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Sample records for locomotive technology roadmap

  1. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    Railroads are important to the U.S. economy. They transport freight efficiently, requiring less energy and emitting fewer pollutants than other modes of surface transportation. While the railroad industry has steadily improved its fuel efficiency--by 16% over the last decade--more can, and needs to, be done. The ability of locomotive manufacturers to conduct research into fuel efficiency and emissions reduction is limited by the small number of locomotives manufactured annually. Each year for the last five years, the two North American locomotive manufacturers--General Electric Transportation Systems and the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors--have together sold about 800 locomotives in the United States. With such a small number of units over which research costs can be spread, outside help is needed to investigate all possible ways to reduce fuel usage and emissions. Because fuel costs represent a significant portion of the total operating costs of a railroad, fuel efficiency has always been an important factor in the design of locomotives and in the operations of a railroad. However, fuel efficiency has recently become even more critical with the introduction of strict emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to be implemented in stages (Tiers 0, 1, and 2) between 2000 and 2005. Some of the technologies that could be employed to meet the emission standards may negatively affect fuel economy--by as much as 10-15% when emissions are reduced to Tier 1 levels. Lowering fuel economy by that magnitude would have a serious impact on the cost to the consumer of goods shipped by rail, on the competitiveness of the railroad industry, and on this country's dependence on foreign oil. Clearly, a joint government/industry R&D program is needed to help catalyze the development of advanced technologies that will substantially reduce locomotive engine emissions while also improving train system energy efficiency. DOE convened an industry

  2. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  3. Fundamentals of technology roadmapping

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.L.; Bray, O.H.

    1997-04-01

    Technology planning is important for many reasons. Globally, companies are facing many competitive problems. Technology roadmapping, a form of technology planning can help deal with this increasingly competitive environment. While it has been used by some companies and industries, the focus has always been on the technology roadmap as a product, not on the process. This report focuses on formalizing the process so that it can be more broadly and easily used. As a DOE national security laboratory with R&D as a major product, Sandia must do effective technology planning to identify and develop the technologies required to meet its national security mission. Once identified, technology enhancements or new technologies may be developed internally or collaboratively with external partners. For either approach, technology roadmapping, as described in this report, is an effective tool for technology planning and coordination, which fits within a broader set of planning activities. This report, the second in a series on technology roadmapping, develops and documents this technology roadmapping process, which can be used by Sandia, other national labs, universities, and industry. The main benefit of technology roadmapping is that it provides information to make better technology investment decisions by identifying critical technologies and technology gaps and identifying ways to leverage R&D investments. It can also be used as a marketing tool. Technology roadmapping is critical when the technology investment decision is not straight forward. This occurs when it is not clear which alternative to pursue, how quickly the technology is needed, or when there is a need to coordinate the development of multiple technologies. The technology roadmapping process consists of three phases - preliminary activity, development of the technology roadmap, and follow-up activity.

  4. Mirror Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Phil

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mirror Technology Roadmap identifies specific capabilities requiring significant advances in optical fabrication and testing to enable the next generation of large-aperture space telescopes for astronomy and Earth science missions ranging from x-ray to infrared.

  5. Building technology roadmaps

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-27

    DOE's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is facilitating an industry-led initiative to develop a series of technology roadmaps that identify key goals and strategies for different areas of the building and equipment industry. This roadmapping initiative is a fundamental component of the BTS strategic plan and will help to align government resources with the high-priority needs identified by industry.

  6. Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-01-01

    The Roadmap sets out the strategy for pursuing near-, mid-, and long-term goals set out by industry and for carrying out the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and industry. The Roadmap outlines key goals for products and markets, materials technology, manufacturing technology, environmental technology, human resources, and industry health programs. The Roadmap sets out the strategy for pursuing near-, mid-, and long-term goals set out by industry and for carrying out the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and industry. The Roadmap sets out the strategy for pursuing near-, mid-, and long-term goals set out by industry and for carrying out the cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and industry.

  7. OHVT technology roadmap [2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    The OHVT Technology Roadmap for 2000 presents the multiyear program plan of the U.S. DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). It is an update of the 1997 plan, reflecting changes in regulations and ongoing discussions with DOE's heavy vehicle customers. The technical plan covers three classes of trucks: (1) class 7-8 (large, on-highway trucks); (2) class 3-6 (medium duty trucks); (3) class 1-2 (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles) as well as enabling and supporting technologies. The Roadmap documents program goals, schedules, and milestones.

  8. Alumina Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-02-01

    The Alumina Technology Roadmap outlines a comprehensive long-term research and development plan that defines the industry's collective future and establishes a clear pathway forward. It emphasizes twelve high-priority R&D areas deemed most significant in addressing the strategic goals.

  9. OHVT technology roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) Technology Roadmap presents the OHVT multiyear program plan. It was developed in response to recommendations by DOE`s heavy vehicle industry customers, including truck and bus manufacturers, diesel engine manufacturers, fuel producers, suppliers to these industries, and the trucking industry. The technical plan is presented for three classes of trucks: (1) class 7-8 (large, on-highway trucks); (2) class 3-6 (medium duty trucks); and (3) class 1-2 (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). The Roadmap documents program goals, technical targets, and technical approaches. Issues addressed include engine efficiency, fuel efficiency, power requirements, emissions, and fuel flexibility. 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  11. OHVT Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    2001-10-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) was created in March 1996 to address the public-interest transportation-energy aspects of a set of customers who at that time had been largely unrecognized, namely, the manufacturers, suppliers, and users of heavy transport vehicles (trucks, buses, rail, and inland marine). Previously, the DOE had focused its attention on meeting the needs of the personal-transport-vehicle customer (automobile manufacturers, suppliers, and users). Those of us who were of driving age at the time of the 1973 oil embargo and the 1979 oil price escalation vividly recall the inconvenience and irritation of having to wait in long lines for gasoline to fuel our cars. However, most of us, other than professional truck owners or drivers, were unaware of the impacts that these disruptions in the fuel supply had on those whose livelihoods depend upon the transport of goods. Recognizing the importance of heavy vehicles to the national economic health, the DOE created OHVT with a mission to conduct, in collaboration with its industry partners and their suppliers, a customer-focused national program to research and develop technologies that will enable trucks and other heavy vehicles to be more energy-efficient and able to use alternative fuels while reducing emissions. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies convened a workshop in April 1996 to elicit input from DOE's heavy vehicle industry customers, including truck and bus manufacturers, diesel-engine manufacturers, fuel producers, suppliers to these industries, and the trucking industry. The preparation of a ''technology roadmap'' was one of the key recommendations by this customer group. Therefore, the OHVT Technology Roadmap* was developed in 1996 as a first step in crafting a common vision for a government research and development (R and D) partnership in this increasingly important transportation sector. The approach used in developing the OHVT Technology

  12. Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-02-01

    This roadmap describes the industry's R&D strategy, priorities, milestones, and performance targets for achieving its long-term goals. It accounts for changes in the industry and the global marketplace since the first roadmap was published in 1997. An updated roadmap was published November 2001. (PDF 1.1 MB).

  13. Technology Roadmapping for Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.

    2003-02-26

    Technology roadmapping can be an effective strategic technology planning tool. This paper describes a process for customizing a generic technology roadmapping process. Starting with a generic process reduces the learning curve and speeds up the roadmap development. Similarly, starting with a generic domain model provides leverage across multiple applications or situations within the domain. A process that combines these two approaches facilitates identifying technology gaps and determining common core technologies that can be reused for multiple applications or situations within the domain. This paper describes both of these processes and how they can be integrated. A core team and a number of technology working groups develop the technology roadmap, which includes critical system requirements and targets, technology areas and metrics for each area, and identifies and evaluates possible technology alternatives to recommend the most appropriate ones to pursue. A generalized waste management model, generated by considering multiple situations or applications in terms of a generic waste management model, provides the domain requirements for the technology roadmapping process. Finally, the paper discusses lessons learns from a number of roadmapping projects.

  14. Catalyst technology roadmap report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, N.B.

    1997-06-01

    This report outlines the future technology needs of the Chemical Industry in the area of catalysis and is a continuation of the process that produced the report Technology Vision 2020: The U.S. Chemical Industry and the Council for Chemical Research`s (CCR) Chemical Synthesis Team follow-up work in chemical synthesis. Vision 2020 developed a 25-year vision for the chemical industry and outlined the challenges to be addressed in order to achieve this vision. This report, which outlines the catalysis technology roadmap, is based on the output of the CCR`s Chemical Synthesis Team, plus a workshop held March -20-21, 1997, which included about 50 participants, with catalysis experts from industry, academia, and government. It is clear that all participants view catalysis as a fundamental driver to the 0274 economic and environmental viability of the chemical industry. Advances in catalytic science and technology are among the most crucial challenges to achieving the goals of the chemical industry advanced in Vision 2020.

  15. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  16. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John; Sarisky-Reed, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  17. Roadmap 2030: The U.S. Concrete Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-01

    Roadmap 2030: The U.S. Concrete Industry Technology Roadmap tracks the eight goals published in the American Concrete Institute Strategic Development Council's Vision 2030: A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry. Roadmap 2030 highlights existing state-of-the-art technologies and emerging scientific advances that promise high potential for innovation, and predicts future technological needs. It defines enabling research opportunities and proposes areas where governmental-industrial-academic partnerships can accelerate the pace of development. Roadmap 2030 is a living document designed to continually address technical, institutional, and market changes.

  18. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap: A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-04-01

    Combustion system users and manufacturers joined forces in 1999 to develop the Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. The roadmap outlines R&D priorities for developing advanced, highly efficient combustion systems that U.S. industry will require in the future.

  19. Roadmap for Process Equipment Materials Technology

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-10-01

    This Technology Roadmap addresses the ever-changing material needs of the chemical and allied process industries, and the energy, economic and environmental burdens associated with corrosion and other materials performance and lifetime issues. This Technology Roadmap outlines the most critical of these R&D needs, and how they can impact the challenges facing today’s materials of construction.

  20. Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-02-01

    The petroleum refining industry defined a detailed R&D roadmap, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, to identify high-priority areas for technology R&D. Those priorities helped ITP target cost-shared solicitations and guide development of a balanced R&D portfolio to yield useful results in the near, mid, and long-term.

  1. A technology roadmap for rehabilitation engineering.

    PubMed

    Price, S; Summers, R

    2004-01-01

    During September 2003, interviews took place to collect data to develop a technology roadmap for rehabilitation engineering. The emerging themes were used to create the roadmap. Criteria were developed to endorse the data prior to the representation process. Added value was by the collection and representation of supporting evidence. Roadmapping 'best practice will facilitate the capture of essential data, represented in a format that is accessible, delivered in an appropriate format, to the right person at the right time. PMID:17271033

  2. TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPPING FOR IAEA SEALS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFFHEINS,B.; ANNESE,C.; GOODMAN,M.; OCONNOR,W.; GUSHUE,S.; PEPPER,S.

    2003-07-13

    In the fall of 2002, the U.S. Support Program (USSP) initiated an effort to define a strategy or ''roadmap'' for future seals technologies and to develop a generalized process for planning safeguards equipment development, which includes seals and other safeguards equipment. The underlying objectives of the USSP include becoming more proactive than reactive in addressing safeguards equipment needs, helping the IAEA to maintain an inventory of cost-effective, reliable, and effective safeguards equipment, establishing a long-term planning horizon, and securing IAEA ownership in the process of effective requirements definition and timely transitioning of new or improved systems for IAEA use. At an initial workshop, seals, their functions, performance issues, and future embodiments were discussed in the following order: adhesive seals, metal seals, passive and active loop seals, ultrasonic seals, tamper indicating enclosures (including sample containers, equipment enclosures, and conduits). Suggested improvements to these technologies focused largely on a few themes: (1) The seals must be applied quickly, easily, and correctly; (2) Seals and their associated equipment should not unduly add bulk or weight to the inspectors load; (3) Rapid, in-situ verifiability of seals is desirable; and (4) Seal systems for high risk or high value applications should have two-way, remote communications. Based upon these observations and other insights, the participants constructed a skeletal approach for seals technology planning. The process begins with a top-level review of the fundamental safeguards requirements and extraction of required system features, which is followed by analysis of suitable technologies and identification of technology gaps, and finally by development of a planning schedule for system improvements and new technology integration. Development of a comprehensive procedure will require the partnership and participation of the IAEA. The presentation will include a

  3. Roadmapping the technological future of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, K.; Gehl, S.; Barker, B.; Knight, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    This article reviews the progress of an ongoing collaborative exploration spearheaded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI): the Electricity Technology Roadmap Initiative. With over 150 participating organizations to date, the Roadmap Initiative seeks to develop a comprehensive vision of opportunities for electricity-related innovation through the mid-21st Century to benefit society and business. The Roadmap will also translate that vision into a set of technology development destinations and R and D pathways. EPRI is leading the Roadmapping effort as an investment in the future and as guidance for broad-based public and private R and D investment. The Roadmap is intended to be an ongoing activity with broad participation.

  4. NASA's Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.

  5. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  6. Introduction to technology roadmapping: The semiconductor industry association`s technology roadmapping process

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    A technology roadmap is the result of a strategic technology planning process that cooperatively identifies (1) a particular industry`s common product and process performance targets, (2) the technology alternatives and milestones for meeting these targets, and (3) a common technology path for research and development activities. The author describes a successful major roadmapping experience - the Semiconductor Industry Association`s Technology Roadmapping Process, which culminated in a workshop held in 1992. The report explains the committee structure and processes that were used both before and after the workshop and presents principles and practices that can aid future technology roadmappers. Appendix 1 summarizes the process from a committee-structure viewpoint. Appendix 2 summarizes the process from a functional view-point. Appendix 3 answers some frequently asked questions about technology roadmapping.

  7. Roadmap for In-Space Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael; Johnson, Les; Palaszewski, Bryan; Coote, David; Goebel, Dan; White, Harold

    2012-01-01

    NASA has created a roadmap for the development of advanced in-space propulsion technologies for the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This roadmap was drafted by a team of subject matter experts from within the Agency and then independently evaluated, integrated and prioritized by a National Research Council (NRC) panel. The roadmap describes a portfolio of in-space propulsion technologies that could meet future space science and exploration needs, and shows their traceability to potential future missions. Mission applications range from small satellites and robotic deep space exploration to space stations and human missions to Mars. Development of technologies within the area of in-space propulsion will result in technical solutions with improvements in thrust, specific impulse (Isp), power, specific mass (or specific power), volume, system mass, system complexity, operational complexity, commonality with other spacecraft systems, manufacturability, durability, and of course, cost. These types of improvements will yield decreased transit times, increased payload mass, safer spacecraft, and decreased costs. In some instances, development of technologies within this area will result in mission-enabling breakthroughs that will revolutionize space exploration. There is no single propulsion technology that will benefit all missions or mission types. The requirements for in-space propulsion vary widely according to their intended application. This paper provides an updated summary of the In-Space Propulsion Systems technology area roadmap incorporating the recommendations of the NRC.

  8. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap: A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community (2002)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-10-01

    The Industrial Technology Program (ITP) convened industry workshops in 2001 to update the 1999 roadmap. The revised plan, in which the combustion industry lays out the R&D initiatives to meet its performance targets for the next 20 years, is presented in the Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. This roadmap showcases a comprehensive R&D plan for the industry and specifies the coordination and alignment of key groups, such as industry, academia, and the federal government, to meet the future energy and environmental goals of the industry.

  9. Technology Interdependency Roadmaps for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for Space Technology are outlined in terms of NASA Strategic Plan. The national emphasis on economic revitalization is described along with the environmental changes needed for the new direction. Space Technology Interdependency (STI) is elaborated in terms of its impact on national priority on science, education, and economy. Some suggested approaches to strengthening STI are outlined. Finally, examples of Technology Roadmaps for Space Operations area are included to illustrate the value of STI for national cohesiveness and economic revitalization.

  10. Evolution of the CTBTO Infrasound Technology Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, Milton; Haralabus, Georgios; Noack, Patrick; Grenard, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The CTBTO's nuclear explosion monitoring program needs to maintain its effectiveness and ensure its long-term relevance to the verification regime. The aims of its Infrasound Technology Roadmap (ITR) are to (1) establish a clear way forwards in accordance with the overall CTBTO nuclear monitoring vision, (2) couple scientific work with technology management, and (3) build upon existing technological accomplishments and project them into near-future technical targets. This ITR has a time horizon of seven years, and its activities are closely aligned to the Provisional Technical Secretariat's Technology Foresight Program, which extends its perspective to 20+ years. Phase 1 of the Roadmap effort requested input from the international infrasound community through the Request for Contributions released on 15 November 2012 (RFC R1). A set of metrics were selected to lend fairness, accountability, and scientific integrity to the evaluation of technical topics. The RFC was an inclusive, participatory effort inviting individual scientists to identify and assess technologies and procedures that can be infused into the IMS to meet its monitoring requirements and help evolve technology to achieve a reliable, sustainable and trustworthy monitoring system. We received over 680 individual topic evaluations from 52 members of the international infrasound community, with a 93% response rate. We present the statistical results from our survey as well as the highlights of the draft Infrasound Technology Roadmap Document.

  11. Mirror Technology Roadmap for Optical/IR/FIR Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Phil

    2006-01-01

    The Optics sub-committee of the Advanced Telescope and Observatory {ATO) Capability Roadmap developed an optics capability roadmap to enable planned future space telescopes. The roadmap details 4 basic technologies: cryogenic optics for IR and Far-IR missions; precision optics for optical, UV and EUV missions; grazing incidence optics for x-ray missions; and novel optics with revolutionary capabilities.

  12. Technology Area Roadmap for In Space Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Mike; Coote, David; Goebel, Dan; Palaszewski, Bryan; White, Sonny

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology area (TA) roadmap to develop propulsion technologies that will be used to enable further exploration of the solar system, and beyond. It is hoped that development of the technologies within this TA will result in technical solutions that will improve thrust levels, specific impulse, power, specific mass, volume, system mass, system complexity, operational complexity, commonality with other spacecraft systems, manufacturability and durability. Some of the propulsion technologies that are reviewed include: chemical and non-chemical propulsion, and advanced propulsion (i.e., those with a Technology Readiness level of less than 3). Examples of these advanced technologies include: Beamed Energy, Electric Sail, Fusion, High Energy Density Materials, Antimatter, Advanced Fission and Breakthrough propulsion technologies. Timeframes for development of some of these propulsion technologies are reviewed, and top technical challenges are reviewed. This roadmap describes a portfolio of in-space propulsion technologies that can meet future space science and exploration needs.

  13. Guidance for Environmental Mangement Science and Technology Roadmapping

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Brent Wayne

    2001-02-01

    Science and technology roadmapping is a planning process to help identify technical capabilities needed for both project- and program-level cleanup efforts, map them into technology alternatives, and develop plans to ensure that the required scientific knowledge and tools will be available when needed. Application of science and technology roadmapping within Invironmental Management (EM) requires significant flexibility to accommodate the variations between different projects and programs and the different levels of roadmapping application. The author has provided direct support to EM’s Office of Science and Technology (OST) in the development of draft guidance for science and technology roadmapping in EM. This paper provides a summary of this guidance and a synopsis of lessons learned from the application of roadmapping to a number of EM projects and programs.

  14. Technology Development Roadmaps - a Systematic Approach to Maturing Needed Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Colllins; Layne Pincock

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. Planning and decision making represent important challenges for all projects. This paper presents the steps needed to assess technical readiness and determine the path forward to mature the technologies required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. A Technology Readiness Assessment is used to evaluate the required systems, subsystems, and components (SSC) comprising the desired plant architecture and assess the SSCs against established Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). A validated TRL baseline is then established for the proposed physical design. Technology Development Roadmaps are generated to define the path forward and focus project research and development and engineering tasks on advancing the technologies to increasing levels of maturity. Tasks include modeling, testing, bench-scale demonstrations, pilot-scale demonstrations, and fully integrated prototype demonstrations. The roadmaps identify precise project objectives and requirements; create a consensus vision of project needs; provide a structured, defensible, decision-based project plan; and, minimize project costs and schedules.

  15. Policy roadmap for stem cell technology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop

    2008-01-01

    Policy and technology roadmaps have been long and widely used in industry and business sectors. The primary objective of the roadmap is to be a policy and technology planning tool helping to deal with an increasingly competitive environment. The obvious benefit of roadmapping is to provide information to make better technology investment decisions by identifying critical technologies and technology gaps and identifying methods to improve research and development (R&D) investments. It can also be used as a marketing tool. Roadmapping is critical and necessary when the technology investment decision is not straightforward. This occurs when it is not clear which alternative to pursue, how soon the technology is needed, or when there is a need to coordinate the development of multiple technologies. Stem cell technology is still in its nascent stage and one of the technologies with obvious uncertainties. Moreover it involves many issues from bioethical, legal and public policy perspectives. Then, development of national policy and technology roadmap for stem cell technology is definitely required and crucial to make most benefit from this promising technology for Thailand. The present article will provide perspectives on stem cell policy roadmap and propose critical action plans for the next five-year period. PMID:18386556

  16. TA-13: Ground and Launch Systems, 2015 NASA Technology Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a summary of new content contained in the 2015 update of Technology Area-13, Ground and Launch Systems technology roadmap beyond the content contained in the 2010 version. Also included are brief assessments of benefits, alignments, challenges, technical risk and reasonableness, sequencing and timing, and time and effort to achieve goals. This presentation is part of overall presentations of new content only for the 2015 update of the 15 NASA Technology Roadmaps that will be conducted in a public forum managed by the National Research Council on September 28-29, 2015. The 15 roadmaps have already been publically released via the STI process.

  17. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Dougan, A.; Tobin, Stephen; Cipiti, B.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Bakel, A. J.; Bean, Robert; Grate, Jay W.; Santi, P.; Bryan, Steven; Kinlaw, M. T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Burr, Tom; Lehn, Scott A.; Tolk, K.; Chichester, David; Menlove, H.; Vo, D.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Merkle, P.; Wang, T. F.; Duran, F.; Nakae, L.; Warren, Glen A.; Friedrich, S.; Rabin, M.

    2008-12-31

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Safeguards Campaign aims to develop safeguards technologies and processes that will significantly reduce the risk of proliferation in the U.S. nuclear fuel cycle of tomorrow. The Safeguards Enhancement Study was chartered with identifying promising research and development (R&D) directions over timescales both near-term and long-term, and under safeguards oversight both domestic and international. This technology development roadmap documents recognized gaps and needs in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles, and outlines corresponding performance targets for each of those needs. Drawing on the collective expertise of technologists and user-representatives, a list of over 30 technologies that have the potential to meet those needs was developed, along with brief summaries of each candidate technology. Each summary describes the potential impact of that technology, key research questions to be addressed, and prospective development milestones that could lead to a definitive viability or performance assessment. Important programmatic linkages between U.S. agencies and offices are also described, reflecting the emergence of several safeguards R&D programs in the U.S. and the reinvigoration of nuclear fuel cycles across the globe.

  18. National solar technology roadmap: Film-silicon PV

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Brian

    2007-06-01

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) technologies are addressed in two different technology roadmaps: Film-Silicon PV and Wafer-Silicon PV. This Film-Silicon PV roadmap applies to all silicon-film technologies that rely on a supporting substrate such as glass, polymer, aluminum, stainless steel, or metallurgical-grade silicon. Such devices typically use amorphous, nanocrystalline, fine-grained polycrystalline, or epitaxial silicon layers that are 1–20 μm thick.

  19. Technology roadmapping: The integration of strategic and technology planning for competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.; Garcia, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    Technology roadmapping is a form of technology planning that can help organizations deal with an increasingly competitive environment. As a DOE laboratory with R&D as a major product, Sandia must do effective technology planning to identify and develop technologies required to meet its mission. Once technology enhancements or new technologies are identified, they may be developed internally or collaboratively with external partners. For either approach, technology roadmapping is an effective tool for technology planning and coordination, which fits within a broader set of planning activities. Potential benefits of roadmapping include identifying critical technologies and gaps, coordination of research activities, and improved marketing information. Roadmapping is particularly useful when investment decisions are not straightforward and for coordinating the development of multiple technologies, especially across multiple projects. This paper formalizes and documents the technology roadmapping process. It describes the process and shows how it fits within an overall strategic and technology planning process. The technology roadmapping process consists of three phases: preliminary activity, development of the roadmap, and followup activity. Preliminary activity includes: satisfy essential conditions, provide leadership/sponsorship, and define the scope and boundaries for the roadmap. Development of the technology roadmap includes: (1) Identify the {open_quotes}product{close_quotes} that will be the focus of the roadmap. (2) Identify the critical system requirements and their targets. (3) Specify the major technology areas. (4) Specify the technology drivers and their targets. (5) Identify technology alternatives and their time lines. (6) Recommend the technology alternatives that should be pursued. (7) Create the technology roadmap report. Follow-up activity includes: (1) Critique and validate the roadmap. (2) Develop an implementation plan. (3) Review and update.

  20. National solar technology roadmap: Organic PV

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, Dave

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses all forms of solar cells that use organic molecules—including polymers, dendrimers, small molecules, and dyes—as absorbers or transporters, either in fully organic devices or in devices that also contain inorganic nanostructures.

  1. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  2. Off-highway vehicle technology roadmap.

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-07

    The off-highway sector is under increasing pressure to reduce operating costs (including fuel costs) and to reduce emissions. Recognizing this, the Society of Automotive Engineers and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) convened a workshop in April 2001 (ANL 2001) to (1) determine the interest of the off-highway sector (consisting of agriculture, construction, surface mining, inland marine) in crafting a shared vision of off-highway, heavy machines of the future and (2) identify critical research and development (R&D) needs for minimizing off-highway vehicle emissions while cost-effectively maintaining or enhancing system performance. The workshop also enabled government and industry participants to exchange information. During the workshop, it became clear that the challenges facing the heavy, surface-based off-highway sector can be addressed in three major machine categories: (1) engine/aftertreatment and fuels/lubes, (2) machine systems, and (3) thermal management. Working groups convened to address these topical areas. The status of off-highway technologies was determined, critical technical barriers to achieving future emission standards were identified, and strategies and technologies for reducing fuel consumption were discussed. Priority areas for R&D were identified. Given the apparent success of the discussions at the workshop, several participants from industry agreed to help in the formation of a joint industry/government ''roadmap'' team. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has an extensive role in researching ways to make heavy-duty trucks and trains more efficient, with respect to both fuel usage and air emissions. The workshop participants felt that a joint industry/government research program that addresses the unique needs of the off-highway sector would complement the current research program for highway vehicles. With industry expertise, in-kind contributions, and federal government funding (coupled with the

  3. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, Barmac K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA's Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of "supportability", in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in a environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test & Verification, Maintenance & Repair, and Scavenging & Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set of

  4. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  5. Review of the Semiconductor Industry and Technology Roadmap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Sameer; Krenner, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Points out that the semiconductor industry is extremely competitive and requires ongoing technological advances to improve performance while reducing costs to remain competitive and how essential it is to gain an understanding of important facets of the industry. Provides an overview of the initial and current semiconductor technology roadmap that…

  6. Science and Technology Roadmapping to Support Project Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Carthy, Jeremiah Justin; Haley, Daniel Joseph; Dixon, Brent Wayne

    2001-07-01

    Disciplined science and technology roadmapping provides a framework to coordinate research and development activities with project objectives. This case-history paper describes initial project technology needs identification, assessment and R&D ranking activities supporting characterization of 781 waste tanks requiring a 'hazardous waste determination' or 'verification of empty' decision to meet an Idaho state Voluntary Consent Order.

  7. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    NASA has developed a set of 14 draft roadmaps to guide the development of space technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Each of these roadmaps focuses on a particular technology area (TA). The roadmaps are intended to foster the development of advanced technologies and concepts that address NASA's needs and contribute to other aerospace and national needs. OCT requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to review the draft roadmaps, gather and assess relevant community input, and make recommendations and suggest priorities to inform NASA's decisions as it finalizes its roadmaps. The statement of task states that "based on the results of the community input and its own deliberations, the steering committee will prepare a brief interim report that addresses high-level issues associated with the roadmaps, such as the advisability of modifying the number or technical focus of the draft NASA roadmaps." This interim report, which does not include formal recommendations, addresses that one element of the study charge. NASA requested this interim report so that it would have the opportunity to make an early start in modifying the draft roadmaps based on feedback from the panels and steering committee. The final report will address all other tasks in the statement of task. In particular, the final report will include a prioritization of technologies, will describe in detail the prioritization process and criteria, and will include specific recommendations on a variety of topics, including many of the topics mentioned in this interim report. In developing both this interim report and the final report to come, the steering committee draws on the work of six study panels organized by technical area, loosely following the organization of the 14 roadmaps, as follows: A Panel 1: Propulsion and Power TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Systems TA13

  8. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 28

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo; Ramu Chandra

    2010-02-19

    Thermal testing of a subscale locomotive sodium battery module was initiated.to validate thermal models. The hybrid trip optimizer problem was formulated. As outcomes of this project, GE has proceeded to commercialize trip optimizer technology, and has initiated work on a state-of-the-art battery manufacturing plant for high energy density, sodium-based batteries.

  9. Power sources manufactures association : power technology roadmap workshop - 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, John S.

    2006-03-01

    The Power Sources Manufacturers Association (PSMA) is pleased to announce the release of the latest Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report. This Fifth Edition Workshop Report includes presentations and discussions from the workshop as seen by the participants that included many of the industry's most influential members representing end-users, power supply manufacturers, component suppliers, consultants and academia. This report provides detailed projections for the next three to four years of various technologies in a quantitative form. There was special emphasis on how the increasing use of digital technologies will affect the industry in the next four years. The technology trend analysis and the roadmap is provided for the following specific product families expected to be the areas of largest market growth: (1) Ac-dc front end power supplies--1 kW from a single phase ac source; (2) External ac-dc power supplies; (3) Dc-dc bus converters; and (4) Non-isolated dc-dc converters. Bruce Miller, Chairman of PSMA, stated that 'the Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is an extensive document that analyzes and provides projections for most major technical parameters for a specific power supply. It is a unique document as it contains technology/parametric trends in a roadmap fashion from a variety of diverse sources, giving significant depth to its content. No such information is available from any other source'. The Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is available at no cost as to PSMA Regular and Associate members and at a reduced price to Affiliate members as a benefit of membership. The report will be offered to non-members at a price of $2490. For further information or to buy a copy of the report, please visit the publications page or the PSMA website or contact the Association Office.

  10. 'Mini'-Roadmapping - Ensuring Timely Sites' Cleanup/Closure by Resolving Science & Technology Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, D.E.; Dixon, B.W.; Murphy, J.A.

    2003-01-14

    Roadmapping is a powerful tool to manage technical risks and opportunities associated with complex problems. Roadmapping identifies technical capabilities required for both project- and program-level efforts and provides the basis for plans that ensure the necessary enabling activities will be done when needed. Roadmapping reveals where to focus further development of the path forward by evaluating uncertainties for levels of complexity, impacts, and/or the potential for large payback. Roadmaps can be customized to the application, a ''graded approach'' if you will. Some roadmaps are less detailed. We have called these less detailed, top-level roadmaps ''mini-roadmaps''. These mini roadmaps are created to tie the needed enablers (e.g., technologies, decisions, etc.) to the functions. If it is found during the mini-roadmapping that areas of significant risk exist, then those can be roadmapped further to a lower level of detail. Otherwise, the mini-roadmap may be sufficient to manage the project/program risk. Applying a graded approach to the roadmapping can help keep the costs down. Experience has indicated that it is best to do mini-roadmapping first and then evaluate the risky areas to determine whether to further evaluate those areas. Roadmapping can be especially useful for programs/projects that have participants from multiple sites, programs, or other entities which are involved. Increased synergy, better communications, and increased cooperation are the results from roadmapping a program/project with these conditions.

  11. Technology Development Roadmap: A Technology Development Roadmap for a Future Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan; Conklin, John; Livas, Jeffrey; Klipstein, William; McKenzie, Kirk; Mueller, Guido; Mueller, Juergen; Thorpe, James Ira; Arsenovic, Peter; Baker, John; Bender, Peter; Brinker, Edward; Crow, John; Spero, Robert; deVine Glenn; Ziemer, John

    2013-01-01

    Humankind will detect the first gravitational wave (GW) signals from the Universe in the current decade using ground-based detectors. But the richest trove of astrophysical information lies at lower frequencies in the spectrum only accessible from space. Signals are expected from merging massive black holes throughout cosmic history, from compact stellar remnants orbiting central galactic engines from thousands of close contact binary systems in the Milky Way, and possibly from exotic sources, some not yet imagined. These signals carry essential information not available from electromagnetic observations, and which can be extracted with extraordinary accuracy. For 20 years, NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and an international research community have put considerable effort into developing concepts and technologies for a GW mission. Both the 2000 and 2010 decadal surveys endorsed the science and mission concept of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). A partnership of the two agencies defined and analyzed the concept for a decade. The agencies partnered on LISA Pathfinder (LPF), and ESA-led technology demonstration mission, now preparing for a 2015 launch. Extensive technology development has been carried out on the ground. Currently, the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) concept, a LISA-like concept with only two measurement arms, is competing for ESA's L2 opportunity. NASA's Astrophysics Division seeks to be a junior partner if eLISA is selected. If eLISA is not selected, then a LISA-like mission will be a strong contender in the 2020 decadal survey. This Technology Development Roadmap (TDR) builds on the LISA concept development, the LPF technology development, and the U.S. and European ground-based technology development. The eLISA architecture and the architecture of the Mid-sized Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO Mid)-a competitive design with three measurement arms from the recent design study for a NASA

  12. A Technology Roadmap for Strategic Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ziagos, John; Phillips, Benjamin R.; Boyd, Lauren; Jelacic, Allan; Stillman, Greg; Hass, Eric

    2013-02-13

    Realization of EGS development would make geothermal a significant contender in the renewable energy portfolio, on the order of 100+ GWe in the United States alone. While up to 90% of the geothermal power resource in the United States is thought to reside in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), hurdles to commercial development still remain. The Geothermal Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began in 2011 to outline opportunities for advancing EGS technologies on five- to 20-year timescales, with community input on the underlying technology needs that will guide research and ultimately determine commercial success for EGS. This report traces DOE's research investments, past and present, and ties them to these technology needs, forming the basis for an EGS Technology Roadmap to help guide future DOE research. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  13. Locomotive Emission and Engine Idle Reduction Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Archer

    2005-03-14

    In response to a United States Department of Energy (DOE) solicitation, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA), in partnership with CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT), submitted a proposal to DOE to support the demonstration of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) technology on fifty-six CSXT locomotives. The project purpose was to demonstrate the idle fuel savings, the Nitrous Oxide (NOX) emissions reduction and the noise reduction capabilities of the APU. Fifty-six CSXT Baltimore Division locomotives were equipped with APUs, Engine Run Managers (ERM) and communications equipment to permit GPS tracking and data collection from the locomotives. Throughout the report there is mention of the percent time spent in the State of Maryland. The fifty-six locomotives spent most of their time inside the borders of Maryland and some spent all their time inside the state borders. Usually when a locomotive traveled beyond the Maryland State border it was into an adjoining state. They were divided into four groups according to assignment: (1) Power Unit/Switcher Mate units, (2) Remote Control units, (3) SD50 Pusher units and (4) Other units. The primary data of interest were idle data plus the status of the locomotive--stationary or moving. Also collected were main engine off, idling or working. Idle data were collected by county location, by locomotive status (stationary or moving) and type of idle (Idle 1, main engine idling, APU off; Idle 2, main engine off, APU on; Idle 3, main engine off, APU off; Idle 4, main engine idle, APU on). Desirable main engine idle states are main engine off and APU off or main engine off and APU on. Measuring the time the main engine spends in these desirable states versus the total time it could spend in an engine idling state allows the calculation of Percent Idle Management Effectiveness (%IME). IME is the result of the operation of the APU plus the implementation of CSXT's Warm Weather Shutdown Policy. It is difficult to separate the two. The units

  14. Technology Roadmap for Energy Reduction in Automotive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), in collaboration with the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR), hosted a technology roadmap workshop in Troy, Michigan in May 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to explore opportunities for energy reduction, discuss the challenges and barriers that might need to be overcome, and identify priorities for future R&D. The results of the workshop are presented in this report.

  15. A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Benjamin R.; Ziagos, John; Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur; Hass, Eric

    2013-02-13

    Characterizing productive geothermal systems is challenging yet critical to identify and develop an estimated 30 gigawatts electric (GWe) of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western U.S. This paper, undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), summarizes needs and technical pathways that target the key geothermal signatures of temperature, permeability, and fluid content, and develops the time evolution of these pathways, tying in past and current GTO exploration Research and Development (R&D) projects. Beginning on a five-year timescale and projecting out to 2030, the paper assesses technologies that could accelerate the confirmation of 30 GWe. The resulting structure forms the basis for a Geothermal Exploration Technologies Roadmap, a strategic development plan to help guide GTO R&D investments that will lower the risk and cost of geothermal prospect identification. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  16. Incorporating the Technology Roadmap Uncertainties into the Project Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, B.E.

    2002-01-16

    This paper describes two methods, Technology Roadmapping and Project Risk Assessment, which were used to identify and manage the technical risks relating to the treatment of sodium bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste treatment technology under consideration was Direct Vitrification. The primary objective of the Technology Roadmap is to identify technical data uncertainties for the technologies involved and to prioritize the testing or development studies to fill the data gaps. Similarly, project management's objective for a multi-million dollar construction project includes managing all the key risks in accordance to DOE O 413.3 - ''Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.'' In the early stages, the Project Risk Assessment is based upon a qualitative analysis for each risk's probability and consequence. In order to clearly prioritize the work to resolve the technical issues identified in the Technology Roadmap, the issues must be cross- referenced to the project's Risk Assessment. This will enable the project to get the best value for the cost to mitigate the risks.

  17. Incorporating the Technology Roadmap Uncertainties into the Project Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes two methods, Technology Roadmapping and Project Risk Assessment, which were used to identify and manage the technical risks relating to the treatment of sodium bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste treatment technology under consideration was Direct Vitrification. The primary objective of the Technology Roadmap is to identify technical data uncertainties for the technologies involved and to prioritize the testing or development studies to fill the data gaps. Similarly, project management's objective for a multi-million dollar construction project includes managing all the key risks in accordance to DOE O 413.3 - "Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets." In the early stages, the Project Risk Assessment is based upon a qualitative analysis for each risk's probability and consequence. In order to clearly prioritize the work to resolve the technical issues identified in the Technology Roadmap, the issues must be cross- referenced to the project's Risk Assessment. This will enable the project to get the best value for the cost to mitigate the risks.

  18. ITRS: The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    In a move singular for the world's industry, the semiconductor industry established a quantitative strategy for its progress with the establishment of the ITRS. In its 17th year, it has been extended in 2009 to the year 2024. We present some important and critical milestones with a focus on 2020. Transistor gate lengths of 5.6 nm with a 3 sigma tolerance of 1 nm clearly show the aggressive nature of this strategy, and we reflect on this goal on the basis of our 10 nm reference nanotransistor discussed in Sect.3.3. The roadmap treats in detail the total process hierarchy from the transistor level up through 14 levels of metallic interconnect layers, which must handle the signal transport between transistors and with the outside world. This hierarchy starts with a first-level metal interconnect characterized by a half-pitch (roughly the line width) of 14 nm, which is required to be applicable through intermediate layers with wiring lengths orders of magnitude longer than at the first local level. At the uppermost global level, the metal pattern has to be compatible with high-density through-silicon vias (TSV), in order to handle the 3D stacking of chips at the wafer level to achieve the functionality of the final chip-size product. At the individual wafer level, the full manufacturing process is characterized by up to 40 masks, thousands of processing steps and a cumulative defect density of hopefully <1/cm².

  19. U.S. DRIVE Technical Team Technology Roadmaps

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-03-16

    U.S. DRIVE stands for Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability. It is a non-binding and voluntary government-industry partnership focused on advanced automotive and related infrastructure technology research and development (R&D). As the Partnership updates its documents to reflect the transition to U.S. DRIVE, current roadmaps and previous accomplishments reports are available for reference and information.

  20. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's new emphasis on human exploration program for missions beyond LEO requires development of innovative and revolutionary technologies. Thermal control requirements of future NASA science instruments and missions are very challenging and require advanced thermal control technologies. Limited resources requires organizations to cooperate and collaborate; government, industry, universities all need to work together for the successful development of these technologies.

  1. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  2. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of thermal control technology at JPL and NASA.It shows the active spacecraft that are in vairous positions in the solar syatem, and beyond the solar system and the future missions that are under development. It then describes the challenges that the past missions posed with the thermal control systems. The various solutions that were implemented duirng the decades prior to 1990 are outlined. A review of hte thermal challenges of the future misions is also included. The exploration plan for Mars is then reviewed. The thermal challenges of the Mars Rovers are then outlined. Also the challenges of systems that would be able to be used in to explore Venus, and Titan are described. The future space telescope missions will also need thermal control technological advances. Included is a review of the thermal requirements for manned missions to the Moon. Both Active and passive technologies that have been used and will be used are reviewed. Those that are described are Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops (MPFL), Loop Heat Pipes, an M3 Passive Cooler, Heat Siwtch for Space and Mars surface applications, phase change material (PCM) technology, a Gas Gap Actuateor using ZrNiH(x), the Planck Sorption Cooler (PCS), vapor compression -- Hybrid two phase loops, advanced pumps for two phase cooling loops, and heat pumps that are lightweight and energy efficient.

  3. Integrated Requirements Analysis and Technology Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, Strategic Insight performed analytical studies for NASA's Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) program, creating program documents which illuminated technical requirements and critical research opportunities. Studies were performed to structure and confirm HRST's evolving technical requirements, building on Marshall's Phase 1 work, which defined HRST system concepts, analytical tools and high-level issues for assessment in Phase 2. Specifically, Strategic Insight: (1) Performed a requirements analysis to update HRST: An Advanced Concepts Study, Study Guidelines, Version 2.0 of January 22, 1996; only minor changes were recommended for the given parameters of interest to concept designers; (2) Conducted mini-workshops during HRST Working Group meetings on April 14-15, 1997 and July 22-24, 1997; and (3) Created structures for technology road maps of candidate HRST concepts, both subsystem and end-to-end concepts, emerging from the 13 cooperative agreement projects.

  4. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  5. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  6. Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

  7. 'Mini'-Roadmapping - Ensuring Timely Sites' Cleanup / Closure by Resolving Science and Technology Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dale Luke; James Murphy

    2003-02-01

    Roadmapping is a powerful tool to manage technical risks and opportunities associated with complex problems. Roadmapping identifies technical capabilities required for both project- and program-level efforts and provides the basis for plans that ensure the necessary enabling activities will be done when needed. Roadmapping reveals where to focus further development of the path forward by evaluating uncertainties for levels of complexity, impacts, and/or the potential for large payback. Roadmaps can be customized to the application, a “graded approach” if you will. Some roadmaps are less detailed. We have called these less detailed, top-level roadmaps “mini-roadmaps”. These miniroadmaps are created to tie the needed enablers (e.g., technologies, decisions, etc.) to the functions. If it is found during the mini-roadmapping that areas of significant risk exist, then those can be roadmapped further to a lower level of detail. Otherwise, the mini-roadmap may be sufficient to manage the project / program risk. Applying a graded approach to the roadmapping can help keep the costs down. Experience has indicated that it is best to do mini-roadmapping first and then evaluate the risky areas to determine whether to further evaluate those areas. Roadmapping can be especially useful for programs / projects that have participants from multiple sites, programs, or other entities which are involved. Increased synergy, better communications, and increased cooperation are the results from roadmapping a program / project with these conditions. And, as with any trip, the earlier you use a roadmap, the more confidence you will have that you will arrive at your destination with few, if any, problems. The longer the trip or complicated the route, the sooner the map is needed. This analogy holds true for using roadmapping for laying out program / project baselines and any alternative (contingency) plans. The mini-roadmapping process has been applied to past projects like the

  8. Designing Program Roadmaps to Catalyze Community Formation: A Case Study of the Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmapword

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Brent; Hanson, Duane; Matthern, Gretchen

    2003-02-27

    A number of broad perspective technology roadmaps have been developed in the last few years as tools for coordinating nation-wide research in targeted areas. These roadmaps share a common characteristic of coalescing the associated stakeholder groups into a special-interest community that is willing to work cooperatively in achieving the roadmap goals. These communities are key to roadmap implementation as they provide the collaborative energy necessary to obtain the political support and funding required for identified science and technology development efforts. This paper discusses the relationship between roadmaps and special-interest communities, using the recently drafted Department of Energy's Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap as a case study. Specific aspects this roadmap's design facilitated the development of a long-term stewardship community while specific realities during roadmap development impacted the realization of the design.

  9. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  10. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    The U.S. combustion industry is among the most productive, efficient, and technologically sophisticated in the world and remains vital to the nation’s economic competitiveness and national security. As the industry looks forward, it confronts tremendous growth opportunities but also significant technical and market challenges. Future industry success will depend on the industry's ability to respond to competitive pressures as well as public expectations for a clean and sustainable industry. Much progress has been made in understanding the fundamental science of combustion; however, much more is needed as regulatory and competitive forces push the industry to develop combustion equipment with better performance, lower environmental impact, and greater flexibility. Immense opportunities exist for companies to develop and apply new technology responding to these needs. Unfortunately, few companies can accept the high technical and financial risk required for the research if the technology is not adopted widely enough to provide a payback on their investment.

  11. Gaps in mask technology with respect to the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Wallace R.; Sadler, Kimberly; White, Thomas

    1998-12-01

    There are ever increasing technical and business demands on the mask industry, resulting in increasing costs and cycle times. The support infrastructure continues to lack the ability to provide solutions to mask makers in a timely manner, due to its inability to recover its investment quickly. This further constraints the development resourcing necessary to stay on the Moore's Law Curve. At the same time, the mask industry has not provided a clearly focused set of demands on the equipment suppliers beyond the SIA Roadmap. This paper has taken the approach of collecting key mask metric technology requirements from the entire International SEMATECH mask community as a comparison to the SIA Roadmap requirements through to the 100 nm technology node. The results of that information identify gaps in mask-making technology by metric and process flow, prioritize the key issues, and offer potential solutions to these issues. Mask costs are addressed and challenged.

  12. National solar technology roadmap: Nano-architecture PV

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yong

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses nano-architecture solar cells that use nanowires, nanotubes, and nanocrystals, including single-component, core-shell, embedded nanowires or nanocrystals either as absorbers or transporters.

  13. Trends in robotics: A summary of the Department of Energy`s critical technology roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Eicker, P.J.

    1998-08-10

    Technology roadmaps serve as pathways to the future. They call attention to future needs for research and development; provide a structure for organizing technology forecasts and programs; and help communicate technological needs and expectations among end users and the research and development (R and D) community. Critical Technology roadmaps, of which the Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM) Roadmap is one example, focus on enabling or cross-cutting technologies that address the needs of multiple US Department of Energy (DOE) offices. Critical Technology roadmaps must be responsive to mission needs of the offices; must clearly indicate how the science and technology can improve DOE capabilities; and must describe an aggressive vision for the future of the technology itself. The RIM Roadmap defines a DOE research and development path for the period beginning today, and continuing through the year 2020. Its purpose is to identify, select and develop objectives that will satisfy near- and long-term challenges posed by DOE`s mission objectives. If implemented, this roadmap will support DOE`s mission needs while simultaneously advancing the state-of-the-art of RIM. For the purposes of this document, RIM refers to systems composed of machines, sensors, computers and software that deliver processes to DOE operations. The RIM Roadmap describes how such systems will revolutionize DOE processes, most notably manufacturing, hazardous and remote operations, and monitoring and surveillance. The advances in DOE operations and RIM discussed in this document will be possible due to the developments in many other areas of science and technology, including computing, communication, electronics and micro-engineering. Modern software engineering techniques will permit the implementation of inherently safe RIM systems that will depend heavily on software.

  14. Technology Area Roadmap for In-Space Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Michael; Palaszewski, Bryan; Coote, David; Goebel, Dan; White, Harold

    2012-01-01

    The exponential increase of launch system size.and cost.with delta-V makes missions that require large total impulse cost prohibitive. Led by NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center, a team from government, industry, and academia has developed a flight demonstration mission concept of an integrated electrodynamic (ED) tethered satellite system called PROPEL: \\Propulsion using Electrodynamics.. The PROPEL Mission is focused on demonstrating a versatile configuration of an ED tether to overcome the limitations of the rocket equation, enable new classes of missions currently unaffordable or infeasible, and significantly advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to an operational level. We are also focused on establishing a far deeper understanding of critical processes and technologies to be able to scale and improve tether systems in the future. Here, we provide an overview of the proposed PROPEL mission. One of the critical processes for efficient ED tether operation is the ability to inject current to and collect current from the ionosphere. Because the PROPEL mission is planned to have both boost and deboost capability using a single tether, the tether current must be capable of flowing in both directions and at levels well over 1 A. Given the greater mobility of electrons over that of ions, this generally requires that both ends of the ED tether system can both collect and emit electrons. For example, hollow cathode plasma contactors (HCPCs) generally are viewed as state-of-the-art and high TRL devices; however, for ED tether applications important questions remain of how efficiently they can operate as both electron collectors and emitters. Other technologies will be highlighted that are being investigated as possible alternatives to the HCPC such as Solex that generates a plasma cloud from a solid material (Teflon) and electron emission (only) technologies such as cold-cathode electron field emission or photo-electron beam generation (PEBG) techniques

  15. Parabolic-Trough Technology Roadmap: A Pathway for Sustained Commercial Development and Deployment of Parabolic-Trough Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Kearney, D.

    1999-01-31

    Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop.

  16. Strategic Program Planning Lessons Learned In Developing The Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, B.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Matthern, G.E.

    2003-04-24

    Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning method used by companies to identify and plan the development of technologies necessary for new products. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management has used this same method to refine requirements and identify knowledge and tools needed for completion of defined missions. This paper describes the process of applying roadmapping to clarify mission requirements and identify enhancing technologies for the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) of polluted sites after site cleanup has been completed. The nature of some contamination problems is such that full cleanup is not achievable with current technologies and some residual hazards remain. LTS maintains engineered contaminant barriers and land use restriction controls, and monitors residual contaminants until they no longer pose a risk to the public or the environment. Roadmapping was used to clarify the breadth of the LTS mission, to identify capability enhancements needed to improve mission effectiveness and efficiency, and to chart out the research and development efforts to provide those enhancements. This paper is a case study of the application of roadmapping for program planning and technical risk management. Differences between the planned and actual application of the roadmapping process are presented along with lessons learned. Both the process used and lessons learned should be of interest for anyone contemplating a similar technology based planning effort.

  17. Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development: A Roadmap for Emerging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and performance targets are identified for each key R&D area. The roadmap describes the technical and market challenges to be overcome, R&D activities and milestones, key stakeholders, and potential energy savings that could result if cost and performance targets are met. Methods for improving technology performance and specific strategies for reducing installed costs and mitigating any other market barriers, which would increase the likelihood of mass-market technology adoption, are identified. This roadmap is a useful resource for public and private decision makers evaluating and pursuing high-impact R&D focused on advancing next-generation energy efficient windows and building envelope technologies.

  18. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development and Demonstration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Mays, Gary T; Pointer, William David; Robb, Kevin R; Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics, and fully passive safety. This roadmap describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. This roadmap also provides an integrated overview of the current status of the broad set of technologies necessary to design, evaluate, license, construct, operate, and maintain FHRs. First-generation FHRs will not require any technology breakthroughs, but do require significant concept development, system integration, and technology maturation. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, this roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant, the lack of an approved licensing framework, the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials, and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  19. Accelerating the developing of carbon sequestration technologies. Electricity technology roadmap: limiting challenge No. 11. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    S. Dalton

    2003-12-15

    The report describes the R & D work needed to develop integrated carbon capture, transport, and storage technologies essential to reducing emissions associated with fossil fuel power generation. It incorporates extensive input from: representatives of the electric power industry, oil and gas companies, international research institutions, national laboratories, government agencies, environmental nonprofit organisations and academia. EPRI staff then worked intensively to interpret the inputs from this broad spectrum of contributors, and expand them into a systematic set of needs and recommendations. The document supports the 2003 Electricity Technology Roadmap. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 1998 technology roadmap for integrated circuits used in critical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-09-01

    Integrated Circuits (ICs) are being extensively used in commercial and government applications that have extreme consequences of failure. The rapid evolution of the commercial microelectronics industry presents serious technical and supplier challenges to this niche critical IC marketplace. This Roadmap was developed in conjunction with the Using ICs in Critical Applications Workshop which was held in Albuquerque, NM, November 11--12, 1997.

  1. National solar technology roadmap: Multiple-exciton-generation PV

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Randy

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses the development of solar cells based on inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs)—such as spherical quantum dots (QDs), quantum rods (QRs), or quantum wires (QWs)—focusing on their potential to improve upon bulk semiconductor cell efficiencies by efficient multiple-exciton generation (MEG

  2. A National Roadmap for Vadose Zone Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kowall, Stephen Jacob

    2001-08-01

    This roadmap is a means of achieving, to the best of our current knowledge, a reasonable scientific understanding of how contaminants of all forms move in the vadose geological environments. This understanding is needed to reduce the present uncertainties in predicting contaminant movement, which in turn will reduce the uncertainties in remediation decisions.

  3. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Atalla, Rajai; Beecher, James; Caron, Robert; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Deng, Yulin; Glasser, Wolfgang; Gray, Derek; Haigler, Candace; Jones, Philip; Joyce, Margaret; Kohlman, Jane; Koukoulas, Alexander; Lancaster, Peter; Perine, Lori; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wegner, Theodore; Zhu, Junyong

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  4. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Transformational Spaceport and Range Technologies Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelly, Darin M.

    2005-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the National Research Council's diaglog to assess progress on NASA's transformational spaceport and range technologies capability roadmap development is presented. The topics include: 1) Agency Goals and Objectives; 2) Strategic Planning Transformation; 3) Advanced Planning Organizational Roles; 4) Public Involvement in Strategic Planning; 5) Strategic Roadmaps; 6) Strategic Roadmaps Schedule; 7) Capability Roadmaps; 8) Capability Charter; 9) Process for Team Selection; 10) Capability Roadmap Development Schedule Overview; 11) Purpose of NRC Review; 12) Technology Readiness Levels; 13) Capability Readiness Levels; 14) Crosswalk Matrix Trans Spaceport & Range; 15) Example linkage to other roadmaps; 16) Capability Readiness Levels Defined; and 17) Crosswalk Matrix Ratings Work In-progress.

  5. NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities: Restoring NASA's Technological Edge and Paving the Way for a New Era in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Success in executing future NASA space missions will depend on advanced technology developments that should already be underway. It has been years since NASA has had a vigorous, broad-based program in advanced space technology development, and NASA's technology base is largely depleted. As noted in a recent National Research Council report on the U.S. civil space program: Future U.S. leadership in space requires a foundation of sustained technology advances that can enable the development of more capable, reliable, and lower-cost spacecraft and launch vehicles to achieve space program goals. A strong advanced technology development foundation is needed also to enhance technology readiness of new missions, mitigate their technological risks, improve the quality of cost estimates, and thereby contribute to better overall mission cost management. Yet financial support for this technology base has eroded over the years. The United States is now living on the innovation funded in the past and has an obligation to replenish this foundational element. NASA has developed a draft set of technology roadmaps to guide the development of space technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist. The NRC appointed the Steering Committee for NASA Technology Roadmaps and six panels to evaluate the draft roadmaps, recommend improvements, and prioritize the technologies within each and among all of the technology areas as NASA finalizes the roadmaps. The steering committee is encouraged by the initiative NASA has taken through the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to develop technology roadmaps and to seek input from the aerospace technical community with this study.

  6. Roadmapping or development of future investments in environmental science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilburn, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will summarize efforts in roadmapping SCFA technical targets, which could be used for selection of future projects. The timely lessons learned and insights will be valuable to other programs desiring to roadmap large amounts of workscope, but unsure how to successfully complete it, by adequately defining a strategy to develop alternatives and core technologies to ensure needed environmental technologies are available and allow delivery of viable alternatives. In early FY02, Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Science and Waste Technology Program Office was working jointly with Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratory to define and develop science and technology mini-roadmaps. We were defining and developing these mini-roadmaps to provide direction and guidance for DOE's Environmental Management's (DOE-EM) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) in their development of target technologies. DOE EM's Strategic Plan for Science and Technology provides guidance for meeting science and technology needs with a view of the desired future and the long-term strategy to attain it. Program and technology mini-roadmapping were to be used to establish priorities, set program and project direction, and identify the high-priority science and technology need areas according to this document. In the past, EM science and technology needs collection is achieved through the DOE Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCG) across the complex. A future system for needs collection has not been defined. However, there is a need for gap analyses and a technical approach for the prioritization of these needs for DOE-EM to be strategic and successful in their technology research, development, demonstration, and deployments. To define the R&D projects needed to solve particular problems and select the project with the largest potential payoff will require analysis for project selection. Mini-roadmaps could be used for setting goals and priorities for future

  7. Synthesizing R&D Data: Experiences from the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Roadmap (IMTR) Project

    SciTech Connect

    merrell, m.a.

    1999-05-05

    IMTR is a tremendous undertaking to assess the current state and future needs of Manufacturing Technology R&D. A follow-on project to the roadmaps is the development and populating of a Gap Analysis database containing current R&D abstracts related to the roadmaps' technical elements. Efficiently identifying the R&D projects within scope presents many travails of synthesizing data from across a wide spectrum. Challenges to this project were directly proportional to the lack of single-source data collections.

  8. Effective methodology to derive strategic decisions from ESA exploration technology roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Top priorities in future international space exploration missions regard the achievement of the necessary maturation of enabling technologies, thereby allowing Europe to play a role commensurate with its industrial, operational and scientific capabilities. As part of the actions derived from this commitment, ESA Technology Roadmaps for Exploration represent a powerful tool to prioritise R&D activities in technologies for space exploration and support the preparation of a consistent procurement plan for space exploration technologies in Europe. The roadmaps illustrate not only the technology procurement (to TRL-8) paths for specific missions envisaged in the present timeframe, but also the achievement for Europe of technological milestones enabling operational capabilities and building blocks, essential for current and future Exploration missions. Coordination of requirements and funding sources among all European stakeholders (ESA, EU, National, and Industry) is one of the objectives of these roadmaps, that show also possible application of the technologies beyond space exploration, both at ESA and outside. The present paper describes the activity that supports the work on-going at ESA on the elaboration and update of these roadmaps and related tools, in order to criticise the followed approach and to suggest methodologies of assessment of the Roadmaps, and to derive strategic decision for the advancement of Space Exploration in Europe. After a review of Technology Areas, Missions/Programmes and related building blocks (architectures) and operational capabilities, technology applicability analyses are presented. The aim is to identify if a specific technology is required, applicable or potentially a demonstrator in the building blocks of the proposed mission concepts. In this way, for each technology it is possible to outline one or more specific plans to increase TRL up to the required level. In practice, this translates into two possible solutions: on the one

  9. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of technology

  10. Roadmapping - A Tool for Resolving Science and Technology Issues Related to Processing, Packaging, and Shipping Nuclear Materials and Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, Dale Elden; Dixon, Brent Wayne; Murphy, James Anthony

    2002-06-01

    Roadmapping is an effective methodology to identify and link technology development and deployment efforts to a program's or project's needs and requirements. Roadmapping focuses on needed technical support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (high programmatic risk, higher cost, longer schedule, or higher ES&H risk). The roadmap identifies where emphasis is needed, i.e., areas where investments are large, the return on investment is high, or the timing is crucial. The development of a roadmap typically involves problem definition (current state versus the desired state) and major steps (functions) needed to reach the desired state. For Nuclear Materials (NM), the functions could include processing, packaging, storage, shipping, and/or final disposition of the material. Each function is examined to determine what technical development would be needed to make the function perform as desired. This requires a good understanding of the current state of technology and technology development and validation activities to ensure the viability of each step. In NM disposition projects, timing is crucial! Technology must be deployed within the project window to be of value. Roadmaps set the stage to keep the technology development and deployment focused on project milestones and ensure that the technologies are sufficiently mature when needed to mitigate project risk and meet project commitments. A recent roadmapping activity involved a 'cross-program' effort, which included NM programs, to address an area of significant concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) related to gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen. The roadmap that was developed defined major gas generation issues within the DOE complex and research that has been and is being conducted to address gas generation concerns. The roadmap also provided the basis for sharing ''lessons

  11. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fal'Ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Roche, Stephan; Bøggild, Peter; Borini, Stefano; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Palermo, Vincenzo; Pugno, Nicola; Garrido, José A.; Sordan, Roman; Bianco, Alberto; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Kivioja, Jani; Marinelli, Claudio; Ryhänen, Tapani; Morpurgo, Alberto; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Colombo, Luigi; Fert, Albert; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Bachtold, Adrian; Schneider, Grégory F.; Guinea, Francisco; Dekker, Cees; Barbone, Matteo; Sun, Zhipei; Galiotis, Costas; Grigorenko, Alexander N.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Kis, Andras; Katsnelson, Mikhail; Vandersypen, Lieven; Loiseau, Annick; Morandi, Vittorio; Neumaier, Daniel; Treossi, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Williams, Gareth M.; Hee Hong, Byung; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Min Kim, Jong; Zirath, Herbert; van Wees, Bart J.; van der Zant, Herre; Occhipinti, Luigi; Di Matteo, Andrea; Kinloch, Ian A.; Seyller, Thomas; Quesnel, Etienne; Feng, Xinliang; Teo, Ken; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Hakonen, Pertti; Neil, Simon R. T.; Tannock, Quentin; Löfwander, Tomas; Kinaret, Jari

    2015-03-01

    We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphene Flagship and outlines the main targets and research areas as best understood at the start of this ambitious project. We provide an overview of the key aspects of graphene and related materials (GRMs), ranging from fundamental research challenges to a variety of applications in a large number of sectors, highlighting the steps necessary to take GRMs from a state of raw potential to a point where they might revolutionize multiple industries. We also define an extensive list of acronyms in an effort to standardize the nomenclature in this emerging field.

  12. LAW ENFORCEMENT TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP: LESSONS TO DATE FROM THE NORTHWEST TECHNOLOGY DESK AND THE NORTHWEST FADE PILOTS

    SciTech Connect

    West, Curtis L.; Kreyling, Sean J.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this report is to provide insight into the information technology needs of law enforcement based on first hand observations as an embedded and active participant over the course of two plus years. This report is intended as a preliminary roadmap for technology and project investment that will benefit the entire law enforcement community nationwide. Some recommendations are immediate and have more of an engineering flavor, while others are longer term and will require research and development to solve.

  13. A COSPAR/ILWS roadmap towards advanced space weather science to protect society's technological infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, K.; Kauristie, K.

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid development of the technological infrastructure upon which modern society depends comes a growing appreciation of the hazards presented by the phenomena around our home planet that we call space weather. The complexity of the coupled Sun-Earth system, the sparseness by which it can be covered by remote-sensing and in-situ instrumentation, and the costs of the required observational and computational infrastructure warrant an international approach with feasible, affordable solutions. COSPAR and the steering committee of the International Living With a Star program tasked a multi-disciplinary, international team with the development of a roadmap with the goal of demonstrably improving our observational capabilities for, scientific understanding of, and ability to forecast the various aspects of space weather. We summarize the roadmap, its top-priority recommendations to achieve its goals, and their underlying rationale. More information on the roadmap, including the team's full membership, can be found at http://www.lmsal.com/~schryver/COSPARrm.

  14. Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technology Development Roadmap in Support of Grid Appropriate Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Kisner, Roger A; O'Hara, John; Quinn, Edward L.; Miller, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Grid Appropriate Reactors (GARs) are a component of the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. GARs have smaller output power (<~600 MWe), than those intended for deployment on large, tightly coupled grids. This smaller size is important in avoiding grid destabilization, which can result from having a large fraction of a grid s electrical generation supplied by a single source. GARs are envisioned to be deployed worldwide often in locations without extensive nuclear power experience. DOE recently sponsored the creation of an Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technology development roadmap emphasizing the specific characteristics of GARs [1]. This roadmapping effort builds upon and focuses the recently developed, more general nuclear energy ICHMI technology development roadmap [2]. The combination of the smaller plant size, smaller grids, and deployment in locations without extensive prior nuclear power experience presents particular infrastructure, regulation, design, operational, and safeguards challenges for effective GAR deployment. ICHMI technologies are central to efficient GAR operation and as such are a dimension of each of these challenges. Further, while the particular ICHMI technologies to be developed would be useful at larger power plants, they are not high-priority development items at the larger plants. For example, grid transient resilience would be a useful feature for any reactor/grid combination and indeed would have limited some recent blackout events. However, most large reactors have limited passive cooling features. Large plants with active safety response features will likely preserve trip preferential grid transient response. This contrasts sharply with GARs featuring passive shutdown cooling, which can safely support grid stability during large grid transients. ICHMI technologies ranging from alternative control algorithms to simplified human-interface system

  15. National solar technology roadmap: Wafer-silicon PV

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan

    2007-06-01

    This report applies to all bulk-silicon-based PV technologies, including those based on Czochralski, multicrystalline, float-zone wafers, and melt-grown crystals that are 100 μm or thicker, such as ribbons, sheet, or spheral silicon.

  16. Habitats and Surface Construction Technology and Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc; Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1997-01-01

    The vision of the technology and development teams at NASA Ames and Johnson Research Centers is to provide the capability for automated delivery and emplacement of habitats and surface facilities. The benefits of the program are as follows: Composites and Inflatables: 30-50% (goal) lighter than Al Hard Structures; Capability for Increased Habitable Volume, Launch Efficiency; Long Term Growth Potential; and Supports initiation of commercial and industrial expansion. Key Habitats and Surface Construction (H&SC) technology issues are: Habitat Shell Structural Materials; Seals and Mechanisms; Construction and Assembly: Automated Pro-Deploy Construction Systems; ISRU Soil/Construction Equipment: Lightweight and Lower Power Needs; Radiation Protection (Health and Human Performance Tech.); Life Support System (Regenerative Life Support System Tech.); Human Physiology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.); and Human Psychology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.) What is being done regarding these issues?: Use of composite materials for X-38 CRV, RLV, etc.; TransHAB inflatable habitat design/development; Japanese corporations working on ISRU-derived construction processes. What needs to be done for the 2004 Go Decision?: Characterize Mars Environmental Conditions: Civil Engineering, Material Durability, etc.; Determine Credibility of Inflatable Structures for Human Habitation; and Determine Seal Technology for Mechanisms and Hatches, Life Cycle, and Durability. An overview encompassing all of the issues above is presented.

  17. Flight Avionics Hardware Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert; McCabe, Mary; Paulick, Paul; Ruffner, Tim; Some, Rafi; Chen, Yuan; Vitalpur, Sharada; Hughes, Mark; Ling, Kuok; Redifer, Matt; Wallace, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    As part of NASA's Avionics Steering Committee's stated goal to advance the avionics discipline ahead of program and project needs, the committee initiated a multi-Center technology roadmapping activity to create a comprehensive avionics roadmap. The roadmap is intended to strategically guide avionics technology development to effectively meet future NASA missions needs. The scope of the roadmap aligns with the twelve avionics elements defined in the ASC charter, but is subdivided into the following five areas: Foundational Technology (including devices and components), Command and Data Handling, Spaceflight Instrumentation, Communication and Tracking, and Human Interfaces.

  18. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  19. A roadmap towards advanced space weather science to protect society's technological infrastructure: Panel Discussion 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus; Kauristie, Kirsti

    This single 90minute slot will follow on from the morning plenary presentation of the roadmap, providing an opportunity for further discussion of the panel’s findings with an invited panel of key stakeholders. --- As mankind’s technological capabilities grow, society constructs a rapidly deepening insight into the workings of the universe at large, being guided by exploring space near to our home. But at the same time our societal dependence on technology increases and with that comes a growing appreciation of the challenges presented by the phenomena that occur in that space around our home planet: Magnetic explosions on the Sun and their counterparts in the geomagnetic field can in extreme cases endanger our all-pervasive electrical infrastructure. Powerful space storms occasionally lower the reliability of the globe-spanning satellite navigation systems and interrupt radio communications. Energetic particle storms lead to malfunctions and even failures in satellites that are critical to the flow of information in the globally connected economies. These and other Sun-driven effects on Earth’s environment, collectively known as space weather, resemble some other natural hazards in the sense that they pose a risk for the safe and efficient functioning of society that needs to be understood, quantified, and - ultimately - mitigated against. The complexity of the coupled Sun-Earth system, the sparseness by which it can be covered by remote-sensing and in-situ instrumentation, and the costs of the required observational and computational infrastructure warrant a well-planned and well-coordinated approach with cost-efficient solutions. Our team is tasked with the development of a roadmap with the goal of demonstrably improving our observational capabilities, scientific understanding, and the ability to forecast. This paper summarizes the accomplishments of the roadmap team in identifying the highest-priority challenges to achieve these goals.

  20. A roadmap towards advanced space weather science to protect society's technological infrastructure: Panel Discussion 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus; Kauristie, Kirsti

    This single 90minute slot will follow on from the morning plenary presentation of the roadmap, providing an opportunity for further discussion of the panel’s findings with an invited panel of key stakeholders. --- As mankind’s technological capabilities grow, society constructs a rapidly deepening insight into the workings of the universe at large, being guided by exploring space near to our home. But at the same time our societal dependence on technology increases and with that comes a growing appreciation of the challenges presented by the phenomena that occur in that space around our home planet: Magnetic explosions on the Sun and their counterparts in the geomagnetic field can in extreme cases endanger our all-pervasive electrical infrastructure. Powerful space storms occasionally lower the reliability of the globe-spanning satellite navigation systems and interrupt radio communications. Energetic particle storms lead to malfunctions and even failures in satellites that are critical to the flow of information in the globally connected economies. These and other Sun-driven effects on Earth’s environment, collectively known as space weather, resemble some other natural hazards in the sense that they pose a risk for the safe and efficient functioning of society that needs to be understood, quantified, and - ultimately - mitigated against. The complexity of the coupled Sun-Earth system, the sparseness by which it can be covered by remote-sensing and in-situ instrumentation, and the costs of the required observational and computational infrastructure warrant a well-planned and well-coordinated approach with cost-efficient solutions. Our team is tasked with the development of a roadmap with the goal of demonstrably improving our observational capabilities, scientific understanding, and the ability to forecast. This paper summarizes the accomplishments of the roadmap team in identifying the highest-priority challenges to achieve these goals.

  1. A roadmap towards advanced space weather science to protect society's technological infrastructure: Panel Discussion 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus; Kauristie, Kirsti

    This single 90minute slot will follow on from the morning plenary presentation of the roadmap, providing an opportunity for further discussion of the panel’s findings with an invited panel of key stakeholders. --- As mankind’s technological capabilities grow, society constructs a rapidly deepening insight into the workings of the universe at large, being guided by exploring space near to our home. But at the same time our societal dependence on technology increases and with that comes a growing appreciation of the challenges presented by the phenomena that occur in that space around our home planet: Magnetic explosions on the Sun and their counterparts in the geomagnetic field can in extreme cases endanger our all-pervasive electrical infrastructure. Powerful space storms occasionally lower the reliability of the globe-spanning satellite navigation systems and interrupt radio communications. Energetic particle storms lead to malfunctions and even failures in satellites that are critical to the flow of information in the globally connected economies. These and other Sun-driven effects on Earth’s environment, collectively known as space weather, resemble some other natural hazards in the sense that they pose a risk for the safe and efficient functioning of society that needs to be understood, quantified, and - ultimately - mitigated against. The complexity of the coupled Sun-Earth system, the sparseness by which it can be covered by remote-sensing and in-situ instrumentation, and the costs of the required observational and computational infrastructure warrant a well-planned and well-coordinated approach with cost-efficient solutions. Our team is tasked with the development of a roadmap with the goal of demonstrably improving our observational capabilities, scientific understanding, and the ability to forecast. This paper summarizes the accomplishments of the roadmap team in identifying the highest-priority challenges to achieve these goals.

  2. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  3. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  4. Pre-Decisional Sodium Bearing Waste Technology Development Roadmap FY-01 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Dannel, Gary Eidson

    2001-09-01

    This report provides an update to the Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) Technology Development Roadmap generated a year ago. It outlines progress made to date and near-term plans for the technology development work necessary to support processing SBW. In addition, it serves as a transition document to the Risk Management Plan (RMP) required by the Project per DOE Order 413.3, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.” Technical uncertainties have been identified as design basis elements (DBEs) and captured in a technical baseline database. As the risks are discovered, assessed, and mitigated, the status of the DBEs in the database will be updated and tracked to closure.

  5. Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap: Meeting 21st Century Residential Energy Needs

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-01

    On June 11-12, 2003, at Greenbelt, Maryland, key stakeholders from industry, government agencies, universities, and others involved in combined heat and power and the residential buildings industry explores solutions to technical, institutional, and market barriers facing micro-combined heat and power systems (mCHP). Participants outlined a desired future for mCHP systems, identified specific interim technology cost and performance targets, and developed actions to achieve the interim targets and vision. This document, The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, is a result of their deliberations. It outlines a set of actions that can be pursued by both the government and industry to develop mCHP appliances for creating a new approach for households to meet their energy needs.

  6. Flight Avionics Hardware Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael; Goforth, Monte; Chen, Yuan; Powell, Wes; Paulick, Paul; Vitalpur, Sharada; Buscher, Deborah; Wade, Ray; West, John; Redifer, Matt; Partridge, Harry; Sherman, Aaron; McCabe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Avionics Technology Roadmap takes an 80% approach to technology investment in spacecraft avionics. It delineates a suite of technologies covering foundational, component, and subsystem-levels, which directly support 80% of future NASA space mission needs. The roadmap eschews high cost, limited utility technologies in favor of lower cost, and broadly applicable technologies with high return on investment. The roadmap is also phased to support future NASA mission needs and desires, with a view towards creating an optimized investment portfolio that matures specific, high impact technologies on a schedule that matches optimum insertion points of these technologies into NASA missions. The roadmap looks out over 15+ years and covers some 114 technologies, 58 of which are targeted for TRL6 within 5 years, with 23 additional technologies to be at TRL6 by 2020. Of that number, only a few are recommended for near term investment: 1. Rad Hard High Performance Computing 2. Extreme temperature capable electronics and packaging 3. RFID/SAW-based spacecraft sensors and instruments 4. Lightweight, low power 2D displays suitable for crewed missions 5. Radiation tolerant Graphics Processing Unit to drive crew displays 6. Distributed/reconfigurable, extreme temperature and radiation tolerant, spacecraft sensor controller and sensor modules 7. Spacecraft to spacecraft, long link data communication protocols 8. High performance and extreme temperature capable C&DH subsystem In addition, the roadmap team recommends several other activities that it believes are necessary to advance avionics technology across NASA: center dot Engage the OCT roadmap teams to coordinate avionics technology advances and infusion into these roadmaps and their mission set center dot Charter a team to develop a set of use cases for future avionics capabilities in order to decouple this roadmap from specific missions center dot Partner with the Software Steering Committee to coordinate computing hardware

  7. A roadmap towards advanced space weather science to protect society's technological infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus

    As mankind’s technological capabilities grow, society constructs a rapidly deepening insight into the workings of the universe at large, being guided by exploring space near to our home. But at the same time our societal dependence on technology increases and with that comes a growing appreciation of the challenges presented by the phenomena that occur in that space around our home planet: Magnetic explosions on the Sun and their counterparts in the geomagnetic field can in extreme cases endanger our all-pervasive electrical infrastructure. Powerful space storms occasionally lower the reliability of the globe-spanning satellite navigation systems and interrupt radio communications. Energetic particle storms lead to malfunctions and even failures in satellites that are critical to the flow of information in the globally connected economies. These and other Sun-driven effects on Earth’s environment, collectively known as space weather, resemble some other natural hazards in the sense that they pose a risk for the safe and efficient functioning of society that needs to be understood, quantified, and - ultimately - mitigated against. The complexity of the coupled Sun-Earth system, the sparseness by which it can be covered by remote-sensing and in-situ instrumentation, and the costs of the required observational and computational infrastructure warrant a well-planned and well-coordinated approach with cost-efficient solutions. Our team is tasked with the development of a roadmap with the goal of demonstrably improving our observational capabilities, scientific understanding, and the ability to forecast. This paper summarizes the accomplishments of the roadmap team in identifying the highest-priority challenges to achieve these goals.

  8. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: 2003 Annual Technical Status Report DOE/AL68284-TSR03

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo

    2004-01-09

    The 21st Century Locomotive program objective is to develop 25% more efficient freight locomotives by 2010. Diesel engine-related research addresses advanced fuel injection, electric turbocharger and abradable seals. Assembly of a common rail fuel injection test system is underway, and a CFD combustion model has been validated. An electrically assisted turbocharger has been constructed and operated, meeting the generator mode design rating. System characterization and optimization is ongoing. Candidate abradable seal materials have been identified and test coupons prepared. Locomotive system-related research addresses capturing, storing and utilizing regenerative braking energy in a hybrid locomotive, and fuel optimization control. Hybrid locomotive energy storage requirements have been identified and studies on specific energy storage solutions are in progress. Energy management controls have been defined and testing initiated. Train and track parameter identification necessary for fuel optimization has been demonstrated.

  9. Technology Roadmap for Dual-Mode Scramjet Propulsion to Support Space-Access Vision Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Guy, R. Wayne; McClinton, Charles R.; Welch, Sharon S.

    2002-01-01

    Third-generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems are envisioned that utilize airbreathing and combined-cycle propulsion to take advantage of potential performance benefits over conventional rocket propulsion and address goals of reducing the cost and enhancing the safety of systems to reach earth orbit. The dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) forms the core of combined-cycle or combination-cycle propulsion systems for single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles and provides most of the orbital ascent energy. These concepts are also relevant to two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) systems with an airbreathing first or second stage. Foundation technology investments in scramjet propulsion are driven by the goal to develop efficient Mach 3-15 concepts with sufficient performance and operability to meet operational system goals. A brief historical review of NASA scramjet development is presented along with a summary of current technology efforts and a proposed roadmap. The technology addresses hydrogen-fueled combustor development, hypervelocity scramjets, multi-speed flowpath performance and operability, propulsion-airframe integration, and analysis and diagnostic tools.

  10. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 6 DOE/AL68284-TSR06

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo; Jennifer Topinka; Paul K. Houpt

    2004-08-31

    Experimental work to map the performance of the High Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) system on a locomotive is in progress. The experimental trends agree with KIVA modeling predictions. Injection optimization is in progress. Electrically-assisted turbocharger modeling was used to study passenger locomotive performance improvements. Energy storage cycling life testing began, and an improved battery state algorithm was determined. The hybrid locomotive energy storage was prepared for energy management system algorithm testing. Progress in reliable methods for computing optimal driving plans, and methods to reduce the complexity of the necessary optimization are reported.

  11. Lunar/Mars In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) Technology: Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The mission strategy used in the ISPP Roadmap for human exploration in the 21st Century is still very preliminary, but covers human exploration of both the Moon and Mars. The mission strategy for lunar exploration begins with a simple, short term lunar surface stay in 2003. The first mission would last only a few days and consist primarily of existing technology; however, long duration landers and habitats, and nuclear transfer stages would be demonstrated on other missions. For missions to Mars, human exploration would begin with the launch of an unmanned habitat and return stage in 2009 to support the first human mission to Mars in 2011. The 2009 return lander would include an ISPP plant to produce the propellant needed for ascent from the Mars surface before the first human crew left Earth in 2011. Robotic orbiters and landers to help define the environment and surface conditions as well as perform engineering demonstrations of key technologies are also an integral part of these mission strategies.

  12. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 8 DOE/AL68284-TSR08

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo; Jennifer Topinka; Anthony Furman; Raj Bharadwaj

    2005-02-16

    Completed high pressure common rail system performance mapping at notch 8 to establish advanced fuel injection fuel savings entitlement. Investigated performance differences of several abradable coatings between full-scale tests and rub test coupons using post-run micrographic analysis. Demonstrated implementation of advanced energy management controls on hybrid locomotive. Began advanced energy storage detailed design; continued life-cycle subscale energy storage testing. Formulated trip optimization problem with hybrid locomotive, and evaluated first implementation to produce an optimal driving plan.

  13. Lithography and design in partnership: a new roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss the notion of a 'shared technology roadmap' between lithography and design from several perspectives. First, we examine cultural gaps and other intrinsic barriers to a shared roadmap. Second, we discuss how lithography technology can change the design technology roadmap. Third, we discuss how design technology can change the lithography technology roadmap. We conclude with an example of the 'flavor' of technology roadmapping activity that can truly bridge lithography and design.

  14. RTS,S: Toward a first landmark on the Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Kaslow, David C; Biernaux, Sophie

    2015-12-22

    The Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap calls for a 2015 landmark goal of a first-generation malaria vaccine that has protective efficacy against severe disease and death, lasting longer than one year. This review focuses on product development efforts over the last five years of RTS,S, a pre-erythrocytic, recombinant subunit, adjuvanted, candidate malaria vaccine designed with this goal of a first-generation malaria vaccine in mind. RTS,S recently completed a successful pivotal Phase III safety, efficacy and immunogenicity study. Although vaccine efficacy was found to be modest, a substantial number of cases of clinical malaria were averted over a 3-4 years period, particularly in settings of significant disease burden. European regulators have subsequently adopted a positive opinion under the Article 58 procedure for an indication of active immunization of children aged 6 weeks up to 17 months against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and against hepatitis B. Further evaluations of the benefit, risk, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of RTS,S are now anticipated through policy and financing reviews at the global and national levels. PMID:26431982

  15. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  16. A Technology Development Roadmap for a Near-Term Probe-Class X-ray Astrophysics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daelemans, Gerard J.; Petre, Robert; Bookbinder, Jay; Ptak, Andrew; Smith, Randall

    2013-01-01

    This document presents a roadmap, including proposed budget and schedule, for maturing the instrumentation needed for an X-ray astrophysics Probe-class mission. The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Office was directed to create this roadmap following the December 2012 NASA Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP). Definition of this mission is called for in the AIP, with the possibility of selection in 2015 for a start in 2017. The overall mission capabilities and instrument performance requirements were defined in the 2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey report, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (NWNH), in connection with the highly ranked International X-ray Observatory (IXO). In NWNH, recommendations were provided regarding the size of, and instrumentation needed by, the next large X-ray observatory. Specifically, the key instrumental capability would be an X-ray calorimeter spectrometer at the focus of a large mirror with angular resolution of 10 arc seconds (arcsec) or better. If possible, a grating spectrometer should also be incorporated into the instrument complement. In response to these recommendations, four instrumentation technologies are included in this roadmap. Three of these are critical for an X-ray mission designed to address NWNH questions: segmented X-ray mirrors, transition edge sensor calorimeters, and gratings. Two approaches are described for gratings, which represent the least mature technology and thus most in need of a parallel path for risk reduction. Also, while current CCD detectors would likely meet the mission needs for grating spectrum readout, specific improvements are included as an additional approach for achieving the grating system effective area requirement. The technical steps needed for these technologies to attain technology readiness levels (TRL) of 5 and 6 are described, as well as desirable modest risk reduction steps beyond TRL-6. All of the technology development efforts are currently

  17. Innovative Technologies and a Technology Selection Roadmap for Optimization of Pipeline Inspection and Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past five years, a multitude of new inspection technologies have emerged as viable sources of pipeline condition data. Furthermore, many of these new technologies provide quantitative (versus qualitative) data that can significantly improve diagnostic and predictive capab...

  18. Tracing a roadmap for vitamin B₁₂ testing using the health technology assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Simona; Mozzi, Roberta; Panteghini, Mauro

    2014-06-01

    In our hospital, we are currently working to manage the appropriateness of vitamin B₁₂ (B12) testing. Unfortunately, the classic evidence-based approach is unhelpful in this process and meta-analyzing data on the accuracy of this marker for cobalamin deficiency detection is misleading due to the lack of reference diagnostic methods. The approach currently proposed by the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) enables us to tackle the issue of B₁₂ requests as a "healthcare" problem by considering the position of stakeholders involved in ordering, performing, interpreting the test, and receiving its results. Clinical expectations, methodological issues, and ethical aspects concerning the performance of the test can aid us in providing more guidance on the use of this marker. By building such structured information, hemodialysis patients and pregnant women have emerged as those groups preferentially requiring B₁₂ testing, as it may potentially improve the clinical outcome. To avoid misinterpretation of B₁₂ results more care should be taken in considering its biochemical and biological features, as well as the analytical issues. Spurious values obtained by current automated immunoassays may reflect suboptimal pre-analytical steps as well as known interfering conditions. Furthermore, the harmonization of results by available methods is still a far-reaching goal and the approach to interpret an individual's results should be improved. Tracing a roadmap for B₁₂ testing by exploiting the HTA model to balance the stakeholders' claims and maximizing the patient's outcome may help to manage the marker demand. PMID:24304539

  19. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 15 DOE/AL68284-TSR15

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo; Jennifer Topinka

    2006-11-03

    High pressure common rail (HPCR) fuel injection performance testing developed a notch-by-notch performance comparison between HPCR and the production fuel system. A multiple injection screening study at notch 8 was completed with the baseline HPCR fuel injector nozzle tip design. Began a study on performance effects of different nozzle tip geometries. The hybrid locomotive battery vendor performed component fabrication tests and began manufacture of a mockup battery to validate the vibration design performance.

  20. Education Roadmap for Mining Professionals

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-01

    This document represents the roadmap for education in the U.S. mining industry. It was developed based on the results of an Education Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held February 23, 2002 in Phoenix, Arizona.

  1. European photonic technology platform and strategic roadmap: Polish technology platform in photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2014-05-01

    The European Technology Platform Photonics21 is an organization to coordinate common applied research and industrial activities and to realize large multibillion applied technological projects. Analogous projects of global weight are established in the USA (National Photonics Initiative) and in Asia. Photonics21 organization calls and names Photonics a key enabling technology of Europe in 21 century, and estimates that it will decide of the development of many fields of industry and civilization infrastructure during this century. It concerns such areas like: medicine, environment protection, food production and agriculture, telecommunications, transportation, civil engineering, safety, immediate human environment, etc. There is lively interest of this country and local research and industrial, economic and political communities in active participation in such large pan European industrial sectors initiatives. The paper, prepared on the basis of the public and membership materials of Photonics21, and Polish public organizations involved in Photonics presents a concise portrait of these organizations, their activities, from the perspective of abilities and ambitions of Europe and this country.

  2. Patient Roadmap

    MedlinePlus

    ... Follow ATA’s Patient Roadmap for the step-by-step process of how to achieve the best results. Find ... Patient Roadmap,” that identifies the optimal step-by-step process for finding medical support. Please note: this “Roadmap” ...

  3. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The long-term well-being of the nation and maintenance of a sustainable leadership position in agriculture, forestry, and manufacturing, clearly depend on current and near-term support of multidisciplinary research for the development of a reliable renewable resource base. This document sets a roadmap and priorities for that research. America needs leadership that will continue to recognize, support, and move rapidly to meet the need to expand the use of sustainable renewable resources. This roadmap has highlighted potential ways for progress and has identified goals in specific components of the system. Achieving success with these goals will provide the opportunity to hit the vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable resource use by 2020.

  4. The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, Carl; Balasubramanian, K.; Bolcar, M.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Hartman, K.; Mosier, C.; Quijada, M.; Rauscher, B.; Redding, D.; Shaklan, S.; Stahl, P.; Thronson, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  5. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 5 DOE/AL68284-TSR05

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo; Jennifer Topinka; Paul Houpt

    2004-05-07

    The integration of the common rail injection facility with the single cylinder test facility is in progress. Injection modeling parameters wereimproved. Turbocharger experimental data was analyzed and the turbocharger inspected after full load testing. Automatic seal coat spray techniques were developed and several material compositions were tested as coupons and on representative parts. A downselect was made from hybrid energy storage vendor studies. Further development of battery state algorithms was done, and a test plan developed for locomotive demonstration of advanced energy management algorithms. Trip optimization software platform was integrated and baseline validation is in progress. Hybrid energy storage modules have been integrated into the system model.

  6. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 9 DOE/AL68284-TSR09

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo; Paul Houpt; Jennifer Topinka; Anthony Furman

    2005-06-29

    Locomotive-scale single cylinder engine with common rail fuel injection data was gathered to explore the fuel consumption and particulate matter emissions entitlement. A structured experiment on thermal spray application of polymer based compressor abradables was begun. Turbine performance improvements were found due to metallic abradables coatings. Hybrid energy storage battery ripple current and long-term cycling tests have been performed. Final track test of advanced energy management system was performed. Fuel optimization computational methods have been enhanced, and a prototype real-time graphic interface developed.

  7. A National contribution to the GEO Science and Technology roadmap: GIIDA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano; Mazzetti, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pirrone, Nicola; Santolieri, Rosalia; Viola, Angelo; Tartari, Gianni; Santoro, Mattia

    2010-05-01

    The GIIDA (Gestione Integrata e Interoperativa dei Dati Ambientali) project is an initiative of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) launched in 2008 as an inter-departmental project, aiming to design and develop a multidisciplinary e-infrastructure (cyber-infrastructure) for the management, processing, and evaluation of Earth and Environmental resources -i.e. data, services, models, sensors, best practices. GIIDA has been contributing to the implementation of the GEO (Group of Earth Observation) Science and Technology (S&T) roadmap by: (a) linking relevant S&T communities to GEOSS (GEO System of Systems); (b) ensuring that GEOSS is built based on state-of-the-art science and technology. GIIDA co-ordinates the CNR's digital infrastructure development for Earth Observation resources sharing and cooperates with other national agencies and existing projects pursuing the same objective. For the CNR, GIIDA provides an interface to European and international interoperability programmes (e.g. INSPIRE, and GMES). It builds a national network for dialogue and resolution of issues at varying scientific and technical levels. To achieve such goals, GIIDA introduced a set of guidance principles: • To shift from a "traditional" data centric approach to a more advanced service-based solution for Earth System Science and Environmental information. • To shift the focus from Data to Information Spatial Infrastructures in order to support decision-making. • To be interoperable with analogous National (e.g. SINAnet, and the INSPIRE National Infrastructure) and international initiatives (e.g. INSPIRE, GMES, SEIS, and GEOSS). • To reinforce the Italian presence in the European and international programmes concerning digital infrastructures, geospatial information, and the Mega-Science approach. • To apply the National and International Information Technology (IT) standards for achieving multi-disciplinary interoperability in the Earth and Space Sciences (e.g. ISO, OGC

  8. THE DOE COMPLEX-WIDE VADOSE ZONE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP: CHARACTERIZATION MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT FATE AND TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Lab (INEEL) was charged by DOE EM to develop a complex-wide science and technology roadmap for the characterization, modeling and simulation of the fate and transport of contamination in the vadose zone. Various types of hazardous, r...

  9. A methodological combined framework for roadmapping biosensor research: a fault tree analysis approach within a strategic technology evaluation frame.

    PubMed

    Siontorou, Christina G; Batzias, Fragiskos A

    2014-03-01

    Biosensor technology began in the 1960s to revolutionize instrumentation and measurement. Despite the glucose sensor market success that revolutionized medical diagnostics, and artificial pancreas promise currently the approval stage, the industry is reluctant to capitalize on other relevant university-produced knowledge and innovation. On the other hand, the scientific literature is extensive and persisting, while the number of university-hosted biosensor groups is growing. Considering the limited marketability of biosensors compared to the available research output, the biosensor field has been used by the present authors as a suitable paradigm for developing a methodological combined framework for "roadmapping" university research output in this discipline. This framework adopts the basic principles of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), replacing the lower level of technology alternatives with internal barriers (drawbacks, limitations, disadvantages), modeled through fault tree analysis (FTA) relying on fuzzy reasoning to count for uncertainty. The proposed methodology is validated retrospectively using ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) - based biosensors as a case example, and then implemented prospectively membrane biosensors, putting an emphasis on the manufacturability issues. The analysis performed the trajectory of membrane platforms differently than the available market roadmaps that, considering the vast industrial experience in tailoring and handling crystallic forms, suggest the technology path of biomimetic and synthetic materials. The results presented herein indicate that future trajectories lie along with nanotechnology, and especially nanofabrication and nano-bioinformatics, and focused, more on the science-path, that is, on controlling the natural process of self-assembly and the thermodynamics of bioelement-lipid interaction. This retained the nature-derived sensitivity of the biosensor platform, pointing out the differences

  10. International Space Exploration Coordination Group Assessment of Technology Gaps for LOx/Methane Propulsion Systems for the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Whitley, Ryan; Klem, Mark D.; Johnson, Wesley; Alexander, Leslie; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Manfletti, Chiara; Caruana, Jean-Noel; Ueno, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) formed two technology gap assessment teams to evaluate topic discipline areas that had not been worked at an international level to date. The participating agencies were ASI, CNES, DLR, ESA, JAXA, and NASA. Accordingly, the ISECG Technology Working Group (TWG) recommended two discipline areas based on Critical Technology Needs reflected within the GER Technology Development Map (GTDM): Dust Mitigation and LOX/Methane Propulsion. LOx/Methane propulsion systems are enabling for future human missions Mars by significantly reducing the landed mass of the Mars ascent stage through the use of in-situ propellant production, for improving common fluids for life support, power and propulion thus allowing for diverse redundancy, for eliminating the corrosive and toxic propellants thereby improving surface operations and resusabilty, and for inceasing the performance of propulsion systems. The goals and objectives of the international team are to determine the gaps in technology that must be closed for LOx/Methane to be used in human exploration missions in cis-lunar, lunar, and Mars mission applications. An emphasis is placed on near term lunar lander applications with extensibility to Mars. Each agency provided a status of the substantial amount of Lox/Methane propulsion system development to date and their inputs on the gaps in the technology that are remaining. The gaps, which are now opportunities for collaboration, are then discussed.

  11. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward for 750–800°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-08-01

    This document presents the NGNP Critical PASSCs and defines their technical maturation path through Technology Development Roadmaps (TDRMs) and their associated Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). As the critical PASSCs advance through increasing levels of technical maturity, project risk is reduced and the likelihood of within-budget and on-schedule completion is enhanced. The current supplier-generated TRLs and TDRMs for a 750–800°C reactor outlet temperature (ROT) specific to each supplier are collected in Appendix A.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Roadmap on Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies in Current and Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) recently sponsored the creation of a roadmap for instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technology development. The roadmap represents the collective efforts of a group of subject matter experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, vendors, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and utilities. It is intended to provide the underpinnings to the government sponsored ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) performed in the United States for the next several years. A distinguishing feature of this roadmapping effort is that it is not limited to a technology progression plan but includes a detailed rationale, aimed at the nonspecialist, for the existence of a focused ICHMI RD&D program. Eight specific technology areas were identified for focused RD&D as follows: (1) sensors and electronics for harsh environments,(2) uncertainty characterization for diagnostics/prognostics applications, (3) quantification of software quality for high-integrity digital applications, (4) intelligent controls for nearly autonomous operation of advanced nuclear plants, (5) plant network architecture, (6) intelligent aiding technology for operational support, (7) human system interaction models and analysis tools, and (8) licensing and regulatory challenges and solutions.

  14. Torsional locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.; Bosi, F.

    2014-01-01

    One edge of an elastic rod is inserted into a friction-less and fitting socket head, whereas the other edge is subjected to a torque, generating a uniform twisting moment. It is theoretically shown and experimentally proved that, although perfectly smooth, the constraint realizes an expulsive axial force on the elastic rod, which amount is independent of the shape of the socket head. The axial force explains why screwdrivers at high torque have the tendency to disengage from screw heads and demonstrates torsional locomotion along a perfectly smooth channel. This new type of locomotion finds direct evidence in the realization of a ‘torsional gun’, capable of transforming torque into propulsive force. PMID:25383038

  15. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  16. Fuelcell Prototype Locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Barnes

    2007-09-28

    An international industry-government consortium is developing a fuelcell hybrid switcher locomotive for commercial railway applications and power-to-grid generation applications. The current phase of this on-going project addresses the practicalities of on-board hydrogen storage, fuelcell technology, and hybridity, all with an emphasis on commercially available products. Through practical evaluation using designs from Vehicle Projects’ Fuelcell-Powered Underground Mine Loader Project, the configuration of the fuelcell switcher locomotive changed from using metal-hydride hydrogen storage and a pure fuelcell power plant to using compressed hydrogen storage, a fuelcell-battery hybrid power plant, and fuelcell stack modules from Ballard Power Systems that have been extensively used in the Citaro bus program in Europe. The new overall design will now use a RailPower battery hybrid Green Goat™ as the locomotive platform. Keeping the existing lead-acid batteries, we will replace the 205 kW diesel gen-set with 225 kW of net fuelcell power, remove the diesel fuel tank, and place 14 compressed hydrogen cylinders, capable of storing 70 kg of hydrogen at 350 bar, on the roof. A detailed design with associated CAD models will allow a complete build of the fuelcell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive in the next funded phase.

  17. Pressure Garment Subsystem Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Constellation program pressure garment subsystem (PGS) team has created a technical roadmap that communicates major technical questions and how and when the questions are being answered in support of major project milestones. The roadmap is a living document that guides the team priorities. The roadmap also communicates technical reactions to changes in project priorities and funding. This paper presents the roadmap and discusses specific roadmap elements in detail as representative examples to provide insight into the meaning and use of the roadmap.

  18. NASA Strategic Roadmap Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott; Bauer, Frank; Stetson, Doug; Robey, Judee; Smith, Eric P.; Capps, Rich; Gould, Dana; Tanner, Mike; Guerra, Lisa; Johnston, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    In response to the Vision, NASA commissioned strategic and capability roadmap teams to develop the pathways for turning the Vision into a reality. The strategic roadmaps were derived from the Vision for Space Exploration and the Aldrich Commission Report dated June 2004. NASA identified 12 strategic areas for roadmapping. The Agency added a thirteenth area on nuclear systems because the topic affects the entire program portfolio. To ensure long-term public visibility and engagement, NASA established a committee for each of the 13 areas. These committees - made up of prominent members of the scientific and aerospace industry communities and senior government personnel - worked under the Federal Advisory Committee Act. A committee was formed for each of the following program areas: 1) Robotic and Human Lunar Exploration; 2) Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; 3) Solar System Exploration; 4) Search for Earth-Like Planets; 5) Exploration Transportation System; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Universe Exploration; 9) Earth Science and Applications from Space; 10) Sun-Solar System Connection; 11) Aeronautical Technologies; 12) Education; 13) Nuclear Systems. This document contains roadmap summaries for 10 of these 13 program areas; The International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and Education are excluded. The completed roadmaps for the following committees: Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; Solar System Exploration; Search for Earth-Like Planets; Universe Exploration; Earth Science and Applications from Space; Sun-Solar System Connection are collected in a separate Strategic Roadmaps volume. This document contains memebership rosters and charters for all 13 committees.

  19. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  20. Summary of the NASA Science Instrument, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS) Technology Assessment Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology Assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assessed the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. This needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper summarizes the SIOSS findings and recommendations.

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Systems, Subsystems, and Components, establishes a baseline for the current technology readiness status, and provides a path forward to achieve increasing levels of technical maturity.

  2. NASA's Deep Space Telecommunications Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, C., Jr.; Stelzried, C.; Deutsch, L.; Swanson, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will present this roadmap, describe how it will support an increasing mission set while also providing significantly increased science data return, summarize the current state of key Ka-band and optical communications technologies, and identify critical path items in terms of technology developments, demonstrations, and mission users.

  3. Challenges for the introduction of board-level optical interconnect technology into product development roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christoph; Offrein, Bert Jan; Schmatz, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Optical interconnects have gradually replaced electrical interconnects in the long-distance telecom, local-area, and rackto- rack link classes. We believe that this transition will also happen in the card-backplane-card datacom link class, both for bandwidth*length reasons and for density reasons. In analogy to the transition from individually wired boards to integrated printed circuit boards, we believe that eventually board-level optical interconnects will be based on an integrated technology such as board-embedded waveguides. In order to bring optical waveguide technology into mainstream product development plans, however, numerous challenges on many levels have to be met. Problems to be tackled span from the base level of materials (stability, processability) and devices (reliability, lifetime), over the subsystem level of packages (concepts, cost-efficient assembly and alignment) all the way up to the system level (link architecture, system packaging, heat management). A sustainable solution can only be reached if the development of all individual technology components is done with the whole system in mind. Important figures of merit are the cost per gigabit per second, the power per gigabit per second, and the maturity/reliability of the technology. We will give an overview of our optical interconnect activity, with respect to these challenges. We will discuss the options, explain our technology decisions and present some results of our multi-disciplinary activity.

  4. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, David J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Benner, Steven A.; Boss, Alan P.; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G.; Farmer, Jack D.; Hedges, S. Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Liskowsky, David R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Meyer, Michael A.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Trent, Jonathan D.; Turner, William W.; Woolf, Neville J.; Yorke, Harold W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  5. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Allamandola, Louis J; Benner, Steven A; Boss, Alan P; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G; Farmer, Jack D; Hedges, S Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M; Knoll, Andrew H; Liskowsky, David R; Meadows, Victoria S; Meyer, Michael A; Pilcher, Carl B; Nealson, Kenneth H; Spormann, Alfred M; Trent, Jonathan D; Turner, William W; Woolf, Neville J; Yorke, Harold W

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. PMID:14577870

  6. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Nuth, Joseph A; Allamandola, Louis J; Boss, Alan P; Farmer, Jack D; Hoehler, Tori M; Jakosky, Bruce M; Meadows, Victoria S; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M

    2008-08-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. PMID:18793098

  7. From R&D to the mouth--a viable roadmap for the technology era.

    PubMed

    Simon, M

    1996-09-01

    This article serves as an overview of the status of dental technology as the profession approaches a new century. Its purpose is to define various ways in which dental manufacturers and marketers can better understand the thinking of the dental professional, those factors that influence their thought processes and how to use this information to develop more effective and predictive marketing strategies. With the advent of more complex and expensive dental technologies, e.g., video imaging, digitized radiology, electronic data transmission, etc., the dentist is faced with a variety of decisions relating to purchasing, implementation and costs/benefits analysis that go beyond the normal daily concerns of delivering competent dental care. It is no longer enough for a manufacturer to make a good product; successful marketing strategies must also include a means for guiding the dentist in the successful integration of these technologies into their offices. In order for dental marketers to meet the competitive demands of this advanced technology era, there must be a commitment to the development of strategic information through the use of third party, customized marketing research. Too much of the input currently used to develop marketing strategies is anecdotal, inherently biased and often not representative of the target market as a whole. It is hoped that this article will effectively challenge the reader to look at the development of dental products and services from a somewhat different, less traditional perspective and that it will provide the impetus and direction for creating better targeted and more rewarding marketing strategies. PMID:8931238

  8. Advanced technology in interventional cardiology: A roadmap for the future of precision coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Chad M; Schussler, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-01

    Several specific new technologies [high-resolution CT coronary imaging with fractional flow reserve (CTCA-FFR), virtual reality (VR), vascular robotic systems (VRS), and three-dimensional printing] are poised to improve the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease and at the same time the safety of the physicians who care for them. This article focuses on the potential clinical impact each of these modalities will have, as well as speculating on synergies that use of them together may achieve. PMID:27020905

  9. NASA Strategic Roadmap Committees Final Roadmaps. Volumes 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Volume 1 contains NASA strategic roadmaps for the following Advanced Planning and Integration Office (APIO) committees: Earth Science and Applications from Space; Sun - Solar System Connection. Volume 2 contains NASA strategic roadmaps for the following APIO committees: Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; Solar System Exploration; Search for Earth-like Planets; Universe Exploration, as well as membership rosters and charters for all APIO committees, including those above and the following: Exploration Transportation System; Nuclear Systems; Robotic and Human Lunar Exploration; Aeronautical Technologies; Space Shuttle; International Space Station; Education.

  10. The DOE Vadose Zone Science and Technology Roadmap: A National Program to Address Characeterization, Monitoring and Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Fate and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kowall, Stephen Jacob

    2001-02-01

    The vadose zone comprises the region lying between the earth’s surface and the top of the regional seasonal aquifer. Until recently contamination in the vadose zone was believed to remain relatively immobile. Thus, little attention was paid to understanding the nature of the vadose zone or the potential pathways for contaminants to migrate through it to the water table or other accessible environments. However, recent discoveries of contaminants migrating considerable distances through the vadose zone at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have changed many assumptions both about the nature and function of the vadose zone and the importance we place on understanding this region. As a result of several vadose zone surprises, DOE Environmental Management (EM) tasked the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to lead the development of a vadose zone science and technology roadmap. The roadmap is focused on identifying research spanning the next 25 years necessary to be able to better predict the fate and transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. This in turn will provide the basis for reducing scientific uncertainty in environmental remediation and, especially, vadose zone related long-term stewardship decisions across the DOE complex. Vadose zone issues are now recognized as a national problem affecting other federal agencies as well as state and municipal sites with similar problems. Over the next few decades, dramatic and fundamental advances in computing, communication, electronics and micro-engineered systems will transform our understanding of many aspects of the scientific and technical challenges we face today. The roadmap will serve to develop a common perspective on possible future science and technology needs in an effort to help make better R&D investment decisions.

  11. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progesss on NASA's Human Exploration Systems and Mobility Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps: Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Technology and Capability Readiness Levels. Relationships Between Roadmaps. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Team Progress to Date).

  12. Human Exploration Systems and Mobility Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Taylor, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the Human Systems and Mobility Capability. Roadmap Process and Approach. Drivers and Assumptions for the whole team. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Requirements will be covered in the appropriate sections. Capability Presentations by Leads under Roadmap (Repeated for each capability under roadmap). Capability Description, Benefits, Current State-of-the-Art. Capability Requirements and Assumptions. Roadmap for Capability. Capability Readiness Level. Technology Readiness Level. Figures of Merit. Summary of Top Level Capability. Significant Technical Challenges. Summary and Forward Work.

  13. Research and Development Technology Development Roadmaps for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ian McKirdy

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for process heat, hydrogen and electricity production. The reactor will be graphite moderated with helium as the primary coolant and may be either prismatic or pebble-bed. Although, final design features have not yet been determined. Research and Development (R&D) activities are proceeding on those known plant systems to mature the technology, codify the materials for specific applications, and demonstrate the component and system viability in NGNP relevant and integrated environments. Collectively these R&D activities serve to reduce the project risk and enhance the probability of on-budget, on-schedule completion and NRC licensing. As the design progresses, in more detail, toward final design and approval for construction, selected components, which have not been used in a similar application, in a relevant environment nor integrated with other components and systems, must be tested to demonstrate viability at reduced scales and simulations prior to full scale operation. This report and its R&D TDRMs present the path forward and its significance in assuring technical readiness to perform the desired function by: Choreographing the integration between design and R&D activities; and proving selected design components in relevant applications.

  14. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  15. The Sematech failure analysis roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Kudva, S.M.; Hasegawa, T.; Shreeve, R.

    1995-12-31

    A failure analysis (FA) technology roadmap that addresses a broad set of needs through the year 2007 is described. It is derived from the 1994 edition of the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) National Technology Roadmap For Semiconductors. The material for this paper has been generated as a result of the combined effort of all the Sematech member company failure analysis representatives, collectively known as the Sematech Product Analysis (PA) Forum. This document is intended as a roadmap of future challenges for those who are involved in performing failure analysis of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) ultra large scale integration (ULSI) circuits and its variants, the suppliers of equipment and services to the FA community, and the various strategic planning organizations in the semiconductor industry, e.g., design, test and process development groups. Incorporated in this publication are the relevant elements of the semiconductor technology roadmap, which serves as the primary driver of the FA capabilities, the resulting FA challenges, and the key capabilities that are needed to meet these FA challenges through the technology generations.

  16. Book of Knowledge (BOK) for NASA Electronic Packaging Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to update the NASA roadmap on packaging technologies (initially released in 2007) and to present the current trends toward further reducing size and increasing functionality. Due to the breadth of work being performed in the area of microelectronics packaging, this report presents only a number of key packaging technologies detailed in three industry roadmaps for conventional microelectronics and a more recently introduced roadmap for organic and printed electronics applications. The topics for each category were down-selected by reviewing the 2012 reports of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS), the 2013 roadmap reports of the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI), the 2013 roadmap of association connecting electronics industry (IPC), the Organic Printed Electronics Association (OE-A). The report also summarizes the results of numerous articles and websites specifically discussing the trends in microelectronics packaging technologies.

  17. Electrokinetic Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Jeffrey Lawrence

    occurring in the interfacial layer near the particle/solution interface, which play a key role in the locomotion. The model enables one to understand how the rods' motion depends on the properties of their environment, such as hydrogen peroxide concentration, solution electrical conductivity, and solution viscosity. The numerical simulations are complemented with a scaling analysis based on the governing equations, which makes definite, verifiable predictions of these dependences. One of the most important trends that has been observed experimentally is the significant decrease in speed induced by adding sub-millimolar concentrations of inert electrolyte. It is important to understand the physical reasons for the electrolyte-induced speed decrease, in order to know whether it is fundamental to this propulsion mechanism, or if there is some feasible means to circumvent it. Successful completion of this research will result in an improved understanding of the capabilities, as well as the risks and limits of applicability, of the bimetallic nanomotors for applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Potential applications of the rods include the targeted delivery of drugs in the human body, sensing of chemical impurities in drinking water, and as engines to drive fabrication of microscale structures.

  18. Locomotive safety device

    SciTech Connect

    Kleffman, D.R.; Phiffer, L.V.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes the environment of a longitudinally extending and diesel engine type railroad locomotive classified under a stopped and ''blue flag'' condition, the locomotive having its traction wheels powerable from a high-voltage main-generator. The locomotive is also equipped with a low-voltage auxiliary-generator having electrical circuitry connected to locomotive installed alarm means, to at least one fuel valve for the diesel engine, to locomotive forward-rearward motive directional control, and to locomotive acceleration control. The low-voltage electrical circuitry extends the locomotive longitudinal length and terminates as two endward multi-pins receptacles. The improvement of a locomotive safety device tending to enforce upon would be the locomotive operators ''blue flag'' condition. The locomotive safety device is adapted to removably engaged with a locomotive multipins receptacle and comprises a multi-perforate plug including electrically conductive bushings adapted to be removably inserted into electrically conductive relationship with appropriately selected individual pins of the multi-pins receptacle.

  19. Terrestrial locomotion in arachnids.

    PubMed

    Spagna, Joseph C; Peattie, Anne M

    2012-05-01

    In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on terrestrial locomotion in Arachnida. Arachnids represent a single diverse (>100,000 species) clade containing well-defined subgroups (at both the order and subordinal levels) that vary morphologically around a basic body plan, yet exhibit highly disparate limb usage, running performance, and tarsal attachment mechanisms. Spiders (Araneae), scorpions (Scorpiones), and harvestmen (Opiliones) have received the most attention in the literature, while some orders have never been subject to rigorous mechanical characterization. Most well-characterized taxa move with gaits analogous to the alternating tripod gaits that characterize fast-moving Insecta - alternating tetrapods or alternating tripods (when one pair of legs is lifted from the ground for some other function). However, between taxa, there is considerable variation in the regularity of phasing between legs. Both large and small spiders appear to show a large amount of variation in the distribution of foot-ground contact, even between consecutive step-cycles of a single run. Mechanisms for attachment to vertical surfaces also vary, and may depend on tufts of adhesive hairs, fluid adhesives, silks, or a combination of these. We conclude that Arachnida, particularly with improvements in microelectronic force sensing technology, can serve as a powerful study system for understanding the kinematics, dynamics, and ecological correlates of sprawled-posture locomotion. PMID:22326455

  20. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: A Technology of Low Coal Rate and High Productivity of RHF Ironmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Kao Lu

    2002-09-15

    An economical and environment-friendly ironmaking process based on heating the chemiexecy self-sufficient green balls of iron ore and coal in a hearth furnace is being developed with financial support from AISI members and DOE. DRI, which is hot (1400 C), dense (3.2 g/cm) and of high degree of metallization (95%), has been produced in laboratory and in a pilot plant in Genoa, Italy. Products of such quality have been made from American and Brazilian ores, BOF sludge, EAF dust/BOF sludge mixtures and millscale. The removal of zinc and lead from green balls by this process is essentially complete. In comparison with typical blast furnace operation, the new technology with a melter would have a lower total coal rate by 200kg.THM. The elimination of cokemaking and high temperature agglomeration steps, and a simpler gas handling system would lead to lower capital and operating costs. In comparison with commercial RHF practice it is different in atmosphere (fully oxidized at 1600 to 1650 C), in bed height (120 mm instead of 20-25 mm) and in pellet composition (much less coal but of higher VM). The combined effect leads to three times higher furnace productivity, lower coal consumption and superior DRI quality. The risk of re-oxidation (slag formation) and dusty operation are practiexecy eliminated. The process is stable, tolerant and independent of the size, shape and movement of the hearth. However, materials handling (e.g., discharge of hot DRI) and the exact energy savings have to be established in a larger furnace, straight or rotary, and in a continuous mode of operation.

  1. NASA Capability Roadmaps Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcoxon, Rita; Thronson, Harley; Varsi, Guilio; Mueller, Robert; Regenie, Victoria; Inman, Tom; Crooke, Julie; Coulter, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This document is the result of eight months of hard work and dedication from NASA, industry, other government agencies, and academic experts from across the nation. It provides a summary of the capabilities necessary to execute the Vision for Space Exploration and the key architecture decisions that drive the direction for those capabilities. This report is being provided to the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) team for consideration in development of an architecture approach and investment strategy to support NASA future mission, programs and budget requests. In addition, it will be an excellent reference for NASA's strategic planning. A more detailed set of roadmaps at the technology and sub-capability levels are available on CD. These detailed products include key driving assumptions, capability maturation assessments, and technology and capability development roadmaps.

  2. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Foley, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  3. Roadmap on optical security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Carnicer, Artur; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nomura, Takanori; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.; Nishchal, Naveen K.; Torroba, Roberto; Fredy Barrera, John; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Stern, Adrian; Rivenson, Yair; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.; Situ, Guohai; Naruse, Makoto; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Juvells, Ignasi; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.; Markman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Information security and authentication are important challenges facing society. Recent attacks by hackers on the databases of large commercial and financial companies have demonstrated that more research and development of advanced approaches are necessary to deny unauthorized access to critical data. Free space optical technology has been investigated by many researchers in information security, encryption, and authentication. The main motivation for using optics and photonics for information security is that optical waveforms possess many complex degrees of freedom such as amplitude, phase, polarization, large bandwidth, nonlinear transformations, quantum properties of photons, and multiplexing that can be combined in many ways to make information encryption more secure and more difficult to attack. This roadmap article presents an overview of the potential, recent advances, and challenges of optical security and encryption using free space optics. The roadmap on optical security is comprised of six categories that together include 16 short sections written by authors who have made relevant contributions in this field. The first category of this roadmap describes novel encryption approaches, including secure optical sensing which summarizes double random phase encryption applications and flaws [Yamaguchi], the digital holographic encryption in free space optical technique which describes encryption using multidimensional digital holography [Nomura], simultaneous encryption of multiple signals [Pérez-Cabré], asymmetric methods based on information truncation [Nishchal], and dynamic encryption of video sequences [Torroba]. Asymmetric and one-way cryptosystems are analyzed by Peng. The second category is on compression for encryption. In their respective contributions, Alfalou and Stern propose similar goals involving compressed data and compressive sensing encryption. The very important area of cryptanalysis is the topic of the third category with two sections

  4. Vision 2020. Reaction Engineering Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Klipstein, David H.; Robinson, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    The Reaction Engineering Roadmap is a part of an industry- wide effort to create a blueprint of the research and technology milestones that are necessary to achieve longterm industry goals. This report documents the results of a workshop focused on the research needs, technology barriers, and priorities of the chemical industry as they relate to reaction engineering viewed first by industrial use (basic chemicals; specialty chemicals; pharmaceuticals; and polymers) and then by technology segment (reactor system selection, design, and scale-up; chemical mechanism development and property estimation; dealing with catalysis; and new, nonstandard reactor types).

  5. Planetary Data System (PDS) Strategic Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Emily; McNutt, Ralph; Crichton, Daniel J.; Morgan, Tom

    2016-07-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) archives and distributes scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) sponsors the PDS. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the SMD at NASA Headquarters has directed the PDS to set up a Roadmap team to formulate a PDS Roadmap for the period 2017-2026. The purpose of this activity is to provide a forecast of both the rapidly changing Information Technology (IT) environment and the changing expectations of the planetary science communities with respect to Planetary Data archives including, specifically, increasing assessability to all planetary data. The Roadmap team will also identify potential actions that could increase interoperability with other archive and curation elements within NASA and with the archives of other National Space Agencies. The Roadmap team will assess the current state of the PDS and report their findings to the PSD Director by April 15, 2017. This presentation will give an update of this roadmap activity and serve as an opportunity to engage the planetary community at large to provide input to the Roadmap.

  6. Roadmapping - A Tool for Strategic Planning and Leveraging R&D completed by other Agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J. W.

    2002-02-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons and research program. This is the largest, most complex environmental cleanup program in the world. The issues and problems encountered in this program create the need to develop many scientific and technological solutions. To be effective, the process used to create these solutions must be well coordinated through DOE's Environmental Management program, the rest of DOE, and other Federal agencies. Roadmapping is one strategic planning tool to provide the needed coordination. Past roadmapping accomplishments include: (1) Issuance of the Draft EM Roadmapping Guidance; (2) Issuance of the EM R&D Program Plan and Strategic Plan which established the direction for Roadmapping; (3) Issuance of the OST Management Plan which calls out Roadmapping as a key tool in EM Research & Development (R&D) Strategic Planning; (4) Completion of or progress on key EM Roadmaps, i.e., Savannah River High Level Waste (HLW) Salt Dispositioning Roadmaps, Hanford Groundwater/Vadose Zone Roadmap, Robotics and Intelligent Machines Critical Technology Roadmap, Complex-Wide Vadose Zone Roadmap, Long-Term Stewardship Preliminary Roadmap, Hydrogen Gas Generation R&D Plan (Roadmap), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Sodium Bearing Waste Dispositioning Roadmap, INEEL Voluntary Consent Order Tanks Characterization Roadmap, INEEL Vadose Zone/Groundwater Roadmap, Calcine Treatment Alternatives Roadmap. These efforts represent a great start; however, there is more to be accomplished in using Roadmapping as a tool for planning strategic initiatives and in coordinating the R&D performed by multiple federal agencies.

  7. Roadmap on ultrafast optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Derryck T.; Heyl, Christoph M.; Thomson, Robert R.; Trebino, Rick; Steinmeyer, Günter; Fielding, Helen H.; Holzwarth, Ronald; Zhang, Zhigang; Del’Haye, Pascal; Südmeyer, Thomas; Mourou, Gérard; Tajima, Toshiki; Faccio, Daniele; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cerullo, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    The year 2015 marked the 25th anniversary of modern ultrafast optics, since the demonstration of the first Kerr lens modelocked Ti:sapphire laser in 1990 (Spence et al 1990 Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO, pp 619–20) heralded an explosion of scientific and engineering innovation. The impact of this disruptive technology extended well beyond the previous discipline boundaries of lasers, reaching into biology labs, manufacturing facilities, and even consumer healthcare and electronics. In recognition of such a milestone, this roadmap on Ultrafast Optics draws together articles from some of the key opinion leaders in the field to provide a freeze-frame of the state-of-the-art, while also attempting to forecast the technical and scientific paradigms which will define the field over the next 25 years. While no roadmap can be fully comprehensive, the thirteen articles here reflect the most exciting technical opportunities presented at the current time in Ultrafast Optics. Several articles examine the future landscape for ultrafast light sources, from practical solid-state/fiber lasers and Raman microresonators to exotic attosecond extreme ultraviolet and possibly even zeptosecond x-ray pulses. Others address the control and measurement challenges, requiring radical approaches to harness nonlinear effects such as filamentation and parametric generation, coupled with the question of how to most accurately characterise the field of ultrafast pulses simultaneously in space and time. Applications of ultrafast sources in materials processing, spectroscopy and time-resolved chemistry are also discussed, highlighting the improvements in performance possible by using lasers of higher peak power and repetition rate, or by exploiting the phase stability of emerging new frequency comb sources.

  8. Air quality impacts and health-benefit valuation of a low-emission technology for rail yard locomotives in Atlanta Georgia.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Michael; Boylan, James; Huang, Yan; Bergin, Michelle; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-11-15

    One of the largest rail yard facilities in the Southeastern US, the Inman and Tilford yards, is located in the northwestern section of Atlanta, Georgia alongside other industries, schools, businesses, and dwellings. It is a significant source of fine particulate (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) (Galvis, Bergin, & Russell, 2013). We calculate 2011 PM2.5 and BC emissions from the rail yards and primary industrial and on-road mobile sources in the area and determine their impact on local air quality using Gaussian dispersion modeling. We determine the change in PM2.5 and BC concentrations that could be accomplished by upgrading traditional switcher locomotives used in these rail yards to a lower emitting technology and evaluate the health benefits for comparison with upgrade costs. Emissions from the rail yards were estimated using reported fuel consumption data (GAEPD, 2012b) and emission factors previously measured in the rail yards (Galvis et al., 2013). Model evaluation against 2011 monitoring data found agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. Model outputs indicate that the line-haul and switcher activities are responsible for increments in annual average concentrations of approximately 0.5±0.03 μg/m(3) (39%) and 0.7±0.04 μg/m(3) (56%) of BC, and for 1.0±0.1 μg/m(3) (7%) and 1.6±0.2 μg/m(3) (14%) of PM2.5 at two monitoring sites located north and south of the rail yards respectively. Upgrading the switcher locomotives at the yards with a lower emitting technology in this case "mother slug" units could decrease PM2.5 and BC emissions by about 9 and 3 t/year respectively. This will lower annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 0.3±0.1 μg/m(3) and 0.6±0.1 μg/m(3) and BC concentrations between 0.1±0.02 μg/m(3) and 0.2±0.03 μg/m(3) at monitoring sites north and south of the rail yards respectively, and would facilitate PM2.5 NAAQS attainment in the area. We estimate that health benefits of approximately 20 million dollars per year

  9. SSIP Phase I Roadmap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinh, Megan; Lucas, Anne; Taylor, Cornelia; Kelley, Grace; Kasprzak, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This roadmap provides a description of the activities involved in the development of the State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) (SPP/APR Indicators C11 and B17) due to the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) on April 1, 2015. The roadmap is intended to support states with completing Phase I of the SSIP process. This document provides…

  10. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light–matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the

  11. Heliophysics: The New Science of the Sun-Solar System Connection. Recommended Roadmap for Science and Technology 2005-2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is a Roadmap to understanding the environment of our Earth, from its life-sustaining Sun out past the frontiers of the solar system. A collection of spacecraft now patrols this space, revealing not a placid star and isolated planets, but an immense, dynamic, interconnected system within which our home planet is embedded and through which space explorers must journey. These spacecraft already form a great observatory with which the Heliophysics program can study the Sun, the heliosphere, the Earth, and other planetary environments as elements of a system--one that contains dynamic space weather and evolves in response to solar, planetary, and interstellar variability. NASA continually evolves the Heliophysics Great Observatory by adding new missions and instruments in order to answer the challenging questions confronting us now and in the future as humans explore the solar system. The three heliophysics science objectives: opening the frontier to space environment prediction; understanding the nature of our home in space, and safeguarding the journey of exploration, require sustained research programs that depend on combining new data, theory, analysis, simulation, and modeling. Our program pursues a deeper understanding of the fundamental physical processes that underlie the exotic phenomena of space.

  12. Space Communications Capability Roadmap Interim Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearing, Robert; Regan, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Identify the need for a robust communications and navigation architecture for the success of exploration and science missions. Describe an approach for specifying architecture alternatives and analyzing them. Establish a top level architecture based on a network of networks. Identify key enabling technologies. Synthesize capability, architecture and technology into an initial capability roadmap.

  13. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    performance requirements, waste composition, preliminary waste form screening, waste form development, process design and support, and validation. The regulatory and performance requirements activity will provide the secondary waste-form performance requirements. The waste-composition activity will provide workable ranges of secondary waste compositions and formulations for simulants and surrogates. Preliminary waste form screening will identify candidate waste forms for immobilizing the secondary wastes. The waste form development activity will mature the waste forms, leading to a selected waste form(s) with a defensible understanding of the long-term release rate and input into the critical decision process for a secondary waste treatment process/facility. The process and design support activity will provide a reliable process flowsheet and input to support a robust facility design. The validation effort will confirm that the selected waste form meets regulatory requirements. The final outcome of the implementation of the secondary waste roadmap is the compliant, effective, timely, and cost-effective disposal of the secondary wastes. The work necessary to address the programmatic, regulatory, and technical risks and uncertainties identified through the Secondary Waste Roadmap Workshop are assembled into several program needs elements. Programmatic/Regulatory needs include: • Select and deploy Hanford tank waste supplemental treatment technology • Provide treatment capability for secondary waste streams from tank waste treatment • Develop consensus on secondary waste form acceptance. Technology needs include: • Define secondary waste composition ranges and uncertainties • Identify and develop waste forms for secondary waste immobilization and disposal • Develop test methods to characterize secondary waste form performance. Details for each of these program elements are provided.

  14. 76 FR 66040 - NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0 (Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability... and Technology (NIST) seeks comments on the draft NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid..., 2011. The entire draft version of the NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid...

  15. Roadmap on silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, David; Zilkie, Aaron; Bowers, John E.; Komljenovic, Tin; Reed, Graham T.; Vivien, Laurent; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Cassan, Eric; Virot, Léopold; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Schmid, Jens H.; Xu, Dan-Xia; Boeuf, Frédéric; O’Brien, Peter; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon photonics research can be dated back to the 1980s. However, the previous decade has witnessed an explosive growth in the field. Silicon photonics is a disruptive technology that is poised to revolutionize a number of application areas, for example, data centers, high-performance computing and sensing. The key driving force behind silicon photonics is the ability to use CMOS-like fabrication resulting in high-volume production at low cost. This is a key enabling factor for bringing photonics to a range of technology areas where the costs of implementation using traditional photonic elements such as those used for the telecommunications industry would be prohibitive. Silicon does however have a number of shortcomings as a photonic material. In its basic form it is not an ideal material in which to produce light sources, optical modulators or photodetectors for example. A wealth of research effort from both academia and industry in recent years has fueled the demonstration of multiple solutions to these and other problems, and as time progresses new approaches are increasingly being conceived. It is clear that silicon photonics has a bright future. However, with a growing number of approaches available, what will the silicon photonic integrated circuit of the future look like? This roadmap on silicon photonics delves into the different technology and application areas of the field giving an insight into the state-of-the-art as well as current and future challenges faced by researchers worldwide. Contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide an overview and outlook for the silicon waveguide platform, optical sources, optical modulators, photodetectors, integration approaches, packaging, applications of silicon photonics and approaches required to satisfy applications at mid-infrared wavelengths. Advances in science and technology required to meet challenges faced by the field in each of these areas are also addressed together with

  16. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  17. A European Roadmap for Thermophysical Properties Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filtz, J.-R.; Wu, J.; Stacey, C.; Hollandt, J.; Monte, C.; Hay, B.; Hameury, J.; Villamañan, M. A.; Thurzo-Andras, E.; Sarge, S.

    2015-03-01

    A roadmap for thermophysical properties metrology was developed in spring 2011 by the Thermophysical Properties Working Group in the EURAMET Technical Committee in charge of Thermometry, Humidity and Moisture, and Thermophysical Properties metrology. This roadmapping process is part of the EURAMET (European Association of National Metrology Institutes) activities aiming to increase impact from national investment in European metrology R&D. The roadmap shows a shared vision of how the development of thermophysical properties metrology should be oriented over the next 15 years to meet future social and economic needs. Since thermophysical properties metrology is a very broad and varied field, the authors have limited this roadmap to the following families of properties: thermal transport properties (thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, etc.), radiative properties (emissivity, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance), caloric quantities (specific heat, enthalpy, etc.), thermodynamic properties (PVT and phase equilibria properties), and temperature-dependent quantities (thermal expansion, compressibility, etc.). This roadmap identifies the main societal and economical triggers that drive developments in thermophysical properties metrology. The key topics considered are energy, environment, advanced manufacturing and processing, public safety, security, and health. Key targets that require improved thermophysical properties measurements are identified in order to address these triggers. Ways are also proposed for defining the necessary skills and the main useful means to be implemented. These proposals will have to be revised as needs and technologies evolve in the future.

  18. Technical Comparative Analysis of "Best of Breed" Turnkey Si-Based Processes and Equipment, to be Used to Produce a Combined Multi-entity Research and Development Technology Roadmap for Thick and Thin Silicon PV

    SciTech Connect

    Hovel, Harold; Prettyman, Kevin

    2015-03-27

    A side-by-side analysis was done on then currently available technology, along with roadmaps to push each particular option forward. Variations in turnkey line processes can and do result in finished solar device performance. Together with variations in starting material quality, the result is a distribution of effciencies. Forensic analysis and characterization of each crystalline Si based technology will determine the most promising approach with respect to cost, efficiency and reliability. Forensic analysis will also shed light on the causes of binning variations. Si solar cells were forensically analyzed from each turn key supplier using a host of techniques

  19. Roadmap to personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Qattan, Malak; Demonacos, Constantinos; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija

    2012-08-01

    Standard clinical protocols and the concept "one drug fits all" that are currently used to treat illness in many cases are not effective, and strikingly so in the treatment of cancer, where 75% of therapeutic schemes are ineffective. The concept of personalized medicine is that the treatment of the disease is designed on the basis of the individual needs of each patient and the factors that influence their response to different drugs. Individualization of patient care has the potential to generate novel effective therapies, limit the adverse drug effects, create optimal treatments for individual patients, and decrease the cost associated with chronic illness and complications of drug usage. However, to achieve the goals of personalized medicine many challenges must be addressed. Here we discuss possible ways to increase the consistency of data generated by basic research and their suitability for application in medicine. New technologies employing systems biology and computer based approaches will facilitate overcoming many of the scientific challenges in the field. Changes in the education of researchers, health professionals, and the public are also required to successfully implement personalized medicine as a routine in the clinic. Finally, shift of the focus away from the development of blockbuster drugs in the biopharmaceutical industry, and modifications in the legal system to accommodate novel advancements need to be considered. The joint effort of all interested parties is needed to generate an efficient roadmap that will take us rapidly and safely to effective individual treatment, which will eliminate diseases and create better health care for all. PMID:22911518

  20. Compensations during Unsteady Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mu; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-12-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady, but the mechanisms used by animals to power and control unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) are not well understood. We use behavioral, morphological, and impulsive perturbations to determine the compensations used during unsteady locomotion. At the level both of the whole-body and of joints, quasi-stiffness models are useful for describing adjustments to the functioning of legs and joints during maneuvers. However, alterations to the mechanics of legs and joints often are distinct for different phases of the step cycle or for specific joints. For example, negotiating steps involves independent changes of leg stiffness during compression and thrust phases of stance. Unsteady locomotion also involves parameters that are not part of the simplest reduced-parameter models of locomotion (e.g., the spring-loaded inverted pendulum) such as moments of the hip joint. Extensive coupling among translational and rotational parameters must be taken into account to stabilize locomotion or maneuver. For example, maneuvers with morphological perturbations (increased rotational inertial turns) involve changes to several aspects of movement, including the initial conditions of rotation and ground-reaction forces. Coupled changes to several parameters may be employed to control maneuvers on a trial-by-trial basis. Compensating for increased rotational inertia of the body during turns is facilitated by the opposing effects of several mechanical and behavioral parameters. However, the specific rules used by animals to control translation and rotation of the body to maintain stability or maneuver have not been fully characterized. We initiated direct-perturbation experiments to investigate the strategies used by humans to maintain stability following center-of-mass (COM) perturbations. When walking, humans showed more resistance to medio-lateral perturbations (lower COM displacement). However, when running, humans

  1. Proceedings of the Technology Roadmap Workshop on Communication and Control Systems for Distributed Energy Implementation and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-05-01

    More than 50 experts from energy and information technology industries, Federal and State government agencies, universities, and National Laboratories participated in the “Communication and Control Systems for Distributed Energy Implementation and Testing Workshop” in Reston, Virginia, on May 14-15, 2002. This was a unique workshop in that, for the first time, representatives from the information technology sector and those from energy-related industries, Federal and State government agencies, universities, and National Laboratories, gathered to discuss these issues and develop a set of action-oriented implementation strategies. A planning committee of industry, consultant, and government representatives laid the groundwork for the workshop by identifying key participants and developing an appropriate agenda. This document reflects the ideas and priorities discussed by workshop participants.

  2. Reactor User Interface Technology Development Roadmaps for a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Outlet Temperature of 750 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Mckirdy

    2010-12-01

    This report evaluates the technology readiness of the interface components that are required to transfer high-temperature heat from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) to selected industrial applications. This report assumes that the HTGR operates at a reactor outlet temperature of 750°C and provides electricity and/or process heat at 700°C to conventional process applications, including the production of hydrogen.

  3. A Review of Locomotion Systems for Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lejie; Towfighian, Shahrzad; Hila, Amine

    2015-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy for gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a modern technology that has the potential to replace conventional endoscopy techniques. Capsule endoscopy is a pill-shaped device embedded with a camera, a coin battery, and a data transfer. Without a locomotion system, this capsule endoscopy can only passively travel inside the GI tract via natural peristalsis, thus causing several disadvantages such as inability to control and stop, and risk of capsule retention. Therefore, a locomotion system needs to be added to optimize the current capsule endoscopy. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art locomotion methods along with the desired locomotion features such as size, speed, power, and temperature and compares the properties of different methods. In addition, properties and motility mechanisms of the GI tract are described. The main purpose of this review is to understand the features of GI tract and diverse locomotion methods in order to create a future capsule endoscopy compatible with GI tract properties. PMID:26292162

  4. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  5. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  6. Organics in optoelectronics: advances and roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2006-02-01

    Over a four-year period from 2001 to 2005, the Microphotonics Center Industry Consortium at MIT evaluated the vast array of new technologies that have disrupted the telecommunications industry. As part of its mission, the consortium researched a variety of communications-related technical and business topics, presented recommendations for the rational restructuring of the industry, and developed a 30-year communications technology roadmap (CTR). The CTR program was guided by industry-led Technology Working Groups (TWGs), with the support of MIT faculty and students. We present the findings of the Organics in Optoelectronics TWG in terms of advances in organic-material based optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs), and we propose a roadmap for optoelectronic integration enabled by hybrid organic-inorganic OEICs.

  7. The 2014 Magnetism Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, Robert L.; Breitkreutz, Stephan; Åkerman, Johan; Chumak, Andrii V.; Otani, YoshiChika; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich; Bowen, Martin; Majetich, Sara A.; Kläui, Mathias; Lucian Prejbeanu, Ioan; Dieny, Bernard; Dempsey, Nora M.; Hillebrands, Burkard

    2014-08-01

    Magnetism is a very fascinating and dynamic field. Especially in the last 30 years, there have been many major advances in a range of areas from novel fundamental phenomena to new products. Applications such as hard disc drives and magnetic sensors are part of our daily life and new applications, such as in non-volatile computer random access memory, are expected to surface shortly. Thus it is an opportune time for describing the current status and current and future challenges in the form of a roadmap article. The 2014 Magnetism Roadmap provides a view on several selected, presently very active innovative developments. It consists of twelve sections, each written by an expert in the field and addressing a specific subject, with a strong emphasis on future potential. This Roadmap cannot cover the entire field. Several highly relevant areas have been selected without attempting to provide a full review - a future update will aim to address further. The scope covers mostly nanomagnetic phenomena and applications, where surfaces and interfaces provide additional functionality. New developments in fundamental topics such as interacting nanoelements, novel magnon-based spintronics concepts, spin-orbit torques and spin-caloric phenomena are addressed. New materials such as organic magnetic materials and permanent magnets are covered. New applications are presented such as nanomagnetic logic, non-local and domain-wall based devices, heat-assisted magnetic recording, magnetic random access memory and applications in biotechnology. This Roadmap acts to serve as a guideline for future emerging research directions in modern magnetism.

  8. Nationale Roadmap Embedded Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, Werner; Achatz, Reinhold; Beetz, Klaus; Broy, Manfred; Daembkes, Heinrich; Grimm, Klaus; Liggesmeyer, Peter

    Eingebettete Systeme" sind in ihrem Softwareanteil nicht sichtbar und doch hoch relevant für den Wirtschaftsstandort Deutschland. Ihre Bedeutung fasst die vorliegende Nationale Roadmap Embedded Systems in den folgenden 10 Thesen zusammen: These 1 Die zentralen ökonomischen und gesellschaftlichen Herausforderungen in Deutschland lassen sich ohne die Querschnittstechnologie Embedded Systems nicht lösen1.

  9. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  10. Compliant Synergies in Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travers, Matthew; Choset, Howie; Goldman @ Georgia Tech. Physics Department Collaboration

    Biological systems appear to have natural mechanisms that allow them to readily compensate for unexpected environmental variations when compared to their mechanical (i.e., robotic) counterparts. We hypothesize that the basis for this discrepancy is almost innate: what biology appears to be born with, built-in mechanisms for coordinating their many degrees of freedom, we struggle to ``program.'' We therefore look toward biology for inspiration. In particular, we are interested in kinematic synergies, low-dimensional representations that explicitly encode the underlying structure of how systems coordinate their internal degrees of freedom to achieve high-level tasks. In this work, we derive parametric representations of kinematic synergies and present a new compliant locomotion control framework that enables the parameters to be directly controlled in response to external disturbances. We present results of this framework implemented on two separate platforms, a snake-like and hexapod robot. Our results show that, using synergies, the locomotion control of these very different systems can be reduced to simple, extremely capable, and common forms, thus offering new insights into both robotic as well as biological locomotion in complex terrains.

  11. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  12. NASA's New Thermal Management Systems Roadmap; Whats in it, What it Means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Ted

    2016-01-01

    In July of 2015 NASA publically released a new set of Technology Area Roadmaps that will be used to help guide future NASA-funded technology development efforts. One of these was the Thermal Management Systems Roadmap, often identified as TA14. This Roadmap identifies the time sequencing and interdependencies of high priority, advanced thermal control technology for the next 5 to 20 years. Available funding limits the development of new technology. The Roadmaps are the first step in the process of prioritizing HQ-supported technology funding. The 2015 Roadmaps are focused on planned mission architectures and needs, as identified in the NRC-led science Decadals and HEOMD's Design Reference Missions. Additionally, the 2015 Roadmaps focus on "applied " R&D as opposed to more basic research. The NASA Mission Directorates were all closely involved in development of 2015 Roadmaps, and an extensive external review was also conducted. This talk will discuss the Technology Roadmaps in general, and then focus on the specific technologies identified for TA 14, Thermal Management Systems.

  13. ILEWG roadmap Robotic and Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We shall discuss the rationale and roadmap of ongoing Moon missions, and how they can prepare for future human exploration. Various fundamental scientific investigations can be performed with robots and humans: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The roadmap includes also enabling technologies that prepare for the best syenrgies between robots and humans: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package;Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector, Support equipment for astronaut sorties; life science precursors for life support systems. We shall adddress requirements for robotic precursor programmes, global robotic village, technology development, resource utilisation, human aspects, science and exploration from lunar sorties, transition towards permanent settlements and lunar bases.

  14. Web-Based Documentation System for Dynamic Roadmaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Sajid; Chishti, Ahsan; Elamvazuthi, Chandran

    2006-01-01

    Technology Roadmapping is a consensus-driven process to identify, evaluate, and select technology alternatives to satisfy the needs of a particular group of people. It serves as a high-level planning tool to support the development, implementation, and communication of technology development strategies and plans. The outcome of a technology…

  15. Defense display strategy and roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2002-08-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new strategy for displays. The new displays science and technology roadmap will incorporate urgent warfighter needs as well as investment opportunities where military advantage is foreseen. Thrusts now ending include the High Definition System (HDS) program and related initiatives, like flexible displays, at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Continuing thrusts include a variety of Serviceled programs to develop micro-displays for virtual image helmet-/rifle-mounted systems for pilots and soldiers, novel displays, materials, and basic research. New thrusts are being formulated for ultra-resolution, true 3D, and intelligent displays (integration of computers and communication functions into screens). The new strategy is Service-led.

  16. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  17. Electrical and Electronics Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Electrical and Electronics Technical Team’s (EETT's) mission is to enable cost-effective, smaller, lighter, and efficient power electronics and electric motors for electric traction drive systems (ETDSs) while maintaining performance of internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles. The EETT also identifies technology gaps, establishes R&D targets, develops a roadmap to achieve technical targets and goals, and evaluates the R&D progress toward meeting the established R&D targets and goals.

  18. National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and suggestions put forth by officials, industry experts and policymakers in their efforts to come together to develop a roadmap for America''s clean energy future and outline the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision. The National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop was held April 2-3, 2002. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, The National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, which is also available online.

  19. Roadmap to quieter highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbisier, Christopher

    2005-09-01

    Research in Europe, as documented by an FHWA/AASHTO European Scan Tour held in May 2004, and recent activity in Arizona and California, has fostered much interest in ``quiet pavements.'' On September 14-16, 2004, an FHWA sponsored Roadmap to Quieter Highways workshop was held at Purdue University. Participants were from the disciplines of pavement, safety, and noise from FHWA, State departments of transportation, industry (paving associations, general contractors, tire, and vehicle manufacturers), and academia. After several breakout sessions in the areas of policy, construction, maintenance, analysis (measurement and prediction), research, and design, the group had identified the knowledge gaps and developed a plan to fill those gaps. Several activities have been implemented based on the Roadmap to Quieter Highways. An Expert Task Group was formed to provide a draft provisional standard for the measurement methodologies, e.g., source, wayside, pavement absorption. A Tire/Pavement 101 workshop is being developed to educate pavement practitioners in noise concepts and noise practitioners in pavement concepts. A Tire/Pavement Noise clearinghouse is being developed as a one-stop location for all current tire/pavement noise or quiet pavement activities. Several research studies have been started and a second workshop will be held in 2006 to assess progress of the Roadmap.

  20. Locomotion: dealing with friction.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, V

    1998-05-12

    To move on land, in water, or in the air, even at constant speed and at the same level, always requires an expenditure of energy. The resistance to motion that has to be overcome is of many different kinds depending on size, speed, and the characteristics of the medium, and is a fascinating subject in itself. Even more interesting are nature's stratagems and solutions toward minimizing the effort involved in the locomotion of different types of living creatures, and humans' imitations and inventions in an attempt to do at least as well. PMID:9576902

  1. Locomotion: Dealing with friction

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, V.

    1998-01-01

    To move on land, in water, or in the air, even at constant speed and at the same level, always requires an expenditure of energy. The resistance to motion that has to be overcome is of many different kinds depending on size, speed, and the characteristics of the medium, and is a fascinating subject in itself. Even more interesting are nature’s stratagems and solutions toward minimizing the effort involved in the locomotion of different types of living creatures, and humans’ imitations and inventions in an attempt to do at least as well. PMID:9576902

  2. Legless locomotion in lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Gong, Chaohui; Serrano, Miguel M.; Mendelson, Joseph R., III; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    By propagating waves from head to tail, limbless organisms like snakes can traverse terrain composed of rocks, foliage, soil and sand. Previous research elucidated how rigid obstacles influence snake locomotion by studying a model terrain-symmetric lattices of pegs placed in hard ground. We want to understand how different substrate-body interaction modes affect performance in desert-adapted snakes during transit of substrates composed of both rigid obstacles and granular media (GM). We tested Chionactis occipitalis, the Mojave shovel-nosed snake, in two laboratory treatments: lattices of 0 . 64 cm diameter obstacles arrayed on both a hard, slick substrate and in a GM of ~ 0 . 3 mm diameter glass particles. For all lattice spacings, d, speed through the hard ground lattices was less than that in GM lattices. However, maximal undulation efficiencies ηu (number of body lengths advanced per undulation cycle) in both treatments were comparable when d was intermediate. For other d, ηu was lower than this maximum in hard ground lattices, while on GM, ηu was insensitive to d. To systematically explore such locomotion, we tested a physical robot model of the snake; performance depended sensitively on base substrate, d and body wave parameters.

  3. Hanford Site single-shell tank roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Roadmap covers the near-term waste management activities to ensure safe interim storage of 140 million liters of waste. It also addresses the environmental restoration activities to close the 6 single-shell tank operable units, which include 149 single-shell tanks. These tanks were constructed starting in the 1940`s. Sixty-six tanks have leaked or are assumed to be leaking. This Roadmap has highlighted the need for integrated planning and resource allocation. The June 1990 Five-Year Plan did not address the tank safety concerns that evolved since its publication. Potential impacts to Tri-Party Agreement milestones for characterization, stabilization and isolation, technology development/demonstration, and closure will be examined in greater detail to strengthen the technical decision basis and to minimize consequences. The Roadmap indicates the advantage of accelerating characterization programs, technology evaluations, and supplemental environmental impact statement preparation. Working with regulators and expanded public outreach programs are essential to successful completion of this activity.

  4. Maneuvers during legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu

    2009-06-01

    Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the

  5. Summary of NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory Capability Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Feinberg, Lee

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories operating in all electromagnetic bands, from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It lists capability priorities derived from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  6. Summary of NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory Capability Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Phil; Feinberg, Lee

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories operating in all electromagnetic bands, from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It lists capability priorities derived from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  7. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  8. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  9. 76 FR 2199 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... October 19, 2007 (72 FR 59216). FRA continued to utilize the RSAC process to address additional locomotive... to reach consensus on the issues related to remote control locomotives, cab temperature, and... proposals related to remote control locomotives, alerters, and locomotive cab temperature, issues that...

  10. 77 FR 21311 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    .... Brakes, General E. Locomotive Cab Temperature F. Headlights G. Alerters H. Locomotive Electronics I... a minimum permissible locomotive cab temperature. FRA also independently developed a proposal for... in the NPRM and retains it in this final rule. Locomotive Cab Temperature In 1998, FRA led an...

  11. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action 1993 Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    The 1993 Roadmap for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project office is a tool to assess and resolve issues. The US Department of Energy (DOE) UMTRA Project Office uses the nine-step roadmapping process as a basis for Surface and Groundwater Project planning. This is the second year the Roadmap document has been used to identify key issues and assumptions, develop logic diagrams, and outline milestones. This document is a key element of the DOE planning process. A multi-interest group used the nine-step process to focus on issues, root cause analysis and resolutions. This core group updated and incorporated comments on the basic assumptions, then used these assumptions to identify issues. The list of assumptions was categorized into the following areas: institutional, regulatory compliance, project management, human resource requirements, and other site-specific assumptions. The group identified 10 issues in the analysis phase. All of the issues are ranked according to importance. The number one issue from the 1992 Roadmap, ``Lack of sufficient human resources,`` remained the number one issue in 1993. The issues and their ranking are as follows: Lack of sufficient human resources; increasing regulatory requirements; unresolved groundwater issues; extension of UMTRCA through September 30, 1998; lack of post-UMTRA and post-cell closure policies; unpredictable amounts and timing of Federal funding; lack of regulatory compliance agreements; problem with states providing their share of remedial action costs; different interests and priorities among participants; and technology development/transfer. The issues are outlined and analyzed in detail in Section 8.0, with a schedule for resolution of these issues in Section 9.0.

  12. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  13. Roadmapping – A Systematic Approach to Overcoming NGNP Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Collins

    2008-09-01

    Changing requirements, programmatic challenges, and technical risk hinder even the best projects. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a complex project with technical and programmatic uncertainty. This paper presents the path forward, methods, and tools used to understand the requirements, manage the uncertainty, and mitigate the risk for the NGNP project. The key tool, technology development roadmaps, is described in detail as a means to facilitate NGNP risk-informed decision making, technology down selection, and technology qualification and maturation. Technology roadmaps for each NGNP System, Structure, or Component (SSC) were developed to set the vision for and drive the needed actions to down select technologies and designs; to assure technology readiness is demonstrated through testing, modeling, piloting, and prototyping; and to develop the test plans required to provide demonstrable evidence of the technology maturation required for codification and qualification. In the NGNP application, technology roadmaps provide the framework and structure required to systematically perform decision analysis, reduce risk, and mature technologies in a cost effective and timely manner. The steps followed include Structure Identification, Technology Readiness Assessment, Technology Selection, Technology Maturation, and Test Plan Development.

  14. Legless locomotion in lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about interactions between an animal body and complex terrestrial terrain like sand and boulders during legless, undulatory travel (e.g. snake locomotion). We study the locomotor performance of Mojave shovel-nosed snakes (Chionactisoccipitalis , ~ 35 cm long) using a simplified model of heterogeneous terrain: symmetric lattices of obstacles. To quantify performance we measure mean forward speed and slip angle, βs, defined as the angle between the instantaneous velocity and tangent vectors at each point on the body. We find that below a critical peg density the presence of granular media results in high speed (~ 60 cm/s), low average slip (βs ~6°) snake performance as compared to movement in the same peg densities on hard ground (~ 25 cm/s and βs ~15°). Above this peg density, performance on granular and hard substrates converges. Speed on granular media decreases with increasing peg density to that of the speed on hard ground, while speed on hard ground remains constant. Conversely, βs on hard ground trends toward that on granular media as obstacle density increases.

  15. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to

  16. Development of the INEEL Site Wide Vadose Zone Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Yonk, Alan Keith

    2001-09-01

    The INEEL Vadose Zone Roadmap was developed to identify inadquacies in current knowledge, to assist in contaminant management capabilities relative to the INEEL vadose zone, and to ensure that ongoing and planned Science and Technology developments will meet the risk management challenges facing the INEEL in coming years. The primary objective of the Roadmap is to determine the S&T needs that will facilitate monitoring, characterization, prediction, and assessment activities necessary to support INEEL risk management decisions and to ensure that long-term stewardship of contaminated sites at the INEEL is achieved. The mission of the Roadmap is to insure that the long-term S&T strategy is aligned with site programs, that it takes advantage of progress made to date, and that it can assist in meeting the milestones and budgets of operations.

  17. A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.; Dalton, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems developed under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Selected research tracks are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals.

  18. Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grounds, Dennis; Boehm, Al

    2005-01-01

    The Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap focuses on research and technology development and demonstration required to ensure the health, habitation, safety, and effectiveness of crews in and beyond low Earth orbit. It contains three distinct sub-capabilities: Human Health and Performance. Life Support and Habitats. Extra-Vehicular Activity.

  19. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories Capability Roadmap Presentation to the NRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the NASA Advanced Planning and Integration Office (APIO) roadmap for developing technological capabilities for telescopes and observatories in the following areas: Optics; Wavefront Sensing and Control and Interferometry; Distributed and Advanced Spacecraft; Large Precision Structures; Cryogenic and Thermal Control Systems; Infrastructure.

  20. Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-04-01

    Through the California State IOF initiative, the California Energy Commission PIER Program developed a petroleum refining roadmap to identify energy issues and priorities unique to the refining industry in California and create a plan for future R&D that could help California refineries implement energy efficient technologies.

  1. Behavioural toxicity assessment of silver ions and nanoparticles on zebrafish using a locomotion profiling approach.

    PubMed

    Ašmonaitė, Giedrė; Boyer, Scott; Souza, Karine Bresolin de; Wassmur, Britt; Sturve, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is not only a widely used species in the Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test but also an emerging model in behavioural ecotoxicology. By using automatic behaviour tracking technology, locomotion of developing zebrafish (ZF) larvae can be accurately recorded and potentially used in an ecotoxicological context to detect toxicant-induced behavioural alterations. In this study, we explored if and how quantitative locomotion data can be used for sub-lethal toxicity testing within the FET framework. We exposed ZF embryos to silver ions and nanoparticles, which previously have been reported to cause neurodevelopmental toxicity and behavioural retardation in early-life stages of ZF. Exposure to a broad range of silver (Ag(+) and AgNPs) concentrations was conducted, and developmental toxicity was assessed using FET criteria. For behavioural toxicity assessment, locomotion of exposed ZF eleutheroembryos (120hpf) was quantified according to a customised behavioural assay in an automatic video tracking system. A set of repeated episodes of dark/light stimulation were used to artificially stress ZF and evoke photo-motor responses, which were consequently utilized for locomotion profiling. Our locomotion-based behaviour profiling approach consisted of (1) dose-response ranking for multiple and single locomotion variables; (2) quantitative assessment of locomotion structure; and (3) analysis of ZF responsiveness to darkness stimulation. We documented that both silver forms caused adverse effects on development and inhibited hatchability and, most importantly, altered locomotion. High Ag(+) and AgNPs exposures significantly suppressed locomotion and a clear shift in locomotion towards inactivity was reported. Additionally, we noted that low, environmentally relevant Ag(+) concentrations may cause subordinate locomotive changes (hyperactivity) in developing fish. Overall, it was concluded that our locomotion-based behaviour-testing scheme can be used jointly

  2. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  3. Solar-electric power: The U.S. photovoltaic industry roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-01-01

    To meet this challenge, we — the U.S.-based PV industry — have developed this roadmap as a guide for building our domestic industry, ensuring U.S. technology ownership, and implementing a sound commercialization strategy that will yield significant benefits at minimal cost. Putting the roadmap into action will call for reasonable and consistent co-investment by our industry and government in research and technology development.

  4. Roadmapping Process Improvements by Experience at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High Level Waste Program and Synergistic Interfaces with Decision-Making

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James Anthony; Olson, Arlin Leland

    2001-02-01

    Six technology roadmaps were developed for various technologies under consideration for the treatment of sodium bearing liquid and calcine wastes. In the process of creating these roadmaps, a number of process improvements were identified for each of the formal roadmapping phases as described in the Department of Energy’s draft roadmapping guidance. The lessons learned, presented as beneficial improvements to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) High Level Waste Program, are proposed to be added to the draft guidance. Additionally, synergistic interfaces between the roadmapping and decision-making processes were observed and reported on. With these improvements, technology roadmapping has become an effective integration tool at the INEEL for planning technology development.

  5. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  6. Autonomous locomotion of capsule endoscope in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sungwook; Park, Kitae; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Tae Song; Cho, Il-Joo; Yoon, Eui-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous locomotion in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts is achieved with a paddling-based capsule endoscope. For this, a miniaturized encoder module was developed utilizing a MEMS fabrication technology to monitor the position of paddles. The integrated encoder module yielded the high resolution of 0.0025 mm in the linear motion of the paddles. In addition, a PID control method was implemented on a DSP to control the stroke of the paddles accurately. As a result, the average accuracy and the standard deviation were measured to be 0.037 mm and 0.025 mm by a laser position sensor for the repetitive measurements. The locomotive performance was evaluated via ex-vivo tests according to various strokes in paddling. In an in-vivo experiment with a living pig, the locomotion speed was improved by 58% compared with the previous control method relying on a given timer value for reciprocation of the paddles. Finally, the integrated encoder module and the control system allow consistent paddling during locomotion even under loads in GI tract. It provides the autonomous locomotion without intervention in monitoring and controlling the capsule endoscope. PMID:22255866

  7. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Roadmap for FY15 and Beyond and Recent Radiation Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: Roadmap for FY15 and Beyond. This roadmap provides a snapshot for current plans and collaborations on testing and evaluation of electronics as well as a discussion of the technology selection approach.

  8. A PHYSIOLOGIST'S PERSPECTIVE ON ROBOTIC EXOSKELETONS FOR HUMAN LOCOMOTION.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Daniel P; Sawicki, Gregory S; Daley, Monica A

    2007-09-01

    Technological advances in robotic hardware and software have enabled powered exoskeletons to move from science fiction to the real world. The objective of this article is to emphasize two main points for future research. First, the design of future devices could be improved by exploiting biomechanical principles of animal locomotion. Two goals in exoskeleton research could particularly benefit from additional physiological perspective: 1) reduction in the metabolic energy expenditure of the user while wearing the device, and 2) minimization of the power requirements for actuating the exoskeleton. Second, a reciprocal potential exists for robotic exoskeletons to advance our understanding of human locomotor physiology. Experimental data from humans walking and running with robotic exoskeletons could provide important insight into the metabolic cost of locomotion that is impossible to gain with other methods. Given the mutual benefits of collaboration, it is imperative that engineers and physiologists work together in future studies on robotic exoskeletons for human locomotion. PMID:18185840

  9. Roadmap on optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbas, Augustine M.; Jacob, Zubin; Dal Negro, Luca; Engheta, Nader; Boardman, A. D.; Egan, P.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Menon, Vinod; Ferrera, Marcello; Kinsey, Nathaniel; DeVault, Clayton; Kim, Jongbum; Shalaev, Vladimir; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Valentine, Jason; Pfeiffer, Carl; Grbic, Anthony; Narimanov, Evgenii; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Alù, Andrea; Poutrina, Ekaterina; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Noginov, Mikhail A.; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Liu, Xiaoying; Nealey, Paul F.; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Chanda, Debashis

    2016-09-01

    Optical metamaterials have redefined how we understand light in notable ways: from strong response to optical magnetic fields, negative refraction, fast and slow light propagation in zero index and trapping structures, to flat, thin and perfect lenses. Many rules of thumb regarding optics, such as μ = 1, now have an exception, and basic formulas, such as the Fresnel equations, have been expanded. The field of metamaterials has developed strongly over the past two decades. Leveraging structured materials systems to generate tailored response to a stimulus, it has grown to encompass research in optics, electromagnetics, acoustics and, increasingly, novel hybrid material responses. This roadmap is an effort to present emerging fronts in areas of optical metamaterials that could contribute and apply to other research communities. By anchoring each contribution in current work and prospectively discussing future potential and directions, the authors are translating the work of the field in selected areas to a wider community and offering an incentive for outside researchers to engage our community where solid links do not already exist.

  10. A roadmap for innovation.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Medicine has historically advanced during conflict, but military medical services have consistently regressed during peace. As over a decade of campaigning in Iraq and Afghanistan draws to a close, securing the legacy of hard won clinical lessons and retaining flexibility to adapt to new patterns of illness and injury during contingency is critical. Central to sustaining exceptional outcomes for future operations and to maintaining the current position of the Defence Medical Services as providers of clinical excellence is retaining the capability to innovate. This capability must extend across the spectrum of clinical innovation-concepts, guidelines, equipment (invention and adoption), curricula (design, assessment and refinement), research and Defence diplomacy. To achieve this requires a strategy, a 'roadmap', with a clear vision, end state and centres of gravity (core strengths that must be protected). The direction for innovation will be guided by emergent analysis of the future character of military medicine. Success will be determined by ensuring the conditions are met to protect and enhance the existing 'winning culture'. PMID:24554526

  11. Development of a computational lithography roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. Fung; Liu, Hua-Yu; Laidig, Thomas; Zuniga, Christian; Cao, Yu; Socha, Robert

    2008-03-01

    While lithography R&D community at large has already gotten the mind set for 32nm, all eyes are on 22nm node. Current consensus is to employ computational lithography to meet wafer CD uniformity (CDU) requirement. Resolution enhancement technologies (RET) and model OPC are the two fundamental components for computational lithography. Today's full-chip CDU specifications are already pushing physical limits at extreme lithography k I factor. While increasingly aggressive RET either by double exposure or double patterning are enabling imaging performance, for CDU control we need ever more accurate OPC at a greater computational efficiency. In this report, we discuss the desire for wanting more robust and accurate OPC models. One important trend is to have predictive OPC models allowing accurate OPC results to be obtained much faster, shortening the qualification process for exposure tools. We investigate several key parameters constitute to accuracy achievable in computational lithography. Such as the choice of image pixel size, numbers of terms needed for transmission cross coefficients (TCC), and "safe" ambit radius for assuring accurate CD prediction. Selections of image pixel size and "safe" ambit radius together determine % utilization for 2D fast Fourier transformation (FFT) for efficient full-chip OPC computation. For IC manufacturing beyond ArF, we made initial observations and estimations on EUV computational lithography. These discussions pave the way for developing a computational lithography roadmap extends to the end of Moore's Law. This computational lithography roadmap aims to be a complement for the current ITRS roadmap on what does it take to achieve CD correction accuracy.

  12. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive horn. 229.129 Section 229.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and Cab Equipment § 229.129 Locomotive horn. (a) Each...

  13. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  14. Built-Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Forsyth, T.; Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

    2012-11-01

    Although only a small contributor to total electricity production needs, built-environment wind turbines (BWTs) nonetheless have the potential to influence the public's consideration of renewable energy, and wind energy in particular. Higher population concentrations in urban environments offer greater opportunities for project visibility and an opportunity to acquaint large numbers of people to the advantages of wind projects on a larger scale. However, turbine failures will be equally visible and could have a negative effect on public perception of wind technology. This roadmap provides a framework for achieving the vision set forth by the attendees of the Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The BWT roadmap outlines the stakeholder actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers identified. The actions are categorized as near-term (0 - 3 years), medium-term (4 - 7 years), and both near- and medium-term (requiring immediate to medium-term effort). To accomplish these actions, a strategic approach was developed that identifies two focus areas: understanding the built-environment wind resource and developing testing and design standards. The authors summarize the expertise and resources required in these areas.

  15. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  16. Capabilities Roadmap Briefings to the National Research Council

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    High energy power and propulsion capability roadmap - general background and introduction. Advanced telescopes and observatories and scientific instruments and sensors capability roadmaps - general background and introduction. Space communications capability roadmap interim review. Robotic access to planetary surface capability roadmap. Human health and support systems capability roadmap progress review.

  17. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Leslie; Ziagos, John; Rodgers, Arthur; Bell, Randy

    2010-05-01

    This talk reviews research and development highlights and accomplishments (https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/mrr) as well as future research directions of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D (GNEM R&D) program within the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection, NA-222. GNEM R&D's mission is "…to develop, demonstrate, and deliver advanced technologies and systems to operational monitoring agencies to fulfill US monitoring requirements and policies for detecting, locating, and identifying nuclear explosions."* Work sponsored by GNEM R&D and collaborators is conducted by world-class scientists and engineers in national laboratories, universities, and private industry. In the past ten years, significant progress has been made in detection, location and identification with substantial improvements yet possible. There is increasing interest in GNEM R&D technology particularly in light of its relevance to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. GNEM R&D direction is captured in roadmaps: waveform technologies, including seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound and radionuclide monitoring. The roadmaps have the same four areas: source physics, signal propagation, sensors, and signal analysis. Within each area illustrative R&D themes, program metrics, and future R&D directions will be presented. The goals of the R&D program are to: perform innovative scientific research, deliver capability-enhancing technologies to monitoring agencies and to motivate and nurture human capital to meet future monitoring challenges. * Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program Strategic Plan, DOE/NNSA/NA-22-NEMRE-2004, https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/cgi-bin/prod/nemre/index.cgi?Page=Strategic+Plan

  18. [Locomotion disturbances in Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    Delval, A; Krystkowiak, P

    2010-02-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD), perturbed locomotion occurs early in the course of the disease and presents numerous clinical features. The gait disorders in HD might best be defined as a timing disorder; however, hypokinesia (i.e. a decrease in stride length) also plays an important role in disturbed locomotion as HD progresses. Gait impairments are particularly important because they lead to an increased risk of falls. Falls risk factors and consequences depend on the stage of the disease. A satisfactory therapeutic strategy for gait impairments is a serious challenge: the use of a metronome during gait in HD patients does not effectively improve their gait. Attention deficits in HD may be a major determinant of this failure. The effect of antichoreic medications on gait is still controversial because of the absence of specific evaluation of these medications on gait disturbances. PMID:19604530

  19. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  20. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a... locomotive crashworthiness designs which are not consistent with any FRA-approved locomotive...

  1. Roadmap to the SRS computing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.

    1994-07-05

    This document outlines the major steps that must be taken by the Savannah River Site (SRS) to migrate the SRS information technology (IT) environment to the new architecture described in the Savannah River Site Computing Architecture. This document proposes an IT environment that is {open_quotes}...standards-based, data-driven, and workstation-oriented, with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.{close_quotes} Achieving this vision will require many substantial changes in the computing applications, systems, and supporting infrastructure at the site. This document consists of a set of roadmaps which provide explanations of the necessary changes for IT at the site and describes the milestones that must be completed to finish the migration.

  2. Strategic Program Planning Lessons Learned in Developing the LTS S&T Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Duane Hanson; Brent Dixon; Gretchen Matthern

    2003-07-01

    Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning method used by companies to identify and plan the development of technologies necessary for new products. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management has used this same method to refine requirements and identify knowledge and tools needed for completion of defined missions. This paper describes the process of applying roadmapping to clarify mission requirements and identify enhancing technologies for the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) of polluted sites after site cleanup has been completed. The nature of some contamination problems is such that full cleanup is not achievable with current technologies and some residual hazards remain. LTS maintains engineered contaminant barriers and land use restriction controls, and monitors residual contaminants until they no longer pose a risk to the public or the environment. Roadmapping was used to clarify the breadth of the LTS mission, to identify capability enhancements needed to improve mission effectiveness and efficiency, and to chart out the research and development efforts to provide those enhancements. This paper is a case study of the application of roadmapping for program planning and technical risk management. Differences between the planned and actual application of the roadmapping process are presented along with lessons learned. Both the process used and lessons learned should be of interest for anyone contemplating a similar technology based planning effort.

  3. Gene-centric view on the human proteome project: the example of the Russian roadmap for chromosome 18.

    PubMed

    Archakov, Alexander; Aseev, Alexander; Bykov, Victor; Grigoriev, Anatoly; Govorun, Vadim; Ivanov, Vadim; Khlunov, Alexander; Lisitsa, Andrey; Mazurenko, Sergey; Makarov, Alexander A; Ponomarenko, Elena; Sagdeev, Renad; Skryabin, Konstantin

    2011-05-01

    During the 2010 Human Proteome Organization Congress in Sydney, a gene-centric approach emerged as a feasible and tractable scaffold for assemblage of the Human Proteome Project. Bringing the gene-centric principle into practice, a roadmap for the 18th chromosome was drafted, postulating the limited sensitivity of analytical methods, as a serious bottleneck in proteomics. In the context of the sensitivity problem, we refer to the "copy number of protein molecules" as a measurable assessment of protein abundance. The roadmap is focused on the development of technology to attain the low- and ultralow -"copied" portion of the proteome. Roadmap merges the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic levels to identify the majority of 285 proteins from 18th chromosome - master proteins. Master protein is the primary translation of the coding sequence and resembling at least one of the known isoforms, coded by the gene. The executive phase of the roadmap includes the expansion of the study of the master proteins with alternate splicing, single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) and post-translational modifications. In implementing the roadmap, Russian scientists are expecting to establish proteomic technologies for integrating MS and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These technologies are anticipated to unlock the value of new biomarkers at a detection limit of 10(-18) M, i.e. 1 protein copy per 1 μL of plasma. The roadmap plan is posted at www.proteome.ru/en/roadmap/ and a forum for discussion of the document is supported. PMID:21563312

  4. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were... performance or operability of the locomotive or locomotive engine. (6) A description of the adverse effects, if any, that such nonconformity would have on the performance or operability of the locomotive...

  5. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were... performance or operability of the locomotive or locomotive engine. (6) A description of the adverse effects, if any, that such nonconformity would have on the performance or operability of the locomotive...

  6. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structure of locomotives, including... SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.209 Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives. (a)(1) The skin covering the forward-facing end of...

  7. Biomechanics of locomotion in subgravity.

    PubMed

    Margaria, R

    1973-01-01

    The speed of walking or running on the moon as compared with earth is appreciably reduced, in spite of mechanisms of compensation taking place such a forward leaning of the body and an increase of the horizontal component of the push of the foot on the ground. However on the moon the same speed of locomotion as on earth can be reached by shifting to a different mechanism of locomotion, i. e. progression by jumps, which becomes possible on the moon because of the reduction of the body weight. The energy cost of locomotion is certainly less on the moon than on earth, about 1/6. Were the subject not restrained by the space suit, progression by jumps at 20 km hr-1 on the moon would cost no more than 10 ml kg-1 min-1 of oxygen, the same as walking on earth at 6 km hr-1. Maximal acceleration of the body as in sprinting, or deceleration as in stopping, attains much higher values on earth than on the moon. While sprinting on earth may involve the maximal muscular power, sprinting or progressing at the highest speed on the moon involves only a fraction of the maximal power, mainly because of the reduced maximal frequency of the steps (or jumps). The maximal height of the jump on both feet on the moon could attain 4 m in the unrestricted subject. An analysis is wanted on the restriction of the movements brought about by the space suit and on the energy cost of progression. PMID:12523382

  8. DUF6 Materials Use Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.

    2002-09-04

    The U.S. government has {approx}500,000 metric tons (MT) of surplus depleted uranium (DU) in various chemical forms stored at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the United States. This DU, most of which is DU hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) resulting from uranium enrichment operations, is the largest amount of nuclear material in DOE's inventory. On July 6, 1999, DOE issued the ''Final Plan for the Conversion of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride as required by Public Law 105-204'', in which DOE committed to develop a ''Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap'' in order to establish a strategy for the products resulting from conversion of DUF{sub 6} to a stable form. This report meets the commitment in the Final Plan by providing a comprehensive roadmap that DOE will use to guide any future research and development activities for the materials associated with its DUF{sub 6} inventory. The Roadmap supports the decision presented in the ''Record of Decision for Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'', namely to begin conversion of the DUF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for future uses of as much of this inventory as possible. In particular, the Roadmap is intended to explore potential uses for the DUF{sub 6} conversion products and to identify areas where further development work is needed. It focuses on potential governmental uses of DUF{sub 6} conversion products but also incorporates limited analysis of using the products in the private sector. The Roadmap builds on the analyses summarized in the recent ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride''. It also addresses other surplus DU, primarily in the form of DU trioxide and DU tetrafluoride. The DU-related inventory considered here includes the following: (1) Components directly associated with

  9. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Jordan L.; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Bob; Peterson, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This white paper documents a roadmap for development of Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Exploration missions. In many cases, the execution of this Exploration-based roadmap will directly benefit International Space Station (ISS) operational capability by resolving known issues and/or improving overall system reliability. In addition, many of the resulting products will be applicable across multiple Exploration elements such as Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), Deep Space Habitat (DSH), and Landers. Within the ECLS community, this white paper will be a unifying tool that will improve coordination of resources, common hardware, and technologies. It will help to align efforts to focus on the highest priority needs that will produce life support systems for future human exploration missions that will simply run in the background, requiring minimal crew interaction.

  10. Separations and Actinide Science -- 2005 Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    The Separations and Actinide Science Roadmap presents a vision to establish a separations and actinide science research (SASR) base composed of people, facilities, and collaborations and provides new and innovative nuclear fuel cycle solutions to nuclear technology issues that preclude nuclear proliferation. This enabling science base will play a key role in ensuring that Idaho National Laboratory (INL) achieves its long-term vision of revitalizing nuclear energy by providing needed technologies to ensure our nation's energy sustainability and security. To that end, this roadmap suggests a 10-year journey to build a strong SASR technical capability with a clear mission to support nuclear technology development. If nuclear technology is to be used to satisfy the expected growth in U.S. electrical energy demand, the once-through fuel cycle currently in use should be reconsidered. Although the once-through fuel cycle is cost-effective and uranium is inexpensive, a once-through fuel cycle requires long-term disposal to protect the environment and public from long-lived radioactive species. The lack of a current disposal option (i.e., a licensed repository) has resulted in accumulation of more than 50,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel. The process required to transition the current once-through fuel cycle to full-recycle will require considerable time and significant technical advancement. INL's extensive expertise in aqueous separations will be used to develop advanced separations processes. Computational chemistry will be expanded to support development of future processing options. In the intermediate stage of this transition, reprocessing options will be deployed, waste forms with higher loading densities and greater stability will be developed, and transmutation of long-lived fission products will be explored. SASR will support these activities using its actinide science and aqueous separations expertise. In the final stage, full recycle will be enabled by

  11. Continuing the International Roadmapping Effort - An Introduction to the Evolution of the ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlutz, Juergen; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Laurini, Kathy; Spiero, Francois

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As ISECG agencies advance their individual planning, they also advance the mission themes and reference architecture of the GER to consolidate common goals, near-term mission scenarios and initial opportunities for collaboration. In this context, particular focus has been given to the Better understanding and further refinement of cislunar infrastructure and potential lunar transportation architecture Interaction with international science communities to identify and articulate the scientific opportunities of the near-term exploration mission themes Coordination and consolidation of interest in lunar polar volatiles prospecting and potential for in-situ resource utilisation Identification and articulation of the benefits from exploration and the technology transfer activities The paper discusses the ongoing roadmapping activity of the ISECG agencies. It provides an insight into the status of the above activities and an outlook towards the evolution of the GER that is currently foreseen in the 2017 timeframe.

  12. 49 CFR 212.215 - Locomotive inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... applicable sections of the Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231) and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to... four years of experience in locomotive construction or maintenance. A bachelor's degree in...

  13. 49 CFR 212.215 - Locomotive inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... applicable sections of the Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231) and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to... four years of experience in locomotive construction or maintenance. A bachelor's degree in...

  14. 49 CFR 212.215 - Locomotive inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... applicable sections of the Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231) and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to... four years of experience in locomotive construction or maintenance. A bachelor's degree in...

  15. 49 CFR 212.215 - Locomotive inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable sections of the Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Locomotive Safety Standards (49 CFR part 229), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231) and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to... four years of experience in locomotive construction or maintenance. A bachelor's degree in...

  16. 76 FR 8699 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... NPRM related to locomotive safety standards. See 76 FR 2200. The NPRM established a public docket to... the proposed rule published January 12, 2011, at 76 FR 2200, remains March 14, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 229 and 238 RIN 2130-AC16 Locomotive Safety...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Locomotives. 56.6203 Section 56.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6203 Locomotives. Explosive material shall not...

  2. Novel locomotion via biological inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Boxerbaum, Alexander; Palmer, Luther; Chiel, Hillel; Diller, Eric; Hunt, Alexander; Bachmann, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Animal behavioral, physiological and neurobiological studies are providing a wealth of inspirational data for robot design and control. Several very different biologically inspired mobile robots will be reviewed. A robot called DIGbot is being developed that moves independent of the direction of gravity using Distributed Inward Gripping (DIG) as a rapid and robust attachment mechanism observed in climbing animals. DIGbot is an 18 degree of freedom hexapod with onboard power and control systems. Passive compliance in its feet, which is inspired by the flexible tarsus of the cockroach, increases the robustness of the adhesion strategy and enables DIGbot to execute large steps and stationary turns while walking on mesh screens. A Whegs™ robot, inspired by insect locomotion principles, is being developed that can be rapidly reconfigured between tracks and wheel-legs and carry GeoSystems Zipper Mast. The mechanisms that cause it to passively change its gait on irregular terrain have been integrated into its hubs for a compact and modular design. The robot is designed to move smoothly on moderately rugged terrain using its tracks and run on irregular terrain and stairs using its wheel-legs. We are also developing soft bodied robots that use peristalsis, the same method of locomotion earthworms use. We present a technique of using a braided mesh exterior to produce fluid waves of motion along the body of the robot that increase the robot's speed relative to previous designs. The concept is highly scalable, for endoscopes to water, oil or gas line inspection.

  3. Dynamic affordances in embodied interactive systems: the role of display and mode of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Grechkin, Timofey Y; Plumert, Jodie M; Kearney, Joseph K

    2014-04-01

    We investigated how the properties of interactive virtual reality systems affect user behavior in full-body embodied interactions. Our experiment compared four interactive virtual reality systems using different display types (CAVE vs. HMD) and modes of locomotion (walking vs. joystick). Participants performed a perceptual-motor coordination task, in which they had to choose among a series of opportunities to pass through a gate that cycled open and closed and then board a moving train. Mode of locomotion, but not type of display, affected how participants chose opportunities for action. Both mode of locomotion and display affected performance when participants acted on their choices. We conclude that technological properties of virtual reality system (both display and mode of locomotion) significantly affected opportunities for action available in the environment (affordances) and discuss implications for design and practical applications of immersive interactive systems. PMID:24650987

  4. Simulation of a Hybrid Locomotion Robot Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, P.

    2002-10-01

    This study describes a simulation process of a mobile robot. The focus is in kinematic and dynamic behavior simulations of hybrid locomotion robot vehicles. This research is motivated by the development needs of the WorkPartner field service robot. The whole robot system consists of a mobile platform and a two-hand manipulator. The robot platform, called Hybtor, is a hybrid locomotion robot capable of walking and driving by wheels as well as combining these two locomotion modes. This study describes first the general problems and their solutions in the dynamic simulation of mobile robots. A kinematic and dynamic virtual model of the Hybtor robot was built and simulations were carried out using one commercial simulation tool. Walking, wheel driven and rolking mode locomotion, which is a special hybrid locomotion style, has been simulated and analyzed. Position and force control issues during obstacle overrun and climbing were also studied.

  5. Spinal circuitry of sensorimotor control of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, David A

    2001-01-01

    During locomotion many segmental hindlimb reflex pathways serve not only to regulate the excitability of local groups of motoneurones, but also to control the basic operation of the central pattern-generating circuitry responsible for locomotion. This is accomplished through a reorganization of reflexes that includes the suppression of reflex pathways operating at rest and the recruitment during locomotion of previously unrecognized types of spinal interneurones. In addition presynaptic inhibition of transmission from segmental afferents serves to regulate the gain of segmental reflexes and may contribute to the selection of particular reflex pathways during locomotion. The fictive locomotion preparation in adult decerebrate cats has proved to be an important tool in understanding reflex pathway reorganization. Further identification of the spinal interneurones involved in locomotor-dependent reflexes will contribute to our understanding not only of reflex pathway organization but also of the organization of the mammalian central pattern generator. PMID:11351011

  6. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  7. NASA Technology Area 1: Launch Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnaughey, Paul; Femminineo, Mark; Koelfgen, Syri; Lepsch, Roger; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology advancements plans for the NASA Technology Area 1, Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA). The draft roadmap reviews various propulsion system technologies that will be developed during the next 25 + years. This roadmap will be reviewed by the National Research Council which will issue a final report, that will include findings and recommendations.

  8. Roadmap of optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrell, Erik; Karlsson, Magnus; Chraplyvy, A. R.; Richardson, David J.; Krummrich, Peter M.; Winzer, Peter; Roberts, Kim; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Savory, Seb J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Secondini, Marco; Kschischang, Frank R.; Lord, Andrew; Prat, Josep; Tomkos, Ioannis; Bowers, John E.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Lightwave communications is a necessity for the information age. Optical links provide enormous bandwidth, and the optical fiber is the only medium that can meet the modern society's needs for transporting massive amounts of data over long distances. Applications range from global high-capacity networks, which constitute the backbone of the internet, to the massively parallel interconnects that provide data connectivity inside datacenters and supercomputers. Optical communications is a diverse and rapidly changing field, where experts in photonics, communications, electronics, and signal processing work side by side to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher capacity, lower cost, and lower energy consumption, while adapting the system design to novel services and technologies. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this rich research field, Journal of Optics has invited 16 researchers, each a world-leading expert in their respective subfields, to contribute a section to this invited review article, summarizing their views on state-of-the-art and future developments in optical communications.

  9. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  10. Roadmap on quantum optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumke, Rainer; Lu, Zehuang; Close, John; Robins, Nick; Weis, Antoine; Mukherjee, Manas; Birkl, Gerhard; Hufnagel, Christoph; Amico, Luigi; Boshier, Malcolm G.; Dieckmann, Kai; Li, Wenhui; Killian, Thomas C.

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap bundles fast developing topics in experimental optical quantum sciences, addressing current challenges as well as potential advances in future research. We have focused on three main areas: quantum assisted high precision measurements, quantum information/simulation, and quantum gases. Quantum assisted high precision measurements are discussed in the first three sections, which review optical clocks, atom interferometry, and optical magnetometry. These fields are already successfully utilized in various applied areas. We will discuss approaches to extend this impact even further. In the quantum information/simulation section, we start with the traditionally successful employed systems based on neutral atoms and ions. In addition the marvelous demonstrations of systems suitable for quantum information is not progressing, unsolved challenges remain and will be discussed. We will also review, as an alternative approach, the utilization of hybrid quantum systems based on superconducting quantum devices and ultracold atoms. Novel developments in atomtronics promise unique access in exploring solid-state systems with ultracold gases and are investigated in depth. The sections discussing the continuously fast-developing quantum gases include a review on dipolar heteronuclear diatomic gases, Rydberg gases, and ultracold plasma. Overall, we have accomplished a roadmap of selected areas undergoing rapid progress in quantum optics, highlighting current advances and future challenges. These exciting developments and vast advances will shape the field of quantum optics in the future.

  11. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  12. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  13. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a... design standard. (b) Petitions for FRA approval of alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs....

  14. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a... design standard. (b) Petitions for FRA approval of alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs....

  15. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs... Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.209 Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. (a... design standard. (b) Petitions for FRA approval of alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs....

  16. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  17. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  18. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  19. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  20. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  1. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  2. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  3. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  4. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  5. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  6. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production locomotives and engines. 92... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Certification Provisions § 92.214 Production locomotives and engines. Any manufacturer or remanufacturer obtaining...

  7. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  8. 40 CFR 1033.652 - Special provisions for exported locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Special Compliance Provisions § 1033.652 Special provisions for exported locomotives. (a) Uncertified locomotives. Locomotives covered by an export exemption under 40 CFR 1068.230 may be introduced into U.S. commerce prior to being exported, but may not...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.652 - Special provisions for exported locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Special Compliance Provisions § 1033.652 Special provisions for exported locomotives. (a) Uncertified locomotives. Locomotives covered by an export exemption under 40 CFR 1068.230 may be introduced into U.S. commerce prior to being exported, but may not...

  10. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production locomotives and engines. 92... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Certification Provisions § 92.214 Production locomotives and engines. Any manufacturer or remanufacturer obtaining...

  11. The Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA) Plans Strategic Objectives Through Roadmaps

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J. A.

    2002-02-28

    The Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA) has historically worked with individual Department of Energy (DOE) sites to identify needs and develop technologies to solve those with the most immediate and high payoff. This approach has led to successful deployments and strong technical assistance. The current DOE site technical needs collection method yielded over 300 needs in fiscal year (FY) 2001 and requires a means to help focus development. With a desire to improve program support, SCFA has defined specific strategic objectives and wishes to perform specific development to accomplish these objectives. The SCFA has developed this improved approach for technical and strategic management by identifying and describing the site needs using a smaller number of technical targets, which individually work to solve many of the site needs. The targets have elements of near-term and long-term thrusts that can be used to balance the investments for science and applied R&D. SCFA is also developing ''mini roadmaps'' for each technical target to outline specific performance requirements, where improvements are needed, when the improvements are needed, and the significance to the DOE programs. The technical targets were evaluated for complexity and potential benefits to prioritize the order that they would be roadmapped. Four technical targets were identified as the first candidates for roadmapping and will be completed in the January-March 2002 time. The technical community within SCFA will develop the potential targeted improvements and the end-users will help describe the potential impact of these improvements to their programs. The end product from these ''mini roadmaps'' will include the target's technical objectives with a definition of the performance objectives and potential impacts. This paper will summarize the progress to date in roadmapping the SCFA technical targets selected to be completed first. The first four roadmaps will be used to test how the mini-roadmapping

  12. The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M.; Silcox, Mary T.; Walker, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously. PMID:17576932

  13. Rationale and Roadmap for Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; ILEWG Team

    We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration. This starts with areas of scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The rationale includes also the advancement of instrumentation: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. There are technologies in robotic and human exploration that are a drive for the creativity and economical competitivity of our industries: Mecha-electronics-sensors; Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots, Complex systems, Man-Machine interface and performances. Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development: In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. We also report on the IAA Cosmic Study on Next Steps In Exploring Deep Space, and ongoing IAA Cosmic Studies, ILEWG/IMEWG ongoing activities, and we finally discuss possible roadmaps for robotic and human exploration, starting with the Moon-Mars missions for the coming decade, and building effectively on joint technology developments.

  14. Hydrogen delivery technology rRoadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-11-01

    Hydrogen holds the long-term potential to solve two critical problems related to the energy infrastructure: U.S. dependence on foreign oil and U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The U.S. transportation sector is almost completely reliant on petroleum, over half of which is currently imported, and tailpipe emissions remain one of the country’s key air quality concerns. Fuel cell vehicles operating on hydrogen produced from domestically available resources – including renewable resources, coal with carbon sequestration, or nuclear energy – would dramatically decrease greenhouse gases and other emissions, and would reduce dependence on oil from politically volatile regions of the world. Clean, domestically-produced hydrogen could also be used to generate electricity in stationary fuel cells at power plants, further extending national energy and environmental benefits.

  15. NASA's Human Planetary Landing Systems Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob

    2005-01-01

    General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date)

  16. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  17. OBPR Free Flyer draft roadmap overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    OBPR Free Flyer Roadmap Purpose is to describe the OBPR research which is enabled by a free flying spacecraft capability To illustrate how research performed on free flying spacecrafts complement current and planned OBPR ISS activities.

  18. The Human Space Life Sciences Critical Path Roadmap Project: A Strategy for Human Space Flight through Exploration-Class Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F.

    1999-01-01

    The product of the critical path roadmap project is an integrated strategy for mitigating the risks associated with human exploration class missions. It is an evolving process that will assure the ability to communicate the integrated critical path roadmap. Unlike previous reports, this one will not sit on a shelf - it has the full support of the JSC Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SA) and is already being used as a decision making tool (e.g., budget and investigation planning for Shuttle and Space Station mission). Utility of this product depends on many efforts, namely: providing the required information (completed risk data sheets, critical question information, technology data). It is essential to communicate the results of the critical path roadmap to the scientific community - this meeting is a good opportunity to do so. The web site envisioned for the critical path roadmap will provide the capability to communicate to a broader community and to track and update the system routinely.

  19. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  20. Characterization of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn

    2015-11-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but a recently proposed resistive force theory (RFT) in granular media has been shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ this model to investigate the swimming characteristics of an undulating slender filament of both finite and infinite length. For infinite swimmers, similar to results in viscous fluids, the sawtooth waveform is found to be optimal for propulsion speed at a given power consumption. We also compare the swimming characteristics of sinusoidal and sawtooth swimmers with swimming in viscous fluids. More complex swimming dynamics emerge when the assumption of an infinite swimmer is removed. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  1. Push-Pull Locomotion for Vehicle Extrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creager, Colin M.; Johnson, Kyle A.; Plant, Mark; Moreland, Scott J.; Skonieczny, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    For applications in which unmanned vehicles must traverse unfamiliar terrain, there often exists the risk of vehicle entrapment. Typically, this risk can be reduced by using feedback from on-board sensors that assess the terrain. This work addressed the situations where a vehicle has already become immobilized or the desired route cannot be traversed using conventional rolling. Specifically, the focus was on using push-pull locomotion in high sinkage granular material. Push-pull locomotion is an alternative mode of travel that generates thrust through articulated motion, using vehicle components as anchors to push or pull against. It has been revealed through previous research that push-pull locomotion has the capacity for generating higher net traction forces than rolling, and a unique optical flow technique indicated that this is the result of a more efficient soil shearing method. It has now been found that pushpull locomotion results in less sinkage, lower travel reduction, and better power efficiency in high sinkage material as compared to rolling. Even when starting from an "entrapped" condition, push-pull locomotion was able to extricate the test vehicle. It is the authors' recommendation that push-pull locomotion be considered as a reliable back-up mode of travel for applications where terrain entrapment is a possibility.

  2. The Blue Dots Initiative and Roadmapping Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2010-10-01

    The Blue Dots initiative (a grassroot effort to build a scientific community in Europe around the exoplanet theme) is introduced. The Blue Dots activities include the elaboration of a roadmap towards the spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets, a summary of which is presented here. While the roadmap will need to be updated regularly, it is expected that the methodology developed within Blue Dots will provide a durable framework for the elaboration of future revisions.

  3. A CFD validation roadmap for hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    A roadmap for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation is developed. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified where future experiments would provide the needed validation data.

  4. a Roadmap to Advance Understanding of the Science of Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, K.; Kauristie, K.; Aylward, A.; De Nardin, C. M.; Gibson, S. E.; Glover, A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Grande, M.; Hapgood, M. A.; Heynderickx, D.; Jakowski, N.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Lapenta, G.; Linker, J.; Liu, S.; Mandrini, C. H.; Mann, I. R.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nandy, D.; Obara, T.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Onsager, T. G.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Terkildsen, M. B.; Valladares, C. E.; Vilmer, N.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing appreciation that the environmental conditions that we call space weather impact the technological infrastructure that powers the coupled economies around the world. With that comes the need to better shield society against space weather by improving forecasts, environmental specifications, and infrastructure design. A COSPAR/ILWS team recently completed a roadmap that identifies the scientific focus areas and research infrastructure that are needed to significantly advance our understanding of space weather of all intensities and of its implications and costs for society. This presentation provides a summary of the highest-priority recommendations from that roadmap.

  5. Locomotion in a turbulent world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.

    2014-11-01

    When organisms swim or crawl in aquatic habitats, the water through which they travel is usually moving. Therefore, an important part of understanding how aquatic organisms locomote is determining how they interact with the fluctuating turbulent water currents through which they move. The research systems we have been using to address this question are microscopic marine animals swimming in turbulent, wavy water flow or crawling on surfaces in spatially-complex habitats exposed to such flow. Using a combination of field studies, wave-flume experiments, experiments in fluidic devices, and mathematical modeling, we have discovered that small organisms swimming or crawling in turbulent flow are not subjected to steady velocities. The shears, accelerations, and odor concentrations encountered by small swimmers and crawlers fluctuate rapidly, with peaks much higher than mean values. Although microscopic organisms swim slowly relative to ambient water flow, their locomotory behavior in response to the rapidly-fluctuating shears and odors they encounter can affect where they are transported by ambient water movement. Furthermore, the ability of small organisms to walk on surfaces without being dislodged by pulses of rapid flow constrains the microhabitats in which they can forage. Supported by NSF Grant #IOS-0842685.

  6. Patterned control of human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-05-15

    There is much experimental evidence for the existence of biomechanical constraints which simplify the problem of control of multi-segment movements. In addition, it has been hypothesized that movements are controlled using a small set of basic temporal components or activation patterns, shared by several different muscles and reflecting global kinematic and kinetic goals. Here we review recent studies on human locomotion showing that muscle activity is accounted for by a combination of few basic patterns, each one timed at a different phase of the gait cycle. Similar patterns are involved in walking and running at different speeds, walking forwards or backwards, and walking under different loading conditions. The corresponding weights of distribution to different muscles may change as a function of the condition, allowing highly flexible control. Biomechanical correlates of each activation pattern have been described, leading to the hypothesis that the co-ordination of limb and body segments arises from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle activations need only intervene during limited time epochs to force intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. PMID:22411012

  7. Bipedal locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, Mark; Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel

    Bipedal walking, locomotion characterized by alternating swing and double support phase, is well studied on ground where feet do not penetrate the substrate. On granular media like sand however, intrusion and extrusion phases also occur. In these phases, relative motion of the two feet requires that one or both feet slip through the material, degrading performance. To study walking in these phases, we designed and studied a planarized bipedal robot (1.6 kg, 42 cm) that walked in a fluidized bed of poppy seeds. We also simulated the robot in a multibody software environment (Chrono) using granular resistive force theory (RFT) to calculate foot forces. In experiment and simulation, the robot experienced slip during the intrusion phase, with the experiment presenting additional slip due to motor control error during the double support phase. This exaggerated slip gave insight (through analysis of ground reaction forces in simulation) into how slip occurs when relative motion exists between the two feet in the granular media, where the foot with higher relative drag forces (from its instantaneous orientation, rotation, relative direction of motion, and depth) remains stationary. With this relationship, we generated walking gaits for the robot to walk with minimal slip.

  8. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  9. Exosome isolation: a microfluidic road-map.

    PubMed

    Liga, A; Vliegenthart, A D B; Oosthuyzen, W; Dear, J W; Kersaudy-Kerhoas, M

    2015-06-01

    Exosomes, first isolated 30 years ago, are nanoscale vesicles shed by most types of cells. The nucleic acid rich content of these nanoparticles, floating in virtually all bodily fluids, has great potential for non-invasive molecular diagnostics and may represent a novel therapeutic delivery system. However, current isolation techniques such as ultracentrifugation are not convenient and do not result in high purity isolation. This represents an interesting challenge for microfluidic technologies, from a cost-effective perspective as well as for enhanced purity capabilities, and point-of-care acquisition and diagnosis. In this frontier review, we present the current challenges, comment the first microfluidic advances in this new field and propose a roadmap for future developments. This review enables biologists and clinicians familiar with exosome enrichment to assess the performance of novel microfluidic devices and, equally, enables microfluidic engineers to educate themselves about this new class of promising biomarker-rich particles and the challenges arising from their clinical use. PMID:25940789

  10. ITRS lithography roadmap: status and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neisser, Mark; Wurm, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Recent ITRS lithography roadmaps show a big technology decision approaching the semiconductor industry about how to do leading edge lithography. The need is rapidly approaching for the industry to select an option for the 22-nm half pitch, but no decision has been made yet. The main options for the 22-nm half pitch are extreme ultraviolet (EUV), ArF immersion lithography with multiple patterning, and maskless lithography. For the 16-nm half pitch, directed self-assembly (DSA) is also an option. The EUV has the most industry investment and is the closest to current lithography in the way it works but still faces challenges in tool productivity and defect-free masks. The nanoimprint needs to overcome the defect, contamination, and overlay challenges before it can be applied to the semiconductor production. Maskless lithography may be used first for prototyping and small volume products where mask costs per chip produced would be very high. Double patterning could be extended to multiple pattering, but would give tremendous process complexity and exponentially rising mask costs due to the many exposures needed per level. The DSA, which only recently has emerged from the research stage, has the potential for very high resolution but represents a huge change in how critical dimensions are formed and controlled.

  11. NASA's Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Roadmap Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2003-01-01

    Information vital to the attainment of the major scientific objectives of NASA's Origins and Structure and Evolution of the Universe themes is uniquely available in the far-IR and submillimeter (FIR/SMM). NASA is studying concepts and investing in technologies for FIR/SMM telescopes that could fly in the decade 2010 - 2020 and provide enormous increases in measurement capabilities to extend the legacy of the next-generation missions SIRTF and Herschel. Future FIR/SMM space observatories will have the sensitivity needed to reach back in time to the formation epoch of the first luminous objects, the angular resolution needed to image proto-planetary systems and distinguish the emissions of individual galaxies, and the spectral resolution needed to probe the physical conditions and measure the flows of interstellar gas in young galaxies, nascent stars, and the dust-enshrouded nuclei of galaxies that harbor massive black holes. NASA's infrared roadmap includes the JWST-class Single Aperture Far-IR (SAFIR) telescope and FIR/SMM interferometers. The talk will give the scientific motivation for these missions, describe mission concepts and telescope measurement capabilities, and compare these capabilities with those of the next-generation IR telescopes and with the complementary JWST and ALMA.

  12. NASA's Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Roadmap Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2003-01-01

    Information vital to the attainment of the major scientific objectives of NASA s Origins and Structure and Evolution of the Universe themes is uniquely available in the far-IR and submillimeter (FIR/SMM). NASA is studying concepts and investing in technologies for FIF/SMM telescopes that could fly in the decade 201 0 - 2020 and provide enormous increases in measurement capabilities to extend the legacy of the next-generation missions SlRTF and Herschel. Future FIR/SMM space observatories will have the sensitivity needed to reach back in time to the formation epoch of the first luminous objects, the angular resolution needed to image proto-planetary systems and distinguish the emissions of individual galaxies, and the spectral resolution needed to probe the physical conditions and measure the flows of interstellar gas in young galaxies, nascent stars, and the dust-enshrouded nuclei of galaxies that harbor massive black holes. NASA s infrared roadmap includes the JWST-class Single Aperture Far-IR (SAFIR) telescope and FIR/SMM interferometers. The talk will give the scientific motivation for these missions, describe mission concepts and telescope measurement capabilities, and compare these capabilities with those of the next-generation IR telescopes and with the complementary JWST and ALMA.

  13. NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Strategic Research Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian J.; Singh, Bhim S.

    2004-01-01

    The Microgravity Fluid Physics Program at NASA has developed a substantial investigator base engaging a broad crosssection of the U.S. scientific community. As a result, it enjoys a rich history of many significant scientific achievements. The research supported by the program has produced many important findings that have been published in prestigious journals such as Science, Nature, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Physics of Fluids, and many others. The focus of the program so far has primarily been on fundamental scientific studies. However, a recent shift in emphasis at NASA to develop advanced technologies to enable future exploration of space has provided motivation to add a strategic research component to the program. This has set into motion a year of intense planning within NASA including three workshops to solicit inputs from the external scientific community. The planning activities and the workshops have resulted in a prioritized list of strategic research issues along with a corresponding detailed roadmap specific to fluid physics. The results of these activities were provided to NASA s Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) to support the development of the Enterprise Strategy document. This paper summarizes these results while showing how the planned research supports NASA s overall vision through OBPR s organizing questions.

  14. Finding a roadmap to achieve large neuromorphic hardware systems

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Jennifer; Marr, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Neuromorphic systems are gaining increasing importance in an era where CMOS digital computing techniques are reaching physical limits. These silicon systems mimic extremely energy efficient neural computing structures, potentially both for solving engineering applications as well as understanding neural computation. Toward this end, the authors provide a glimpse at what the technology evolution roadmap looks like for these systems so that Neuromorphic engineers may gain the same benefit of anticipation and foresight that IC designers gained from Moore's law many years ago. Scaling of energy efficiency, performance, and size will be discussed as well as how the implementation and application space of Neuromorphic systems are expected to evolve over time. PMID:24058330

  15. Locomotion Control of MEMS Micro Robot Using Pulse-Type Hardware Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Ken; Okazaki, Kazuto; Ogiwara, Tatsuya; Takato, Minami; Saeki, Katsutoshi; Sekine, Yoshifumi; Uchikoba, Fumio

    This paper presents the locomotion control of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) micro robot. MEMS micro robot demonstrates the locomotion control by the pulse-type hardware neural networks (P-HNN). P-HNN generates oscillatory patterns of electrical activity such as living organisms. The basic component of P-HNN is pulse-type hardware neuron model (P-HNM). P-HNM has same basic features of biological neurons such as threshold, refractory period, spatio-temporal summation characteristics and enables the generation of continuous action potentials. P-HNN was constructed by MOSFETs, can be integrated by CMOS technology. Same as the living organisms P-HNN realized the robot control without using software programs, or A/D converters. The size of micro robot fabricated by the MEMS technology was 4×4×3.5 [mm]. The frame of robot was made of silicon wafer, equipped with rotary type actuators, link mechanisms and 6 legs. MEMS micro robot emulated the locomotion method and the neural networks of the insect by rotary actuators, link mechanisms and P-HNN. As a result, we show that P-HNN can control the forward and backward locomotion of fabricated MEMS micro robot, and also switched the direction by inputting the external trigger pulse. The locomotion speed was 19.5 [mm/min] and the step width was 1.3 [mm].

  16. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were established to protect the public health or welfare from the dangers of air pollution.” (2) A statement that... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES...

  17. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were established to protect the public health or welfare from the dangers of air pollution.” (2) A statement that... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES...

  18. 40 CFR 92.707 - Notification to locomotive or locomotive engine owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR part 92. These standards or family emission limits, as defined in 40 CFR part 92 were established to protect the public health or welfare from the dangers of air pollution.” (2) A statement that... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES...

  19. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be: (i) Equivalent to a 1/2-inch steel plate with a yield strength of 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch—material of a higher yield strength may be used to decrease the required thickness of the material provided at least an equivalent level of strength...

  20. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be: (i) Equivalent to a 1/2-inch steel plate with a yield strength of 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch—material of a higher yield strength may be used to decrease the required thickness of the material provided at least an equivalent level of strength...

  1. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be: (i) Equivalent to a 1/2-inch steel plate with a yield strength of 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch—material of a higher yield strength may be used to decrease the required thickness of the material provided at least an equivalent level of strength...

  2. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives. 238.209 Section 238.209 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements...

  3. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Mays, Gary T; Pointer, William David; Robb, Kevin R; Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics and fully passive safety. This paper provides an overview of a technology development pathway for expeditious commercial deployment of first-generation FHRs. The paper describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. First-generation FHRs do not appear to require any technology breakthroughs, but will require significant technology development and demonstration. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, the development roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant; the lack of an approved licensing framework; the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials; and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  4. Relationship between osteology and aquatic locomotion in birds: determining modes of locomotion in extinct Ornithurae.

    PubMed

    Hinić-Frlog, S; Motani, R

    2010-02-01

    The evolutionary history of aquatic invasion in birds would be incomplete without incorporation of extinct species. We show that aquatic affinities in fossil birds can be inferred by multivariate analysis of skeletal features and locomotion of 245 species of extant birds. Regularized discriminant analyses revealed that measurements of appendicular skeletons successfully separated diving birds from surface swimmers and flyers, while also discriminating among different underwater modes of swimming. The high accuracy of this method allows detection of skeletal characteristics that are indicative of aquatic locomotion and inference of such locomotion in bird species with insufficient behavioural information. Statistical predictions based on the analyses confirm qualitative assessments for both foot-propelled (Hesperornithiformes) and wing-propelled (Copepteryx) underwater locomotion in fossil birds. This is the first quantitative inference of underwater modes of swimming in fossil birds, enabling future studies of locomotion in extinct birds and evolutionary transitions among locomotor modes in avian lineage. PMID:20021550

  5. Superconductivity and the environment: a Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, Shigehiro; Eckroad, Steven; Marian, Adela; Choi, Kyeongdal; Kim, Woo Seok; Terai, Motoaki; Deng, Zigang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Jiasu; Umemoto, Katsuya; Du, Jia; Febvre, Pascal; Keenan, Shane; Mukhanov, Oleg; Cooley, Lance D.; Foley, Cathy P.; Hassenzahl, William V.; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2013-11-01

    There is universal agreement between the United Nations and governments from the richest to the poorest nations that humanity faces unprecedented global challenges relating to sustainable energy, clean water, low-emission transportation, coping with climate change and natural disasters, and reclaiming use of land. We have invited researchers from a range of eclectic research areas to provide a Roadmap of how superconducting technologies could address these major challenges confronting humanity. Superconductivity has, over the century since its discovery by Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911, promised to provide solutions to many challenges. So far, most superconducting technologies are esoteric systems that are used in laboratories and hospitals. Large science projects have long appreciated the ability of superconductivity to efficiently create high magnetic fields that are otherwise very costly to achieve with ordinary materials. The most successful applications outside of large science are high-field magnets for magnetic resonance imaging, laboratory magnetometers for mineral and materials characterization, filters for mobile communications, and magnetoencephalography for understanding the human brain. The stage is now set for superconductivity to make more general contributions. Humanity uses practically unthinkable amounts of energy to drive our modern way of life. Overall, global power usage has been predicted to almost double from 16.5 to 30 TW in the next four decades (2011 Equinox Summit: Energy 2030 http://wgsi.org/publications-resources). The economy with which electrons carry energy compels the continued quest for efficient superconducting power generation, energy storage, and power transmission. The growing global population requires new arable land and treatment of water, especially in remote areas, and superconductivity offers unique solutions to these problems. Exquisite detectors give warning of changes that are otherwise invisible. Prediction of climate and

  6. Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Roadmap Taskforce Report, Design of Microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this project was to support the establishment of tool interoperability standards for the semiconductor industry. Accomplishments include the publication of the 'EDA Industry Standards Roadmap - 1996' and the 'EDA Roadmap Taskforce Report - Design of Microprocessors.'

  7. Superconductivity and the environment: a Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, Shigehiro; Eckroad, Steven; Marian, Adela; Choi, Kyeongdal; Kim, Woo Seok; Terai, Motoaki; Deng, Zigang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Jiasu; Umemoto, Katsuya; Du, Jia; Febvre, Pascal; Keenan, Shane; Mukhanov, Oleg; Cooley, Lance D.; Foley, Cathy P.; Hassenzahl, William V.; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2013-11-01

    There is universal agreement between the United Nations and governments from the richest to the poorest nations that humanity faces unprecedented global challenges relating to sustainable energy, clean water, low-emission transportation, coping with climate change and natural disasters, and reclaiming use of land. We have invited researchers from a range of eclectic research areas to provide a Roadmap of how superconducting technologies could address these major challenges confronting humanity. Superconductivity has, over the century since its discovery by Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911, promised to provide solutions to many challenges. So far, most superconducting technologies are esoteric systems that are used in laboratories and hospitals. Large science projects have long appreciated the ability of superconductivity to efficiently create high magnetic fields that are otherwise very costly to achieve with ordinary materials. The most successful applications outside of large science are high-field magnets for magnetic resonance imaging, laboratory magnetometers for mineral and materials characterization, filters for mobile communications, and magnetoencephalography for understanding the human brain. The stage is now set for superconductivity to make more general contributions. Humanity uses practically unthinkable amounts of energy to drive our modern way of life. Overall, global power usage has been predicted to almost double from 16.5 to 30 TW in the next four decades (2011 Equinox Summit: Energy 2030 http://wgsi.org/publications-resources). The economy with which electrons carry energy compels the continued quest for efficient superconducting power generation, energy storage, and power transmission. The growing global population requires new arable land and treatment of water, especially in remote areas, and superconductivity offers unique solutions to these problems. Exquisite detectors give warning of changes that are otherwise invisible. Prediction of climate and

  8. Evolution of neural controllers for salamanderlike locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijspeert, Auke J.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents an experiment in which evolutionary algorithms are used for the development of neural controllers for salamander locomotion. The aim of the experiment is to investigate which kind of neural circuitry can produce the typical swimming and trotting gaits of the salamander, and to develop a synthetic approach to neurobiology by using genetic algorithms as design tool. A 2D bio-mechanical simulation of the salamander's body is developed whose muscle contraction is determined by the locomotion controller simulated as continuous-time neural networks. While the connectivity of the neural circuitry underlying locomotion in the salamander has not been decoded for the moment, the general organization of the designed neural circuits corresponds to that hypothesized by neurobiologist for the real animal. In particular, the locomotion controllers are based on a body central pattern generator (CPG) corresponding to a lamprey-like swimming controller as developed by Ekeberg, and are extended with a limb CPG for controlling the salamander's body. A genetic algorithm is used to instantiate synaptic weights of the connections within the limb CPG and from the limb CPG to the body CPG given a high level description of the desired gaits. A set of biologically plausible controllers are thus developed which can produce a neural activity and locomotion gaits very similar to those observed in the real salamander. By simply varying the external excitation applied to the network, the speed, direction and type of gait can be varied.

  9. 76 FR 11308 - Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting AGENCY: Federal... interested persons that the First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on April... solutions. DATES: The First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on April...

  10. Locomotion gaits of a rotating cylinder pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rees, Wim M.; Novati, Guido; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-11-01

    Using 2D numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we demonstrate that a simple pair of rotating cylinders can display a range of locomotion patterns of biological and engineering interest. Steadily counter-rotating the cylinders causes the pair to move akin to a vortex dipole for low rotation rates, but as the rotational velocity is increased the direction of motion reverses. Unsteady rotations lead to different locomotion gaits that resemble jellyfish (for in-phase rotations) and undulating swimmers (for out-of-phase rotations). The small number of parameters for this simple system allows us to systematically map the phase space of these gaits, and allows us to understand the underlying physical mechanisms using a minimal model with implications for biological locomotion and engineered analogs.

  11. Passive appendages aid locomotion through symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Shervin; Lacis, Ugis; Mazzino, Andrea; Kellay, Hamid; Brosse, Nicolas; Lundell, Fredrik; Ingremeau, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs, fins, and other types of appendages to aid locomotion. Despite their enormous variation, passive appendages may contribute to locomotion by exploiting the same physical mechanism. We present a new mechanism that applies to body appendages surrounded by a separated flow, which often develops behind moving bodies larger than a few millimeters. We use theory, experiments, and numerical simulations to show that bodies with protrusions turn and drift by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in flowing fluid is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming fluid flow direction. The discovery suggests a new mechanism of locomotion that may be relevant for certain organisms; for example, how plumed seeds may drift without wind and how motile animals may passively reorient themselves.

  12. Operating a locomotive on liquid methane fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, J.L. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that several years ago, Burlington Northern Railroad looked into the feasibility of operating a diesel railroad locomotive to also run on compressed natural gas in a dual-fuel mode. Recognizing the large volume of on-board storage required and other limitations of CNG in the application, a program was begun to fuel a locomotive with liquefied natural gas. Because natural gas composition can vary with source and processing, it was considered desirable to use essentially pure liquid methane as the engine fuel. Initial testing results show the locomotive system achieved full diesel-rated power when operating on liquid methane and with equivalent fuel efficiency. Extended testing, including an American Association of Railroad 500-hour durability test, was undertaken to obtain information on engine life, wear rate and lubrication oil life.

  13. A Roadmap for NEAMS Capability Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, David E

    2011-11-01

    The vision of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program is to bring truly predictive modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to the nuclear engineering community in order to enable a new approach to the design and analysis of nuclear energy systems. From its inception, the NEAMS program has always envisioned a broad user base for its software and scientific products, including researchers within the DOE complex, nuclear industry technology developers and vendors, and operators. However activities to date have focused almost exclusively on interactions with NEAMS sponsors, who are also near-term users of NEAMS technologies. The task of the NEAMS Capability Transfer (CT) program element for FY2011 is to develop a comprehensive plan to support the program's needs for user outreach and technology transfer. In order to obtain community input to this plan, a 'NEAMS Capability Transfer Roadmapping Workshop' was held 4-5 April 2011 in Chattanooga, TN, and is summarized in this report. The 30 workshop participants represented the NEAMS program, the DOE and industrial user communities, and several outside programs. The workshop included a series of presentations providing an overview of the NEAMS program and presentations on the user outreach and technology transfer experiences of (1) The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, (2) The Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) project, and (3) The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), followed by discussion sessions. Based on the workshop and other discussions throughout the year, we make a number of recommendations of key areas for the NEAMS program to develop the user outreach and technology transfer activities: (1) Engage not only DOE, but also industrial users sooner and more often; (2) Engage with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to facilitate their understanding and acceptance of NEAMS approach to predictive M&S; (3) Place

  14. Solar Sail Roadmap Mission GN and C Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion program is funding development work for solar sails to enhance future scientific opportunities. Key to this effort are scientific solar sail roadmap missions identified by peer review. The two near-term missions of interest are L1 Diamond and Solar Polar Imager. Additionally, the New Millennium Program is sponsoring the Space Technology 9 (ST9) demonstration mission. Solar sails are one of five technologies competing for the ST9 flight demonstration. Two candidate solar sail missions have been identified for a potential ST9 flight. All the roadmap missions and candidate flight demonstration missions face various GN&C challenges. A variety of efforts are underway to address these challenges. These include control actuator design and testing, low thrust optimization studies, attitude control system design and modeling, control-structure interaction studies, trajectory control design, and solar radiation pressure model development. Here we survey the various efforts underway and identify a few of specific recent interest and focus.

  15. A PHYSIOLOGIST’S PERSPECTIVE ON ROBOTIC EXOSKELETONS FOR HUMAN LOCOMOTION

    PubMed Central

    FERRIS, DANIEL P.; SAWICKI, GREGORY S.; DALEY, MONICA A.

    2007-01-01

    Technological advances in robotic hardware and software have enabled powered exoskeletons to move from science fiction to the real world. The objective of this article is to emphasize two main points for future research. First, the design of future devices could be improved by exploiting biomechanical principles of animal locomotion. Two goals in exoskeleton research could particularly benefit from additional physiological perspective: 1) reduction in the metabolic energy expenditure of the user while wearing the device, and 2) minimization of the power requirements for actuating the exoskeleton. Second, a reciprocal potential exists for robotic exoskeletons to advance our understanding of human locomotor physiology. Experimental data from humans walking and running with robotic exoskeletons could provide important insight into the metabolic cost of locomotion that is impossible to gain with other methods. Given the mutual benefits of collaboration, it is imperative that engineers and physiologists work together in future studies on robotic exoskeletons for human locomotion. PMID:18185840

  16. 8. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  17. 5. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  18. 6. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  19. 4. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  20. 7. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  1. 9. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  2. 7. Detail of the Grant Locomotive Works Erecting Shop looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of the Grant Locomotive Works Erecting Shop looking southwest showing ruined wall and entrance of a single story addition. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  3. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under this part shall supply to the Administrator, upon his/her request, a reasonable number of... locomotives or locomotive engines that may be supplied to the Administrator is five per model year....

  4. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under this part shall supply to the Administrator, upon his/her request, a reasonable number of... locomotives or locomotive engines that may be supplied to the Administrator is five per model year....

  5. 40 CFR 92.214 - Production locomotives and engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under this part shall supply to the Administrator, upon his/her request, a reasonable number of... locomotives or locomotive engines that may be supplied to the Administrator is five per model year....

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  7. 2. CLOSE IN AERIAL VIEW OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CLOSE IN AERIAL VIEW OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  8. Locomotion of Paramecium in patterned environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun-Jik; Eddins, Aja; Kim, Junil; Yang, Sung; Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2011-10-01

    Ciliary organisms like Paramecium Multimicronucleatum locomote by synchronized beating of cilia that produce metachronal waves over their body. In their natural environments they navigate through a variety of environments especially surfaces with different topology. We study the effects of wavy surfaces patterned on the PDMS channels on the locomotive abilities of Paramecium by characterizing different quantities like velocity amplitude and wavelength of the trajectories traced. We compare this result with the swimming characteristics in straight channels and draw conclusions about the effects of various patterned surfaces.

  9. Large and limbless: the locomotion of snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David

    2008-03-01

    In efforts to understand snake locomotion, we consider one of their various gaits. By contracting and extending their bodies unidirectionally like a slinky, large snakes propel themselves in a straight line. In a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we here report on the dynamics of a boa constrictor alongside the analysis of an n-linked extensible crawler model. Constraints on their locomotion are quantified and discussed, such as the elasticity, frictional anisotropy and abrasive wear of their skin. Also presented are certain snake behaviors that culminate in their tying themselves into knots.

  10. Technology Development for NASA Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on technology development for NASA Mars Missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Mars mission roadmaps; 2) Focus and Base Technology programs; 3) Technology Infusion; and 4) Feed Forward to Future Missions.

  11. 49 CFR 229.141 - Body structure, MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Body structure, MU locomotives. 229.141 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.141 Body structure, MU locomotives. (a) MU locomotives built new after April 1... body structure designed to meet or exceed the following minimum specifications: (1) The body...

  12. 49 CFR 229.141 - Body structure, MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Body structure, MU locomotives. 229.141 Section 229.141 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.141 Body...

  13. 49 CFR 229.15 - Remote control locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote control locomotives. 229.15 Section 229.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.15 Remote control locomotives. (a) Design and operation. (1)...

  14. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  15. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  16. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  17. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  18. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must...

  19. 49 CFR 229.141 - Body structure, MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Body structure, MU locomotives. 229.141 Section... Design Requirements § 229.141 Body structure, MU locomotives. (a) MU locomotives built new after April 1... body structure designed to meet or exceed the following minimum specifications: (1) The body...

  20. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  1. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  2. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  3. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  4. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  5. Extremely Large Telescope Project Selected in ESFRI Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-10-01

    In its first Roadmap, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) choose the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), for which ESO is presently developing a Reference Design, as one of the large scale projects to be conducted in astronomy, and the only one in optical astronomy. The aim of the ELT project is to build before the end of the next decade an optical/near-infrared telescope with a diameter in the 30-60m range. ESO PR Photo 40/06 The ESFRI Roadmap states: "Extremely Large Telescopes are seen world-wide as one of the highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. They will vastly advance astrophysical knowledge allowing detailed studies of inter alia planets around other stars, the first objects in the Universe, super-massive Black Holes, and the nature and distribution of the Dark Matter and Dark Energy which dominate the Universe. The European Extremely Large Telescope project will maintain and reinforce Europe's position at the forefront of astrophysical research." Said Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO: "In 2004, the ESO Council mandated ESO to play a leading role in the development of an ELT for Europe's astronomers. To that end, ESO has undertaken conceptual studies for ELTs and is currently also leading a consortium of European institutes engaged in studying enabling technologies for such a telescope. The inclusion of the ELT in the ESFRI roadmap, together with the comprehensive preparatory work already done, paves the way for the next phase of this exciting project, the design phase." ESO is currently working, in close collaboration with the European astronomical community and the industry, on a baseline design for an Extremely Large Telescope. The plan is a telescope with a primary mirror between 30 and 60 metres in diameter and a financial envelope of about 750 m Euros. It aims at more than a factor ten improvement in overall performance compared to the current leader in ground based astronomy: the ESO Very Large

  6. Relation between observed locomotion traits and locomotion score in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schlageter-Tello, Andrés; Bokkers, Eddie A M; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Van Hertem, Tom; Viazzi, Stefano; Romanini, Carlos E B; Halachmi, Ilan; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniël; Lokhorst, Kees

    2015-12-01

    Lameness is still an important problem in modern dairy farming. Human observation of locomotion, by looking at different traits in one go, is used in practice to assess locomotion. The objectives of this article were to determine which individual locomotion traits are most related to locomotion scores in dairy cows, and whether experienced raters are capable of scoring these individual traits consistently. Locomotion and 5 individual locomotion traits (arched back, asymmetric gait, head bobbing, reluctance to bear weight, and tracking up) were scored independently on a 5-level scale for 58 videos of different cows. Videos were shown to 10 experienced raters in 2 different scoring sessions. Relations between locomotion score and traits were estimated by 3 logistic regression models aiming to calculate the size of the fixed effects on the probability of scoring a cow in 1 of the 5 levels of the scale (model 1) and the probability of classifying a cow as lame (locomotion score ≥3; model 2) or as severely lame (locomotion score ≥4; model 3). Fixed effects were rater, session, traits, and interactions among fixed effects. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the relative probability to classify a cow as lame when an altered (trait score ≥3) or severely altered trait (trait score ≥4) was present. Overall intrarater and interrater reliability and agreement were calculated as weighted kappa coefficient (κw) and percentage of agreement, respectively. Specific intrarater and interrater agreement for individual levels within a 5-level scale were calculated. All traits were significantly related to the locomotion score when scored with a 5-level scale and when classified as (severely) lame or nonlame. Odds ratios for altered and severely altered traits were 10.8 and 14.5 for reluctance to bear weight, 6.5 and 7.2 for asymmetric gait, and 4.8 and 3.2 for arched back, respectively. Raters showed substantial variation in reliability and agreement values when scoring

  7. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  8. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  9. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  10. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  11. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... ambient air temperature is between 32 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit inclusively; relative humidity is.... The observer shall not stand between the microphone and the horn. (8) Background noise shall...

  12. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... ambient air temperature is between 32 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit inclusively; relative humidity is.... The observer shall not stand between the microphone and the horn. (8) Background noise shall...

  13. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... ambient air temperature is between 32 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit inclusively; relative humidity is.... The observer shall not stand between the microphone and the horn. (8) Background noise shall...

  14. 77 FR 23159 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... rule related to locomotive safety standards. See 77 FR 21312. The final rule established a public... safety standards and comments on such petitions. That final rule mistakenly lists FR-2009- 0095... is FRA-2009-0094. The final rule issued on April 9, 2012, incorrectly identified docket number...

  15. Interactions between locomotion and ventilation in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Dona F

    2002-10-01

    Interactions between locomotion and ventilation have now been studied in several species of reptiles, birds and mammals, from a variety of perspectives. Among these perspectives are neural interactions of separate but linked central controllers; mechanical impacts of locomotion upon ventilatory pressures and flows; and the extent to which the latter may affect gas exchange and the energetics of exercise. A synchrony, i.e. 1:1 pattern of coordination, is observed in many running mammals once they achieve galloping speeds, as well as in flying bats, some flying birds and hopping marsupials. Other, non-1:1, patterns of coordination are seen in trotting and walking quadrupeds, as well as running bipedal humans and running and flying birds. There is evidence for an energetic advantage to coordination of locomotor and respiratory cycles for flying birds and running mammals. There is evidence for a mechanical constraint upon ventilation by locomotion for some reptiles (e.g. iguana), but not for others (e.g. varanids and crocodilians). In diving birds the impact of wing flapping or foot paddling on differential air sac pressures enhances gas exchange during the breath hold by improving diffusive and convective movement of air sac oxygen to parabronchi. This paper will review the current state of our knowledge of such influences of locomotion upon respiratory system function. PMID:12208300

  16. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... defectives equal to an AQL of 1% or less, as set forth in 7 CFR part 43. (2) Each locomotive built before... Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 61672-1 (2002-05) for a Class 2 instrument. (2) An acoustic calibrator... with the acoustic calibrator immediately before and after compliance tests. Any change in the...

  17. Learning in the Development of Infant Locomotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined how infants acquire adaptive locomotion in the novel task of going up and down slopes. Found that infants' judgments became increasingly accurate and exploration became increasingly efficient, with no transfer over the transition from crawling to walking. Infants learned to gauge their abilities on-line as they encountered each hill at…

  18. Evidence for Motor Simulation in Imagined Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Benjamin R.; Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Thompson, William B.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments examined the role of the motor system in imagined movement, finding a strong relationship between imagined walking performance and the biomechanical information available during actual walking. Experiments 1 through 4 established the finding that real and imagined locomotion differ in absolute walking time. We then tested…

  19. Energetics and mechanics for partial gravity locomotion.

    PubMed

    Newman, D J; Alexander, H L; Webbon, B W

    1994-09-01

    The role of gravitational acceleration on human locomotion is not clearly understood. It is hypothesized that the mechanics and energetics of locomotion depend upon the prevailing gravity level. A unique human-rated underwater treadmill and an adjustable ballasting harness were used to stimulate partial gravity environments. This study has two research aspects, biomechanics and energetics. Vertical forces which are exerted by subjects on the treadmill-mounted, split-plate force platform show that peak vertical force and stride frequency significantly decrease (p < 0.05) as the gravity level is reduced, while ground contact time is independent of gravity level. A loping gait is employed over a wide range of speeds (approximately 1.5 m/s to approximately 2.3 m/s) suggesting a change in the mechanics for lunar (1/6 G) and Martian (3/8 G) locomotion. As theory predicts, locomotion energy requirements for partial gravity levels are significantly less than at 1 G (p < 0.05). PMID:7818450

  20. The role of locomotion in psychological development

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David I.; Campos, Joseph J.; Witherington, David C.; Dahl, Audun; Rivera, Monica; He, Minxuan; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The psychological revolution that follows the onset of independent locomotion in the latter half of the infant's first year provides one of the best illustrations of the intimate connection between action and psychological processes. In this paper, we document some of the dramatic changes in perception-action coupling, spatial cognition, memory, and social and emotional development that follow the acquisition of independent locomotion. We highlight the range of converging research operations that have been used to examine the relation between locomotor experience and psychological development, and we describe recent attempts to uncover the processes that underlie this relation. Finally, we address three important questions about the relation that have received scant attention in the research literature. These questions include: (1) What changes in the brain occur when infants acquire experience with locomotion? (2) What role does locomotion play in the maintenance of psychological function? (3) What implications do motor disabilities have for psychological development? Seeking the answers to these questions can provide rich insights into the relation between action and psychological processes and the general processes that underlie human development. PMID:23888146

  1. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6203 - Locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Locomotives. 57.6203 Section 57.6203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6203...

  6. Lizard locomotion in heterogeneous granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Locomotion strategies in heterogeneous granular environments (common substrates in deserts), are relatively unexplored. The zebra-tailed lizard (C. draconoides) is a useful model organism for such studies owing to its exceptional ability to navigate a variety of desert habitats at impressive speed (up to 50 body-lengths per second) using both quadrapedal and bidepal gaits. In laboratory experiments, we challenge the lizards to run across a field of boulders (2.54 cm diameter glass spheres or 3.8 cm 3D printed spheres) placed in a lattice pattern and embedded in a loosely packed granular medium of 0.3 mm diameter glass particles. Locomotion kinematics of the lizard are recorded using high speed cameras, with and without the scatterers. The data reveals that unlike the lizard's typical quadrupedal locomotion using a diagonal gait, when scatterers are present the lizard is most successful when using a bipedal gait, with a raised center of mass (CoM). We propose that the kinematics of bipedal running in conjunction with the lizard's long toes and compliant hind foot are the keys to this lizard's successful locomotion in the presence of such obstacles. NSF PoLS

  7. Judgments of Path, Not Heading, Guide Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2006-01-01

    To steer a course through the world, people are almost entirely dependent on visual information, of which a key component is optic flow. In many models of locomotion, heading is described as the fundamental control variable; however, it has also been shown that fixating points along or near one's future path could be the basis of an efficient…

  8. Passive mechanics in jellyfish-like locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Megan; Eldredge, Jeff

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to identify possible benefits of passive flexibility in biologically-inspired locomotion. Substantial energy savings are likely achieved in natural locomotion by allowing a mix of actively controlled and passively responsive deformation. The jellyfish is a useful target of study, due to its relatively simple structure and the availability of recent kinematics and flow-field measurements. In this investigation, the jellyfish consists of a two-dimensional articulated system of rigid bodies linked by hinges. The kinematics -- expressed via the hinge angles -- are adapted from experimentally measured motion. The free swimming system is explored via high-fidelity numerical simulation with a viscous vortex particle method with coupled body dynamics. The computational tool allows the arbitrary designation of individual hinges as ``active'' or ``passive,'' to introduce a mix of flexibility into the system. In some cases, replacing an active hinge with a passive spring can enhance the mean swimming speed, thus reducing the power requirements of the system. Varying the stiffness and damping coefficients of the spring yield different locomotive results. The numerical solution is used to compute the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) throughout the field. The FTLE fields reveal manifolds in the flow that act as transport barriers, uncovering otherwise unseen geometric characteristics of the flow field that add new insight into the locomotion mechanics.

  9. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards. (a) General. The following procedures govern... approval of a locomotive crashworthiness design standard must be titled “Petition for FRA Approval of a New... petition for approval of a substantive change to an FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and...

  11. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards... Design Requirements § 229.207 New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA... consideration and action upon requests for FRA approval of new locomotive crashworthiness design standards...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and...

  13. Bioastronautics Roadmap: A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap is the framework used to identify and assess the risks to crews exposed to the hazardous environments of space. It guides the implementation of research strategies to prevent or reduce those risks. Although the BCPR identifies steps that must be taken to reduce the risks to health and performance that are associated with human space flight, the BCPR is not a "critical path" analysis in the strict engineering sense. The BCPR will evolve to accommodate new information and technology development and will enable NASA to conduct a formal critical path analysis in the future. As a management tool, the BCPR provides information for making informed decisions about research priorities and resource allocation. The outcome-driven nature of the BCPR makes it amenable for assessing the focus, progress and success of the Bioastronautics research and technology program. The BCPR is also a tool for communicating program priorities and progress to the research community and NASA management.

  14. HTA Implementation Roadmap in Central and Eastern European Countries.

    PubMed

    Kaló, Zoltán; Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana; Csanádi, Marcell; Kristensen, Finn Boerlum

    2016-02-01

    The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior to healthcare financing decisions can improve the allocative efficiency of scarce resources. However, few CEE countries have a clear roadmap for HTA implementation. Examples from high-income countries may not be directly relevant, as CEE countries cannot allocate so much financial and human resources for substantiating policy decisions with evidence. Our objective was to describe the main HTA implementation scenarios in CEE countries and summarize the most important questions related to capacity building, financing HTA research, process and organizational structure for HTA, standardization of HTA methodology, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully transferable without taking into account country-specific aspects, such as country size, gross domestic product per capita, major social values, public health priorities, and fragmentation of healthcare financing. PMID:26763688

  15. Astrobiology: A Roadmap for Charting Life in the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincezi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research. It links such endeavors as the search for habitable planets, exploration missions to Mars and the outer Solar System, efforts to understand the origins and early evolution of life, and charting the potential of life to adapt to future challenges, both on Earth and in space. Astrobiology addresses the following three basic questions, which have been asked in some form for generations. How does life begin and evolve? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? What is future of life on Earth and beyond? The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across several NASA Enterprises: Space Science, Earth Science, and the Human Exploration and Development of Space. The Roadmap is formulated in terms of eight Science Goals that outline key domains of investigation that might require perhaps decades of effort to consolidate. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority near-term efforts for the next three to five years. These twenty objectives will be integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  16. An ESA roadmap for geobiology in space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Claire R.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Geobiology, and in particular mineral-microbe interactions, has a significant role to play in current and future space exploration. This includes the search for biosignatures in extraterrestrial environments, and the human exploration of space. Microorganisms can be exploited to advance such exploration, such as through biomining, maintenance of life-support systems, and testing of life-detection instrumentation. In view of these potential applications, a European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team "Geobiology in Space Exploration" was developed to explore these applications, and identify research avenues to be investigated to support this endeavour. Through community workshops, a roadmap was produced, with which to define future research directions via a set of 15 recommendations spanning three key areas: Science, Technology, and Community. These roadmap recommendations identify the need for research into: (1) new terrestrial space-analogue environments; (2) community level microbial-mineral interactions; (3) response of biofilms to the space environment; (4) enzymatic and biochemical mineral interaction; (5) technical refinement of instrumentation for space-based microbiology experiments, including precursor flight tests; (6) integration of existing ground-based planetary simulation facilities; (7) integration of fieldsite biogeography with laboratory- and field-based research; (8) modification of existing planetary instruments for new geobiological investigations; (9) development of in situ sample preparation techniques; (10) miniaturisation of existing analytical methods, such as DNA sequencing technology; (11) new sensor technology to analyse chemical interaction in small volume samples; (12) development of reusable Lunar and Near Earth Object experimental platforms; (13) utility of Earth-based research to enable the realistic pursuit of extraterrestrial biosignatures; (14) terrestrial benefits and technological spin-off from existing and future space

  17. A European Roadmap for Research in Astrobiology - The AstRoMap Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M.; Palomba, E.

    2015-10-01

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity-www.astromap-eu.org) is a collaborative project which will provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in astrobiology. The goals of the project have been: (i) to pose big questions related to astrobiology; and (ii) the identification of experiments, new technology and/or those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure includes the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable will be a Roadmap document. The project is steered by a consortium of six European and national research institutes and associations: -­- Centro de Astrobiologica (INTACSIC), Spain -­- European Science Foundation, France -­- Association pour un Réseau Européen d'Exo/Astrobiology (EANA), France -­- B-USOC, Belgium -­- Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany -­- National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), ItalyOrigin and evolution of planetary systems -­- Origin of organic compounds in space -­- Rock-water-carbon interactions, organic synthesis, and steps to life -­- Life and habitability on Earth and in Space -­- -­- Biosignatures as facilitating life detection The key topics will focus on a limited number of strategic scientific objectives to be addressed in the next 20 years by European astrobiologists, and suggest research activities for future development.

  18. Human Locomotion under Reduced Gravity Conditions: Biomechanical and Neurophysiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced gravity offers unique opportunities to study motor behavior. This paper aims at providing a review on current issues of the known tools and techniques used for hypogravity simulation and their effects on human locomotion. Walking and running rely on the limb oscillatory mechanics, and one way to change its dynamic properties is to modify the level of gravity. Gravity has a strong effect on the optimal rate of limb oscillations, optimal walking speed, and muscle activity patterns, and gait transitions occur smoothly and at slower speeds at lower gravity levels. Altered center of mass movements and interplay between stance and swing leg dynamics may challenge new forms of locomotion in a heterogravity environment. Furthermore, observations in the lack of gravity effects help to reveal the intrinsic properties of locomotor pattern generators and make evident facilitation of nonvoluntary limb stepping. In view of that, space neurosciences research has participated in the development of new technologies that can be used as an effective tool for gait rehabilitation. PMID:25247179

  19. Multi-limbed locomotion systems for space construction and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, K. J.; Klein, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    A well developed technology of coordination of multi-limbed locomotory systems is now available. Results from a NASA sponsored study of several years ago are presented. This was a simulation study of a three-limbed locomotion/manipulation system. Each limb had six degrees of freedom and could be used either as a locomotory grasping hand-holds, or as a manipulator. The focus of the study was kinematic coordination algorithms. The presentation will also include very recent results from the Adaptive Suspension Vehicle Project. The Adaptive Suspension Vehicle (ASV) is a legged locomotion system designed for terrestrial use which is capable of operating in completely unstructured terrain in either a teleoperated or operator-on-board mode. Future development may include autonomous operation. The ASV features a very advanced coordination and control system which could readily be adapted to operation in space. An inertial package with a vertical gyro, and rate gyros and accelerometers on three orthogonal axes provides body position information at high bandwidth. This is compared to the operator's commands, injected via a joystick to provide a commanded force system on the vehicle's body. This system is, in turn, decomposed by a coordination algorithm into force commands to those legs which are in contact with the ground.

  20. Developing a Roadmap for Excellence in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kristine S.; Reese, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Trying to figure out the promotion and tenure system is one of the major stressors for new Extension faculty. To help new county-based Extension faculty, their supervisors, committee chairs, and other mentors evaluate progress in the probationary years, a Roadmap with specific guideposts delineating expectations for pre-tenure years was developed.…

  1. NASA Strategic Roadmap: Origin, Evolution, Structure, and Destiny of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA strategic roadmap on the Origin, Evolution, Structure and Destiny of the Universe is one of 13 roadmaps that outline NASA s approach to implement the vision for space exploration. The roadmap outlines a program to address the questions: What powered the Big Bang? What happens close to a Black Hole? What is Dark Energy? How did the infant universe grow into the galaxies, stars and planets, and set the stage for life? The roadmap builds upon the currently operating and successful missions such as HST, Chandra and Spitzer. The program contains two elements, Beyond Einstein and Pathways to Life, performed in three phases (2005-2015, 2015-2025 and >2025) with priorities set by inputs received from reviews undertaken by the National Academy of Sciences and technology readiness. The program includes the following missions: 2005-2015 GLAST, JWST and LISA; 2015-2025 Constellation-X and a series of Einstein Probes; and >2025 a number of ambitious vision missions which will be prioritized by results from the previous two phases.

  2. Monoplane 3D Overlay Roadmap versus Conventional Biplane 2D Roadmap Technique for Neurointervenional Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong-Kyu; Stidd, David A.; Schafer, Sebastian; Chen, Michael; Moftakhar, Roham

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether a 3D overlay roadmap using monoplane fluoroscopy offers advantages over a conventional 2D roadmap using biplane fluoroscopy during endovascular aneurysm treatment. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for 131 consecutive cerebral aneurysm embolizations by three neurointerventionalists at a single institution. Allowing for a transition period, the periods from January 2012 to August 2012 (Time Period 1) and February 2013 to July 2013 (Time Period 2) were analyzed for radiation exposure, contrast administration, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, angiographic results, and perioperative complications. Two neurointerventionalists (Group 1) used a conventional 2D roadmap for both Time Periods, and one neurointerventionalist (Group 2) transitioned from a 2D roadmap during Time Period 1 to a 3D overlay roadmap during Time Period 2. Results During Time Period 2, Group 2 demonstrated reduced fluoroscopy time (p<0.001), procedure time (P=0.023), total radiation dose (p=0.001), and fluoroscopy dose (P=0.017) relative to Group 1. During Time Period 2, there was no difference of immediate angiographic results and procedure complications between the two groups. Through the transition from Time Period 1 to Time Period 2, Group 2 demonstrated decreased fluoroscopy time (p< 0.001), procedure time (p=0.022), and procedure complication rate (p=0.041) in Time Period 2 relative to Time Period 1. Conclusion The monoplane 3D overlay roadmap technique reduced fluoroscopy dose and fluoroscopy time during neurointervention of cerebral aneurysms with similar angiographic occlusions and complications rate relative to biplane 2D roadmap, which implies possible compensation of limitations of monoplane fluoroscopy by 3D overlay technique. PMID:27621947

  3. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories and Scientific Instruments and Sensors Capability Roadmaps: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Dan; Bankston, Perry

    2005-01-01

    Agency objective are: Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  4. High Energy Power and Propulsion Capability Roadmap: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, Perry

    2005-01-01

    Agency objective are: Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  5. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Carlos J.; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  6. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Carlos J; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  7. Intermittent locomotion as an optimal control strategy

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, P.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Birds, fish and other animals routinely use unsteady effects to save energy by alternating between phases of active propulsion and passive coasting. Here, we construct a minimal model for such behaviour that can be couched as an optimal control problem via an analogy to travelling with a rechargeable battery. An analytical solution of the optimal control problem proves that intermittent locomotion has lower energy requirements relative to steady-state strategies. Additional realistic hypotheses, such as the assumption that metabolic cost at a given power should be minimal (the fixed gear hypothesis), a nonlinear dependence of the energy storage rate on propulsion and/or a preferred average speed, allow us to generalize the model and demonstrate the flexibility of intermittent locomotion with implications for biological and artificial systems. PMID:24711718

  8. Locomotion of chemically powered autonomous nanowire motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Longqiu; Li, Tianlong; Zhang, Guangyu; Sun, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Physical insights on the hydrodynamics and locomotion of self-propelled nanowire motor under nonequilibrium steady state are investigated using finite element method in accordance with hybrid molecular dynamics/multiparticle collision dynamics and rigid body dynamics. Nanowire motor is discretized into finite segments, and forces of solvent molecule acting on the motor are assumed to be the sum of forces acting on all segments of the motor. We show that the locomotion of nanowire motor is mainly determined by the imbalance forces acting on the catalytic and noncatalytic segments. The average velocity along the axis increases significantly as a function of time prior to reaching equilibrium. The length of nanowire motor shows negligible effect on the velocity of the motor. Preliminary experimental results are provided to validate the current model.

  9. Biomechanics of the Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions completed by International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are typically based upon evidence obtained during ground-based investigations, with the assumption that the results of long-term training in weightlessness will be similar to that attained in normal gravity. Coupled with this supposition are the assumptions that exercise motions and external loading are also similar between gravitational environments. Normal control of locomotion is dependent upon learning patterns of muscular activation and requires continual monitoring of internal and external sensory input [1]. Internal sensory input includes signals that may be dependent on or independent of gravity. Bernstein hypothesized that movement strategy planning and execution must include the consideration of segmental weights and inertia [2]. Studies of arm movements in microgravity showed that individuals tend to make errors but that compensation strategies result in adaptations, suggesting that control mechanisms must include peripheral information [3-5]. To date, however, there have been no studies examining a gross motor activity such as running in weightlessness other than using microgravity analogs [6-8]. The objective of this evaluation was to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise before and during flight. The goal was to determine locomotive biomechanics similarities and differences between normal and weightless environments. The data will be used to optimize future exercise prescriptions. This project addresses the Critical Path Roadmap risks 1 (Accelerated Bone Loss and Fracture Risk) and 11 (Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength, and Endurance). Data were collected from 7 crewmembers before flight and during their ISS missions. Before launch, crewmembers performed a single data collection session at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Three-dimensional motion capture data were collected for 30 s at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 9.5 mph in 0.5 mph increments

  10. Kinematic adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Goldner, B; Fuchs, A; Nolte, I; Schilling, N

    2015-05-01

    Limb amputation often represents the only treatment option for canine patients with certain diseases or injuries of the appendicular system. Previous studies have investigated adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs but there is a lack of understanding of biomechanical compensatory mechanisms. This study evaluated the kinematic differences between quadrupedal and tripedal locomotion in nine healthy dogs running on a treadmill. The loss of the right pelvic limb was simulated using an Ehmer sling. Kinematic gait analysis included spatio-temporal comparisons of limb, joint and segment angles of the remaining pelvic and both thoracic limbs. The following key parameters were compared between quadrupedal and tripedal conditions: angles at touch-down and lift-off, minimum and maximum joint angles, plus range of motion. Significant differences in angular excursion were identified in several joints of each limb during both stance and swing phases. The most pronounced differences concerned the remaining pelvic limb, followed by the contralateral thoracic limb and, to a lesser degree, the ipsilateral thoracic limb. The thoracic limbs were, in general, more retracted, consistent with pelvic limb unloading and previous observations of bodyweight re-distribution in amputees. Proximal limb segments showed more distinct changes than distal ones. Particularly, the persistently greater anteversion of the pelvis probably affects the axial system. Overall, tripedal locomotion requires concerted kinematic adjustments of both the appendicular and axial systems, and consequently preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative care of canine amputees should involve the whole musculoskeletal apparatus. PMID:25862392

  11. Disparity and convergence in bipedal archosaur locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Bates, K. T.; Schachner, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate functional disparity in the locomotor apparatus of bipedal archosaurs. We use reconstructions of hindlimb myology of extant and extinct archosaurs to generate musculoskeletal biomechanical models to test hypothesized convergence between bipedal crocodile-line archosaurs and dinosaurs. Quantitative comparison of muscle leverage supports the inference that bipedal crocodile-line archosaurs and non-avian theropods had highly convergent hindlimb myology, suggesting similar muscular mechanics and neuromuscular control of locomotion. While these groups independently evolved similar musculoskeletal solutions to the challenges of parasagittally erect bipedalism, differences also clearly exist, particularly the distinct hip and crurotarsal ankle morphology characteristic of many pseudosuchian archosaurs. Furthermore, comparative analyses of muscle design in extant archosaurs reveal that muscular parameters such as size and architecture are more highly adapted or optimized for habitual locomotion than moment arms. The importance of these aspects of muscle design, which are not directly retrievable from fossils, warns against over-extrapolating the functional significance of anatomical convergences. Nevertheless, links identified between posture, muscle moments and neural control in archosaur locomotion suggest that functional interpretations of osteological changes in limb anatomy traditionally linked to postural evolution in Late Triassic archosaurs could be constrained through musculoskeletal modelling. PMID:22112652

  12. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  13. Vision 2020: 2000 Separations Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, Stephen; Beaver, Earl; Bryan, Paul; Robinson, Sharon; Watson, Jack

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the results of four workshops on the technology barriers, research needs, and priorities of the chemical, agricultural, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries as they relate to separation technologies utilizing adsorbents, crystallization, distillation, extraction, membranes, separative reactors, ion exchange, bioseparations, and dilute solutions.

  14. A roadmap to cave dwelling on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blamont, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Habitat in lava tubes recently discovered on the Moon and Mars, should become a unifying concept for occupancy. Basic motivations and specifications for such a habitat are briefly reviewed. The first step is to obtain a consensus from Agencies on the validity of the concept. Afterwards, two types of research programs should be implemented: Search for lava tubes by dedicated polar orbiters.Mapping, classification and choice of site should be achieved before 2020. Development of specific technology to begin by the end of the 2020s: Bulldozers, elevators, and cranes for access. Inflatable cylindrical structures of large dimension for housing. Since apprenticeship is needed for Mars habitat, Moon lava tubes would be used as a first step. Use of lava tubes provides therefore a unifying concept for exploration. A roadmap is proposed.

  15. The Need for a Strategic R&D Roadmap for Active Ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarinha-Matos, Luis; Afsarmanesh, Hamideh

    The application of the collaborative networks paradigm, combined with a new generation of collaboration-support platforms, can offer a promising approach to active ageing and better use of the talents of senior professionals. This paper introduces a roadmapping initiative focused on elaboration of a new vision for extending professional active life. To support this vision, a strategic research plan for the development of a new collaborative ecosystem, covering the social, organizational, and technological perspectives, is being designed.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Roadmap 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, Jill J.; Hutt, Michael E.; Sloan, Jeff L.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Goplen, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    This Roadmap provides operational procedures and lessons learned from completed proof-of-concept UAS missions in areas such as wildlife management, resource monitoring, and public land inspections. This information provides not only an implementation framework but can also help increase the awareness by resource managers, scientists, and others of the ability of UAS technology to advance data quality, improve personnel safety, and reduce data acquisition costs.

  17. Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

  18. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap NRC Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Graves, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description, Scope and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the HPLS. Roadmap Process and Approach. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Key Requirements. Top Level HPLS Roadmap. Capability Presentations by Leads. Mission Drivers Requirements. "AEDL" System Engineering. Communication & Navigation Systems. Hypersonic Systems. Super to Subsonic Decelerator Systems. Terminal Descent and Landing Systems. A Priori In-Situ Mars Observations. AEDL Analysis, Test and Validation Infrastructure. Capability Technical Challenges. Capability Connection Points to other Roadmaps/Crosswalks. Summary of Top Level Capability. Forward Work.

  19. A Space Station Freedom utilization roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzhals, Peter R.

    1992-08-01

    Results of an AIAA assessment of Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilization are summarized. The assessment involved 45 representatives nominated by 20 AIAA technical committees to address four key SSF utilization areas (microgravity, life sciences, attached payloads, and small missions) and to lay out a top-level 30-yr roadmap for SSF ultilization. SSF capabilities and support needs for these mission roadmaps are also defined. Specific resultant mission categories and functions are outlined for the four SSF time periods (1995-2000, 2000-2005, 2005-2015, and 2015-2025) addressed by the assessment. Candidate payloads are used to illustrate related SSF utilization benefits and to characterize SSF capabilities required for each of the time periods.

  20. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  1. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Forsyth, T.; Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  2. Strategic Roadmap 2024: Powering the Energy Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Strategic Roadmap 2024 applies our historic mission to the dynamic and evolving industry environment that includes myriad new regulations, the growing presence of interruptible and intermittent generation resources and constraints on our hydro resources. It also ties together Western’s strategy, initiatives, capital budgets and annual targets to move the agency in one direction, continue to meet customer needs and provide the best value as an organization.

  3. A Roadmap for the Future of Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Oddone, Pier

    2005-12-12

    The principal aim of this roadmap is to place the US and Fermilab in the best position to host the International Linear Collider (ILC). The strategy must be resilient against the many vicissitudes that will attend the development of such a large project. Pier Oddone will explore the tension between the needed concentration of effort to move a project as large as the ILC forward and the need to maintain the breadth of our field.

  4. Combustion Devices CFD Simulation Capability Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Tucker, P. Kevin; Williams, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this roadmap is to enable the use of CFD for simulation of pre-burners, ducting, thrust chamber assembly and supporting infrastructure in terms of performance, life, and stability so as to affect the design process in a timely fashion. To enable flange to exit analysis of real(3D) propulsion hardware within the last 5 years (2008). To meet this objective all model problems must be sufficiently mastered.

  5. Design Through Analysis (DTA) roadmap vision.

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, Teddy Dean; Adams, Charles R.; Hoffman, Edward L.; White, David Roger; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2004-10-01

    The Design through Analysis Realization Team (DART) will provide analysts with a complete toolset that reduces the time to create, generate, analyze, and manage the data generated in a computational analysis. The toolset will be both easy to learn and easy to use. The DART Roadmap Vision provides for progressive improvements that will reduce the Design through Analysis (DTA) cycle time by 90-percent over a three-year period while improving both the quality and accountability of the analyses.

  6. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F.; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R.; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems• Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space• Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life• Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability• Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. Key Words: Astrobiology roadmap—Europe—Origin and evolution of life—Habitability—Life detection—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 16, 201–243. PMID:27003862

  7. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. PMID:27003862

  8. Industry review: Locomotive dynamic characterization test-analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Data are given relative to tests performed on locomotive components. Dynamic characteristics related to safety are described. Suspension systems, shock absorbers, data processing, bearings, and damping are discussed.

  9. A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Bohm, V.; Popp, J.

    2009-02-01

    With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.

  10. The Need for Speed in Rodent Locomotion Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Batka, Richard J.; Brown, Todd J.; Mcmillan, Kathryn P.; Meadows, Rena M.; Jones, Kathryn J.; Haulcomb, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion analysis is now widely used across many animal species to understand the motor defects in disease, functional recovery following neural injury, and the effectiveness of various treatments. More recently, rodent locomotion analysis has become an increasingly popular method in a diverse range of research. Speed is an inseparable aspect of locomotion that is still not fully understood, and its effects are often not properly incorporated while analyzing data. In this hybrid manuscript, we accomplish three things: (1) review the interaction between speed and locomotion variables in rodent studies, (2) comprehensively analyze the relationship between speed and 162 locomotion variables in a group of 16 wild-type mice using the CatWalk gait analysis system, and (3) develop and test a statistical method in which locomotion variables are analyzed and reported in the context of speed. Notable results include the following: (1) over 90% of variables, reported by CatWalk, were dependent on speed with an average R2 value of 0.624, (2) most variables were related to speed in a nonlinear manner, (3) current methods of controlling for speed are insufficient, and (4) the linear mixed model is an appropriate and effective statistical method for locomotion analyses that is inclusive of speed-dependent relationships. Given the pervasive dependency of locomotion variables on speed, we maintain that valid conclusions from locomotion analyses cannot be made unless they are analyzed and reported within the context of speed. PMID:24890845

  11. Space Transportation Technology Workshop: Propulsion Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Space Transportation Technology Workshop topics, including Propulsion Research and Technology (PR&T) project level organization, FY 2001 - 2006 project roadmap, points of contact, foundation technologies, auxiliary propulsion technology, PR&T Low Cost Turbo Rocket, and PR&T advanced reusable technologies RBCC test bed.

  12. NASA Balloon Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program s technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, balloon-craft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  13. NASA balloon technology developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program's technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, ballooncraft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  14. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  15. A Strategic Roadmap to Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L.; Harris, D.; Trausch, A.; Matloff, G. L.; Taylor, T.; Cutting, K.

    This paper discusses the connectivity between in-space propulsion and in-space fabrication/repair and is based upon a workshop presentation by Les Johnson, manager of the In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Technologies under study by ISP include aerocapture, advanced solar- electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion, advanced chemical propulsion, tethers and solar-photon sails. These propulsion systems are all approaching technology readiness levels (TRLs) at which they can be considered for application in space- science and exploration missions. Historically, human frontiers have expanded as people have learned to “live-off-the-land” in new environments and to exploit local resources. With this expansion, frontier settlements have required development of transportation improvements to carry tools and manufactured products to and from the frontier. It is demonstrated how ISP technologies will assist in the development of the solar-system frontier. In-space fabrication and repair will both require and assist the development of ISP propulsion systems, whether humans choose to settle planetary surfaces or to exploit resources of small Solar System bodies. As was true for successful terrestrial pioneers, in-space settlement and exploitation will require sophisticated surveys of inner and outer Solar System objects. ISP technologies will contribute to the success of these surveys, as well as to the efforts to retrieve Solar System resources. In a similar fashion, the utility of ISP products will be greatly enhanced by the technologies of in-space repair and fabrication. As in-space propulsion, fabrication and repair develop, human civilization may expand well beyond the Earth. In the future, small human communities (preceded by robotic explorers) may utilize these techniques to set sail for the nearest stars.

  16. A Strategic Roadmap to Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Harris, David; Trausch, Ann; Matloff, Gregory L.; Taylor, Travis; Cutting, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the connectivity between in-space propulsion and in-space fabrication/repair and is based upon a workshop presentation by Les Johnson, manager of the In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala.. Technologies under study by ISP include aerocapture, advanced solar-electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion, advanced chemical propulsion, tethers and solar-photon sails. These propulsion systems are all approaching technology readiness levels (TRLs) at which they can be considered for application in space-science and exploration missions. Historically, human frontiers have expanded as people have learned to live off the land in new environments and to exploit local resorces. With this expansion, frontier settlements have required development of transportation improvements to carry tools and manufactured products to and from the frontier. It is demonstrated how ISP technologies will assist in the development of the solar-system frontier. In-space fabrication and repair will both require and assist the development of ISP propulsion systems, whether humans choose to settle planetary surfaces or to exploit resources of small Solar System bodies. As was true for successful terrestrial pioneers, in-space settlement and exploitation will require sophisticated surveys of inner and outer Solar System objects. ISP technologies will contribute to the success of these surveys, as well as to the efforts to retrieve Solar System resources. In a similar fashion, the utility of ISP products will be greatly enhanced by the technologies of in-space repair and fabrication. As in-space propulsion, fabrication and repair develop, human civilization may expand well beyond the Earth. In the future, small human communities (preceded by robotic explorers) may utilize these techniques to set sail f or the nearest stars.

  17. Grid Interaction Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Grid Interaction Technical Team (GITT) is to support a transition scenario to large scale grid-connected vehicle charging with transformational technology, proof of concept and information dissemination. The GITT facilitates technical coordination and collaboration between vehicle-grid connectivity and communication activities among U.S. DRIVE government and industry partners.

  18. Optimal locomotion of mechanical rectifier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Justin T.

    Vehicles utilizing animal locomotion mechanisms may possess increased performance parameters and the ability to overcome more difficult terrain than conventional wheel or propeller driven vehicles. The essential mechanism underlying animal locomotion can be viewed as mechanical rectification that converts periodic body movements to thrust force through interactions with the environment. This dissertation defines a general class of mechanical rectifiers as multi-body systems equipped with such thrust generation mechanisms. A general model is developed from the Euler-Lagrange equation and simplified by assuming small body oscillations around a given nominal posture. The model reveals that the rectifying dynamics can be captured by a bilinear (but not linear) term of body shape variables. An optimal gait problem is formulated for the bilinear rectifier model as a minimization of a quadratic cost function over the set of periodic functions subject to a constraint on the average locomotion velocity. We prove that a globally optimal solution is given by a harmonic gait that can be found by generalized eigenvalue computation with a line search over cycle frequencies. We verify the solution method through case studies of a two dimensional chain of links for which snake-like undulations and jellyfish-like flapping gaits are found to be optimal, and obtain analytical insights into determinants of optimal gaits from a simple disk-mass rectifier system. Lastly, we develop a dynamic model for batoid swimming featuring a 6 degree-of-freedom main body (position and orientation), with independent wing deformation (described as the motion of many discrete points in the body-fixed coordinate frame), and calculate various gaits. Multiple wing shapes and optimality criteria are considered, such as the maximum thrust to deflection ratio or minimum input power, and the resulting gaits are compared.

  19. Guiding locomotion in complex, dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Fajen, Brett R

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion in complex, dynamic environments is an integral part of many daily activities, including walking in crowded spaces, driving on busy roadways, and playing sports. Many of the tasks that humans perform in such environments involve interactions with moving objects-that is, they require people to coordinate their own movement with the movements of other objects. A widely adopted framework for research on the detection, avoidance, and interception of moving objects is the bearing angle model, according to which observers move so as to keep the bearing angle of the object constant for interception and varying for obstacle avoidance. The bearing angle model offers a simple, parsimonious account of visual control but has several significant limitations and does not easily scale up to more complex tasks. In this paper, I introduce an alternative account of how humans choose actions and guide locomotion in the presence of moving objects. I show how the new approach addresses the limitations of the bearing angle model and accounts for a variety of behaviors involving moving objects, including (1) choosing whether to pass in front of or behind a moving obstacle, (2) perceiving whether a gap between a pair of moving obstacles is passable, (3) avoiding a collision while passing through single or multiple lanes of traffic, (4) coordinating speed and direction of locomotion during interception, (5) simultaneously intercepting a moving target while avoiding a stationary or moving obstacle, and (6) knowing whether to abandon the chase of a moving target. I also summarize data from recent studies that support the new approach. PMID:23885238

  20. Coal-fueled diesel locomotive test

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Confer, G.L.; Basic, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The biggest challenges to the development of a commercially-acceptable coal-fueled diesel-electric locomotive are integrating all systems into a working unit that can be operated in railroad service. This involves mainly the following three systems: (1) the multi-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine, (2) the locomotive and engine controls, and (3) the CWS fuel supply system. Consequently, a workable 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine was considered necessary at this stage to evolve the required locomotive support systems, in addition to gaining valuable multi-cylinder engine operating experience. The CWS fuel used during this project was obtained from Otisca, Inc. (Syracuse, NY). It was prepared from micronized and deashed Kentucky Blue Gem coal to 49.0% coal loading by weight, with less than 1% ash and 5 micron mean diameter particle size. Its higher heating value was analyzed at approximately 34630 kJ/k. Anti-agglomerating additive Triton X-114 was added to the CWS at GE Transportation Systems at 2% of coal weight. The nature of the Otisca CWS fuel makes it inherently more difficult to store, pump, and inject than diesel fuel, since concepts which govern Newtonian or normally viscous liquids do not apply entirely to CWS. Otisca CWS tends to be unstable and to settle in tanks and lines after a period of time, making it necessary to provide a means of agitation during storage. To avoid long term settling problems and to minimize losses, piping velocities were designed to be in the 60-90 m/min range.

  1. Exposure to noise on board locomotives.

    PubMed

    Seshagiri, Baily

    2003-01-01

    Personal and area noise dosimetry measurements were taken in the cabs of leading and trailing locomotives on 48 trips, under winter and summer conditions, on 9 different routes. The mean equivalent sound level (L(EQ), 3 dB exchange rate, 50 dBA threshold) of the engineers and conductors was 84 dBA during winter and 88 dBA during summer. The corresponding time-weighted average levels (L(TWA), 5 dB exchange rate, 80 dBA threshold) were 80 and 84 dBA respectively. The L(EQ) of 56% of the engineers sampled was > or =85 dBA and of 13% was > or =90 dBA. Plots of L(EQ) time history show that under normal operating conditions L(EQ) reaches its steady-state value in about 3 hours. The mean noise levels in the trailing cabs were lower than the personal exposure levels of the engineers and conductors. The mean L(EQ) on the engineer and conductor sides was 80 dBA during winter, and 85 dBA during summer. Locomotive configuration has a significant effect on the noise levels in the trailing cab. The forward-backward configuration resulted in higher noise levels than the forward-forward configuration. Octave and one-third octave band spectra taken during a variety of locomotive operating conditions are presented. The octave band centered at 31.5 Hz contains nearly 46% of the acoustical energy, and those centered at and below 250 Hz contain nearly 99% of the acoustical energy. Wheel-rail interaction appears to be the predominant source of the low frequency noise. Recommendations for controlling exposure are made. PMID:14521423

  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Robert

    2011-01-01

    At present, NASA has considered a number of future human space exploration mission concepts . Yet, detailed mission requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, making technology investment strategies difficult to develop and sustain without a top-level roadmap to serve as a guide. This paper documents a roadmap for development of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) as well as enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro gravity mission; 2) a long duration transit microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration surface exploration mission. To organize the effort, ECLSS was categorized into three major functional groups (atmosphere, water, and solid waste management) with each broken down into sub-functions. The ability of existing state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types was then assessed by NASA subject matter experts. When SOA capabilities were deemed to fall short of meeting the needs of one or more mission types, those gaps were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The result was a list of enabling and enhancing capabilities needs that can be used to guide future ECLSS development, as well as a list of existing hardware that is ready to go for exploration-class missions. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies intended to meet exploration needs will, in many cases, directly benefit the ISS operational capability, benefit the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), and guide long-term technology

  3. Establishment of the roadmap for chlorination process development for zirconium recovery and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Del Cul, G.D.; Spencer, B.B.; Brunson, R.R.; Johnson, J.A.

    2013-07-01

    Process development studies are being conducted to recover, purify, and reuse the zirconium (about 98.5% by mass) in used nuclear fuel (UNF) zirconium alloy cladding. Feasibility studies began in FY 2010 using empty cladding hulls that were left after fuel dissolution or after oxidation to a finely divided oxide powder (voloxidation). In FY 2012, two industrial teams (AREVA and Shaw-Westinghouse) were contracted by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) to provide technical assistance to the project. In FY 2013, the NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program requested development of a technology development roadmap to guide future work. The first step in the roadmap development was to assess the starting point, that is, the current state of the technology and the end goal. Based on previous test results, future work is to be focused on first using chlorine as the chlorinating agent and secondly on the use of a process design that utilizes a chlorination reactor and dual ZrCl{sub 4} product salt condensers. The likely need for a secondary purification step was recognized. Completion of feasibility testing required an experiment on the chemical decladding flowsheet option. This was done during April 2013. The roadmap for process development will continue through process chemistry optimization studies, the chlorinated reactor design configuration, product salt condensers, and the off-gas trapping of tritium or other volatile fission products from the off-gas stream. (authors)

  4. Biomedical perspectives on locomotion in null gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    A number of important features of various locomotor activities are discussed, and approaches to the study of these activities in the context of space flight are suggested. In particular, the magnitude of peak forces and the rates of change of force during terrestrial cycling, walking, and running are compared. It is shown that subtle changes in the conditions and techniques of locomotion can have a major influence on the biomechanical consequences to the skeleton. The various hypotheses that identify locomotor exercise as a countermeasure to bone demineralization during weightlessness deserve to be tested with some degree of biomechanical rigor. Various approaches for achieving such scrutiny are discussed.

  5. Hamiltonian mechanics and planar fishlike locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Scott; Xiong, Hailong; Burgoyne, Will

    2007-11-01

    A free deformable body interacting with a system of point vortices in the plane constitutes a Hamiltonian system. A free Joukowski foil with variable camber shedding point vortices in an ideal fluid according to a periodically applied Kutta condition provides a model for fishlike locomotion which bridges the gap between inviscid analytical models that sacrifice realism for tractability and viscous computational models inaccessible to tools from nonlinear control theory. We frame such a model in the context of Hamiltonian mechanics and describe its relevance both to the study of hydrodynamic interactions within schools of fish and to the realization of model-based control laws for biomimetic autonomous robotic vehicles.

  6. Intelligent mobility research for robotic locomotion in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentini, Michael; Beckman, Blake; Digney, Bruce; Vincent, Isabelle; Ricard, Benoit

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section of Defence R&D Canada - Suffield is best described by its mission statement, which is "to augment soldiers and combat systems by developing and demonstrating practical, cost effective, autonomous intelligent systems capable of completing military missions in complex operating environments." The mobility requirement for ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings must increase significantly if robotic technology is to augment human efforts in these roles and environments. The intelligence required for autonomous systems to operate in complex environments demands advances in many fields of robotics. This has resulted in large bodies of research in areas of perception, world representation, and navigation, but the problem of locomotion in complex terrain has largely been ignored. In order to achieve its objective, the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section is pursuing research that explores the use of intelligent mobility algorithms designed to improve robot mobility. Intelligent mobility uses sensing, control, and learning algorithms to extract measured variables from the world, control vehicle dynamics, and learn by experience. These algorithms seek to exploit available world representations of the environment and the inherent dexterity of the robot to allow the vehicle to interact with its surroundings and produce locomotion in complex terrain. The primary focus of the paper is to present the intelligent mobility research within the framework of the research methodology, plan and direction defined at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield. It discusses the progress and future direction of intelligent mobility research and presents the research tools, topics, and plans to address this critical research gap. This research will create effective intelligence to improve the mobility of ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings to assist the Canadian Forces in their future urban operations.

  7. Codes and standards research, development and demonstration roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    C&S RD&D Roadmap - 2008: This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  8. In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Duke, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A progress review on In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) capability is presented. The topics include: 1) In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap: Level 1; 2) ISRU Emphasized Architecture Overview; 3) ISRU Capability Elements: Level 2 and below; and 4) ISRU Capability Roadmap Wrap-up.

  9. Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, Dale Elden; Rogers, Adam Zachary; Hamp, S.

    2001-03-01

    Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-containing materials. Transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials (NM), and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOE’s Environmental Management (EM) organization to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a "program level" roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This "program level" roadmapping involves linking technology development (and deployment) efforts to the programs’ needs and requirements for dispositioning the material/waste that generates combustible gas through radiolysis and chemical decomposition. The roadmapping effort focused on needed technical & programmatic support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (i.e., high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (i.e., high programmatic risk). A second purpose for roadmapping was to provide the basis for coordinating sharing of "lessons learned" from research and development (R&D) efforts across DOE programs to increase efficiency and effectiveness in addressing gas generation issues.

  10. Challenges for Product Roadmapping in Inter-company Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suomalainen, Tanja; Tihinen, Maarit; Parviainen, Päivi

    Product roadmapping is a critical activity in product development, as it provides a link between business aspects and requirements engineering and thus helps to manage a high-level view of the company’s products. Nowadays, inter-company collaboration, such as outsourcing, is a common way of developing software products, as through collaboration, organisations gain advantages, such as flexibility with in-house resources, savings in product development costs and gain a physical presence in important markets. The role of product roadmapping becomes even more critical in collaborative settings, since different companies need to align strategies and work together to create products. In order to support companies in improving their own product roadmapping processes, this paper first gives an overview of product roadmapping and then discusses in detail an empirical study of the current practices in industry. The presented results particularly focus on the most challenging and important activities of product roadmapping in collaboration.

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory installation roadmap document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-30

    The roadmapping process was initiated by the US Department of Energy`s office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to improve its Five-Year Plan and budget allocation process. Roadmap documents will provide the technical baseline for this planning process and help EM develop more effective strategies and program plans for achieving its long-term goals. This document is a composite of roadmap assumptions and issues developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office and subcontractor personnel. The installation roadmap discusses activities, issues, and installation commitments that affect waste management and environmental restoration activities at the INEL. The High-Level Waste, Land Disposal Restriction, and Environmental Restoration Roadmaps are also included.

  12. Locomotion Induced by Spatial Restriction in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chengfeng; Robertson, R. Meldrum

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila adults display an unwillingness to enter confined spaces but the behaviors induced by spatial restriction in Drosophila are largely unknown. We developed a protocol for high-throughput analysis of locomotion and characterized features of locomotion in a restricted space. We observed intense and persistent locomotion of flies in small circular arenas (diameter 1.27 cm), whereas locomotion was greatly reduced in large circular arenas (diameter 3.81 cm). The increased locomotion induced by spatial restriction was seen in male flies but not female flies, indicating sexual dimorphism of the response to spatial restriction. In large arenas, male flies increased locomotion in arenas previously occupied by male but not female individuals. In small arenas, such pre-conditioning had no effect on male flies, which showed intense and persistent locomotion similar to that seen in fresh arenas. During locomotion with spatial restriction, wildtype Canton-S males traveled slower and with less variation in speed than the mutant w1118 carrying a null allele of white gene. In addition, wildtype flies showed a stronger preference for the boundary than the mutant in small arenas. Genetic analysis with a series of crosses revealed that the white gene was not associated with the phenotype of boundary preference in wildtype flies. PMID:26351842

  13. Goal Directed Locomotion and Balance Control in Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernazza-Martin, S.; Martin, N.; Vernazza, A.; Lepellec-Muller, A.; Rufo, M.; Massion, J.; Assaiante, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on postural anticipation and multi-joint coordination during locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Three questions were addressed: (1) Are gait parameters modified in autistic children? (2) Is equilibrium control affected in autistic children? (3) Is locomotion adjusted to the experimenter-imposed goal? Six healthy…

  14. Looking north toward Locomotive Shop (2 tracks on left), Car ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north toward Locomotive Shop (2 tracks on left), Car Shop on right, and flat car in foreground. Note locomotive and car tires leaning on stock shed at left - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  15. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  16. 40 CFR 1033.230 - Grouping locomotives into engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... families. 1033.230 Section 1033.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.230 Grouping locomotives into engine families. (a) Divide your product line into engine families of...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.230 - Grouping locomotives into engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... families. 1033.230 Section 1033.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.230 Grouping locomotives into engine families. (a) Divide your product line into engine families of...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.230 - Grouping locomotives into engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... families. 1033.230 Section 1033.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.230 Grouping locomotives into engine families. (a) Divide your product line into engine families of...

  19. 40 CFR 1033.230 - Grouping locomotives into engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... families. 1033.230 Section 1033.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.230 Grouping locomotives into engine families. (a) Divide your product line into engine families of...

  20. 49 CFR 232.105 - General requirements for locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reservoir on locomotives and related piping shall be zero, unless the system is capable of maintaining the... equalizing-reservoir leakage can be corrected. On locomotives equipped with electronic brakes, if the system logs or displays a fault related to equalizing reservoir leakage, the train may be moved only to...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Switcher Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Switcher Locomotives A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... Provisions Pt. 201, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201—Switcher Locomotives Type...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Switcher Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Switcher Locomotives A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... Provisions Pt. 201, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201—Switcher Locomotives Type...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Switcher Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Switcher Locomotives A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... Provisions Pt. 201, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201—Switcher Locomotives Type...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Switcher Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Switcher Locomotives A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... Provisions Pt. 201, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201—Switcher Locomotives Type...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Switcher Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Switcher Locomotives A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... Provisions Pt. 201, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 201—Switcher Locomotives Type...

  6. 49 CFR 232.105 - General requirements for locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER... reservoir on locomotives and related piping shall be zero, unless the system is capable of maintaining the... equalizing-reservoir leakage can be corrected. On locomotives equipped with electronic brakes, if the...

  7. 49 CFR 236.509 - Two or more locomotives coupled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two or more locomotives coupled. 236.509 Section... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.509 Two or more locomotives coupled. The automatic train stop, train control or cab signal apparatus shall be arranged so that when two...

  8. 40 CFR 92.104 - Locomotive and engine testing; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restriction within 1 inch of water of the upper limit of a typical engine as installed with clean air filters... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locomotive and engine testing....104 Locomotive and engine testing; overview. (a) The test procedures described here...

  9. 40 CFR 92.104 - Locomotive and engine testing; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... restriction within 1 inch of water of the upper limit of a typical engine as installed with clean air filters... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Locomotive and engine testing....104 Locomotive and engine testing; overview. (a) The test procedures described here...

  10. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  11. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  12. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  13. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  14. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  15. 77 FR 30047 - Petition for Alternative Locomotive Crashworthiness Design

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Alternative Locomotive Crashworthiness Design In accordance... design for an electric locomotive, Model ACS-64, built by Siemens Industry, Inc. This request is made in...-0036. The alternative design incorporates crash energy management features, detailed in the...

  16. 49 CFR 229.13 - Control of locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... coupled in remote or multiple control, the propulsion system, the sanders, and the power brake system of each locomotive shall respond to control from the cab of the controlling locomotive. If a dynamic brake or regenerative brake system is in use, that portion of the system in use shall respond to...

  17. Job Grading Standard for Locomotive Engineer WG-6004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard is used to grade the nonsupervisory work of operating all types of locomotives and trains to transport supplies, equipment, conveyances, and personnel. The work involves skill in operating locomotives under various conditions, and knowledge of the layout of a track system and the safety, signalling, and track use requirements or…

  18. 49 CFR 231.30 - Locomotives used in switching service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... classification of cars according to commodity or destination; assembling of cars for train movements; changing... constitute a road movement. However, this term does not include movement of a train or part of a train within yard limits by the road locomotive and the placement of locomotives or cars in a train or their...

  19. 49 CFR 231.30 - Locomotives used in switching service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... classification of cars according to commodity or destination; assembling of cars for train movements; changing... constitute a road movement. However, this term does not include movement of a train or part of a train within yard limits by the road locomotive and the placement of locomotives or cars in a train or their...

  20. Transformational Spaceport and Range Capabilities Roadmap Interim Review to National Research Council External Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poniatowski, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Overview/Introduction. Roadmap Approach/Considerations. Roadmap Timeline/Spirals. Requirements Development. Spaceport/Range Capabilities. Mixed Range Architecture. User Requirements/Customer Considerations. Manifest Considerations. Emerging Launch User Requirements. Capability Breakdown Structure/Assessment. Roadmap Team Observations. Transformational Range Test Concept. Roadmap Team Conclusions. Next Steps.

  1. Strategic Roadmap for the Development of an Interstellar Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifra, M.; Peeters, W.

    Recent technological advances and scientific discoveries, particularly in astronomy and space technology, are opening our minds into the deepest realms of the universe, and also they are bringing a new era of space exploration and development. This sense of entering into a new era of space exploration is being boosted by the permanent discovery of new planets - to date, there are 684 confirmed extrasolar planets [1] - outside our solar system. The possibility that astronomers may soon find a habitable extrasolar planet near Earth and the recent advances in space propulsion that could reduce travel times have stimulated the space community to consider the development of an interstellar manned mission. But this scenario of entering into a new era of space development is ultimately contingent on the outcome of the actual world's economic crisis. The current financial crisis, on top of recent national and sovereign debts problems, could have serious consequences for space exploration and development as the national budgets for space activities are to freeze [2].This paper proposes a multi-decade space program for an interstellar manned mission. It designs a roadmap for the achievement of interstellar flight capability within a timeframe of 40 years, and also considers different scenarios where various technological and economical constraints are taken into account in order to know if such a space endeavour could be viable. It combines macro-level scenarios with a strategic roadmap to provide a framework for condensing all information in one map and timeframe, thus linking decision-making with plausible scenarios. The paper also explores the state of the art of space technologies 20 to 40 years in the future and its potential economic impact. It estimates the funding requirements, possible sources of funds, and the potential returns.The Interstellar Space Program proposed in this paper has the potential to help solve the global crisis by bringing a new landscape of

  2. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  3. Environmental engineering simplifies subterranean locomotion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Monaenkova, Darya; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2013-03-01

    We hypothesize that ants engineer habitats which reduce locomotion control requirements. We studied tunnel construction, and locomotion, in fire ants (Solenopsis invicta, body length L = 0 . 35 +/- 0 . 05). In their daily life, ants forage for food above ground and return resources to the nest. This steady-state tunnel traffic enables high-throughput biomechanics studies of tunnel climbing. In a laboratory experiment we challenged fire ants to climb through 8 cm long glass tunnels (D = 0.1 - 0.9 cm) that separated a nest from an open arena with food and water. During ascending and descending climbs we induced falls by a motion-activated rapid, short, downward translation of the tunnels. Normalized tunnel diameter (D / L) determined the ability of ants to rapidly recover from perturbations. Fall arrest probability was unity for small D / L , and zero for large D / L . The transition from successful to unsuccessful arrest occurred at D / L = 1 . 4 +/- 0 . 3 . Through X-Ray computed tomography study we show that the diameter of ant-excavated tunnels is independent of soil-moisture content (studied from 1-20%) and particle size (50-595 μm diameter), and has a mean value of D / L = 1 . 06 +/- 0 . 23 . Thus fire ants construct tunnels of diameter near the onset of fall instability.

  4. Turning and maneuverability during sidewinding locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, Henry; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David

    2014-03-01

    Sidewinding is an unusual form of snake locomotion used to move rapidly on yielding substrates such as desert sands. Posteriorly propagating waves alternate between static contact with the substrate and elevated motion, resulting in a ``stepping'' motion of body segments. Unlike lateral undulation, the direction of travel is not collinear with the axis of the body wave, and posterior body segments do not follow the path of anterior segments. Field observations indicate that sidewinding snakes are highly maneuverable, but the mechanisms by which these snakes change direction during this complex movement are unknown. Motion capture data from three Colorado Desert sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes laterorepens) shows a variety of turn magnitudes and behaviors. Additionally, sidewinders are capable of ``reversals'' in which the snakes halts forward progress and begins locomotion in the opposite direction without rotation of the body. Because the head is re-oriented with respect to the body during these reversals, the snake is able to reverse direction without rotation yet continue moving in the new direction without impediment to perception or mechanics, a rare level of maneuverability in animals.

  5. Locomotion of a flapping flexible plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Ru-Nan; Zhu, Luoding; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2013-12-01

    The locomotion of a flapping flexible plate in a viscous incompressible stationary fluid is numerically studied by an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for the fluid and a finite element method for the plate. When the leading-edge of the flexible plate is forced to heave sinusoidally, the entire plate starts to move freely as a result of the fluid-structure interaction. Mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the plate are elucidated. Three distinct states of the plate motion are identified and can be described as forward, backward, and irregular. Which state to occur depends mainly on the heaving amplitude and the bending rigidity of the plate. In the forward motion regime, analysis of the dynamic behaviors of the flapping flexible plate indicates that a suitable degree of flexibility can improve the propulsive performance. Moreover, there exist two kinds of vortex streets in the downstream of the plate which are normal and deflected wake. Further the forward motion is compared with the flapping-based locomotion of swimming and flying animals. The results obtained in the present study are found to be consistent with the relevant observations and measurements and can provide some physical insights into the understanding of the propulsive mechanisms of swimming and flying animals.

  6. Bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Raichlen, David A; Rodman, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) habitually walk both bipedally and quadrupedally, and have been a common point of reference for understanding the evolution of bipedal locomotion in early ape-like hominins. Here we compare the kinematics, kinetics, and energetics of bipedal and quadrupedal walking and running in a sample of five captive chimpanzees. Kinematics were recorded using sagittal-plane digital high-speed video of treadmill trials. Kinetics were recorded via a forceplate. Metabolic energy cost was measured via steady-state oxygen consumption during treadmill trials. Consistent with previous work on chimpanzees and other hominoids, we found that the spatiotemporal characteristics, joint angles, ground reaction forces, and metabolic cost of bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion are similar in chimpanzees. Notable differences include hip and trunk angles, which reflected a more orthograde trunk posture during bipedalism, and mediolateral ground reaction forces, which were larger during bipedal walking. Stride frequencies were also higher (and step lengths shorter) during bipedal trials. Bipedal and quadrupedal walking among chimpanzees was similar to that reported for bonobos, gibbons, and other primates. The similarity in cost between bipedal and quadrupedal trials suggests that the adoption of bipedal walking would have had no effect on walking costs for early ape-like hominins. However, habitual bipedalism may have favored modifications of the hip to allow a more orthograde posture, and of the hind limb abductor mechanisms to efficiently exert mediolateral ground forces. PMID:24315239

  7. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    The Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee established a goal that biomass will supply 5% of the nation’s power, 20% of its transportation fuels, and 25% of its chemicals by 2030. These combined goals are approximately equivalent to 30% of the country’s current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power, fuels, and products are considerable, including decreased demand for imported oil, revenue to the depressed agricultural industry, and revitalized rural economies. A consistent supply of highquality, low-cost feedstock is vital to achieving this goal. This biomass roadmap defines the research and development (R&D) path to supplying the feedstock needs of the biorefinery and to achieving the important national goals set for biomass. To meet these goals, the biorefinery industry must be more sustainable than the systems it will replace. Sustainability hinges on the economic profitability of all participants, on environmental impact of every step in the process, and on social impact of the product and its production. In early 2003, a series of colloquies were held to define and prioritize the R&D needs for supplying feedstock to the biorefinery in a sustainable manner. These colloquies involved participants and stakeholders in the feedstock supply chain, including growers, transporters, equipment manufacturers, and processors as well as environmental groups and others with a vested interest in ensuring the sustainability of the biorefinery. From this series of colloquies, four high-level strategic goals were set for the feedstock area: • Biomass Availability – By 2030, 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock is needed annually to achieve the power, fuel, and chemical production goals set by the Biomass Research and Development Technology Advisory Production Committee • Sustainability – Production and use of the 1 billion dry tons annually must be

  8. Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

    2015-09-01

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives. PMID:25432627

  9. ITRS lithography roadmap: 2015 challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neisser, Mark; Wurm, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, novel methods of patterning have made considerable progress. In 2011, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography was the front runner to succeed optical lithography. However, although EUV tools for pilot production capability have been installed, its high volume manufacturing (HVM) readiness continues to be gated by productivity and availability improvements taking longer than expected. In the same time frame, alternative and/or complementary technologies to EUV have made progress. Directed self-assembly (DSA) has demonstrated improved defectivity and progress in integration with design and pattern process flows. Nanoimprint improved performance considerably and is pilot production capable for memory products. Maskless lithography has made progress in tool development and could have an α tool ready in the late 2015 or early 2016. But they all have to compete with multiple patterning. Quadruple patterning is already demonstrated and can pattern lines and spaces down to close to 10-nm half pitch. The other techniques have to do something better than quadruple patterning does to be chosen for implementation. DSA and NIL promise a lower cost. EUV promises a simpler and shorter process and the creation of 2-D patterns more easily with much reduced complexity compared to multiple patterning. Maskless lithography promises to make chip personalization easy and to be particularly cost effective for low-volume chip designs. Decision dates for all of the technologies are this year or next year.

  10. Issues of nanoelectronics: a possible roadmap.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang L

    2002-01-01

    In this review, we will discuss a possible roadmap in scaling a nanoelectronic device from today's CMOS technology to the ultimate limit when the device fails. In other words, at the limit, CMOS will have a severe short channel effect, significant power dissipation in its quiescent (standby) state, and problems related to other essential characteristics. Efforts to use structures such as the double gate, vertical surround gate, and SOI to improve the gate control have continually been made. Other types of structures using SiGe source/drain, asymmetric Schottky source/drain, and the like will be investigated as viable structures to achieve ultimate CMOS. In reaching its scaling limit, tunneling will be an issue for CMOS. The tunneling current through the gate oxide and between the source and drain will limit the device operation. When tunneling becomes significant, circuits may incorporate tunneling devices with CMOS to further increase the functionality per device count. We will discuss both the top-down and bottom-up approaches in attaining the nanometer scale and eventually the atomic scale. Self-assembly is used as a bottom-up approach. The state of the art is reviewed, and the challenges of the multiple-step processing in using the self-assembly approach are outlined. Another facet of the scaling trend is to decrease the number of electrons in devices, ultimately leading to single electrons. If the size of a single-electron device is scaled in such a way that the Coulomb self-energy is higher than the thermal energy (at room temperature), a single-electron device will be able to operate at room temperature. In principle, the speed of the device will be fast as long as the capacitance of the load is also scaled accordingly. The single-electron device will have a small drive current, and thus the load capacitance, including those of interconnects and fanouts, must be small to achieve a reasonable speed. However, because the increase in the density (and

  11. A predictive model of muscle excitations based on muscle modularity for a large repertoire of human locomotion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Sartori, Massimo; Dosen, Strahinja; Torricelli, Diego; Pons, Jose L.; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    well the experimental excitation with a cross-correlation factor greater than 85% and a root mean square error less than 0.09. The ability of synthetizing the neuromuscular mechanisms underlying human locomotion across a variety of locomotion conditions will enable solutions in the field of neurorehabilitation technologies and control of bipedal artificial systems. Open-access of the model implementation is provided for further analysis at https://simtk.org/home/p-mep/. PMID:26441624

  12. Tuberculosis Biomarker and Surrogate Endpoint Research Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Saukkonen, Jussi; Kenzie, William R. Mac; Johnson, John L.; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Andersen, Janet; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Belisle, John T.; Boom, W. Henry; Luetkemeyer, Annie; Campbell, Thomas B.; Eisenach, Kathleen D.; Hafner, Richard; Lennox, Jeffrey L.; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Swindells, Susan; Villarino, M. Elsa; Weiner, Marc; Benson, Constance; Burman, William

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health convened a multidisciplinary meeting to discuss surrogate markers of treatment response in tuberculosis. The goals were to assess recent surrogate marker research and to provide specific recommendations for (1) the qualification and validation of biomarkers of treatment outcome; (2) the standardization of specimen and data collection for future clinical trials, including a minimum set of samples and collection time points; and (3) the creation of a specimen repository to support biomarker testing. This article summarizes these recommendations and provides a roadmap for their implementation. PMID:21737585

  13. A Roadmap for Educational Research in Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Meredith J.; Mumper, Russell J.; Blouin, Robert A.; Roth, Mary T.

    2013-01-01

    Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation. PMID:24371342

  14. The NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Program data resource.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Lisa Helbling

    2012-06-01

    The NIH Roadmap Reference Epigenome Mapping Consortium is developing a community resource of genome-wide epigenetic maps in a broad range of human primary cells and tissues. There are large amounts of data already available, and a number of different options for viewing and analyzing the data. This report will describe key features of the websites where users will find data, protocols and analysis tools developed by the consortium, and provide a perspective on how this unique resource will facilitate and inform human disease research, both immediately and in the future. PMID:22690667

  15. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  16. Feasibility study and roadmap to improve residential hot water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James D.

    2004-03-31

    Residential building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include: the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy to reheat water that was already heated once before. A feasibility study and an action plan for a proposed research project involving residential hot water distribution systems is being developed. The feasibility study will use past work to estimate of hot water and energy loses caused by current hot water distribution systems in residences. Proposed research project, or roadmap, will develop recommendations for improvements to residential hot water distribution systems. The roadmap addresses the technical obstacles and gaps in our knowledge that prevent water and energy reductions and market adoption of water- and energy-efficient technologies. The initial results of the feasibility study are presented here along with a discussion of a roadmap to improve the efficiency of residential hot water distribution systems.

  17. Digital Subtraction MR Angiography Roadmapping for Magnetic Steerable Catheter Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Alastair J.; Lillaney, Prasheel; Saeed, Maythem; Losey, Aaron D.; Settecase, Fabio; Evans, Lee; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wilson, Mark W.; Hetts, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a high temporal resolution MR imaging technique that could be employed with magnetically-assisted remote control (MARC) endovascular catheters. Materials and Methods A technique is proposed based on selective intra-arterial injections of dilute MR contrast at the beginning of a fluoroscopic MR angiography acquisition. The initial bolus of contrast is used to establish a vascular roadmap upon which MARC catheters can be tracked. The contrast to noise ratio of the achieved roadmap was assessed in phantoms and in a swine animal model. The ability of the technique to permit navigation of activated MARC catheters through arterial branch points was evaluated. Results The roadmapping mode proved effective in phantoms for tracking objects and achieved a contrast to noise ratio of 35.7 between the intra and extra-vascular space. In vivo, the intra-arterial enhancement strategy produced roadmaps with a contrast to noise ratio of 42.0. The artifact produced by MARC catheter activation provided signal enhancement patterns on the roadmap that experienced interventionalists could track through vascular structures. Conclusion A roadmapping approach with intra-arterial CE-MRA is introduced for navigating the MARC catheter. The technique mitigates the artifact produced by the MARC catheter, greatly limits the required SAR, permits regular roadmap updates due to the low contrast agent requirements, and proved effective in the in vivo setting. PMID:24797218

  18. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  19. Cerebellar contribution to feedforward control of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Pisotta, Iolanda; Molinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is an important contributor to feedforward control mechanisms of the central nervous system, and sequencing—the process that allows spatial and temporal relationships between events to be recognized—has been implicated as the fundamental cerebellar mode of operation. By adopting such a mode and because cerebellar activity patterns are sensitive to a variety of sensorimotor-related tasks, the cerebellum is believed to support motor and cognitive functions that are encoded in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. In this model, the cerebellum is hypothesized to make predictions about the consequences of a motor or cognitive command that originates from the cortex to prepare the entire system to cope with ongoing changes. In this framework, cerebellar predictive mechanisms for locomotion are addressed, focusing on sensorial and motoric sequencing. The hypothesis that sequence recognition is the mechanism by which the cerebellum functions in gait control is presented and discussed. PMID:25009490

  20. Cocaine modulates locomotion behavior in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alex; Walker, Vyvyca J; Feng, Zhaoyang; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine, a potent addictive substance, is an inhibitor of monoamine transporters, including DAT (dopamine transporter), SERT (serotonin transporter) and NET (norepinephrine transporter). Cocaine administration induces complex behavioral alterations in mammals, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we tested the effect of cocaine on C. elegans behavior. We show for the first time that acute cocaine treatment evokes changes in C. elegans locomotor activity. Interestingly, the neurotransmitter serotonin, rather than dopamine, is required for cocaine response in C. elegans. The C. elegans SERT MOD-5 is essential for the effect of cocaine, consistent with the role of cocaine in targeting monoamine transporters. We further show that the behavioral response to cocaine is primarily mediated by the ionotropic serotonin receptor MOD-1. Thus, cocaine modulates locomotion behavior in C. elegans primarily by impinging on its serotoninergic system. PMID:19536276