most significant is a radiation view-factor algorithm. This feature increases the accuracy of calculations in situations where you are analyzing non-planar surfaces that have different temperatures and exchange energy through radiation heat transfer. This heat-transfer mechanism is important in greenhouse windows, hollow cavities, and some aluminum frames. THERM is a module of the WINDOW+5 program under development by LBNL. WINDOW+5 is the next generation of the WINDOW software series and is being developed for the Microsoft Windows{trademark} operating environment. THERM's results can be used with WINDOW's center-of-glass optical and thermal models to determine total window product U-factors and Solar Heat Gain Coefficients. These values can be used, in turn, with the RESFEN program, which calculates total annual energy requirements in typical residences throughout the United States.

  9. Effect of the periodicity of heating on the ultrasonic propagation velocity in the refractory products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Vachaev; O. O. Kolobovnikova

    1986-01-01

    The fall in the ultrasonic propagation velocity in the refractory products subjected to one-sided heating can be attributed to the structural change of the refractory, in particular, when the heating rate is significant. The established relationship may be used for monitoring the condition of the lining of the metallurgical furnaces and heating equipment working under a periodically changing temperature regime.

  10. High-temperature strength of prealloyed-powder products increased by heat/pressure treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbrook, R. L.; Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Heat treatment process involves heating products to a temperature above the solidus, and subsequently applying pressure at a temperature below the solidus. Technique can be modified to one step process involving simultaneous application if both high pressure and heat. Process is not limited to cobalt-base alloys.

  11. Review of solar assisted heat pump drying systems for agricultural and marine products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronak Daghigh; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Mohamad Yusof Sulaiman; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2010-01-01

    Combining solar energy and heat pump technology is a very attractive concept. It is able to eliminate some difficulties and disadvantages of using solar dryer systems or solely using heat pump drying separately. Solar assisted heat pump drying systems have been studied and applied since the last decades in order to increase the quality of products where low temperature and

  12. Local Heating of Discrete Droplets Using Magnetic Porous Silicon-Based Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Ho; Derfus, Austin M.; Segal, Ester; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Sailor, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for local heating of discrete micro-liter scale liquid droplets. The droplets are covered with magnetic porous Si microparticles, and heating is achieved by application of an external alternating electromagnetic field. The magnetic porous Si microparticles consist of two layers: the top layer contains a photonic code and it is hydrophobic, with surface-grafted dodecyl moieties. The bottom layer consists of a hydrophilic Si oxide host layer that is infused with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The amphiphilic microparticles spontaneously align at the interface of a water droplet immersed in mineral oil, allowing manipulation of the droplets by application of a magnetic field. Application of an oscillating magnetic field (338 kHz, 18A RMS current in a coil surrounding the experiment) generates heat in the superparamagnetic particles that can raise the temperature of the enclosed water droplet to >80 °C within 5 min. A simple microfluidics application is demonstrated: combining complementary DNA strands contained in separate droplets and then thermally inducing dehybridization of the conjugate. The complementary oligonucleotides were conjugated with the cyanine dye fluorophores Cy3 and Cy5 to quantify the melting/re-binding reaction by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The magnetic porous Si microparticles were prepared as photonic crystals, containing spectral codes that allowed the identification of the droplets by reflectivity spectroscopy. The technique demonstrates the feasibility of tagging, manipulating, and heating small volumes of liquids without the use of conventional microfluidic channel and heating systems. PMID:16771508

  13. Natural convection in horizontal porous layers with localized heating from below

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, V. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Kulacki, F.A. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1987-08-01

    Convective flow of fluid through saturated porous media heated from below is of considerable interest, and has been extensively studied. Most of these studies are concerned with either infinite horizontal porous layers or rectangular (or cylindrical) porous cavities with adiabatic vertical walls. A related problem of practical importance occurs when only a portion of the bottom surface is heated and the rest of it is either adiabatic or isothermally cooled. This situation is encountered in several geothermal areas which consists of troughs of volcanic debris contained by walls of nonfragmented ignimbrite. Thus, the model region considered is a locally heated long trough of isotropic porous medium confined by impermeable and insulating surroundings. Also, the recent motivation to study this problem has come from the efforts to identify a geologic repository for nuclear waste disposal. The purpose of the present work is to consider the effects of aspect ratio and Rayleigh number on free convection heat transfer from an isothermal heat source centrally located on the bottom surface of a horizontal porous cavity.

  14. A theoretical study on heat production in squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, R de A; Conde Garcia, E A

    1983-09-01

    The heat produced by action currents during the upstroke of the action potential in the squid axon has been calculated. Equations were developed and it was demonstrated that the phase plane area, obtained from nerve action potential upstroke, is a measure of the heat liberated at the axoplasmic level. Assuming the Hodgkin and Huxley model, it was possible to show that the axoplasmic heat is a constant fraction of the total Joule heating. PMID:6314059

  15. A TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING PRODUCT HEAT LOAD DURING BEEF CHILLING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy Davey; Q. Tuan Pham

    The refrigeration of beef carcasses is an important user of energy. Due to the carcass's complicated shape and composition, it is difficult to calculate the rate of heat release as it evolves with time during the cooling process. A method has therefore been devised to measure the latent, sensible and radiative heat loads from beef sides. The latent heat load

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGING AND NUTRITIONAL CONTROLLED GROWTH RATE ON HEAT PRODUCTION OF HEIFERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first objective of this study was to test how well a function that was developed to describe heat production (HP) in growing ewes fit heat production data in growing heifers. The second objective was to determine the pattern of adaptation of HP to feed restriction and subsequent realimentation ...

  17. Sound scattering and localized heat deposition of pulse-driven microbubbles

    PubMed

    Hilgenfeldt; Lohse; Zomack

    2000-06-01

    The sound scattering of free microbubbles released from strongly driven ultrasound contrast agents with brittle shell (e.g., Sonovist) is studied numerically. At high peak pressure of the driving pulses, the bubbles respond nonlinearly with cross sections pronouncedly larger than in the linear case; a large portion of the energy is radiated into high frequency ultrasound. Subsequent absorption of these high frequencies in the surrounding liquid (blood) diminishes the effective scattering cross section drastically. The absorption results in highly localized heating, with a substantial temperature rise within the first few microm from the bubble surface. The maximum heating in 1 microm distance is strongly dependent on driving pressure. Temperature elevations of more than 100 K can be achieved for amplitudes of Pa approximately 30 atm, which coincides with the highest pressures used in ultrasound diagnostics. The perfectly spherical collapses assumed here occur rarely, and the heating is highly localized and transient (approximately 10 micros). Therefore, a thermal hazard would only be expected at driving pressures beyond the diagnostic range. PMID:10875397

  18. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    used for core campus heating. To demonstrate syngas production and biomass campus heating Main CampusHighlights · First university owned district heating system using biomass heat · Capacity: 15 MMBtu/hr · Fuel: Local wood residue · Integrated research laboratory · LEED Gold building Biomass Gasification

  19. Divergent changes of flow through individual blood vessels upon localized heating.

    PubMed

    Rhee, J G; Eddy, H A; Hong, J J; Suntharalingam, M; Vaupel, P W

    1996-01-01

    The changes of microregional perfusion in a hamster cheek pouch membrane were investigated. The vessel network of the membrane was visualized by preparing a transparent chamber, which was heated with circulating water at 42 degree C. Blood perfusion was monitored by using a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF), which was used either in a conventional way by positioning the probe stationary or in a novel way by constantly moving the probe over the surface of the chamber (scanning). When a segment of tissue was subjected to the LDF scanning, the profile of scanned LDF values was well correlated with the distribution of vessels. Therefore, this scanning technique was useful in localizing the probe in tissues with respect to vessels. Since the scanning can be repeated every other minute, this technique also offered continuous monitoring of tissue blood flow at multiple sites. Upon heating, different vessels individually responded to the first and second heatings followed by coolings, suggesting a heterogeneous heat response in the connective tissue of the hamster cheek pouch membrane. This scanning technique proved very useful in collecting information for the study of the heterogeneous nature of blood flow in normal and tumour tissues. PMID:8950156

  20. Numerical modeling of diffusive heat transport across magnetic islands and local stochastic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Q. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The heat diffusion across magnetic islands is studied numerically and compared with analytical results. For a single island, the enhanced radial heat diffusivity, {chi}{sub r}, due to the parallel transport along the field lines is increased over a region of about the island width w. The maximum enhanced heat conductivity at the rational surface is proportional to w{sup 2}({chi}{sub parallel}{chi}{sub perpendicular}){sup 1/2} for sufficiently high values of {chi}{sub parallel}/{chi}{sub perpendicular}, where {chi}{sub parallel}/{chi}{sub perpendicular} is the ratio between the parallel and the perpendicular heat diffusivity. For low ratios of {chi}{sub parallel}/{chi}{sub perpendicular}, however, the maximum value of {chi}{sub r} is proportional to w{sup 4}{chi}{sub parallel}. In a locally stochastic magnetic field, {chi}{sub r} is again proportional to w{sup 4}{chi}{sub parallel} for low {chi}{sub parallel}/{chi}{sub perpendicular}, which is in agreement with the analytical results. With increasing {chi}{sub parallel/}{chi}{sub perpendicular}, {chi}{sub r} is dominated first by the additive effect of individual islands and then by the field ergodicity.

  1. Effects of stratification on thermal convection in horizontal porous layers with localized heating from below

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khatib, G.; Prasad, V. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study numerically the natural convection in a horizontal porous layer in the presence of a stable, linear thermal gradient. The geometry considered is a two-dimensional horizontal cavity filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium whose bottom surface is cooled at a constant temperature {Tc}, except for a central portion of the surface where isothermal heat source exists. The temperature on the side walls varies linearly from the bottom surface temperature {Tc} to the top wall temperature T{sub t}. Detailed flow and temperature field solutions are obtained for various values of thermal stratification ratio S. When S = 0, the present problem reduces to natural convection in horizontal porous layers with localized heating from below.

  2. Low-Temperature Heat Capacity and Localized Vibrational Modes in Natural and Synthetic Tetrahedrites

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL] [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL] [ORNL; Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL] [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL] [ORNL; Lu, Xu [Michigan State University] [Michigan State University; Li, Cheng-Yun [Michigan State University] [Michigan State University; Case, Eldon D [Michigan State University, East Lansing] [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Morelli, Donold [Michigan State University, East Lansing] [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2014-01-01

    The heat capacity of natural (Cu12-x (Fe, Zn, Ag)x(Sb, As)4S13) and synthetic (Cu12-xZnxSb4S13 with x=0, 1, 2) tetrahedrite compounds was measured between 2K and 380K. It was found that the temperature dependence of the heat capacity can be described using a Debye term and three Einstein oscillators with characteristic temperatures that correspond to energies of ~1.0 meV, ~2.8 meV and ~8.4 meV. The existence of localized vibration modes, which are assigned to the displacements of the trigonally coordinated Cu atoms in the structure, is discussed in the context of anharmonicity and its effect on the low lattice thermal conductivity exhibited by these compounds.

  3. Low-temperature heat capacity and localized vibrational modes in natural and synthetic tetrahedrites

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Curzio, E., E-mail: laracurzioe@ornl.gov; May, A. F.; Delaire, O.; McGuire, M. A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lu, X.; Liu, Cheng-Yun; Case, E. D.; Morelli, D. T. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    The heat capacity of natural (Cu{sub 12?x} (Fe, Zn, Ag){sub x}(Sb, As){sub 4}S{sub 13}) and synthetic (Cu{sub 12?x}Zn{sub x}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} with x?=?0, 1, 2) tetrahedrite compounds was measured between 2?K and 380?K. It was found that the temperature dependence of the heat capacity can be described using a Debye term and three Einstein oscillators with characteristic temperatures that correspond to energies of ?1.0?meV, ?2.8?meV, and ?8.4?meV. The existence of localized vibrational modes, which are assigned to the displacements of the trigonally coordinated Cu atoms in the structure, is discussed in the context of anharmonicity and its effect on the low lattice thermal conductivity exhibited by these compounds.

  4. Total and local heat transfer from a smooth circular cylinder in cross-flow at high Reynolds number

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Achenbach

    1975-01-01

    The total and local heat transfer from a smooth circular cylinder to the cross flow of air has been measured over the Reynolds number range from 30,000 to 4 million. The interaction between flow and heat transfer is discussed. In particular, the boundary-layer effects on the heat transfer, such as transition from laminar to turbulent flow or boundary-layer separation, are

  5. Efficient reconstruction of local heat fluxes in pool boiling experiments by goal-oriented adaptive mesh refinement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Heng; Adel Mhamdi; Wolfgang Marquardt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the efficient estimation of local boiling heat fluxes from transient temperature measurements in\\u000a the heater close to the heater surface. For accurate prediction, heat flux estimation is formulated as a transient three-dimensional\\u000a (3D) inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). This inverse problem is ill-posed and cannot be treated straightforwardly by\\u000a established numerical methods. In order to

  6. Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non intrusive method

    E-print Network

    are conducted with HFE-7100 as this fluid has a low boiling temperature at the cabin pressure of the A300Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non the results of experimental and numerical studies concerning boiling heat transfer inside vertical

  7. Heat conductivity from molecular chaos hypothesis in locally confined billiard systems.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Thomas; Lefevere, Raphaël

    2008-11-14

    We study the transport properties of a large class of locally confined Hamiltonian systems, in which neighboring particles interact through hard-core elastic collisions. When these collisions become rare and the systems large, we derive a Boltzmann-like equation for the evolution of the probability densities. We solve this equation in the linear regime and compute the heat conductivity from a Green-Kubo formula. The validity of our approach is demonstrated by comparing our predictions with the results of numerical simulations performed on a new class of high-dimensional defocusing chaotic billiards. PMID:19113325

  8. Heat control for electric resistance welding in steel pipe production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Komine; I. Takahashi; S. Ishiro

    1987-01-01

    A heat control system for electric resistance welding (ERW) for use in pipe manufacturing has been developed. The distinguishing features of the control system are: (1) use of a silicon photodiode array as a heat input sensor, (2) feedback control for steady welding, and (3) open-loop control for transient welding. This control system has been introduced into three ERW mills

  9. Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating 

    E-print Network

    McDougal, Fred William

    1987-01-01

    gO 190 170 160 170 1eo 120 00 IMP ERMEABL E (HEATED) P ERMEABLE lMP ERMEABLE (HEATED) PERMEABLE 0. 25' LOG(r) 640' FIG. 19 ? STEADY ? STATE TEMPERATURE PROFILE FOR CASE S ? 1 P ERMEABLE ~ U1 o cL- NM a5 $o ZP 4 1 170 190 20...

  10. Criteria for local equilibrium in a system with transport of heat and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafskjold, Bjørn; Ratkje, Signe Kjelstrup

    1995-01-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is used to compute the coupled heat and mass transport in a binary isotope mixture of particles interacting with a Lennard-Jones/spline potential. Two different stationary states are studied, one with a fixed internal energy flux and zero mass flux, and the other with a fixed diffusive mass flux and zero temperature gradient. Computations are made for one overall temperature, T=2, and three overall number densities, n=0.1, 0.2, and 0.4. (All numerical values are given in reduced, Lennard-Jones units unless otherwise stated.) Temperature gradients are up to ? T=0.09 and weight-fraction gradients up to ? w 1=0.007. The flux-force relationships are found to be linear over the entire range. All four transport coefficients (the L-matrix) are determined and the Onsager reciprocal relationship for the off-diagonal coefficients is verified. Four different criteria are used to analyze the concept of local equilibrium in the nonequilibrium system. The local temperature fluctuation is found to be ? T?0.03 T and of the same order as the maximum temperature difference across the control volume, except near the cold boundary. A comparison of the local potential energy, enthalpy, and pressure with the corresponding equilibrium values at the same temperature, density, and composition also verifies that local equilibrium is established, except near the boundaries of the system. The velocity contribution to the Boltzmann H-function agrees with its Maxwellian (equilibrium) value within 1%, except near the boundaries, where the deviation is up to 4%. Our results do not support the Eyring-type transport theory involving jumps across energy barriers; we find that its estimates for the heat and mass fluxes are wrong by at least one order of magnitude.

  11. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from NADPH and xanthine oxidase modulate the cutaneous local heating response in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Medow, Marvin S; Bamji, Natasha; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony J; Stewart, Julian M

    2011-07-01

    Local cutaneous heating produces vasodilation that is largely nitric oxide (NO) dependent. We showed that angiotensin II (ANG II) attenuates this by an ANG II receptor, type 1 (AT1R)-dependent mechanism that is reversible with the antioxidant ascorbate, indicating oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by ANG II employ NADPH and xanthine oxidase pathways. To determine whether these mechanisms pertain to skin, we measured cutaneous local heating with 10 ?M ANG II, using apocynin to inhibit NADPH oxidase and allopurinol to inhibit xanthine oxidase. We also inhibited superoxide with tempol, and H(2)O(2) with ebselen. We heated the skin of the calf in 8 healthy volunteers (24.5-29.9 yr old) to 42°C and measured local blood flow to assess the percentage of maximum cutaneous vascular conductance. We remeasured while perfusing allopurinol, apocynin, ebselen, and tempol through individual microdialysis catheters. This was then repeated with ANG II combined with antioxidant drugs. tempol and apocynin alone had no effect on the heat response. Allopurinol enhanced the entire response (125% of heat alone), while ebselen suppressed the heat plateau (76% of heat alone). ANG II alone caused significant attenuation of the entire heat response (52%). When added to ANG II, Allopurinol partially reversed the ANG II attenuation. Heat with ebselen and ANG II were similar to heat and ANG II; ebselen only partially reversed the ANG II attenuation. Apocynin and tempol each partially reversed the attenuation caused by ANG II. This suggests that ROS, produced by ANG II via NADPH and xanthine oxidase pathways, modulates the response of skin to the application of heat, and thus contributes to the control of local cutaneous blood flow. PMID:21436462

  12. Effect of Ratio of Roughage Concentrate on Glucose-Induced Heat Production in Sheep Rumen Fluid In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Arieli; Y. Aharoni; S. Zamwel; H. Tagari

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ration on heat of glucose fermentation in sheep rumen fluid was investigated. Heat production was mea- sured in a semiadiabatic calorimeter. In trial 1, the effect of glucose (.4 to 6.4 rag) on fermentative heat production was determined in rumen fluid from sheep fed 25 or 100% roughage diet. Heat of glucose fermentation decreased with increase in

  13. Heat flow study at the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling site: Borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijuan He; Shengbiao Hu; Shaopeng Huang; Wencai Yang; Jiyang Wang; Yusong Yuan; Shuchun Yang

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project offers a unique opportunity for studying the thermal regime of the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. In this paper, we report measurements of borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production from the 5158 m deep main hole (CCSD MH). We have obtained six continuous temperature profiles from this borehole so far. The temperature

  14. [Multifield local hyperthermia as a method for heating deeply located neck tissues].

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, A I; Rozenfel'd, L G; Bykov, V L; Martyniuk, L A; Gusev, A N

    1986-01-01

    Distribution of the thermal field in neck tissues in local SHF-hyperthermia is studied. The two-field method of irradiation permits a uniform heating of more deeply located layers of the tissue due to summation of the radiant energy. So, the contact method of irradiation using "Luch-2" and "Luch-3" sets permits elevating the temperature inside the larynx up to 41-41.5 degrees C and maintaining it under given conditions for 25-30 min, but the heat loading on the skin and subcutaneous fat remains high. When using noncontact irradiators and "Parus" set the deeply located neck tissues are heated to 42-43 degrees C, the temperature of surface layers not exceeding 41-42 degrees C. This temperature rate is possible to be maintained for 25 min; its prolongation induces a sharp rise in the temperature of surface layers. Long-term SHF-hyperthermia of deeply located neck tumours necessitates cooling of the integument surface. PMID:3720643

  15. A theoretical model of localized heat and water vapor transport in the human respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Hanna, L M; Scherer, P W

    1986-02-01

    A steady-state, one-dimensional theoretical model of human respiratory heat and water vapor transport is developed. Local mass transfer coefficients measured in a cast replica of the upper respiratory tract are incorporated into the model along with heat transfer coefficients determined from the Chilton-Colburn analogy and from data in the literature. The model agrees well with reported experimental measurements and predicts that the two most important parameters of the human air-conditioning process are: the blood temperature distribution along the airway walls, and the total cross-sectional area and perimeter of the nasal cavity. The model also shows that the larynx and pharynx can actually gain water over a respiratory cycle and are the regions of the respiratory tract most subject to drying. With slight modification, the model can be used to investigate respiratory heat and water vapor transport in high stress environments, pollutant gas uptake in the respiratory tract, and the connection between respiratory air-conditioning and the function of the mucociliary escalator. PMID:3959548

  16. Changes in dermal interstitial ATP levels during local heating of human skin.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Jayson R; Heal, Cory; Bridges, Jarom; Goldthorpe, Scott; Mack, Gary W

    2012-12-15

    Heating skin is believed to activate vanilloid type III and IV transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPV3, TRPV4, respectively), resulting in the release of ATP into the interstitial fluid. We examined the hypothesis that local skin heating would result in an accumulation of ATP in the interstitial fluid that would be related with a rise in skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature sensation. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm in 15 young, healthy subjects. The probed skin was maintained at 31°C, 35°C, 39°C and 43°C for 8 min periods, during which SkBF was monitored as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Dialysate was collected and analysed for ATP ([ATP](d)) using a luciferase-based assay, and ratings of perceived warmth were taken at each temperature. At a skin temperature of 31°C, [ATP](d) averaged 18.93 ± 4.06 nm and CVC averaged 12.57 ± 1.59% peak. Heating skin to 35°C resulted in an increase in CVC (17.63 ± 1.27% peak; P < 0.05), but no change in [ATP](d). Heating skin to 39°C and 43°C resulted in a decreased [ATP](d) (5.88 ± 1.68 nm and 8.75 ± 3.44 nm, respectively; P < 0.05), which was accompanied by significant elevations in CVC (38.90 ± 1.37% peak and 60.32 ± 1.95% peak, respectively; P < 0.05). Ratings of perceived warmth increased in proportion to the increase in skin temperature (r(2) = 0.75, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that an accumulation of interstitial ATP does not occur during local heating, and therefore does not have a role in temperature sensation or the dilator response in human skin. Nevertheless, the low threshold of dilatation (35°C) indicates a possible role for the TRPV3, TRPV4 channels or the sensitization of other ion channels in mediating the dilator response. PMID:23045344

  17. About the possible options for models of convective heat transfer in closed volumes with local heating source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornova, Tatiana A.; Shestakov, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in air area surrounded on all sides enclosing structures, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the media are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The process of convective heat transfer is calculated using the models of turbulence Prandtl and Prandtl-Reichard. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. Is carried out the analysis of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient at interfaces "air - enclosures". The distributions average along the gas temperature range are obtained.

  18. Potential for Evaporative Cooling during Heat Stress Periods in Pig Production in Portugal (Alentejo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Lucas; J. M. Randall; J. F. Meneses

    2000-01-01

    Hot weather adversely affects the performance of pig production. Under heat stress, penalties to efficient performance, production, reproduction, feed conversion, health and welfare of animals can be severe. In the Alentejo region of Portugal, the main losses in pig production result from the summer dry period, characterized by high air temperature and low relative humidity.For this study, hourly air temperature

  19. Numerical modeling of compact high temperature heat exchanger and chemical decomposer for hydrogen production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valery Ponyavin; Yitung Chen; Anthony E. Hechanova; Merrill Wilson

    2008-01-01

    The present study addresses fluid flow and heat transfer in a high temperature compact heat exchanger which will be used as\\u000a a chemical decomposer in a hydrogen production plant. The heat exchanger is manufactured using fused ceramic layers that allow\\u000a creation of channels with dimensions below 1 mm. The main purpose of this study is to increase the thermal performance of

  20. HEAT PRODUCTION FROM FORAGING ACTIVITY CONTRIBUTES TO THERMOREGULATION IN BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHELDON J. COOPER; SARAH SONSTHAGEN

    2007-01-01

    We measured metabolic heat produc- tion (Hm) of perching and foraging Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine if the heat produced during foraging activity, or exercise thermogenesis, could replace thermoregulatory heat production requirements. Hm and activity of chick- adees in winter were measured at ambient tempera- tures (Ta) ranging from 211.5u to 15.5uC. Mean activity amplitude recorded with an activity

  1. The use of nickel/aluminum explosively reactive nanolayers as localized heat sources in solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Michael Shou-Ming

    Although solder reflow continues to be the current state of the art in joining technology, conventional reflow makes use of furnace heating, in which all components must be exposed to temperatures higher than the melting temperature of the solder. Damaging temperature sensitive components and thermal stresses involved in joining materials of different thermal expansion coefficients are critical drawbacks in using furnace heating. An alternative heat source is provided by Ni/Al reactive nanolayer foils, which is a material comprised of thousands of alternating, nanoscale layers of Al and Ni. A small pulse of energy in the form of an electric spark ignites the reaction by initiating interlayer atomic diffusion. The reaction between these layers is exothermic, releasing enough heat to allow the reaction to propagate through the remainder of the sample. Due to its shape and localized nature of heat released, solder can be melted without heating layers beyond the solder, such as temperature sensitive bond components. In this study, a process is developed to integrate Ni/Al reactive nanolayer foils into bond structures using materials in current technologies. Si/solder/Si and Cu/solder/Cu solder joints are fabricated by reactive nanolayer soldering and are used to study the microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructural and chemical analysis are performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and as well as X-Ray diffraction and energy dispersive analysis, respectively. Single-lap shear testing, through-thickness tensile testing, in-situ nanocompression, and nanoindentation are used to characterize the mechanical strength. Ni/Al nanolayers become a single phase, nanocrystalline NiAl phase as a result of the explosive reaction. The wetting of Sn-based solders is good on this layer, as evidenced by the interlocking branched microstructure as well as the formation of Ni3Sn4 at the interface. A joint shear strength of approximately 30 MPa was yielded when the initial temperature was 70°C and the applied pressure was 15 MPa. In-situ nanocompression results show the direct observation of <110> slip and nanoindentation analysis showed that the NiAI layer has large compressive residual stress.

  2. Virtual Grower: Software to Calculate Heating Costs of Greenhouse Production in the US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouses are used in many climates either for season extension or year-round production, and can be expensive to heat. Greenhouse users and growers are often faced with management decisions that rely on an understanding of how temperature settings, heating systems, fuel types, and construction d...

  3. Geoneutrinos and Heat Production in the Earth: Constraints and Implications

    ScienceCinema

    Bill McDonough

    2010-01-08

    Recent results from antineutrino (geoneutrino) studies at KamLAND are coincident with geochemical models of Th and U in the Earth.  KamLAND and Borexino detectors are on line, thus uncertainties in counting statistics will be reduced as data are accumulated.  The SNO+ detector, situated in the middle of the North American plate will come on line in ~3 yrs and will be best suited to yield a precise estimate of the continental contribution to the Earth?s Th & U budget.  The distribution of heat producing elements in the Earth drives convection and plate tectonics.  Geochemical models posit that ~40% of the heat producing elements are in the continental crust, with the remainder in the mantle.  Although models of core formation allow for the incorporation of heat producing elements, the core contribution of radiogenic heating is considered to be negligible.  Most parameterized convection models for the Earth require significant amounts of radiogenic heating of the Earth, a factor of two greater than geochemical models predict.  The initial KamLAND results challenge these geophysical models and support geochemical models calling for a significant contribution from secular cooling of the mantle.

  4. Geoneutrinos and Heat Production in the Earth: Constraints and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Bill McDonough

    2008-07-02

    Recent results from antineutrino (geoneutrino) studies at KamLAND are coincident with geochemical models of Th and U in the Earth.  KamLAND and Borexino detectors are on line, thus uncertainties in counting statistics will be reduced as data are accumulated.  The SNO+ detector, situated in the middle of the North American plate will come on line in ~3 yrs and will be best suited to yield a precise estimate of the continental contribution to the Earth’s Th & U budget.  The distribution of heat producing elements in the Earth drives convection and plate tectonics.  Geochemical models posit that ~40% of the heat producing elements are in the continental crust, with the remainder in the mantle.  Although models of core formation allow for the incorporation of heat producing elements, the core contribution of radiogenic heating is considered to be negligible.  Most parameterized convection models for the Earth require significant amounts of radiogenic heating of the Earth, a factor of two greater than geochemical models predict.  The initial KamLAND results challenge these geophysical models and support geochemical models calling for a significant contribution from secular cooling of the mantle.

  5. Geoneutrinos and Heat Production in the Earth: Constraints and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    McConough, Bill (University of Maryland) [University of Maryland

    2008-07-02

    Recent results from antineutrino (geoneutrino) studies at KamLAND are coincident with geochemical models of Th and U in the Earth. KamLAND and Borexino detectors are on line, thus uncertainties in counting statistics will be reduced as data are accumulated. The SNO+ detector, situated in the middle of the North American plate will come on line in {approx}3 yrs and will be best suited to yield a precise estimate of the continental contribution to the Earth's Th & U budget. The distribution of heat producing elements in the Earth drives convection and plate tectonics. Geochemical models posit that {approx}40% of the heat producing elements are in the continental crust, with the remainder in the mantle. Although models of core formation allow for the incorporation of heat producing elements, the core contribution of radiogenic heating is considered to be negligible. Most parameterized convection models for the Earth require significant amounts of radiogenic heating of the Earth, a factor of two greater than geochemical models predict. The initial KamLAND results challenge these geophysical models and support geochemical models calling for a significant contribution from secular cooling of the mantle.

  6. On the possibility of localization of a substorm by using the "Sura" heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Kovalev, V. I.; Bershadskaya, I. N.; Karabadzhak, G. F.; Plastinin, Yu. A.; Frolov, V. L.; Komrakov, G. P.; Parrot, M.

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of analysis of helio-geophysical conditions for the experiments performed in 2007-2010 to study modification of the ionosphere by high-power radio emission of the "Sura" heating facility. The feature of the experiments is that the operating frequency of the facility exceeded the upper-hybrid frequency for the F2 layer maximum in the ionosphere. All the experiments were performed in the local-time sector of the Harang discontinuity (i.e., from 21:00 to 00:00, local time) to ensure the most probable influence of the facility operation on the onset of natural processes in the subauroral region of the ionosphere. At least two experiments were found to demonstrate that the observed substorm activity in the region of the modification produced by the facility could be stimulated by its operation. The results of the ground- and satellite-based measurements, both in the vicinity of the "Sura" facility and in the magnetically conjugate region, confirm the conclusion about the possibility of substorm localization by this facility.

  7. Working in Australia's heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer heat, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace heat exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and productivity, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental heat exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive heat exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond heat tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work productivity can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that heat exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with heat lay with the individual, rather than the employer. Heat exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and productivity losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of heat exposure exacerbates the serious risk of heat stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace heat guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate heat-related burden of disease and loss of productivity in many jobs. In light of projected continued global warming, and associated increase in heat waves, more attention needs to be given to environmental heat as a human health hazard in the Occupational Health and Safety arena. Without adoption of effective heat protective strategies economic output and fitness levels will diminish. Health protection and promotion activities should include strategies to reduce heat exposure, limit exposure duration, ensure access to hydration, and promote acclimatization and fitness programmes, and reorientate attitudes towards working in the heat. PMID:23690144

  8. Ice-slurry production using direct contact heat transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Wijeysundera; M. N. A. Hawlader; Chan Wee Boon Andy; M. Kamal Hossain

    2004-01-01

    An ice slurry generation system was developed using direct contact heat transfer between water and the coolant, Fluroinert FC-84. The location of the coolant nozzle is an important design consideration to avoid clogging due to freezing of water. An ice fraction of up to about 40 percent was obtained with the nozzle located at the bottom of the ice slurry

  9. A comparison of microwave versus direct solar heating for lunar brick production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yankee, S. J.; Strenski, D. G.; Pletka, B. J.; Patil, D. S.; Mutsuddy, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    Two processing techniques considered suitable for producing bricks from lunar regolith are examined: direct solar heating and microwave heating. An analysis was performed to compare the two processes in terms of the amount of power and time required to fabricate bricks of various sizes. Microwave heating was shown to be significantly faster than solar heating for rapid production of realistic-size bricks. However, the relative simplicity of the solar collector(s) used for the solar furnace compared to the equipment necessary for microwave generation may present an economic tradeoff.

  10. Thermophilic biohydrogen production by an anaerobic heat treated-hot spring culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dogan Karadag; Annukka E. Mäkinen; Elena Efimova; Jaakko A. Puhakka

    2009-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the thermophilic biohydrogen production using an enrichment culture from a Turkish hot spring. Following the enrichment, the culture was heat treated at 100°C for 10min to select for spore-forming bacteria. H2 production was accompanied by production of acetate, butyrate, lactate and ethanol. H2 production was associated by acetate–butyrate type fermentation while accumulation of lactate

  11. Kondo signature in heat transfer via a local two-state system.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keiji; Kato, Takeo

    2013-11-22

    We study the Kondo effect in heat transport via a local two-state system. This system is described by the spin-boson Hamiltonian with Ohmic dissipation, which can be mapped onto the Kondo model with anisotropic exchange coupling. We calculate thermal conductance by the Monte Carlo method based on the exact formula. Thermal conductance has a scaling form ?=(k(B)(2)T(K)/?)f(?,T/T(K)), where T(K) and ? indicate the Kondo temperature and dimensionless coupling strength, respectively. Temperature dependence of conductance is classified by the Kondo temperature as ? is proportional to (T/T(K))(3) for TT(K). Similarities to the Kondo signature in electric transport are discussed. PMID:24313492

  12. The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc

    2005-10-01

    A behavior is reported where the index change process used for UV writing of integrated optical waveguides in deuterium loaded Ge:SiO2 glass can become unstable and suddenly switch off or on. It is shown that such discontinuities are associated with abrupt changes in the amount of absorbed UV power. We suggest that these events are controlled by a coupling between UV absorption, local heating and the D2-GeO2 reaction rate. From our findings we predict, and confirm experimentally, that strong waveguides can not be fabricated under normal UV writing conditions in thin core layers with a low initial UV absorption. Our findings show that an improved understanding of the waveguide formation process and future process development requires that thermal effects are taken into account.

  13. The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc

    2005-10-01

    A behavior is reported where the index change process used for UV writing of integrated optical waveguides in deuterium loaded Ge:SiO2 glass can become unstable and suddenly switch off or on. It is shown that such discontinuities are associated with abrupt changes in the amount of absorbed UV power. We suggest that these events are controlled by a coupling between UV absorption, local heating and the D2-GeO2 reaction rate. From our findings we predict, and confirm experimentally, that strong waveguides can not be fabricated under normal UV writing conditions in thin core layers with a low initial UV absorption. Our findings show that an improved understanding of the waveguide formation process and future process development requires that thermal effects are taken into account. PMID:19498810

  14. Localization of the gene encoding the human heat shock cognate protein, HSP73, to chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Tavaria, M.; Kola, I. [Monash Univ., Melbourne Victoria (Australia)] [Monash Univ., Melbourne Victoria (Australia); Gabriele, T. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)] [and others] [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); and others

    1995-09-01

    The heat shock cognate protein HSP73 (or HSC70) is a member of the HSP70 multigene family. This protein has several functions, including binding to nascent polypeptides to facilitate correct folding and the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles. Analysis of somatic cell hybrids by two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of a 73-kDa protein in two hybrids containing human chromosomes 5, 6, 9, and 11 in common. Using Western blot analysis, we demonstrate that this protein is a member of the HSP70 family and, by Southern blot analysis, that the HSP73 gene is located on human chromosome 11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization further localized HSP73 to the region 11q23.3-q25. This region is involved in a number of genetic rearrangements and is associated with several well-characterized tumors. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Local heat activation of single myosins based on optical trapping of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Atsuko H; Ikezaki, Keigo; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    Myosin is a mechano-enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP in order to move unidirectionally along actin filaments. Here we show by single molecule imaging that myosin V motion can be activated by local heat. We constructed a dark-field microscopy that included optical tweezers to monitor 80 nm gold nanoparticles (GNP) bound to single myosin V molecules with nanometer and submillisecond accuracy. We observed 34 nm processive steps along actin filaments like those seen when using 200 nm polystyrene beads (PB) but dwell times (ATPase activity) that were 4.5 times faster. Further, by using DNA nanotechnology (DNA origami) and myosin V as a nanometric thermometer, the temperature gradient surrounding optically trapped GNP could be estimated with nanometer accuracy. We propose our single molecule measurement system should advance quantitative analysis of the thermal control of biological and artificial systems like nanoscale thermal ratchet motors. PMID:25736894

  16. Effect of the periodicity of heating on the ultrasonic propagation velocity in the refractory products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Vachaev; O. O. Kolobovnikova

    1985-01-01

    where Vo is the ultrasonic propagation velocity in the refractory product after the first heating; and K is a coefficient that takes account of the number of previous heating cycles. Based on the statistical treatment of the experimental data obtained when heating the BKhM, ShA, MM-I, PKhPS, MShS, MKhS, PShS, PU-D-5, FKh-5, and PKhTs-29 refractory products up to i050-1400~ we

  17. Achievement of thermal stability by varying metabolic heat production in flying honeybees.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J F; Fewell, J H; Roberts, S P; Hall, H G

    1996-10-01

    Thermoregulation of the thorax allows endothermic insects to achieve power outputs during flight that are among the highest in the animal kingdom. Flying endothermic insects, including the honeybee Apis mellifera, are believed to thermoregulate almost exclusively by varying heat loss. Here it is shown that a rise in air temperature from 20 degrees to 40 degrees C causes large decreases in metabolic heat production and wing-beat frequency in honeybees during hovering, agitated, or loaded flight. Thus, variation in heat production may be the primary mechanism for achieving thermal stability in flying honeybees, and this mechanism may occur commonly in endothermic insects. PMID:8810252

  18. Nanoimprinted polymer chips for light induced local heating of liquids in micro- and nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamdrup, Lasse H.; Pedersen, Jonas N.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Larsen, Niels B.; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-08-01

    A nanoimprinted polymer chip with a thin near-infrared absorber layer that enables light-induced local heating (LILH) of liquids inside micro- and nanochannels is presented. An infrared laser spot and corresponding hot-spot could be scanned across the device. Large temperature gradients yield thermophoretic forces, which are used to manipulate and stretch individual DNA molecules confined in nanochannels. The absorber layer consists of a commercially available phthalocyanine dye (Fujifilm), with a narrow absorption peak at approximately 775 nm, dissolved in SU-8 photoresist (Microchem Corp.). The 500 nm thick absorber layer is spin-coated on a transparent substrate and UV exposed. Microand nanofluidic channels are defined by nanoimprint lithography in a 1.5 ?m thick layer of low molecular weight polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, Microchem Corp.), which is spin coated on top of the absorber layer. We have used a previously developed two-level hybrid stamp for replicating two V-shaped microchannels (width=50 ?m and height = 900 nm) bridged by an array of 200 nanochannels (width and height of 250 nm). The fluidic channels are finally sealed with a lid using PMMA to PMMA thermal bonding. Light from a 785 nm laser diode was focused from the backside of the chip to a spot diameter down to 5 ..m in the absorber layer, yielding a localized heating (Gaussian profile) and large temperature gradients in the liquid in the nanochannels. A laser power of 38 mW yielded a temperature of 40oC in the center of a 10 ?m 1/e diameter. Flourescence microscopy was performed from the frontside.

  19. Dealing with a local heating effect when measuring catalytic solids in a reactor with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tinnemans, Stan J; Kox, Marianne H F; Sletering, Marco W; Nijhuis, T A Xander; Visser, Tom; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2006-05-28

    In continuation of our previous work on the applicability of the G(R(infinity)) correction factor for the quantification of Raman spectra of coke during propane dehydrogenation experiments (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2005, 7, 211), research has been carried out on the potential of this correction factor for the quantification of supported metal oxides during reduction experiments. For this purpose, supported chromium oxide catalysts have been studied by combined in situ Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy during temperature programmed reduction experiments with hydrogen as reducing agent. The goal was to quantify on-line the amount of Cr(6+) in a reactor based on the measured in situ Raman spectra. During these experiments, a significant temperature effect was observed, which has been investigated in more detail with a thermal imaging technique. The results revealed a temperature 'on the spot' that can exceed 100 degrees C. It implies that Raman spectroscopy can have a considerable effect on the local reaction conditions and explains observed inconsistencies between the in situ UV-Vis and Raman data. In order to minimize this heating effect, reduction of the laser power, mathematical matching of the spectroscopic data, a different cell design and a change in reaction conditions has been evaluated. It is demonstrated that increasing the reactor temperature is the most feasible method to solve the heating problem. Next, it allows the application of in situ Raman spectroscopy in a reliable quantitative way without the need of an internal standard. PMID:16710489

  20. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. PMID:26133477

  1. Local heat transfer distribution in a two-pass trapezoidal channel with a 180 [degree] turn via transient liquid crystal technique 

    E-print Network

    Endley, Saurabh

    1996-01-01

    cross section. Attention is focused on the effect of the 180' turn on the local heat transfer distributions on the interior surfaces of the various walls at the turn, under turbulent flow conditions. Transient heat transfer experiments, using...

  2. Permafrost thawing in organic Arctic soils accelerated by ground heat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Møller, Anders Bjørn; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Decomposition of organic carbon from thawing permafrost soils and the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere are considered to represent a potentially critical global-scale feedback on climate change. The accompanying heat production from microbial metabolism of organic material has been recognized as a potential positive-feedback mechanism that would enhance permafrost thawing and the release of carbon. This internal heat production is poorly understood, however, and the strength of this effect remains unclear. Here, we have quantified the variability of heat production in contrasting organic permafrost soils across Greenland and tested the hypothesis that these soils produce enough heat to reach a tipping point after which internal heat production can accelerate the decomposition processes. Results show that the impact of climate changes on natural organic soils can be accelerated by microbial heat production with crucial implications for the amounts of carbon being decomposed. The same is shown to be true for organic middens with the risk of losing unique evidence of early human presence in the Arctic.

  3. A computational study of droplet evaporation with fuel vapor jet ejection induced by localized heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Jaeheon; Im, Hong G.; Chung, Suk Ho

    2015-05-01

    Droplet evaporation by a localized heat source under microgravity conditions was numerically investigated in an attempt to understand the mechanism of the fuel vapor jet ejection, which was observed experimentally during the flame spread through a droplet array. An Eulerian-Lagrangian method was implemented with a temperature-dependent surface tension model and a local phase change model in order to effectively capture the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It was found that the surface tension gradient caused by the temperature variation within the droplet creates a thermo-capillary effect, known as the Marangoni effect, creating an internal flow circulation and outer shear flow which drives the fuel vapor into a tail jet. A parametric study demonstrated that the Marangoni effect is indeed significant at realistic droplet combustion conditions, resulting in a higher evaporation constant. A modified Marangoni number was derived in order to represent the surface force characteristics. The results at different pressure conditions indicated that the nonmonotonic response of the evaporation rate to pressure may also be attributed to the Marangoni effect.

  4. Localized heating and thermal characterization of high electrical resistivity silicon-on-insulator sensors using nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elibol, Oguz H.; Reddy, Bobby; Bashir, Rashid

    2008-09-01

    We present a method for localized heating of media at the surface of silicon-on-insulator field-effect sensors via application of an ac voltage across the channel and the substrate and compare this technique with standard Joule heating via the application of dc voltage across the source and drain. Using liquid crystals as the medium to enable direct temperature characterization, our results show that under comparable bias conditions, heating of the medium using an alternating field results in a greater increase in temperature with a higher spatial resolution. These features are very attractive as devices are scaled to the nanoscale dimensions.

  5. IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT AND FRESH WATER THROUGH THE BERING STRAIT: A PRODUCT OF RUSALCA

    E-print Network

    IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT AND FRESH WATER THROUGH THE BERING STRAIT: A PRODUCT. For reference, note that the Bering Strait oceanic heat flux is comparable to heat flux into the ocean from the atmosphere in the Chukchi, and that the Bering Strait oceanic heat flux likely acts as a trigger

  6. Invisible but viable: recognising local markets for non-timber forest products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. SHACKLETON; P. SHANLEY; O. NDOYE

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY An emphasis on global markets for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) often overshadows attention to the local trade in many traditionally important products. Inattention to local markets can result in diminished appreciation of their role in supporting livelihoods and potentially lead to further marginalisation of the low-income groups involved. This paper draws on the literature and the research experience of

  7. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land: Does the regional and local climate respond? Germany as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tölle, Merja H.; Gutjahr, Oliver; Busch, Gerald; Thiele, Jan C.

    2014-03-01

    The extent and magnitude of land cover change effect on local and regional future climate during the vegetation period due to different forms of bioenergy plants are quantified for extreme temperatures and energy fluxes. Furthermore, we vary the spatial extent of plant allocation on arable land and simulate alternative availability of transpiration water to mimic both rainfed agriculture and irrigation. We perform climate simulations down to 1 km scale for 1970-1975 C20 and 2070-2075 A1B over Germany with Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling in Climate Mode. Here an impact analysis indicates a strong local influence due to land cover changes. The regional effect is decreased by two thirds of the magnitude of the local-scale impact. The changes are largest locally for irrigated poplar with decreasing maximum temperatures by 1°C in summer months and increasing specific humidity by 0.15 g kg-1. The increased evapotranspiration may result in more precipitation. The increase of surface radiative fluxes Rnet due to changes in latent and sensible heat is estimated by 5 W m-2locally. Moreover, increases in the surface latent heat flux cause strong local evaporative cooling in the summer months, whereas the associated regional cooling effect is pronounced by increases in cloud cover. The changes on a regional scale are marginal and not significant. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land may result in local temperature changes but not in substantial regional climate change in Germany. We show the effect of agricultural practices during climate transitions in spring and fall.

  8. Short-term exercise training does not improve whole-body heat loss when rate of metabolic heat production is considered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Stapleton; Daniel Gagnon; Glen P. Kenny

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of an 8-week exercise training program in previously sedentary individuals on whole-body heat balance\\u000a during exercise at a constant rate of metabolic heat production. Prior to and after 8 weeks of training, ten participants\\u000a performed 60-min of cycling exercise at a constant rate of heat production (~450 W) followed by 60-min of recovery, at 30°C\\u000a and 15%

  9. Heat Production During Countermeasure Exercises Planned for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapley, Michael G.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation's purpose was to determine the amount of heat produced when performing aerobic and resistance exercises planned as part of the exercise countermeasures prescription for the ISS. These data will be used to determine thermal control requirements of the Node 1 and other modules where exercise hardware might reside. To determine heat production during resistive exercise, 6 subjects using the iRED performed 5 resistance exercises which form the core exercises of the current ISS resistive exercise countermeasures. Each exerciser performed a warm-up set at 50% effort, then 3 sets of increasing resistance. We measured oxygen consumption and work during each exercise. Heat loss was calculated as the difference between the gross energy expenditure (minus resting metabolism) and the work performed. To determine heat production during aerobic exercise, 14 subjects performed an interval, cycle exercise protocol and 7 subjects performed a continuous, treadmill protocol. Each 30-min. exercise is similar to exercises planned for ISS. Oxygen consumption monitored continuously during the exercises was used to calculate the gross energy expenditure. For cycle exercise, work performed was calculated based on the ergometer's resistance setting and pedaling frequency. For treadmill, total work was estimated by assuming 25% work efficiency and subtracting the calculated heat production and resting metabolic rate from the gross energy expenditure. This heat production needs to be considered when determining the location of exercise hardware on ISS and designing environmental control systems. These values reflect only the human subject s produced heat; heat produced by the exercise hardware also will contribute to the heat load.

  10. Flight energetics in sphinx moths: heat production and heat loss in Hyles lineata during free flight.

    PubMed

    Casey, T M

    1976-06-01

    1. Mean thoracic temperature of free-flying H. lineata in the field and in the laboratory increased from about 40 degrees C at Ta=16 degrees C to 42-5 degrees C at Ta=32 degrees C. At a given Ta, thoracic temperature was independent of body weight and weakly correlated with wing loading. 2. The difference between abdominal temperature and air temperature increased from 2 degrees C at low Ta to 4-2 degrees C at high Ta. At a given Ta, the difference between Tab and Ta was positively correlated with thoracic temperature. 3. Oxygen consumption per unit weight did not appear to vary with Ta from 15 to 30 degrees C and was inversely proportional to body weight. 4. Thermal conductance of the abdomen (Cab) was greater than thermal conductance of the thorax (Cth) in still air and at wind velocities up to 2-5 m/s. In moving air at speeds approximating flight, Cth was twice as high as in still air. Under the same conditions Cab was 3-4 times as high as in still air. 5. Thoracic and abdominal conductance are inversely proportional to their respective weights. 6. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that thoracic temperature is controlled by regulation of heat loss. However, a heat budget derived from these data suggests that heat dissipation may not be sufficient to offset the decrease in passive cooling of the thorax at high ambient temperatures. PMID:932632

  11. Local Heat Transfer and CHF for Subcooled Flow Boiling - Annual Report 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald D. Boyd

    2000-01-01

    Subcooled flow boiling in heated coolant channels is an important heat transfer enhancement technique in the development of fusion reactor components, where high heat fluxes must be accommodated. As energy fluxes increase in magnitude, additional emphasis must be devoted to enhancing techniques such as sub cooling and enhanced surfaces. In addition to subcooling, other high heat flux alternatives such as

  12. The locality axiom in quantum field theory and tensor products of C*-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Imani, Paniz; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2014-06-01

    The prototypes of mutually independent systems are systems which are localized in spacelike separated regions. In the framework of locally covariant quantum field theory, we show that the commutativity of observables in spacelike separated regions can be encoded in the tensorial structure of the functor which associates unital C*-algebras (the local observable algebras) to globally hyperbolic spacetimes. This holds under the assumption that the local algebras satisfy the split property and involves the minimal tensor product of C*-algebras.

  13. The kinetics of heat production in response to active shortening in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, L E; Gilbert, S H

    1987-01-01

    1. Tension and heat production were measured at 0 degree C in sartorius muscles from Rana temporaria in response to two extents of shortening at five velocities. Shortening was from approximately 2.4 to 2.2 microns, 2.4 to 2.3 microns and 2.3 to 2.2 micron at velocities per half-sarcomere from 0.2 to 1.56 micron s-1. 2. Tension became approximately constant at all velocities. Records of heat rate obtained by differentiating traces from which thermoelastic heat had been subtracted became negative early in shortening and then rose. Heat rate became constant during shortening only at the lowest velocity and was still rising at the end of shortening at higher velocities. The highest heat rate occurred at the end of shortening at the two highest velocities. At the end of shortening at all velocities heat rate gradually approached the isometric level measured at the short length, the half-time for decline being largest following the slowest larger shortening. 3. Heat produced as a consequence of shortening but not associated with tension recovery was determined by subtracting shortening heat measured in response to two extents of shortening to the same muscle length. The differences in shortening heat continued to increase after shortening ended, and more of the extra heat produced in response to shortening appeared after the end of rapid shortening than during shortening itself. 4. Shortening heat coefficients calculated in different ways were similar to coefficients determined in previous studies. Coefficients calculated from measurements that excluded heat produced by tension recovery and allowed for continued production of heat by processes initiated by shortening were found to increase linearly with the force maintained during shortening. 5. The results show that the kinetics of heat production during and after shortening are very sensitive to the speed of shortening and that steady rates of energy liberation are not attained during shortening of less than or equal to 10% of muscle length at velocities greater than or equal to 12% of maximum velocity. PMID:3498824

  14. Chloroplast small heat shock proteins: Evidence for atypical evolution of an organelle-localized protein

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Elizabeth R.; Vierling, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the origin and evolution of gene families is critical to our understanding of the evolution of protein function. To gain a detailed understanding of the evolution of the small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in plants, we have examined the evolutionary history of the chloroplast (CP)-localized sHSPs. Previously, these nuclear-encoded CP proteins had been identified only from angiosperms. This study reveals the presence of the CP sHSPs in a moss, Funaria hygrometrica. Two clones for CP sHSPs were isolated from a F. hygrometrica heat shock cDNA library that represent two distinct CP sHSP genes. Our analysis of the CP sHSPs reveals unexpected evolutionary relationships and patterns of sequence conservation. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP sHSPs with other plant CP sHSPs and eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial sHSPs shows that the CP sHSPs are not closely related to the cyanobacterial sHSPs. Thus, they most likely evolved via gene duplication from a nuclear-encoded cytosolic sHSP and not via gene transfer from the CP endosymbiont. Previous sequence analysis had shown that all angiosperm CP sHSPs possess a methionine-rich region in the N-terminal domain. The primary sequence of this region is not highly conserved in the F. hygrometrica CP sHSPs. This lack of sequence conservation indicates that sometime in land plant evolution, after the divergence of mosses from the common ancestor of angiosperms but before the monocot–dicot divergence, there was a change in the selective constraints acting on the CP sHSPs. PMID:10588716

  15. Localization and expression of heat shock protein 70 with rat myocardial cell damage induced by heat stress in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongbo; Adam, Abdelnasir; Cheng, Yanfen; Tang, Shu; Hartung, Jörg; Bao, Endong

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression kinetics and heat stress?induced damage to rat myocardial cells in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the activity of heart injury?associated enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, significantly increased and myocardial cells developed acute histopathological lesions; this therefore suggested that heat stress altered the integrity of myocardial cells in vitro and in vivo. Levels of Hsp70 in vitro decreased following the initiation of heat stress and then steadily increased until heat stress ceased at 100 min; however, in vivo studies demonstrated a gradual increase in Hsp70 levels in the heart cells of rats from the initiation of heat stress, followed by a sharp decline at 100 min. These results indicated that the cells sustained different degrees of injury in vivo compared with those sustained in vitro, this may be due to different regulatory mechanisms in the two environments. Intracytoplasmic Hsp70 signaling was significantly reduced at 60 min in vitro, compared with that of the in vivo study, indicating that Hsp70 consumption may have exceeded its production prior to 60 min of heat stress, and following 60 min the cells produced sufficient Hsp70 protein for their protection against heat stress. Hsp70?positive signals in the cytoplasm of heart cells in vivo were more prominent in the intact areas compared with those of the degenerated areas and the density of Hsp70?positive signals was significantly reduced following 60 min of heat stress. In conclusion, comprehensive comparisons of enzymes, cell morphology and Hsp70 levels indicated that decreased levels of Hsp70 were associated with the reduced protective effect on myocardial cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25412361

  16. Thermal deformation of a tension mask and beam landing shift for a perfectly flat CRT under localized heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Woong Jang; Woon Seo Shin; Se Joon You

    1999-01-01

    Thermal deformation of a tension mask under localized heating was analyzed using the finite element method. Landing shift of the electron beam could be predicted based on these analysis results. In the CRT, the landing shift of the electron beam due to thermal deformation of the tension mask made the color purity of the screen worse. In order to get

  17. On local equivalence of star-products on Poisson manifolds

    E-print Network

    Ziemowit Domanski; Maciej Blaszak

    2015-03-20

    We present a proof that every star-product defined on a Poisson manifold and written in a given quantum canonical coordinate system is uniquely equivalent with a Moyal product associated with this coordinate system. The equivalence is assumed to satisfy some additional conditions which guarantee its uniqueness. Moreover, the systematic construction of such equivalence is presented and a formula for this equivalence in a case of a particular class of star-products is given, to the fourth order in $\\hbar$.

  18. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL HEATING: TAXATION, SUBSIDIES, AND COMPARATIVE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This analysis is in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It examines the effect of economic incentives on public and private decisions affecting energy production and us...

  19. An iterative procedure for estimating areally averaged heat flux using planetary boundary layer mixed layer height and locally measured heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R. L.; Gao, W.; Lesht, B. M.

    2000-04-04

    Measurements at the central facility of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) are intended to verify, improve, and develop parameterizations in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The reliability of this approach depends upon the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole or on how these measurements can be interpreted so as to accurately represent increasingly large scales. The variation of surface energy budget terms over the SGP CART site is extremely large. Surface layer measurements of the sensible heat flux (H) often vary by a factor of 2 or more at the CART site (Coulter et al. 1996). The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) effectively integrates the local inputs across large scales; because the mixed layer height (h) is principally driven by H, it can, in principal, be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. By combining measurements of h from radiosondes or radar wind profiles with a one-dimensional model of mixed layer height, they are investigating the ability of diagnosing large-scale heat fluxes. The authors have developed a procedure using the model described by Boers et al. (1984) to investigate the effect of changes in surface sensible heat flux on the mixed layer height. The objective of the study is to invert the sense of the model.

  20. Vacuum evaporation treatment of digestate: full exploitation of cogeneration heat to process the whole digestate production.

    PubMed

    Guercini, S; Castelli, G; Rumor, C

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum evaporation represents an interesting and innovative solution for managing animal waste surpluses in areas with high livestock density. To reduce operational costs, a key factor is the availability of an inexpensive source of heat, such as that coming from an anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The aim of this study was to test vacuum evaporation for the treatment of cattle slurry digestate focusing on heat exploitation. Tests were performed with a pilot plant fed with the digestate from a full-scale AD plant. The results were used to evaluate if and how cogeneration heat can support both the AD plant and the subsequent evaporation of the whole daily digestate production in a full-scale plant. The concentrate obtained (12% total solids) represents 40-50% of the influent. The heat requirement is 0.44 kWh/kg condensate. Heat power availability exceeding the needs of the digestor ranges from 325 (in winter) to 585 kW (in summer) versus the 382 kW required for processing the whole digestate production. To by-pass fluctuations, we propose to use the heat coming from the cogenerator directly in the evaporator, tempering the digestor with the latent heat of distillation vapor. PMID:25098878

  1. Radiogenic Heat Production in the Gölcük Caldera and Direkli, Isparta Angle (Southwest Anatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyanik, N. A.; Akkurt, I.

    2014-12-01

    The study area is included of the Gölcük volcanism and its around that is located in Isparta province of Turkey's Mediterranean region. The Gölcük volcanism is a young volcanism. This volcanism around is available the andesite, trachy andesite, tuff, pumice and such a geological units. In this study was researched radiogenic heat production of the Gölcük caldera and Direkli fields of the Isparta-Türkiye. 1390 data was obtained in the study area. These data were collected using in-situ measurements with gamm-ray spectrometer. These measurements were covered natural radioactive elements (Uranium U, Thorium Th and Potassium K). Radiogenic heat production values were calculated using the literature relationships and in-situ measurement values of these radioactive elements. Radiogenic heat map of study area were obtained using radiogenic heat production values. While red zone areas of map gives of highest heat values, green zones areas of the map presents lowest heat values, for study area according to this map. *This study is supported by Tübitak with the project number 112Y145.

  2. Possibility of catalytic purification of the excess heat carrier in the production of molded coke

    SciTech Connect

    Malysh, A.S.; Privalov, B.E.; Papkov, G.I.; Shuleshov, E.I.; Shmadchenko, V.N.; Solovei, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the method developed in the USSR for production of molded coke, the rapid heating of the coal charge is conducted by a gaseous heat carrier passing through all the stages of the system. The excess gas contains combustion products of the coke oven gas, water vapor, coal dusts, and products of the thermal decomposition of the coal. Investigations were conducted on the catalytic purification of this gaseous heat carrier. The performance efficiency of catalysts and mixtures of two catalysts was determined. The catalysts acted also as granular bed filters to remove the coal dusts; however, the dust accumulation had to be removed periodically to regenerate the catalysts. The method removes phenol, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and hydrocarbons. The use of a bag filter for removal of dusts before purification of the carrier gas is recommended. 5 references, 2 tables.

  3. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  4. The Economic Productivity of Urban Areas: Disentangling General Scale Effects from Local Exceptionality

    E-print Network

    #12;The Economic Productivity of Urban Areas: Disentangling General Scale Effects from Local The factors that explain differences in the economic productivity of urban areas have remained difficult of economic activity in a city in terms of a production function, together with a scaling perspective

  5. Density relaxation of a near-critical fluid in response to local heating and low frequency vibration in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Jounet, Arnaud

    2002-03-01

    The response of a confined near-critical fluid to local heating in the presence of vibration is studied by means of two-dimensional numerical simulations of the compressible and unsteady Navier-Stokes equations written for a van der Waals fluid. As in the experiments performed two years ago onboard the Mir orbital station, two different regimes of density distribution are observed. For sufficiently low frequency and high amplitude vibration, two thermal plumes develop from the heat source along the vibration axis. Otherwise (higher frequency and/or lower amplitude), density inhomogeneities caused by heating stay around the heat source. For this regime, the pair of vortices created in each half period absorbs the preceding one, while it is convected away for the double-plume regime. As time goes on, this process repeats, with a lateral extension of the low density region. At lower frequencies, instabilities appear in the flow, thus corroborating again microgravity experiments. PMID:11909321

  6. Non-local-thermodynamical-equilibrium effects in the x-ray emission of radiatively heated materials of different atomic numbers.

    PubMed

    Földes, I B; Eidmann, K; Veres, G; Bakos, J S; Witte, K

    2001-07-01

    X-ray self-emission of radiatively heated materials with different values of Z has been investigated. Thin foils were uniformly heated by a 120-eV Hohlraum radiation of 400-ps duration in order to study the self-emission of a homogeneous, optically thin material. The x-ray emission spectra were followed for more than 2 ns. The spectrally integrated emission shows not only a strong Z dependence, but different temporal behaviors for different values of Z. The lower is the value of Z of the x-ray heated matter, the longer is the duration of self-emission. Theoretical comparison with a hydrocode and FLY post-processing shows a non-local-thermal equilibrium behavior caused by direct photoionization due to the thermal pumping radiation, which has a higher brightness temperature than the matter temperature of the heated material. PMID:11461413

  7. Fermentor production of pectinases on gruel, a local by-product and their use in olive oil extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noomen Hadj-Taieb; Malika Ayadi; Mohsen Khlif; Kamel Mrad; Ilem Hassairi; Ali Gargouri

    2006-01-01

    The CT1 mutant is a hyperproducer of pectinases isolated from Penicillium occitanis. It highly secretes pectinases on citrus pectin as well as on orange peel. Production in fermentor was carried out on another local by-product of wheat manufactories, the gruel. This substrate, poor in pectic substances, showed the highest capacity to induce pectinases, strengthening the fact that our mutant is

  8. The effects of span position of winglet vortex generator on local heat\\/mass transfer over a three-row flat tube bank fin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Zhang; L. B. Wang; F. Ke; Y. X. Su; S. D. Gao

    2004-01-01

    The naphthalene sublimation method was used to study the effects of span position of vortex generators (VGs) on local heat transfer on three-row flat tube bank fin. A dimensionless factor of the larger the better characteristics, JF, is used to screen the optimum span position of VGs. In order to get JF, the local heat transfer coefficient obtained in experiments

  9. Consistent Pattern of Local Adaptation during an Experimental Heat Wave in a Pipefish-Trematode Host-Parasite System

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Susanne H.; Kalbe, Martin; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Roth, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    Extreme climate events such as heat waves are expected to increase in frequency under global change. As one indirect effect, they can alter magnitude and direction of species interactions, for example those between hosts and parasites. We simulated a summer heat wave to investigate how a changing environment affects the interaction between the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) as a host and its digenean trematode parasite (Cryptocotyle lingua). In a fully reciprocal laboratory infection experiment, pipefish from three different coastal locations were exposed to sympatric and allopatric trematode cercariae. In order to examine whether an extreme climatic event disrupts patterns of locally adapted host-parasite combinations we measured the parasite's transmission success as well as the host's adaptive and innate immune defence under control and heat wave conditions. Independent of temperature, sympatric cercariae were always more successful than allopatric ones, indicating that parasites are locally adapted to their hosts. Hosts suffered from heat stress as suggested by fewer cells of the adaptive immune system (lymphocytes) compared to the same groups that were kept at 18°C. However, the proportion of the innate immune cells (monocytes) was higher in the 18°C water. Contrary to our expectations, no interaction between host immune defence, parasite infectivity and temperature stress were found, nor did the pattern of local adaptation change due to increased water temperature. Thus, in this host-parasite interaction, the sympatric parasite keeps ahead of the coevolutionary dynamics across sites, even under increasing temperatures as expected under marine global warming. PMID:22303448

  10. Subcontinental lithosphere reactivation beneath the Hoggar swell (Algeria): Localized deformation, melt channeling and heat advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourim, Fatna; Vauchez, Alain; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Alard, Olivier; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane

    2015-05-01

    In the Tahalgha district (southwestern Hoggar, Algeria), the Cenozoic volcanism has sampled subcontinental mantle beneath two crustal terranes that collided during the Pan-African orogeny: the "Polycyclic Central Hoggar" to the east and the "Western Hoggar" to the west. Two major lithospheric shear zones separate these terranes: the "4°35" and the "4°50" faults. Mantle xenoliths were collected between the two faults and across the 4°35 fault. In addition to a range in equilibrium temperatures and chemical compositions reported elsewhere, the samples show variations in their microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientations. Equilibrium temperatures and geochemical characteristics allow dividing them into low - (LT; 700-900 °C), intermediate - (IT; 900-1000 °C), and high-temperature (HT; 1000-1100 °C) xenoliths. The LT and IT peridotites occur on both sides of the 4°35 fault; they are usually coarse-grained. HT xenoliths are present only east of the 4°35 fault, in the narrow domain stuck between the two faults; they are fine-grained and extensively affected by annealing and melt-rock reactions. Microstructures and crystallographic textures indicate that deformation in the LT- and IT-xenoliths occurred through dislocation creep under relatively high-temperature, low-pressure conditions, followed by post-kinematic cooling. The fine-grained HT-xenoliths were deformed under relatively high-stress conditions before being annealed. Combining microstructural and CPO data with petrological and geochemical informations suggests that: (1) the LT xenoliths are remnants of the Neoproterozoic lithospheric mantle that preserved microstructural and chemical characteristics inherited from the Pan-African orogeny, and (2) the HT xenoliths record localized Cenozoic deformation associated with melt channeling through feed-back processes that culminated in the formation of high-permeability porous-flow conduits. Limited grain-growth in HT xenoliths suggests that advective heating of melt conduits was transient and rapidly followed by thermal relaxation due to conductive heat loss into wall-rock peridotites represented by the IT xenoliths, then by exhumation due to volcanic activity.

  11. Heat-inducible production of beta-glucuronidase in tobacco hairy root cultures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kung-Ta; Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Yamakawa, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    The production of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by the Arabidopsis small heat shock protein 18.2 promoter in liquid cultures of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hairy roots is reported. Clone GD-3, showing high GUS heat induction and a moderate growth rate, was selected from 436 clones for study. Treatment of GD-3 with heat shock at 36-42 degrees C for 2 h then recovery at 27 degrees C resulted in an increase in GUS specific activity, while higher heat-shock temperatures led to a decline. These results were in accordance with the change in esterase activity, a measure of tissue viability. Using 2 h of 42 degrees C heat shock and a recovery phase at 27 degrees C, GUS specific activity increased rapidly and reached a maximum of 267.6 nmol 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronic acid (MU) min-1 mg-1 protein at 24 h of recovery. When tissues were continuously heated at 42 degrees C and tested without a recovery period, GUS mRNA was detectable at 2 h and peaked at 5 h, but GUS activity was not seen until 10 h and did not peak until 28 h; in addition, the maximum activity was lower than that seen after heat shock for only 30 min or 2 h, followed by recovery. This shows that recovery at normal temperature is crucial for the heat-inducible heterogeneous expression system of transgenic hairy roots. Multiple heat-shock treatments showed that this system was heat reinducible, although a gradual decline in GUS specific activity was seen in the second and third cycles. PMID:16957892

  12. Localized Recrystallization in Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy during Solution Heat Treatment: Dilatometric and Calorimetric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, S. K.; Warke, V.; Shankar, S.; Apelian, D.

    2011-10-01

    During heat treatment, the work piece experiences a range of heating rates depending upon the sizes and types of furnace. When the Al-Si-Mg cast alloy is heated to the solutionizing temperature, recrystallization takes place during the ramp-up stage. The effect of heating rate on recrystallization in the A356 (Al-Si-Mg) alloy was studied using dilatometric and calorimetric methods. Recrystallization in as-cast Al-Si alloys is a localized event and is confined to the elasto-plastic zone surrounding the eutectic Si phase; there is no evidence of recrystallization in the center of the primary Al dendritic region. The size of the elasto-plastic zone is of the same order of magnitude as the Si particles, and recrystallized grains are observed in the elasto-plastic region near the Si particles. The coefficient of thermal expansion of Al is an order of magnitude greater than Si, and thermal stresses are generated due to the thermal mismatch between the Al phase and Si particles providing the driving force for recrystallization. In contrast, recrystallization in Al wrought alloy (7075) occurs uniformly throughout the matrix, stored energy due to cold work being the driving force for recrystallization in wrought alloys. The activation energy for recrystallization in as-cast A356 alloy is 127 KJ/mole. At a slow heating rate of 4.3 K/min, creep occurs during the heating stage of solution heat treatment. However, creep does not occur in samples heated at higher heating rates, namely, 520, 130, and 17.3 K/min.

  13. Local heat transfer coefficients and superficial bed porosity of a horizontal cylinder in bubbling fluidized beds of geldart B particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Natale, Francesco; Nigro, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    In this work, experimental values of local heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal cylinder immersed in a bubbling fluidized bed are reported for three types of bed materials classified as Geldart B particles, fluidized with air at ambient pressure and temperature. Results are interpreted in light of a model for heat transfer coefficient in order to estimate the time-average bed porosity profile close to the exchange surface. These angular profiles of bed porosity are compared with former experiments to verify the correctness of the adopted model, and are used to provide a physical interpretation of the experimental results.

  14. Investigation of Local Heat-transfer and Pressure Drag Characteristics of a Yawed Circular Cylinder at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Glen; Creager, Marcus O; Winkler, Ernest L

    1956-01-01

    Local heat-transfer coefficients, temperature recovery factors, and pressure distributions were measured on the front side of a circular cylinder at a nominal Mach number of 3.9 over a range of free-stream Reynolds numbers from 2.1 x 10 to the 3rd power to 6.7 x 10 to the 3rd power and yaw angles from zero degrees to 44 degrees. Yawing the cylinder reduced the heat-transfer coefficients and the pressure drag coefficients. The amount of reduction may be predicted by a theory presented herein.

  15. Enhanced hot-electron localization and heating in high-contrast ultraintense laser irradiation of microcone targets.

    PubMed

    Rassuchine, J; d'Humières, E; Baton, S D; Guillou, P; Koenig, M; Chahid, M; Perez, F; Fuchs, J; Audebert, P; Kodama, R; Nakatsutsumi, M; Ozaki, N; Batani, D; Morace, A; Redaelli, R; Gremillet, L; Rousseaux, C; Dorchies, F; Fourment, C; Santos, J J; Adams, J; Korgan, G; Malekos, S; Hansen, S B; Shepherd, R; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Sentoku, Y; Cowan, T E

    2009-03-01

    We report experiments demonstrating enhanced coupling efficiencies of high-contrast laser irradiation to nanofabricated conical targets. Peak temperatures near 200 eV are observed with modest laser energy (10 J), revealing similar hot-electron localization and material heating to reduced mass targets (RMTs), despite having a significantly larger mass. Collisional particle-in-cell simulations attribute the enhancement to self-generated resistive (approximately 10 MG) magnetic fields forming within the curvature of the cone wall, which confine energetic electrons to heat a reduced volume at the tip. This represents a different electron confinement mechanism (magnetic, as opposed to electrostatic sheath confinement in RMTs) controllable by target shape. PMID:19392065

  16. Visualization of effect of turbulators on local heat transfer distribution in a 180 degree turn with liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Rajesh, Gopal

    1994-01-01

    loss (Watts) Re Reynolds no. h Heat tr. coeff (W/m') Nu Nusselt no. 16. 02 16. 83 17. 53 1812 19. 07 19. 81 20. 47 20. 78 2. 60 305. 26 2. 75 305. 37 2. 90 305. 59 3. 00 305. 15 3. 10 305. 87 3. 20 305. 98 3. 35 305. 04 3. 40 305...VISUALIZATION OF EFFECT OF TURBULATORS ON LOCAL HEAT TRANSFER DISTRIBUTION IN A 180' TURN WITH LIQUID CRYSTALS A Thesis by GOPAL RAJESH Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  17. Encoding the structure of many-body localization with matrix product operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekker, David; Clark, Bryan K.

    2015-03-01

    Anderson insulators are non-interacting disordered systems which have localized single particle eigenstates. The interacting analogue of Anderson insulators are the Many-Body Localized (MBL) phases. The natural language for representing the spectrum of the Anderson insulator is that of product states over the single-particle modes. We show that product states over Matrix Product Operators of small bond dimension is the corresponding natural language for describing the MBL phases. In this language all of the many-body eigenstates are encode by Matrix Product States (i.e. DMRG wave function) consisting of only two sets of low bond-dimension matrices per site: the Gi matrix corresponding to the local ground state on site i and the Ei matrix corresponding to the local excited state. All 2 n eigenstates can be generated from all possible combinations of these matrices.

  18. Improvement of halophilic cellulase production from locally isolated fungal strain

    PubMed Central

    Gunny, Ahmad Anas Nagoor; Arbain, Dachyar; Jamal, Parveen; Gumba, Rizo Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic cellulases from the newly isolated fungus, Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-6 were found to be useful for in situ saccharification of ionic liquids treated lignocelluloses. Efforts have been taken to improve the enzyme production through statistical optimization approach namely Plackett–Burman design and the Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). Plackett–Burman experimental design was used to screen the medium components and process conditions. It was found that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), FeSO4·7H2O, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, peptone, agitation speed and inoculum size significantly influence the production of halophilic cellulase. On the other hand, KH2PO4, KOH, yeast extract and temperature had a negative effect on enzyme production. Further optimization through FCCCD revealed that the optimization approach improved halophilic cellulase production from 0.029 U/ml to 0.0625 U/ml, which was approximately 2.2-times greater than before optimization.

  19. Simulation of magmatic and metamorphic fluid production coupled with deformation, fluid flow and heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Heather A.

    2009-11-01

    A methodology for simulating magmatic and metamorphic fluid production coupled with mechanical deformation, fluid flow and heat transport is presented. The methodology is implemented in FLAC3D, a lagrangian finite difference code designed for simulation of coupled deformation, fluid flow and heat transport in porous media. The rate of metamorphic fluid production is governed by the rate of temperature change and an approximation of the variation in bound water content of appropriate lithologies with temperature. Magmatic fluid production is governed by the rate of cooling and the variation in free water content of a mafic granitic magma with temperature. Changes in porosity and fluid pressure due to fluid production, deformation, and thermal expansion are taken into account. Dilation associated with thermal expansion and fluid production leads to rotation of the principal stresses around fluid source regions. Fluid properties are calculated using an equation of state for pure water. The methodology has been applied to examples representing aspects of Archaean gold mineralisation in Western Australia, providing insight into the role of magmatic and metamorphic fluids in mineralisation, and effects arising from interactions between deformation, heat transport and fluid production.

  20. Do Creative Industries Cluster? Mapping Creative Local Production Systems in Italy and Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Lazzeretti; Rafael Boix; Francesco Capone

    2008-01-01

    An important debate on the role of creativity and culture as factors in local economic development is distinctly emerging. Despite the emphasis put on the theoretical definition of these concepts, it is necessary to strengthen comparative research for the identification and analysis of the kind of creativity embedded in a given territory. Creative local production systems are identified, in Italy

  1. TEMPERATURE-HUMIDITY INDICES AS INDICATORS OF MILK PRODUCTION LOSSES DUE TO HEAT STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meteorological data (1993 to 2004) from two public weather stations in Phoenix, AZ and Athens, GA were analyzed with test day milk yield data from herds nearby the weather stations to identify the most appropriate temperature humidity index (THI) to measure losses in milk production due to heat stre...

  2. Heat unit availability for cotton production in the Ogallala Aquifer Region of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production in the Ogallala Aquifer Region can be tied to early maturing varieties, rising energy costs, and declining water levels in the Ogallala Aquifer. However, the feasibility of growing cotton considering the availability of heat units in this region...

  3. Volatile production during preignition heating. Final technical report, 15 September 1980-30 September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, A.; Chou, H.; Flusberg, A.; Neoh, K.; Orozco, N.; Stickler, D.

    1983-10-01

    Pulverized coal particles, in a flowing inert nitrogen stream, have been heated by high power Carbon Dioxide Laser. The consequence of such an irradiation have proved to be both novel and surprising as a result of the rapid quenching of primary coal products. It ahs been found that the gas phase yield from such heating (typically, temperatures in excess of 1400 K at rates approx. 2 x 10/sup 5/ K/s) is very small (< 0.2 percent of coal carbon and hydrogen). Analysis of the solid residue has shown the presence of fine lacy particulate chains of material of 0.1 ..mu..m diameter, which appears to be soluble in tetrahydrofuran. The yields of solute were significantly much higher than for raw coals. Molecular weight of the solute material was high, being in the range of 600 to 3000. The above and substantiating evidence point to a new mechanism of high heating rate pyrolysis in which only tar-like materials are produced as primary products from the coal. It is hypothesized that gas phase products are primarily the result of secondary reactions of these primary products in the hot gas environments usually employed by other heating techniques.

  4. Smoke production, radiation heat transfer and fire growth in a liquid-fuelled compartment fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. M. Pierce; J. B. Moss

    2007-01-01

    A detailed investigation is described of the interaction between fire development, smoke production and radiative exchange in a half-scale ASTM compartment in which the source is a heptane pool fire. Measurements of heat flux, fuel mass loss rate, ventilation flow rates, temperature and soot volume fraction are reported for the compartment for varying door widths. Data from the compartment are

  5. Personal factors in thermal comfort assessment: clothing properties and metabolic heat production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Havenith; Ingvar Holmér; Ken Parsons

    2002-01-01

    In the assessment of thermal comfort in buildings, the use of the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model is very popular. For this model, data on the climate, on clothing and on metabolic heat production are required. This paper discusses the representation and measurement of clothing parameters and metabolic rate in the PMV context. Several problems are identified and for some

  6. Study of Local Plasma Heating during Magnetic Reconnection by Tomographic Ion Doppler Spectroscopy in TS-3, TS-4 and MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kuwahata, Akihiro; Yamada, Takuma; Watanabe, Takenori; Gi, Keii; Annoura, Masanobu; Kadowaki, Kazutake; Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Koike, Hideya; Nishida, Kento; Inomoto, Michiaki; You, Setthivoine; Crowley, Brendan; Conway, Neil; Scannel, Rory; Gryaznevich, Mikhail; Ono, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    For the past decade, local plasma heating during magnetic reconnection has been investigated in TS-3 and TS-4 by use of 2D Doppler tomography and in-situ probe diagnostics. Our merging experiments revealed significant ion heating in the outflow region and electron heating around X point. The reconnection heating energy scales with the square of reconnecting field Brec and reaches ~200 eV at maximum with Brec ~0.1T. As a promising CS-less spherical tokamak startup technique, the reconnection/merging startup in MAST achieved the maximum ions and electron temperatures over 1 keV. The high-resolution Thomson scattering with 130 chords reveals direct electron heating at the X-point and electron density pile-up in the downstream. The 32 chords Doppler tomography system was installed on the midplane of MAST for the purpose of measuring the radial profile of ion temperature. The measured triple peaks of ion temperature indicate the ion heating in the downstream as well as that in the current sheet with and without the assist of centre solenoid coil.

  7. Muscle heat production and anaerobic energy turnover during repeated intense dynamic exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Krustrup, Peter; González-Alonso, José; Quistorff, Bjørn; Bangsbo, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine muscle heat production, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy production is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 ± 5 W (mean ±s.e.m.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle heat production. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 ± 0.12 °C and it increased 0.97 ± 0.08 °C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 ± 0.05 °C) and EX3 (0.77 ± 0.06 °C). In EX1 the rate of muscle heat accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of heat release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of heat production, determined as the sum of heat accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 ± 8 during the first 15 s to 157 ± 7 J s?1 during the last 15 s of EX1. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy production during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise is repeated muscle heat production is not changed, but muscle aerobic energy turnover is elevated and anaerobic energy production is reduced during the first minutes of exercise. PMID:11691886

  8. Localized heating of electrons in ionization zones: Going beyond the Penning-Thornton paradigm in magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2014-12-07

    The fundamental question of how energy is supplied to a magnetron discharge is commonly answered by the Penning-Thornton paradigm invoking secondary electrons. Huo et al. (Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 22, 045005, (2013)) used a global discharge model to show that electron heating in the electric field of the magnetic presheath is dominant. In this contribution, this concept is applied locally taking into account the electric potential structure of ionization zones. Images of ionization zones can and should be interpreted as diagrams of the localization of electric potential and related electron energy, where certain collisions promote or dampen their formation.

  9. Immunocytochemical Localization of the Cystic Fibrosis Gene Product CFTR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Crawford; Peter C. Maloney; Pamela L. Zeitlin; William B. Guggino; Stephen C. Hyde; Helen Turley; Kevin C. Gatter; Ann Harris; Christopher F. Higgins

    1991-01-01

    Antisera against two peptides, corresponding to different domains of the cystic fibrosis gene product CFTR, have been raised and extensively characterized. Both antisera recognize CFTR as a 165-kDa polypeptide in Western analysis of cells transfected with CFTR cDNA as well as in epithelial cell lines. The cell and tissue distribution of CFTR has been studied by immunocytochemistry. CFTR is abundant

  10. An approach to analyzing the intensity of the daytime surface urban heat island effect at a local scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shenlai Xu

    2009-01-01

    A landscape index LI is proposed to evaluate the intensity of the daytime surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect at a local\\u000a scale. Three aspects of this landscape index are crucial: the source landscape, the sink landscape, and the contribution of\\u000a source and sink landscapes to the intensity of the SUHI. Source and sink landscape types are identified using the

  11. On the decomposition method to the heat equation with non-linear and non-local boundary conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hadizadeh; K. Maleknejad

    1998-01-01

    The Adomian decomposition method is used and applied to the mathematical model of a biosensor. This model consists of a heat equation with non-linear and non-local boundary conditions. To obtain a canonical form of Adomian, an equivalent non-linear Volterra integral equation with a weakly singular kernel is set up. In addition, the asymptotic behaviour of the solution as t ?

  12. CONSUMERS' WILLINGNESS TO PURCHASE LOCALLY PRODUCED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS: AN ANALYSIS OF AN INDIANA SURVEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Jekanowski; Daniel R. Williams II; William A. Schiek

    2000-01-01

    Using a survey of over 320 consumers from across the state of Indiana, we estimate an ordered probit model to determine the demographic and attitudinal factors which are most important in predicting the likelihood of consumers to purchase products that are produced within the state. Our results indicate that the willingness to purchase locally produced agricultural products increases with time

  13. Deletion of the Chloroplast-Localized Thylakoid Formation1 Gene Product in Arabidopsis Leads to

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan M.

    of the plastid. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Thylakoid formation1 (Thf1) gene product is shown here Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), designed to identify genes important for seedling viability, appearedDeletion of the Chloroplast-Localized Thylakoid Formation1 Gene Product in Arabidopsis Leads

  14. Territorial externalities in Local Agro-Food Systems of typical food products Sanz Caada, J.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Territorial externalities in Local Agro-Food Systems of typical food products Sanz Cañada, J. ISDA OF TYPICAL FOOD PRODUCTS THE OLIVE OIL PROTECTED DESIGNATIONS OF ORIGIN IN SPAIN () Dr. Javier SANZ CAÑADA-28 28037 Madrid (Spain) javier.sanz@cchs.csic.es Abstract --The objective of the paper is to elaborate

  15. Extracellular ?-Mannanase Production by the Immobilization of the Locally Isolated Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOUSTAFA Y. EL-NAGGAR; SAMY A. EL-ASSAR; AMANY S. YOUSSEF; NERMEEN A. EL-SERSY

    The production of ?-mannanase by the immobilization of the local Aspergillus niger strain isolated from the coconut fibres was studied. The fungal spores were entrapped in different gel materials. Alginate (1%) was the best gel matrix for ?- mannanase production, although alginate entrapment showed a relatively low ?-mannanase activity compared to free culture system. The entrapped cells in alginate were

  16. Heat stress impairs the nutritional metabolism and reduces the productivity of egg-laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shang; Ruan, Dong; Jiang, Zongyong

    2014-03-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat stress on the nutritional metabolism and productivity of egg-laying shelducks. Healthy shelducks (n=120) in the early laying stage (uniform body weights and normal feed intakes) were randomly assigned to two identical climate chambers and exposed to constant high temperature (34°C) or control temperature (23°C) for 28d. The heat-exposed ducks had reduced feed intakes and laying rates (P<0.05), increased frequency of panting and spreading wings and dull featheration; egg weight, eggshell thickness and strength, and Haugh unit also decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of egg yolk increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control ducks, the plasma concentrations of HCO3(-), phosphorus, glucose, thyroxine and activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased, while there were increased concentrations of corticosterone (P<0.05). The content of MDA and lactate in plasma and liver was greater in heat-exposed than in control ducks, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant enzymes (T-AOC) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents were less. The expression of HSP70 gene expression in the liver was increased in heat-stressed ducks. The relative weight of oviduct, number of large ovarian follicles, length of the oviduct all decreased (P<0.05) in heat-treated ducks, as did expression of carbonic anhydrase and calcium binding protein genes in the shell gland as a result of heat stress. In summary, heat stress decreased the productivity of ducks, which related to reduced feed intake, protein synthesis, endocrine dysfunction, less antioxidant capacity, and derangement of calcium and phosphorous balance. PMID:24491646

  17. Experimental Measurement of the Local Energy Dissipation Rate and its Balance with the Local Heat Flux in Turbulent Thermal Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shi-Di; Ni, Rui; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2011-11-01

    The local energy dissipation rate ?u , c in Rayleigh- Bénard convection cell was measured experimentally using the particle tracking velocimetry method, with varying Rayleigh number Ra, Prandtl number Pr, and system size H. It is found that ?u , c / (?3H-4) = 1 . 05 ×10-4 Ra 1 . 55 +/- 0 . 02 Pr 1 . 15 +/- 0 . 38 . The Ra- and H-dependency of the measured result are found to be consistent with the assumption made for the bulk energy dissipation rate ?u , bulk in the Grossmann-Lohse model, while the Pr-dependency is not. A remarkable finding of the study is that ?u , c balances the directly measured local Nusselt number Nuc in the cell center, not only scaling-wise but also in magnitude. This work was supported by RGC of Hong Kong SAR (No. CUHK403807 and 404409).

  18. Local Measurement of NonClassical Ion Heating During Magnetic Reconnection

    E-print Network

    particles. Solar observations suggest that hard X­rays from solar flares are produced by reconnection [3 reduced by wave turbulence [7], and electron heating [8] were observed. However, ion heating could were reported based on mea­ surements of ion flux at the vacuum wall [10]. In both TS­3 and SSX

  19. Local Measurement of Non-Classical Ion Heating During Magnetic Reconnection

    E-print Network

    particles. Solar observations suggest that hard X-rays from solar flares are produced by reconnection [3 reduced by wave turbulence [7], and electron heating [8] were observed. However, ion heating could were reported based on mea- surements of ion flux at the vacuum wall [10]. In both TS-3 and SSX

  20. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene, Ethylene, and Diborane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The net heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction of diborane with a mixture of acetylene and ethylene was found to be 20,440 +/- 150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net-heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,850 +/- 150 Btu per pound.

  1. Composite heat-insulating material and process for the production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Yazaki, T.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, S.; Hayama, K.; Itoh, I.

    1985-02-19

    A composite heat-insulating material and a process for the production thereof are described. This material is of the structure that an olefin- or styrene-based resin sheet and a urethane foam material are laminated on each other with an adhesive containing: (A) 20 to 100% by weight of a water-soluble polyamine compound selected from the group consisting of polyethyleneimine, poly(ethyleneimine-urea), and a polyaminepolyamide/ethyleneimine adduct, and (B) 80 to 0% by weight of a nitrogen atom-containing cationic or amphoteric polymer. This composite heat-insulating material is very suitable for use as a lining material for a refrigerator, for example.

  2. 26Al decay: Heat production and a revised age for Iapetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Johnson, Torrence V.; Lee, Man Hoi; Turner, Neal J.; Matson, Dennis L.; Lunine, Jonathan

    2009-12-01

    We revisit the appropriate energies to be used for computing heat production from 26Al decay. Due to the complexity of the decay scheme of this radioisotope, previous geophysical studies have used values ranging from 1.2 to 4 MeV per decay. The upper bound corresponds to the difference in mass energy between the 26Al and 26Mg ground states. This includes energy carried away by neutrinos, which does not contribute to heating planetary material. The lower bound does not account for the heating caused by the absorption of the ? rays from the excited 26Mg, or for the annihilation energy deposited in the material if the decay occurs inside even small planetesimals. Based on the calculations described by Schramm et al. [Schramm, D., Tera, F., Wasserburg, G.J., 1970. The isotopic abundance of 26Mg and limits on 26Al in the early Solar System. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 10, 44-59] updated with the most recent nuclear constants, we recommend using a heat production value of 3.12 MeV per decay, which is the total energy of disintegration minus the energy carried off by the neutrinos. This heat production value is higher than the value used in the modeling of Iapetus by Castillo-Rogez et al. [Castillo-Rogez, J., Matson, D.L., Sotin, C., Johnson, T.V., Lunine, J.I., Thomas, P.C., 2007. Iapetus' geophysics: Rotation rate, shape, and equatorial ridge. Icarus 190, 179-202] by about a factor 2.5. The resulting estimate of the time of formation of Iapetus is shifted by about 1 Myr, to between ˜3.4 and 5.4 Myr after the production of the calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs).

  3. A simplified method for thermal analysis of a cowl leading edge subject to intense local shock-wave-interference heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, David M.; Camarda, Charles J.; Scotti, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Type IV shock wave interference heating on a blunt body causes extremely intense heating over a very localized region of the body. An analytical solution is presented to a heat transfer problem that approximates the shock wave interference heating of an engine cowl leading edge of the National Aero-Space Plane. The problem uses a simplified geometry to represent the leading edge. An analytical solution is developed that provides a means for approximating maximum temperature differences between the outer and inner surface temperatures of the leading edge. The solution is computationally efficient and, as a result, is well suited for conceptual and preliminary design or trade studies. Transient and steady state analyses are conducted, and results obtained from the analytical solution are compared with results of 2-D thermal finite element analyses over a wide range of design parameters. Isotropic materials as well as laminated composite materials are studied. Results of parametric studies are presented to indicate the effects of the thickness of the cowl leading edge and the width of the region heated by the shock wave interference on the thermal response of the leading edge.

  4. Evaluación de características productivas en cabritos Boer × local, Nubia × local y locales en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México Evaluation of productive traits in Boer × local, Nubian × local and local kids in the dry tropic of Guerrero, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayra I. Merlos-Brito; Rubén D. Martínez-Rojero; Ángel A. Mastache-Lagunas; Jaime Gallegos-Sánchez

    By means of the GLM procedure of the SAS statistical package, the effects of the genetic groups (GG) Boer ? local (BL), Nubian ? local (NL) and local ? local (LL) kids, sex of kid (SK), type of birth (TB), age of dam (AD), season (SB) and year (YB) of birth, as well as genotype ? environment interactions on birth

  5. Converting the patterns of local heat flux via thermal illusion device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, N. Q.; Shen, X. Y.; Huang, J. P.

    2015-05-01

    Since the thermal conduction equation has form invariance under coordinate transformation, one can design thermal metamaterials with novel functions by tailoring materials' thermal conductivities. In this work, we establish a different transformation theory, and propose a layered device with anisotropic thermal conductivities. The device is able to convert heat flux from parallel patterns into non-parallel patterns and vice versa. In the mean time, the heat flux pattern outside the device keeps undisturbed as if this device is absent. We perform finite-element simulations to confirm the converting behavior. This work paves a different way to manipulate the flow of heat at will.

  6. Endocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 60 is required to induce interleukin-10 production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Nazia; Varman, Raja; Nair, Shiny; Das, Gobardhan; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2013-08-23

    Understanding the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory responses in tuberculosis is extremely important in tailoring a macrophage innate response to promote anti-tuberculosis immunity in the host. Although the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the regulation of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory responses is known, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria modulate these innate responses are not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that M. tuberculosis heat shock protein 60 (Mtbhsp60, Cpn60.1, and Rv3417c) interacts with both TLR2 and TLR4 receptors, but its interaction with TLR2 leads to clathrin-dependent endocytosis resulting in an increased production of interleukin (IL)-10 and activated p38 MAPK. Blockage of TLR2-mediated endocytosis inhibited IL-10 production but induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and activated ERK1/2. In contrast, upon interaction with TLR4, Mtbhsp60 remained predominantly localized on the cell surface due to poorer endocytosis of the protein that led to decreased IL-10 production and p38 MAPK activation. The Escherichia coli homologue of hsp60 was found to be retained mainly on the macrophage surface upon interaction with either TLR2 or TLR4 that triggered predominantly a pro-inflammatory-type immune response. Our data suggest that cellular localization of Mtbhsp60 upon interaction with TLRs dictates the type of polarization in the innate immune responses in macrophages. This information is likely to help us in tailoring the host protective immune responses against M. tuberculosis. PMID:23846686

  7. Identification of potential local isolated for biosurfactant production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei, Zahra; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Moazami, Nasrin; Hamzah, Ainon; Fooladi, Taybeh

    2013-11-01

    Biosurfactant are amphiphilic molecule that have received increasing attention in recent years because of their role in the growth of microorganisms on water-insoluble hydrophobic materials such as hydrocarbons as well as their commercial potential in the cosmetics, food, oil recovery and agricultural industries. In this study a potential biosurfactant producing strain was isolated from several soil samples of Terengganu oil refinery, Malaysia and selected during preliminary screening using hemolytic activity, oil spreading and drop collapsed technique. Isolates with at least more than one positive response to these three methods were subjected to complementary screening by measuring surface tension reduction as well as emulsification capacity. The biosurfactant produced by isolated 5M was able to reduced surface tension of culture medium from 60 mN/m to30mN/m. The biochemical and morphological characterization, 16SrRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolated 5M belongs to bacillus groups. The maximum production of biosurfactant by Bacillus 5M was observed after 48 h of incubation.

  8. Development of Naphthalene PLIF for Visualizing Ablation Products From a Space Capsule Heat Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combs, C. S.; Clemens, N. T.; Danehy, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will use an ablative heat shield. To better design this heat shield and others that will undergo planetary entry, an improved understanding of the ablation process would be beneficial. Here, a technique developed at The University of Texas at Austin that uses planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a low-temperature sublimating ablator (naphthalene) to enable visualization of the ablation products in a hypersonic flow is applied. Although high-temperature ablation is difficult and expensive to recreate in a laboratory environment, low-temperature sublimation creates a limited physics problem that can be used to explore ablation-product transport in a hypersonic flow-field. In the current work, a subscale capsule reentry vehicle model with a solid naphthalene heat shield has been tested in a Mach 5 wind tunnel. The PLIF technique provides images of the spatial distribution of sublimated naphthalene in the heat-shield boundary layer, separated shear layer, and backshell recirculation region. Visualizations of the capsule shear layer using both naphthalene PLIF and Schlieren imaging compared favorably. PLIF images have shown high concentrations of naphthalene in the capsule separated flow region, intermittent turbulent structures on the heat shield surface, and interesting details of the capsule shear layer structure. It was shown that, in general, the capsule shear layer appears to be more unsteady at lower angels of attack. The PLIF images demonstrated that during a wind tunnel run, as the model heated up, the rate of naphthalene ablation increased, since the PLIF signal increased steadily over the course of a run. Additionally, the shear layer became increasingly unsteady over the course of a wind tunnel run, likely because of increased surface roughness but also possibly because of the increased blowing. Regions with a relatively low concentration of naphthalene were also identified in the capsule backshell recirculation region and are most likely the result of cross-flow-induced vortices on the capsule afterbody.

  9. Carbon dioxide local heat transfer coefficients during flow boiling in a horizontal circular smooth tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mastrullo; A. W. Mauro; A. Rosato; G. P. Vanoli

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is gaining renewed interest as an environmentally safe refrigerant. In order to improve the energy efficiency of R744 systems, an accurate knowledge of heat transfer coefficients is fundamental.In this paper experimental heat transfer coefficients during flow boiling of R744 in a smooth, horizontal, circular, 6.00mm inner diameter tube are presented. We obtained 217 experimental points in 18 operating

  10. Local heat treatment of high strength steels with zoom-optics and 10kW-diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Markus; Krause, Volker; Bergweiler, Georg; Flaischerowitz, Martin; Banik, Janko

    2012-03-01

    High strength steels enable new solutions for weight optimized car bodies without sacrificing crash safety. However, cold forming of these steels is limited due to the need of high press capacity, increased tool wear, and limitations in possible geometries. One can compensate for these drawbacks by local heat treatment of the blanks. In high-deformation areas the strength of the material is reduced and the plasticity is increased by diode laser irradiation. Local heat treatment with diode laser radiation could also yield key benefits for the applicability of press hardened parts. High strength is not desired all over the part. Joint areas or deformation zones for requested crash properties require locally reduced strength. In the research project "LOKWAB" funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), heat treatment of high strength steels was investigated in cooperation with Audi, BMW, Daimler, ThyssenKrupp, Fraunhofer- ILT, -IWU and others. A diode laser with an output power of 10 kW was set up to achieve acceptable process speed. Furthermore a homogenizing zoom-optics was developed, providing a rectangular focus with homogeneous power density. The spot size in x- and y-direction can be changed independently during operation. With pyrometer controlled laser power the surface temperature is kept constant, thus the laser treated zone can be flexibly adapted to the needs. Deep-drawing experiments show significant improvement in formability. With this technique, parts can be manufactured, which can conventionally only be made of steel with lower strength. Locally reduced strength of press hardened serial parts was demonstrated.

  11. Advanced Intermediate Heat Transport Loop Design Configurations for Hydrogen Production Using High Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Oh; Cliff Davis; Rober Barner; Paul Pickard

    2005-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the high-temperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic evaluations and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various configurations were also determined. The evaluations determined which configurations and coolants are the most promising from thermal-hydraulic and efficiency points of view.

  12. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M; Abbady, A

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 microWm(-3) (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 microWm(-3) (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites. PMID:16120480

  13. Studies on Feed Spoilage: Heating Inhibiting Activity of Various Compounds and Commercial Products.

    E-print Network

    Halick, John V.; Richardson, L. R.

    1957-01-01

    , Aspergillus niger, that the addition of sodium acetate or a yeast extract to the medium de- stroyed the mold inhibiting action of the propio- nate. As a result of this observation, sodium acetate and a yeast extract were each added to corn meal containing... the critical level. They were less effective at higher moisture tents. Four products which the manufacturer claimed inhibited heating were tested for their fungistatic a ity. None of these materials was active at a level several times that recommended...

  14. Metabolic heat production in electrically stimulated and non-stimulated muscle 

    E-print Network

    Fitzwater, Roy James

    1980-01-01

    of sample + wt of perchloric acid (vol x 1. 035) 2 V = volume of perchloric acid before neutralization 3 V~ ? volume of perchloric acid before neutralization + volume of 13 potassium carbonate f or neutralization V = 1 ml (sample + distilled water...METABOLIC HEAT PRODUCTION IN ELECTRICALLY STIMULATED AND NON-STIMULATED MUSCLE A Thesis by ROY JAMES FITZWATER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fufillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER CF...

  15. Sex- and limb-specific differences in the nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Greaney, Jody L; Larry Kenney, W; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    Local heating of the skin is commonly used to assess cutaneous microvasculature function. Controversy exists as to whether there are limb or sex differences in the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent contribution to this vasodilation, as well as the NO synthase (NOS) isoform mediating the responses. We tested the hypotheses that 1) NO-dependent vasodilation would be greater in the calf compared with the forearm; 2) total NO-dependent dilation would not be different between sexes within limb; and 3) women would exhibit greater neuronal NOS (nNOS)-dependent vasodilation in the calf. Two microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of the ventral forearm and the calf of 19 (10 male and 9 female) young (23 ± 1 yr) adults for the local delivery of Ringer solution (control) or 5 mM N(?)-propyl-l-arginine (NPLA; nNOS inhibition). Vasodilation was induced by local heating (42°C) at each site, after which 20 mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) was perfused for within-site assessment of NO-dependent vasodilation. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximum (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, 43°C). Total NO-dependent vasodilation in the calf was lower compared with the forearm in both sexes (Ringer: 42 ± 5 vs. 62 ± 4%; P < 0.05; NPLA: 37 ± 3 vs. 59 ± 5%; P < 0.05) and total NO-dependent vasodilation was lower in the forearm for women (Ringer: 52 ± 6 vs. 71 ± 4%; P < 0.05; NPLA: 47 ± 6 vs. 68 ± 5%; P < 0.05). NPLA did not affect total or NO-dependent vasodilation across limbs in either sex (P > 0.05). These data suggest that the NO-dependent component of local heating-induced cutaneous vasodilation is lower in the calf compared with the forearm. Contrary to our original hypothesis, there was no contribution of nNOS to NO-dependent vasodilation in either limb during local heating. PMID:25100074

  16. Studies of the use of high-temperature nuclear heat from an HTGR for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterman, D. D.; Fontaine, R. W.; Quade, R. N.; Halvers, L. J.; Jahromi, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study which surveyed various methods of hydrogen production using nuclear and fossil energy are presented. A description of these methods is provided, and efficiencies are calculated for each case. The process designs of systems that utilize the heat from a general atomic high temperature gas cooled reactor with a steam methane reformer and feed the reformer with substitute natural gas manufactured from coal, using reforming temperatures, are presented. The capital costs for these systems and the resultant hydrogen production price for these cases are discussed along with a research and development program.

  17. Production of pyrolytic liquids from industrial sewage sludges in an induction-heating reactor.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Chang, Jeng-Hung; Hsien, Kuo-Jung; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the application of induction-heating, the pyrolytic experiments have been carried out for three sewage sludges from the food processing factories in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The thermochemical characteristics of sludge samples were first analyzed. The results indicated that the calorific value had about 15 MJ/kg on an average, suggesting that it had a potential for biomass energy source. However, its nitrogen concentration was relatively high. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves, it showed that the pyrolysis reaction can be almost finished in the temperature range of 450-750 degrees C. The yields of resulting liquid and char products from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge were discussed for examining the effects of pyrolysis temperature (500-800 degrees C), heating rate (200-500 degrees C/min), and holding time (1-8 min). Overall, the variation of yield was not so significant in the experimental conditions for three sewage sludges. All results of the resulting liquid products analyzed by elemental analyzer, pH meter, Karl-Fischer moisture titrator and bomb calorimeter were in consistence with those analyses by FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the pyrolysis liquid products contained large amounts of water (>73% by weight) mostly derived from the bound water in the biosludge feedstocks and the condensation reactions during the pyrolysis reaction, and fewer contents of oxygenated hydrocarbons composing of carbonyl and nitrogen-containing groups, resulting in low pH and low calorific values. PMID:18656347

  18. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, K?rlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  19. A Partial Load Model for a Local Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-print Network

    to supply to the local network. The local CHP plants are all thermal, with fuel types in- cluding (but not limited to) waste, bio gas, and straw but a large majority are fuelled by natural gas [10]. They often.g. [4] and [28]). For more detailed overviews of work performed on the problem, see [15], [18], and [24

  20. Numerical research of heat and mass transfer at the ignition of system "fabric - combustible liquid - oxidant" by the local energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Dmitrii O.; Kuznetsov, Genii V.; Strizhak, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical research was executed for macroscopic regularities determination of heat and mass transfer processes under the conditions of phase transformation and chemical reaction at the ignition of vapour coming from fabrics impregnated by typical combustible liquid into oxidant area at the local power supply. Limit conditions of heterogeneous system "fabric - combustible liquid - oxidant" ignition at the heating of single metal particle was established. Dependences of ignition delay time on temperature and rates of local power source were obtained.

  1. Simulating local measurements on a quantum many body system with stochastic matrix product states

    E-print Network

    Søren Gammelmark; Klaus Mølmer

    2009-11-25

    We demonstrate how to simulate both discrete and continuous stochastic evolution of a quantum many body system subject to measurements using matrix product states. A particular, but generally applicable, measurement model is analyzed and a simple representation in terms of matrix product operators is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the anti-ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular we focus on local measurements with small support and non-local measurements which induces long range correlations.

  2. Local heat transfer and film effectiveness of a film cooled gas turbine blade tip 

    E-print Network

    Adewusi, Adedapo Oluyomi

    1999-01-01

    21 . . . 22 9 Heat Transfer Distribution for Re = 1. 0x10 with D/W = 0. 2 23 10 Heat Transfer Distribution for ct = 90', Re = 5. 0x10, M D/W= 0. 1. = 0. 75 and 11 Heat Transfer Distribution for ct = 90', Re = 5. 0x10, M = 1. 0 and D/W = 0. 1...', M = 0. 75 and D/W = 0. 1. . . 71 Raw Data for u=4S', Re = 5. 0xi0, M = 1. 0 and D/W= 0. 1. . . . 72 Raw Data for u=45', Re = 5. 0x10, M = 2. 0 and D/W = 0. 1. . . . 73 Raw Data for u=45', Re = 1. 0x10, M = 0. 75 and D/W = 0. 1. . . 95 96 97 98...

  3. Arabidopsis HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTORA1b overexpression enhances water productivity, resistance to drought, and infection.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Ulrike; Albihlal, Waleed S; Lawson, Tracy; Fryer, Michael J; Sparrow, Penelope A C; Richard, François; Persad, Ramona; Bowden, Laura; Hickman, Richard; Martin, Cathie; Beynon, Jim L; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Baker, Neil R; Morison, James I L; Schöffl, Friedrich; Ott, Sascha; Mullineaux, Philip M

    2013-08-01

    Heat-stressed crops suffer dehydration, depressed growth, and a consequent decline in water productivity, which is the yield of harvestable product as a function of lifetime water consumption and is a trait associated with plant growth and development. Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) genes have been implicated not only in thermotolerance but also in plant growth and development, and therefore could influence water productivity. Here it is demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana plants with increased HSFA1b expression showed increased water productivity and harvest index under water-replete and water-limiting conditions. In non-stressed HSFA1b-overexpressing (HSFA1bOx) plants, 509 genes showed altered expression, and these genes were not over-represented for development-associated genes but were for response to biotic stress. This confirmed an additional role for HSFA1b in maintaining basal disease resistance, which was stress hormone independent but involved H?O? signalling. Fifty-five of the 509 genes harbour a variant of the heat shock element (HSE) in their promoters, here named HSE1b. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR confirmed binding of HSFA1b to HSE1b in vivo, including in seven transcription factor genes. One of these is MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c (MBF1c). Plants overexpressing MBF1c showed enhanced basal resistance but not water productivity, thus partially phenocopying HSFA1bOx plants. A comparison of genes responsive to HSFA1b and MBF1c overexpression revealed a common group, none of which harbours a HSE1b motif. From this example, it is suggested that HSFA1b directly regulates 55 HSE1b-containing genes, which control the remaining 454 genes, collectively accounting for the stress defence and developmental phenotypes of HSFA1bOx. PMID:23828547

  4. Arabidopsis HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTORA1b overexpression enhances water productivity, resistance to drought, and infection

    PubMed Central

    Richard, François; Bowden, Laura; Morison, James I.L.; Mullineaux, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Heat-stressed crops suffer dehydration, depressed growth, and a consequent decline in water productivity, which is the yield of harvestable product as a function of lifetime water consumption and is a trait associated with plant growth and development. Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) genes have been implicated not only in thermotolerance but also in plant growth and development, and therefore could influence water productivity. Here it is demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana plants with increased HSFA1b expression showed increased water productivity and harvest index under water-replete and water-limiting conditions. In non-stressed HSFA1b-overexpressing (HSFA1bOx) plants, 509 genes showed altered expression, and these genes were not over-represented for development-associated genes but were for response to biotic stress. This confirmed an additional role for HSFA1b in maintaining basal disease resistance, which was stress hormone independent but involved H2O2 signalling. Fifty-five of the 509 genes harbour a variant of the heat shock element (HSE) in their promoters, here named HSE1b. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR confirmed binding of HSFA1b to HSE1b in vivo, including in seven transcription factor genes. One of these is MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c (MBF1c). Plants overexpressing MBF1c showed enhanced basal resistance but not water productivity, thus partially phenocopying HSFA1bOx plants. A comparison of genes responsive to HSFA1b and MBF1c overexpression revealed a common group, none of which harbours a HSE1b motif. From this example, it is suggested that HSFA1b directly regulates 55 HSE1b-containing genes, which control the remaining 454 genes, collectively accounting for the stress defence and developmental phenotypes of HSFA1bOx. PMID:23828547

  5. Lagrangian temperature, velocity, and local heat flux measurement in Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    PubMed

    Gasteuil, Y; Shew, W L; Gibert, M; Chillá, F; Castaing, B; Pinton, J-F

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a small, neutrally buoyant, wireless temperature sensor. Using a camera for optical tracking, we obtain simultaneous measurements of position and temperature of the sensor as it is carried along by the flow in Rayleigh-Bénard convection, at Ra approximately 10;{10}. We report on statistics of temperature, velocity, and heat transport in turbulent thermal convection. The motion of the sensor particle exhibits dynamics close to that of Lagrangian tracers in hydrodynamic turbulence. We also quantify heat transport in plumes, revealing self-similarity and extreme variations from plume to plume. PMID:18233369

  6. Vermont Biofuels Initiative: Local Production for Local Use to Supply a Portion of Vermont�s Energy Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sawyer; Ellen Kahler

    2009-05-31

    The Vermont Biofuels initiative (VBI) is the Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund�s (VSJF) biomass-to-biofuels market development program. Vermont is a small state with a large petroleum dependency for transportation (18th in per capita petroleum consumption) and home heating (55% of all households use petroleum for heating). The VBI marks the first strategic effort to reduce Vermont�s dependency on petroleum through the development of homegrown alternatives. As such, it supports the four key priorities of the U.S. Department of Energy�s Multi-year Biomass Plan: 1.) Dramatically reduce dependence on foreign oil; 2.) Promote the use of diverse, domestic and sustainable energy resources; 3.) Reduce carbon emissions from energy production and consumption; 4.) Establish a domestic bioindustry. In 2005 VSJF was awarded with a $496,000 Congressionally directed award from U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy. This award was administered through the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG36- 05GO85017, hereafter referred to as DOE FY05) with $396,000 to be used by VSJF for biodiesel development and $100,000 to be used by the Vermont Department of Public Service for methane biodigester projects. The intent and strategic focus of the VBI is similar to another DOE funded organization� the Biofuels Center of North Carolina�in that it is a nonprofit driven, statewide biofuels market development effort. DOE FY05 funds were expensed from 2006 through 2008 for seven projects: 1) a feedstock production, logistics, and biomass conversion research project conducted by the University of Vermont Extension; 2) technical assistance in the form of a safety review and engineering study of State Line Biofuels existing biodiesel production facility; 3) technical assistance in the form of a safety review and engineering study of Borderview Farm�s proposed biodiesel production facility; 4) technology and infrastructure purchases for capacity expansion at Green Technologies, LLC, a waste vegetable biodiesel producer; 5) technical assistance in the form of feasibility studies for AgNorth Biopower LLC�s proposed multi-feedstock biodigester; 6) technology and infrastructure purchases for the construction of a �Cow Power� biodigester at Gervais Family Farm; and 7) the education and outreach activities of the Vermont Biofuels Association. DOE FY05 funded research, technical assistance, and education and outreach activities have helped to provide Vermont farmers and entrepreneurs with important feedstock production, feedstock logistics, and biomass conversion information that did not exist prior as we work to develop an instate biodiesel sector. The efficacy of producing oilseed crops in New England is now established: Oilseed crops can grow well in Vermont, and good yields are achievable given improved harvesting equipment and techniques. DOE FY05 funds used for technology and infrastructure development have expanded Vermont�s pool of renewable electricity and liquid fuel generation. It is now clear that on-farm energy production provides an opportunity for Vermont farmers and entrepreneurs to reduce on-farm expenditures of feed and fuel while providing for their energy security. Meanwhile they are developing new value-added revenue sources (e.g., locally produced livestock meal), retaining more dollars in the local economy, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Kinetic-freezing and unfreezing of local-region fluctuations in a glass structure observed by heat capacity hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Aji, D P B; Johari, G P

    2015-06-01

    Fluctuations confined to local regions in the structure of a glass are observed as the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation. Properties of these regions and their atomic configuration are currently studied by relaxation techniques, by electron microscopy, and by high-energy X-ray scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine structure methods. One expects that these fluctuations (i) would kinetically freeze on cooling a glass, and the temperature coefficient of its enthalpy, dH/dT, would consequently show a gradual decrease with decrease in T, (ii) would kinetically unfreeze on heating the glass toward the glass-liquid transition temperature, Tg, and dH/dT would gradually increase, and (iii) there would be a thermal hysteresis indicating the time and temperature dependence of the enthalpy. Since no such features have been found, thermodynamic consequences of these fluctuations are debated. After searching for these features in glasses of different types, we found it in one of the most stable metal alloy glasses of composition Pd40Ni10Cu30P20. On cooling from its Tg, dH/dT decreased along a broad sigmoid-shape path as local-region fluctuations kinetically froze. On heating thereafter, dH/dT increased along a similar path as these fluctuations unfroze, and there is hysteresis in the cooling and heating paths, similar to that observed in the Tg-endotherm range. After eliminating other interpretations, we conclude that local-region fluctuations seen as the JG relaxation in the non-equilibrium state of a glass contribute to its entropy, and we suggest conditions under which such fluctuations may be observed. PMID:26049502

  8. Kinetic-freezing and unfreezing of local-region fluctuations in a glass structure observed by heat capacity hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P.

    2015-06-01

    Fluctuations confined to local regions in the structure of a glass are observed as the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation. Properties of these regions and their atomic configuration are currently studied by relaxation techniques, by electron microscopy, and by high-energy X-ray scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine structure methods. One expects that these fluctuations (i) would kinetically freeze on cooling a glass, and the temperature coefficient of its enthalpy, dH/dT, would consequently show a gradual decrease with decrease in T, (ii) would kinetically unfreeze on heating the glass toward the glass-liquid transition temperature, Tg, and dH/dT would gradually increase, and (iii) there would be a thermal hysteresis indicating the time and temperature dependence of the enthalpy. Since no such features have been found, thermodynamic consequences of these fluctuations are debated. After searching for these features in glasses of different types, we found it in one of the most stable metal alloy glasses of composition Pd40Ni10Cu30P20. On cooling from its Tg, dH/dT decreased along a broad sigmoid-shape path as local-region fluctuations kinetically froze. On heating thereafter, dH/dT increased along a similar path as these fluctuations unfroze, and there is hysteresis in the cooling and heating paths, similar to that observed in the Tg-endotherm range. After eliminating other interpretations, we conclude that local-region fluctuations seen as the JG relaxation in the non-equilibrium state of a glass contribute to its entropy, and we suggest conditions under which such fluctuations may be observed.

  9. The Impact of Consumer Ethnocentrism and Cultural Sensitivity on the Intention to Buy Local Products by Vietnamese Consumers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen D Tho; Nigel J Barrett

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of consumer ethnocentrism and cultural sensitivity on the intention to buy local products by Vietnamese consumers. Three models hypothesising the relationships between consumer ethnocentrism, cultural sensitivity, foreign product judgment and intention to buy local products were developed. A sample of 549 consumers was surveyed to test these models via a

  10. Modelling the measured local time evolution of strongly nonlinear heat pulses in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, R. O.; Chapman, S. C.; Inagaki, S.

    2013-11-01

    In some magnetically confined plasmas, an applied pulse of rapid edge cooling can trigger either a positive or negative excursion in the core electron temperature from its steady state value. We present a new model which captures the time evolution of the transient, non-diffusive local dynamics in the core plasma. We show quantitative agreement between this model and recent spatially localized measurements (Inagaki et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 075002) of the local time-evolving temperature pulse in cold pulse propagation experiments in the Large Helical Device.

  11. Localized heat flux due to lower hybrid wave coupling in the Ergodic Divertor configuration on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugno, I.; Cordier, J. J.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Goniche, M.; Grosman, A.; Gunn, J. P.; Mailloux, J.; Person, S.

    Lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments were carried out in the ergodic divertor (ED) configuration. In this configuration, at low density (< ne>=1.7 × 10 19-2.3 × 10 19 m -3), up to 4.5 MW of LH power was coupled and 65% of the plasma current (here equal to 1.4 MA to match the resonant edge safety factor needed for divertor operation) was driven by the LH waves. With an optimized position of the grills, it was possible to obtain a reasonable steady state temperature of the neutralizers ( Tneut < 800°C) and 3.9 MW were coupled for 20 s leading to a record total injected energy of 93 MJ in this configuration. The power deposition can be derived from the surface temperature of the boron carbide coating of the neutralizers by infrared thermography. A well localized heat flux is observed on the divertor neutralizers magnetically connected to the grills. Such heat flux is known, from previous work, to be due to LH power dissipation near the grills. This heat flux is here studied in detail. In the shots analyzed here, parallel heat fluxes up to 15 MW/m 2 were measured, but values exceeding 50 MW/m 2 have been recorded. The use of the field line tracing code MASTOC allows one to link the power deposition on the neutralizer plate to specific regions in front to the grills, thus underlying the importance of the electromagnetic fields there. The edge density is shown to be a key parameter. Not-well-understood local effects arise when the LH is activated, and accurate measurement and analysis of local density and electric field are needed. It has to be noted that a trade-off between the decrease of the edge density at the grill and its coupling capability which drives the electric fields quoted above has to be dealt with; the positioning of the grill has then to be optimized and eventually feedback controlled. In order to increase the operational margin, the spreading of the heat flux was efficiently obtained by a moderate modulation of the divertor current by less than 30%.

  12. Effect of rib angle on local heat/mass transfer distribution in a two-pass rib-roughened channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, P. R.; Han, J. C.; Lau, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    The naphthalene sublimation technique is used to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of turbulent air flow in a two-pass channel. A test section that resembles the internal cooling passages of gas turbine airfoils is employed. The local Sherwood numbers on the ribbed walls were found to be 1.5-6.5 times those for a fully developed flow in a smooth square duct. Depending on the rib angle-of-attack and the Reynolds number, the average ribbed-wall Sherwood numbers were 2.5-3.5 times higher than the fully developed values.

  13. Star-Product Functions in Higher-Spin Theory and Locality

    E-print Network

    M. A. Vasiliev

    2015-05-27

    Properties of the functional classes of star-product elements associated with higher-spin gauge fields and gauge parameters are elaborated. Cohomological interpretation of the nonlinear higher-spin equations is given. An algebra ${\\mathcal H}$, where solutions of the nonlinear higher-spin equations are valued, is found. A conjecture on the classes of star-product functions underlying (non)local maps and gauge transformations in the nonlinear higher-spin theory is proposed.

  14. A local heat transfer analysis of lava cooling in the atmosphere: application to thermal diffusion-dominated lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Augusto

    1998-05-01

    The local cooling process of thermal diffusion-dominated lava flows in the atmosphere was studied by a transient, one-dimensional heat transfer model taking into account the most relevant processes governing its behavior. Thermal diffusion-dominated lava flows include any type of flow in which the conductive-diffusive contribution in the energy equation largely overcomes the convective terms. This type of condition is supposed to be satisfied, during more or less extended periods of time, for a wide range of lava flows characterized by very low flow-rates, such as slabby and toothpaste pahoehoe, spongy pahoehoe, flow at the transition pahoehoe-aa, and flows from ephemeral vents. The analysis can be useful for the understanding of the effect of crust formation on the thermal insulation of the lava interior and, if integrated with adequate flow models, for the explanation of local features and morphologies of lava flows. The study is particularly aimed at a better knowledge of the complex non-linear heat transfer mechanisms that control lava cooling in the atmosphere and at the estimation of the most important parameters affecting the global heat transfer coefficient during the solidification process. The three fundamental heat transfer mechanisms with the atmosphere, that is radiation, natural convection, and forced convection by the wind, were modeled, whereas conduction and heat generation due to crystallization were considered within the lava. The magma was represented as a vesiculated binary melt with a given liquidus and solidus temperature and with the possible presence of a eutectic. The effects of different morphological features of the surface were investigated through a simplified description of their geometry. Model results allow both study of the formation in time of the crust and the thermal mushy layer underlying it, and a description of the behavior of the temperature distribution inside the lava as well as radiative and convective fluxes to the atmosphere. The analysis, performed by using parameters typical of Etnean lavas, particularly focuses on the non-intuitive relations between superficial cooling effects and inner temperature distribution as a function of the major variables involved in the cooling process. Results integrate recent modelings and measurements of the cooling process of Hawaiian pahoehoe flow lobes by Hon et al. (1994) and Keszthelyi and Denlinger (1996) and highlight the critical role played by surface morphology, lava thermal properties, and crystallization dynamics. Furthermore, the reported description of the various heat fluxes between lava and atmosphere can be extended to any other type of lava flows in which atmospheric cooling is involved.

  15. Effect of surface roughness on local film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas N. Barlow

    1994-01-01

    In high temperature gas turbine engines, the life cycle of the hot section is extremely dependent on accurate design prediction of component temperature distribution. Particular attention must be paid to the film cooling performance of the first stage turbine stator vanes where the highest heat loads are encountered. Recent investigations have determined during operation the smooth surface of high pressure

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of heat shock protein 70 in the human medulla oblongata in forensic autopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Nogami; Akihiro Takatsu; Noriko Endo; Ikuo Ishiyama

    1999-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) can be induced under various stresses in experimental animals. We investigated hsp70 immunoreactivity in the human medulla oblongata in forensic autopsies. Hsp70 immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of some neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve (X), the lateral cuneate nucleus (Cun), and the inferior olive (Oli).

  17. Local heat transfer performance and exit flow characteristics of a miniature axial fan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Stafford; Ed Walsh; Vanessa Egan

    2010-01-01

    Dimensional restrictions in electronic equipment have resulted in miniaturization of many existing cooling technologies. In addition to this, cooling solutions are required to dissipate increased thermal loads to maintain component reliability. Axial fans are widely used in electronics cooling to meet such thermal demands. However, if the extent of non-uniform heat transfer rates, produced by highly three-dimensional air patterns is

  18. Local Bundle Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients on a Plain Tube Bundle (RP1089)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas M. Robinson; John R. Thome

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have been performed for evaporation of refrigerant R-134a on the outside of a bundle of plain tubes. The test setup is of a novel design—one that uses water flowing through the tubes as the heat source with temperature measurements of this water taken at numerous axial locations within the tubes, allowing for an accurate measurement of the water profile

  19. High productivity cultivation of a heat-resistant microalga Chlorella sorokiniana for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Zheng, Yubin; Yu, Liang; Chen, Shulin

    2013-03-01

    To augment biomass and lipid productivities of heterotrophic cultured microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana, the influence of environmental temperature and medium factors, such as carbon source, nitrogen source, and their initial concentrations was investigated in this study. The microalga C. sorokiniana could tolerate up to 42°C and showed the highest growth rate of 1.60d(-1) at 37°C. The maximum dry cell weight (DCW) and corresponding lipid concentration was obtained with 80gL(-1) of initial glucose and 4gL(-1) of initial KNO3 at 37°C. In 5-L batch fermentation, the DCW increased dramatically from 0.9gL(-1) to 37.6gL(-1) in the first 72h cultivation, with the DCW productivity of 12.2gL(-1)d(-1). The maximum lipid content of 31.5% was achieved in 96h and the lipid productivity was 2.9gL(-1)d(-1). The results showed C. sorokiniana could be a promising strain for biofuel production. PMID:23340103

  20. Fluctuation Theorems for Entropy Production and Heat Dissipation in Periodically Driven Markov Chains

    E-print Network

    Benjamin Hertz Shargel; Tom Chou

    2009-07-27

    Asymptotic fluctuation theorems are statements of a Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry in the rate function of either the time-averaged entropy production or heat dissipation of a process. Such theorems have been proved for various general classes of continuous-time deterministic and stochastic processes, but always under the assumption that the forces driving the system are time independent, and often relying on the existence of a limiting ergodic distribution. In this paper we extend the asymptotic fluctuation theorem for the first time to inhomogeneous continuous-time processes without a stationary distribution, considering specifically a finite state Markov chain driven by periodic transition rates. We find that for both entropy production and heat dissipation, the usual Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry of the rate function is generalized to an analogous relation between the rate functions of the original process and its corresponding backward process, in which the trajectory and the driving protocol have been time-reversed. The effect is that spontaneous positive fluctuations in the long time average of each quantity in the forward process are exponentially more likely than spontaneous negative fluctuations in the backward process, and vice-versa, revealing that the distributions of fluctuations in universes in which time moves forward and backward are related. As an additional result, the asymptotic time-averaged entropy production is obtained as the integral of a periodic entropy production rate that generalizes the constant rate pertaining to homogeneous dynamics.

  1. RF plasma production and heating below ion-cyclotron frequencies in Uragan torsatrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Berezhnyj, V. L.; Bondarenko, V. N.; Burchenko, P. Ya.; Castejón, F.; Chechkin, V. V.; Chernyshenko, V. Ya.; Dreval, M. B.; Garkusha, I. E.; Glazunov, G. P.; Grigor'eva, L. I.; Hartmann, D.; Hidalgo, C.; Koch, R.; Konovalov, V. G.; Kotsubanov, V. D.; Kramskoi, Ye. D.; Kulaga, A. E.; Lozin, A. V.; Lyssoivan, A. I.; Mironov, V. K.; Mysiura, I. N.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Pashnev, V. K.; Romanov, V. S.; Shapoval, A. N.; Skibenko, A. I.; Slavnyi, A. S.; Sorokovoy, E. L.; Stadnik, Yu. S.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.; Voitsenya, V. S.

    2011-08-01

    In the IPP-Kharkiv there are two torsatrons (stellarators) in operation, and in both of them Alfvén resonance heating under high-k? conditions is used. This method of heating is advantageous for small-size devices, since in contrast to the minority and second-harmonic heating it can be realized at lower plasma densities. A series of experiments has been performed at the Uragan-3M torsatron with an aim to investigate the features of the discharge with a three-half-turn antenna. Electron temperatures in the \\bar {T}_e =0.2{{--}}0.5\\,keV range are achieved at plasma densities \\bar {n}_e \\approx (0.5{{--}}1.5)\\times 10^{13}\\,cm^{-3} . The plasma energy content has increased by a factor of 2 with respect to the plasma produced with the frame antenna. A new four-strap shielded antenna has been manufactured and installed in the Uragan-2M. A high-frequency discharge for wall conditioning is introduced in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The discharge is sustained by a specially designed small frame antenna, and efficient hydrogen dissociation is achieved. A self-consistent model has been developed for simulation of plasma production in ICRF. The model includes a set of particle and energy-balance equations for the electrons, and the boundary problem for the Maxwell equations. The first calculation results on RF plasma production in the Uragan-2M stellarator with the frame-type antenna are presented.

  2. Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.

    2014-09-01

    The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc = 0.233 ± 0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.

  3. The Cultural Production of Locality: Reclaiming the 'European City' in Post-Wall Berlin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VIRAG MOLNAR

    2010-01-01

    Berlin's post-1989 rebuilding is used to explore the role of cultural professionals, exemplified by architects and urban planners, in the production of locality. Drawing on an analysis of architectural debates, competitions and building projects, the article traces how the model of the 'European city' became the dominant paradigm of urban reconstruction in the 1990s and what precisely was understood by

  4. Deletion of muscle GRP94 impairs both muscle and body growth by inhibiting local IGF production

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Elisabeth R.; Park, SooHyun; James, Jose K.; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Philippou, Anastassios; Eletto, Davide; Lei, Hanqin; Brisson, Becky; Ostrovsky, Olga; Li, Zihai; Argon, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are critical for development and growth of skeletal muscles, but because several tissues produce IGFs, it is not clear which source is necessary or sufficient for muscle growth. Because it is critical for production of both IGF-I and IGF-II, we ablated glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in murine striated muscle to test the necessity of local IGFs for normal muscle growth. These mice exhibited smaller skeletal muscles with diminished IGF contents but with normal contractile function and no apparent endoplasmic reticulum stress response. This result shows that muscles rely on GRP94 primarily to support local production of IGFs, a pool that is necessary for normal muscle growth. In addition, body weights were ?30% smaller than those of littermate controls, and circulating IGF-I also decreased significantly, yet glucose homeostasis was maintained with little disruption to the growth hormone pathway. The growth defect was complemented on administration of recombinant IGF-I. Thus, unlike liver production of IGF-I, muscle IGF-I is necessary not only locally but also globally for whole-body growth.—Barton, E. R., Park, S., James, J. K., Makarewich, C. A., Philippou, A., Eletto, D., Lei, H., Brisson, B., Ostrovsky, O., Li, Z., Argon, Y. Deletion of muscle GRP94 impairs both muscle and body growth by inhibiting local IGF production. PMID:22649033

  5. Cleaner production in SMEs through a partnership with (local) authorities: successes from the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marieke Gombault; Stephan Versteege

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to total industrial production and their dominance in some sectors indicate that their contribution to total industrial environmental impact is considerable. This paper therefore focuses on pollution prevention by SMEs and on the ways in which local authorities can become a strategic partner in this process. The paper consists of a theoretical

  6. Field nano-localization of gas bubble production from water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammadi, Z.; Morin, R.; Olives, J.

    2013-11-01

    Using a tip shaped electrode and ac voltages, we show that the production of micro bubbles of gas from water electrolysis is localized at the tip apex inside a domain in the voltage frequency phase space. A model taking into account the electrode shape and dimensions explains these results which suggest a field effect control of the electrolysis reaction rate at a nanometer scale.

  7. Simulation of localized fast-ion heat loads in test blanket module simulation experiments on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; McLean, A.; Brooks, N.; Budny, R. V.; Chen, X.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Nazikian, R.; Koskela, T.; Schaffer, M. J.; Shinohara, K.; Snipes, J. A.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Infrared imaging of hot spots induced by localized magnetic perturbations using the test blanket module (TBM) mock-up on DIII-D is in good agreement with beam-ion loss simulations. The hot spots were seen on the carbon protective tiles surrounding the TBM as they reached temperatures over 1000 °C. The localization of the hot spots on the protective tiles is in fair agreement with fast-ion loss simulations using a range of codes: ASCOT, SPIRAL and OFMCs while the codes predicted peak heat loads that are within 30% of the measured ones. The orbit calculations take into account the birth profile of the beam ions as well as the scattering and slowing down of the ions as they interact with the localized TBM field. The close agreement between orbit calculations and measurements validate the analysis of beam-ion loss calculations for ITER where ferritic material inside the tritium breeding TBMs is expected to produce localized hot spots on the first wall.

  8. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in heated greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial production so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...

  9. Comparison of the effects of millimeter wave irradiation, general bath heating, and localized heating on neuronal activity in the leech ganglion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The use of electrically-induced neuromodulation has grown in importance in the treatment of multiple neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, cluster headaches and others. While electrical current can be applied locally, it requires placing stimulation electrodes in direct contact with the neural tissue. Our goal is to develop a method for localized application of electromagnetic energy to the brain without direct tissue contact. Toward this goal, we are experimenting with the wireless transmission of millimeter wave (MMW) energy in the 10-100 GHz frequency range, where penetration and focusing can be traded off to provide non-contact irradiation of the cerebral cortex. Initial experiments have been conducted on freshly-isolated leech ganglia to evaluate the real-time changes in the activity of individual neurons upon exposure to the MMW radiation. The initial results indicate that low-intensity MMWs can partially suppress the neuronal activity. This is in contrast to general bath heating, which had an excitatory effect on the neuronal activity. Further studies are underway to determine the changes in the state of the membrane channels that might be responsible for the observed neuromodulatory effects.

  10. Periodic structure optimization via local heat pulse-quench cycles employing the GULP code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möbius, Arnulf; Schön, J. Christian

    2012-02-01

    We present an optimization algorithm for problems with many continuous degrees of freedom and a huge number of local minima. It is based on the thermal cycling approach, originally developed for combinatorial optimization tasks [1]. The main idea is to cyclically disturb a few randomly chosen degrees of freedom of the current best local minimum and to quench this state by a highly efficient local search code. As the optimization proceeds, the amplitude of the disturbance slowly decreases. This approach is applied to a lattice structure prediction problem. We use the general utility lattice program (GULP) by J.D. Gale and co-workers [2] for local search. As test, the hypothetical periodic Mg10Al4Ge2Si8O36 compound is studied, where both the cell parameters and the atom positions are free to vary. The results demonstrate that the proposed procedure is robust and far more efficient than the previous approaches to this problem by means of multi-start local search, simulated annealing, and evolutionary algorithms in Ref. 3. [4pt] [1] A. M"obius et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 4297. [0pt] [2] J.D. Gale and A.L Rohl, Mol. Simul. 29 (2003) 291. [0pt] [3] A.R. Oganov et al., in ``Modern Methods of Crystal Structure Prediction,'' ed. A.R. Organov, (Wiley, 2011), p. 223.

  11. Skylab and solar exploration. [chromosphere-corona structure, energy production and heat transport processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the findings concerning solar structure, energy production, and heat transport obtained with the aid of the manned Skylab space station observatory launched on May 14, 1973. Among the topics discussed are the observation of thermonuclear fusion processes which cannot be simulated on earth, the observation of short-wave solar radiation not visible to observers on earth, and the investigation of energy-transport processes occurring in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. An apparent paradox is noted in that the cooler chromosphere is heating the hotter corona, seemingly in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics, thus suggesting that a nonthermal mechanism underlies the energy transport. Understanding of this nonthermal mechanism is regarded as an indispensable prerequisite for future development of plasma systems for terrestrial applications.

  12. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  13. Evolution of a stratified plasma structure induced by local heating of the ionosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Blaunstein

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional non-stationary problem of striated plasma density structure formation and relaxation during and after thermal heating of the F-layer of the ionosphere by powerful radio waves is investigated both numerically and analytically. A theoretical analysis is carried out, taking account of quasi-regular gradients of the concentration of the background plasma, ambient geophysical factors, as well as the altitudinal dependence

  14. Solar Radiation during Rewarming from Torpor in Elephant Shrews: Supplementation or Substitution of Endogenous Heat Production?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michelle L.; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C.; McKechnie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy. PMID:25853244

  15. Local heat-transfer measurements on a large scale-model turbine blade airfoil using a composite of a heater element and liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Russell, L. M.; Torres, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Local heat transfer coefficients were experimentally mapped along the midchord of a five-time-size turbine blade airfoil in a static cascade operated at room temperature over a range of Reynolds numbers. The test surface consisted of a composite of commercially available materials: a mylar sheet with a layer of cholesteric liquid crystals, that change color with temperature, and a heater sheet made of a carbon-impregnated paper, that produces uniform heat flux. After the initial selection and calibration of the composite sheet, accurate, quantitative, and continuous heat transfer coefficients were mapped over the airfoil surface. The local heat transfer coefficients are presented for Reynolds numbers from 2.8 x 10 to the 5th power to 7.6 x 10 to the 5th power. Comparisons are made with analytical values of heat transfer coefficients obtained from the STANS boundary layer code. Also, a leading edge separation bubble was revealed by thermal and flow visualization.

  16. Localization of the mei-1 gene product of Caenorhaditis elegans, a meiotic-specific spindle component

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Genetic evidence suggests that the product of the mei-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans is specifically required for meiosis in the female germline. Loss-of-function mei-1 mutations block meiotic spindle formation while a gain-of-function allele instead results in spindle defects during the early mitotic cleavages. In this report, we use immunocytochemistry to examine the localization of the mei-1 product in wild-type and mutant embryos. During metaphase of meiosis I in wild- type embryos, mei-1 protein was found throughout the spindle but was more concentrated toward the poles. At telophase I, mei-1 product colocalized with the chromatin at the spindle poles. The pattern was repeated during meiosis II but no mei-1 product was visible during the subsequent mitotic cleavages. The mei-1 gain-of-function allele resulted in ectopic mei-1 staining in the centers of the microtubule- organizing centers during interphase and in the spindles during the early cleavages. This aberrant localization is probably responsible for the poorly formed and misoriented cleavage spindles characteristic of the mutation. We also examined the localization of mei-1(+) product in the presence of mutations of genes that genetically interact with mei-1 alleles. mei-2 is apparently required to localize mei-1 product to the spindle during meiosis while mel-26 acts as a postmeiotic inhibitor. We conclude that mei-1 encodes a novel spindle component, one that is specialized for the acentriolar meiotic spindles unique to female meiosis. The genes mei-2 and mel-26 are part of a regulatory network that confines mei-1 activity to meiosis. PMID:8027178

  17. Fasting heat production and metabolic BW in group-housed broilers.

    PubMed

    Noblet, J; Dubois, S; Lasnier, J; Warpechowski, M; Dimon, P; Carré, B; van Milgen, J; Labussière, E

    2015-07-01

    Fasting heat production (FHP) is used for characterizing the basal metabolic rate of animals and the corresponding maintenance energy requirements and in the calculation of net energy value of feeds. In broilers, the most recent FHP estimates were obtained in the 1980s in slow-growing and fatter birds than nowadays. The FHP values (n=73; six experiments) measured in 3 to 6-week-old modern lines of broilers weighing 0.6 to 2.8 kg and growing at 80 to 100 g/day were used to update these literature values. Each measurement was obtained in a group of fasting broilers (5 to 14 birds) kept in a respiration chamber for at least 24 h. The FHP estimate corresponds to the asymptotic heat production corrected for zero physical activity obtained by modeling the decrease in heat production during the fasting day. The compilation of these data indicates that FHP was linearly related to the BW0.70 (in kg), which can be considered as the metabolic BW of modern broilers. The 0.70 exponent differs from the conventional value of 0.75 used for mature animals. The FHP per kg of BW0.70 ranged between 410 and 460 kJ/day according to the experiment (P<0.01). An experiment conducted with a shorter duration of fasting (16 h) indicated that FHP values are higher than those obtained over at least 24 h of fasting. Our values are similar to those obtained previously on fatter and slow-growing birds, even though the comparison is difficult since measurement conditions and methodologies have changed during the last 30 years. The FHP values obtained in our trials represent a basis for energy nutrition of modern broilers. PMID:25772629

  18. Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciais, Ph.; Reichstein, M.; Viovy, N.; Granier, A.; Ogée, J.; Allard, V.; Aubinet, M.; Buchmann, N.; Bernhofer, Chr.; Carrara, A.; Chevallier, F.; de Noblet, N.; Friend, A. D.; Friedlingstein, P.; Grünwald, T.; Heinesch, B.; Keronen, P.; Knohl, A.; Krinner, G.; Loustau, D.; Manca, G.; Matteucci, G.; Miglietta, F.; Ourcival, J. M.; Papale, D.; Pilegaard, K.; Rambal, S.; Seufert, G.; Soussana, J. F.; Sanz, M. J.; Schulze, E. D.; Vesala, T.; Valentini, R.

    2005-09-01

    Future climate warming is expected to enhance plant growth in temperate ecosystems and to increase carbon sequestration. But although severe regional heatwaves may become more frequent in a changing climate, their impact on terrestrial carbon cycling is unclear. Here we report measurements of ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes, remotely sensed radiation absorbed by plants, and country-level crop yields taken during the European heatwave in 2003. We use a terrestrial biosphere simulation model to assess continental-scale changes in primary productivity during 2003, and their consequences for the net carbon balance. We estimate a 30 per cent reduction in gross primary productivity over Europe, which resulted in a strong anomalous net source of carbon dioxide (0.5PgCyr-1) to the atmosphere and reversed the effect of four years of net ecosystem carbon sequestration. Our results suggest that productivity reduction in eastern and western Europe can be explained by rainfall deficit and extreme summer heat, respectively. We also find that ecosystem respiration decreased together with gross primary productivity, rather than accelerating with the temperature rise. Model results, corroborated by historical records of crop yields, suggest that such a reduction in Europe's primary productivity is unprecedented during the last century. An increase in future drought events could turn temperate ecosystems into carbon sources, contributing to positive carbon-climate feedbacks already anticipated in the tropics and at high latitudes.

  19. FEM simulation of local heating and melting during electrical discharge plasma impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasagni, A.; Soldera, F.; Mücklich, F.

    2004-09-01

    The effect of an electrical discharge can be seen as an energy input into a material. This energy increases the material temperature within concentrated zones even over the boiling point producing the erosion of the material surface. In this paper, thermal analysis by a finite element method (FEM) and by using the analytical solution for the heat conduction problem in a semi-infinite solid subjected to a point source heat was carried out. The simulation includes the solid-liquid and liquid-vapour transformations, which facilitate the calculation of the volumes of the molten and vaporized materials. The simulation results were compared with the material loss due to individual sparks in several metallic electrodes at high pressure and room temperature. It was found that the volume of the molten pool is related to the volume of the eroded material, and therefore the material loss is practically controlled by the melting enthalpy and the melting point. Because of the linear relation between the eroded and molten pool volumes, it is possible to estimate the resistance to electrode erosion by calculating and comparing the volume of the molten pool with a reference metal.

  20. Developing natural convection in a fluid layer with localized heating and large viscosity variation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickox, C.E.; Chu, Tze Yao.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments are used to elucidate aspects of transient natural convection in a magma chamber. The magma chamber is modeled as a horizontal fluid layer confined within an enclosure of square planform and heated from below by a strip heater centered on the lower boundary of the enclosure. The width of the strip heater and the depth of the fluid layer are one-fourth of the layer width. Corn syrup is used as the working fluid in order to approximate the large viscosity variation with temperature and the large Prandtl number typical of magma. The quiescent, uniform, fluid layer is subjected to instantaneous heating from the strip heater producing a transient flow which is dominated by two counter-rotating convective cells. Experimentally determined characteristics of the developing flow are compared with numerical simulations carried out with a finite element computer program. The results of numerical simulations are in essential agreement with experimental data. Differences between the numerical simulations and experimental measurements are conjectured to result from non-ideal effects present in the experiment which are difficult to represent accurately in a numerical simulation.

  1. Shear-Driven Flow of Locally Heated Viscous Liquid Film in a Minichannel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yulia O. Kabova; V. V. Kuznetsov; O. A. Kabov

    This paper considers a flow of a liquid sheared by gas in a flat mini-channel with two identical heaters arranged in a row\\u000a one after another in a streamwise direction at the bottom wall. The present study is focused on the investigation of influence\\u000a of local heaters arrangement and size on thermocapillary deformations in a viscous film, gravity effect is

  2. Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Koutsoukos, Elias P. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

  3. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent heating algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.

  4. Palaeozoic Intraplate Crustal Anatexis in the Mount Painter Province, South Australia: Timing, Thermal Budgets and the Role of Crustal Heat Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. McLAREN; M. SANDIFORD; R. POWELL; N. NEUMANN; J. WOODHEAD

    2006-01-01

    The effect of radiogenic heat production within the crust on thermal processes such as crustal anatexis is generally disregarded as bulk geochemical models suggest that crustal heat generation rates are too low to effect significant heating. However, the Mount Painter Province in northern South Australia is characterized by a total crustal contribution to surface heat flow of more than twice

  5. Biohydrogen production from CO-rich syngas via a locally isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris PT.

    PubMed

    Pakpour, Fatemeh; Najafpour, Ghasem; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Tohidfar, Masoud; Younesi, Habiboallah

    2014-05-01

    Biohydrogen production through water–gas shift (WGS) reaction by a biocatalyst was conducted in batch fermentation. The isolated photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris PT was able to utilize carbon monoxide and simultaneously produce hydrogen. Light exposure was provided as an indispensable requirement for the first stage of bacterial growth, but throughout the hydrogen production stage, the energy requirement was met through the WGS reaction. At ambient pressure and temperature, the effect of various sodium acetate concentrations in presence of CO-rich syngas on cell growth, carbon monoxide consumption, and biohydrogen production was also investigated. Maximal efficiency of hydrogen production in response to carbon monoxide consumption was recorded at 86 % and the highest concentration of hydrogen at 33.5 mmol/l was achieved with sodium acetate concentration of 1.5 g/l. The obtained results proved that the local isolate; R. palustris PT, was able to utilize CO-rich syngas and generate biohydrogen via WGS reaction. PMID:24078148

  6. Model predictive control of a combined heat and power plant using local linear models

    SciTech Connect

    Kikstra, J.F. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Roffel, B. [Univ. of Twente, AE Enschede (Netherlands). Faculty of Chemical Engineering; Schoen, P. [Stork Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-10-01

    Model predictive control has been applied to control of a combined heat and power plant. One of the main features of this plant is that it exhibits nonlinear process behavior due to large throughput swings. In this application, the operating window of the plant has been divided into a number of smaller windows in which the nonlinear process behavior has been approximated by linear behavior. For each operating window, linear step weight models were developed from a detailed nonlinear first principles model, and the model prediction is calculated based on interpolation between these linear models. The model output at each operating point can then be calculated from four basic linear models, and the required control action can subsequently be calculated with the standard model predictive control approach using quadratic programming.

  7. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  8. Human hnRNP Q re-localizes to cytoplasmic granules upon PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat-shock treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Quaresma, Alexandre J.C. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bressan, G.C. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Institute of Biology, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gava, L.M. [Institute of Biology, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lanza, D.C.F. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Institute of Biology, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramos, C.H.I [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Kobarg, Joerg [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Institute of Biology, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jkobarg@lnls.br

    2009-04-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated on different levels ranging from pre-mRNA processing to translation. One of the most characterized families of RNA-binding proteins is the group of hnRNPs: heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Members of this protein family play important roles in gene expression control and mRNAs metabolism. In the cytoplasm, several hnRNPs proteins are involved in RNA-related processes and they can be frequently found in two specialized structures, known as GW-bodies (GWbs), previously known as processing bodies: PBs, and stress granules, which may be formed in response to specific stimuli. GWbs have been early reported to be involved in the mRNA decay process, acting as a site of mRNA degradation. In a similar way, stress granules (SGs) have been described as cytoplasmic aggregates, which contain accumulated mRNAs in cells under stress conditions and present reduced or inhibited translation. Here, we characterized the hnRNP Q localization after different stress conditions. hnRNP Q is a predominantly nuclear protein that exhibits a modular organization and several RNA-related functions. Our data suggest that the nuclear localization of hnRNP Q might be modified after different treatments, such as: PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat shock. Under different stress conditions, hnRNP Q can fully co-localize with the endoplasmatic reticulum specific chaperone, BiP. However, under stress, this protein only co-localizes partially with the proteins: GW182 - GWbs marker protein and TIA-1 stress granule component.

  9. Ion Heating and High-Energy-Particle Production by Ion-Cyclotron Heating in the Large Helical Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mutoh; R. Kumazawa; T. Seki; T. Watari; K. Saito; Y. Torii; D. A. Hartmann; Y. Zhao; M. Sasao; M. Isobe; M. Osakabe; A. V. Krasilnikov; T. Ozaki; K. Narihara; Y. Nagayama; S. Inagaki; F. Shimpo; G. Nomura; M. Yokota; K. Akaishi; N. Ashikawa; P. de Vries; M. Emoto; H. Funaba; A. Fukuyama; M. Goto; K. Ida; H. Idei; K. Ikeda; N. Inoue; K. Itoh; O. Kaneko; K. Kawahata; S. Kado; A. Komori; T. Kobuchi; S. Kubo; S. Masuzaki; T. Morisaki; S. Morita; J. Miyazawa; S. Murakami; T. Minami; S. Muto; Y. Nakamura; H. Nakanishi; N. Noda; K. Nishimura; K. Ohkubo; N. Ohyabu; S. Ohdachi; Y. Oka; H. Okada; B. J. Peterson; A. Sagara; K. Sato; S. Sakakibara; R. Sakamoto; H. Sasao; M. Sato; T. Shimozuma; M. Shoji; S. Sudo; H. Suzuki; Y. Takeiri; K. Tanaka; K. Toi; T. Tokuzawa; K. Tsumori; K. Y. Watanabe; T. Watanabe; H. Yamada; I. Yamada; S. Yamaguchi; K. Yamazaki; M. Yokoyama; Y. Yoshimura; Y. Hamada; O. Motojima; M. Fujiwara

    2000-01-01

    Ion-cyclotron heating was applied to the Large Helical Device. When the proton-cyclotron resonance was near the saddle point of the magnetic field-strength plane, strong ion-cyclotron damping occurred. Under these conditions efficient plasma heating was achieved for more than one minute. A high-energy ion tail was observed, and the effective tail temperature was determined by a balance between the wave acceleration

  10. The product of hedgehog autoproteolytic cleavage active in local and long-range signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery A. Porter; Doris P. von Kessler; Stephen C. Ekker; Keith E. Young; John J. Lee; Kevin Moses; Philip A. Beachy

    1995-01-01

    THE secreted protein products of the hedgehog (hh) gene family are associated with local and long-range signalling activities that are responsible for developmental patterning in multiple systems, including Drosophila embryonic and larval tissues1-8 and vertebrate neural tube, limbs and somites9-15. In a process that is critical for full biological activity, the hedgehog protein (Hh) undergoes autoproteolysis to generate two biochemically

  11. EFFECTS OF LOCALIZED AQUIFER BOILING ON FLUID PRODUCTION AT CERRO PRIETO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, Alfred H.; D'Amore, Franco; Nieva, David

    1984-01-01

    Localized aquifer boiling in the shallow two-phase reservoir of Cerro Prieto has produced excess steam and increased electrical output. Unfortunately it has also caused near-well mineral deposition that has decreased permeability and fluid flow. Inflow of cold water has limited the extent of aquifer boiling and permeability loss. The deeper reservoir at Cerro Prieto may need injection of cold water to decrease boiling and prevent loss of production. Refs.

  12. High frequency core localized modes in neutral beam heated plasmas on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Nazikian, R.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.D. [and others

    1995-11-01

    A band of high frequency modes in the range 50--150 kHz with intermediate toroidal mode numbers 4 < n < 10 are commonly observed in the core of supershot plasmas on TFTR. Two distinct varieties of MHD modes are identified corresponding to a flute-like mode predominantly appearing around the q = 1 surface and an outward ballooning mode for q > 1. The flute-like modes have nearly equal amplitude on the high field and low field side of the magnetic axis and are mostly observed in moderate performance supershot plasmas with {tau}{sub E} < 2{tau}{sub L} while the ballooning-like modes have enhanced amplitude on the low field side of the magnetic axis and tend to appear in higher performance supershot plasmas with {tau}{sub E} > 2{tau}{sub L}, where {tau}{sub L} is the equivalent L-mode confinement time. The modes propagate in the ion diamagnetic drift direction and are highly localized with radial widths {Delta}r {approximately} 5--10 cm, fluctuation levels {tilde n}/n, {tilde T}{sub e}/T{sub e} < 0.01, and radial displacements {zeta}{sub r} {approximately} 0.1 cm. Unlike the toroidally localized high-n activity observed just prior to major and minor disruptions on TFTR, these modes are typically much weaker, more benign, and may be indicative of kinetic ballooning modes destabilized by resonant circulating neutral beam ions.

  13. Heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 suppresses naturally fed antigen–specific IgE production by stimulation of IL12 production in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Murosaki; Yoshihiro Yamamoto; Kazue Ito; Takeaki Inokuchi; Hiroaki Kusaka; Hitoshi Ikeda; Yasunobu Yoshikai

    1998-01-01

    Background: Food allergy is caused by production of IgE against dietary antigen induced by TH2 response. IL-12 inhibits TH2 responses and strongly suppresses IgE production. We have recently established a murine model for IgE production with a predominant TH2 response induced by feeding antigen.Objective: We here show a suppressive effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137, a potent inducer of IL-12,

  14. The effects of localized heating and disbudding on cambial reactivation and formation of earlywood vessels in seedlings of the deciduous ring-porous hardwood, Quercus serrata

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Kayo; Nabeshima, Eri; Begum, Shahanara; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Oribe, Yuichiro; Yasue, Koh; Funada, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The networks of vessel elements play a vital role in the transport of water from roots to leaves, and the continuous formation of earlywood vessels is crucial for the growth of ring-porous hardwoods. The differentiation of earlywood vessels is controlled by external and internal factors. The present study was designed to identify the limiting factors in the induction of cambial reactivation and the differentiation of earlywood vessels, using localized heating and disbudding of dormant stems of seedlings of a deciduous ring-porous hardwood, Quercus serrata. Methods Localized heating was achieved by wrapping an electric heating ribbon around stems. Disbudding involved removal of all buds. Three treatments were initiated on 1 February 2012, namely heating, disbudding and a combination of heating and disbudding, with untreated dormant stems as controls. Cambial reactivation and differentiation of vessel elements were monitored by light and polarized-light microscopy, and the growth of buds was followed. Key Results Cambial reactivation and differentiation of vessel elements occurred sooner in heated seedlings than in non-heated seedlings before bud break. The combination of heating and disbudding of seedlings also resulted in earlier cambial reactivation and differentiation of first vessel elements than in non-heated seedlings. A few narrow vessel elements were formed during heating after disbudding, while many large earlywood vessel elements were formed in heated seedlings with buds. Conclusions The results suggested that, in seedlings of the deciduous ring-porous hardwood Quercus serrata, elevated temperature was a direct trigger for cambial reactivation and differentiation of first vessel elements. Bud growth was not essential for cambial reactivation and differentiation of first vessel elements, but might be important for the continuous formation of wide vessel elements. PMID:24685716

  15. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...

  16. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...

  17. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of heat shock protein 70 in the human medulla oblongata in forensic autopsies.

    PubMed

    Nogami, M; Takatsu, A; Endo, N; Ishiyama, I

    1999-12-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) can be induced under various stresses in experimental animals. We investigated hsp70 immunoreactivity in the human medulla oblongata in forensic autopsies. Hsp70 immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of some neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve (X), the lateral cuneate nucleus (Cun), and the inferior olive (Oli). Neurons with positive hsp70 immunoreactivity were statistically significantly fewer in the Oli than in the XII, X, and Cun. There was no statistically significant correlation between the AMI (the antemortem interval between the onset of injury and death) or PMI (the postmortem interval between death and autopsy), and the percentage of positive cytoplasmic hsp70 immunoreactivity in any of the nuclei studied. Age had a statistically significant negative correlation with the percentage of positive hsp70 immunoreactivity in the Oli. The percentages of positive hsp70 immunoreactivity in the XII and Cun were statistically significantly lower in burn cases than in other cases. Therefore, the induction of hsp70 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata may not reflect the duration of stress in the AMI, but may reflect the regional (nuclei) and conditional (burns) differences in autopsy specimens. PMID:12935469

  19. Creating astrophysically relevant jets from locally heated targets irradiated by a high-intensity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Holger; Robinson, Alex

    2014-10-01

    The formation mechanism of jets in the vicinity of young stellar objects has been the subject of investigations for many years. It is thought that jets are formed by the stellar wind interacting with an inhomogeneous plasma. A density gradient from the equator to the poles causes the wind to encounter the inward facing reverse shock at an oblique angle. The wind is focused into a conical flow towards the poles where it emerges as a narrow jet. This mechanism is inaccessible to direct observations due to the small scales on which it operates. Using high intensity lasers to produce comparable jets offers a way to investigate the mechanisms in the laboratory. Previous investigations of jets in the laboratory have directly generated the conical flow, skipping the first part of the formation mechanism. We present simulations of a novel method of generating jets in the laboratory by using magnetic fields generated by resistivity gradients to control the fast electron flow. The return current selectively heats a small region inside the target which drives a blast wave into the low density region behind the target. A conical high density shell focuses the outflow into a narrow jet. We find jets with aspect ratios of over 15 and Mach numbers between 2.5 and 4.3. This work is funded by the European Research Council, Grant STRUCMAGFAST.

  20. High-frequency core localized modes in neutral beam heated plasmas on TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazikian, R.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Mazzucato, E.; Batha, S. H.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.; Bush, C. E.; Cheng, C. Z.; Janos, A.; Levinton, F.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D. K.; Park, H. K.; Rewoldt, G.; Sabbagh, S.; Synakowski, E. J.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Zakharov, L. E.

    1996-02-01

    A band of high-frequency modes in the range 50-150 kHz with intermediate toroidal mode numbers 4localized with radial widths ?r˜5-10 cm, fluctuation levels ñ/n, T˜e/Te<0.01, and radial displacements ?r˜0.1 cm. Unlike the toroidally localized high-n activity observed just prior to major and minor disruptions on TFTR [E. D. Fredrickson et al., Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Seville, Spain (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1995), No. IAEA-CN-60/A-2-II-5], these modes are typically more benign and may be indicative of MHD activity excited by resonant circulating beam ions.

  1. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics Using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in straitform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMXX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM- LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  2. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall products from December 1997 to November 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  3. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release Over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  4. Effect of nozzle configuration on transport in the stagnation zone of axisymmetric, impinging free-surface liquid jets: Part 2-local heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.; Stevens, J.; Webb, B.W. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1992-11-01

    This is the second of a two-part study on the flow structure and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent, free-surface liquid jets. Part 2 deals with the effect of selected nozzle configurations on the local heat transfer in the stagnation zone. Infrared techniques have been used to characterize the local heat transfer for the four nozzle configurations whose mean and turbulent flow structure was detailed in Part 1. The results show that for identical jet Reynolds numbers, significant differences exist in the magnitudes of the local Nusselt number for the nozzle types studied. Differences of approximately 40 percent were observed. Local heat transfer results reveal that for already turbulent jets, the mean radial velocity gradient appears to be more influential in determining the heat transfer than incremental changes in the level of turbulence (as measured by the radial component of the fluctuations). An empirical correlation of the experimental data supports this conclusion, and reveals that the stagnation Nusselt number is affected independently by the jet Reynolds number and the dimensionless mean radial velocity gradient. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Different Assay Conditions for Detecting the Production and Release of Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Letícia B.; Ozaki, Christiane Y.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Menezes, Caroline A.; Silva, Anderson; Fernandes, Irene; Magnoli, Fabio C.; Vaz, Tania M. I.; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (ST). Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro production and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. Furthermore, the majority of published papers describe the use of only one or a few ETEC isolates to define the production and release of these toxins, which hinders the detection of ETEC by phenotypic approaches. Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin production and release under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, a collection of 90 LT-, ST-, and ST/LT-producing ETEC isolates was used to determine a protocol for toxin production and release aimed at ETEC detection. For this, we used previously raised anti-LT antibodies and the anti-ST monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described herein. The presence of bile salts and the use of certain antibiotics improved ETEC toxin production/release. Triton X-100, as chemical treatment, proved to be an alternative method for toxin release. Consequently, a common protocol that can increase the production and release of LT and ST toxins could facilitate and enhance the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for ETEC using the raised and described antibodies in the present work. PMID:24316604

  6. A joint model of household space heat production and consumption: Empirical evidence from a Belgian micro-data survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cuijpers, C.

    1995-12-31

    Households are faced with increasing regulation to improve energy conservation and energy efficiency for environmental concerns. Understanding how a house produces space heat and how energy consumption can be reduced becomes a keystone in designing energy and environmental policies. This paper provides empirical evidence on household behavior in the context of house heating. A joint household space heat production and consumption model is developed and empirically implemented. Attention is devoted mainly to the intermediate role of the characteristics of the house, with special reference to insulation levels, which determine the ability of the house to convert energy into heat levels. House heat levels are characterized and empirical support for the so-called {open_quote}rebound{close_quote} effects are shown. The econometric model is specified for a single period cross-section regression estimation, The database is drawn from the 1987-88 Belgian Household Expenditure Survey.

  7. Biobutanol production by a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid; Tibin, El Mubarak; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand of energy and awareness about environmental pollution has led to increase interest in alternative, clean and renewable energy sources. Biobutanol is considered as the candidate liquid biofuel to replace gasoline. In this study, the capability of a newly isolated strain of local Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 was tested to produce biobutanol in batch fermentation. Various culture conditions including glucose concentration, initial pH, incubation temperature and inoculum size were investigated for their effects on production of biobutanol using strain YM1. The results showed that the optimal biobutanol production was obtained at glucose concentration 50 g/L, initial pH 6.2, temperature 30°C and inoculum size 10%. These results show that C. acetobutylicum YM1 as a mesophilic bacterium is a potential candidate for biobutanol production.

  8. Differential effects of foods traditionally regarded as ‘heating’ and ‘cooling’ on prostaglandin E 2 production by a macrophage cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-jang Huang; Mei-Chiao Wu

    2002-01-01

    Some components of natural foods may enhance or inhibit prostaglandin formation and potentially affect the inflammation condition. A macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, was employed to examine the effects of foods traditionally regarded as ‘heating’ or ‘cooling’ on the production of PGE2, a well-known proinflammatory mediator. Foods traditionally regarded as ‘heating’ (litchi, longan, and dried longan) or ‘cooling’ (chrysanthemum flower, bitter

  9. Differential Effects of Foods Traditionally Regarded as ‘Heating’ and ‘Cooling’ on Prostaglandin E2 Production by a Macrophage Cell Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-jang Huang; Mei-Chiao Wu

    2002-01-01

    Some components of natural foods may enhance or inhibit prostaglandin formation and potentially affect the inflammation condition. A macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, was employed to examine the effects of foods traditionally regarded as ‘heating’ or ‘cooling’ on the production of PGE2, a well-known proinflammatory mediator. Foods traditionally regarded as ‘heating’ (litchi, longan, and dried longan) or ‘cooling’ (chrysanthemum flower, bitter

  10. Relationship between oxidative stability of vitamin E and production of fatty acids in oils during microwave heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Yoshida; Mikiko Tatsumi; Goro Kajimoto

    1991-01-01

    Effects of microwave heating on the oxidative stability ofd-tocopherols were studied in relation to the production of fatty acids in oils. During microwave heating, the stability of\\u000a tocopherols decreased in the order?>?>?>?. This order did not depend on the types of ethyl esters of fatty acids or oils present. But, the shorter the chainlength\\u000a and the lower the degree of

  11. Exergy analysis of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell and organic Rankine cycle for cooling, heating and power production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahad A. Al-Sulaiman; Ibrahim Dincer; Feridun Hamdullahpur

    2010-01-01

    The study examines a novel system that combined a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for cooling, heating and power production (trigeneration) through exergy analysis. The system consists of an SOFC, an ORC, a heat exchanger and a single-effect absorption chiller. The system is modeled to produce a net electricity of around 500kW. The study

  12. Heat transfer and pressure distributions on hemisphere-cylinders in methane-air combustion products at Mach 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, I.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure distributions were measured over the surfaces of three hemisphere-cylinder models tested at a nominal Mach number of 7 in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel which uses methane-air products of combustion as a test medium. The results showed that the heat-transfer and pressure distributions over the surface of the models were in good agreement with experimental data obtained in air and also with theoretical predictions.

  13. Local cytokine production in a murine model of Escherichia coli pyelonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Rugo, H S; O'Hanley, P; Bishop, A G; Pearce, M K; Abrams, J S; Howard, M; O'Garra, A

    1992-01-01

    Cytokines may play an important role in the regulation of host defense against local bacterial infections. We have evaluated the local production of cytokines in a BALB/c mouse model of Escherichia coli pyelonephritis. Kidneys, draining lymph nodes, and spleens, were harvested at specific time intervals after bladder inoculation with E. coli corresponding to the stages of renal infection, infiltration, and bacterial clearance seen in this model. The presence of messenger RNA for specific cytokines (interleukins 1 through 6, chemotactic factors, granulocyte and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) and beta, IFN gamma, transforming growth factor (TGF beta), and cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF)/IL-10) was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of reverse transcribed RNA. We have demonstrated mRNA encoding IL-1, IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, TNF alpha, H400 (a protein homologous to a family of chemotactic factors and identical to MIP-1 beta), and CSIF/IL-10 in the kidney at 12 h and 1, 2, and 3 d after bacterial challenge. No signal was seen in normal animals or in mice after 5 d. This pattern of cytokine expression was observed only in renal tissues suggesting a localized response. IL-6 was present in the urine at 4 h with rapid resolution to baseline levels by 24 to 48 h. In contrast, IL-6 was not usually detectable in the serum. TNF alpha was not detectable in the serum or urine during the course of the infection. By immunohistochemical staining of kidney sections we have shown that IL-6 is produced predominantly by mesangial cells rather than by the inflammatory infiltrate. This study provides additional evidence utilizing novel techniques that specific cytokines are produced locally in response to bacterial infections. The time course of production demonstrated in this model supports the important role of cytokines in natural host resistance to local infection. Images PMID:1541664

  14. HTGR-GT closed-cycle gas turbine. A plant concept with inherent cogeneration, power plus heat production, capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, C. F.

    1980-04-01

    The high grade sensible heat rejection characteristic of the high temperature gas cooled reactor gas turbine plant is suited to cogeneration. Cogeneration broadly covers combined power and heat operation modes. Cogeneration in this nuclear closed cycle plant includes: (1) bottoming Rankine cycle, (2) hot water or process steam production, (3) desalination, and (4) urban and industrial district heating. The HTGR-CT plant thermodynamic cycles, design features, and potential applications for the cogeneration operation modes are discussed. The HTGR-CT plant, which potentially approaches 50 percent overall efficiency in a combined cycle mode, can significantly aid national energy goals, particularly resource conservation.

  15. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Diborane with 1,3-Butadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, Stanley; Allen, Harrison, Jr.

    1953-01-01

    The net heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction of diborane with 1,3-butadiene was found to be 18,700+/-150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 19,075+/-150 Btu per pound. Since this value is approximately the same as the heat of combustion of butadiene, it seems certain that the material is partially oxidized.

  16. Oxidation of chlorinated ethenes by heat-activated persulfate: kinetics and products.

    PubMed

    Waldemer, Rachel H; Tratnyek, Paul G; Johnson, Richard L; Nurmi, James T

    2007-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and in situ thermal remediation (ISTR) are applicable to treatment of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. ISCO with persulfate (S2O8(2-)) requires activation, and this can be achieved with the heat from ISTR, so there may be advantages to combining these technologies. To explore this possibility, we determined the kinetics and products of chlorinated ethene oxidation with heat-activated persulfate and compared them to the temperature dependence of other degradation pathways. The kinetics of chlorinated ethene disappearance were pseudo-first-order for 1-2 half-lives, and the resulting rate constants-measured from 30 to 70 degrees C--fit the Arrhenius equation, yielding apparent activation energies of 101 +/- 4 kJ mol(-1) for tetrachloroethene (PCE), 108 +/- 3 kJ mol(-1) for trichloroethene (TCE), 144 +/- 5 kJ mol(-1) for cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and 141 +/- 2 kJ mol(-1) for trans-1,2-dichloroethene (trans-DCE). Chlorinated byproducts were observed, but most of the parent material was completely dechlorinated. Arrhenius parameters for hydrolysis and oxidation by persulfate or permanganate were used to calculate rates of chlorinated ethene degradation by these processes over the range of temperatures relevant to ISTR and the range of oxidant concentrations and pH relevant to ISCO. PMID:17328217

  17. Production of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} heat sources for the Cassini mission

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Foltyn, E.M. [Actinide Ceramics, NMT-9, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA{close_quote}s Cassini mission to Saturn, scheduled to launch in October, 1997, is perhaps the most ambitious interplanetary explorer ever constructed. Electric power for the spacecraft{close_quote}s science instruments and on-board computers will be provided by three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) powered by 216 {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) capsules. In addition, critical equipment and instruments on the spacecraft and Huygens probe will be warmed by 128 Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). Fabrication and assembly of the GPHS capsules and LWRHU heat sources was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) between January 1994 and September 1996. During this production campaign, LANL pressed and sintered 315 GPHS fuel pellets and 181 LWRHU pellets. By October 1996, NMT-9 had delivered a total of 235 GPHS capsules to EG&G Mound Applied Technologies (EG&G MAT) in Miamisburg, Ohio. EG&G MAT conditioned the capsules for use, loaded the capsules into the Cassini RTGs, tested the RTGs, and coordinated transportation to Kennedy Space Center (KSC). LANL also fabricated and assembled a total of 180 LWRHUs. The LWRHUs required for the Cassini spacecraft were shipped to KSC in mid-1997. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Heat and Mass Transfer Measurements for Tray-Fermented Fungal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, R.-Y.; Lo, C.-T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, heat and mass transfer in static tray fermentation, which is widely used in solid-state fermentation (SSF) to produce fungal products, such as enzymes or koji, is investigated. Specifically, kinetic models of transport phenomena in the whole-tray chamber are emphasized. The effects of temperature, moisture, and humidity on microbial growth in large-scale static tray fermentation are essential to scale-up SSF and achieve uniform fermentation. In addition, heat and mass transfer of static tray fermentation of Trichoderma fungi with two tray setups—traditional linen coverings and stacks in a temperature-humidity chamber is examined. In both these setups, the following factors of fermentation were measured: air velocity, air temperature, illumination, pH, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, and substrate temperature, and the effects of bed height, moisture of substrate, and relative humidity of air are studied. A thin (1 cm) bed at 28 °C and 95 % relative humidity is found to be optimum. Furthermore, mixing was essential for achieving uniform fermentation of Trichoderma fungi. This study has important applications in large-scale static tray fermentation of fungi.

  19. Optimization of the Mu2e Production Solenoid Heat and Radiation Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronskikh, V. S.; Coleman, R.; Glenzinski, D.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Mokhov, N. V.

    2014-03-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is designed to study the conversion of a negative muon to electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos. Observation of this process would provide unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model, and can point to new physics beyond the reach of the LHC. The main parts of the Mu2e apparatus are its superconducting solenoids: Production Solenoid (PS), Transport Solenoid (TS), and Detector Solenoid (DS). Being in the vicinity of the beam, PS magnets are most subjected to the radiation damage. In order for the PS superconducting magnet to operate reliably, the peak neutron flux in the PS coils must be reduced by 3 orders of magnitude by means of sophisticatedly designed massive Heat and Radiation Shield (HRS), optimized for the performance and cost. An issue with radiation damage is related to large residual electrical resistivity degradation in the superconducting coils, especially its Al stabilizer. A detailed MARS15 analysis and optimization of the HRS has been carried out both to satisfy the Mu2e requirements to the radiation quantities (such as displacements per atom, peak temperature and power density in the coils, absorbed dose in the insulation, and dynamic heat load) and cost. Results of MARS15 simulations of these radiation quantities are reported and optimized HRS models are presented; it is shown that design levels satisfy all requirements.

  20. Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district heating sector: a production function approach.

    PubMed

    Furtenback, Orjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively. PMID:18442900

  1. Experimental Decay Heat of Beta Particles from ^235U ^238U and ^239Pu Fission Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Schier, W. A.; Tipnis, S. V.; England, T.

    1996-10-01

    These results were obtained at the UMass Lowell 5.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and 1 MW research reactor. A He-jet/tape transport system was used to achieve delay times after fission as short as 0.4 s, where few experimental results exist. Measured beta spectra used a thin-disk-gating technique to reject accompanying gamma rays. Both beta and gamma sources were used in energy calibration. A set of trial responses for the beta spectrometer spanned electron energies 0-10 MeV. Spectra unfolded for energy distributions were compared with previous measurements. Measured beta count-rates using a pair of beta detectors provided relative normalization. Results of beta decay heat were compared to calculations based on ENDF/B-VI fission-product data. ^*Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Heat shock induces production of reactive oxygen species and increases inner mitochondrial membrane potential in winter wheat cells.

    PubMed

    Fedyaeva, A V; Stepanov, A V; Lyubushkina, I V; Pobezhimova, T P; Rikhvanov, E G

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock leads to oxidative stress. Excessive ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation could be responsible for expression of genes of heat-shock proteins or for cell death. It is known that in isolated mammalian mitochondria high protonic potential on the inner membrane actuates the production of ROS. Changes in viability, ROS content, and mitochondrial membrane potential value have been studied in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultured cells under heat treatment. Elevation of temperature to 37-50°C was found to induce elevated ROS generation and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, but it did not affect viability immediately after treatment. More severe heat exposure (55-60°C) was not accompanied by mitochondrial potential elevation and increased ROS production, but it led to instant cell death. A positive correlation between mitochondrial potential and ROS production was observed. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane by the protonophore CCCP inhibited ROS generation under the heating conditions. These data suggest that temperature elevation leads to mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization in winter wheat cultured cells, which in turn causes the increased ROS production. PMID:25540005

  3. The regulation of TNF? production after heat and endotoxin stimulation is dependent on Annexin-A1 and HSP70.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sunitha; Arora, Suruchi; Lim, Jyue Yuan; Lee, Lay Hoon; Lim, Lina H K

    2015-07-01

    Febrile temperatures can induce stress responses which protect cells from damage and can reduce inflammation during infections and sepsis. However, the mechanisms behind the protective functions of heat in response to the bacterial endotoxin LPS are unclear. We have recently shown that Annexin-1 (ANXA1)-deficient macrophages exhibited higher TNF? levels after LPS stimulation. Moreover, we have previously reported that ANXA1 can function as a stress protein. Therefore in this study, we determined if ANXA1 is involved in the protective effects of heat on cytokine levels in macrophages after heat and LPS. Exposure of macrophages to 42 °C for 1 h prior to LPS results in an inhibition of TNF? production, which was not evident in ANXA1(-/-) macrophages. We show that this regulation involves primarily MYD88-independent pathways. ANXA1 regulates TNF? mRNA stability after heat and LPS, and this is dependent on endogenous ANXA1 expression and not exogenously secreted factors. Further mechanistic studies revealed the possible involvement of the heat shock protein HSP70 and JNK in the heat and inflammatory stress response regulated by ANXA1. This study shows that ANXA1, an immunomodulatory protein, is critical in the heat stress response induced after heat and endotoxin stimulation. PMID:25753354

  4. Production and physiological responses of heat-stressed lactating dairy cattle to conductive cooling.

    PubMed

    Perano, Kristen M; Usack, Joseph G; Angenent, Largus T; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this research was to test the effectiveness of conductive cooling in alleviating heat stress of lactating dairy cows. A conductive cooling system was built with waterbeds (Dual Chamber Cow Waterbeds, Advanced Comfort Technology Inc., Reedsburg, WI) modified to circulate chilled water. The experiment lasted 7 wk. Eight first-lactation Holstein cows producing 34.4±3.7kg/d of milk at 166±28 d in milk were used in the study. Milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and rectal temperature were recorded twice daily, and respiration rate was recorded 5 times per day. During wk 1, the cows were not exposed to experimental heat stress or conductive cooling. For the remaining 6 wk, the cows were exposed to heat stress from 0900 to 1700h each day. During these 6 wk, 4 of the 8 cows were cooled with conductive cooling (experimental cows), and the other 4 were not cooled (control cows). The study consisted of 2 thermal environment exposures (temperature-humidity index mean ± standard deviation of 80.7±0.9 and 79.0±1.0) and 2 cooling water temperatures (circulating water through the water mattresses at temperatures of 4.5°C and 10°C). Thus, a total of 4 conductive cooling treatments were tested, with each treatment lasting 1 wk. During wk 6, the experimental and control cows were switched and the temperature-humidity index of 79.0±1.0 with 4.5°C cooling water treatment was repeated. During wk 7, waterbeds were placed directly on concrete stalls without actively cooling the water. Least squares means and P-values for the different treatments were calculated with multivariate mixed models. Conductively cooling the cows with 4.5°C water decreased rectal temperature by 1.0°C, decreased respiration rate by 18 breaths/min, increased milk yield by 5%, and increased DMI by 14% compared with the controls. When the results from the 2 cooling water temperatures (4.5°C and 10°C circulating water) were compared, we found that the rectal temperature from 4.5°C cooling water was 0.3°C lower than the rectal temperature with 10°C cooling water, but the other measurements (respiration rate, milk production, and DMI) did not show a statistically significant difference between the cooling water temperatures. Placing waterbeds on concrete stalls without additional cooling did not have a measurable effect in alleviating the heat stress of the cows. PMID:26074243

  5. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene and Diborane (LFPL-CZ-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Harrison, Jr.; Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction acetylene and diborane was found to be 20,100 +/- 100 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and chemical analyses both of the sample and of the combustion products indicated combustion in the bomb calorimeter to have been 97 percent complete. The estimated net heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,700 +/- 100 Btu per pound.

  6. Determination of net atmospheric heat transfer, ice production, and salt rejection from the Chukchi Polynya using AVHRR thermal imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, J.E.; Stringer, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    Digital analysis of AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) thermal infrared band imagery has yielded sea ice surface temperatures which were used to calculate daily net surface heat loss and accompanying ice production and salt rejection from strips of thin ice within the Chukchi Polynya. These results are in agreement with published estimates of heat loss, ice production and salt rejection from the open water surface of the St. Lawrence Island polynya and of Whaler's Bay north of Svalbard and from thin ice in the central Arctic.

  7. Retrieved Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release Using TRMM Rainfall Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Olson, W. S.; Meneghini, R.; Yang, S.; Simpson, J.; Kummerow, C.; Smith, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to use TRMM rainfall information to estimate the four dimensional latent heating structure over the global tropics for February 1998. The mean latent heating profiles over six oceanic regions (TOGA COARE IFA, Central Pacific, S. Pacific Convergence Zone, East Pacific, Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) and three continental regions (S. America, Central Africa and Australia) are estimated and studied. The heating profiles obtained from the results of diagnostic budget studies over a broad range of geographic locations are used to provide comparisons and indirect validation for the heating algorithm estimated heating profiles. Three different latent heating algorithms, the Goddard Convective-Stratiform (CSH) heating, the Goddard Profiling (GPROF) heating, and the Hydrometeor heating (HH) are used and their results are intercompared. The horizontal distribution or patterns of latent heat release from the three different heating retrieval methods are quite similar. They all can identify the areas of major convective activity (i.e., a well defined ITCZ in the Pacific, a distinct SPCZ) in the global tropics. The magnitude of their estimated latent heating release is also not in bad agreement with each other and with those determined from diagnostic budget studies. However, the major difference among these three heating retrieval algorithms is the altitude of the maximum heating level. The CSH algorithm estimated heating profiles only show one maximum heating level, and the level varies between convective activity from various geographic locations. These features are in good agreement with diagnostic budget studies. By contrast, two maximum heating levels were found using the GPROF heating and HH algorithms. The latent heating profiles estimated from all three methods can not show cooling between active convective events. We also examined the impact of different TMI (Multi-channel Passive Microwave Sensor) and PR (Precipitation Radar) rainfall information on latent heating structures.

  8. Many-Body Localization Implies that Eigenvectors are Matrix-Product States.

    PubMed

    Friesdorf, M; Werner, A H; Brown, W; Scholz, V B; Eisert, J

    2015-05-01

    The phenomenon of many-body localization has received a lot of attention recently, both for its implications in condensed-matter physics of allowing systems to be an insulator even at nonzero temperature as well as in the context of the foundations of quantum statistical mechanics, providing examples of systems showing the absence of thermalization following out-of-equilibrium dynamics. In this work, we establish a novel link between dynamical properties-a vanishing group velocity and the absence of transport-with entanglement properties of individual eigenvectors. For systems with a generic spectrum, we prove that strong dynamical localization implies that all of its many-body eigenvectors have clustering correlations. The same is true for parts of the spectrum, thus allowing for the existence of a mobility edge above which transport is possible. In one dimension these results directly imply an entanglement area law; hence, the eigenvectors can be efficiently approximated by matrix-product states. PMID:25978216

  9. Many-Body Localization Implies that Eigenvectors are Matrix-Product States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, M.; Werner, A. H.; Brown, W.; Scholz, V. B.; Eisert, J.

    2015-05-01

    The phenomenon of many-body localization has received a lot of attention recently, both for its implications in condensed-matter physics of allowing systems to be an insulator even at nonzero temperature as well as in the context of the foundations of quantum statistical mechanics, providing examples of systems showing the absence of thermalization following out-of-equilibrium dynamics. In this work, we establish a novel link between dynamical properties—a vanishing group velocity and the absence of transport—with entanglement properties of individual eigenvectors. For systems with a generic spectrum, we prove that strong dynamical localization implies that all of its many-body eigenvectors have clustering correlations. The same is true for parts of the spectrum, thus allowing for the existence of a mobility edge above which transport is possible. In one dimension these results directly imply an entanglement area law; hence, the eigenvectors can be efficiently approximated by matrix-product states.

  10. Pharmacological analysis of the acute inflammatory process induced in the rat's paw by local injection of carrageenin and by heating.

    PubMed

    Garcia Leme, J; Hamamura, L; Leite, M P; Rocha e Silva, M

    1973-05-01

    1. Local injection of carrageenin in the rat's paw produced oedema and leakage of dye which had been administered previously by the intravenous route. A net dissociation between both parameters was observed: while oedema developed slowly, maximal intensity being attained after 4-5 h, dye-leakage was maximum after 1 hour.2. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin were effective in reducing oedema and dye-leakage when given before the injection of carrageenin, but much less effective when given 30 or 60 min after carrageenin. Hexadimethrine bromide was effective in reducing dye-leakage also when given 1 h after the injection of carrageenin.3. Combined administration of benadryl and methysergide, before the injection of carrageenin caused only a slight reduction in oedema and dye-leakage.4. When the paws were heated (55 degrees C for 30 s) as a noxious stimulus the dissociation between maximal oedema and maximal dye-leakage was not observed, both phenomena running parallel. Pre-treatment of the animals with indomethacin did not afford any protection.5. These results suggest that the inflammatory reaction to mild stimuli (carrageenin in our experiments) develops through different phases: initially the increased vascular permeability involves extravasation of plasma proteins and that phase is followed by an increased permeability mainly to water. Stronger stimuli (heating in our experiments) produce an overlapping of both phases, probably by inflicting severe damage to the vascular bed of the affected area.6. The anti-inflammatory drugs employed affected chiefly the initial phase of the response. PMID:4146764

  11. PM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM, TASK 5.0, HEAT TRANSFER TESTS. LOCAL BOILING BURNOUT EXPERIMENTS ON TUBES WITH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE FLOW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Jicha; S. Frank

    1961-01-01

    Local boiling burnout data were obtained over a range of parameters of ; interest for the PM-1 reactor core. The program was conducted with a single-tube ; test section having coolant flow both inside and outside the tube, thus providing ; a good simulation of the pertinent heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics ; of the PM-l fuel element. The test

  12. Shift in the localization of sites of hydrogen peroxide production in brain mitochondria by mitochondrial stress.

    PubMed

    Gyulkhandanyan, Armen V; Pennefather, Peter S

    2004-07-01

    We have determined the underlying sites of H(2)O(2) generation by isolated rat brain mitochondria and how these can shift depending on the presence of respiratory substrates, electron transport chain modulators and exposure to stressors. H(2)O(2) production was determined using the fluorogenic Amplex red and peroxidase system. H(2)O(2) production was higher when succinate was used as a respiratory substrate than with another FAD-dependent substrate, alpha-glycerophosphate, or with the NAD-dependent substrates, glutamate/malate. Depolarization by the uncoupler p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone decreased H(2)O(2) production stimulated by all respiratory substrates. H(2)O(2) production supported by succinate during reverse transfer of electrons was decreased by inhibitors of complex I (rotenone and diphenyleneiodonium) whereas in glutamate/malate-oxidizing mitochondria diphenyleneiodonium decreased while rotenone increased H(2)O(2) generation. The complex III inhibitors antimycin and myxothiazol decreased succinate-induced H(2)O(2) production but stimulated H(2)O(2) production in glutamate/malate-oxidizing mitochondria. Antimycin and myxothiazol also increased H(2)O(2) production in mitochondria using alpha-glycerophosphate as a respiratory substrate. In substrate/inhibitor experiments maximal stimulation of H(2)O(2) production by complex I was observed with the alpha-glycerophosphate/antimycin combination. In addition, three forms of in vitro mitochondrial stress were studied: Ca(2+) overload, cold storage for more than 24 h and cytochrome c depletion. In each case we observed (i) a decrease in succinate-supported H(2)O(2) production by complex I and an increase in succinate-supported H(2)O(2) production by complex III, (ii) increased glutamate/malate-induced H(2)O(2) generation by complex I and (iii) increased alpha-glycerophosphate-supported H(2)O(2) generation by complex III. Our results suggest that all three forms of mitochondrial stress resulted in similar shifts in the localization of sites of H(2)O(2) generation and that, in both normal and stressed states, the level and location of H(2)O(2) production depend on the predominant energetic substrate. PMID:15228597

  13. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results. PMID:25474205

  14. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different radiation protection. Duration of each measurement tour lasted approximately 2 hours covering the distances in radius of about 10-30 km, logging the air temperature and geographical positioning in intervals of 1-5 seconds. The collected data were aggregated on a 100 m horizontal resolution grid and compared with the local-scale climate modelling simulations with the urban climate model MUKLIMO3 initialized with the atmospheric conditions for a given day. Both measurement and modelling results show similar features for distinct local climate zones (built-up area, near water environment, forest, parks, agricultural area, etc). The spatial gradients in temperature can be assigned to different orographical and land use characteristics. Even if many ambiguities remain in both modelling and the measurement approach, the collected data provide useful information for local-scale heat assessment and can serve as a base to increase the model reliability, especially in areas with low data coverage.

  15. On the existence of another source of heat production for the earth and planets, and its connection with gravitomagnetism.

    PubMed

    Elbeze, Alexandre Chaloum

    2013-01-01

    Recent revised estimates of the Earth's surface heat flux are in the order of 47 TW. Given that its internal radiogenic (mantle and crust) heat production is estimated to be around 20 TW, the Earth has a thermal deficit of around 27 TW. This article will try to show that the action of the gravitational field of the Sun on the rotating masses of the Earth is probably the source of another heat production in order of 54TW, which would satisfy the thermal balance of our celestial body and probably explain the reduced heat flow Qo. We reach this conclusion within the framework of gravitation implied by Einstein's special and general relativity theory (SR, GR). Our results show that it might possible, in principle, to calculate the heat generated by the action of the gravitational field of celestial bodies on the Earth and planets of the Solar System (a phenomenon that is different to that of the gravitational tidal effect from the Sun and the Moon). This result should help physicists to improve and develop new models of the Earth's heat balance, and suggests that contrary to cooling, the Earth is in a phase of thermal balance, or even reheating. PMID:24255828

  16. The contribution of skin blood flow in warming the skin after the application of local heat; the duality of the Pennes heat equation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerrold Petrofsky; Dominic Paluso; Devyn Anderson; Kristin Swan; Jong Eun Yim; Vengatesh Murugesan; Tirupathi Chindam; Neha Goraksh; Faris Alshammari; Haneul Lee; Moxi Trivedi; Akshay N. Hudlikar; Vahishta Katrak

    2011-01-01

    As predicted by the Pennes equation, skin blood flow is a major contributor to the removal of heat from an external heat source. This protects the skin from erythema and burns. But, for a person in a thermally neutral room, the skin is normally much cooler than arterial blood. Therefore, if skin blood flow (BF) increases, it should initially warm

  17. Maximizing production and polymer quality (MWD and composition) in emulsion polymerization reactors with limited capacity of heat removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Vicente; J. R Leiza; J. M Asua

    2003-01-01

    In this work, an on-line control strategy based on reaction calorimetry was used to maximize the production of styrene\\/n-butyl acrylate latex with desired copolymer composition and molecular weight distribution in reactors with limited capacity of heat removal. For this purpose, nonlinear model-based controllers were used to maximize the production maintaining simultaneously the ratios of each comonomer concentration and of the

  18. Using the Synergy Between GERB/SEVIRI and Micrometeorological Data to Study the Relationship Between Surface Net Radiation and Soil Heat Flux at Local and Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A. G.; Velázquez Blázquez, A.; Soria, E.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The surface energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere can be described by the energy balance equation Rn - H - LE - G = 0, where Rn represents net radiation, H the sensible heat flux, LE, the latent heat flux and G the soil heat flux. In this work the relationship between Rn and G is studied over vineyard crops, a relative sparse vegetation cover crop where, according to the literature, it is expected that G consumes a significant proportion of Rn. In order to study this relationship at local and regional scales, micrometeorological observations and METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) satellite data have been used. MSG through the GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensors can provide estimates of net radiation and required land surface temperature (LST) information with a frequency of 15 min intervals. The necessary micrometeorological parameters, to compare with satellite data, were collected during the full vine growing season of 2007 (May to September) in a field experiment carried out at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) site area. The VAS is a robust reference meteorological station which is successfully used preferentially for validation of low spatial resolution satellite data and products. It is located on the natural region of the Utiel-Requena Plateau, at about 80 km west from the city of Valencia, Spain, and represents a reasonable homogeneous area of about 50 km x 50 km dedicated primarily to growing vines. The methodology utilized to study the relationship between Rn and G at local and regional scales, was that proposed by Santanello and Friedel (2002), where surface temperature can be obtained from SEVIRI that provides estimates of LST with unprecedented frequency of 15 min intervals with a spatial resolution of 3.1 km, thus totally covering its diurnal course. The preliminary results show that: 1- the correlation between the ground measurements and SEVIRI LST is significantly good, presenting a Pearson correlation coefficient r of 0.96, with a squared correlation coefficient R2 of 0.93 and root mean square error, RMSE of 3.51 °C, and standard deviation, std, of 3.52. This makes apparent the good representativity of the VAS temperature measurements at SEVIRI scale and 2- the comparison between simulated GERB Rn at the surface and the measured one over the VAS field campaigns, at the spatial resolution of 1 km, and over a vineyard mobile micrometeorological station, shows good agreement for both periods and stations, winter of 2004 at the VAS, and summer of 2006 over vineyards, presenting RMSEs of 17 Wm-2 and 42 Wm-2, respectively, as well as high Pearson correlations and low standard deviations indicating that the methodology applied is able to reproduce net radiation at surface level. Besides this and from this preliminary study, we may conclude that it is possible to anticipate the significance of using the synergy between GERB/SEVIRI and ground measurements in order to derive Rn, and consequently G over local and regional areas. Further studies will include the calculation of Rn, and therefore G at GERB pixel spatial resolution.

  19. Convective heat transfer behavior of the product slurry of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing liquid form low level radioactive waste (LLW). An experimental study has been conducted to measure the heat transfer properties of the NAC product slurry. The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient for both concentration slurries is much higher than that of pure water, which may be due to the higher conductivity of the gibbsite powder. For the 20% concentration slurry, the heat transfer coefficient increased as the generalized Reynolds number and slurry temperature increased. The heat transfer coefficient of 40% is a function of the Reynolds number only. The test results also indicate that the thermal entrance region can be observed only when the generalized Reynolds number is smaller than 1,000. The correlation equation is also developed based on the experimental data in this paper.

  20. Ultrastructural localization of hydrogen peroxide production in ligninolytic Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Forney, L.J.; Reddy, C.A.; Pankratz, H.S.

    1982-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that the hydroxyl radical derived from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in lignin degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In the present study, the ultrastructural sites of H2O2 production in ligninolytic cells of P. chrysosporium were demonstrated by cytochemically staining cells with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Hydrogen peroxide production, as evidenced by the presence of oxidized DAB deposits, appeared to be localized in the periplasmic space of cells from ligninolytic cultures grown for 14 days in nitrogen-limited medium. When identical cells were treated with DAB in the presence of aminotriazole, periplasmic deposits of oxidized DAB were not observed, suggesting that the deposits resulted from H2O2-dependent peroxidatic oxidation of DAB by catalase. Cells from cultures grown for 3 or 6 days in nitrogen-limited medium or for 14 days in nitrogen- sufficient medium had little ligninolytic activity and low specific activity for H202 production and did not contain periplasmic oxidized DAB deposits. The results suggest that in cultures grown in nitrogen- limited medium, there is a positive correlation between the occurrence of oxidized DAB deposits, the specific activity for H2O2 production in cell extracts, and ligninolytic activity. (Refs. 25).

  1. Evidence of local power deposition and electron heating by a standing electromagnetic wave in electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma.

    PubMed

    Durocher-Jean, A; Stafford, L; Dap, S; Makasheva, K; Clergereaux, R

    2014-09-01

    Microwave plasmas excited at electron-cyclotron resonance were studied in the 0.5-15 mTorr pressure range. In contrast with low-limit pressure conditions where the plasma emission highlights a fairly homogeneous spatial structure, a periodic spatial modulation (period ?6.2 cm) appeared as pressure increased. This feature is ascribed to a local power deposition (related to the electron density) due to the presence of a standing electromagnetic wave created by the feed electromagnetic field (2.45 GHz) in the cavity formed by the reactor walls. Analysis of the electron energy probability function by Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy further revealed the presence of a high-energy tail that showed strong periodic spatial modulation at higher pressure. The spatial evolution of the electron density and of the characteristic temperature of these high-energy electrons coincides with the nodes (maximum) and antinodes (minimum) of the standing wave. These spatially-modulated power deposition and electron heating mechanisms are then discussed. PMID:25314546

  2. Brittle fracture initiation associated with the strain localization in a heat-affected zone of a low carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Ken`ichi; Nagumo, Michihiko [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1998-02-01

    Brittle fracture initiation in the ductile-brittle fracture transition region in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of weldments of a low carbon steel has been investigated. Consistent with the previous results from blunt notch Charpy tests, brittle fracture initiation was observed in the case of J-integral tests to take place at the intersection of small bainitic ferrite grains of different orientations within a mixed area of bainitic ferrite and quasipolygonal ferrite in proximity to the boundary between a coarse bainitic ferrite. Partial load drop during loading, pop-in phenomena, in fracture mechanics tests in the low-temperature region is caused by essentially the same mechanism as for unstable brittle fracture initiation. Inhomogeneous microstructure in the HAZ gives rise to intense strain localizations in the mixed area of bainitic ferrite and quasipolygonal ferrite due to the constraint of plastic deformation therein and may produce accumulated defects that form an incipient crack for the brittle fracture. Partial load drop proceeds in association with repetitive initiations of brittle facets and their ductile linking. The strong temperature dependence of the magnitude of partial load drop is likely to show that the temperature dependence of the brittle fracture initiation is controlled by the first initiation of a brittle facet and the ductile linking with the following induced facets. Existence of coarse bainitic ferrite grains is a prerequisite for the extension of an incipient crack.

  3. Mirror buckling of freestanding graphene membranes induced by local heating due to a scanning tunneling microscope tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoelz, J. K.; Neek Amal, M.; Xu, P.; Barber, S. D.; Ackerman, M. L.; Thibado, P. M.; Sadeghi, A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2014-03-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has been an invaluable tool in the study of graphene at the atomic scale. Several STM groups have managed to obtain atomic scale images of freestanding graphene membranes providing insight into the behavior of the stabilized ripple geometry. However, we found that the interaction between the STM tip and the freestanding graphene sample may induce additional effects. By varying the tunneling parameters, we can tune the position of the sample, in either a smooth or step like fashion. These phenomena were investigated by STM experiments, continuum elasticity theory and large scale molecular dynamics simulations. These results confirm that by increasing the tip bias, the electrostatic attraction between the tip and sample increases. When applied on a concave surface, this can result in mirror buckling which leads to a large scale movement of the sample. Interestingly, due in part to the negative coefficient of thermal expansion of graphene, buckling transitions can also be induced through local heating of the surface using the STM tip. Financial support by O.N.R. grant N00014-10-1-0181, N.S.F grant DMR-0855358, EU-Marie Curie IIF postdoc Fellowship/299855 (for M. N. A.), ESF-EuroGRAPHENE project CONGRAN, F.S.F (FWO-Vl), and Methusalem Foundation of the Flemish Government.

  4. Radiogenic heat production, thermal regime and evolution of continental crust Jean-Claude Mareschal a,

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    velocities below the Moho. Notably, heat flow studies have delin- eated the vertical distribution of heat within a single geological province. For a given crustal thickness, the Moho temperature varies within

  5. Evaluation of a rapid determination of heat production and respiratory quotient in Holstein steers using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to validate use of the washed rumen technique for rapid measurement of fasting heat production (FHP) and respiratory quotient (RQ), and compare this with heart rate (HR) and core temperature (CT). The experiment used 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) under controlled temp...

  6. Effect of Dietary Bulk on Organ Mass, Fasting Heat Production and Metabolism of the Small and Large Intestines in Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. ROMPALA; T. A. HOAGLAND; ANDJ. A. MEISTER

    Groups of 10 lambs were fed either a con trol diet or a diet consisting of 10% polyethylene at ¡so- energetic levels for 30 d to study the effect of dietary bulk on visceral organ mass and metabolism of mucosa from the jejunum and proximal colon. Fasting heat production was measured using an additional six lambs. Weights of the large

  7. Summary of channel catfish and rainbow trout production at the Gallatin Waste Heat Aquaculture Facility, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Schweinforth, R.L.; Burton, G.L.

    1984-02-01

    These studies have indicated that channel catfish and rainbow trout can be intensively cultured in concrete raceways using waste heat effluent water from the Gallatin Steam Plant. Optimum production was attained, especially with channel catfish, when desirable water temperatures and proper environmental conditions occurred. High density culture is possible during the winter and early spring months.

  8. Validation and recovery rates of an indirect calorimetry headbox system used to measure heat production of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A headbox system was constructed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to determine heat production from dairy cattle using indirect calorimetry. The system was designed for use in a tie-stall barn to allow the animal to be comfortable and was mounted on wheels to transport between animals between s...

  9. Transient plume influence in measurement of convective heat release rates of fast-growing fires using a large-scale fire products collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Zeng Yu; Hongzeng

    1990-01-01

    A theory for strongly buoyant transient plumes was used to determine whether the convective heat flow measured by a large-scale Fire Products Collector (FPC) could approximate the instantaneous convective heat release rate generated by fast-growing fires. The theory was confirmed by the plume data of rack storage fires. The theory provides a scheme for deriving the convective heat release rate

  10. A numerical study of local heat transfer and velocity distributions between blockages with holes in a rectangular channel 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Sang Won

    2002-01-01

    influence the velocity profiles, therefore, the heat transfer performance. Location of the hole of the upstream blockage significantly changes the velocity profiles; therefore, heat transfer results. The jets through the holes of the upstream blockage...

  11. Steady State Heat Transfer of Ladle Furnace During Steel Production Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ünal Çamdali; Murat. Tunç

    2006-01-01

    The heat transfer analysis was performed for an industrial ladle furnace (LF) with a capacity of 55–57 t in Turkey. The heat losses by conduction, convection and radiation from outer and bottom surfaces, top and electrodes of LF were determined in detail. Finally, some suggestions about decreasing heat losses were presented.

  12. Product safety and the heat sink - dilemma of minimizing radiated emissions and maximizing thermal cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Georgerian; M. I. Montrose

    2003-01-01

    Microprocessors are designed with tens of thousands or millions of transistors that potentially can generate a significant amount of heat. Cooling of the package has become a challenge. Heat sinks are generally provided for the purpose of thermal dissipation, which helps keep components from becoming too hot. Destruction of the component may result. Designing heat sinks for optimal cooling within

  13. Millimeter Wave Detection of Localized Anomalies in the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Insulating Foam and Acreage Heat Tiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kharkovsky; J. T. Case; R. Zoughi; F. Hepburn

    2005-01-01

    Undesired manufactured or in-service produced anomalies in the form of voids in the SOFI and unbonds in the heat tiles can significantly reduce their designed effectiveness. Additionally, unbonds in the heat tiles may cause their complete separation from the fuselage exposing it to extreme heat. Millimeter wave NDT methods are viable candidate for life-cycle inspection of the SOFI and the

  14. Design and testing of a locally made loop-type thermosyphonic heat sink for stove-top thermoelectric generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Y. Nuwayhid; R. Hamade

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a thermoelectric generator, among other aspects, depends on the use of an effective heat sink. While forced cooling using either air or water (or other coolants) is efficient, it is parasitic on the generated power and\\/or bulky and inconvenient. Heat pipes are known to be highly effective heat transport devices. Coupled to a thermoelectric generator, these can

  15. Differential effects of foods traditionally regarded as 'heating' and 'cooling' on prostaglandin E(2) production by a macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching Jang; Wu, Mei-Chiao

    2002-01-01

    Some components of natural foods may enhance or inhibit prostaglandin formation and potentially affect the inflammation condition. A macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, was employed to examine the effects of foods traditionally regarded as 'heating' or 'cooling' on the production of PGE(2), a well-known proinflammatory mediator. Foods traditionally regarded as 'heating' (litchi, longan, and dried longan) or 'cooling' (chrysanthemum flower, bitter gourd, and lotus seed plumule) were extracted sequentially with water and ethyl acetate. The water extracts (WE) and ethyl acetate extracts (EAE) were applied to RAW264.7 macrophages in the presence or absence of LPS (lipopolysaccharide). In the absence of LPS, the WEs from the 'heating foods', litchi, longan, or dried longan had a dose-dependent enhancing effect on PGE(2) production, with respective EC(50)s of 8.4, 16, and 11 mg/ml. This effect was accompanied by significant induction of COX-2 protein expression, as shown by Western blot analysis. In contrast, LPS-induced PGE(2) production was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the WEs of the 'cooling foods', chrysanthemum flower, bitter gourd, and lotus seed plumule, with respective IC(50)s of 0.6, 0.13, and 0.08 mg/ml. At the concentrations tested, none of the EAEs had any effect on basal PGE(2 )production, while LPS-induced PGE(2) production was inhibited or increased by the EAE from bitter gourd and longan, respectively. Water-soluble extracts of foods traditionally regarded as 'heating' enhanced basal PGE(2) production, while those from 'cooling' foods significantly inhibited LPS-induced PGE(2) production by the macrophage cell line. This subject merits further study to determine whether appropriate food selection may help patients suffering from chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:12432225

  16. Advanced Heat Transfer Studies in Superfluid Helium for Large-scale High-yield Production of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    E-print Network

    Peters, Benedikt J; Schirm, Karl-Martin; Koettig, Torsten

    Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OSTs) can be used to localize quenches in superconducting radio frequency cavities. In the presented work the occurring thermal effects during such events are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In the theoretical part the entire heat transfer process from the heat generation to the detection is covered. The experimental part focuses on the effects in superfluid helium. Previous publications observed the detection of an OST signal that was faster than the second sound velocity. This fast propagation could be verified in dedicated small scale experiments. Resistors were used to simulate the quench spots under controlled conditions. The three dimensional propagation of second sound was linked to OST signals for the first time, which improves the understanding of the OST signal and allows to gather information about the heating pulse. Additionally, OSTs were used as a tool for quench localisation on a real size cavity. Their sensitivity as well as the time resol...

  17. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modernel, P.; Astigarraga, L.; Picasso, V.

    2013-09-01

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination. We estimated carbon footprint, fossil fuel energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and risk of pesticide contamination for five real beef background-finishing systems with increasing levels of intensification in Uruguay, which were combinations of grazing rangelands (RL), seeded pastures (SP), and confined in feedlot (FL). Carbon footprint decreased from 16.7 (RL-RL) to 6.9 kg (SP-FL) CO2 eq kg body weight-1 (BW; ‘eq’: equivalent). Energy use was zero for RL-RL and increased up to 17.3 MJ kg BW-1 for SP-FL. Soil erosion values varied from 7.7 (RL-RL) to 14.8 kg of soil kg BW-1 (SP-FL). Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balances showed surpluses for systems with seeded pastures and feedlots while RL-RL was deficient. Pesticide contamination risk was zero for RL-RL, and increased up to 21.2 for SP-FL. For the range of systems studied with increasing use of inputs, trade-offs were observed between global and local environmental problems. These results demonstrate that several indicators are needed to evaluate the sustainability of livestock production systems.

  18. Quantitative prediction of radio frequency induced local heating derived from measured magnetic field maps in magnetic resonance imaging: A phantom validation at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Liu, Jiaen; Schmitter, Sebastian; He, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) technique utilizes measurable radio frequency (RF) coil induced magnetic fields (B1 fields) in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system to quantitatively reconstruct the local electrical properties (EP) of biological tissues. Information derived from the same data set, e.g., complex numbers of B1 distribution towards electric field calculation, can be used to estimate, on a subject-specific basis, local Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR plays a significant role in RF pulse design for high-field MRI applications, where maximum local tissue heating remains one of the most constraining limits. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of such B1-based local SAR estimation, expanding on previously proposed EPT approaches. To this end, B1 calibration was obtained in a gelatin phantom at 7 T with a multi-channel transmit coil, under a particular multi-channel B1-shim setting (B1-shim I). Using this unique set of B1 calibration, local SAR distribution was subsequently predicted for B1-shim I, as well as for another B1-shim setting (B1-shim II), considering a specific set of parameter for a heating MRI protocol consisting of RF pulses plaid at 1% duty cycle. Local SAR results, which could not be directly measured with MRI, were subsequently converted into temperature change which in turn were validated against temperature changes measured by MRI Thermometry based on the proton chemical shift.

  19. The effect of hyperosmolality on the rate of heat production of quiescent trabeculae isolated from the rat heart

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the rate of heat production of isolated, quiescent, right ventricular trabeculae of the rat under isosmotic and hyperosmotic conditions, using a microcalorimetric technique. In parallel experiments, we measured force production and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). The rate of resting heat production under isosmotic conditions (mean +/- SEM, n = 32) was 100 +/- 7 mW (g dry wt)-1; it increased sigmoidally with osmolality, reaching a peak that was about four times the isosmotic value at about twice normal osmotic pressure. The hyperosmotic thermal response was: (a) abolished by anoxia, (b) attenuated by procaine, (c) insensitive to verapamil, ouabain, and external calcium concentration, and (d) absent in chemically skinned trabeculae bathed in low-Ca2+ "relaxing solution." Active force production was inhibited at all osmolalities above isosmotic. Passive (tonic) force increased to, at most, 15% of the peak active force developed under isosmotic conditions while [Ca2+]i increased, at most, 30% above its isosmotic value. We infer that hyperosmotic stimulation of resting cardiac heat production reflects, in large part, greatly increased activity of the sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ ATPase in the face of increased efflux via a procaine-inhibitable Ca(2+)-release channel. PMID:8972388

  20. Comparison of conventional and solar-water-heating products and industries report

    SciTech Connect

    Noreen, D; LeChevalier, R; Choi, M; Morehouse, J

    1980-07-11

    President Carter established a goal that would require installation of at least one million solar water heaters by 1985 and 20 million water-heating systems by the year 2000. The goals established require that the solar industry be sufficiently mature to provide cost-effective, reliable designs in the immediate future. The objective of this study was to provide the Department of Energy with quantified data that can be used to assess and redirect, if necessary, the program plans to assure compliance with the President's goals. Results deal with the product, the industry, the market, and the consumer. All issues are examined in the framework of the conventional-hot-water industry. Based on the results of this solar hot water assessment study, there is documented proof that the solar industry is blessed with over 20 good solar hot water systems. A total of eight generic types are currently being produced, but a majority of the systems being sold are included in only five generic types. The good systems are well-packaged for quality, performance and installation ease. These leading systems are sized and designed to fit the requirements of the consumer in every respect. This delivery end also suffers from a lack of understanding of the best methods for selling the product. At the supplier end, there are problems also, including: some design deficiencies, improper materials selection and, occasionally, the improper selection of components and subsystems. These, in total, are not serious problems in the better systems and will be resolved as this industry matures.

  1. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences] [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology] [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  2. Localization of the stress protein SP21 in indole-induced spores, fruiting bodies, and heat-shocked cells of Stigmatella aurantiaca.

    PubMed Central

    Lünsdorf, H; Schairer, H U; Heidelbach, M

    1995-01-01

    The localization and distribution of the stress protein SP21 in indole-induced vegetative cells, fruiting bodies, and heat shocked cells of Stigmatella aurantiaca were determined by immunoelectron microscopy. SP21 was found at the cell periphery in heat-shocked cells and either at the cell periphery or within the cytoplasm in indole-induced cells, often concentrated in clusters. In fruiting-body-derived spores, SP21 was located mainly at the cell wall, preferentially at the outer periphery. Furthermore, SP21 antigen was associated with cellular remnants within the stalk and within the peripheral horizon next to the fruiting body. PMID:8522514

  3. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  4. Lunar south pole ice as heat sink for lunar cryofuel production system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.; Stanley, M.; Modro, S.M. [PO Box 1625, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Whitman, P. [University of Southwestern Louisiana, Physics Dept., Center for Accessible Resources, Box 4210, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504 (United States)

    1995-01-20

    Recent Clementine bistatic radar data suggest that water ice may be present in a ``forever shaded`` depression or crater at the South Pole of the Moon. The ice is a feedstock for the electrolysis production of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen rocket fuel for a transportation system on the moon and for leaving and descending on the moon. The ice also provides a convective heat sink critical to the practical implementation of high throughput electric power generators and refrigerators that liquefy and cool the oxyen and hydrogen into cryogenic rocket fuel. This brief analysis shows that about a hundred tonnes of hardware delivered to the lunar surface can produce tens of thousands of tonnes of rocket fuel per year, on the moon. And it makes the point that if convective cooling is used instead of radiative cooling, then power and processing systems can be used that exist and have been tested already. This shortens the time by an order of magnitude to develop lunar operations. Quick deployment of a chemical cryofuel energy source is a key factor in the economics of lunar development. {copyright}American Institute of Physics 1995

  5. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, D.L. (Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, Mail Stop N1-42, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    A shielded storage rack has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which processes and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGs. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  6. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE`s Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford`s MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford`s calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock protein-60 induced interferon-? and interleukin-10 production in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    KINNUNEN, A; SURCEL, H-M; HALTTUNEN, M; TIITINEN, A; MORRISON, R P; MORRISON, S G; KOSKELA, P; LEHTINEN, M; PAAVONEN, J

    2003-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal factor infertility (TFI) involves enhanced humoral and cell-mediated immune response to the chlamydial 60 kDa heat shock protein (CHSP60). We evaluated the role of CHSP60-induced immune response in TFI by studying lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10) secretion in response to C. trachomatis elementary body (EB) and CHSP60 antigens in 57 women with TFI and in 76 women with other causes of infertility. Positive proliferative response of PBMC to CHSP60 was more common in the TFI group (20/57; 36%) than in the other groups (17/76; 22%) although the frequency or the median responses did not differ significantly (1·6, range 0·2–22·1 versus 1·4; 0·2–24·4). C. trachomatis EB induced significantly higher IFN-? and lower IL-10 secretion in the TFI group compared to the other groups. The EB and CHSP60 induced IL-12 secretion was similar in all study groups and correlated with IFN-? secretion in the other but not in the TFI group. The lack of correlation between EB-induced IL-12 and IFN-? production and simultaneously found prominent IL-10 secretion in response to CHSP60 in the TFI group suggests that the CHSP60 may have a specific role in regulating the immune reactions during chlamydial infection and may consequently contribute to the immunopathogenesis of TFI. PMID:12562392

  8. Tracking heat-resistant, cold-thriving fluid milk spoilage bacteria from farm to packaged product.

    PubMed

    Huck, J R; Sonnen, M; Boor, K J

    2008-03-01

    Control of psychrotolerant endospore-forming spoilage bacteria, particularly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp., is economically important to the dairy industry. These microbes form endospores that can survive high-temperature, short-time pasteurization; hence, their presence in raw milk represents a major potential cause of milk spoilage. A previously developed culture-dependent selection strategy and an rpoB sequence-based subtyping method were applied to bacterial isolates obtained from environmental samples collected on a New York State dairy farm. A total of 54 different rpoB allelic types putatively identified as Bacillus (75% of isolates), Paenibacillus (24%), and Sporosarcina spp. (1%) were identified among 93 isolates. Assembly of a broader data set, including 93 dairy farm isolates, 57 raw milk tank truck isolates, 138 dairy plant storage silo isolates, and 336 pasteurized milk isolates, identified a total of 154 rpoB allelic types, representing an extensive diversity of Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. Our molecular subtype data clearly showed that certain endospore-forming bacterial subtypes are present in the dairy farm environment as well as in the processing plant. The potential for entry of these ubiquitous heat-resistant spoilage organisms into milk production and processing systems, from the dairy farm to the processing plant, represents a considerable challenge that will require a comprehensive farm-to-table approach to fluid milk quality. PMID:18292280

  9. Solid Waste from Swine Wastewater as a Fuel Source for Heat Production

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myung-Ho; Kumar, Sanjay; Ra, ChangSix

    2012-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the feasibility of recycling the solids separated from swine wastewater treatment process as a fuel source for heat production and to provide a data set on the gas emissions and combustion properties. Also, in this study, the heavy metals in ash content were analyzed for its possible use as a fertilizer. Proximate analysis of the solid recovered from the swine wastewater after flocculation with organic polymer showed high calorific (5,330.50 kcal/kg) and low moisture (15.38%) content, indicating that the solid separated from swine wastewater can be used as an alternative fuel source. CO and NOx emissions were found to increase with increasing temperature. Combustion efficiency of the solids was found to be stable (95 to 98%) with varied temperatures. Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed five thermal effects (four exothermic and one endothermic), and these effects were distinguished in three stages, water evaporation, heterogeneous combustion of hydrocarbons and decomposition reaction. Based on the calorific value and combustion stability results, solid separated from swine manure can be used as an alternative source of fuel, however further research is still warranted regarding regulation of CO and NOx emissions. Furthermore, the heavy metal content in ash was below the legal limits required for its usage as fertilizer. PMID:25049526

  10. Lunar South Pole ice as heat sink for Lunar cryofuel production system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.; Stanley, M.; Modro, S.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Whitman, P. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Recent Clementine bistatic radar data suggest that water ice may be present in a {open_quotes}forever shaded{close_quotes} depression or crater at the South Pole of the Moon. The ice is a feedstock for the electrolysis production of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen rocket fuels for a transportation system on the moon and for leaving and descending on to the moon. The ice also provides a convective heat sink critical to the practical implementation of high throughput electric power generators and refrigerators that liquefy and cool the oxygen and hydrogen into cryogenic rocket fuel. This brief analysis shows that about a hundred tonnes of hardware delivered to the lunar surface can produce tens of thousands of tonnes of rocket fuel per year, on the moon. And it makes the point that if convective cooling is used instead of radiative cooling, then power and processing systems can be used that exist and have been tested already. This shortens the time by an order of magnitude to develop lunar operations. Quick deployment of a chemical cryofuel energy source is a key factor in the economics of lunar development.

  11. Biomass and lipid production of a local isolate Chlorella sorokiniana under mixotrophic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Juntila, D J; Bautista, M A; Monotilla, W

    2015-09-01

    A local Chlorella sp. isolate with 97% rbcL sequence identity to Chlorella sorokiniana was evaluated in terms of its biomass and lipid production under mixotrophic growth conditions. Glucose-supplemented cultures exhibited increasing growth rate and biomass yield with increasing glucose concentration. Highest growth rate and biomass yield of 1.602day(-1) and 687.5mgL(-1), respectively, were achieved under 2gL(-1) glucose. Nitrogen starvation up to 75% in the 1.0gL(-1) glucose-supplemented culture was done to induce lipid accumulation and did not significantly affect the growth. Lipid content ranges from 20% to 27% dry weight. Nile Red staining showed more prominent neutral lipid bodies in starved mixotrophic cultures. C. sorokiniana exhibited enhanced biomass production under mixotrophy and more prominent neutral lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation with no significant decrease in growth; hence, this isolate could be further studied to establish its potential for biodiesel production. PMID:25847795

  12. Effects of NaCl, sucrose, and storage on rheological parameters of heat induced gels of liquid egg products 

    E-print Network

    Brough, Joan

    1988-01-01

    EFFECTS OF NaCl, SUCROSE, AND STORAGE ON RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF HEAT INDUCED GELS OF LIQUID EGG PRODUCTS A Thesis by Joan Brough Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... and content by: C. W. Dill (Chair of Committee) F. A. Gardner (Member) R. L. Edwards (Member) G. C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1988 ABSTRACT Effects of NaC1, Sucrose, and Storage on Rheological Parameters of Heat Induced Gels of Liquid Egg...

  13. Development and testing of improved heat transfer media for regenerative thermal oxidizers in the wood products industry

    SciTech Connect

    Klobucar, J.M. [Duerr Industries, Inc., Plymouth, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Recently regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) have been used to control gaseous hydrocarbon air pollutant emissions from wood products plants. Two major problems related to the ceramic saddle heat transfer matrix in conventional RTOs have been encountered, cold face fouling and breakdown of the ceramic matrix. A structured packing heat transfer media having straight airflow passages of constant cross section was developed to remedy these problems. Results of pilot scale testing has shown that the structured packing is resistant to cold face fouling and breakdown of the ceramic matrix. In addition, in a full scale retrofit application, improvements in pollutant reduction effectiveness and operating efficiency were measured. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The heat shock protein response following eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle is unaffected by local NSAID infusion.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, U R; Paulsen, G; Schjerling, P; Helmark, I C; Langberg, H; Kjær, M; Heinemeier, K M

    2013-07-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed in relation to pain and injuries in skeletal muscle, but may adversely affect muscle adaptation probably via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Induction of heat shock proteins (HSP) represents an important adaptive response in muscle subjected to stress, and in several cell types including cardiac myocytes prostaglandins are important in induction of the HSP response. This study aimed to determine the influence of NSAIDs on the HSP response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. Healthy males performed 200 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg with intramuscular infusion of the NSAID indomethacin or placebo. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis before and after (5, 28 hrs and 8 days) the exercise bout from both legs (NSAID vs unblocked leg) and analysed for expression of the HSPs HSP70, HSP27 and ?B-crystallin (mRNA and protein). NSAID did not affect the mRNA expression of any of the HSPs. Compared to pre values, the mRNA expression of all HSPs was increased; ?B-crystallin, 3.6- and 5.4-fold; HSP70, 26- and 3.4-fold; and HSP27: 4.8- and 6.5-fold at 5 and 28 hrs post-exercise, respectively (all p < 0.008). Immunohistochemical stainings for ?B-crystallin and HSP70 revealed increased staining in some samples but with no differences between legs. Changes in force-generating capacity correlated with both ?B-crystallin and HSP70 mRNA and immunohistochemisty data. Increased expression of HSPs was observed on mRNA and protein level following eccentric exercise; however, this response was unaffected by local intramuscular infusion of NSAIDs. PMID:23467900

  15. Effects of Total Resources, Resource Ratios, and Species Richness on Algal Productivity and Evenness at Both Metacommunity and Local Scales

    PubMed Central

    Gamfeldt, Lars; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The study of the interrelationship between productivity and biodiversity is a major research field in ecology. Theory predicts that if essential resources are heterogeneously distributed across a metacommunity, single species may dominate productivity in individual metacommunity patches, but a mixture of species will maximize productivity across the whole metacommunity. It also predicts that a balanced supply of resources within local patches should favor species coexistence, whereas resource imbalance would favor the dominance of one species. We performed an experiment with five freshwater algal species to study the effects of total supply of resources, their ratios, and species richness on biovolume production and evenness at the scale of both local patches and metacommunities. Generally, algal biovolume increased, whereas algal resource use efficiency (RUE) and evenness decreased with increasing total supply of resources in mixed communities containing all five species. In contrast to predictions for biovolume production, the species mixtures did not outperform all monocultures at the scale of metacommunities. In other words, we observed no general transgressive overyielding. However, RUE was always higher in mixtures than predicted from monocultures, and analyses indicate that resource partitioning or facilitation in mixtures resulted in higher-than-expected productivity at high resource supply. Contrasting our predictions for the local scale, balanced supply of resources did not generally favor higher local evenness, however lowest evenness was confined to patches with the most imbalanced supply. Thus, our study provides mixed support for recent theoretical advancements to understand biodiversity-productivity relationships. PMID:21755016

  16. Monocyte chemotactic protein expression during schistosome egg granuloma formation. Sequence of production, localization, contribution, and regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Chensue, S. W.; Warmington, K. S.; Lukacs, N. W.; Lincoln, P. M.; Burdick, M. D.; Strieter, R. M.; Kunkel, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    The present study explored the role of murine monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) in the T cell-mediated hypersensitive granulomatous response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs. The study examined the time course of local production, contribution to cellular infiltration, and the role of T cells in endogenous regulation. Synchronized pulmonary granulomas were induced under conditions of primary and secondary states of immunity. Primer-directed polymerase chain reaction analysis showed increased MCP mRNA expression in granulomatous lungs, mainly in the secondary response. Levels of MCP were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cultures of intact granulomas. Spontaneous MCP production was modest in primary granuloma cultures, reaching a maximum of 5.7 +/- 0.9 ng/ml by 16 days. In contrast, the secondary response showed augmented and accelerated production, achieving 13 +/- 2.0 ng/ml by 2 days. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the strongest MCP expression within microvascular adventitial cells or pericytes as well as in scattered mononuclear cells associated with granulomas. Staining was not detected in normal lungs. Passive immunization with anti-MCP-1 antibodies caused a 40% reduction in the secondary granuloma area but did not significantly affect the primary response. With adoptive cell transfer and T cell subset depletion, it was shown that Thy-1+ and CD5+ cells augmented, whereas CD8+ cells appeared to impair, MCP production. This provides direct evidence that MCP is involved in secondary Th2-mediated response to schistosome eggs and is subject to regulation by T cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7856722

  17. The infinitesimal, second order character of local Mach number variations in calculations of nose cone heating, either from athermanous temperature or from the transfer coefficient found with the local Nusselt number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, M.

    1980-03-01

    The difference between the athermanous temperature calculated using nose cone upstream aerodynamic characteristics on the one hand, and on the other, using local aerodynamic characteristics is determined. The flow velocity is given by the St. Venant formula. The coefficient of compression on the nose cone is introduced. The calculation of the athermanous temperature is explained, and a numerical application leads to a very good second order approximation. The error is shown maximal at M = 6, given ambient temperature. It is thus unnecessary to know the local Mach numbers along a nose cone in order to calculate heating accurately.

  18. Local interleukin-10 production during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is associated with post-bronchiolitis wheeze

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Following RSV bronchiolitis, 50% of children develop post-bronchiolitis wheeze (PBW). Animal studies have suggested that interleukin (IL)-10 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchiolitis and subsequent airway hyperresponsiveness. Previously, we showed that ex vivo monocyte IL-10 production is a predictor of PBW. Additionally, heterozygosity of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800872 in the IL10 promoter region was associated with protection against RSV bronchiolitis. Methods This study aimed to determine the in vivo role of IL-10 in RSV pathogenesis and recurrent wheeze in a new cohort of 235 infants hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis. IL-10 levels in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were measured at the time of hospitalization and the IL10 SNP rs1800872 genotype was determined. Follow-up data were available for 185 children (79%). Results Local IL-10 levels during RSV infection turned out to be higher in infants that later developed physician diagnosed PBW as compared to infants without PBW in the first year after RSV infection (958 vs 692 pg/ml, p = 0.02). The IL10 promoter SNP rs1800872 was not associated with IL-10 concentration in NPAs. Conclusion The relationship between high local IL-10 levels during the initial RSV infection and physician diagnosed PBW provides further evidence of the importance of the IL-10 response during RSV bronchiolitis. PMID:21910858

  19. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Kamachi Mudali; H. S. Khatak; R. K. Dayal; J. B. Gnanamoorthy

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated

  20. A Remark on the Heat Equation with a Point Perturbation, the Feynman-Kac Formula with Local Time and Derivative Pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, Sergio; Fassari, Silvestro; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    We discuss the probabilistic representation of the solutions of the heat equation perturbed by a repulsive point interaction in terms of a perturbation of Brownian motion, via a Feynman-Kac formula involving a local time functional. An application to option pricing is given, interpolating between the extreme cases of classical Black-Scholes options and knockouts having the barrier situated exactly at the exercise price.

  1. Numerical analysis of the effect of local energy supply on the aerodynamic drag and heat transfer of a spherically blunted body in a supersonic air flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Levin; V. G. Gromov; N. E. Afonina

    2000-01-01

    The effect of local source of energy in a supersonic flow on the aerodynamic drag and heat transfer of a spherically blunted\\u000a body is studied numerically. Calculations are performed on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations for a thermally equilibrium\\u000a model of air. Data on the effect of the intensity and size of the energy source on the wave drag,

  2. ATP and heat production in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise: higher efficiency of anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Krustrup, Peter; Ferguson, Richard A; Kjær, Michael; Bangsbo, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine skeletal muscle heat production and ATP turnover in humans during dynamic exercise with marked differences in aerobic metabolism. This was done to test the hypothesis that efficiency is higher in anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis. Six healthy male subjects performed 90 s of low intensity knee-extensor exercise with (OCC) and without thigh occlusion (CON-LI) as well as 90 s of high intensity exercise (CON-HI) that continued from the CON-LI bout. Muscle heat production was determined by continuous measurements of muscle heat accumulation and heat release to the blood. Muscle ATP production was quantified by repeated measurements of thigh oxygen uptake as well as blood and muscle metabolite changes. All temperatures of the thigh were equalized to ?37 °C prior to exercise by a water-perfused heating cuff. Oxygen uptake accounted for 80 ± 2 and 59 ± 4 %, respectively, of the total ATP resynthesis in CON-LI and CON-HI, whereas it was negligible in OCC. The rise in muscle temperature was lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (0.32 ± 0.04 vs. 0.37 ± 0.03 °C). The mean rate of heat production was also lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (36 ± 4 vs. 57 ± 4 J s?1). Mechanical efficiency was 52 ± 4 % after 15 s of OCC and remained constant, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) from 56 ± 5 to 32 ± 3 % during CON-LI. During CON-HI, mechanical efficiency transiently increased (P < 0.05) to 47 ± 4 %, after which it decreased (P < 0.05) to 36 ± 3 % at the end of CON-HI. Assuming a fully coupled mitochondrial respiration, the ATP turnover per unit of work was calculated to be unaltered during OCC (?20 mmol ATP kJ?1), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) from 21 ± 4 to 29 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ?1 during CON-LI and further (P < 0.05) to 37 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ?1 during CON-HI. The present data confirm the hypothesis that heat loss is lower in anaerobic ATP resynthesis than in oxidative phosphorylation and can in part explain the finding that efficiency declines markedly during dynamic exercise. In addition, the rate of ATP turnover apparently increases during constant load low intensity exercise. Alternatively, mitochondrial efficiency is lowered as exercise progresses, since ATP turnover was unaltered during the ischaemic exercise bout. PMID:12651917

  3. From local force-flux relationships to internal dissipations and their impact on heat engine performance: The illustrative case of a thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2013-08-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of the sometimes understated role of the principle of energy conservation in linear irreversible thermodynamics. Our case study is that of a thermoelectric generator (TEG), which is a heat engine of choice in irreversible thermodynamics, owing to the coupling between the electrical and heat fluxes. We show why Onsager's reciprocal relations must be considered locally and how internal dissipative processes emerge from the extension of these relations to a global scale: The linear behavior of a heat engine at the local scale is associated with a dissipation process that must partake in the global energy balance. We discuss the consequences of internal dissipations on the so-called efficiency at maximum power, in the light of our comparative analyses of exoreversibility and endoreversibility on the one hand and of two classes of heat engines, autonomous and periodically driven, on the other hand. Finally, basing our analysis on energy conservation, we also discuss recent works which claim the possibility to overcome the traditional boundaries on efficiency imposed by finite-time thermodynamics in thermoelectric systems with broken time-reversal symmetry; this we do by introducing a “thermal” thermopower and an “electrical” thermopower which permits an analysis of the thermoelectric response of the TEG considering a possible dissymmetry between the electrical/thermal and the thermal/electrical couplings.

  4. Synergistic hydrogen production by nuclear-heated steam reforming of fossil fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Hori; Kazuaki Matsui; Masanori Tashimo; Isamu Yasuda

    2005-01-01

    Processes and technologies to produce hydrogen synergistically by the nuclear-heated steam reforming reaction of fossil fuels are reviewed. Formulas of chemical reactions, required heats for reactions, saving of fuel consumption, reduction of carbon dioxide emission, and possible processes are investigated for such fossil fuels as natural gas, petroleum and coal.In this investigation, examined are the steam reforming processes using the

  5. Review Article Radiogenic heat production, thermal regime and evolution of continental crust

    E-print Network

    and the variations in seismic velocities below the Moho. Notably, heat flow studies have delin- eated the vertical that exist within a single geological province. For a given crustal thickness, the Moho temperature varies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 2.1. Moho heat flux

  6. Retrieved Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release Using TRMM Rainfall Products for February 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W.-K. Tao; S. Lang; W. S. Olson; R. Meneghini; S. Yang; J. Simpson; C. Kummerow; E. Smith; J. Halverson

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to use Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall information to estimate the four-dimensional latent heating structure over the global Tropics for one month (February 1998). The mean latent heating profiles over six oceanic regions [Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) Intensive Flux Array (IFA), central Pacific, South Pacific Convergence

  7. Correction to the ERA40 surface flux products consistent with the Mediterranean heat and water budgets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pettenuzzo; W. G. Large; N. Pinardi

    2009-01-01

    A new air-sea physics parametrization is developed along with a correction of the ECMWF Era-40 reanalysis in order to close the heat and fresh water budgets for the Mediterranean basin during the period that ranges from 1958 to 2001. The empirical bulk formulas for the evaluation of the radiative part of the total heat flux has been replaced by the

  8. Enhanced autotrophic astaxanthin production from Haematococcus pluvialis under high temperature via heat stress-driven Haber-Weiss reaction.

    PubMed

    Hong, Min-Eui; Hwang, Sung Kwan; Chang, Won Seok; Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Jeewon; Sim, Sang Jun

    2015-06-01

    High temperatures (30-36 °C) inhibited astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis under photoautotrophic conditions. The depression of carotenogenesis was primarily attributed to excess intracellular less reactive oxygen species (LROS; O2 (-) and H2O2) levels generated under high temperature conditions. Here, we show that the heat stress-driven inefficient astaxanthin production was improved by accelerating the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction to convert LROS into more reactive oxygen species (MROS; O2 and OH·), thereby facilitating lipid peroxidation. As a result, during 18 days of photoautotrophic induction, the astaxanthin concentration of cells cultured in high temperatures in the presence of iron (450 ?M) was dramatically increased by 75 % (30 °C) and 133 % (36 °C) compared to that of cells exposed to heat stress alone. The heat stress-driven Haber-Weiss reaction will be useful for economically producing astaxanthin by reducing energy cost and enhancing photoautotrophic astaxanthin production, particularly outdoors utilizing natural solar radiation including heat and light for photo-induction of H. pluvialis. PMID:25683663

  9. Constraining heat production rates in Ireland's basement rocks: measurements of exposed basement and correlations from across the Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmot Noller, Nicola; Daly, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Ireland is situated on stable lithosphere and much of its surface geology features thick Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary sequences, and a few shallow Permo-Triassic basins, for which measured geothermal gradients are generally moderate. Nevertheless, crystalline rocks beneath these basins might produce enough heat for a viable deep-drilled, low enthalpy geothermal resource. Accurate knowledge of the lateral and vertical distribution of radiogenic heat production is, therefore, important in helping to define geothermal exploration targets. The crystalline basement of Ireland is interpreted as an assemblage formed from the convergence of Laurentia and Gondwanan terranes during the closure of the Iapetus Ocean and the Caledonian orogenic event. Despite the extensive sedimentary cover observed today, folding and faulting episodes during the Caledonian and the subsequent Variscan orogenies enabled exhumation of a wide range of Precambrian and Palaeozoic rocks, albeit exposed at relatively few sites across Ireland. A mean calculated heat production rate (HPR) derived from these outcrops is used as a proxy for the equivalent stratigraphic unit at depth. This has been achieved using established heat production constants, rock density and known concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium, combined with a knowledge of geological mapping and geophysical data. To further constrain the vertical component of heat production distribution, Irish metapelitic xenoliths emplaced in Lower Carboniferous volcanics in the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ) in central Ireland are regarded as a reliable representation of the present-day lower crust there. The xenoliths have a mean HPR of 1.7 ?W/m3; this is similar to a mean HPR of 1.9 ?W/m3 measured in exposed Ordovician sedimentary rocks in the south east of Ireland. The slightly lower HPR in the xenoliths is a consequence of reduced uranium concentrations, probably owing to the radioelement's mobility. It is likely that these Ordovician rocks are subjacent to the Mid/Late Palaeozoic sedimentary basin between the ISZ and their outcrop in SE Ireland. In addition, Newfoundland Appalachians are interpreted as part of the relict collision zone from the Caledonian orogenic event, separated from the Irish Caledonides by rifting as the Atlantic opened. This region offers extensive exposure of Precambrian, Lower Palaeozoic supracrustal and plutonic rocks many of which can be regarded as equivalent to those in Ireland. The Canadian geochemical dataset thus provides an opportunity to test the validity of assigning to Ireland's basement, heat production rates obtained from otherwise limited exposures.

  10. Persistence of local cytokine production in shigellosis in acute and convalescent stages.

    PubMed Central

    Raqib, R; Lindberg, A A; Wretlind, B; Bardhan, P K; Andersson, U; Andersson, J

    1995-01-01

    Shigella infection is accompanied by an intestinal activation of epithelial cells, T cells, and macrophages within the inflamed colonic mucosa. A prospective study was carried out to elucidate the cytokine pattern in Shigella infection linked to development of immunity and eradication of bacteria from the local site and also to correlate the cytokine profile with histological severity. An indirect immunohistochemical technique was used to determine the production and localization of various cytokines at the single-cell level in cryopreserved rectal biopsies from 24 patients with either Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (n = 18) or Shigella flexneri (n = 6) infection. The histopathological profile included presence of chronic inflammatory cells with or without neutrophils and microulcers in the lamina propria, crypt distortion, branching, and less frequently crypt abscesses. Patients had significantly higher (P < 0.005) numbers of cytokine producing cells for all of the cytokines studied, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-1ra, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, IL-10, gamma interferon, TNF-beta, and transforming growth factor beta 1-3, in the biopsies than the healthy controls (n = 13). The cytokine production profile during the study period was dominated by IL-1 beta, transforming growth factor beta 1-3, IL-4, and IL-10. Significantly increased frequencies of cytokine-producing cells (P < 0.05) were observed for IL-1, IL-6, gamma interferon, and TNF-alpha in biopsies with severe inflammation in comparison with those with mild inflammation. During the acute stage of the disease, 20 of 24 patients exhibited acute inflammation in the rectal biopsies and the cellular infiltration was still extensive 30 days after the onset of diarrhea, although the disease was clinically resolved. In accordance with the histological findings, cytokine production was also upregulated during the convalescent phase; there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the incidence of cytokine-producing cells between acute (2 to 8 days after the onset of diarrhea) and convalescent (30 days after onset) stages. PMID:7806368

  11. A comparison between measured local scale suburban and areally-averaged urban heat and water vapour fluxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. CLEUGH; C. S. B. GRIMMOND

    1993-01-01

    Sensible and latent heat fluxes are estimated from temperature and humidity profiles measured in the convective boundary layer (CBL) above Sacramento, California during late Summer, 1991. The CBL integrates over spatial scales of ca 100 km2, thus these profiles represent the urban boundary layer and the derived sensible and latent heat fluxes represent areal averages from the urban surface. The

  12. Indirect Dark Matter Signatures in the Cosmic Dark Ages II. Ionization, Heating and Photon Production from Arbitrary Energy Injections

    E-print Network

    Slatyer, Tracy R

    2015-01-01

    Any injection of electromagnetically interacting particles during the cosmic dark ages will lead to increased ionization, heating, production of Lyman-alpha photons and distortions to the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, with potentially observable consequences. In this note we describe numerical results for the low-energy electrons and photons produced by the cooling of particles injected at energies from keV to multi-TeV scales, at arbitrary injection redshifts (but focusing on the post-recombination epoch). We use these data, combined with existing calculations modeling the cooling of these low-energy particles, to estimate the resulting contributions to ionization, excitation and heating of the gas, and production of low-energy photons below the threshold for excitation and ionization. We compute corrected deposition-efficiency curves for annihilating dark matter, and demonstrate how to compute equivalent curves for arbitrary energy-injection histories. These calculations provide the ne...

  13. Binding of Autotaxin to Integrins Localizes Lysophosphatidic Acid Production to Platelets and Mammalian Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Zachary; Wu, Tao; Sunkara, Manjula; Kooi, Craig Vander; Morris, Andrew J.; Smyth, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). We and others have reported that ATX binds to integrins, but the function of ATX-integrin interactions is unknown. The recently reported crystal structure of ATX suggests a role for the solvent-exposed surface of the N-terminal tandem somatomedin B-like domains in binding to platelet integrin ?IIb?3. The opposite face of the somatomedin B-like domain interacts with the catalytic phosphodiesterase (PDE) domain to form a hydrophobic channel through which lysophospholipid substrates enter and leave the active site. Based on this structure, we hypothesize that integrin-bound ATX can access cell surface substrates and deliver LPA to cell surface receptors. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the integrin selectivity and signaling pathways that promote ATX binding to platelets. We report that both platelet ?1 and ?3 integrins interact in an activation-dependent manner with ATX via the SMB2 domain. ATX increases thrombin-stimulated LPA production by washed platelets ?10-fold. When incubated under conditions to promote integrin activation, ATX generates LPA from CHO cells primed with bee venom phospholipase A2, and ATX-mediated LPA production is enhanced more than 2-fold by CHO cell overexpression of integrin ?3. The effects of ATX on platelet and cell-associated LPA production, but not hydrolysis of small molecule or detergent-solubilized substrates, are attenuated by point mutations in the SMB2 that impair integrin binding. Integrin binding therefore localizes ATX activity to the cell surface, providing a mechanism to generate LPA in the vicinity of its receptors. PMID:21832043

  14. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40°C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in ?-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat. PMID:24022274

  15. The role of magnetic islands in modifying long range temporal correlations of density fluctuations and local heat transport

    E-print Network

    van Milligen, B Ph; Garcia, L; Bruna, D Lopez; Carreras, B A; Xu, Y; Ochando, M; Hidalgo, C; Reynolds-Barredo, J M; Fraguas, A Lopez

    2015-01-01

    This work explores the relation between magnetic islands, long range temporal correlations and heat transport. A low order rational surface ($\\iota/2\\pi = 3/2$) was purposely scanned outward through an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated (ECRH) plasma in the TJ-II stellarator. Density turbulence and the poloidal flow velocity (or radial electric field) were characterized using a two channel Doppler Reflectometer. Simultaneously, the ECRH power was modulated to characterize heat transport, using measurements from a 12 channel Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostic. A systematic variation of the poloidal velocity was found to be associated with the stationary $\\iota/2\\pi = 3/2$ magnetic island. Inside from the rational surface, the Hurst coefficient, quantifying the nature of long-range correlations, was found to be significantly enhanced. Simultaneously, heat transport was enhanced as well, establishing a clear link between density fluctuations and anomalous heat transport. The variation of the Hurst coefficie...

  16. Induction of the heat shock regulon of Escherichia coli markedly increases production of bacterial viruses at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, J.S.; Mowrey-Mckee, M.F.; Stevens, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Production of bacteriophages T2, T4, and T6 at 42.8 to 44/sup 0/C was increased from 8- to 260-fold by adapting the Escherichia coli host (grown at 30/sup 0/C) to growth at the high temperature for 8 min before infection; this increase was abolished if the host htpR (rpoH) gene was inactive. Others have shown that the htpR protein increases or activates the synthesis of at least 17 E. coli heat shock proteins upon raising the growth temperature above a certain level. At 43.8 to 44/sup 0/C in T4-infected, unadapted cells, the rates of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis were about 100, 70 and 70%, respectively, of those in T4-infected, adapted cells. Production of the major processed capsid protein, gp23, was reduced significantly more than that of most other T4 proteins in unadapted cells relative to adapted cells. Only 4.6% of the T4 DNA made in unadapted cells was resistant to micrococcal nuclease, versus 50% in adapted cells. Thus, defective maturation of T4 heads appears to explain the failure of phage production in unadapted cells. Overproduction of the heat shock protein GroEL from plasmids restored T4 production in unadapted cells to about 50% of that seen in adapted cells. T4-infected, adapted E. coli B at around 44/sup 0/C exhibited a partial tryptophan deficiency. Production of bacteriophage T7 at 44/sup 0/C was increased two- to fourfold by adapting the host to 44/sup 0/C before infection; evidence against involvement of the htpR (rpoH) gene is presented. This work and recent work with bacteriophage delta appear to represent the first demonstrations for any virus that expression of the heat shock regulon of a host is necessary for virus production at high temperature.

  17. Determination of Optimal Process Flowrates and Reactor Design for Autothermal Hydrogen Production in a Heat-Integrated Ceramic Microchannel Network 

    E-print Network

    Damodharan, Shalini

    2012-07-16

    fuels for transportation, stationary and portable power applications for reduced carbon emissions. Fuel cells operating on hydrogen emit water as their sole by-product, providing clean, emission free power. While hydrogen may be produced from solar... conduction heat losses via packaging [54]. Therefore, ceramic substrates offer enhanced reactor performance by increasing thermal efficiency of the system. Ceramic monolithic reactors consisting of parallel channels with small diameters, offer a higher...

  18. Fruit Number in Relation to Pollen Production and Viability in Groundnut Exposed to Short Episodes of Heat Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. VARA PRASAD; P. Q. CRAUFURD; R. J. SUMMERFIELD

    1999-01-01

    Hot days and warm nights are important environmental factors limiting fruit yields of groundnuts in the semi-arid tropics. The objective of the present research was to quantify the effects of short episodes of heat stress on pollen production and viability, and fruit yield. Plants of cultivar ‘ICGV 86015’ were grown at a day\\/night temperature of 28\\/22 °C from sowing until

  19. Vacuum-water production heat treatment of XM774 and XM833 depleted uranium-0. 75% titanium penetrators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Polson; L. M. Levy

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the production scale heat treatment process used to manufacture ARRADCOM's XM774 and XM833 Uranium-0.75% titanium penetrators. It is essentially a scale-up of the process developed by Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL). The process consists of vacuum solutionizing of batches of 38 penetrator blanks followed by quenching into water at a controlled rate. The subsequent vacuum aging is described

  20. Production of biologically safe digested manure for land application by a full-scale biogas plant with heat-inactivation.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Shigeki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Hoaki, Toshihiro; Tomozawa, Takashi; Ohara, Takahiko; Ojima, Reiichi; Ishida, Tetsuya

    2008-06-01

    Inactivation of indigenous indicator micro-organisms such as faecal coliforms, coliphages, and faecal streptococci was investigated in a full-scale biogas plant that mainly digested cow manure. The biogas plant consisted principally of a feed reservoir, fermentation tank (37 degrees C), heat-inactivation process (70 degrees C), and five reservoirs for the heat-inactivated, digested manure that was used by a local livestock farmer as liquid fertilizer. Although all the indicators tended to exhibit stepwise decreases with each stage of treatment, coliphages were found to be more capable of surviving than faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci under mesophilic anaerobic conditions as well as high temperature conditions (heat-inactivation at 70 degrees C). Liquid fertilizer produced at the biogas plant had faecal coliform densities less than the stipulations of the US EPA 40 CFR 503 Class A limits. Heat-inactivation tests indicated that although coliphages exhibited more tolerance than other bacterial indicators between 37 and 70 degrees C, they were more sensitive to continuous temperature increase than faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. PMID:18649573

  1. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  2. Preliminary study of a radiantly heated fluidized bed for the production of high purity silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenspiel, O.; Larson, M.; Zhang, G. T.; Ouyang, F.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of very pure silicon from silane (SIH4) using radiant heating of the hot silicon particles of a fluidized bed is discussed. The fraction of electrical energy supplied to the heater which is actually absorbed by the particles and the heat transfer coefficient between the hot bed and the cool distributor plate were investigated. The experimental design is presented and the results of the study are summarized.

  3. Using Heat Release Rate to Assess Combustibility of Building Products in the Cone Calorimeter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Carpenter; Marc Janssens

    2005-01-01

    Building codes generally permit unlimited use of materials that contribute negligible quantities of heat in the event of a fire. These materials are referred to as non-combustible. Whether a material qualifies as being non-combustible is generally based on performance in a small-scale furnace test, or on its potential heat content measured in an oxygen bomb calorimeter. However, furnace and oxygen

  4. Hot electron production and heating by hot electrons in fast ignitor research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, M. H.; Cable, M. D.; Cowan, T. E.; Estabrook, K. G.; Hammel, B. A.; Hatchett, S. P.; Henry, E. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Koch, J. A.; Kruer, W. L.; Langdon, A. B.; Lasinski, B. F.; Lee, R. W.; MacGowan, B. J.; MacKinnon, A.; Moody, J. D.; Moran, M. J.; Offenberger, A. A.; Pennington, D. M.; Perry, M. D.; Phillips, T. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Singh, M. S.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tabak, M.; Tietbohl, G. L.; Tsukamoto, M.; Wharton, K.; Wilks, S. C.

    1998-05-01

    In an experimental study of the physics of fast ignition, the characteristics of the hot electron source at laser intensities up to 1020W cm-2 have been measured and a diagnosis of the heating at depth by hot electrons has been initiated. Generation of hot electrons with more than 30% efficiency has been observed. Preliminary heating data suggest temperatures kT in the range 300-800 eV.

  5. Estimating the Local Value of Non-Timber Forest Products to Pendjari Biosphere Reserve Dwellers in Benin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fifanou G. Vodouhê; Ousmane Coulibaly; Charlotte Greene; Brice Sinsin

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the Local Value of Non-Timber Forest Products to Pendjari Biosphere Reserve Dwellers in Benin. This paper uses an indices method based on participant ranking of species to quantify use–values of Non-Timber Forest Products\\u000a (NTFPs) and the socio-economic factors that influence these values for people living around the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve\\u000a in Benin. There were 76 species identified that had

  6. Experimental determination of local convection heat transfer coefficient field using two-dimensional and dynamic infrared thermography (2DD-IRT) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patorski, J. A.; Groeschel, F.

    2006-04-01

    In the scope of the Megawatt Pilot Experiment MEGAPIE, i.e. the development of a liquid metal target for a spallation neutron source, an experimental thermo-hydraulics investigation of the target proton beam entry window cooling has been performed. Goal of this investigation concerned the measurement of the local convection heat transfer coefficient (HTC) inside of the proton beam entry window area of the MEGAPIE target, in particular: determination of HTC absolute values, distribution/visualization of HTC field shape and dynamic behavior of HTC field i.e. visualization of HTC field fluctuations. Within KILOPIE's experimental set-up the following conditions of MEGAPIE target have been fulfilled: Using of liquid metal (LM) lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE); this simultaneously serves as target material and coolant. Using of T91-steel; for the shell-dish of hemispherical mock-up of the proton beam entry window. Using of original geometry of piping insertions for the simulation of internal LBE coolant flow geometry. In KILOPIE the improved Two-Dimensional and Dynamic of Infrared Thermography (2DD-IRT) Method, presented on Thermosense XXII in year 2000, has been used. In this paper the improvements of 2DD-IRT method and some result of KILOPIE experimental investigations performed at PSI in Switzerland will be presented. A specially tailored Aluchrom-steel shell is used, which allows applying a uniform and known constant heat flux deposition on the outer surface of the T91-steel hemispherical mock-up of the target window. The optical non-contact IRT equipment measures the outer surface temperature of the Aluchrom-steel heater glued to the T91-steel mock-up dish. The determination of the local convection HTC is a result of ratio of the known local heat flux from the Aluchrom-steel heater to the difference between the local inner surface temperature of the T91-steel mock-up dish and the bulk temperature of the LBE coolant.

  7. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4?×?4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P??0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred. PMID:25863954

  8. Supravital energy production in early post-mortem phase - estimate based on heat loss due to radiation and natural convection.

    PubMed

    Mall, Gita; Hubig, Michael; Beier, Gundolf; Büttner, Andreas; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang

    2002-06-01

    The temperature-based determination of the time since death in the early post-mortem (pm) period plays an important role in medico-legal practice. In contrast to the common opinion according to which convection and conduction are mainly responsible for post-mortem heat loss, a considerable part of energy is emitted by thermal radiation. The present paper concentrates on the heat loss due to radiation and natural convection. Since both heat transfer mechanisms depend on the temperature gradient between skin and environment, the skin temperature was measured in corpses of different constitution (lean, medium and obese) and its decrease fitted by a single-exponential model. Heat loss due to radiation was calculated according to the non-linearized form of the law of Stefan and Boltzmann, heat loss due to natural convection according to the semi-empirical thermodynamic laws; the shape of the body in supine position was approximated to a semi-cylinder of finite length. The power due to radiation ranged between 386kJ/h (lean) and 550kJ/h (obese), that due to natural convection between 307kJ/h (lean) and 429kJ/h (obese) initially. Cumulative energy loss amounted to 2167kJ (lean) and 4239kJ (obese) by radiation and 1485kJ (lean) and 2922kJ (obese) by natural convection up to 20h pm. The energy loss due to radiation plus natural convection initially exceeded the energy loss due the decrease of the energy content of the body (mass x heat capacity x temperature decrease). This surplus can be explained only by exothermal processes in the phase of intermediary life and directly provides lower bounds for supravital energy production. Cumulative supravital energy ranges between 1139kJ up to 5h pm in the lean and 2516kJ up to 10h pm in the obese corpses. The courses of supravital energies and powers are presented as functions of time. Under standard conditions like still air (no forced convection) and insulating ground (little conductive heat transfer), the lower bounds represent estimates for total supravital energy production. PMID:12935672

  9. PF20 gene product contains WD repeats and localizes to the intermicrotubule bridges in Chlamydomonas flagella.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E F; Lefebvre, P A

    1997-01-01

    The central pair of microtubules and their associated structures play a significant role in regulating flagellar motility. To begin a molecular analysis of these components, we generated central apparatus-defective mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using insertional mutagenesis. One paralyzed mutant recovered in our screen contains an allele of a previously identified mutation, pf20. Mutant cells have paralyzed flagella, and the entire central apparatus is missing in isolated axonemes. We have cloned the wild-type PF20 gene and confirmed its identity by rescuing the pf20 mutant phenotype upon transformation. Rescued transformants were wild type in motility and in axonemal ultrastructure. A cDNA clone containing a single, long open reading frame was obtained and sequenced. Database searches using the predicted 606-amino acid sequence of PF20 indicate that the protein contains five contiguous WD repeats. These repeats are found in a number of proteins with diverse cellular functions including beta-transducin and dynein intermediate chains. An antibody was raised against a fusion protein expressed from the cloned cDNA. Immunogold labeling of wild-type axonemes indicates that the PF20 protein is localized along the length of the C2 microtubule on the intermicrotubule bridges connecting the two central microtubules. We suggest that the PF20 gene product is a new member of the family of WD repeat proteins and is required for central microtubule assembly and/or stability and flagellar motility. Images PMID:9188098

  10. Integrated carbon dioxide/sludge gasification using waste heat from hot slags: syngas production and sulfur dioxide fixation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2015-04-01

    The integrated CO2/sludge gasification using the waste heat in hot slags, was explored with the aim of syngas production, waste heat recovery and sewage sludge disposal. The results demonstrated that hot slags presented multiple roles on sludge gasification, i.e., not only a good heat carrier (500-950 °C) but also an effective desulfurizer (800-900 °C). The total gas yields increased from 0.022 kg/kgsludge at 500 °C to 0.422 kg/kgsludge at 900 °C; meanwhile, the SO2 concentration at 900 °C remarkably reduced from 164 ppm to 114 ppm by blast furnace slags (BFS) and 93 ppm by steel slags (SS), respectively. A three-stage reaction was clarified including volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon using Gaussian fittings and the kinetic model was analyzed. Accordingly, a decline process using the integrated method was designed and the optimum slag/sludge ratio was deduced. These deciphered results appealed potential ways of reasonable disposal of sewage sludge and efficient recovery of waste heat from hot slags. PMID:25647028

  11. Effect of neonatal or adult heat acclimation on testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production in rats.

    PubMed

    Kurowicka, B; Dietrich, G J; Kotwica, G

    2015-03-01

    The accessory gland weight, testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production were analyzed in four groups of rats housed at 20 or 34°C: (1) control rats (CR) kept at 20°C from birth to day 90; (2) adult heat-acclimated rats (AHA) kept at 20°C from birth to day 45 followed by 34°C to day 90; (3) neonatal heat-acclimated rats (NHA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 90 and (4) de-acclimated rats (DA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 45 followed by 20°C to day 90. In NHA and DA rats, accessory gland weight was higher than in controls. Despite the lack of differences in testicular and epididymal morphometry, curvilinear velocity of spermatozoa was lower in the NHA group compared to controls. Areas of seminiferous tubules were lower in the DA than in CR and NHA groups, however, sperm concentration and motility were not affected by the treatment in this group. In AHA rats, epithelium of approximately 20% of seminiferous tubules was degenerated and Sertoli cell number was lower in the remaining tubules. In contrast to sperm motility, epididymal duct area, area of the duct occupied by spermatozoa and cauda epididymis sperm concentration were lower in AHA rats than in the other groups. In conclusion, neonatal heat acclimation did not affect the testicular morphometry and epididymal sperm concentration, suggesting adjustment to high ambient temperature. On the contrary, adult heat acclimation of rats affected the examined parameters, leading to decreased sperm concentration. PMID:25726371

  12. Local permutations of products of Bell states and entanglement distillation Jeroen Dehaene,* Maarten Van den Nest, and Bart De Moor

    E-print Network

    Local permutations of products of Bell states and entanglement distillation Jeroen Dehaene entanglement distillation for pairs of qubits. Our algorithms perform significantly better than the best. INTRODUCTION We study mixed-state multicopy entanglement distillation protocols for pairs of qubits. We start

  13. Greenhouse gas emission and exergy assessments of an integrated organic Rankine cycle with a biomass combustor for combined cooling, heating and power production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahad A. Al-Sulaiman; Feridun Hamdullahpur; Ibrahim Dincer

    2011-01-01

    In this study, greenhouse gas emission and exergy assessments of an integrated organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with a biomass combustor for combined cooling, heating, and power production as a trigeneration system are conducted. This trigeneration system consists of a biomass combustor, an ORC, a single-effect absorption chiller, and a heat exchanger. Four special cases are considered in this comprehensive study,

  14. International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE-2013 Nottingham, UK, September 2013 Basalt Melting by Localized-Microwave

    E-print Network

    Jerby, Eli

    , September 2013 255 Basalt Melting by Localized-Microwave Thermal-Runaway Instability E. Jerby*, Y. Meir, M an experimental and theoretical study of the thermal-runaway instability induced by localized microwaves in basalt stones. This effect leads to the inner melting of the basalt core, and further to its eruption similarly

  15. Application of amorphous filler metals in production of fusion reactor high heat flux components

    SciTech Connect

    Kalin, B.A.; Fedotov, V.T.; Grigoriev, A.E. [Moscow Engineering Physics Inst. (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The technology of Al-Si, Zr-Ti-Be and Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni amorphous filler metals for Be and graphite brazing with Cu, Mo and V was developed. The fusion reactor high heat flux components from Cu-Be, Cu-graphite, Mo-Be, Mo-graphite, V-Re and V-graphite materials were produced by brazing. Every component represents metallic base, to which Be or graphite plates are brazed. The distance between plates was equal 0.2 times the plate height. These components were irradiated by hydrogen plasma with 5 x 10{sup 6} W/m{sup 2} power. The microstructure and the element distribution in the brazed zone were investigated before and after heat plasma irradiation. Topography graphite plate surfaces and topography of metal surfaces between plates were also investigated after heat plasma irradiation. The results of microstructure investigation and material erosion are discussed.

  16. Numerical model describing the heat transfer between combustion products and ventilation-system duct walls

    SciTech Connect

    Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    A package of physical models simulating the heat transfer processes occurring between combustion gases and ducts in ventilation systems is described. The purpose of the numerical model is to predict how the combustion gas in a system heats up or cools down as it flows through the ducts in a ventilation system under fire conditions. The model treats a duct with (forced convection) combustion gases flowing on the inside and stagnant ambient air on the outside. The model is composed of five submodels of heat transfer processes along with a numerical solution procedure to evaluate them. Each of these quantities is evaluated independently using standard correlations based on experimental data. The details of the physical assumptions, simplifications, and ranges of applicability of the correlations are described. A typical application of this model to a full-scale fire test is discussed, and model predictions are compared with selected experimental data.

  17. Simultaneous optimization and heat integration for the co-production of diesel substitutes

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    : Biodiesel (FAME & FAEE) and glycerol ethers from algae oil Mariano Martína, Ignacio E. Grossmannb1 is formulated as a optimization model including algae oil production, production of ethanol from starch substitute by 20%. However, the current price of ibutylene increases the production cost of biofuel up to $1

  18. Geographic information system (GIS) simulation of emergency power production from disaster debris in a combined heat and power (CHP) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, Christopher Shannon

    The objective of this study is to determine a predicted energy capacity of disaster debris for the production of emergency power using a combined heat and power (CHP) unit. A prediction simulation using geographic information systems (GIS) will use data from past storms to calculate an estimated amount of debris along with an estimated energy potential of said debris. Rather than the expense and burden of transporting woody debris such as downed trees and wood framing materials offsite, they can be processed (sorting and chipping) to provide an onsite energy source to provide power to emergency management facilities such as shelters in schools and hospitals. A CHP unit can simultaneously produce heat, cooling effects and electrical power using various biomass sources. This study surveys the quantity and composition of debris produced for a given classification of disaster and location. A comparison of power efficiency estimates for various disasters is conducted.

  19. Effects of heat-moisture treatment on normal and waxy rice flours and production of thermoplastic flour materials.

    PubMed

    Khamthong, Prapaisut; Lumdubwong, Namfone

    2012-09-01

    Different levels of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) were applied to normal and waxy rice flours. Changes in chemical composition and functional properties of both flours were investigated. It was found that HMT induced ?-turn conformation of rice proteins. Levels of HMT and types of rice flour interactively influenced thermal properties and XRD patterns of flour. When heat-moisture treated flour was utilized for production of thermoplastic flour (TPF) materials, it was found that HMT improved continuity of injection molding, complete mold filling, and yielded homogenous TPF materials. HMT levels affected the mechanical, thermal and barrier properties of TPF resin and materials differently. The ratio of HMT level to native flours was proposed for use not only for resin processing and injection molding, but also for improving mechanical and barrier properties of TPF materials. PMID:24751050

  20. Studies on Feed Spoilage: Heating Inhibiting Activity of Various Compounds and Commercial Products

    E-print Network

    Halick, John V.; Richardson, L. R.

    1957-01-01

    and sorbic acid at a level of 0.3 perceiit prevented hearlng completely in all feed ingredients tested. Smaller amounts of the inhibitors only delayed heating. Propion- ic acid and propionic anhydride, each at a level of 0.1 percent, prevented heating.... Sodium propionate was not effective as a fungistatic agent at a level of 0.6 percent. Propionamide and propionanalide alsc -xrnra not effective at a level of 0.1 percent which was the maximum level tested. Short-chain fatty acids-butyric, valeric...

  1. Dynamic changes in the structure and intracellular locale of the mammalian low-molecular-weight heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, A P; Suhan, J P; Welch, W J

    1988-12-01

    Mammalian cells grown at 37 degrees C contain a single low-molecular-weight heat shock (or stress) protein with an apparent mass of 28 kilodaltons (kDa) whose synthesis increases in cells after exposure to elevated temperatures or other forms of physiologic stress. Herein we present data demonstrating that heat shock protein 28 exists in a number of dynamic states depending upon the physiologic state of the cell. Biochemical fractionation of 37 degrees C cells in the absence of nonionic detergent revealed that the 28-kDa protein partitioned approximately equally between the soluble and insoluble fractions. The addition of detergent in the fractionation procedure resulted in all of the protein distributed within the soluble phase. In contrast, in cells first heat shocked and then fractionated in the presence of detergent, most of the 28-kDa protein was found within the insoluble fraction. These biochemical results appeared entirely consistent with indirect immunofluorescence experiments, demonstrating that the 28-kDa protein resided within the perinuclear region of 37 degrees C cells in close proximity to the Golgi complex. After heat shock treatment, the 28-kDa protein relocalized within the nucleus and resisted detergent extraction. The extent of 28-kDa protein redistribution into the nucleus and its detergent insolubility increased as a function of the severity of the heat shock treatment. With time of recovery from the heat treatment there occurred a gradual return of the 28-kDa protein into the detergent-soluble phase. Concomitant with these changes in 28-kDa protein solubility was a corresponding change in the apparent size of the protein as determined by gel filtration. While at 37 degrees C cells the protein exhibited a mass of 200 to 800 kDa; after heat shock the protein assumed sizes of 2 MDa or greater. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we show an accumulation of these aggregates of 28-kDa protein within the nucleus. Finally, we show that the heat-dependent redistribution of the 28-kDa protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus was greatly diminished when the cells were first rendered thermotolerant, and we suggest that this simple assay (i.e., 28-kDa protein detergent solubility) may prove useful in evaluating the thermotolerant status of a cell or tissue. PMID:3072471

  2. Local heat/mass transfer and pressure drop in a two-pass rib-roughened channel for turbine airfoil cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J. C.; Chandra, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of turbulent air flow in a multipass channel were studied via the naphthalene sublimation technique. The naphthalene-coated test section, consisting of two straight, square channels joined by a 180 deg turn, resembled the internal cooling passages of gas turbine airfoils. The top and bottom surfaces of the test channel were roughened by rib turbulators. The rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D) were 0.063 and 0.094, and the rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e) were 10 and 20. The local heat/mass transfer coefficients on the roughened top wall and on the smooth divider and side walls of the test channel were determined for three Reynolds numbers of 15, 30, and 60, thousand, and for three angles of attack (alpha) of 90, 60, and 45 deg. Results showed that the local Sherwood numbers on the ribbed walls were 1.5 to 6.5 times those for a fully developed flow in a smooth square duct. The average ribbed-wall Sherwood numbers were 2.5 to 3.5 times higher than the fully developed values, depending on the rib angle of attack and the Reynolds number. The results also indicated that, before the turn, the heat/mass transfer coefficients in the cases of alpha = 60 and 45 deg were higher than those in the case of alpha=90 deg. However, after the turn, the heat/mass transfer coefficients in the oblique-rib cases were lower than those in the transverse rib case. Correlations for the average Sherwood number ratios for individual channel surfaces and for the overall Sherwood number ratios are reported. Correlations for the fully developed friction factors and for the loss coefficients are also provided.

  3. Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress-tolerant crops.

    PubMed

    Bita, Craita E; Gerats, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to have a general negative effect on plant growth due to the damaging effect of high temperatures on plant development. The increasing threat of climatological extremes including very high temperatures might lead to catastrophic loss of crop productivity and result in wide spread famine. In this review, we assess the impact of global climate change on the agricultural crop production. There is a differential effect of climate change both in terms of geographic location and the crops that will likely show the most extreme reductions in yield as a result of expected extreme fluctuations in temperature and global warming in general. High temperature stress has a wide range of effects on plants in terms of physiology, biochemistry and gene regulation pathways. However, strategies exist to crop improvement for heat stress tolerance. In this review, we present recent advances of research on all these levels of investigation and focus on potential leads that may help to understand more fully the mechanisms that make plants tolerant or susceptible to heat stress. Finally, we review possible procedures and methods which could lead to the generation of new varieties with sustainable yield production, in a world likely to be challenged both by increasing population, higher average temperatures and larger temperature fluctuations. PMID:23914193

  4. Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress-tolerant crops

    PubMed Central

    Bita, Craita E.; Gerats, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to have a general negative effect on plant growth due to the damaging effect of high temperatures on plant development. The increasing threat of climatological extremes including very high temperatures might lead to catastrophic loss of crop productivity and result in wide spread famine. In this review, we assess the impact of global climate change on the agricultural crop production. There is a differential effect of climate change both in terms of geographic location and the crops that will likely show the most extreme reductions in yield as a result of expected extreme fluctuations in temperature and global warming in general. High temperature stress has a wide range of effects on plants in terms of physiology, biochemistry and gene regulation pathways. However, strategies exist to crop improvement for heat stress tolerance. In this review, we present recent advances of research on all these levels of investigation and focus on potential leads that may help to understand more fully the mechanisms that make plants tolerant or susceptible to heat stress. Finally, we review possible procedures and methods which could lead to the generation of new varieties with sustainable yield production, in a world likely to be challenged both by increasing population, higher average temperatures and larger temperature fluctuations. PMID:23914193

  5. Eos, Vol. 87, No. 26, 27 June 2006 The production of heat by radioactive

    E-print Network

    Stein, Seth

    the Earth along with heat by the decay of radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium, and potassium. Neutrinos of hydrogen and whose free proton nucleus is a good neutrino target, is usually used within the vat month. This small detection rate makes reduction of background noise, which is due primarily to cosmic

  6. Heat and Helium Production During Exothermic Reactions Between Gases Through Palladium Geometrical Elements Loaded with Hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Agelao; Maria Carmela Romano; Francesco Italiano

    2000-01-01

    In this research, the effect of the shape of hydrogen-loaded palladium elements on exothermic reactions between gases is shown. It was found that an element with parts of its surface next to each other spontaneously triggers reactions, whereas an element whose surfaces are not next to each other needs outside triggering. The heat developed makes the temperature of the elements

  7. Effects of acute asphyxia at birth on subsequent heat production capacity in newborn pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. HERPIN; F. WOSIAK; J. L. E. DIVIDICH; R. BERTIN

    1999-01-01

    The effect of acute asphyxia at birth on subsequent ability to produce heat was investigated in 30 newborn pigs. A model of experimentally induced asphyxia consisting of the prevention of breathing within the first four minutes of life was used. Blood was sampled from an umbilical artery catheter within the first 75 minutes of life for blood gas, pH, glucose,

  8. Infrared heating as an efficient method for drying foods and agricultural products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because agricultural and food sector demands energy efficient and environmentally friendly drying technologies, the application of infrared (IR) heating for drying has recently been extensively studied. IR drying, as an alternative to current drying technologies, has attractive merits such as unifor...

  9. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Kamachi Mudali; H. S. Khatak; R. K. Dayal; J. B. Gnanamoorthy

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction\\u000a of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo\\u000a steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion\\u000a cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated

  10. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Khatak, H. S.; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

    1993-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-lMo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  11. Measurement of local convective heat transfer coefficients from a smooth and roughened NACA-0012 airfoil: Flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, James E.; Vanfossen, G. James; Poinsatte, Phillip E.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Wind tunnels typically have higher free stream turbulence levels than are found in flight. Turbulence intensity was measured to be 0.5 percent in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the cloud making sprays off and around 2 percent with cloud making equipment on. Turbulence intensity for flight conditions was found to be too low to make meaningful measurements for smooth air. This difference between free stream and wing tunnel conditions has raised questions as to the validity of results obtained in the IRT. One objective of these tests was to determine the effect of free stream turbulence on convective heat transfer for the NASA Lewis LEWICE ice growth prediction code. These tests provide in-flight heat transfer data for a NASA-0012 airfoil with a 533 cm chord. Future tests will measure heat transfer data from the same airfoil in the Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Roughness was obtained by the attachment of small, 2 mm diameter hemispheres of uniform size to the airfoil in three different patterns. Heat transfer measurements were recorded in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Measurements were taken for the smooth and roughened surfaces at various aircraft speeds and angles of attack up to four degrees. Results are presented as Frossling number versus position on the airfoil for various roughnesses and angles of attack.

  12. Prediction of turbulent flow and local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoils: the leading edge region

    E-print Network

    Pontaza, Juan Pablo

    2013-02-22

    A multiblock numerical method has been employed for the calculation of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer in the leading edge of a large-scale impingiment-cooled turbine airfoil. The finite-analytic method solves the Reynolds-Averaged Naviers...

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Subjected to Combined Localized Heat Damage and Fatigue Damage Using Acoustic Emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nayeb-Hashemi; P. Kasomino; Nader Saniei

    1999-01-01

    The effect of fatigue damage to unidirectional fiberglass composite specimens with prior contact heat damage was investigated. After damaging the specimens by contacting them to a hot tip at 360°C, the specimens were subjected to fatigue loading at cyclic stress amplitude corresponding to 65% of the specimens' ultimate tensile strength. The fatigue experiments was halted after 3,000 cycles. The specimens

  14. A numerical study of local heat transfer and velocity distributions between blockages with holes in a rectangular channel

    E-print Network

    Lee, Sang Won

    2002-01-01

    , and faith. NOMENCLATURE fo M, /t/ad ++Dao Arnica A/n oao speed of sound, m/s specific heat of air, J/(kg K) hydraulic diameter, m total energy, J/kg fliction factor friction factor for fully developed turbulent flow through a smooth channel...

  15. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model. Results and conclusions All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature x¯ =29.7), often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989). Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170–220 W/m2), with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo) while working. When analysing heat strain – in terms of core temperature and dehydration – and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the first time the PHS model has been used for this purpose. An exploratory approach was taken for further development of the model. PMID:25373413

  16. Simultaneous Exposure to Escherichia coli Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Enterotoxins Increases Fluid Secretion and Alters Cyclic Nucleotide and Cytokine Production by Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Read, Lisa T.; Hahn, Rachel W.; Thompson, Carli C.; Bauer, David L.; Norton, Elizabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of diarrheal disease and death, especially in children in developing countries. ETEC causes disease by colonizing the small intestine and producing heat-labile toxin (LT), heat-stable toxin (ST), or both LT and ST (LT+ST). The majority of ETEC strains produce both ST and LT. Despite the prevalence of LT+ST-producing organisms, few studies have examined the physiologic or immunologic consequences of simultaneous exposure to these two potent enterotoxins. In the current report, we demonstrate that when LT and ST are both present, they increase water movement into the intestinal lumen over and above the levels observed with either toxin alone. As expected, cultured intestinal epithelial cells increased their expression of intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) when treated with ST and their expression of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) when treated with LT. When both toxins were present, cGMP levels but not cAMP levels were synergistically elevated compared with the levels of expression caused by the corresponding single-toxin treatment. Our data also demonstrate that the levels of inflammatory cytokines produced by intestinal epithelial cells in response to LT are significantly reduced in animals exposed to both enterotoxins. These findings suggest that there may be complex differences between the epithelial cell intoxication and, potentially, secretory outcomes induced by ETEC strains expressing LT+ST compared with strains that express LT or ST only. Our results also reveal a novel mechanism wherein ST production may reduce the hosts' ability to mount an effective innate or adaptive immune response to infecting organisms. PMID:25287923

  17. Method of production H/sub 2/ using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, L.E.

    1988-05-13

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300/degree/ to 1400/degree/F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices. 1 fig.

  18. Potentiel des races bovines locales dans les systèmes de pro­duction extensifs sur les terres marginales de la zone méditerranéenne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Vissac

    1978-01-01

    [eng] The potential of local bovine races in the extensive production systems of the marginal areas in the mediterranean zone - Industrialization and its consequences on the development of farm production (intensification of production in the suitable zones and marginalization of the others) have had particularly unfortunate effects on beef production economy (high costs and disparity between milk and meat

  19. Solid fermentation of wheat bran for hydrolytic enzymes production and saccharification content by a local isolate Bacillus megatherium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Back ground For enzyme production, the costs of solid state fermentation (SSF) techniques were lower and the production higher than submerged cultures. A large number of fungal species was known to grow well on moist substrates, whereas many bacteria were unable to grow under this condition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate a highly efficient strain of Bacillus sp utilizing wheat bran in SSF and optimizing the enzyme production and soluble carbohydrates. Results A local strain Bacillus megatherium was isolated from dung sheep. The maximum production of pectinase, xylanase and ?-amylase, and saccharification content (total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars) were obtained by application of the B. megatherium in SSF using wheat bran as compared to grasses, palm leaves and date seeds. All enzymes and saccharification content exhibited their maximum production during 12–24 h, at the range of 40–80% moisture content of wheat bran, temperature 37-45°C and pH 5–8. An ascending repression of pectinase production was observed by carbon supplements of lactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch, respectively. All carbon supplements improved the production of xylanase and ?-amylase, except of lactose decreased ?-amylase production. A little increase in the yield of total reducing sugars was detected for all carbon supplements. Among the nitrogen sources, yeast extract induced a significant repression to all enzyme productivity. Sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium chloride enhanced the production of xylanase, ?-amylase and pectinase, respectively. Yeast extract, urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride enhanced the productivity of reducing sugars. Conclusions The optimization of enzyme production and sccharification content by B. megatherium in SSF required only adjustment of incubation period and temperature, moisture content and initial pH. Wheat bran supplied enough nutrients without any need for addition of supplements of carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:24758479

  20. Induction heat treatment and technique of bioceramic coatings production on medical titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Aleksandr A.; Rodionov, Igor V.; Fomina, Marina A.; Poshivalova, Elena Y.; Krasnikov, Aleksandr V.; Petrova, Natalia N.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Skaptsov, Alexander A.; Gribov, Andrey N.; Atkin, Vsevolod S.

    2015-03-01

    Prospective composite bioceramic titania coatings were obtained on intraosseous implants fabricated from medical titanium alloy VT16 (Ti-2.5Al-5Mo-5V). Consistency changes of morphological characteristics, physico-mechanical properties and biocompatibility of experimental titanium implant coatings obtained by oxidation during induction heat treatment are defined. Technological recommendations for obtaining bioceramic coatings with extremely high strength on titanium items surface are given.

  1. Heat treatment and meristem culture for the production of virus-free plant material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. ten Houten; F. Quak; F. A. van der Meer

    1968-01-01

    To obtain virus-free material from plant species or cultivars which are vegetatively propagated and totally infected with virus, three methods were developed. Heat treatment (with hot water or hot air) resulting in an inactivation or an inhibition of the multiplication of the virus has been successful in several cases (a.o. sugar-cane, fruit trees). However, there are viruses which are not

  2. Effects of supplemental fats on intake, production, and heat stress in lactating Holstein cows in summer 

    E-print Network

    Saunders, Richard Glynn

    1990-01-01

    the problem, heat stress reduces feed intake making even less energy available for produc- References were cited using the style and format of the Journal of Dairy Science. tive functions. The reduction of voluntary intake at environmental temperatures... to propionic acids, the effects were not due to increased calcium salt formation in the rumen. As an alternative to relying on salt formation in the rumen, Jenkins and Palmquist (24) succeeded in preforming the salts of fatty acids to render the fatty acids...

  3. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  4. Production of x-rays from laser-heated gas targets

    SciTech Connect

    Grun, J.; Fisher, A.; Burris, R. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Back, C.A.; Decker, C.D.; Landen, O.L.; Suter, L.J.; Wallace, R. [Lawrence livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Davis, J.L. [Alme Associates, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Debris-free and efficient multi-kilovolt x-ray sources are needed for materials testing and for use as backlighters in future Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments. Laser-plasma x-ray sources are particularly attractive for these uses since their spectrum can be controlled by proper choice of plasma material and laser intensity, and because many laser-plasma sources can be designed to produce little or no particulate debris. The authors investigate the use of laser-heated gas to produce multi-KeV x-rays. In one experiment 20 kJ of 0.35 {micro}m pulse from the Nova laser heats 1--2 atm. of Xe gas confined in a Be can. It is predicted that confinement of the Xe plasma by the Be can will increase the conversion efficiency into 4 KeV x-rays from 1--10% observed with solid or gas bag targets to {approximately}15%. In a second experiment 1 kJ of 1.06 {micro}m pulse from the Pharos laser heats different gases injected into vacuum by a high-pressure nozzle. The emission from these sources is diagnosed with time-gated x-ray imagers, time-resolved and time-integrated spectroscopy, and with XRD and PCD detectors. Experimental results will be presented and compared to theoretical calculations.

  5. Production of Excess Heat Power on the basis of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LERN) in the Solid Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Karabut, A.B. [FSUE 'LUCH', 24 Zheleznodorozhnaya St, Podolsk, Moscow Region, 142100 (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The experimental data of investigation into low energy nuclear reactions (LERN) in condensed media are presented. The nuclear reactions products were researched in the solid cathode medium of a glow discharge. Hypothetically the nuclear reactions were initiated when bombarding the cathode surface by plasma ions with the energy of 1.0-2.0 keV. The results on recording excess heat power under the experiments with a high-current glow discharge in D{sub 2}, Xe and Kr, when using preliminary deuterium-charged Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. The excess heat power up to 10-15 W and efficiency up to 150 % was recorded under the experiments for Pd cathode samples in D{sub 2} discharge. The excess heat power up to 5 W and efficiency up to 150 % was recorded for the preliminary deuterium-charged Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time the excess heat power was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe, Kr discharges. Forming the impurity nuclides ({sup 7}Li, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, {sup 20}Ne, {sup 29}Si, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 57}Fe, {sup 59}Co, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 66}Zn, {sup 75}As, {sup 107}Ag, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 110}Cg, {sup 111}Cg, {sup 112}Cg, {sup 114}Cg, {sup 115}In) with the efficiency up to 10{sup 13} atoms/s was recorded. Large deviation of the registered isotopes relation from the natural relation of these elements isotopes was observed. The soft X-ray radiation from the solid-state cathode medium with the intensity up to 0.01 Gy/s was recorded under the experiments with the discharge in H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, Ar, Xe, Kr. The X-ray radiation was observed as bursts (up to 10{sup 6} photons in a burst and up to 10{sup 5} bursts a second) during the discharge burning and within 100 ms after turning off the discharge current. The results of the X-ray radiation registration showed that the exited energy levels having the lifetime up to 100 ms and more and the energy of 1.2 - 1.8 keV existed in the solid medium. The possible mechanism of producing the excess heat power and products of nuclear transmutation reactions in the solid medium with the exited energy levels was considered. (author)

  6. Local advective mechanism for interdecadal variability in circulations driven by constant surface heat fluxes in idealized basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Gyu Park; Jin Hwan Hwang

    2009-01-01

    Idealized numerical experiments with a depth level coordinate ocean circulation model (GFDL MOM3) have been conducted to investigate\\u000a the structure of interdecadal variability from thermally driven circulations. The model oceans are driven by steady surface\\u000a heat fluxes in the absence of surface wind stresses. Interdecadal variability is observed, with characteristics similar to\\u000a those reported in many previous studies. To explain

  7. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl R. Pennypacker; A. S. Perelson; N. Nys; G. Nelson; D. I. Sessler

    1993-01-01

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate 25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high

  8. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of convection and conduction cooling of spherical biocrystals with localized heating from synchrotron X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Mhaisekar, Ashutosh; Kazmierczak, Michael J; Banerjee, Rupak

    2005-05-01

    The differential momentum and thermal energy equations for fluid flow and convective heat-transfer around the sample biocrystal, with coupled internal heat conduction, are solved using advanced computational fluid dynamics techniques. Average \\bar{h} as well as local h(theta) values of the convective heat-transfer coefficients are obtained from the fundamental equations. The results of these numerical solutions show the three-dimensional fluid flow field around the sample in conjunction with the detailed internal temperature distribution inside the crystal. The external temperature rise and maximum internal temperature increase are reported for various cases. The effect of the important system parameters, such as gas velocity and properties, crystal size and thermal conductivity and incident beam conditions (intensity and beam size), are all illustrated with comparative examples. For the reference case, an external temperature rise of 7 K and internal temperature increase of 0.5 K are calculated for a 200 microm-diameter cryocooled spherical biocrystal subjected to a 13 keV X-ray beam of 4 x 10(14) photons s(-1) mm(-2) flux density striking half the sample. For all the cases investigated, numerical analysis shows that the controlling thermal resistance is the rate of convective heat-transfer and not internal conduction. Thermal diffusion results in efficient thermal spreading of the deposited energy and this results in almost uniform internal crystal temperatures (DeltaT(internal) approximately 0.5 K), in spite of the non-uniform h(theta) with no more than 1.3 K internal temperature difference for the worst case of localized and focused beam heating. Rather, the major temperature variation occurs between the outer surface of the crystal/loop system and the gas stream, T(s) - T(gas), which itself is only about DeltaT(external) approximately 5-10 K, and depends on the thermal loading imposed by the X-ray beam, the rate of convection and the size of the loop/crystal system. PMID:15840917

  9. Bench heating for potplant cultivation: analysis of effects of root- and airtemperature on growth, development and production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. M. Vogelezang

    1993-01-01

    This thesis deals with the application of bench heating systems for potplant cultivation, which were developed for application of low temperature heating water from flue gas condensers and external waste heat sources. Compared to the traditional way of heating, a 'reversed' temperature gradient is created on heated benches, with a high root-zone temperature compared to the air temperature. Knowledge of

  10. Entropy and specific heat as a measure of fluctuations in multiparticle production in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohsin Khan; W. Bari; M. D. Azmi; Vipin Gaur; A. R. Khan; M. Zafar; M. Irfan

    2011-01-01

    An analysis to disentangle information about the occurrence of dynamical fluctuations in multiparticle production in high\\u000a energy nucleus-nucleus collisions has been carried out in terms of fractal moments and entropy for the experimental and simulated\\u000a data using FRITIOF, UrQMD and HIJING generators. Although there is a possibility to thermodynamically interpret the final\\u000a state of multiparticle production by calculating the values

  11. Studies of the use of heat from high temperature nuclear sources for hydrogen production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Future uses of hydrogen and hydrogen production processes that can meet the demand for hydrogen in the coming decades were considered. To do this, a projection was made of the market for hydrogen through the year 2000. Four hydrogen production processes were selected, from among water electrolysis, fossil based and thermochemical water decomposition systems, and evaluated, using a consistent set of ground rules, in terms of relative performance, economics, resource requirements, and technology status.

  12. In vivo co-localization of enzymes on RNA scaffolds increases metabolic production in a geometrically dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Gairik; Garg, Abhishek; Godding, David; Way, Jeffrey C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Co-localization of biochemical processes plays a key role in the directional control of metabolic fluxes toward specific products in cells. Here, we employ in vivo scaffolds made of RNA that can bind engineered proteins fused to specific RNA binding domains. This allows proteins to be co-localized on RNA scaffolds inside living Escherichia coli. We assembled a library of eight aptamers and corresponding RNA binding domains fused to partial fragments of fluorescent proteins. New scaffold designs could co-localize split green fluorescent protein fragments to produce activity as measured by cell-based fluorescence. The scaffolds consisted of either single bivalent RNAs or RNAs designed to polymerize in one or two dimensions. The new scaffolds were used to increase metabolic output from a two-enzyme pentadecane production pathway that contains a fatty aldehyde intermediate, as well as three and four enzymes in the succinate production pathway. Pentadecane synthesis depended on the geometry of enzymes on the scaffold, as determined through systematic reorientation of the acyl-ACP reductase fusion by rotation via addition of base pairs to its cognate RNA aptamer. Together, these data suggest that intra-cellular scaffolding of enzymatic reactions may enhance the direct channeling of a variety of substrates. PMID:25034694

  13. In vivo co-localization of enzymes on RNA scaffolds increases metabolic production in a geometrically dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Gairik; Garg, Abhishek; Godding, David; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-08-01

    Co-localization of biochemical processes plays a key role in the directional control of metabolic fluxes toward specific products in cells. Here, we employ in vivo scaffolds made of RNA that can bind engineered proteins fused to specific RNA binding domains. This allows proteins to be co-localized on RNA scaffolds inside living Escherichia coli. We assembled a library of eight aptamers and corresponding RNA binding domains fused to partial fragments of fluorescent proteins. New scaffold designs could co-localize split green fluorescent protein fragments to produce activity as measured by cell-based fluorescence. The scaffolds consisted of either single bivalent RNAs or RNAs designed to polymerize in one or two dimensions. The new scaffolds were used to increase metabolic output from a two-enzyme pentadecane production pathway that contains a fatty aldehyde intermediate, as well as three and four enzymes in the succinate production pathway. Pentadecane synthesis depended on the geometry of enzymes on the scaffold, as determined through systematic reorientation of the acyl-ACP reductase fusion by rotation via addition of base pairs to its cognate RNA aptamer. Together, these data suggest that intra-cellular scaffolding of enzymatic reactions may enhance the direct channeling of a variety of substrates. PMID:25034694

  14. Heat and mass transfer in hydrogen production by electrolysis of a water-coal suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshen'kin, V. B.; Markosova, V. P.; Troshen'kin, B. A.

    2010-05-01

    The possibility of electrochemical gasification of a water-coal suspension at a temperature of 180-460°C and a pressure of 7-20 MPa has been proved experimentally. The obtained producer gas contains mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide as well as traces of methane, propane, and carbon monoxide. After washing carbon dioxide with weak alkaline solutions hydrogen is dispatched for use in power engineering. The liquid phase contains an insignificant amount of hydrocarbons. Heat and mass transfer between reacting media in the electrolyzer under the conditions of phase transitions with partial absorption of the formed gases has been considered.

  15. Controlled heat transfer of hot rolled products on the cooling bed 

    E-print Network

    Rachamadugu, Srinivas

    1993-01-01

    are assigned an initial temper- ature of 100'F (38'C). The values of thermal and mechanical constants for steel and air have been derived from a standard source. ~ STEEL: Density = 0. 284 lb/in (7861 kg/m ) Thermal conductivity = 0. 03597 Btu/min. iu 'F.... Problem description: An Aluminum slab (fs = 215 W/m ? C', o = 8. 42 x 10 m /s) having a length of 10 cm and width of 5 cm is initially heated to a uniform temperature of 400 C and then plunged into a quenching bath which is at a temperature of 10 C...

  16. Local Thermomechanical Characterization of Phase Transitions in Polymers using Band Excitation Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy with Heated Probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    An approach for thermomechanical characterization of phase transitions in polymeric materials (PET) by band excitation acoustic force microscopy is developed. This methodology allows the independent measurement of resonance frequency, Q factor, and oscillation amplitude as a function of temperature of a small volume, from which the thermal evolution of tip-surface spring constant and mechanical dissipation can be extracted. We demonstrate a heating protocol which keeps the contact area and contact force constant, thus allowing for reproducible measurements and quantitative extraction of materials properties including temperature dependence of indentation-based elastic and loss moduli. PACS: 82.35.Lr + 82.35.Jk + 68.37.Ps

  17. Electron heating and density production in microwave-assisted helicon plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umair Siddiqui, M.; McKee, John S.; McIlvain, Julianne; Short, Zachary D.; Elliott, Drew B.; Lusk, Greg; Scime, Earl E.

    2015-06-01

    Microwaves are injected into argon and helium helicon plasmas at 6 to 20 mTorr neutral pressure, 1.2 kW pulsed microwave power, up to 500?W continuous RF power, and up to 1 kG magnetic fields, with the objective of heating the tail of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and populating ion metastable states. Langmuir probes are used to measure the EEDF and optical emission spectroscopy is used to monitor ion emission. The injection of microwave power in argon helicon plasmas is shown to heat the high energy tail of the EEDF without increasing the plasma density. Argon ion emission is shown to increase by a factor of 4. Injection of microwaves into a helium helicon plasma is shown to cool the bulk of the of the EEDF and increase the plasma density. Previously absent helium ion emission lines are observed with the injection of microwaves. All the microwave results are shown to be independent of RF power within the limits of the system.

  18. Production, characterization, and selection of the heating elements for the response stabilization of the CUORE bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, Erica; Brofferio, Chiara; Foggetta, Luca; Giuliani, Andrea; Margesin, Benno; Nones, Claudia; Pedretti, Marisa; Rusconi, Claudia; Salvioni, Chiara; Tenconi, Margherita

    2012-02-01

    One of the critical issues while operating bolometric detectors over periods of time of 1 year or more consists of keeping their response stable within a 0.1% level, despite the unavoidable temperature fluctuations of the cryogenic set-up. By using an energy pulser, which periodically delivers a fixed amount of energy in the absorber, it is possible to stabilize the response of the bolometers. A stabilization technique using heating devices, made up of heavily doped semiconductor material (well above the metal-to-insulator transition), has been developed in the framework of the CUORE experiment. In this paper we describe in detail the procedure for the realization of the heating elements, based on silicon planar technology. We then report on the multi-step low temperature characterization (77 K, 4.2 K, 1.5 K, 35 mK) of the heaters. Finally, an example of achieved stabilization for a CUORE-like detector is reported. The ˜1500 heaters tested at ˜1.5 K show less than 0.5% change in resistance between 30 ?V and 3 mV, and less than 1% change in value between 50 mK and 800 mK. In particular, the resistance change between 4.2 K and 1.5 K is less than 0.1%.

  19. Production of general purpose heat source (GPHS) using advanced manufacturing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Roger G.

    1996-03-01

    Mankind will continue to explore the stars through the use of unmanned space craft until the technology and costs are compatible with sending travelers to the outer planets of our solar system and beyond. Unmanned probes of the present and future will be necessary to develop the necessary technologies and obtain information that will make this travel possible. Because of the significant costs incurred, the use of modern manufacturing technologies must be used to lower the investment needed even when shared by international partnerships. For over the last 30 years, radioisotopes have provided the heat from which electrical power is extracted. Electric power for future spacecraft will be provided by either Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), Radioisotopic Thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. All of these systems will be thermally driven by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad in some configuration. The GPHS clad contains a 238PuO2 pellet encapsulated in an iridium alloy container. Historically, the fabrication of the iridium alloy shells has been performed at EG&G Mound and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and girth welding at Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation (WSRC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This paper will describe the use of laser processing for welding, drilling, cutting, and machining with other manufacturing methods to reduce the costs of producing GPHS fueled clad components and compléted assemblies. Incorporation of new quality technologies will compliment these manufacturing methods to reduce cost.

  20. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.