Science.gov

Sample records for locomotive operation

  1. Operating a locomotive on liquid methane fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, J.L. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that several years ago, Burlington Northern Railroad looked into the feasibility of operating a diesel railroad locomotive to also run on compressed natural gas in a dual-fuel mode. Recognizing the large volume of on-board storage required and other limitations of CNG in the application, a program was begun to fuel a locomotive with liquefied natural gas. Because natural gas composition can vary with source and processing, it was considered desirable to use essentially pure liquid methane as the engine fuel. Initial testing results show the locomotive system achieved full diesel-rated power when operating on liquid methane and with equivalent fuel efficiency. Extended testing, including an American Association of Railroad 500-hour durability test, was undertaken to obtain information on engine life, wear rate and lubrication oil life.

  2. 49 CFR 236.505 - Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proper operative relation between parts along... § 236.505 Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive. Proper operative relation between the parts along the roadway and the parts on the locomotive shall obtain...

  3. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cars). 210.29 Section 210.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29 Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). The operation standards for the noise emission levels of moving locomotives, rail cars, or consists...

  4. 49 CFR 210.31 - Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters). 210.31 Section 210.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.31 Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters). (a)...

  5. 49 CFR 210.31 - Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters). 210.31 Section 210.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.31 Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters). (a)...

  6. 49 CFR 210.31 - Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters). 210.31 Section 210.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.31 Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters). (a)...

  7. 49 CFR 210.31 - Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters). 210.31 Section 210.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.31 Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters). (a)...

  8. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cars). 210.29 Section 210.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29 Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). The operation standards for the noise emission levels of moving locomotives, rail cars, or consists...

  9. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cars). 210.29 Section 210.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29 Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). The operation standards for the noise emission levels of moving locomotives, rail cars, or consists...

  10. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cars). 210.29 Section 210.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29 Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). The operation standards for the noise emission levels of moving locomotives, rail cars, or consists...

  11. 40 CFR 201.11 - Standard for locomotive operation under stationary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... throttle setting except idle, when operated singly and when connected to a load cell, or in excess of 73 dB... the locomotive along a line that is both perpendicular to the centerline of the track and originates..., when operated singly and when connected to a load cell, or in excess of 70 dB at idle when...

  12. 49 CFR 210.33 - Operation standards (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... coupling operations, and retarders shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR part... cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). 210.33 Section 210.33 Transportation Other... (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). (a) Measurement...

  13. 49 CFR 210.33 - Operation standards (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... coupling operations, and retarders shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR part... cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). 210.33 Section 210.33 Transportation Other... (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). (a) Measurement...

  14. 49 CFR 210.33 - Operation standards (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... coupling operations, and retarders shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR part... cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). 210.33 Section 210.33 Transportation Other... (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). (a) Measurement...

  15. 49 CFR 210.33 - Operation standards (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... coupling operations, and retarders shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR part... cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). 210.33 Section 210.33 Transportation Other... (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). (a) Measurement...

  16. 49 CFR 210.33 - Operation standards (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation standards (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). 210.33 Section 210.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD NOISE EMISSION...

  17. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). 210.29 Section 210.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD NOISE EMISSION COMPLIANCE REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29...

  18. 49 CFR 210.31 - Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation standards (stationary locomotives at 30 meters). 210.31 Section 210.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD NOISE EMISSION COMPLIANCE REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing §...

  19. 40 CFR 201.11 - Standard for locomotive operation under stationary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standard for locomotive operation under stationary conditions. 201.11 Section 201.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE...

  20. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  1. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  2. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  3. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  4. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  5. OPERANT CONDITIONING OF A SPINAL REFLEX CAN IMPROVE LOCOMOTION AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aiko K.; Pomerantz, Ferne; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Operant conditioning protocols can modify the activity of specific spinal cord pathways and can thereby affect behaviors that use these pathways. To explore the therapeutic application of these protocols, we studied the impact of down-conditioning the soleus H-reflex in people with impaired locomotion caused by chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. After a baseline period in which soleus H-reflex size was measured and locomotion was assessed, subjects completed either 30 H-reflex down-conditioning sessions (DC subjects) or 30 sessions in which the H-reflex was simply measured (Unconditioned (UC) subjects), and locomotion was reassessed. Over the 30 sessions, the soleus H-reflex decreased in two-thirds of the DC subjects (a success rate similar to that in normal subjects) and remained smaller several months later. In these subjects, locomotion became faster and more symmetrical, and the modulation of EMG activity across the step-cycle increased bilaterally. Furthermore, beginning about halfway through the conditioning sessions, all of these subjects commented spontaneously that they were walking faster and farther in their daily lives, and several noted less clonus, easier stepping, and/or other improvements. The H-reflex did not decrease in the other DC subjects or in any of the UC subjects; and their locomotion did not improve. These results suggest that reflex conditioning protocols can enhance recovery of function after incomplete spinal cord injuries and possibly in other disorders as well. Because they are able to target specific spinal pathways, these protocols could be designed to address each individual’s particular deficits, and might thereby complement other rehabilitation methods. PMID:23392666

  6. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power... distribution of freight and passenger yard-switching hours in those yards common to both freight and...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power... distribution of freight and passenger yard-switching hours in those yards common to both freight and...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power... distribution of freight and passenger yard-switching hours in those yards common to both freight and...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power... distribution of freight and passenger yard-switching hours in those yards common to both freight and...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power... distribution of freight and passenger yard-switching hours in those yards common to both freight and...

  11. Feasibility study for SOFC-GT hybrid locomotive power part II. System packaging and operating route simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Andrew S.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2012-09-01

    This work assesses the feasibility of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid power systems for use as the prime mover in freight locomotives. The available space in a diesel engine-powered locomotive is compared to that required for an SOFC-GT system, inclusive of fuel processing systems necessary for the SOFC-GT. The SOFC-GT space requirement is found to be similar to current diesel engines, without consideration of the electrical balance of plant. Preliminary design of the system layout within the locomotive is carried out for illustration. Recent advances in SOFC technology and implications of future improvements are discussed as well. A previously-developed FORTRAN model of an SOFC-GT system is then augmented to simulate the kinematics and power notching of a train and its locomotives. The operation of the SOFC-GT-powered train is investigated along a representative route in Southern California, with simulations presented for diesel reformate as well as natural gas reformate and hydrogen as fuels. Operational parameters and difficulties are explored as are comparisons of expected system performance to modern diesel engines. It is found that even in the diesel case, the SOFC-GT system provides significant savings in fuel and CO2 emissions, making it an attractive option for the rail industry.

  12. Locomotive safety device

    SciTech Connect

    Kleffman, D.R.; Phiffer, L.V.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes the environment of a longitudinally extending and diesel engine type railroad locomotive classified under a stopped and ''blue flag'' condition, the locomotive having its traction wheels powerable from a high-voltage main-generator. The locomotive is also equipped with a low-voltage auxiliary-generator having electrical circuitry connected to locomotive installed alarm means, to at least one fuel valve for the diesel engine, to locomotive forward-rearward motive directional control, and to locomotive acceleration control. The low-voltage electrical circuitry extends the locomotive longitudinal length and terminates as two endward multi-pins receptacles. The improvement of a locomotive safety device tending to enforce upon would be the locomotive operators ''blue flag'' condition. The locomotive safety device is adapted to removably engaged with a locomotive multipins receptacle and comprises a multi-perforate plug including electrically conductive bushings adapted to be removably inserted into electrically conductive relationship with appropriately selected individual pins of the multi-pins receptacle.

  13. 49 CFR 236.927 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... following elements must be addressed: (1) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or...

  14. 49 CFR 236.1047 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or enter data to, the system, such as consist data, and...

  15. 49 CFR 236.927 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following elements must be addressed: (1) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or...

  16. 49 CFR 236.1047 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or enter data to, the system, such as consist data, and...

  17. 49 CFR 236.1047 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or enter data to, the system, such as consist data, and...

  18. 49 CFR 236.927 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following elements must be addressed: (1) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or...

  19. 49 CFR 236.927 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following elements must be addressed: (1) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or...

  20. 49 CFR 236.1047 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or enter data to, the system, such as consist data, and...

  1. 49 CFR 236.1047 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or enter data to, the system, such as consist data, and...

  2. 49 CFR 236.927 - Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following elements must be addressed: (1) Familiarization with train control equipment onboard the locomotive and the functioning of that equipment as part of the system and in relation to other onboard systems under that person's control; (2) Any actions required of the onboard personnel to enable, or...

  3. Data on the noise vibrations of modern traction locomotives. [auditory effects on diesel engine operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paslaru, V.; Popescu, A.; Vrasti, R.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is presented of data on noise and vibration sources in modern locomotives and their influence on engine drivers. An attempt is made hierarchize noise and vibration sources in terms of importance and to correlate the noise level with the influence of noise on the engine drivers' organ of hearing. Some possible recommendations are outlined for reducing the level of these noxae in order to improve the acoustic comfort of engine drivers.

  4. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were... performance or operability of the locomotive or locomotive engine. (6) A description of the adverse effects, if any, that such nonconformity would have on the performance or operability of the locomotive...

  5. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were... performance or operability of the locomotive or locomotive engine. (6) A description of the adverse effects, if any, that such nonconformity would have on the performance or operability of the locomotive...

  6. Torsional locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.; Bosi, F.

    2014-01-01

    One edge of an elastic rod is inserted into a friction-less and fitting socket head, whereas the other edge is subjected to a torque, generating a uniform twisting moment. It is theoretically shown and experimentally proved that, although perfectly smooth, the constraint realizes an expulsive axial force on the elastic rod, which amount is independent of the shape of the socket head. The axial force explains why screwdrivers at high torque have the tendency to disengage from screw heads and demonstrates torsional locomotion along a perfectly smooth channel. This new type of locomotion finds direct evidence in the realization of a ‘torsional gun’, capable of transforming torque into propulsive force. PMID:25383038

  7. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  8. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  9. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  10. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  11. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  12. 49 CFR 229.15 - Remote control locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote control locomotives. 229.15 Section 229.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.15 Remote control locomotives. (a) Design and operation. (1)...

  13. Spinal circuitry of sensorimotor control of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, David A

    2001-01-01

    During locomotion many segmental hindlimb reflex pathways serve not only to regulate the excitability of local groups of motoneurones, but also to control the basic operation of the central pattern-generating circuitry responsible for locomotion. This is accomplished through a reorganization of reflexes that includes the suppression of reflex pathways operating at rest and the recruitment during locomotion of previously unrecognized types of spinal interneurones. In addition presynaptic inhibition of transmission from segmental afferents serves to regulate the gain of segmental reflexes and may contribute to the selection of particular reflex pathways during locomotion. The fictive locomotion preparation in adult decerebrate cats has proved to be an important tool in understanding reflex pathway reorganization. Further identification of the spinal interneurones involved in locomotor-dependent reflexes will contribute to our understanding not only of reflex pathway organization but also of the organization of the mammalian central pattern generator. PMID:11351011

  14. Electrokinetic Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Jeffrey Lawrence

    occurring in the interfacial layer near the particle/solution interface, which play a key role in the locomotion. The model enables one to understand how the rods' motion depends on the properties of their environment, such as hydrogen peroxide concentration, solution electrical conductivity, and solution viscosity. The numerical simulations are complemented with a scaling analysis based on the governing equations, which makes definite, verifiable predictions of these dependences. One of the most important trends that has been observed experimentally is the significant decrease in speed induced by adding sub-millimolar concentrations of inert electrolyte. It is important to understand the physical reasons for the electrolyte-induced speed decrease, in order to know whether it is fundamental to this propulsion mechanism, or if there is some feasible means to circumvent it. Successful completion of this research will result in an improved understanding of the capabilities, as well as the risks and limits of applicability, of the bimetallic nanomotors for applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Potential applications of the rods include the targeted delivery of drugs in the human body, sensing of chemical impurities in drinking water, and as engines to drive fabrication of microscale structures.

  15. Operant conditioning of the soleus H-reflex does not induce long-term changes in the gastrocnemius H-reflexes and does not disturb normal locomotion in humans.

    PubMed

    Makihara, Yukiko; Segal, Richard L; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Thompson, Aiko K

    2014-09-15

    In normal animals, operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or the H-reflex has lesser effects on synergist muscle reflexes. In rats and people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), soleus H-reflex operant conditioning can improve locomotion. We studied in normal humans the impact of soleus H-reflex down-conditioning on medial (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) H-reflexes and on locomotion. Subjects completed 6 baseline and 30 conditioning sessions. During conditioning trials, the subject was encouraged to decrease soleus H-reflex size with the aid of visual feedback. Every sixth session, MG and LG H-reflexes were measured. Locomotion was assessed before and after conditioning. In successfully conditioned subjects, the soleus H-reflex decreased 27.2%. This was the sum of within-session (task dependent) adaptation (13.2%) and across-session (long term) change (14%). The MG H-reflex decreased 14.5%, due mainly to task-dependent adaptation (13.4%). The LG H-reflex showed no task-dependent adaptation or long-term change. No consistent changes were detected across subjects in locomotor H-reflexes, EMG activity, joint angles, or step symmetry. Thus, in normal humans, soleus H-reflex down-conditioning does not induce long-term changes in MG/LG H-reflexes and does not change locomotion. In these subjects, task-dependent adaptation of the soleus H-reflex is greater than it is in people with SCI, whereas long-term change is less. This difference from results in people with SCI is consistent with the fact that long-term change is beneficial in people with SCI, since it improves locomotion. In contrast, in normal subjects, long-term change is not beneficial and may necessitate compensatory plasticity to preserve satisfactory locomotion. PMID:24944216

  16. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    Railroads are important to the U.S. economy. They transport freight efficiently, requiring less energy and emitting fewer pollutants than other modes of surface transportation. While the railroad industry has steadily improved its fuel efficiency--by 16% over the last decade--more can, and needs to, be done. The ability of locomotive manufacturers to conduct research into fuel efficiency and emissions reduction is limited by the small number of locomotives manufactured annually. Each year for the last five years, the two North American locomotive manufacturers--General Electric Transportation Systems and the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors--have together sold about 800 locomotives in the United States. With such a small number of units over which research costs can be spread, outside help is needed to investigate all possible ways to reduce fuel usage and emissions. Because fuel costs represent a significant portion of the total operating costs of a railroad, fuel efficiency has always been an important factor in the design of locomotives and in the operations of a railroad. However, fuel efficiency has recently become even more critical with the introduction of strict emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to be implemented in stages (Tiers 0, 1, and 2) between 2000 and 2005. Some of the technologies that could be employed to meet the emission standards may negatively affect fuel economy--by as much as 10-15% when emissions are reduced to Tier 1 levels. Lowering fuel economy by that magnitude would have a serious impact on the cost to the consumer of goods shipped by rail, on the competitiveness of the railroad industry, and on this country's dependence on foreign oil. Clearly, a joint government/industry R&D program is needed to help catalyze the development of advanced technologies that will substantially reduce locomotive engine emissions while also improving train system energy efficiency. DOE convened an industry

  17. Job Grading Standard for Locomotive Engineer WG-6004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard is used to grade the nonsupervisory work of operating all types of locomotives and trains to transport supplies, equipment, conveyances, and personnel. The work involves skill in operating locomotives under various conditions, and knowledge of the layout of a track system and the safety, signalling, and track use requirements or…

  18. Track train dynamics analysis and test program: Locomotive dynamic characterization summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Locomotive mechanical characteristics, track perturbations, and operational characteristics involving experimentally determined suspension system parameters are analyzed. Suspension bearings, shock absorbers, pads, and two- and three- axle trucks are comparatively evaluated with respect to locomotive design.

  19. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  20. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  1. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  2. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  3. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  4. Track train dynamics analysis and test program: Methodology development for the derailment safety analysis of six-axle locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcotte, P. P.; Mathewson, K. J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The operational safety of six axle locomotives is analyzed. A locomotive model with corresponding data on suspension characteristics, a method of track defect characterization, and a method of characterizing operational safety are used. A user oriented software package was developed as part of the methodology and was used to study the effect (on operational safety) of various locomotive parameters and operational conditions such as speed, tractive effort, and track curvature. The operational safety of three different locomotive designs was investigated.

  5. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  6. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  7. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  8. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  9. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  10. Compensations during Unsteady Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mu; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-12-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady, but the mechanisms used by animals to power and control unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) are not well understood. We use behavioral, morphological, and impulsive perturbations to determine the compensations used during unsteady locomotion. At the level both of the whole-body and of joints, quasi-stiffness models are useful for describing adjustments to the functioning of legs and joints during maneuvers. However, alterations to the mechanics of legs and joints often are distinct for different phases of the step cycle or for specific joints. For example, negotiating steps involves independent changes of leg stiffness during compression and thrust phases of stance. Unsteady locomotion also involves parameters that are not part of the simplest reduced-parameter models of locomotion (e.g., the spring-loaded inverted pendulum) such as moments of the hip joint. Extensive coupling among translational and rotational parameters must be taken into account to stabilize locomotion or maneuver. For example, maneuvers with morphological perturbations (increased rotational inertial turns) involve changes to several aspects of movement, including the initial conditions of rotation and ground-reaction forces. Coupled changes to several parameters may be employed to control maneuvers on a trial-by-trial basis. Compensating for increased rotational inertia of the body during turns is facilitated by the opposing effects of several mechanical and behavioral parameters. However, the specific rules used by animals to control translation and rotation of the body to maintain stability or maneuver have not been fully characterized. We initiated direct-perturbation experiments to investigate the strategies used by humans to maintain stability following center-of-mass (COM) perturbations. When walking, humans showed more resistance to medio-lateral perturbations (lower COM displacement). However, when running, humans

  11. Fuelcell Prototype Locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Barnes

    2007-09-28

    An international industry-government consortium is developing a fuelcell hybrid switcher locomotive for commercial railway applications and power-to-grid generation applications. The current phase of this on-going project addresses the practicalities of on-board hydrogen storage, fuelcell technology, and hybridity, all with an emphasis on commercially available products. Through practical evaluation using designs from Vehicle Projects’ Fuelcell-Powered Underground Mine Loader Project, the configuration of the fuelcell switcher locomotive changed from using metal-hydride hydrogen storage and a pure fuelcell power plant to using compressed hydrogen storage, a fuelcell-battery hybrid power plant, and fuelcell stack modules from Ballard Power Systems that have been extensively used in the Citaro bus program in Europe. The new overall design will now use a RailPower battery hybrid Green Goat™ as the locomotive platform. Keeping the existing lead-acid batteries, we will replace the 205 kW diesel gen-set with 225 kW of net fuelcell power, remove the diesel fuel tank, and place 14 compressed hydrogen cylinders, capable of storing 70 kg of hydrogen at 350 bar, on the roof. A detailed design with associated CAD models will allow a complete build of the fuelcell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive in the next funded phase.

  12. Compliant Synergies in Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travers, Matthew; Choset, Howie; Goldman @ Georgia Tech. Physics Department Collaboration

    Biological systems appear to have natural mechanisms that allow them to readily compensate for unexpected environmental variations when compared to their mechanical (i.e., robotic) counterparts. We hypothesize that the basis for this discrepancy is almost innate: what biology appears to be born with, built-in mechanisms for coordinating their many degrees of freedom, we struggle to ``program.'' We therefore look toward biology for inspiration. In particular, we are interested in kinematic synergies, low-dimensional representations that explicitly encode the underlying structure of how systems coordinate their internal degrees of freedom to achieve high-level tasks. In this work, we derive parametric representations of kinematic synergies and present a new compliant locomotion control framework that enables the parameters to be directly controlled in response to external disturbances. We present results of this framework implemented on two separate platforms, a snake-like and hexapod robot. Our results show that, using synergies, the locomotion control of these very different systems can be reduced to simple, extremely capable, and common forms, thus offering new insights into both robotic as well as biological locomotion in complex terrains.

  13. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  14. The role of locomotion in psychological development

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David I.; Campos, Joseph J.; Witherington, David C.; Dahl, Audun; Rivera, Monica; He, Minxuan; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The psychological revolution that follows the onset of independent locomotion in the latter half of the infant's first year provides one of the best illustrations of the intimate connection between action and psychological processes. In this paper, we document some of the dramatic changes in perception-action coupling, spatial cognition, memory, and social and emotional development that follow the acquisition of independent locomotion. We highlight the range of converging research operations that have been used to examine the relation between locomotor experience and psychological development, and we describe recent attempts to uncover the processes that underlie this relation. Finally, we address three important questions about the relation that have received scant attention in the research literature. These questions include: (1) What changes in the brain occur when infants acquire experience with locomotion? (2) What role does locomotion play in the maintenance of psychological function? (3) What implications do motor disabilities have for psychological development? Seeking the answers to these questions can provide rich insights into the relation between action and psychological processes and the general processes that underlie human development. PMID:23888146

  15. Locomotion: Dealing with friction

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, V.

    1998-01-01

    To move on land, in water, or in the air, even at constant speed and at the same level, always requires an expenditure of energy. The resistance to motion that has to be overcome is of many different kinds depending on size, speed, and the characteristics of the medium, and is a fascinating subject in itself. Even more interesting are nature’s stratagems and solutions toward minimizing the effort involved in the locomotion of different types of living creatures, and humans’ imitations and inventions in an attempt to do at least as well. PMID:9576902

  16. Locomotion: dealing with friction.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, V

    1998-05-12

    To move on land, in water, or in the air, even at constant speed and at the same level, always requires an expenditure of energy. The resistance to motion that has to be overcome is of many different kinds depending on size, speed, and the characteristics of the medium, and is a fascinating subject in itself. Even more interesting are nature's stratagems and solutions toward minimizing the effort involved in the locomotion of different types of living creatures, and humans' imitations and inventions in an attempt to do at least as well. PMID:9576902

  17. Terrestrial locomotion in arachnids.

    PubMed

    Spagna, Joseph C; Peattie, Anne M

    2012-05-01

    In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on terrestrial locomotion in Arachnida. Arachnids represent a single diverse (>100,000 species) clade containing well-defined subgroups (at both the order and subordinal levels) that vary morphologically around a basic body plan, yet exhibit highly disparate limb usage, running performance, and tarsal attachment mechanisms. Spiders (Araneae), scorpions (Scorpiones), and harvestmen (Opiliones) have received the most attention in the literature, while some orders have never been subject to rigorous mechanical characterization. Most well-characterized taxa move with gaits analogous to the alternating tripod gaits that characterize fast-moving Insecta - alternating tetrapods or alternating tripods (when one pair of legs is lifted from the ground for some other function). However, between taxa, there is considerable variation in the regularity of phasing between legs. Both large and small spiders appear to show a large amount of variation in the distribution of foot-ground contact, even between consecutive step-cycles of a single run. Mechanisms for attachment to vertical surfaces also vary, and may depend on tufts of adhesive hairs, fluid adhesives, silks, or a combination of these. We conclude that Arachnida, particularly with improvements in microelectronic force sensing technology, can serve as a powerful study system for understanding the kinematics, dynamics, and ecological correlates of sprawled-posture locomotion. PMID:22326455

  18. Legless locomotion in lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Gong, Chaohui; Serrano, Miguel M.; Mendelson, Joseph R., III; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    By propagating waves from head to tail, limbless organisms like snakes can traverse terrain composed of rocks, foliage, soil and sand. Previous research elucidated how rigid obstacles influence snake locomotion by studying a model terrain-symmetric lattices of pegs placed in hard ground. We want to understand how different substrate-body interaction modes affect performance in desert-adapted snakes during transit of substrates composed of both rigid obstacles and granular media (GM). We tested Chionactis occipitalis, the Mojave shovel-nosed snake, in two laboratory treatments: lattices of 0 . 64 cm diameter obstacles arrayed on both a hard, slick substrate and in a GM of ~ 0 . 3 mm diameter glass particles. For all lattice spacings, d, speed through the hard ground lattices was less than that in GM lattices. However, maximal undulation efficiencies ηu (number of body lengths advanced per undulation cycle) in both treatments were comparable when d was intermediate. For other d, ηu was lower than this maximum in hard ground lattices, while on GM, ηu was insensitive to d. To systematically explore such locomotion, we tested a physical robot model of the snake; performance depended sensitively on base substrate, d and body wave parameters.

  19. Maneuvers during legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu

    2009-06-01

    Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the

  20. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Carlos J; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  1. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Carlos J.; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  2. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  3. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  4. 76 FR 2199 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... October 19, 2007 (72 FR 59216). FRA continued to utilize the RSAC process to address additional locomotive... to reach consensus on the issues related to remote control locomotives, cab temperature, and... proposals related to remote control locomotives, alerters, and locomotive cab temperature, issues that...

  5. 77 FR 21311 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    .... Brakes, General E. Locomotive Cab Temperature F. Headlights G. Alerters H. Locomotive Electronics I... a minimum permissible locomotive cab temperature. FRA also independently developed a proposal for... in the NPRM and retains it in this final rule. Locomotive Cab Temperature In 1998, FRA led an...

  6. Multi-modal locomotion: from animal to application.

    PubMed

    Lock, R J; Burgess, S C; Vaidyanathan, R

    2014-03-01

    The majority of robotic vehicles that can be found today are bound to operations within a single media (i.e. land, air or water). This is very rarely the case when considering locomotive capabilities in natural systems. Utility for small robots often reflects the exact same problem domain as small animals, hence providing numerous avenues for biological inspiration. This paper begins to investigate the various modes of locomotion adopted by different genus groups in multiple media as an initial attempt to determine the compromise in ability adopted by the animals when achieving multi-modal locomotion. A review of current biologically inspired multi-modal robots is also presented. The primary aim of this research is to lay the foundation for a generation of vehicles capable of multi-modal locomotion, allowing ambulatory abilities in more than one media, surpassing current capabilities. By identifying and understanding when natural systems use specific locomotion mechanisms, when they opt for disparate mechanisms for each mode of locomotion rather than using a synergized singular mechanism, and how this affects their capability in each medium, similar combinations can be used as inspiration for future multi-modal biologically inspired robotic platforms. PMID:24343102

  7. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to

  8. Legless locomotion in lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about interactions between an animal body and complex terrestrial terrain like sand and boulders during legless, undulatory travel (e.g. snake locomotion). We study the locomotor performance of Mojave shovel-nosed snakes (Chionactisoccipitalis , ~ 35 cm long) using a simplified model of heterogeneous terrain: symmetric lattices of obstacles. To quantify performance we measure mean forward speed and slip angle, βs, defined as the angle between the instantaneous velocity and tangent vectors at each point on the body. We find that below a critical peg density the presence of granular media results in high speed (~ 60 cm/s), low average slip (βs ~6°) snake performance as compared to movement in the same peg densities on hard ground (~ 25 cm/s and βs ~15°). Above this peg density, performance on granular and hard substrates converges. Speed on granular media decreases with increasing peg density to that of the speed on hard ground, while speed on hard ground remains constant. Conversely, βs on hard ground trends toward that on granular media as obstacle density increases.

  9. Exposure to noise on board locomotives.

    PubMed

    Seshagiri, Baily

    2003-01-01

    Personal and area noise dosimetry measurements were taken in the cabs of leading and trailing locomotives on 48 trips, under winter and summer conditions, on 9 different routes. The mean equivalent sound level (L(EQ), 3 dB exchange rate, 50 dBA threshold) of the engineers and conductors was 84 dBA during winter and 88 dBA during summer. The corresponding time-weighted average levels (L(TWA), 5 dB exchange rate, 80 dBA threshold) were 80 and 84 dBA respectively. The L(EQ) of 56% of the engineers sampled was > or =85 dBA and of 13% was > or =90 dBA. Plots of L(EQ) time history show that under normal operating conditions L(EQ) reaches its steady-state value in about 3 hours. The mean noise levels in the trailing cabs were lower than the personal exposure levels of the engineers and conductors. The mean L(EQ) on the engineer and conductor sides was 80 dBA during winter, and 85 dBA during summer. Locomotive configuration has a significant effect on the noise levels in the trailing cab. The forward-backward configuration resulted in higher noise levels than the forward-forward configuration. Octave and one-third octave band spectra taken during a variety of locomotive operating conditions are presented. The octave band centered at 31.5 Hz contains nearly 46% of the acoustical energy, and those centered at and below 250 Hz contain nearly 99% of the acoustical energy. Wheel-rail interaction appears to be the predominant source of the low frequency noise. Recommendations for controlling exposure are made. PMID:14521423

  10. Coal-fueled diesel locomotive test

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Confer, G.L.; Basic, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The biggest challenges to the development of a commercially-acceptable coal-fueled diesel-electric locomotive are integrating all systems into a working unit that can be operated in railroad service. This involves mainly the following three systems: (1) the multi-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine, (2) the locomotive and engine controls, and (3) the CWS fuel supply system. Consequently, a workable 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine was considered necessary at this stage to evolve the required locomotive support systems, in addition to gaining valuable multi-cylinder engine operating experience. The CWS fuel used during this project was obtained from Otisca, Inc. (Syracuse, NY). It was prepared from micronized and deashed Kentucky Blue Gem coal to 49.0% coal loading by weight, with less than 1% ash and 5 micron mean diameter particle size. Its higher heating value was analyzed at approximately 34630 kJ/k. Anti-agglomerating additive Triton X-114 was added to the CWS at GE Transportation Systems at 2% of coal weight. The nature of the Otisca CWS fuel makes it inherently more difficult to store, pump, and inject than diesel fuel, since concepts which govern Newtonian or normally viscous liquids do not apply entirely to CWS. Otisca CWS tends to be unstable and to settle in tanks and lines after a period of time, making it necessary to provide a means of agitation during storage. To avoid long term settling problems and to minimize losses, piping velocities were designed to be in the 60-90 m/min range.

  11. Decoding the organization of spinal circuits that control locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Kiehn, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Unravelling the functional operation of neuronal networks and linking cellular activity to specific behavioural outcomes are among the biggest challenges in neuroscience. In this broad field of research, substantial progress has been made in studies of the spinal networks that control locomotion. Through united efforts using electrophysiological and molecular genetic network approaches and behavioural studies in phylogenetically diverse experimental models, the organization of locomotor networks has begun to be decoded. The emergent themes from this research are that the locomotor networks have a modular organization with distinct transmitter and molecular codes and that their organization is reconfigured with changes to the speed of locomotion or changes in gait. PMID:26935168

  12. Local reflexive mechanisms essential for snakes' scaffold-based locomotion.

    PubMed

    Kano, Takeshi; Sato, Takahide; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio

    2012-12-01

    Most robots are designed to work in predefined environments, and irregularities that exist in the environment interfere with their operation. For snakes, irregularities play the opposite role: snakes actively utilize terrain irregularities and move by effectively pushing their body against the scaffolds that they encounter. Autonomous decentralized control mechanisms could be the key to understanding this locomotion. We demonstrate through modelling and simulations that only two local reflexive mechanisms, which exploit sensory information about the stretching of muscles and the pressure on the body wall, are crucial for realizing locomotion. This finding will help develop robots that work in undefined environments and shed light on the understanding of the fundamental principles underlying adaptive locomotion in animals. PMID:22918023

  13. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive horn. 229.129 Section 229.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and Cab Equipment § 229.129 Locomotive horn. (a) Each...

  14. Current problems: New similiquid lubricant for locomotive gears

    SciTech Connect

    Shibryaev, S.B.; Nesterov, A.V.; Seregina, I.E.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a formula for a new, domestically manufactured, semiliquid lubricant is described. The lubricant is for traction gears of locomotives and motorized cars of multiple-unit trains that will ensure year-round operation. Scientific principles have been used in selecting additives and in increasing the effectiveness of the additives by means of oxygen-containing synthetic oils.

  15. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: 2003 Annual Technical Status Report DOE/AL68284-TSR03

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo

    2004-01-09

    The 21st Century Locomotive program objective is to develop 25% more efficient freight locomotives by 2010. Diesel engine-related research addresses advanced fuel injection, electric turbocharger and abradable seals. Assembly of a common rail fuel injection test system is underway, and a CFD combustion model has been validated. An electrically assisted turbocharger has been constructed and operated, meeting the generator mode design rating. System characterization and optimization is ongoing. Candidate abradable seal materials have been identified and test coupons prepared. Locomotive system-related research addresses capturing, storing and utilizing regenerative braking energy in a hybrid locomotive, and fuel optimization control. Hybrid locomotive energy storage requirements have been identified and studies on specific energy storage solutions are in progress. Energy management controls have been defined and testing initiated. Train and track parameter identification necessary for fuel optimization has been demonstrated.

  16. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  17. Locomotive Emission and Engine Idle Reduction Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Archer

    2005-03-14

    In response to a United States Department of Energy (DOE) solicitation, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA), in partnership with CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT), submitted a proposal to DOE to support the demonstration of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) technology on fifty-six CSXT locomotives. The project purpose was to demonstrate the idle fuel savings, the Nitrous Oxide (NOX) emissions reduction and the noise reduction capabilities of the APU. Fifty-six CSXT Baltimore Division locomotives were equipped with APUs, Engine Run Managers (ERM) and communications equipment to permit GPS tracking and data collection from the locomotives. Throughout the report there is mention of the percent time spent in the State of Maryland. The fifty-six locomotives spent most of their time inside the borders of Maryland and some spent all their time inside the state borders. Usually when a locomotive traveled beyond the Maryland State border it was into an adjoining state. They were divided into four groups according to assignment: (1) Power Unit/Switcher Mate units, (2) Remote Control units, (3) SD50 Pusher units and (4) Other units. The primary data of interest were idle data plus the status of the locomotive--stationary or moving. Also collected were main engine off, idling or working. Idle data were collected by county location, by locomotive status (stationary or moving) and type of idle (Idle 1, main engine idling, APU off; Idle 2, main engine off, APU on; Idle 3, main engine off, APU off; Idle 4, main engine idle, APU on). Desirable main engine idle states are main engine off and APU off or main engine off and APU on. Measuring the time the main engine spends in these desirable states versus the total time it could spend in an engine idling state allows the calculation of Percent Idle Management Effectiveness (%IME). IME is the result of the operation of the APU plus the implementation of CSXT's Warm Weather Shutdown Policy. It is difficult to separate the two. The units

  18. [Locomotion disturbances in Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    Delval, A; Krystkowiak, P

    2010-02-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD), perturbed locomotion occurs early in the course of the disease and presents numerous clinical features. The gait disorders in HD might best be defined as a timing disorder; however, hypokinesia (i.e. a decrease in stride length) also plays an important role in disturbed locomotion as HD progresses. Gait impairments are particularly important because they lead to an increased risk of falls. Falls risk factors and consequences depend on the stage of the disease. A satisfactory therapeutic strategy for gait impairments is a serious challenge: the use of a metronome during gait in HD patients does not effectively improve their gait. Attention deficits in HD may be a major determinant of this failure. The effect of antichoreic medications on gait is still controversial because of the absence of specific evaluation of these medications on gait disturbances. PMID:19604530

  19. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  20. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a... locomotive crashworthiness designs which are not consistent with any FRA-approved locomotive...

  1. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  2. Investigation of the impact of locomotive creep control on wear under changing contact conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Sheng; Daniel, William(Bill) J. T.; Meehan, Paul A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the locomotive traction controller performance with respect to the track wear under different operation conditions. In particular, an investigation into the dynamic response of a locomotive under changing wheel-rail friction conditions is performed with an aim to determine the effect of controller setting on track wear. Simulation using a full-scale longitudinal-vertical locomotive dynamic model shows that the appropriately designed creep threshold, controller, settings can effectively maintain a high tractive effort while avoiding excessive rail damage due to wear, especially during acceleration under low speed.

  3. Undulatory Locomotion of Magnetic Multilink Nanoswimmers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bumjin; Gutman, Emiliya; Stucki, Nicolai; Seitz, Benedikt F; Wendel-García, Pedro D; Newton, Taylor; Pokki, Juho; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Pané, Salvador; Or, Yizhar; Nelson, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    Micro- and nanorobots operating in low Reynolds number fluid environments require specialized swimming strategies for efficient locomotion. Prior research has focused on designs mimicking the rotary corkscrew motion of bacterial flagella or the planar beating motion of eukaryotic flagella. These biologically inspired designs are typically of uniform construction along their flagellar axis. This work demonstrates for the first time planar undulations of composite multilink nanowire-based chains (diameter 200 nm) induced by a planar-oscillating magnetic field. Those chains comprise an elastic eukaryote-like polypyrrole tail and rigid magnetic nickel links connected by flexible polymer bilayer hinges. The multilink design exhibits a high swimming efficiency. Furthermore, the manufacturing process enables tuning the geometrical and material properties to specific applications. PMID:26029795

  4. Cerebellar contribution to feedforward control of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Pisotta, Iolanda; Molinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is an important contributor to feedforward control mechanisms of the central nervous system, and sequencing—the process that allows spatial and temporal relationships between events to be recognized—has been implicated as the fundamental cerebellar mode of operation. By adopting such a mode and because cerebellar activity patterns are sensitive to a variety of sensorimotor-related tasks, the cerebellum is believed to support motor and cognitive functions that are encoded in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. In this model, the cerebellum is hypothesized to make predictions about the consequences of a motor or cognitive command that originates from the cortex to prepare the entire system to cope with ongoing changes. In this framework, cerebellar predictive mechanisms for locomotion are addressed, focusing on sensorial and motoric sequencing. The hypothesis that sequence recognition is the mechanism by which the cerebellum functions in gait control is presented and discussed. PMID:25009490

  5. Cerebellar contribution to feedforward control of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Pisotta, Iolanda; Molinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is an important contributor to feedforward control mechanisms of the central nervous system, and sequencing-the process that allows spatial and temporal relationships between events to be recognized-has been implicated as the fundamental cerebellar mode of operation. By adopting such a mode and because cerebellar activity patterns are sensitive to a variety of sensorimotor-related tasks, the cerebellum is believed to support motor and cognitive functions that are encoded in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. In this model, the cerebellum is hypothesized to make predictions about the consequences of a motor or cognitive command that originates from the cortex to prepare the entire system to cope with ongoing changes. In this framework, cerebellar predictive mechanisms for locomotion are addressed, focusing on sensorial and motoric sequencing. The hypothesis that sequence recognition is the mechanism by which the cerebellum functions in gait control is presented and discussed. PMID:25009490

  6. Kinematic Differences Between Motorized and Nonmotorized Treadmill Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Norcross, Jason; Smith, Cassie; Hagan, R. Donald

    2006-01-01

    There are few scientific publications comparing human locomotion between motorized and nonmotorized treadmills. Lakomy (1987) and Gamble et al (1988) reported that forward lean is greater on a nonmotorized treadmill to aid in the generation of horizontal force necessary for belt propulsion, but there are no data concerning lower limb kinematics. During long-term spaceflight, astronauts use locomotive exercise to mitigate the physiological effects caused by long-term exposure to microgravity. A critical decision for mission planners concerns the requirements for a treadmill to be used during potential trips to the Moon and Mars. Treadmill operation in an un-powered configuration could reduce mission resource demands, but also may impact the efficacy of treadmill exercise countermeasures. To ascertain the most appropriate type of treadmill to be used, it is important to understand biomechanical differences between motorized (M) and nonmotorized (NM) locomotion. The purpose of this evaluation was to test for differences in lower limb kinematics that occur during M and NM treadmill locomotion at two speeds. It was hypothesized that hip and knee joint angle trajectories would differ between the conditions.

  7. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structure of locomotives, including... SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.209 Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives. (a)(1) The skin covering the forward-facing end of...

  8. Biomechanics of locomotion in subgravity.

    PubMed

    Margaria, R

    1973-01-01

    The speed of walking or running on the moon as compared with earth is appreciably reduced, in spite of mechanisms of compensation taking place such a forward leaning of the body and an increase of the horizontal component of the push of the foot on the ground. However on the moon the same speed of locomotion as on earth can be reached by shifting to a different mechanism of locomotion, i. e. progression by jumps, which becomes possible on the moon because of the reduction of the body weight. The energy cost of locomotion is certainly less on the moon than on earth, about 1/6. Were the subject not restrained by the space suit, progression by jumps at 20 km hr-1 on the moon would cost no more than 10 ml kg-1 min-1 of oxygen, the same as walking on earth at 6 km hr-1. Maximal acceleration of the body as in sprinting, or deceleration as in stopping, attains much higher values on earth than on the moon. While sprinting on earth may involve the maximal muscular power, sprinting or progressing at the highest speed on the moon involves only a fraction of the maximal power, mainly because of the reduced maximal frequency of the steps (or jumps). The maximal height of the jump on both feet on the moon could attain 4 m in the unrestricted subject. An analysis is wanted on the restriction of the movements brought about by the space suit and on the energy cost of progression. PMID:12523382

  9. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Nicholas W.; Apte, Joshua S.; Martien, Philip T.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  10. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, N. W.; Kirchstetter, T.; Martien, P. T.; Apte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  11. 49 CFR 212.215 - Locomotive inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... applicable sections of the Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231) and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to... four years of experience in locomotive construction or maintenance. A bachelor's degree in...

  12. 49 CFR 212.215 - Locomotive inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... applicable sections of the Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231) and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to... four years of experience in locomotive construction or maintenance. A bachelor's degree in...

  13. 49 CFR 212.215 - Locomotive inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... applicable sections of the Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231) and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to... four years of experience in locomotive construction or maintenance. A bachelor's degree in...

  14. 49 CFR 212.215 - Locomotive inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable sections of the Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231) and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to... four years of experience in locomotive construction or maintenance. A bachelor's degree in...

  15. 76 FR 8699 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... NPRM related to locomotive safety standards. See 76 FR 2200. The NPRM established a public docket to... the proposed rule published January 12, 2011, at 76 FR 2200, remains March 14, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 229 and 238 RIN 2130-AC16 Locomotive Safety...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  1. Novel locomotion via biological inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Boxerbaum, Alexander; Palmer, Luther; Chiel, Hillel; Diller, Eric; Hunt, Alexander; Bachmann, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Animal behavioral, physiological and neurobiological studies are providing a wealth of inspirational data for robot design and control. Several very different biologically inspired mobile robots will be reviewed. A robot called DIGbot is being developed that moves independent of the direction of gravity using Distributed Inward Gripping (DIG) as a rapid and robust attachment mechanism observed in climbing animals. DIGbot is an 18 degree of freedom hexapod with onboard power and control systems. Passive compliance in its feet, which is inspired by the flexible tarsus of the cockroach, increases the robustness of the adhesion strategy and enables DIGbot to execute large steps and stationary turns while walking on mesh screens. A Whegs™ robot, inspired by insect locomotion principles, is being developed that can be rapidly reconfigured between tracks and wheel-legs and carry GeoSystems Zipper Mast. The mechanisms that cause it to passively change its gait on irregular terrain have been integrated into its hubs for a compact and modular design. The robot is designed to move smoothly on moderately rugged terrain using its tracks and run on irregular terrain and stairs using its wheel-legs. We are also developing soft bodied robots that use peristalsis, the same method of locomotion earthworms use. We present a technique of using a braided mesh exterior to produce fluid waves of motion along the body of the robot that increase the robot's speed relative to previous designs. The concept is highly scalable, for endoscopes to water, oil or gas line inspection.

  2. Simulation of a Hybrid Locomotion Robot Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, P.

    2002-10-01

    This study describes a simulation process of a mobile robot. The focus is in kinematic and dynamic behavior simulations of hybrid locomotion robot vehicles. This research is motivated by the development needs of the WorkPartner field service robot. The whole robot system consists of a mobile platform and a two-hand manipulator. The robot platform, called Hybtor, is a hybrid locomotion robot capable of walking and driving by wheels as well as combining these two locomotion modes. This study describes first the general problems and their solutions in the dynamic simulation of mobile robots. A kinematic and dynamic virtual model of the Hybtor robot was built and simulations were carried out using one commercial simulation tool. Walking, wheel driven and rolking mode locomotion, which is a special hybrid locomotion style, has been simulated and analyzed. Position and force control issues during obstacle overrun and climbing were also studied.

  3. A hybrid active/passive exhaust noise control system for locomotives.

    PubMed

    Remington, Paul J; Knight, J Scott; Hanna, Doug; Rowley, Craig

    2005-01-01

    A prototype hybrid system consisting of active and passive components for controlling far-field locomotive exhaust noise has been designed, assembled, and tested on a locomotive. The system consisted of a resistive passive silencer for controlling high-frequency broadband noise and a feedforward multiple-input, multiple-output active control system for suppressing low-frequency tonal noise. The active system used ten roof-mounted bandpass speaker enclosures with 2-12-in. speakers per enclosure as actuators, eight roof-mounted electret microphones as residual sensors, and an optical tachometer that sensed locomotive engine speed as a reference sensor. The system was installed on a passenger locomotive and tested in an operating rail yard. Details of the system are described and the near-field and far-field noise reductions are compared against the design goal. PMID:15704399

  4. Locomotive applications of coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Braglia, B.L.; Poindexter, C.K. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The potential now exists for using one of our most abundant energy resources as a locomotive fuel. Coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine locomotives have been shown to provide a significant economic benefit to this nation's railroads, measured in terms of internal rate of return. The performance of coal-fueled locomotives will be competitive with state of the art diesel-electric locomotives and may even offer the opportunity to enhance this performance (high horsepower gas turbines). A change to coal fuels must be accomplished without any accompanying detrimental impact on our environment. The largest changes caused by the reintroduction of coal fuels will occur in the infrastructure of this nation's railroads; coal fueling facilities, fuel tenders, and modified maintenance and operating practices will be required. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Optimizing Locomotion Controllers Using Biologically-Based Actuators and Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack M.; Hamner, Samuel R.; Delp, Scott L.; Koltun, Vladlen

    2015-01-01

    We present a technique for automatically synthesizing walking and running controllers for physically-simulated 3D humanoid characters. The sagittal hip, knee, and ankle degrees-of-freedom are actuated using a set of eight Hill-type musculotendon models in each leg, with biologically-motivated control laws. The parameters of these control laws are set by an optimization procedure that satisfies a number of locomotion task terms while minimizing a biological model of metabolic energy expenditure. We show that the use of biologically-based actuators and objectives measurably increases the realism of gaits generated by locomotion controllers that operate without the use of motion capture data, and that metabolic energy expenditure provides a simple and unifying measurement of effort that can be used for both walking and running control optimization. PMID:26251560

  6. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  7. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  8. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  9. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  10. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  11. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  12. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  13. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  14. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  15. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  16. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production locomotives and engines. 92... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Certification Provisions § 92.214 Production locomotives and engines. Any manufacturer or remanufacturer obtaining...

  17. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.652 - Special provisions for exported locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Special Compliance Provisions § 1033.652 Special provisions for exported locomotives. (a) Uncertified locomotives. Locomotives covered by an export exemption under 40 CFR 1068.230 may be introduced into U.S. commerce prior to being exported, but may not...

  19. 40 CFR 1033.652 - Special provisions for exported locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Special Compliance Provisions § 1033.652 Special provisions for exported locomotives. (a) Uncertified locomotives. Locomotives covered by an export exemption under 40 CFR 1068.230 may be introduced into U.S. commerce prior to being exported, but may not...

  20. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  1. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  2. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a... design standard. (b) Petitions for FRA approval of alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs....

  3. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a... design standard. (b) Petitions for FRA approval of alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs....

  4. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a... design standard. (b) Petitions for FRA approval of alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs....

  5. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production locomotives and engines. 92... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Certification Provisions § 92.214 Production locomotives and engines. Any manufacturer or remanufacturer obtaining...

  6. The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M.; Silcox, Mary T.; Walker, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously. PMID:17576932

  7. Characterization of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn

    2015-11-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but a recently proposed resistive force theory (RFT) in granular media has been shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ this model to investigate the swimming characteristics of an undulating slender filament of both finite and infinite length. For infinite swimmers, similar to results in viscous fluids, the sawtooth waveform is found to be optimal for propulsion speed at a given power consumption. We also compare the swimming characteristics of sinusoidal and sawtooth swimmers with swimming in viscous fluids. More complex swimming dynamics emerge when the assumption of an infinite swimmer is removed. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  8. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  9. Push-Pull Locomotion for Vehicle Extrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creager, Colin M.; Johnson, Kyle A.; Plant, Mark; Moreland, Scott J.; Skonieczny, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    For applications in which unmanned vehicles must traverse unfamiliar terrain, there often exists the risk of vehicle entrapment. Typically, this risk can be reduced by using feedback from on-board sensors that assess the terrain. This work addressed the situations where a vehicle has already become immobilized or the desired route cannot be traversed using conventional rolling. Specifically, the focus was on using push-pull locomotion in high sinkage granular material. Push-pull locomotion is an alternative mode of travel that generates thrust through articulated motion, using vehicle components as anchors to push or pull against. It has been revealed through previous research that push-pull locomotion has the capacity for generating higher net traction forces than rolling, and a unique optical flow technique indicated that this is the result of a more efficient soil shearing method. It has now been found that pushpull locomotion results in less sinkage, lower travel reduction, and better power efficiency in high sinkage material as compared to rolling. Even when starting from an "entrapped" condition, push-pull locomotion was able to extricate the test vehicle. It is the authors' recommendation that push-pull locomotion be considered as a reliable back-up mode of travel for applications where terrain entrapment is a possibility.

  10. Motoneuronal and muscle synergies involved in cat hindlimb control during fictive and real locomotion: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Markin, Sergey N; Lemay, Michel A; Prilutsky, Boris I; Rybak, Ilya A

    2012-04-01

    We compared the activity profiles and synergies of spinal motoneurons recorded during fictive locomotion evoked in immobilized decerebrate cat preparations by midbrain stimulation to the activity profiles and synergies of the corresponding hindlimb muscles obtained during forward level walking in cats. The fictive locomotion data were collected in the Spinal Cord Research Centre, University of Manitoba, and provided by Dr. David McCrea; the real locomotion data were obtained in the laboratories of M. A. Lemay and B. I. Prilutsky. Scatterplot representation and minimum spanning tree clustering algorithm were used to identify the possible motoneuronal and muscle synergies operating during both fictive and real locomotion. We found a close similarity between the activity profiles and synergies of motoneurons innervating one-joint muscles during fictive locomotion and the profiles and synergies of the corresponding muscles during real locomotion. However, the activity patterns of proximal nerves controlling two-joint muscles, such as posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) and rectus femoris (RF), were not uniform in fictive locomotion preparations and differed from the activity profiles of the corresponding two-joint muscles recorded during forward level walking. Moreover, the activity profiles of these nerves and the corresponding muscles were unique and could not be included in the synergies identified in fictive and real locomotion. We suggest that afferent feedback is involved in the regulation of locomotion via motoneuronal synergies controlled by the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) but may also directly affect the activity of motoneuronal pools serving two-joint muscles (e.g., PBSt and RF). These findings provide important insights into the organization of the spinal CPG in mammals, the motoneuronal and muscle synergies engaged during locomotion, and their afferent control. PMID:22190626

  11. Motoneuronal and muscle synergies involved in cat hindlimb control during fictive and real locomotion: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Markin, Sergey N.; Lemay, Michel A.; Prilutsky, Boris I.

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activity profiles and synergies of spinal motoneurons recorded during fictive locomotion evoked in immobilized decerebrate cat preparations by midbrain stimulation to the activity profiles and synergies of the corresponding hindlimb muscles obtained during forward level walking in cats. The fictive locomotion data were collected in the Spinal Cord Research Centre, University of Manitoba, and provided by Dr. David McCrea; the real locomotion data were obtained in the laboratories of M. A. Lemay and B. I. Prilutsky. Scatterplot representation and minimum spanning tree clustering algorithm were used to identify the possible motoneuronal and muscle synergies operating during both fictive and real locomotion. We found a close similarity between the activity profiles and synergies of motoneurons innervating one-joint muscles during fictive locomotion and the profiles and synergies of the corresponding muscles during real locomotion. However, the activity patterns of proximal nerves controlling two-joint muscles, such as posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) and rectus femoris (RF), were not uniform in fictive locomotion preparations and differed from the activity profiles of the corresponding two-joint muscles recorded during forward level walking. Moreover, the activity profiles of these nerves and the corresponding muscles were unique and could not be included in the synergies identified in fictive and real locomotion. We suggest that afferent feedback is involved in the regulation of locomotion via motoneuronal synergies controlled by the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) but may also directly affect the activity of motoneuronal pools serving two-joint muscles (e.g., PBSt and RF). These findings provide important insights into the organization of the spinal CPG in mammals, the motoneuronal and muscle synergies engaged during locomotion, and their afferent control. PMID:22190626

  12. Patterned control of human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-05-15

    There is much experimental evidence for the existence of biomechanical constraints which simplify the problem of control of multi-segment movements. In addition, it has been hypothesized that movements are controlled using a small set of basic temporal components or activation patterns, shared by several different muscles and reflecting global kinematic and kinetic goals. Here we review recent studies on human locomotion showing that muscle activity is accounted for by a combination of few basic patterns, each one timed at a different phase of the gait cycle. Similar patterns are involved in walking and running at different speeds, walking forwards or backwards, and walking under different loading conditions. The corresponding weights of distribution to different muscles may change as a function of the condition, allowing highly flexible control. Biomechanical correlates of each activation pattern have been described, leading to the hypothesis that the co-ordination of limb and body segments arises from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle activations need only intervene during limited time epochs to force intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. PMID:22411012

  13. Locomotion in a turbulent world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.

    2014-11-01

    When organisms swim or crawl in aquatic habitats, the water through which they travel is usually moving. Therefore, an important part of understanding how aquatic organisms locomote is determining how they interact with the fluctuating turbulent water currents through which they move. The research systems we have been using to address this question are microscopic marine animals swimming in turbulent, wavy water flow or crawling on surfaces in spatially-complex habitats exposed to such flow. Using a combination of field studies, wave-flume experiments, experiments in fluidic devices, and mathematical modeling, we have discovered that small organisms swimming or crawling in turbulent flow are not subjected to steady velocities. The shears, accelerations, and odor concentrations encountered by small swimmers and crawlers fluctuate rapidly, with peaks much higher than mean values. Although microscopic organisms swim slowly relative to ambient water flow, their locomotory behavior in response to the rapidly-fluctuating shears and odors they encounter can affect where they are transported by ambient water movement. Furthermore, the ability of small organisms to walk on surfaces without being dislodged by pulses of rapid flow constrains the microhabitats in which they can forage. Supported by NSF Grant #IOS-0842685.

  14. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  15. Bipedal locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, Mark; Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel

    Bipedal walking, locomotion characterized by alternating swing and double support phase, is well studied on ground where feet do not penetrate the substrate. On granular media like sand however, intrusion and extrusion phases also occur. In these phases, relative motion of the two feet requires that one or both feet slip through the material, degrading performance. To study walking in these phases, we designed and studied a planarized bipedal robot (1.6 kg, 42 cm) that walked in a fluidized bed of poppy seeds. We also simulated the robot in a multibody software environment (Chrono) using granular resistive force theory (RFT) to calculate foot forces. In experiment and simulation, the robot experienced slip during the intrusion phase, with the experiment presenting additional slip due to motor control error during the double support phase. This exaggerated slip gave insight (through analysis of ground reaction forces in simulation) into how slip occurs when relative motion exists between the two feet in the granular media, where the foot with higher relative drag forces (from its instantaneous orientation, rotation, relative direction of motion, and depth) remains stationary. With this relationship, we generated walking gaits for the robot to walk with minimal slip.

  16. Multi-limbed locomotion systems for space construction and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, K. J.; Klein, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    A well developed technology of coordination of multi-limbed locomotory systems is now available. Results from a NASA sponsored study of several years ago are presented. This was a simulation study of a three-limbed locomotion/manipulation system. Each limb had six degrees of freedom and could be used either as a locomotory grasping hand-holds, or as a manipulator. The focus of the study was kinematic coordination algorithms. The presentation will also include very recent results from the Adaptive Suspension Vehicle Project. The Adaptive Suspension Vehicle (ASV) is a legged locomotion system designed for terrestrial use which is capable of operating in completely unstructured terrain in either a teleoperated or operator-on-board mode. Future development may include autonomous operation. The ASV features a very advanced coordination and control system which could readily be adapted to operation in space. An inertial package with a vertical gyro, and rate gyros and accelerometers on three orthogonal axes provides body position information at high bandwidth. This is compared to the operator's commands, injected via a joystick to provide a commanded force system on the vehicle's body. This system is, in turn, decomposed by a coordination algorithm into force commands to those legs which are in contact with the ground.

  17. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were established to protect the public health or welfare from the dangers of air pollution.” (2) A statement that... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES...

  18. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were established to protect the public health or welfare from the dangers of air pollution.” (2) A statement that... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES...

  19. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were established to protect the public health or welfare from the dangers of air pollution.” (2) A statement that... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES...

  20. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be: (i) Equivalent to a 1/2-inch steel plate with a yield strength of 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch—material of a higher yield strength may be used to decrease the required thickness of the material provided at least an equivalent level of strength...

  1. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be: (i) Equivalent to a 1/2-inch steel plate with a yield strength of 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch—material of a higher yield strength may be used to decrease the required thickness of the material provided at least an equivalent level of strength...

  2. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be: (i) Equivalent to a 1/2-inch steel plate with a yield strength of 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch—material of a higher yield strength may be used to decrease the required thickness of the material provided at least an equivalent level of strength...

  3. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives. 238.209 Section 238.209 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements...

  4. Relationship between osteology and aquatic locomotion in birds: determining modes of locomotion in extinct Ornithurae.

    PubMed

    Hinić-Frlog, S; Motani, R

    2010-02-01

    The evolutionary history of aquatic invasion in birds would be incomplete without incorporation of extinct species. We show that aquatic affinities in fossil birds can be inferred by multivariate analysis of skeletal features and locomotion of 245 species of extant birds. Regularized discriminant analyses revealed that measurements of appendicular skeletons successfully separated diving birds from surface swimmers and flyers, while also discriminating among different underwater modes of swimming. The high accuracy of this method allows detection of skeletal characteristics that are indicative of aquatic locomotion and inference of such locomotion in bird species with insufficient behavioural information. Statistical predictions based on the analyses confirm qualitative assessments for both foot-propelled (Hesperornithiformes) and wing-propelled (Copepteryx) underwater locomotion in fossil birds. This is the first quantitative inference of underwater modes of swimming in fossil birds, enabling future studies of locomotion in extinct birds and evolutionary transitions among locomotor modes in avian lineage. PMID:20021550

  5. Limb and Trunk Mechanisms for Balance Control during Locomotion in Quadrupeds

    PubMed Central

    Musienko, Pavel E.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.; Gerasimenko, Yury P.; Orlovsky, Grigori N.

    2014-01-01

    In quadrupeds, the most critical aspect of postural control during locomotion is lateral stability. However, neural mechanisms underlying lateral stability are poorly understood. Here, we studied lateral stability in decerebrate cats walking on a treadmill with their hindlimbs. Two destabilizing factors were used: a brief lateral push of the cat and a sustained lateral tilt of the treadmill. It was found that the push caused considerable trunk bending and twisting, as well as changes in the stepping pattern, but did not lead to falling. Due to postural reactions, locomotion with normal body configuration was restored in a few steps. It was also found that the decerebrate cat could keep balance during locomotion on the laterally tilted treadmill. This postural adaptation was based on the transformation of the symmetrical locomotor pattern into an asymmetrical one, with different functional lengths of the right and left limbs. Then, we analyzed limb and trunk neural mechanisms contributing to postural control during locomotion. It was found that one of the limb mechanisms operates in the transfer phase and secures a standard (relative to the trunk) position for limb landing. Two other limb mechanisms operate in the stance phase; they counteract distortions of the locomotor pattern by regulating the limb stiffness. The trunk configuration mechanism controls the body shape on the basis of sensory information coming from trunk afferents. We suggest that postural reactions generated by these four mechanisms are integrated, thus forming a response of the whole system to perturbation of balance during locomotion. PMID:24741060

  6. Locomotive micro-implant with active electromagnetic propulsion.

    PubMed

    Pivonka, Daniel; Poon, Ada S Y; Meng, Teresa H

    2009-01-01

    An active locomotive technique requiring only an external power source and a static magnetic field is presented, and its operation is analyzed and simulated. For a modest static MRI magnetic field of 1 T, the results show that a 1-mm cube achieves roughly 3 cm/sec of lateral motion using less than 20.4 microW of power. Current-carrying wires generate the forces, resulting in highly controllable motion. Existing solutions trade off size and power: passive solutions are small but impractical, and mechanical solutions are inefficient and large. The presented solution captures the advantages of both systems, and has much better scalability. PMID:19964695

  7. Evolution of neural controllers for salamanderlike locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijspeert, Auke J.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents an experiment in which evolutionary algorithms are used for the development of neural controllers for salamander locomotion. The aim of the experiment is to investigate which kind of neural circuitry can produce the typical swimming and trotting gaits of the salamander, and to develop a synthetic approach to neurobiology by using genetic algorithms as design tool. A 2D bio-mechanical simulation of the salamander's body is developed whose muscle contraction is determined by the locomotion controller simulated as continuous-time neural networks. While the connectivity of the neural circuitry underlying locomotion in the salamander has not been decoded for the moment, the general organization of the designed neural circuits corresponds to that hypothesized by neurobiologist for the real animal. In particular, the locomotion controllers are based on a body central pattern generator (CPG) corresponding to a lamprey-like swimming controller as developed by Ekeberg, and are extended with a limb CPG for controlling the salamander's body. A genetic algorithm is used to instantiate synaptic weights of the connections within the limb CPG and from the limb CPG to the body CPG given a high level description of the desired gaits. A set of biologically plausible controllers are thus developed which can produce a neural activity and locomotion gaits very similar to those observed in the real salamander. By simply varying the external excitation applied to the network, the speed, direction and type of gait can be varied.

  8. Passive appendages aid locomotion through symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Shervin; Lacis, Ugis; Mazzino, Andrea; Kellay, Hamid; Brosse, Nicolas; Lundell, Fredrik; Ingremeau, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs, fins, and other types of appendages to aid locomotion. Despite their enormous variation, passive appendages may contribute to locomotion by exploiting the same physical mechanism. We present a new mechanism that applies to body appendages surrounded by a separated flow, which often develops behind moving bodies larger than a few millimeters. We use theory, experiments, and numerical simulations to show that bodies with protrusions turn and drift by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in flowing fluid is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming fluid flow direction. The discovery suggests a new mechanism of locomotion that may be relevant for certain organisms; for example, how plumed seeds may drift without wind and how motile animals may passively reorient themselves.

  9. Locomotion gaits of a rotating cylinder pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rees, Wim M.; Novati, Guido; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-11-01

    Using 2D numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we demonstrate that a simple pair of rotating cylinders can display a range of locomotion patterns of biological and engineering interest. Steadily counter-rotating the cylinders causes the pair to move akin to a vortex dipole for low rotation rates, but as the rotational velocity is increased the direction of motion reverses. Unsteady rotations lead to different locomotion gaits that resemble jellyfish (for in-phase rotations) and undulating swimmers (for out-of-phase rotations). The small number of parameters for this simple system allows us to systematically map the phase space of these gaits, and allows us to understand the underlying physical mechanisms using a minimal model with implications for biological locomotion and engineered analogs.

  10. 8. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  11. 5. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  12. 6. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  13. 4. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  14. 7. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  15. 9. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  16. 7. Detail of the Grant Locomotive Works Erecting Shop looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of the Grant Locomotive Works Erecting Shop looking southwest showing ruined wall and entrance of a single story addition. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  17. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under this part shall supply to the Administrator, upon his/her request, a reasonable number of... locomotives or locomotive engines that may be supplied to the Administrator is five per model year....

  18. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under this part shall supply to the Administrator, upon his/her request, a reasonable number of... locomotives or locomotive engines that may be supplied to the Administrator is five per model year....

  19. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under this part shall supply to the Administrator, upon his/her request, a reasonable number of... locomotives or locomotive engines that may be supplied to the Administrator is five per model year....

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  1. 2. CLOSE IN AERIAL VIEW OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CLOSE IN AERIAL VIEW OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  2. Locomotion of Paramecium in patterned environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun-Jik; Eddins, Aja; Kim, Junil; Yang, Sung; Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2011-10-01

    Ciliary organisms like Paramecium Multimicronucleatum locomote by synchronized beating of cilia that produce metachronal waves over their body. In their natural environments they navigate through a variety of environments especially surfaces with different topology. We study the effects of wavy surfaces patterned on the PDMS channels on the locomotive abilities of Paramecium by characterizing different quantities like velocity amplitude and wavelength of the trajectories traced. We compare this result with the swimming characteristics in straight channels and draw conclusions about the effects of various patterned surfaces.

  3. Large and limbless: the locomotion of snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David

    2008-03-01

    In efforts to understand snake locomotion, we consider one of their various gaits. By contracting and extending their bodies unidirectionally like a slinky, large snakes propel themselves in a straight line. In a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we here report on the dynamics of a boa constrictor alongside the analysis of an n-linked extensible crawler model. Constraints on their locomotion are quantified and discussed, such as the elasticity, frictional anisotropy and abrasive wear of their skin. Also presented are certain snake behaviors that culminate in their tying themselves into knots.

  4. CSF-contacting neurons regulate locomotion by relaying mechanical stimuli to spinal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Urs Lucas; Prendergast, Andrew; Djenoune, Lydia; Nunes Figueiredo, Sophie; Gomez, Johanna; Stokes, Caleb; Kaiser, Sonya; Suster, Maximilliano; Kawakami, Koichi; Charpentier, Marine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Rio, Jean-Paul; Del Bene, Filippo; Wyart, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Throughout vertebrates, cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) are ciliated cells surrounding the central canal in the ventral spinal cord. Their contribution to modulate locomotion remains undetermined. Recently, we have shown CSF-cNs modulate locomotion by directly projecting onto the locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs), but the sensory modality these cells convey to spinal circuits and their relevance to innate locomotion remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate in vivo that CSF-cNs form an intraspinal mechanosensory organ that detects spinal bending. By performing calcium imaging in moving animals, we show that CSF-cNs respond to both passive and active bending of the spinal cord. In mutants for the channel Pkd2l1, CSF-cNs lose their response to bending and animals show a selective reduction of tail beat frequency, confirming the central role of this feedback loop for optimizing locomotion. Altogether, our study reveals that CSF-cNs constitute a mechanosensory organ operating during locomotion to modulate spinal CPGs. PMID:26946992

  5. Testosterone attenuates and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Boerrigter, Danny; Allen, Katherine; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Karl, Tim; Djunaidi, Vanezha; Double, Kay L; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Although sex steroids are known to modulate brain dopamine, it is still unclear how testosterone modifies locomotor behaviour controlled, at least in part, by striatal dopamine in adolescent males. Our previous work suggests that increasing testosterone during adolescence may bias midbrain neurons to synthesise more dopamine. We hypothesised that baseline and amphetamine-induced locomotion would differ in adult males depending on testosterone exposure during adolescence. We hypothesised that concomitant stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling, through a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), raloxifene, can counter testosterone effects on locomotion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day 45 were gonadectomised (G) or sham-operated (S) prior to the typical adolescent testosterone increase. Gonadectomised rats were either given testosterone replacement (T) or blank implants (B) for six weeks and sham-operated (i.e. intact or endogenous testosterone group) were given blank implants. Subgroups of sham-operated, gonadectomised and gonadectomised/testosterone-replaced rats were treated with raloxifene (R, 5mg/kg) or vehicle (V), daily for the final four weeks. There were six groups (SBV, GBV, GTV, SBR, GBR, GTR). Saline and amphetamine-induced (1.25mg/kg) locomotion in the open field was measured at PND85. Gonadectomy increased amphetamine-induced locomotion compared to rats with endogenous or with exogenous testosterone. Raloxifene increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in rats with either endogenous or exogenous testosterone. Amphetamine-induced locomotion was negatively correlated with testosterone and this relationship was abolished by raloxifene. Lack of testosterone during adolescence potentiates and testosterone exposure during adolescence attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion. Treatment with raloxifene appears to potentiate amphetamine-induced locomotion and to have an opposite effect to that of testosterone in male rats. PMID:25747465

  6. Locomotion via paralyzed leg muscles: feasibility study for a leg-propelled vehicle.

    PubMed

    Glaser, R M; Gruner, J A; Feinberg, S D; Collins, S R

    1983-07-01

    Functional electrical stimulation has been used to restore some degree of controllable movement to paralyzed muscle. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using electrically stimulated paralyzed leg muscles to propel a wheelchair-type vehicle. For this, a conventional manual wheelchair was modified by the addition of a drive system which permits forward propulsion by reciprocating movements of the legs. A battery-powered electrical stimulator using surface electrodes over the quadriceps muscles controls locomotive characteristics. This vehicle has been successfully operated by paraplegic and quadriplegic test subjects. Advantages of using paralyzed leg muscles for locomotion may include improvement in locomotive capability, circulation in the lower extremities, cardiovascular and respiratory fitness, strength and size of the exercised muscles and bones, and self-image. PMID:6101225

  7. [Changes in the parameters of locomotion following partial extirpation of the motor cortex in white rats].

    PubMed

    Lenkov, D N; Vereshchak, N I

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative locomotion changes have been studied in the norm and in different periods after local ablation of motor projection of hind paw in the right hemisphere of 5-16 weeks white rats. The length and width of step gradually increase with the age, and coefficients of gait asymmetry reflecting individual characteristics, are relatively stable in intact animals. Local decortication is accompanied by significant shifts of all locomotion parameters clearly expressed in the first days after ablation. The most sensitive characteristic of gait anomaly is the standard deviation of half-step. In 5 weeks after ablation a lag is observed of operated rats behind the control ones in all parameters. Load application contributes to revealing of locomotion parameters shifts from the norm in later periods after decortication. In 9 and 11 weeks after surgery, the signs of supercompensation are observed in a number of parameters. PMID:2735116

  8. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  9. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  10. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  11. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  12. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  13. 49 CFR 229.141 - Body structure, MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Body structure, MU locomotives. 229.141 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.141 Body structure, MU locomotives. (a) MU locomotives built new after April 1... body structure designed to meet or exceed the following minimum specifications: (1) The body...

  14. 49 CFR 229.141 - Body structure, MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Body structure, MU locomotives. 229.141 Section 229.141 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.141 Body...

  15. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  16. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  17. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  18. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  19. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  20. 49 CFR 229.141 - Body structure, MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Body structure, MU locomotives. 229.141 Section... Design Requirements § 229.141 Body structure, MU locomotives. (a) MU locomotives built new after April 1... body structure designed to meet or exceed the following minimum specifications: (1) The body...

  1. Relation between observed locomotion traits and locomotion score in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schlageter-Tello, Andrés; Bokkers, Eddie A M; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Van Hertem, Tom; Viazzi, Stefano; Romanini, Carlos E B; Halachmi, Ilan; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniël; Lokhorst, Kees

    2015-12-01

    Lameness is still an important problem in modern dairy farming. Human observation of locomotion, by looking at different traits in one go, is used in practice to assess locomotion. The objectives of this article were to determine which individual locomotion traits are most related to locomotion scores in dairy cows, and whether experienced raters are capable of scoring these individual traits consistently. Locomotion and 5 individual locomotion traits (arched back, asymmetric gait, head bobbing, reluctance to bear weight, and tracking up) were scored independently on a 5-level scale for 58 videos of different cows. Videos were shown to 10 experienced raters in 2 different scoring sessions. Relations between locomotion score and traits were estimated by 3 logistic regression models aiming to calculate the size of the fixed effects on the probability of scoring a cow in 1 of the 5 levels of the scale (model 1) and the probability of classifying a cow as lame (locomotion score ≥3; model 2) or as severely lame (locomotion score ≥4; model 3). Fixed effects were rater, session, traits, and interactions among fixed effects. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the relative probability to classify a cow as lame when an altered (trait score ≥3) or severely altered trait (trait score ≥4) was present. Overall intrarater and interrater reliability and agreement were calculated as weighted kappa coefficient (κw) and percentage of agreement, respectively. Specific intrarater and interrater agreement for individual levels within a 5-level scale were calculated. All traits were significantly related to the locomotion score when scored with a 5-level scale and when classified as (severely) lame or nonlame. Odds ratios for altered and severely altered traits were 10.8 and 14.5 for reluctance to bear weight, 6.5 and 7.2 for asymmetric gait, and 4.8 and 3.2 for arched back, respectively. Raters showed substantial variation in reliability and agreement values when scoring

  2. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  3. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  4. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  5. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  6. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 61672-1 (2002-05) for a Class 2 instrument. (2) An acoustic calibrator... with the acoustic calibrator immediately before and after compliance tests. Any change in the...

  7. Learning in the Development of Infant Locomotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined how infants acquire adaptive locomotion in the novel task of going up and down slopes. Found that infants' judgments became increasingly accurate and exploration became increasingly efficient, with no transfer over the transition from crawling to walking. Infants learned to gauge their abilities on-line as they encountered each hill at…

  8. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... ambient air temperature is between 32 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit inclusively; relative humidity is.... The observer shall not stand between the microphone and the horn. (8) Background noise shall...

  9. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... ambient air temperature is between 32 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit inclusively; relative humidity is.... The observer shall not stand between the microphone and the horn. (8) Background noise shall...

  10. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... ambient air temperature is between 32 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit inclusively; relative humidity is.... The observer shall not stand between the microphone and the horn. (8) Background noise shall...

  11. 77 FR 23159 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... rule related to locomotive safety standards. See 77 FR 21312. The final rule established a public... safety standards and comments on such petitions. That final rule mistakenly lists FR-2009- 0095... is FRA-2009-0094. The final rule issued on April 9, 2012, incorrectly identified docket number...

  12. Interactions between locomotion and ventilation in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Dona F

    2002-10-01

    Interactions between locomotion and ventilation have now been studied in several species of reptiles, birds and mammals, from a variety of perspectives. Among these perspectives are neural interactions of separate but linked central controllers; mechanical impacts of locomotion upon ventilatory pressures and flows; and the extent to which the latter may affect gas exchange and the energetics of exercise. A synchrony, i.e. 1:1 pattern of coordination, is observed in many running mammals once they achieve galloping speeds, as well as in flying bats, some flying birds and hopping marsupials. Other, non-1:1, patterns of coordination are seen in trotting and walking quadrupeds, as well as running bipedal humans and running and flying birds. There is evidence for an energetic advantage to coordination of locomotor and respiratory cycles for flying birds and running mammals. There is evidence for a mechanical constraint upon ventilation by locomotion for some reptiles (e.g. iguana), but not for others (e.g. varanids and crocodilians). In diving birds the impact of wing flapping or foot paddling on differential air sac pressures enhances gas exchange during the breath hold by improving diffusive and convective movement of air sac oxygen to parabronchi. This paper will review the current state of our knowledge of such influences of locomotion upon respiratory system function. PMID:12208300

  13. Lizard locomotion in heterogeneous granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Locomotion strategies in heterogeneous granular environments (common substrates in deserts), are relatively unexplored. The zebra-tailed lizard (C. draconoides) is a useful model organism for such studies owing to its exceptional ability to navigate a variety of desert habitats at impressive speed (up to 50 body-lengths per second) using both quadrapedal and bidepal gaits. In laboratory experiments, we challenge the lizards to run across a field of boulders (2.54 cm diameter glass spheres or 3.8 cm 3D printed spheres) placed in a lattice pattern and embedded in a loosely packed granular medium of 0.3 mm diameter glass particles. Locomotion kinematics of the lizard are recorded using high speed cameras, with and without the scatterers. The data reveals that unlike the lizard's typical quadrupedal locomotion using a diagonal gait, when scatterers are present the lizard is most successful when using a bipedal gait, with a raised center of mass (CoM). We propose that the kinematics of bipedal running in conjunction with the lizard's long toes and compliant hind foot are the keys to this lizard's successful locomotion in the presence of such obstacles. NSF PoLS

  14. Judgments of Path, Not Heading, Guide Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2006-01-01

    To steer a course through the world, people are almost entirely dependent on visual information, of which a key component is optic flow. In many models of locomotion, heading is described as the fundamental control variable; however, it has also been shown that fixating points along or near one's future path could be the basis of an efficient…

  15. Passive mechanics in jellyfish-like locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Megan; Eldredge, Jeff

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to identify possible benefits of passive flexibility in biologically-inspired locomotion. Substantial energy savings are likely achieved in natural locomotion by allowing a mix of actively controlled and passively responsive deformation. The jellyfish is a useful target of study, due to its relatively simple structure and the availability of recent kinematics and flow-field measurements. In this investigation, the jellyfish consists of a two-dimensional articulated system of rigid bodies linked by hinges. The kinematics -- expressed via the hinge angles -- are adapted from experimentally measured motion. The free swimming system is explored via high-fidelity numerical simulation with a viscous vortex particle method with coupled body dynamics. The computational tool allows the arbitrary designation of individual hinges as ``active'' or ``passive,'' to introduce a mix of flexibility into the system. In some cases, replacing an active hinge with a passive spring can enhance the mean swimming speed, thus reducing the power requirements of the system. Varying the stiffness and damping coefficients of the spring yield different locomotive results. The numerical solution is used to compute the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) throughout the field. The FTLE fields reveal manifolds in the flow that act as transport barriers, uncovering otherwise unseen geometric characteristics of the flow field that add new insight into the locomotion mechanics.

  16. Energetics and mechanics for partial gravity locomotion.

    PubMed

    Newman, D J; Alexander, H L; Webbon, B W

    1994-09-01

    The role of gravitational acceleration on human locomotion is not clearly understood. It is hypothesized that the mechanics and energetics of locomotion depend upon the prevailing gravity level. A unique human-rated underwater treadmill and an adjustable ballasting harness were used to stimulate partial gravity environments. This study has two research aspects, biomechanics and energetics. Vertical forces which are exerted by subjects on the treadmill-mounted, split-plate force platform show that peak vertical force and stride frequency significantly decrease (p < 0.05) as the gravity level is reduced, while ground contact time is independent of gravity level. A loping gait is employed over a wide range of speeds (approximately 1.5 m/s to approximately 2.3 m/s) suggesting a change in the mechanics for lunar (1/6 G) and Martian (3/8 G) locomotion. As theory predicts, locomotion energy requirements for partial gravity levels are significantly less than at 1 G (p < 0.05). PMID:7818450

  17. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  2. Evidence for Motor Simulation in Imagined Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Benjamin R.; Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Thompson, William B.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments examined the role of the motor system in imagined movement, finding a strong relationship between imagined walking performance and the biomechanical information available during actual walking. Experiments 1 through 4 established the finding that real and imagined locomotion differ in absolute walking time. We then tested…

  3. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards. (a) General. The following procedures govern... approval of a locomotive crashworthiness design standard must be titled “Petition for FRA Approval of a New... petition for approval of a substantive change to an FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and...

  5. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards... Design Requirements § 229.207 New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA... consideration and action upon requests for FRA approval of new locomotive crashworthiness design standards...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and...

  7. Intelligent mobility research for robotic locomotion in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentini, Michael; Beckman, Blake; Digney, Bruce; Vincent, Isabelle; Ricard, Benoit

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section of Defence R&D Canada - Suffield is best described by its mission statement, which is "to augment soldiers and combat systems by developing and demonstrating practical, cost effective, autonomous intelligent systems capable of completing military missions in complex operating environments." The mobility requirement for ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings must increase significantly if robotic technology is to augment human efforts in these roles and environments. The intelligence required for autonomous systems to operate in complex environments demands advances in many fields of robotics. This has resulted in large bodies of research in areas of perception, world representation, and navigation, but the problem of locomotion in complex terrain has largely been ignored. In order to achieve its objective, the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section is pursuing research that explores the use of intelligent mobility algorithms designed to improve robot mobility. Intelligent mobility uses sensing, control, and learning algorithms to extract measured variables from the world, control vehicle dynamics, and learn by experience. These algorithms seek to exploit available world representations of the environment and the inherent dexterity of the robot to allow the vehicle to interact with its surroundings and produce locomotion in complex terrain. The primary focus of the paper is to present the intelligent mobility research within the framework of the research methodology, plan and direction defined at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield. It discusses the progress and future direction of intelligent mobility research and presents the research tools, topics, and plans to address this critical research gap. This research will create effective intelligence to improve the mobility of ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings to assist the Canadian Forces in their future urban operations.

  8. Fuel-free locomotion of Janus motors: magnetically induced thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Baraban, Larysa; Streubel, Robert; Makarov, Denys; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy; Schmidt, Oliver G; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2013-02-26

    We present fuel-free locomotion of magnetic spherical Janus motors driven by magnetically induced thermophoresis--a self-diffusive propulsion of an object in any liquid media due to a local temperature gradient. Within this approach an ac magnetic field is applied to induce thermophoretic motion of the objects via heating a magnetic cap of the particles, while an additional dc magnetic field is used to orient Janus motors and guide their motion on a long time scale. Full control over the motion is achieved due to specific properties of ultrathin 100-nm-thick Permalloy (Py, Fe₁₉Ni₈₁ alloys) magnetic films resulting in a topologically stable magnetic vortex state in the cap structure of Janus motors. Realized here magnetically induced thermophoretic locomotion does not require catalytic chemical reactions that imply toxic reagents. In this respect, we addressed and successfully solved one of the main shortcomings in the field of artificial motors, namely being fully controlled and remain biocompatible. Therefore, our approach is attractive for biotechnological in vitro assays and even in vivo operations, since the functioning of Janus motors offers low toxicity; it is not dependent on the presence of the fuel molecules in solution. Furthermore, the suggested magnetic ac excitation is superior compared to the previously proposed optically induced heating using lasers as it does not require transparent packaging. PMID:23268780

  9. Locomotion and drag in wet and dry granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel; Kuckuk, Robyn; Sharpe, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Many animals move within substrates such as soil and dry sand; the resistive properties of such granular materials (GM) can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the relevant physics of drag and penetration. We developed a system to create homogeneous wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus) a desert-generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (~ 30 seconds) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics (and ``slip'') were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ~ 3 × more resistive than dry GM, suggesting that during burial the lizard operated near its maximum force producing capability and was thus constrained by environmental properties. work supported by NSF PoLS.

  10. The human vestibulo-ocular reflex during linear locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, S. T.; Hirasaki, E.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During locomotion, there is a translation and compensatory rotation of the head in both the vertical and horizontal planes. During moderate to fast walking (100 m/min), vertical head translation occurs at the frequency of stepping (2 Hz) and generates peak linear acceleration of 0.37 g. Lateral head translation occurs at the stride frequency (1 Hz) and generates peak linear acceleration of 0.1 g. Peak head pitch and yaw angular velocities are approximately 17 degrees/s. The frequency and magnitude of these head movements are within the operational range of both the linear and angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (IVOR and aVOR). Vertical eye movements undergo a phase reversal from near to far targets. When viewing a far (>1 m) target, vertical eye velocity is typical of an aVOR response; that is, it is compensatory for head pitch. At close viewing distances (<1 m), vertical eye velocity is in phase with head pitch and is compensatory for vertical head translation, suggesting that the IVOR predominantly generates the eye movement response. Horizontal head movements during locomotion occur at the stride frequency of 1 Hz, where the IVOR gain is low. Horizontal eye movements are compensatory for head yaw at all viewing distances and are likely generated by the aVOR.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1417 - Operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1417 Operation...) Swinging locomotive cranes. A locomotive crane must not be swung into a position where railway cars on an... applies to equipment other than tower cranes: (i) Equipment must not be operated without the...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1417 - Operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1417 Operation...) Swinging locomotive cranes. A locomotive crane must not be swung into a position where railway cars on an... applies to equipment other than tower cranes: (i) Equipment must not be operated without the...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1417 - Operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1417 Operation...) Swinging locomotive cranes. A locomotive crane must not be swung into a position where railway cars on an... applies to equipment other than tower cranes: (i) Equipment must not be operated without the...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1417 - Operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1417 Operation...) Swinging locomotive cranes. A locomotive crane must not be swung into a position where railway cars on an... applies to equipment other than tower cranes: (i) Equipment must not be operated without the...

  15. Locomotion of chemically powered autonomous nanowire motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Longqiu; Li, Tianlong; Zhang, Guangyu; Sun, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Physical insights on the hydrodynamics and locomotion of self-propelled nanowire motor under nonequilibrium steady state are investigated using finite element method in accordance with hybrid molecular dynamics/multiparticle collision dynamics and rigid body dynamics. Nanowire motor is discretized into finite segments, and forces of solvent molecule acting on the motor are assumed to be the sum of forces acting on all segments of the motor. We show that the locomotion of nanowire motor is mainly determined by the imbalance forces acting on the catalytic and noncatalytic segments. The average velocity along the axis increases significantly as a function of time prior to reaching equilibrium. The length of nanowire motor shows negligible effect on the velocity of the motor. Preliminary experimental results are provided to validate the current model.

  16. Intermittent locomotion as an optimal control strategy

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, P.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Birds, fish and other animals routinely use unsteady effects to save energy by alternating between phases of active propulsion and passive coasting. Here, we construct a minimal model for such behaviour that can be couched as an optimal control problem via an analogy to travelling with a rechargeable battery. An analytical solution of the optimal control problem proves that intermittent locomotion has lower energy requirements relative to steady-state strategies. Additional realistic hypotheses, such as the assumption that metabolic cost at a given power should be minimal (the fixed gear hypothesis), a nonlinear dependence of the energy storage rate on propulsion and/or a preferred average speed, allow us to generalize the model and demonstrate the flexibility of intermittent locomotion with implications for biological and artificial systems. PMID:24711718

  17. Kinematic adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Goldner, B; Fuchs, A; Nolte, I; Schilling, N

    2015-05-01

    Limb amputation often represents the only treatment option for canine patients with certain diseases or injuries of the appendicular system. Previous studies have investigated adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs but there is a lack of understanding of biomechanical compensatory mechanisms. This study evaluated the kinematic differences between quadrupedal and tripedal locomotion in nine healthy dogs running on a treadmill. The loss of the right pelvic limb was simulated using an Ehmer sling. Kinematic gait analysis included spatio-temporal comparisons of limb, joint and segment angles of the remaining pelvic and both thoracic limbs. The following key parameters were compared between quadrupedal and tripedal conditions: angles at touch-down and lift-off, minimum and maximum joint angles, plus range of motion. Significant differences in angular excursion were identified in several joints of each limb during both stance and swing phases. The most pronounced differences concerned the remaining pelvic limb, followed by the contralateral thoracic limb and, to a lesser degree, the ipsilateral thoracic limb. The thoracic limbs were, in general, more retracted, consistent with pelvic limb unloading and previous observations of bodyweight re-distribution in amputees. Proximal limb segments showed more distinct changes than distal ones. Particularly, the persistently greater anteversion of the pelvis probably affects the axial system. Overall, tripedal locomotion requires concerted kinematic adjustments of both the appendicular and axial systems, and consequently preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative care of canine amputees should involve the whole musculoskeletal apparatus. PMID:25862392

  18. Disparity and convergence in bipedal archosaur locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Bates, K. T.; Schachner, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate functional disparity in the locomotor apparatus of bipedal archosaurs. We use reconstructions of hindlimb myology of extant and extinct archosaurs to generate musculoskeletal biomechanical models to test hypothesized convergence between bipedal crocodile-line archosaurs and dinosaurs. Quantitative comparison of muscle leverage supports the inference that bipedal crocodile-line archosaurs and non-avian theropods had highly convergent hindlimb myology, suggesting similar muscular mechanics and neuromuscular control of locomotion. While these groups independently evolved similar musculoskeletal solutions to the challenges of parasagittally erect bipedalism, differences also clearly exist, particularly the distinct hip and crurotarsal ankle morphology characteristic of many pseudosuchian archosaurs. Furthermore, comparative analyses of muscle design in extant archosaurs reveal that muscular parameters such as size and architecture are more highly adapted or optimized for habitual locomotion than moment arms. The importance of these aspects of muscle design, which are not directly retrievable from fossils, warns against over-extrapolating the functional significance of anatomical convergences. Nevertheless, links identified between posture, muscle moments and neural control in archosaur locomotion suggest that functional interpretations of osteological changes in limb anatomy traditionally linked to postural evolution in Late Triassic archosaurs could be constrained through musculoskeletal modelling. PMID:22112652

  19. Stepper motor drive for on load tapchanger in electric locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Aruna Kumar, G.V.D.; Kumar, S.; Mishra, P.; Wadhonkar, N.K.

    1995-12-31

    Indian Railways have a fleet of 2,200 electrical locomotives running on 25 KV ac traction. An on-load tap changer is used to select voltage for speed control of dc traction motor. A four stroke reciprocating type air motor is used presently to drive the tap changer (GR). Complex gear and camshaft mechanism is used to move tap changer and to generate various logic signals for safe loco operation. The annual failure rate for tap changer and its drive is of the order of 20%. A microprocessor controlled stepper motor drive has been designed and constructed to drive the on-load tap changer. A current controlled chopper is used to drive the motor and control logic has been generated through an optimum hardware and software combination. The assembly has been tested on a prototype tap changer in the laboratory.

  20. 49 CFR 240.129 - Criteria for monitoring operational performance of certified engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... railroad operates with a signal system that must comply with part 236 of this chapter; (ii) Engineer... performance of those it has determined as qualified as a locomotive engineer in either train or locomotive... each engineer shall be monitored each calendar year by a Designated Supervisor of Locomotive...

  1. 49 CFR 240.129 - Criteria for monitoring operational performance of certified engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... railroad operates with a signal system that must comply with part 236 of this chapter; (ii) Engineer... performance of those it has determined as qualified as a locomotive engineer in either train or locomotive... each engineer shall be monitored each calendar year by a Designated Supervisor of Locomotive...

  2. A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Bohm, V.; Popp, J.

    2009-02-01

    With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.

  3. The Need for Speed in Rodent Locomotion Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Batka, Richard J.; Brown, Todd J.; Mcmillan, Kathryn P.; Meadows, Rena M.; Jones, Kathryn J.; Haulcomb, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion analysis is now widely used across many animal species to understand the motor defects in disease, functional recovery following neural injury, and the effectiveness of various treatments. More recently, rodent locomotion analysis has become an increasingly popular method in a diverse range of research. Speed is an inseparable aspect of locomotion that is still not fully understood, and its effects are often not properly incorporated while analyzing data. In this hybrid manuscript, we accomplish three things: (1) review the interaction between speed and locomotion variables in rodent studies, (2) comprehensively analyze the relationship between speed and 162 locomotion variables in a group of 16 wild-type mice using the CatWalk gait analysis system, and (3) develop and test a statistical method in which locomotion variables are analyzed and reported in the context of speed. Notable results include the following: (1) over 90% of variables, reported by CatWalk, were dependent on speed with an average R2 value of 0.624, (2) most variables were related to speed in a nonlinear manner, (3) current methods of controlling for speed are insufficient, and (4) the linear mixed model is an appropriate and effective statistical method for locomotion analyses that is inclusive of speed-dependent relationships. Given the pervasive dependency of locomotion variables on speed, we maintain that valid conclusions from locomotion analyses cannot be made unless they are analyzed and reported within the context of speed. PMID:24890845

  4. Industry review: Locomotive dynamic characterization test-analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Data are given relative to tests performed on locomotive components. Dynamic characteristics related to safety are described. Suspension systems, shock absorbers, data processing, bearings, and damping are discussed.

  5. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  6. Guiding locomotion in complex, dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Fajen, Brett R

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion in complex, dynamic environments is an integral part of many daily activities, including walking in crowded spaces, driving on busy roadways, and playing sports. Many of the tasks that humans perform in such environments involve interactions with moving objects-that is, they require people to coordinate their own movement with the movements of other objects. A widely adopted framework for research on the detection, avoidance, and interception of moving objects is the bearing angle model, according to which observers move so as to keep the bearing angle of the object constant for interception and varying for obstacle avoidance. The bearing angle model offers a simple, parsimonious account of visual control but has several significant limitations and does not easily scale up to more complex tasks. In this paper, I introduce an alternative account of how humans choose actions and guide locomotion in the presence of moving objects. I show how the new approach addresses the limitations of the bearing angle model and accounts for a variety of behaviors involving moving objects, including (1) choosing whether to pass in front of or behind a moving obstacle, (2) perceiving whether a gap between a pair of moving obstacles is passable, (3) avoiding a collision while passing through single or multiple lanes of traffic, (4) coordinating speed and direction of locomotion during interception, (5) simultaneously intercepting a moving target while avoiding a stationary or moving obstacle, and (6) knowing whether to abandon the chase of a moving target. I also summarize data from recent studies that support the new approach. PMID:23885238

  7. Optimal locomotion of mechanical rectifier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Justin T.

    Vehicles utilizing animal locomotion mechanisms may possess increased performance parameters and the ability to overcome more difficult terrain than conventional wheel or propeller driven vehicles. The essential mechanism underlying animal locomotion can be viewed as mechanical rectification that converts periodic body movements to thrust force through interactions with the environment. This dissertation defines a general class of mechanical rectifiers as multi-body systems equipped with such thrust generation mechanisms. A general model is developed from the Euler-Lagrange equation and simplified by assuming small body oscillations around a given nominal posture. The model reveals that the rectifying dynamics can be captured by a bilinear (but not linear) term of body shape variables. An optimal gait problem is formulated for the bilinear rectifier model as a minimization of a quadratic cost function over the set of periodic functions subject to a constraint on the average locomotion velocity. We prove that a globally optimal solution is given by a harmonic gait that can be found by generalized eigenvalue computation with a line search over cycle frequencies. We verify the solution method through case studies of a two dimensional chain of links for which snake-like undulations and jellyfish-like flapping gaits are found to be optimal, and obtain analytical insights into determinants of optimal gaits from a simple disk-mass rectifier system. Lastly, we develop a dynamic model for batoid swimming featuring a 6 degree-of-freedom main body (position and orientation), with independent wing deformation (described as the motion of many discrete points in the body-fixed coordinate frame), and calculate various gaits. Multiple wing shapes and optimality criteria are considered, such as the maximum thrust to deflection ratio or minimum input power, and the resulting gaits are compared.

  8. Hamiltonian mechanics and planar fishlike locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Scott; Xiong, Hailong; Burgoyne, Will

    2007-11-01

    A free deformable body interacting with a system of point vortices in the plane constitutes a Hamiltonian system. A free Joukowski foil with variable camber shedding point vortices in an ideal fluid according to a periodically applied Kutta condition provides a model for fishlike locomotion which bridges the gap between inviscid analytical models that sacrifice realism for tractability and viscous computational models inaccessible to tools from nonlinear control theory. We frame such a model in the context of Hamiltonian mechanics and describe its relevance both to the study of hydrodynamic interactions within schools of fish and to the realization of model-based control laws for biomimetic autonomous robotic vehicles.

  9. Biomedical perspectives on locomotion in null gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    A number of important features of various locomotor activities are discussed, and approaches to the study of these activities in the context of space flight are suggested. In particular, the magnitude of peak forces and the rates of change of force during terrestrial cycling, walking, and running are compared. It is shown that subtle changes in the conditions and techniques of locomotion can have a major influence on the biomechanical consequences to the skeleton. The various hypotheses that identify locomotor exercise as a countermeasure to bone demineralization during weightlessness deserve to be tested with some degree of biomechanical rigor. Various approaches for achieving such scrutiny are discussed.

  10. Delayed and lasting effects of deep brain stimulation on locomotion in Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuter, Anne; Modolo, Julien

    2009-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a variety of motor signs affecting gait, postural stability, and tremor. These symptoms can be improved when electrodes are implanted in deep brain structures and electrical stimulation is delivered chronically at high frequency (>100 Hz). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) onset or cessation affects PD signs with different latencies, and the long-term improvements of symptoms affecting the body axis and those affecting the limbs vary in duration. Interestingly, these effects have not been systematically analyzed and modeled. We compare these timing phenomena in relation to one axial (i.e., locomotion) and one distal (i.e., tremor) signs. We suggest that during DBS, these symptoms are improved by different network mechanisms operating at multiple time scales. Locomotion improvement may involve a delayed plastic reorganization, which takes hours to develop, whereas rest tremor is probably alleviated by an almost instantaneous desynchronization of neural activity in subcortical structures. Even if all PD patients develop both distal and axial symptoms sooner or later, current computational models of locomotion and rest tremor are separate. Furthermore, a few computational models of locomotion focus on PD and none exploring the effect of DBS was found in the literature. We, therefore, discuss a model of a neuronal network during DBS, general enough to explore the subcircuits controlling locomotion and rest tremor simultaneously. This model accounts for synchronization and plasticity, two mechanisms that are believed to underlie the two types of symptoms analyzed. We suggest that a hysteretic effect caused by DBS-induced plasticity and synchronization modulation contributes to the different therapeutic latencies observed. Such a comprehensive, generic computational model of DBS effects, incorporating these timing phenomena, should assist in developing a more efficient, faster, durable treatment of