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Sample records for locomotor training poststroke

  1. Poststroke Hemiparesis Impairs the Rate but not Magnitude of Adaptation of Spatial and Temporal Locomotor Features

    PubMed Central

    Savin, Douglas N.; Tseng, Shih-Chiao; Whitall, Jill; Morton, Susanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons with stroke and hemiparesis walk with a characteristic pattern of spatial and temporal asymmetry that is resistant to most traditional interventions. It was recently shown in nondisabled persons that the degree of walking symmetry can be readily altered via locomotor adaptation. However, it is unclear whether stroke-related brain damage affects the ability to adapt spatial or temporal gait symmetry. Objective Determine whether locomotor adaptation to a novel swing phase perturbation is impaired in persons with chronic stroke and hemiparesis. Methods Participants with ischemic stroke (14) and nondisabled controls (12) walked on a treadmill before, during, and after adaptation to a unilateral perturbing weight that resisted forward leg movement. Leg kinematics were measured bilaterally, including step length and single-limb support (SLS) time symmetry, limb angle center of oscillation, and interlimb phasing, and magnitude of “initial” and “late” locomotor adaptation rates were determined. Results All participants had similar magnitudes of adaptation and similar initial adaptation rates both spatially and temporally. All 14 participants with stroke and baseline asymmetry temporarily walked with improved SLS time symmetry after adaptation. However, late adaptation rates poststroke were decreased (took more strides to achieve adaptation) compared with controls. Conclusions Mild to moderate hemiparesis does not interfere with the initial acquisition of novel symmetrical gait patterns in both the spatial and temporal domains, though it does disrupt the rate at which “late” adaptive changes are produced. Impairment of the late, slow phase of learning may be an important rehabilitation consideration in this patient population. PMID:22367915

  2. [The new technologies of kinesiotherapy for the rehabilitation of the patients suffering from the post-stroke locomotor disorders].

    PubMed

    Gusarova, S A; Styazhkina, E M; Gurkina, M V; Chesnikova, E I; Sycheva, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    This paper was designed to report the results of the application of two therapeutic modalities for the rehabilitation of 44 patients presenting with post-stroke locomotor disorders in the form of spastic hemiparesis. The patients allocated to the main group were treated with the use of the new kinesiotherapeutic methods including cryomassage and the Armeo robotic complex. The patients of the control group had to perform traditional therapeutic physical exercises in combination with classical massage and remedial gymnastics. It is concluded that the application of the combination of the modern kinesiotherapeutic factors exerting the positive corrective influence on different aspects of the locomotor deficiency in the upper extremities and the psychoemotional status of the patients has advantages over traditional physical exercise therapy in terms of clinical efficiency because it enhances the rehabilitative potential for these patients with serious locomotor problems. PMID:27213941

  3. Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. Methods We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training) using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat) in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3 × per week). The subject’s neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training). Results Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs). Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE) of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6 weeks. Conclusions The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors. PMID:22906099

  4. Neck Proprioceptive Training for Balance Function in Patients with Chronic Poststroke Hemiparesis: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Oh, Duck-Won

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of neck proprioceptive training on the balance of patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects] Three patients with chronic stroke were recruited for this study. [Methods] The subjects underwent neck proprioceptive training using the red light of a laser pointer (30 min daily, five times per week for 4 weeks). Outcome measures included the stability and weight distribution indices measured with a Tetrax system and Timed Up and Go (TUG) and proprioception tests. [Results] For all subjects, the stability and weight distribution indices increased by 1.87–9.66% in the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions, and the TUG and proprioception test scores improved by 2.49–15.27%. [Conclusion] Neck proprioceptive training may be a good option for improving the balance function of patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis. PMID:25364136

  5. Neck proprioceptive training for balance function in patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Oh, Duck-Won

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of neck proprioceptive training on the balance of patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects] Three patients with chronic stroke were recruited for this study. [Methods] The subjects underwent neck proprioceptive training using the red light of a laser pointer (30 min daily, five times per week for 4 weeks). Outcome measures included the stability and weight distribution indices measured with a Tetrax system and Timed Up and Go (TUG) and proprioception tests. [Results] For all subjects, the stability and weight distribution indices increased by 1.87-9.66% in the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions, and the TUG and proprioception test scores improved by 2.49-15.27%. [Conclusion] Neck proprioceptive training may be a good option for improving the balance function of patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis. PMID:25364136

  6. Reducing The Cost of Transport and Increasing Walking Distance After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Fast Locomotor Training Combined With Functional Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Awad, Louis N; Reisman, Darcy S; Pohlig, Ryan T; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    Background Neurorehabilitation efforts have been limited in their ability to restore walking function after stroke. Recent work has demonstrated proof-of-concept for a functional electrical stimulation (FES)-based combination therapy designed to improve poststroke walking by targeting deficits in paretic propulsion. Objectives To determine the effects on the energy cost of walking (EC) and long-distance walking ability of locomotor training that combines fast walking with FES to the paretic ankle musculature (FastFES). Methods Fifty participants >6 months poststroke were randomized to 12 weeks of gait training at self-selected speeds (SS), fast speeds (Fast), or FastFES. Participants' 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance and EC at comfortable (EC-CWS) and fast (EC-Fast) walking speeds were measured pretraining, posttraining, and at a 3-month follow-up. A reduction in EC-CWS, independent of changes in speed, was the primary outcome. Group differences in the number of 6MWT responders and moderation by baseline speed were also evaluated. Results When compared with SS and Fast, FastFES produced larger reductions in EC (Ps ≤.03). FastFES produced reductions of 24% and 19% in EC-CWS and EC-Fast (Ps <.001), respectively, whereas neither Fast nor SS influenced EC. Between-group 6MWT differences were not observed; however, 73% of FastFES and 68% of Fast participants were responders, in contrast to 35% of SS participants. Conclusions Combining fast locomotor training with FES is an effective approach to reducing the high EC of persons poststroke. Surprisingly, differences in 6MWT gains were not observed between groups. Closer inspection of the 6MWT and EC relationship and elucidation of how reduced EC may influence walking-related disability is warranted. PMID:26621366

  7. Effortful swallowing training combined with electrical stimulation in post-stroke dysphagia: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youngsun; Oh, Jong-Chi; Lee, Ho-Jun

    2012-12-01

    We tested the effect of effortful swallow combined with surface electrical stimulation used as a form of resistance training in post-stroke patients with dysphagia. Twenty post-stroke dysphagic patients were randomly divided into two groups: those who underwent effortful swallow with infrahyoid motor electrical stimulation (experimental group, n = 10) and effortful swallow with infrahyoid sensory electrical stimulation (control group, n = 10). In the experimental group, electrical stimulation was applied to the skin above the infrahyoid muscle with the current was adjusted until muscle contraction occurred and the hyoid bone was depressed. In the control group, the stimulation intensity was applied just above the sensory threshold. The patients in both groups were then asked to swallow effortfully in order to elevate their hyolaryngeal complex when the stimulation began. A total of 12 sessions of 20 min of training for 4 weeks were performed. Blinded biomechanical measurements of the extent of hyolaryngeal excursion, the maximal width of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening, and the penetration-aspiration scale before and after training were performed. In the experimental group, the maximal vertical displacement of the larynx was increased significantly after the intervention (p < 0.05). The maximal vertical displacement of the hyoid bone and the maximal width of the UES opening increased but the increase was not found to be significant (p = 0.066). There was no increase in the control group. Effortful swallow training combined with electrical stimulation increased the extent of laryngeal excursion. This intervention can be used as a new treatment method in post-stroke patients with dysphagia. PMID:22447240

  8. Altered Patterns of Reflex Excitability, Balance, and Locomotion Following Spinal Cord Injury and Locomotor Training

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Prodip K.; Hou, Jiamei; Parmer, Ronald; Reier, Paul J.; Thompson, Floyd J.

    2012-01-01

    Spasticity is an important problem that complicates daily living in many individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). While previous studies in human and animals revealed significant improvements in locomotor ability with treadmill locomotor training, it is not known to what extent locomotor training influences spasticity. In addition, it would be of considerable practical interest to know how the more ergonomically feasible cycle training compares with treadmill training as therapy to manage SCI-induced spasticity and to improve locomotor function. Thus the main objective of our present studies was to evaluate the influence of different types of locomotor training on measures of limb spasticity, gait, and reflex components that contribute to locomotion. For these studies, 30 animals received midthoracic SCI using the standard Multicenter Animal Spinal cord Injury Studies (MASCIS) protocol (10 g 2.5 cm weight drop). They were divided randomly into three equal groups: control (contused untrained), contused treadmill trained, and contused cycle trained. Treadmill and cycle training were started on post-injury day 8. Velocity-dependent ankle torque was tested across a wide range of velocities (612–49°/s) to permit quantitation of tonic (low velocity) and dynamic (high velocity) contributions to lower limb spasticity. By post-injury weeks 4 and 6, the untrained group revealed significant velocity-dependent ankle extensor spasticity, compared to pre-surgical control values. At these post-injury time points, spasticity was not observed in either of the two training groups. Instead, a significantly milder form of velocity-dependent spasticity was detected at postcontusion weeks 8–12 in both treadmill and bicycle training groups at the four fastest ankle rotation velocities (350–612°/s). Locomotor training using treadmill or bicycle also produced significant increase in the rate of recovery of limb placement measures (limb axis, base of support, and open field

  9. Impaired H-Reflex Gain during Postural Loaded Locomotion in Individuals Post-Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing Nong; Brown, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Successful execution of upright locomotion requires coordinated interaction between controllers for locomotion and posture. Our earlier research supported this model in the non-impaired and found impaired interaction in the post-stroke nervous system during locomotion. In this study, we sought to examine the role of the Ia afferent spinal loop, via the H-reflex response, under postural influence during a locomotor task. We tested the hypothesis that the ability to increase stretch reflex gain in response to postural loads during locomotion would be reduced post-stroke. Methods Fifteen individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis and 13 non-impaired controls pedaled on a motorized cycle ergometer with specialized backboard support system under (1) seated supported, and (2) non-seated postural-loaded conditions, generating matched pedal force outputs of two levels. H-reflexes were elicited at 90°crank angle. Results We observed increased H-reflex gain with postural influence in non-impaired individuals, but a lack of increase in individuals post-stroke. Furthermore, we observed decreased H-reflex gain at higher postural loads in the stroke-impaired group. Conclusion These findings suggest an impaired Ia afferent pathway potentially underlies the defects in the interaction between postural and locomotor control post-stroke and may explain reduced ability of paretic limb support during locomotor weight-bearing in individuals post-stroke. Significance These results support the judicious use of bodyweight support training when first helping individuals post-stroke to regain locomotor pattern generation and weight-bearing capability. PMID:26629996

  10. Locomotor training improves reciprocal and nonreciprocal inhibitory control of soleus motoneurons in human spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew C.; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic reorganization of spinal networks and activity-dependent plasticity are common neuronal adaptations after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. In this work, we examined changes of reciprocal Ia and nonreciprocal Ib inhibition after locomotor training in 16 people with chronic SCI. The soleus H-reflex depression following common peroneal nerve (CPN) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) nerve stimulation at short conditioning-test (C-T) intervals was assessed before and after training in the seated position and during stepping. The conditioned H reflexes were normalized to the unconditioned H reflex recorded during seated. During stepping, both H reflexes were normalized to the maximal M wave evoked at each bin of the step cycle. In the seated position, locomotor training replaced reciprocal facilitation with reciprocal inhibition in all subjects, and Ib facilitation was replaced by Ib inhibition in 13 out of 14 subjects. During stepping, reciprocal inhibition was decreased at early stance and increased at midswing in American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale C (AIS C) and was decreased at midstance and midswing phases in AIS D after training. Ib inhibition was decreased at early swing and increased at late swing in AIS C and was decreased at early stance phase in AIS D after training. The results of this study support that locomotor training alters postsynaptic actions of Ia and Ib inhibitory interneurons on soleus motoneurons at rest and during stepping and that such changes occur in cases with limited or absent supraspinal inputs. PMID:25609110

  11. Locomotor training modifies soleus monosynaptic motoneuron responses in human spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew C.; Rymer, William Zev

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in monosynaptic motoneuron responses to stimulation of Ia afferents after locomotor training in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). We hypothesized that locomotor training modifies the amplitude of the soleus monosynaptic motoneuron responses in a body position-dependent manner. Fifteen individuals with chronic clinical motor complete or incomplete SCI received an average of 45 locomotor training sessions. The soleus H-reflex and M-wave recruitment curves were assembled using data collected in both the right and left legs, with subjects seated and standing, before and after training. The soleus H-reflexes and M-waves, measured as peak-to-peak amplitudes, were normalized to the maximal M-wave (Mmax). Stimulation intensities were normalized to 50 % Mmax stimulus intensity. A sigmoid function was also fitted to the normalized soleus H-reflexes on the ascending limb of the recruitment curve. After training, soleus H-reflex excitability was increased in both legs in AIS C subjects, and remained unchanged in AIS A-B and AIS D subjects during standing. When subjects were seated, soleus H-reflex excitability was decreased after training in many AIS C and D subjects. Changes in reflex excitability coincided with changes in stimulation intensities at H-threshold, 50 % maximal H-reflex, and at maximal H-reflex, while an interaction between leg side and AIS scale for the H-reflex slope was also found. Adaptations of the intrinsic properties of soleus motoneurons and Ia afferents, the excitability profile of the soleus motoneuron pool, oligosynaptic inputs, and corticospinal inputs may all contribute to these changes. The findings of this study demonstrate that locomotor training impacts the amplitude of the monosynaptic motoneuron responses based on the demands of the motor task in people with chronic SCI. PMID:25205562

  12. Repeated Split-BeltTreadmill Training Improves Poststroke Step Length Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Reisman, Darcy S.; McLean, Heather; Keller, Jennifer; Danks, Kelly A.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies suggest that error augmentation may be used as a strategy to achieve longer-term changes in gait deficits after stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine whether longer-term improvements in step length asymmetry could be achieved with repeated split-belt treadmill walking practice using an error augmentation strategy. Methods 13 persons with chronic stroke (>6 months) participated in testing: (1) prior to 12 sessions of split-belt treadmill training, (2) after the training, and (3) in follow-up testing at 1 and 3 months. Step length asymmetry was the target of training, so belt speeds were set to augment step length asymmetry such that aftereffects resulted in reduced step length asymmetry during overground walking practice. Each individual was classified as a “responder” or “nonresponder” based on whether their reduction in step length asymmetry exceeded day-to-day variability. Results For the group and for the responders (7 individuals), step length asymmetry improved from baseline to posttesting (P < .05) through an increased step length on both legs but a relatively larger change on the shorter step side (P < .05). Other parameters that were not targeted (eg, stance time asymmetry) did not change over the intervention. Conclusions This study demonstrates that short-term adaptations can be capitalized on through repetitive practice and can lead to longer-term improvements in gait deficits poststroke. The error augmentation strategy, which promotes stride-by-stride adjustment to reduce asymmetry and results in improved asymmetry during overground walking practice, appears to be critical for obtaining the improvements observed. PMID:23392918

  13. An Intensive Locomotor Training Paradigm Improves Neuropathic Pain following Spinal Cord Compression Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Elizabeth A; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2015-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often associated with both locomotor deficits and sensory dysfunction, including debilitating neuropathic pain. Unfortunately, current conventional pharmacological, physiological, or psychological treatments provide only marginal relief for more than two-thirds of patients, highlighting the need for improved treatment options. Locomotor training is often prescribed as an adjunct therapy for peripheral neuropathic pain but is rarely used to treat central neuropathic pain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential anti-nociceptive benefits of intensive locomotor training (ILT) on neuropathic pain consequent to traumatic SCI. Using a rodent SCI model for central neuropathic pain, ILT was initiated either 5 d after injury prior to development of neuropathic pain symptoms (the "prevention" group) or delayed until pain symptoms fully developed (∼3 weeks post-injury, the "reversal" group). The training protocol consisted of 5 d/week of a ramping protocol that started with 11 m/min for 5 min and increased in speed (+1 m/min/week) and time (1-4 minutes/week) to a maximum of two 20-min sessions/d at 15 m/min by the fourth week of training. ILT prevented and reversed the development of heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as reversed developed tactile allodynia, suggesting analgesic benefits not seen with moderate levels of locomotor training. Further, the analgesic benefits of ILT persisted for several weeks once training had been stopped. The unique ability of an ILT protocol to produce robust and sustained anti-nociceptive effects, as assessed by three distinct outcome measures for below-level SCI neuropathic pain, suggests that this adjunct therapeutic approach has great promise in a comprehensive treatment strategy for SCI pain. PMID:25539034

  14. Tonic Pain Experienced during Locomotor Training Impairs Retention Despite Normal Performance during Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Bouffard, Jason; Bouyer, Laurent J.; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Many patients are in pain when they receive gait training during rehabilitation. Based on animal studies, it has been proposed that central sensitization associated to nociception (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to the sensorimotor learning (adaptive plasticity) share similar neural mechanisms and compete with each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental tonic pain influences motor learning (acquisition and next-day retention) of a new locomotor task. Thirty healthy human subjects performed a locomotor adaptation task (perturbing force field applied to the ankle during swing using a robotized orthosis) on 2 consecutive days. Learning was assessed using kinematic measures (peak and mean absolute plantarflexion errors) and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Half of the participants performed the locomotor adaptation task with pain on Day 1 (capsaicin cream around the ankle), while the task was performed pain-free for all subjects on Day 2 to assess retention. Pain had no significant effect on baseline gait parameters nor on performance during the locomotor adaptation task (for either kinematic or EMG measures) on Day 1. Despite this apparently normal motor acquisition, pain-free Day 2 performance was markedly and significantly impaired in the Pain group, indicating that pain during training had an impact on the retention of motor memories (interfering with consolidation and/or retrieval). These results suggest that the same motor rehabilitation intervention could be less effective if administered in the presence of pain. PMID:25009252

  15. Concurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive task practice is argued to drive neural plasticity following stroke. However, current evidence reveals that hemiparetic weakness impairs the capacity to perform, and practice, movements appropriately. Here we investigated how power training (i.e., high-intensity, dynamic resistance training) affects recovery of upper-extremity motor function post-stroke. We hypothesized that power training, as a component of upper-extremity rehabilitation, would promote greater functional gains than functional task practice without deleterious consequences. Method Nineteen chronic hemiparetic individuals were studied using a crossover design. All participants received both functional task practice (FTP) and HYBRID (combined FTP and power training) in random order. Blinded evaluations performed at baseline, following each intervention block and 6-months post-intervention included: Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-FAS, Primary Outcome), upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, Ashworth Scale, and Functional Independence Measure. Neuromechanical function was evaluated using isometric and dynamic joint torques and concurrent agonist EMG. Biceps stretch reflex responses were evaluated using passive elbow stretches ranging from 60 to 180º/s and determining: EMG onset position threshold, burst duration, burst intensity and passive torque at each speed. Results Primary outcome: Improvements in WMFT-FAS were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .049), regardless of treatment order. These functional improvements were retained 6-months post-intervention (p = .03). Secondary outcomes: A greater proportion of participants achieved minimally important differences (MID) following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .03). MIDs were retained 6-months post-intervention. Ashworth scores were unchanged (p > .05). Increased maximal isometric joint torque, agonist EMG and peak power were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p < .05) and effects were

  16. Training Enhances Both Locomotor and Cognitive Adaptability to a Novel Sensory Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cohen, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    During adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform required mission tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program to facilitate rapid adaptation. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene that provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. The goal of our present study was to determine if SA training improved both the locomotor and cognitive responses to a novel sensory environment and to quantify the extent to which training would be retained. Methods: Twenty subjects (10 training, 10 control) completed three, 30-minute training sessions during which they walked on the treadmill while receiving discordant support surface and visual input. Control subjects walked on the treadmill but did not receive any support surface or visual alterations. To determine the efficacy of training all subjects performed the Transfer Test upon completion of training. For this test, subjects were exposed to novel visual flow and support surface movement, not previously experienced during training. The Transfer Test was performed 20 minutes, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months after the final training session. Stride frequency, auditory reaction time, and heart rate data were collected as measures of postural stability, cognitive effort and anxiety, respectively. Results: Using mixed effects regression methods we determined that subjects who received SA training showed less alterations in stride frequency, auditory reaction time and heart rate compared to controls. Conclusion: Subjects who received SA training improved performance across a number of modalities including enhanced locomotor function, increased multi-tasking capability and reduced anxiety during adaptation to novel discordant sensory

  17. Motor imagery of walking following training in locomotor attention. The effect of "the tango lesson".

    PubMed

    Sacco, K; Cauda, F; Cerliani, L; Mate, D; Duca, S; Geminiani, G C

    2006-09-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that focusing attention on walking motor schemes could modify sensorimotor activation of the brain. Indeed, gait is a learned automated process, mostly regulated by subcortical and spinal structures. We examined the functional changes in the activity of the cerebral areas involved in locomotor imagery tasks, before and after one week of training consisting of physical and mental practice. The aim of the training was to focus the subject's conscious attention on the movements involved in walking. In our training, subjects were asked to perform basic tango steps, which require specific ways of walking; each tango lesson ended with motor imagery training of the performed steps. The results show that training determines an expansion of active bilateral motor areas during locomotor imagery. This finding, together with a reduction of visuospatial activation in the posterior right brain, suggests a decreased role of visual imagery processes in the post-training period in favor of motor-kinesthetic ones. PMID:16861008

  18. The timing and amount of vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training affect post-stroke recovery of forelimb strength

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Seth A.; Khodaparast, Navid; Ruiz, Andrea; Sloan, Andrew M.; Hulsey, Daniel R.; Rennaker, Robert L.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of upper arm strength after stroke is a leading cause of disability. Strategies that can enhance the benefits of rehabilitative training could improve motor function after stroke. Recent studies in a rat model of ischemic stroke demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative training substantially improves recovery of forelimb strength compared to extensive rehabilitative training without VNS. Here we report that the timing and amount of stimulation affect the degree of forelimb strength recovery. Similar amounts of delayed VNS delivered two hours after daily rehabilitative training sessions resulted in significantly less improvement compared to VNS that is paired with identical rehabilitative training. Significantly less recovery also occurred when several-fold more VNS was delivered during rehabilitative training. Both delayed and additional VNS confer moderately improved recovery compared to extensive rehabilitative training without VNS, but fail to enhance recovery to the same degree as VNS that is timed to occur with successful movements. These findings confirm that VNS paired with rehabilitative training holds promise for restoring forelimb strength post-stroke and indicate that both the timing and amount of VNS should be optimized to maximize therapeutic benefits. PMID:24818637

  19. A Prediction Model for Determining Over Ground Walking Speed After Locomotor Training in Persons With Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Winchester, Patricia; Smith, Patricia; Foreman, Nathan; Mosby, James M; Pacheco, Fides; Querry, Ross; Tansey, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: To develop and test a clinically relevant model for predicting the recovery of over ground walking speed after 36 sessions of progressive body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: A retrospective review and stepwise regression analysis of a SCI clinical outcomes data set. Setting: Outpatient SCI laboratory. Subjects: Thirty individuals with a motor incomplete SCI who had participated in locomotor training with BWSTT. Eight individuals with similar diagnoses were used to prospectively test the prediction model. Main Outcome Measures: Over ground walking speed was assessed using the 10-m walking test. Methods: The locomotor training program consisted of 36 sessions of sequential comprehensive training comprised of robotic assisted BWSTT, followed by manual assisted BWSTT, and over ground walking. The dose of locomotor training was standardized throughout the protocol. Results: Clinical characteristics with predictive value for walking speed were time from injury onset, the presence or absence of voluntary bowel and bladder voiding, a functional spasticity assessment, and over ground walking speed before locomotor training. The model identified that these characteristics accounted for 78.3% of the variability in the actual final over ground walking speed after 36 sessions of locomotor training. The model was successful in prospectively predicting over ground walking speed in the 8 test participants within 4.15 ± 2.22 cm/s in their recovered walking speed. Conclusions: This prediction model can identify individuals who are most likely to experience success using locomotor training by determining an expected magnitude of training effect, thereby allowing individualized decisions regarding the use of this intensive approach to rehabilitation. PMID:19264051

  20. Ankle voluntary movement enhancement following robotic-assisted locomotor training in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), sensorimotor impairments result in severe limitations to ambulation. To improve walking capacity, physical therapies using robotic-assisted locomotor devices, such as the Lokomat, have been developed. Following locomotor training, an improvement in gait capabilities—characterized by increases in the over-ground walking speed and endurance—is generally observed in patients. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these improvements, we studied the effects of Lokomat training on impaired ankle voluntary movement, known to be an important limiting factor in gait for iSCI patients. Methods Fifteen chronic iSCI subjects performed twelve 1-hour sessions of Lokomat training over the course of a month. The voluntary movement was qualified by measuring active range of motion, maximal velocity peak and trajectory smoothness for the spastic ankle during a movement from full plantar-flexion (PF) to full dorsi-flexion (DF) at the patient’s maximum speed. Dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscle strength was quantified by isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Clinical assessments were also performed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG), the 10-meter walk (10MWT) and the 6-minute walk (6MWT) tests. All evaluations were performed both before and after the training and were compared to a control group of fifteen iSCI patients. Results After the Lokomat training, the active range of motion, the maximal velocity, and the movement smoothness were significantly improved in the voluntary movement. Patients also exhibited an improvement in the MVC for their ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles. In terms of functional activity, we observed an enhancement in the mobility (TUG) and the over-ground gait velocity (10MWT) with training. Correlation tests indicated a significant relationship between ankle voluntary movement performance and the walking clinical assessments. Conclusions The improvements of the kinematic and kinetic

  1. Transcriptional Pathways Associated with Skeletal Muscle Changes after Spinal Cord Injury and Treadmill Locomotor Training.

    PubMed

    Baligand, Celine; Chen, Yi-Wen; Ye, Fan; Pandey, Sachchida Nand; Lai, San-Huei; Liu, Min; Vandenborne, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and molecular events associated with changes in muscle mass and function after SCI and after the implementation of candidate therapeutic approaches are still not completely known. The overall objective of this study was to identify key molecular pathways activated with muscle remodeling after SCI and locomotor training. We implemented treadmill training in a well-characterized rat model of moderate SCI and performed genome wide expression profiling on soleus muscles at multiple time points: 3, 8, and 14 days after SCI. We found that the activity of the protein ubiquitination and mitochondrial function related pathways was altered with SCI and corrected with treadmill training. The BMP pathway was differentially activated with early treadmill training as shown by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The expression of several muscle mass regulators was modulated by treadmill training, including Fst, Jun, Bmpr2, Actr2b, and Smad3. In addition, key players in fatty acids metabolism (Lpl and Fabp3) responded to both SCI induced inactivity and reloading with training. The decrease in Smad3 and Fst early after the initiation of treadmill training was confirmed by RT-PCR. Our data suggest that TGFβ/Smad3 signaling may be mainly involved in the decrease in muscle mass observed with SCI, while the BMP pathway was activated with treadmill training. PMID:26380273

  2. Transcriptional Pathways Associated with Skeletal Muscle Changes after Spinal Cord Injury and Treadmill Locomotor Training

    PubMed Central

    Baligand, Celine; Chen, Yi-Wen; Ye, Fan; Pandey, Sachchida Nand; Lai, San-Huei; Liu, Min; Vandenborne, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and molecular events associated with changes in muscle mass and function after SCI and after the implementation of candidate therapeutic approaches are still not completely known. The overall objective of this study was to identify key molecular pathways activated with muscle remodeling after SCI and locomotor training. We implemented treadmill training in a well-characterized rat model of moderate SCI and performed genome wide expression profiling on soleus muscles at multiple time points: 3, 8, and 14 days after SCI. We found that the activity of the protein ubiquitination and mitochondrial function related pathways was altered with SCI and corrected with treadmill training. The BMP pathway was differentially activated with early treadmill training as shown by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The expression of several muscle mass regulators was modulated by treadmill training, including Fst, Jun, Bmpr2, Actr2b, and Smad3. In addition, key players in fatty acids metabolism (Lpl and Fabp3) responded to both SCI induced inactivity and reloading with training. The decrease in Smad3 and Fst early after the initiation of treadmill training was confirmed by RT-PCR. Our data suggest that TGFβ/Smad3 signaling may be mainly involved in the decrease in muscle mass observed with SCI, while the BMP pathway was activated with treadmill training. PMID:26380273

  3. Effect of the treadmill training factors on the locomotor ability after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysova, Nataliya; Fomina, Elena

    Training on the treadmill constitutes the central component of the Russian system of countermeasures against the negative effects of microgravity. Effectiveness of the treadmill training is influenced by three main factors. Namely, these are intensity (velocity and regularity), axial loading with the use of elastic bungee cords and percentage of time for training on the non-motorized treadmill within the overall training program. Previously we have demonstrated the significance of each factor separately: intensity (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 2011), passive mode (Fomina E.V. et al., 2012) and axial loading (Fomina E.V. et al., 2013). The Russian system of in-flight countermeasures gives preference to interval training sessions in which walking alternates with short episodes of intensive running. Locomotion on the non-motorized treadmill should make approx. 30% of the total time of locomotor training. The ISS RS treadmill can be utilized with the motor in motion (active mode) or out of motion so that the cosmonaut has to push the belt with his feet (passive mode). Axial loading of the cosmonaut must be 60-70% of his body weight. However, there is a huge variety of strategies cosmonauts choose of when they exercise on the treadmill in the course of long-duration ISS missions. Purpose of the investigation was comparative analysis of different locomotion training regimens from the standpoint of their effectiveness in microgravity. Criteria of effectiveness evaluation were the results of the locomotion test that includes walking along the fixed support at the preset rate of 90 steps/min. Peak amplitude on the m. soleus electromyogram was analyzed. The experiment was performed with participation of 18 Russian members of extended ISS missions. Each locomotion training factors was rated using the score scale from 0 to 10: Intensity (0 to 10), Percentage of passive mode training (recommended 30% was taken as 10 and could go down to 0 if the passive mode was not applied) and

  4. A Review on Locomotor Training after Spinal Cord Injury: Reorganization of Spinal Neuronal Circuits and Recovery of Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Locomotor training is a classic rehabilitation approach utilized with the aim of improving sensorimotor function and walking ability in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies have provided strong evidence that locomotor training of persons with clinically complete, motor complete, or motor incomplete SCI induces functional reorganization of spinal neuronal networks at multisegmental levels at rest and during assisted stepping. This neuronal reorganization coincides with improvements in motor function and decreased muscle cocontractions. In this review, we will discuss the manner in which spinal neuronal circuits are impaired and the evidence surrounding plasticity of neuronal activity after locomotor training in people with SCI. We conclude that we need to better understand the physiological changes underlying locomotor training, use physiological signals to probe recovery over the course of training, and utilize established and contemporary interventions simultaneously in larger scale research studies. Furthermore, the focus of our research questions needs to change from feasibility and efficacy to the following: what are the physiological mechanisms that make it work and for whom? The aforementioned will enable the scientific and clinical community to develop more effective rehabilitation protocols maximizing sensorimotor function recovery in people with SCI. PMID:27293901

  5. A Review on Locomotor Training after Spinal Cord Injury: Reorganization of Spinal Neuronal Circuits and Recovery of Motor Function.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew C; Knikou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Locomotor training is a classic rehabilitation approach utilized with the aim of improving sensorimotor function and walking ability in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies have provided strong evidence that locomotor training of persons with clinically complete, motor complete, or motor incomplete SCI induces functional reorganization of spinal neuronal networks at multisegmental levels at rest and during assisted stepping. This neuronal reorganization coincides with improvements in motor function and decreased muscle cocontractions. In this review, we will discuss the manner in which spinal neuronal circuits are impaired and the evidence surrounding plasticity of neuronal activity after locomotor training in people with SCI. We conclude that we need to better understand the physiological changes underlying locomotor training, use physiological signals to probe recovery over the course of training, and utilize established and contemporary interventions simultaneously in larger scale research studies. Furthermore, the focus of our research questions needs to change from feasibility and efficacy to the following: what are the physiological mechanisms that make it work and for whom? The aforementioned will enable the scientific and clinical community to develop more effective rehabilitation protocols maximizing sensorimotor function recovery in people with SCI. PMID:27293901

  6. Brain Stimulation Paired with Novel Locomotor Training with Robotic Gait Orthosis in Chronic Stroke: a Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Danzl, Megan M.; Chelette, Kenneth C.; Lee, Kara; Lykins, Dana; Sawaki, Lumy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives 1) to investigate the feasibility of combining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the lower extremity (LE) motor cortex with novel locomotor training to facilitate gait in subjects with chronic stroke and low ambulatory status, and 2) to obtain insight from study subjects and their caregivers to inform future trial design. Methods Double-blind, randomized controlled study with additional qualitative exploratory descriptive design. One-month follow-up.10 subjects with stroke were recruited and randomized to active tDCS or sham tDCS for 12 sessions. Both groups participated in identical locomotor training with a robotic gait orthosis (RGO) following each tDCS session. RGO training protocol was designed to harness cortical neuroplasticity. Data analysis included assessment of functional and participation outcome measures and qualitative thematic analysis. Results Eight subjects completed the study. Both groups demonstrated trends toward improvement, but the active tDCS group showed greater improvement than the sham group. Qualitative analyses indicate beneficial effects of this combined intervention. Conclusions It is feasible to combine tDCS targeting the LE motor cortex with our novel locomotor training. It appears that tDCS has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of gait training in chronic stroke. Insights from participants provide additional guidance in designing future trials. PMID:23949035

  7. Locomotor training: as a treatment of spinal cord injury and in the progression of neurologic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Harkema, Susan J; Hillyer, Jessica; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Ardolino, Elizabeth; Sisto, Sue Ann; Behrman, Andrea L

    2012-09-01

    Scientists, clinicians, administrators, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), and caregivers seek a common goal: to improve the outlook and general expectations of the adults and children living with neurologic injury. Important strides have already been accomplished; in fact, some have labeled the changes in neurologic rehabilitation a "paradigm shift." Not only do we recognize the potential of the damaged nervous system, but we also see that "recovery" can and should be valued and defined broadly. Quality-of-life measures and the individual's sense of accomplishment and well-being are now considered important factors. The ongoing challenge from research to clinical translation is the fine line between scientific uncertainty (ie, the tenet that nothing is ever proven) and the necessary burden of proof required by the clinical community. We review the current state of a specific SCI rehabilitation intervention (locomotor training), which has been shown to be efficacious although thoroughly debated, and summarize the findings from a multicenter collaboration, the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation's NeuroRecovery Network. PMID:22920456

  8. Eye-movement training-induced plasticity in patients with post-stroke hemianopia.

    PubMed

    Nelles, Gereon; Pscherer, Anja; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Gerhard, Horst; Esser, Joachim; Diener, H Christoph

    2009-05-01

    Substantial disability in patients with hemianopia results from reduced visual perception. Previous studies have shown that these patients have impaired saccades. Improving exploratory eye movements with appropriate training of saccades may help to partially compensate for the visuoperceptive impairment during daily life activities. The changes in cortical control of eye movements that may be induced by these training strategies, however, are not known. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the training effects of eye-movement training on cortical control of saccades. Brain activation during visually guided saccades was measured in eight patients with an occipital cortical lesion causing homonymous hemianopia. Starting 8 weeks after the stroke, patients received 4 weeks of visual field training. The fMRI measurements were performed at baseline and after training. In five patients, follow-up fMRI was performed 4 weeks after the end of training. Differences in activation between rest and saccades as well as before and after training were assessed with statistical parametric mapping software (SPM'99). Twelve healthy subjects were scanned twice at a 4-week interval. In patients, significant activation at baseline was found in the frontal and parietal eye fields (FEF and PEF, respectively) bilaterally and in the supplementary eye field (SEF). Immediately after training, an area of increased activation was found in the left extrastriate cortex of the affected hemisphere. At follow-up, relatively more activation was found in the right peristriate cortex and in the SEF of the unaffected side. A relative decrease of activation was found in the left FEF. In this group of patients, eye-movement training induced altered brain activation in the striate and extrastriate cortex as well as in oculomotor areas. PMID:19240963

  9. Locomotor training through a 3D cable-driven robotic system for walking function in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Kim, Janis; Arora, Pooja; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Zhang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor training using treadmill has been shown to elicit significant improvements in locomotor ability for some children with cerebral palsy (CP), the functional gains are relatively small and it requires greater involvement from a physical therapist. Current robotic gait training systems are effective in reducing the strenuous work of a physical therapist during locomotor training, but are less effective in improving locomotor function in some children with CP due to the limitations of the systems. Thus, a 3D cable-driven robotic gait training system was developed and tested in five children with CP through a 6 week of long-term gait training. Results indicated that both overground walking speed and 6 minute walking distance improved after robot assisted treadmill training through the cable-driven robotic system, and partially retained at 8 weeks after the end of training. Results from this pilot study indicated that it seems feasible to conduct locomotor training in children with CP through the 3D cable-driven robotic system. PMID:25570752

  10. A Systematic Review of Bilateral Upper Limb Training Devices for Poststroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    van Delden, A. (Lex) E. Q.; Peper, C. (Lieke) E.; Kwakkel, Gert; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics). Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus) value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required. PMID:23251833

  11. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark T; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Stokely, Shauna L; Wolkin, Talia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tongue resistance training protocols. One protocol ("tongue-pressure profile training") emphasized the pressure-timing patterns that are typically seen in healthy swallows by focusing on gradual pressure release and saliva swallowing tasks. The second protocol ("tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training") emphasized strength and accuracy in tongue-palate pressure generation and did not include swallowing tasks. A prospective, randomized, parallel allocation trial was conducted. Of 26 participants who were screened for eligibility, 14 received up to 24 sessions of treatment. Outcome measures of posterior tongue strength, oral bolus control, penetration-aspiration and vallecular residue were made based on videofluoroscopy analysis by blinded raters. Complete data were available for 11 participants. Significant improvements were seen in tongue strength and post-swallow vallecular residue with thin liquids, regardless of treatment condition. Stage transition duration (a measure of the duration of the bolus presence in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation, which had been chosen to capture impairments in oral bolus control) showed no significant differences. Similarly, significant improvements were not seen in median scores on the penetration-aspiration scale. This trial suggests that tongue strength can be improved with resistance training for individuals with tongue weakness following stroke. We conclude that improved penetration-aspiration does not necessarily accompany improvements in tongue strength; however, tongue-pressure resistance training does appear to be effective for reducing thin liquid vallecular residue. PMID:26936446

  12. Use of quadrupedal step training to re-engage spinal interneuronal networks and improve locomotor function after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alias, Guillermo; Choe, Jaehoon; Gad, Parag; Gerasimenko, Yury; Tillakaratne, Niranjala; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Can lower limb motor function be improved after a spinal cord lesion by re-engaging functional activity of the upper limbs? We addressed this issue by training the forelimbs in conjunction with the hindlimbs after a thoracic spinal cord hemisection in adult rats. The spinal circuitries were more excitable, and behavioural and electrophysiological analyses showed improved hindlimb function when the forelimbs were engaged simultaneously with the hindlimbs during treadmill step-training as opposed to training only the hindlimbs. Neuronal retrograde labelling demonstrated a greater number of propriospinal labelled neurons above and below the thoracic lesion site in quadrupedally versus bipedally trained rats. The results provide strong evidence that actively engaging the forelimbs improves hindlimb function and that one likely mechanism underlying these effects is the reorganization and re-engagement of rostrocaudal spinal interneuronal networks. For the first time, we provide evidence that the spinal interneuronal networks linking the forelimbs and hindlimbs are amenable to a rehabilitation training paradigm. Identification of this phenomenon provides a strong rationale for proceeding toward preclinical studies for determining whether training paradigms involving upper arm training in concert with lower extremity training can enhance locomotor recovery after neurological damage. PMID:24103912

  13. EFFECTS OF ROBOTIC-LOCOMOTOR TRAINING ON STRETCH REFLEX FUNCTION AND MUSCULAR PROPERTIES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Mirbagheri, Mehdi M.; Kindig, Matthew W.; Niu, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the therapeutic effect of robotic-assisted step training (RAST) on neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity by characterization of their recovery patterns in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Twenty-three motor-incomplete SCI subjects received one-hour RAST sessions three times per week for four weeks, while an SCI control group received no training. Neuromuscular properties were assessed using ankle perturbations prior to and during the training, and a system-identification technique quantified stretch reflex and intrinsic stiffness magnitude and modulation with joint position. Growth-mixture modeling classified subjects based on similar intrinsic and reflex recovery patterns. Results All recovery classes in the RAST group presented significant (p<0.05) reductions in intrinsic and reflex stiffness magnitude and modulation with position; the control group presented no changes over time. Subjects with larger baseline abnormalities exhibited larger reductions, and over longer training periods. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that RAST can effectively reduce neuromuscular abnormalities, with greater improvements for subjects with higher baseline abnormalities. Significance Our findings suggest, in addition to its primary goal of improving locomotor patterns, RAST can also reduce neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity. These findings also demonstrate that these techniques can be used to characterize neuromuscular recovery patterns in response to various types of interventions. PMID:25449559

  14. Locomotor step training with body weight support improves respiratory motor function in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    de Paleville, Daniela Terson; McKay, William; Aslan, Sevda; Folz, Rodney; Sayenko, Dimitry; Ovechkin, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    This prospective case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate to what extent the manually assisted treadmill stepping Locomotor Training with body weight support (LT) can change respiratory function in individuals with chronic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Pulmonary function outcomes (Forced Vital Capacity /FVC/, Forced Expiratory Volume one second /FEV1/, Maximum Inspiratory Pressure /PImax/, Maximum Expiratory Pressure /PEmax/) and surface electromyographic (sEMG) measures of respiratory muscles activity during respiratory taskswere obtained from eight individuals with chronic C3-T12 SCI before and after 62±10 (Mean ± SD) sessions of the LT. FVC, FEV1, PImax, PEmax, amount of overall sEMG activity and rate of motor unit recruitment were significantly increased after LT (p<0.05) These results suggest that these improvements induced by the LT are likely the result of neuroplastic changes in spinal neural circuitry responsible for the activation of respiratory muscles preserved after injury. PMID:23999001

  15. Randomized controlled comparative study on effect of training to improve lower limb motor paralysis in convalescent patients with post-stroke hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Kenji; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Sayaka; Hayashi, Kazuya; Tonogai, Yusuke; Tanino, Genichi; Wada, Yosuke; Narukawa, Akihisa; Okuyama, Yuko; Tomita, Yutaka; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The motor paralysis-improving effect on the hemiplegic lower limb was compared among mirror therapy, integrated volitional-control electrical stimulation, therapeutic electrical stimulation, repetitive facilitative exercises, and the standard training method in post-stroke hemiplegia patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty one stroke patients admitted to a convalescent rehabilitation ward were randomly allocated to the above 5 treatment groups. Each patient performed functional training of the paralytic lower limb for 20 minutes a day for 4 weeks, and changes in the lower limb function were investigated using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set. [Results] The hip and knee joint functions did not significantly improve in the standard training control group, but significant improvements were observed after 4 weeks in the other intervention groups. Significant improvement was noted in the ankle joint function in all groups. [Conclusion] Although the results were influenced by spontaneous recovery and the standard training in the control group, the hip and knee joints were more markedly improved by the interventions in the other 4 groups of patients with moderate paralysis, compared to the control group. PMID:26504331

  16. Increased Adaptation Rates and Reduction in Trial-by-Trial Variability in Subjects with Cerebral Palsy Following a Multi-session Locomotor Adaptation Training

    PubMed Central

    Mawase, Firas; Bar-Haim, Simona; Joubran, Katherin; Rubin, Lihi; Karniel, Amir; Shmuelof, Lior

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) results from an insult to the developing brain and is associated with deficits in locomotor and manual skills and in sensorimotor adaptation. We hypothesized that the poor sensorimotor adaptation in persons with CP is related to their high execution variability and does not reflect a general impairment in adaptation learning. We studied the interaction between performance variability and adaptation deficits using a multi-session locomotor adaptation design in persons with CP. Six adolescents with diplegic CP were exposed, during a period of 15 weeks, to a repeated split-belt treadmill perturbation spread over 30 sessions and were tested again 6 months after the end of training. Compared to age-matched healthy controls, subjects with CP showed poor adaptation and high execution variability in the first exposure to the perturbation. Following training they showed marked reduction in execution variability and an increase in learning rates. The reduction in variability and the improvement in adaptation were highly correlated in the CP group and were retained 6 months after training. Interestingly, despite reducing their variability in the washout phase, subjects with CP did not improve learning rates during washout phases that were introduced only four times during the experiment. Our results suggest that locomotor adaptation in subjects with CP is related to their execution variability. Nevertheless, while variability reduction is generalized to other locomotor contexts, the development of savings requires both reduction in execution variability and multiple exposures to the perturbation. PMID:27199721

  17. Inducing hindlimb locomotor recovery in adult rat after complete thoracic spinal cord section using repeated treadmill training with perineal stimulation only

    PubMed Central

    Alluin, Olivier; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Although a complete thoracic spinal cord section in various mammals induces paralysis of voluntary movements, the spinal lumbosacral circuitry below the lesion retains its ability to generate hindlimb locomotion. This important capacity may contribute to the overall locomotor recovery after partial spinal cord injury (SCI). In rats, it is usually triggered by pharmacological and/or electrical stimulation of the cord while a robot sustains the animals in an upright posture. In the present study we daily trained a group of adult spinal (T7) rats to walk with the hindlimbs for 10 wk (10 min/day for 5 days/wk), using only perineal stimulation. Kinematic analysis and terminal electromyographic recordings revealed a strong effect of training on the reexpression of hindlimb locomotion. Indeed, trained animals gradually improved their locomotion while untrained animals worsened throughout the post-SCI period. Kinematic parameters such as averaged and instant swing phase velocity, step cycle variability, foot drag duration, off period duration, and relationship between the swing features returned to normal values only in trained animals. The present results clearly demonstrate that treadmill training alone, in a normal horizontal posture, elicited by noninvasive perineal stimulation is sufficient to induce a persistent hindlimb locomotor recovery without the need for more complex strategies. This provides a baseline level that should be clearly surpassed if additional locomotor-enabling procedures are added. Moreover, it has a clinical value since intrinsic spinal reorganization induced by training should contribute to improve locomotor recovery together with afferent feedback and supraspinal modifications in patients with incomplete SCI. PMID:26203108

  18. Inducing hindlimb locomotor recovery in adult rat after complete thoracic spinal cord section using repeated treadmill training with perineal stimulation only.

    PubMed

    Alluin, Olivier; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Rossignol, Serge

    2015-09-01

    Although a complete thoracic spinal cord section in various mammals induces paralysis of voluntary movements, the spinal lumbosacral circuitry below the lesion retains its ability to generate hindlimb locomotion. This important capacity may contribute to the overall locomotor recovery after partial spinal cord injury (SCI). In rats, it is usually triggered by pharmacological and/or electrical stimulation of the cord while a robot sustains the animals in an upright posture. In the present study we daily trained a group of adult spinal (T7) rats to walk with the hindlimbs for 10 wk (10 min/day for 5 days/wk), using only perineal stimulation. Kinematic analysis and terminal electromyographic recordings revealed a strong effect of training on the reexpression of hindlimb locomotion. Indeed, trained animals gradually improved their locomotion while untrained animals worsened throughout the post-SCI period. Kinematic parameters such as averaged and instant swing phase velocity, step cycle variability, foot drag duration, off period duration, and relationship between the swing features returned to normal values only in trained animals. The present results clearly demonstrate that treadmill training alone, in a normal horizontal posture, elicited by noninvasive perineal stimulation is sufficient to induce a persistent hindlimb locomotor recovery without the need for more complex strategies. This provides a baseline level that should be clearly surpassed if additional locomotor-enabling procedures are added. Moreover, it has a clinical value since intrinsic spinal reorganization induced by training should contribute to improve locomotor recovery together with afferent feedback and supraspinal modifications in patients with incomplete SCI. PMID:26203108

  19. Locomotor, cardiocirculatory and metabolic adaptations to training in Andalusian and Anglo-Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A; Santisteban, R; Rubio, M D; Agüera, E I; Escribano, B M; Castejón, F M

    1999-02-01

    The effects of two training programmes in 20 Andalusian and 12 Anglo-Arabian horses were evaluated by an increasing intensity work test at velocities of 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 m sec(-1). Heart rate was monitored and blood samples were drawn at rest and after each velocity to analyse packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate and potassium levels. Furthermore, the programmes were video-taped and stride length, duration and frequency, stance (restraint and propulsion), swing phase durations and stride vertical component were measured. The training protocol of the Andalusian horses produced significant decreases in the cardiovascular, haematological and metabolic responses to exercise. Locomotory training adaptation consisted of an increased stride frequency and a reduced stride length and vertical stride component. The last variable was the limiting factor of stride length both before and after training in the Andalusian horses. A different training protocol for show-jumping competition in Anglo-Arabian horses failed to show significant differences in the studied parameters to the work test, although an increase in stride length at velocities of over 6 m sec(-1) was observed. Stride vertical component did not have an effect on the physiological response to exercise, either before or after training. PMID:10088708

  20. Using swing resistance and assistance to improve gait symmetry in individuals post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Schmit, Brian D.; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    A major characteristic of hemiplegic gait observed in individuals post-stroke is spatial and temporal asymmetry, which may increase energy expenditure and the risk of falls. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of swing resistance/assistance applied to the affected leg on gait symmetry in individuals post-stroke. We recruited 10 subjects with chronic stroke who demonstrated a shorter step length with their affected leg in comparison to the non-affected leg during walking. They participated in two test sessions for swing resistance and swing assistance, respectively. During the adaptation period, subjects counteracted the step length deviation caused by the applied swing resistance force, resulting in an aftereffect consisting of improved step length symmetry during the post-adaptation period. In contrast, subjects did not counteract step length deviation caused by swing assistance during adaptation period and produced no aftereffect during the post-adaptation period. Locomotor training with swing resistance applied to the affected leg may improve step length symmetry through error-based learning. Swing assistance reduces errors in step length during stepping; however, it is unclear whether this approach would improve step length symmetry. Results from this study may be used to develop training paradigms for improving gait symmetry of stroke survivors. PMID:26066783

  1. Should Body Weight–Supported Treadmill Training and Robotic-Assistive Steppers for Locomotor Training Trot Back to the Starting Gate?

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H.; Duncan, Pamela W.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and robotic-assisted step training (RAST) have not, so far, led to better outcomes than a comparable dose of progressive over-ground training (OGT) for disabled persons with stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, or cerebral palsy. The conceptual bases for these promising rehabilitation interventions had once seemed quite plausible, but the results of well-designed, randomized clinical trials have been disappointing. The authors reassess the underpinning concepts for BWSTT and RAST, which were derived from mammalian studies of treadmill-induced hind-limb stepping associated with central pattern generation after low thoracic spinal cord transection, as well as human studies of the triple crown icons of task-oriented locomotor training, massed practice, and activity-induced neuroplasticity. The authors retrospectively consider where theory and practice may have fallen short in the pilot studies that aimed to produce thoroughbred interventions. Based on these shortcomings, the authors move forward with recommendations for the future development of workhorse interventions for walking. In the absence of evidence for physical therapists to employ these strategies, however, BWSTT and RAST should not be provided routinely to disabled, vulnerable persons in place of OGT outside of a scientifically conducted efficacy trial. PMID:22412172

  2. A Combined Robotic and Cognitive Training for Locomotor Rehabilitation: Evidences of Cerebral Functional Reorganization in Two Chronic Traumatic Brain Injured Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Katiuscia; Cauda, Franco; D’Agata, Federico; Duca, Sergio; Zettin, Marina; Virgilio, Roberta; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Belforte, Guido; Eula, Gabriella; Gastaldi, Laura; Appendino, Silvia; Geminiani, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that automated locomotor training can improve walking capabilities in spinal cord-injured subjects but its effectiveness on brain damaged patients has not been well established. A possible explanation of the discordant results on the efficacy of robotic training in patients with cerebral lesions could be that these patients, besides stimulation of physiological motor patterns through passive leg movements, also need to train the cognitive aspects of motor control. Indeed, another way to stimulate cerebral motor areas in paretic patients is to use the cognitive function of motor imagery. A promising possibility is thus to combine sensorimotor training with the use of motor imagery. The aim of this paper is to assess changes in brain activations after a combined sensorimotor and cognitive training for gait rehabilitation. The protocol consisted of the integrated use of a robotic gait orthosis prototype with locomotor imagery tasks. Assessment was conducted on two patients with chronic traumatic brain injury and major gait impairments, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Physiatric functional scales were used to assess clinical outcomes. Results showed greater activation post-training in the sensorimotor and supplementary motor cortices, as well as enhanced functional connectivity within the motor network. Improvements in balance and, to a lesser extent, in gait outcomes were also found. PMID:22275890

  3. Long-term effects of injection of botulinum toxin type A combined with home-based functional training for post-stroke patients with spastic upper limb hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, Toru; Abo, Masahiro; Ebihara, Kazuaki; Taguchi, Kensuke; Sase, Yousuke; Kakuda, Wataru

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection with home-based functional training for passive and active motor function, over a 6-month period in post-stroke patients with upper limb spasticity. We studied 190 patients with at least 6-month history of stroke. They received injections of BoNT-A in upper limb muscles and detailed one-to-one instructions for home-based functional training. At baseline (before therapy), and at 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-up, Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and Wolf motor function test (WMFT) were used to assess active motor function, the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) for assessment of spasticity, and the range of motion (ROM) for passive motor function. The total score for upper limb and scores of categories A and B of the FMA increased significantly at 1, 3 and 6 months, while the FMA score for category D increased significantly at 3 and 6 months, but not at 1 month. Significant decreases in the MAS scores were noted in all muscles examined at 1, 3 and 6 months, compared with baseline. The ROM for elbow joint extension significantly improved at 1, 3, and 6 months, while that for wrist joint extension increased significantly at 1 month, but not 3 or 6 months, compared with baseline. The results suggest that comprehensive improvement of motor function requires improvement of motor function in the proximal part of the upper limb and that BoNT-A followed by rehabilitation reduces spasticity and improves motor function of fingers. PMID:23716062

  4. Examination of the Combined Effects of Chondroitinase ABC, Growth Factors and Locomotor Training following Compressive Spinal Cord Injury on Neuroanatomical Plasticity and Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Alluin, Olivier; Fehlings, Michael G.; Rossignol, Serge; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    While several cellular and pharmacological treatments have been evaluated following spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models, it is increasingly recognized that approaches to address the glial scar, including the use of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), can facilitate neuroanatomical plasticity. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that combinatorial strategies are key to unlocking the plasticity that is enabled by ChABC. Given this, we evaluated the anatomical and functional consequences of ChABC in a combinatorial approach that also included growth factor (EGF, FGF2 and PDGF-AA) treatments and daily treadmill training on the recovery of hindlimb locomotion in rats with mid thoracic clip compression SCI. Using quantitative neuroanatomical and kinematic assessments, we demonstrate that the combined therapy significantly enhanced the neuroanatomical plasticity of major descending spinal tracts such as corticospinal and serotonergic-spinal pathways. Additionally, the pharmacological treatment attenuated chronic astrogliosis and inflammation at and adjacent to the lesion with the modest synergistic effects of treadmill training. We also observed a trend for earlier recovery of locomotion accompanied by an improvement of the overall angular excursions in rats treated with ChABC and growth factors in the first 4 weeks after SCI. At the end of the 7-week recovery period, rats from all groups exhibited an impressive spontaneous recovery of the kinematic parameters during locomotion on treadmill. However, although the combinatorial treatment led to clear chronic neuroanatomical plasticity, these structural changes did not translate to an additional long-term improvement of locomotor parameters studied including hindlimb-forelimb coupling. These findings demonstrate the beneficial effects of combined ChABC, growth factors and locomotor training on the plasticity of the injured spinal cord and the potential to induce earlier neurobehavioral recovery. However, additional

  5. Examination of the combined effects of chondroitinase ABC, growth factors and locomotor training following compressive spinal cord injury on neuroanatomical plasticity and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Alluin, Olivier; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Gauthier, Marie-Krystel; Fehlings, Michael G; Rossignol, Serge; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    While several cellular and pharmacological treatments have been evaluated following spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models, it is increasingly recognized that approaches to address the glial scar, including the use of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), can facilitate neuroanatomical plasticity. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that combinatorial strategies are key to unlocking the plasticity that is enabled by ChABC. Given this, we evaluated the anatomical and functional consequences of ChABC in a combinatorial approach that also included growth factor (EGF, FGF2 and PDGF-AA) treatments and daily treadmill training on the recovery of hindlimb locomotion in rats with mid thoracic clip compression SCI. Using quantitative neuroanatomical and kinematic assessments, we demonstrate that the combined therapy significantly enhanced the neuroanatomical plasticity of major descending spinal tracts such as corticospinal and serotonergic-spinal pathways. Additionally, the pharmacological treatment attenuated chronic astrogliosis and inflammation at and adjacent to the lesion with the modest synergistic effects of treadmill training. We also observed a trend for earlier recovery of locomotion accompanied by an improvement of the overall angular excursions in rats treated with ChABC and growth factors in the first 4 weeks after SCI. At the end of the 7-week recovery period, rats from all groups exhibited an impressive spontaneous recovery of the kinematic parameters during locomotion on treadmill. However, although the combinatorial treatment led to clear chronic neuroanatomical plasticity, these structural changes did not translate to an additional long-term improvement of locomotor parameters studied including hindlimb-forelimb coupling. These findings demonstrate the beneficial effects of combined ChABC, growth factors and locomotor training on the plasticity of the injured spinal cord and the potential to induce earlier neurobehavioral recovery. However, additional

  6. Effects of Innovative WALKBOT Robotic-Assisted Locomotor Training on Balance and Gait Recovery in Hemiparetic Stroke: A Prospective, Randomized, Experimenter Blinded Case Control Study With a Four-Week Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Yang, Li; Park, In Jae; Kim, Eun Joo; JoshuaPark, Min Su; You, Sung Hyun; Kim, Yun-Hee; Ko, Hyun-Yoon; Shin, Yong-Il

    2015-07-01

    The present clinical investigation was to ascertain whether the effects of WALKBOT-assisted locomotor training (WLT) on balance, gait, and motor recovery were superior or similar to the conventional locomotor training (CLT) in patients with hemiparetic stroke. Thirty individuals with hemiparetic stroke were randomly assigned to either WLT or CLT. WLT emphasized on a progressive, conventional locomotor retraining practice (40 min) combined with the WALKBOT-assisted, haptic guidance and random variable locomotor training (40 min) whereas CLT involved conventional physical therapy alone (80 min). Both intervention dosages were standardized and provided for 80 min, five days/week for four weeks. Clinical outcomes included function ambulation category (FAC), Berg balance scale (BBS), Korean modified Barthel index (K-MBI), modified Ashworth scale (MAS), and EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) before and after the four-week program as well as at follow-up four weeks after the intervention. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA showed significant interaction effect (time × group) for FAC (p=0.02), BBS (p=0.03) , and K-MBI (p=0.00) across the pre-training, post-training, and follow-up tests, indicating that WLT was more beneficial for balance, gait and daily activity function than CLT alone. However, no significant difference in other variables was observed. This is the first clinical trial that highlights the superior, augmented effects of the WALKBOT-assisted locomotor training on balance, gait and motor recovery when compared to the conventional locomotor training alone in patients with hemiparetic stroke. PMID:25850089

  7. Influence of a Locomotor Training Approach on Walking Speed and Distance in People With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Impaired walking limits function after spinal cord injury (SCI), but training-related improvements are possible even in people with chronic motor incomplete SCI. Objective The objective of this study was to compare changes in walking speed and distance associated with 4 locomotor training approaches. Design This study was a single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Setting This study was conducted in a rehabilitation research laboratory. Participants Participants were people with minimal walking function due to chronic SCI. Intervention Participants (n=74) trained 5 days per week for 12 weeks with the following approaches: treadmill-based training with manual assistance (TM), treadmill-based training with stimulation (TS), overground training with stimulation (OG), and treadmill-based training with robotic assistance (LR). Measurements Overground walking speed and distance were the primary outcome measures. Results In participants who completed the training (n=64), there were overall effects for speed (effect size index [d]=0.33) and distance (d=0.35). For speed, there were no significant between-group differences; however, distance gains were greatest with OG. Effect sizes for speed and distance were largest with OG (d=0.43 and d=0.40, respectively). Effect sizes for speed were the same for TM and TS (d=0.28); there was no effect for LR. The effect size for distance was greater with TS (d=0.16) than with TM or LR, for which there was no effect. Ten participants who improved with training were retested at least 6 months after training; walking speed at this time was slower than that at the conclusion of training but remained faster than before training. Limitations It is unknown whether the training dosage and the emphasis on training speed were optimal. Robotic training that requires active participation would likely yield different results. Conclusions In people with chronic motor incomplete SCI, walking speed improved with both overground training and

  8. Robotic-locomotor training as a tool to reduce neuromuscular abnormality in spinal cord injury: the application of system identification and advanced longitudinal modeling.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, Mehdi M; Kindig, Matthew; Niu, Xun; Varoqui, Deborah; Conaway, Petra

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effect of the LOKOMAT, a robotic-assisted locomotor training system, on the reduction of neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity was examined, for the first time in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Twenty-three individuals with chronic incomplete SCI received 1-hour training sessions in the LOKOMAT three times per week, with up to 45 minutes of training per session; matched control group received no intervention. The neuromuscular properties of the spastic ankle were then evaluated prior to training and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of training. A parallel-cascade system identification technique was used to determine the reflex and intrinsic stiffness of the ankle joint as a function of ankle position at each time point. The slope of the stiffness vs. joint angle curve, i.e. the modulation of stiffness with joint position, was then calculated and tracked over the four-week period. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM), an advanced statistical method, was then used to classify subjects into subgroups based on similar trends in recovery pattern of slope over time, and Random Coefficient Regression (RCR) was used to model the recovery patterns within each subgroup. All groups showed significant reductions in both reflex and intrinsic slope over time, but subjects in classes with higher baseline values of the slope showed larger improvements over the four weeks of training. These findings suggest that LOKOMAT training may also be useful for reducing the abnormal modulation of neuromuscular properties that arises as secondary effects after SCI. This can advise clinicians as to which patients can benefit the most from LOKOMAT training prior to beginning the training. Further, this study shows that system identification and GMM/RCR can serve as powerful tools to quantify and track spasticity over time in the SCI population. PMID:24187312

  9. Telerehabilitation in Poststroke Anomia

    PubMed Central

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; De Pellegrin, Serena; Bencini, Giulia; Mancuso, Mauro; Meneghello, Francesca; Tonin, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Anomia, a word-finding difficulty, is a frequent consequence of poststroke linguistic disturbance, associated with fluent and nonfluent aphasia that needs long-term specific and intensive speech rehabilitation. The present study explored the feasibility of telerehabilitation as compared to a conventional face-to-face treatment of naming, in patients with poststroke anomia. Five aphasic chronic patients participated in this study characterized by: strictly controlled crossover design; well-balanced lists of words in picture-naming tasks where progressive phonological cues were provided; same kind of the treatment in the two ways of administration. ANOVA was used to compare naming accuracy in the two types of treatment, at three time points: baseline, after treatment, and followup. The results revealed no main effect of treatment type (P = 0.844) indicating that face-to-face and tele-treatment yielded comparable results. Moreover, there was a significant main effect of time (P = 0.0004) due to a better performance immediately after treatment and in the followup when comparing them to baseline. These preliminary results show the feasibility of teletreatment applied to lexical deficits in chronic stroke patients, extending previous work on telerehabilitation and opening new vistas for future studies on teletreatment of language functions. PMID:24829914

  10. Neuromuscular interaction is required for neurotrophins-mediated locomotor recovery following treadmill training in rat spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinfeng; Cao, Yana; Dong, Chuanming; Wang, Hongxing; Wang, Qinghua; Tong, Weifeng; Li, Xiangzhe

    2016-01-01

    Recent results have shown that exercise training promotes the recovery of injured rat distal spinal cords, but are still unclear about the function of skeletal muscle in this process. Herein, rats with incomplete thoracic (T10) spinal cord injuries (SCI) with a dual spinal lesion model were subjected to four weeks of treadmill training and then were treated with complete spinal transection at T8. We found that treadmill training allowed the retention of hind limb motor function after incomplete SCI, even with a heavy load after complete spinal transection. Moreover, treadmill training alleviated the secondary injury in distal lumbar spinal motor neurons, and enhanced BDNF/TrkB expression in the lumbar spinal cord. To discover the influence of skeletal muscle contractile activity on motor function and gene expression, we adopted botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) to block the neuromuscular activity of the rat gastrocnemius muscle. BTX-A treatment inhibited the effects of treadmill training on motor function and BDNF/TrKB expression. These results indicated that treadmill training through the skeletal muscle-motor nerve-spinal cord retrograde pathway regulated neuralplasticity in the mammalian central nervous system, which induced the expression of related neurotrophins and promoted motor function recovery. PMID:27190721

  11. Neuromuscular interaction is required for neurotrophins-mediated locomotor recovery following treadmill training in rat spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinfeng; Cao, Yana; Dong, Chuanming; Wang, Hongxing; Wang, Qinghua; Tong, Weifeng; Li, Xiangzhe; Shan, Chunlei; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Recent results have shown that exercise training promotes the recovery of injured rat distal spinal cords, but are still unclear about the function of skeletal muscle in this process. Herein, rats with incomplete thoracic (T10) spinal cord injuries (SCI) with a dual spinal lesion model were subjected to four weeks of treadmill training and then were treated with complete spinal transection at T8. We found that treadmill training allowed the retention of hind limb motor function after incomplete SCI, even with a heavy load after complete spinal transection. Moreover, treadmill training alleviated the secondary injury in distal lumbar spinal motor neurons, and enhanced BDNF/TrkB expression in the lumbar spinal cord. To discover the influence of skeletal muscle contractile activity on motor function and gene expression, we adopted botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) to block the neuromuscular activity of the rat gastrocnemius muscle. BTX-A treatment inhibited the effects of treadmill training on motor function and BDNF/TrKB expression. These results indicated that treadmill training through the skeletal muscle-motor nerve-spinal cord retrograde pathway regulated neuralplasticity in the mammalian central nervous system, which induced the expression of related neurotrophins and promoted motor function recovery. PMID:27190721

  12. Post-stroke depression.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge Moncayo; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2008-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is among the most common emotional disorders afflicting stroke sufferers. Approximately one third of stroke survivors experience an early or later onset of depression. PSD impedes the rehabilitation and recovery process, jeopardizes quality of life and increases mortality. Diagnosis of PSD is challenging in the acute and chronic aftermath. Therefore, it often remains unrecognized and/or undertreated. The interaction between depression and stroke is very complex and the pathophysiological mechanisms have not as yet been fully elucidated, although an interaction between anatomical and psychosocial factors may be important in PSD development. Neurochemical changes and clinical findings are similar to endogenous depression. PSD is potentially treatable, although no conclusive benefits of antidepressant agents and nonpharmacological interventions have been observed. The efficacy of preventive strategies in PSD remains essentially undetermined. PMID:18088202

  13. Effect of home-based training using a slant board with dorsiflexed ankles on walking function in post-stroke hemiparetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Iijima, Setsu; Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of a 30-day rehabilitation program using a slant board on walking function in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Six hemiparetic patients with gait disturbance were studied. The patients were instructed to perform a home-based rehabilitation program using a slant board, thrice daily for 30 days, the exercise included standing on the slant board for 3 minutes, with both ankles dorsiflexed without backrest. For all patients, the Brunnstrom Recovery Stage, Barthel Index, range of motion of the ankle joint, modified Ashworth scale scole for calf muscle, sensory impairments with Numeral Rating Scale, maximum walking speed, number of steps, and Timed “Up and Go” test were serially evaluated at the beginning and end of the 30-day program. [Results] The program significantly increased walking velocity, decreased the number of steps in the 10-m walking test, and decreased Timed “Up and Go” test performance time. [Conclusion] This rehabilitation program using the slant board was safe and improved walking function in patients. The improvement in walking function could be due to a forward shift of the center of gravity, which can be an important part of motor learning for gait improvement.

  14. Development of Testing Methodologies to Evaluate Postflight Locomotor Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Crewmembers experience locomotor and postural instabilities during ambulation on Earth following their return from space flight. Gait training programs designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a transition to a gravitational environment need to be accompanied by relevant assessment methodologies to evaluate their efficacy. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the operational validity of two tests of locomotor function that were used to evaluate performance after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. Locomotor exercise in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.

  16. The 'GALS' locomotor screen.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, M; Dacre, J; Dieppe, P; Snaith, M

    1992-01-01

    The locomotor system is complex and difficult to examine. A selective clinical process to detect important locomotor abnormalities and functional disability could prove valuable. A screen based on a tested 'minimal' history and examination system is described, together with a simple method of recording. The screen is fast and easy to perform. As well as providing a useful introduction to examination of the locomotor system, the screen includes objective observation of functional movements relevant to activities of daily living. Its inclusion in the undergraduate clerking repertoire could improve junior doctors' awareness and recognition of rheumatic disease and general disability. It could also provide a valuable screening test for use in general practice. Images PMID:1444632

  17. Limb contribution to increased self-selected walking speeds during body weight support in individuals poststroke.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Christopher P; Burgess, Jamie K; Brown, David A

    2015-03-01

    Individuals poststroke walk at faster self-selected speeds under some nominal level of body weight support (BWS) whereas nonimpaired individuals walk slower after adding BWS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increases in self-selected overground walking speed under BWS conditions of individuals poststroke can be explained by changes in their paretic and nonparetic ground reaction forces (GRF). We hypothesize that increased self-selected walking speed, recorded at some nominal level of BWS, will relate to decreased braking GRFs by the paretic limb. We recruited 10 chronic (>12 months post-ictus, 57.5±9.6 y.o.) individuals poststroke and eleven nonimpaired participants (53.3±4.1 y.o.). Participants walked overground in a robotic device, the KineAssist Walking and Balance Training System that provided varying degrees of BWS (0-20% in 5% increments) while individuals self-selected their walking speed. Self-selected walking speed and braking and propulsive GRF impulses were quantified. Out of 10 poststroke individuals, 8 increased their walking speed 13% (p=0.004) under some level of BWS (5% n=2, 10% n=3, 20% n=3) whereas nonimpaired controls did not change speed (p=0.470). In individuals poststroke, changes to self-selected walking speed were correlated with changes in paretic propulsive impulses (r=0.68, p=0.003) and nonparetic braking impulses (r=-0.80, p=0.006), but were not correlated with decreased paretic braking impulses (r=0.50 p=0.14). This investigation demonstrates that when individuals poststroke are provided with BWS and allowed to self-select their overground walking speed, they are capable of achieving faster speeds by modulating braking impulses on the nonparetic limb and propulsive impulses of the paretic limb. PMID:25770079

  18. Neuroplasticity in post-stroke gait recovery and noninvasive brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Hou, Qing-hua; Russell, Shawn D.; Bennett, Bradford C.; Sellers, Andrew J.; Lin, Qiang; Huang, Dong-feng

    2015-01-01

    Gait disorders drastically affect the quality of life of stroke survivors, making post-stroke rehabilitation an important research focus. Noninvasive brain stimulation has potential in facilitating neuroplasticity and improving post-stroke gait impairment. However, a large inter-individual variability in the response to noninvasive brain stimulation interventions has been increasingly recognized. We first review the neurophysiology of human gait and post-stroke neuroplasticity for gait recovery, and then discuss how noninvasive brain stimulation techniques could be utilized to enhance gait recovery. While post-stroke neuroplasticity for gait recovery is characterized by use-dependent plasticity, it evolves over time, is idiosyncratic, and may develop maladaptive elements. Furthermore, noninvasive brain stimulation has limited reach capability and is facilitative-only in nature. Therefore, we recommend that noninvasive brain stimulation be used adjunctively with rehabilitation training and other concurrent neuroplasticity facilitation techniques. Additionally, when noninvasive brain stimulation is applied for the rehabilitation of gait impairment in stroke survivors, stimulation montages should be customized according to the specific types of neuroplasticity found in each individual. This could be done using multiple mapping techniques. PMID:26889202

  19. Automatic detection of temporal gait parameters in poststroke individuals.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Fulk, George D; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-07-01

    Approximately one-third of people who recover from a stroke require some form of assistance to walk. Repetitive task-oriented rehabilitation interventions have been shown to improve motor control and function in people with stroke. Our long-term goal is to design and test an intensive task-oriented intervention that will utilize the two primary components of constrained-induced movement therapy: massed, task-oriented training and behavioral methods to increase use of the affected limb in the real world. The technological component of the intervention is based on a wearable footwear-based sensor system that monitors relative activity levels, functional utilization, and gait parameters of affected and unaffected lower extremities. The purpose of this study is to describe a methodology to automatically identify temporal gait parameters of poststroke individuals to be used in assessment of functional utilization of the affected lower extremity as a part of behavior enhancing feedback. An algorithm accounting for intersubject variability is capable of achieving estimation error in the range of 2.6-18.6% producing comparable results for healthy and poststroke subjects. The proposed methodology is based on inexpensive and user-friendly technology that will enable research and clinical applications for rehabilitation of people who have experienced a stroke. PMID:21317087

  20. Feasibility of Virtual Reality Augmented Cycling for Health Promotion of People Post-Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Judith E; Myslinski, Mary Jane; Kafri, Michal; Ranky, Richard; Sivak, Mark; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Lewis, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose A virtual reality (VR) augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was developed to address motor control and fitness deficits of individuals with chronic stroke. In this paper we report on the safety, feasibility and efficacy of using the VRACK to train cardio-respiratory (CR) fitness of individuals in the chronic phase poststroke. Methods Four individuals with chronic stroke (47–65 years old and three or more years post-stroke), with residual lower extremity impairments (Fugl Meyer 24–26/34) who were limited community ambulators (gait speed range 0.56 to 1.1 m/s) participated in this study. Safety was defined as the absence of adverse events. Feasibility was measured using attendance, total exercise time, and “involvement” measured with the Presence Questionnaire (PQ). Efficacy of CR fitness was evaluated using a sub-maximal bicycle ergometer test before and after an 8-week training program. Results The intervention was safe and feasible with participants having 1 adverse event, 100% adherence, achieving between 90 and 125 minutes of cycling each week and a mean PQ score of 39 (SD 3.3). There was a statistically significant 13% (p = 0.035) improvement in peak VO2 with a range of 6–24.5 %. Discussion and Conclusion For these individuals post-stroke, VR augmented cycling, using their heart rate to set their avatar’s speed, fostered training of sufficient duration and intensity to promote CR fitness. In addition, there was a transfer of training from the bicycle to walking endurance. VR augmented cycling may be an addition to the therapist’s tools for concurrent training of mobility and health promotion of individuals post-stroke. Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1) for more insights from the authors. PMID:23863828

  1. Poststroke dementia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak-Cordoliani, Marie-Anne; Bombois, Stéphanie; Memin, Armelle; Hénon, Hilde; Pasquier, Florence

    2005-01-01

    Risk of dementia increases after stroke, and poststroke dementia (PSD) is an important cause of disability in the elderly. The prevalence rates of PSD vary from 12.2% to 31.8% within 3 months to 1 year after stroke, depending on patient populations and the diagnostic criteria used in the numerous studies. Incidence rates of PSD increase with time after the stroke. Although vascular lesions and white matter changes can explain the cognitive disorders seen in stroke patients, an underlying neurodegenerative disorder may contribute to the development of PSD. Cognitive decline may pre-date the stroke and follow a progressive course after the stroke. The vascular and degenerative processes involved share common environmental and genetic risk factors. This review explains the mechanisms of dementia in stroke patients and identifies predictive factors for PSD. The following points are successively considered: (i) demographic characteristics of the patients, including age and level of education; (ii) prestroke cognitive decline; (iii) vascular risk factors, including diabetes mellitus and prior strokes; (iv) stroke characteristics, including severity and location of the vascular lesion; (v) co-morbid disorders; and (vi) abnormalities on brain imaging, including location, size and number of vascular lesions, white matter changes and cerebral atrophy. Older age, prestroke cognitive decline, stroke recurrence, hypoxic-ischaemic disorders, left-side infarcts, strategic infarcts and white matter lesions appear to be the main predictive factors of PSD. Prevention of stroke should reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with PSD. In addition, management of PSD with secondary prevention treatments could reduce occurrence of further strokes. Cholinesterase inhibitors may be beneficial not only in Alzheimer's disease associated with cerebrovascular lesions, but also for the treatment of cholinergic dysfunction arising from pure vascular dementia. Better knowledge of the risk

  2. Cognitive Evolution by MMSE in Poststroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Fabricia Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive and clinical evolution of post-acute stroke patients and the evolution of each Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) item. A longitudinal study was conducted with 42 poststroke individuals in rehabilitation. The MMSE and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale were used to assess…

  3. Development of a Countermeasure to Enhance Postflight Locomotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight experience locomotor dysfunction following their return to Earth. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially learns to learn and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in adaptive generalization training programs using a variety of visuomotor distortions can enhance their ability to adapt to a novel sensorimotor environment. Importantly, this increased adaptability was retained even one month after completion of the training period. Adaptive generalization has been observed in a variety of other tasks requiring sensorimotor transformations including manual control tasks and reaching (Bock et al., 2001, Seidler, 2003) and obstacle avoidance during walking (Lam and Dietz, 2004). Taken together, the evidence suggests that a training regimen exposing crewmembers to variation in locomotor conditions, with repeated transitions among states, may enhance their ability to learn how to reassemble appropriate locomotor patterns upon return from microgravity. We believe exposure to this type of training will extend crewmembers locomotor behavioral repertoires, facilitating the return of functional mobility after long duration space flight. Our proposed training protocol will compel subjects to develop new behavioral solutions under varying sensorimotor demands. Over time subjects will learn to create appropriate locomotor solution more rapidly enabling acquisition of mobility sooner after long-duration space flight. Our laboratory is currently developing adaptive generalization training procedures and the

  4. Post-stroke depression therapy: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Turner, Alyna; Dean, Olivia; Sureda, Antoni; Mohammad, Seyed

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke depression is an important psychological consequence of ischemic stroke, and affects around one third of stroke patients at any time post-stroke. It has a negative impact on patient morbidity and mortality, and as such development of effective post-stroke recognition and treatment strategies are very important. There are several therapeutic strategies for post-stroke depression, including both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. In this review, we present evidence regarding the underlying biology of post-stroke depression, commonalities between post-stroke depression and Major Depressive Disorder and explore several treatment approaches, including antidepressant therapy, psychotherapy, surgical therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, acupuncture, music therapy and natural products. Further experimental and clinical studies are required, particularly in emerging fields such as the role of nutraceuticals in the treatment of stroke. PMID:24852795

  5. Post-stroke language disorders.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman; Mrkonjić, Zamir; Zukić, Sanela; Vidović, Mirjana; Imamović, Kata

    2011-03-01

    Post-stroke language disorders are frequent and include aphasia, alexia, agraphia and acalculia. There are different definitions of aphasias, but the most widely accepted neurologic and/or neuropsychological definition is that aphasia is a loss or impairment of verbal communication, which occurs as a consequence of brain dysfunction. It manifests as impairment of almost all verbal abilities, e.g., abnormal verbal expression, difficulties in understanding spoken or written language, repetition, naming, reading and writing. During the history, many classifications of aphasia syndromes were established. For practical use, classification of aphasias according to fluency, comprehension and abilities of naming it seems to be most suitable (nonfluent aphasias: Broca's, transcortical motor, global and mixed transcortical aphasia; fluent aphasias: anomic, conduction, Wernicke's, transcortical sensory, subcortical aphasia). Aphasia is a common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with a prevalence of one-third of all stroke patients in acute phase, although there are reports on even higher figures. Many speech impairments have a tendency of spontaneous recovery. Spontaneous recovery is most remarkable in the first three months after stroke onset. Recovery of aphasias caused by ischemic stroke occurs earlier and it is most intensive in the first two weeks. In aphasias caused by hemorrhagic stroke, spontaneous recovery is slower and occurs from the fourth to the eighth week after stroke. The course and outcome of aphasia depend greatly on the type of aphasia. Regardless of the fact that a significant number of aphasias spontaneously improve, it is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible. The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias and agraphias) are more frequent than verified on routine examination, not only in less developed but also in large neurologic departments. Alexia is an acquired

  6. Systemic lidocaine therapy for poststroke pain.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, E A; Simpson, R K; Stubler, D K; Beric, A

    1993-10-01

    Poststroke pain syndrome is commonly regarded as an intractable disease. We describe four patients who responded to an intravenous lidocaine infusion for relief of central pain after a stroke. The infusion was administered over a 48-hour period after an initial bolus of 50 to 100 mg intravenously over 40 to 120 seconds. Pain intensity and pain relief were measured by visual analog and numeric scales. All patients reported some relief within the first 12 hours of infusion. All patients were subsequently given a trial of mexiletine, an oral congener of lidocaine. Two have continued taking the drug and report excellent relief at 12 months' follow-up; the other two had side effects that precluded further use of the drug. We conclude that lidocaine can reduce poststroke pain, and we propose a treatment algorithm based on our experience with 40 additional patients treated for other neuropathic pain states. PMID:8211322

  7. Grip strength in post-stroke hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soohee; Park, Joo-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed in order to investigate the grip strength of the unaffected hand of hemiplegic post-stroke patients. [Subjects] This study conducted on 83 hemiplegic post-stroke patients from May to August 2012. [Methods] This study was measured the mean grip strength of the unaffected hand of patients with hemiplegia and comparatively analyzed this with the mean normal grip strength. [Results] The grip strength of the unaffected hand of patients with hemiplegia was weaker compared to the of normal. [Conclusion] Patients with hemiplegia demonstrated problems in both their unaffected and affected sides. Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to expand treatment from the affected to unaffected areas of patients with hemiplegia. PMID:27065562

  8. Development of a Countermeasure to Mitigate Postflight Locomotor Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight experience locomotor dysfunction following their return to Earth. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially learns to learn and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. Evidence for the potential efficacy of an adaptive generalization gait training program can be obtained from numerous studies in the motor learning literature which have demonstrated that systematically varying the conditions of training enhances the ability of the performer to learn and retain a novel motor task. These variable practice training approaches have been used in applied contexts to improve motor skills required in a number of different sports. The central nervous system (CNS) can produce voluntary movement in an almost infinite number of ways. For example, locomotion can be achieved with many different combinations of joint angles, muscle activation patterns and forces. The CNS can exploit these degrees of freedom to enhance motor response adaptability during periods of adaptive flux like that encountered during a change in gravitational environment. Ultimately, the functional goal of an adaptive generalization countermeasure is not necessarily to immediately return movement patterns back to normal. Rather the training regimen should facilitate the reorganization of available sensory and motor subsystems to achieve safe and effective locomotion as soon as possible after long duration space flight. Indeed, this approach has been proposed as a basic feature underlying effective neurological rehabilitation. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in an adaptive

  9. Dynamic clearance measure to evaluate locomotor and perceptuo-motor strategies used for obstacle circumvention in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Darekar, Anuja; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce

    2015-04-01

    Circumvention around an obstacle entails a dynamic interaction with the obstacle to maintain a safe clearance. We used a novel mathematical interpolation method based on the modified Shepard's method of Inverse Distance Weighting to compute dynamic clearance that reflected this interaction as well as minimal clearance. This proof-of-principle study included seven young healthy, four post-stroke and four healthy age-matched individuals. A virtual environment designed to assess obstacle circumvention was used to administer a locomotor (walking) and a perceptuo-motor (navigation with a joystick) task. In both tasks, participants were asked to navigate towards a target while avoiding collision with a moving obstacle that approached from either head-on, or 30° left or right. Among young individuals, dynamic clearance did not differ significantly between obstacle approach directions in both tasks. Post-stroke individuals maintained larger and smaller dynamic clearance during the locomotor and the perceptuo-motor task respectively as compared to age-matched controls. Dynamic clearance was larger than minimal distance from the obstacle irrespective of the group, task and obstacle approach direction. Also, in contrast to minimal distance, dynamic clearance can respond differently to different avoidance behaviors. Such a measure can be beneficial in contrasting obstacle avoidance behaviors in different populations with mobility problems. PMID:25682376

  10. [A pathogenesis of post-stroke depression].

    PubMed

    Filatova, E G; Dobrovol'skaia, L E; Posokhov, S I; Sharapova, R B

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-one patients (17 males and 14 females aged 30-74 years, mean age 61 years) with depression were examined 3-6 months after ischemic stroke. Control group included 10 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Neurological, psychological and psychometric tests (the Hamilton, Beck, Spilberger, mini mental scales and Quality of Life questionnaire) were conducted. A mean depression level in patients with stroke did not differ from that in the controls and did not depend on lesion size, location, neurological deficit degree. Clinically pronounced, i.e. relatively severe, post-stroke depression was detected in 22% of the patients and its severity was higher in cases of right-hemisphere stroke. Psychosocial factors were found to be the most significant in post-stroke depression. Depression occurred more often in patients, who were single, in women, in preserved intelligence and higher level of personality anxiety. Loss of job as a result of the vascular disaster proved to be not a very important psycho-traumatizing factor in the group studied. PMID:12747096

  11. Locomotor Dysfunction after Spaceflight: Characterization and Countermeasure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Cohen, H. S.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight show disturbances in locomotor control manifested by changes in various sub-systems including head-trunk coordination, dynamic visual acuity, lower limb muscle activation patterning and kinematics (Glasauer, et al., 1995; Bloomberg, et al., 1997; McDonald, et al., 1996; 1997; Layne, et al., 1997; 1998, 2001, 2004; Newman, et al., 1997; Bloomberg and Mulavara, 2003). These post flight changes in locomotor performance, due to neural adaptation to the microgravity conditions of space flight, affect the ability of crewmembers especially after a long duration mission to egress their vehicle and perform extravehicular activities soon after landing on Earth or following a landing on the surface of the Moon or Mars. At present, no operational training intervention is available pre- or in- flight to mitigate post flight locomotor disturbances. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially "learns to learn" and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. Ultimately, the functional goal of an adaptive generalization countermeasure is not necessarily to immediately return movement patterns back to "normal". Rather the training regimen should facilitate the reorganization of available sensorimotor sub-systems to achieve safe and effective locomotion as soon as possible after space flight. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in adaptive generalization training programs, using a variety of visuomotor distortions and different motor tasks from throwing to negotiating an obstacle course as the dependent measure, can learn to enhance their ability to adapt to a

  12. The Effects of POWER Training in Young and Older Adults after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hunnicutt, Jennifer L; Aaron, Stacey E; Embry, Aaron E; Cence, Brian; Morgan, Patrick; Bowden, Mark G; Gregory, Chris M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 35,000 strokes occur annually in adults below the age of 40, and there is disappointingly little data describing their responses to rehabilitation. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the effects of Poststroke Optimization of Walking using Explosive Resistance (POWER) training in young (<40 years) and older (>60 years) adults and to describe relationships between training-induced improvements in muscular and locomotor function. Methods. Data was analyzed from 16 individuals with chronic stroke who participated in 24 sessions of POWER training. Outcomes included muscle power generation, self-selected walking speed (SSWS), 6-minute walk test, Fugl-Meyer motor assessment, Berg Balance Scale, and Dynamic Gait Index. Results. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. Within-group comparisons revealed significant improvements in paretic and nonparetic knee extensor muscle power generation in both groups. Additionally, young participants significantly improved SSWS. Improvements in SSWS were more strongly associated with improvements in power generation on both sides in young versus older participants. Conclusions. Younger adults after stroke seem to preferentially benefit from POWER training, particularly when increasing gait speed is a rehabilitation goal. Future research should aim to further understand age-related differences in response to training to provide optimal treatments for all individuals following stroke. PMID:27493828

  13. The Effects of POWER Training in Young and Older Adults after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Stacey E.; Embry, Aaron E.; Cence, Brian; Morgan, Patrick; Gregory, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 35,000 strokes occur annually in adults below the age of 40, and there is disappointingly little data describing their responses to rehabilitation. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the effects of Poststroke Optimization of Walking using Explosive Resistance (POWER) training in young (<40 years) and older (>60 years) adults and to describe relationships between training-induced improvements in muscular and locomotor function. Methods. Data was analyzed from 16 individuals with chronic stroke who participated in 24 sessions of POWER training. Outcomes included muscle power generation, self-selected walking speed (SSWS), 6-minute walk test, Fugl-Meyer motor assessment, Berg Balance Scale, and Dynamic Gait Index. Results. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. Within-group comparisons revealed significant improvements in paretic and nonparetic knee extensor muscle power generation in both groups. Additionally, young participants significantly improved SSWS. Improvements in SSWS were more strongly associated with improvements in power generation on both sides in young versus older participants. Conclusions. Younger adults after stroke seem to preferentially benefit from POWER training, particularly when increasing gait speed is a rehabilitation goal. Future research should aim to further understand age-related differences in response to training to provide optimal treatments for all individuals following stroke. PMID:27493828

  14. A Comprehensive Review of Central Post-Stroke Pain.

    PubMed

    Oh, HyunSoo; Seo, WhaSook

    2015-10-01

    Although central post-stroke pain is widely recognized as a severe chronic neuropathic pain condition, its consolidated definition, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic criteria have not been defined due to its clinically diverse features. The present study was undertaken to comprehensively review current literature and provide a more complete picture of central post-stroke pain with respect to its definition, prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic problems, and to describe the range of therapies currently available. In particular, nursing care perspectives are addressed. It is hoped that this review will help nurses become knowledgeable about central post-stroke pain and provide valuable information for the drafting of effective nursing care plans that improve outcomes and quality of life for patients with central post-stroke pain. PMID:25962545

  15. Poststroke suicide attempts and completed suicides

    PubMed Central

    Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined attempted and completed suicides after stroke to determine whether they were associated with socioeconomic status, other patient characteristics, or time after stroke. Methods: This nationwide cohort study included stroke patients from Riksstroke (the Swedish Stroke Register) from 2001 to 2012. We used personal identification numbers to link the Riksstroke data with other national registers. Suicide attempts were identified by a record of hospital admission for intentional self-harm (ICD-10: X60-X84), and completed suicides were identified in the national Cause of Death Register. We used multiple Cox regression to analyze time from stroke onset to first suicide attempt. Results: We observed 220,336 stroke patients with a total follow-up time of 860,713 person-years. During follow-up, there were 1,217 suicide attempts, of which 260 were fatal. This was approximately double the rate of the general Swedish population. Patients with lower education or income (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.68) for primary vs university and patients living alone (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52–1.97) had an increased risk of attempted suicide, and patients born outside of Europe had a lower risk compared to patients of European origin. Male sex, young age, severe stroke, and poststroke depression were other factors associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide after stroke. The risk was highest during the first 2 years after stroke. Conclusions: Both clinical and socioeconomic factors increase the risk of poststroke suicide attempts. This suggests a need for psychosocial support and suicide preventive interventions in high-risk groups of stroke patients. PMID:25832661

  16. Locomotor Expertise Predicts Infants' Perseverative Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the development of inhibition in a locomotor context. In a within-subjects design, infants received high- and low-demand locomotor A-not-B tasks. In Experiment 1, walking 13-month-old infants followed an indirect path to a goal. In a control condition, infants took a direct route. In Experiment 2, crawling and walking…

  17. Evaluation of an interprofessional educational curriculum pilot course for practitioners working with post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Olaisen, Rho Henry; Mariscal-Hergert, Cheryl; Shaw, Alissa; Macchiavelli, Cecilia; Marsheck, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    This report describes the design and evaluation of an interprofessional pilot training course aimed at pre-licensure practitioners working with post-stroke patients in community-based settings. The course was developed by community-based practitioners from nine health professions. Course learning activities included traditional methods (lectures) and interactive modules (problem-based learning and exchange-based learning). The study's aim was to assess the program's effectiveness in adapting and incorporating knowledge, skills and self-confidence when delivering tertiary care in therapeutic pool environments; gauge adoption of course principles into practice, and assess overall course satisfaction. Methods of evaluation included conceptual mapping of course format, pre- and post-questionnaires, daily reflection questionnaires, course satisfaction survey and adoption survey, 10 weeks follow-up. Overall, the findings indicate students' knowledge, skills and self-confidence in delivering effective post-stroke care increased following the training. Students reported adopting clinical practices in 10 weeks follow-up. Implications for designing interprofessional curricula are discussed. PMID:24195682

  18. Efficacy of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Locomotor Performance in a Discordant Sensory Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, D. R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges incurred when readapting to a gravitational environment. Sensorimotor Adaptability (SA) training has been proposed as a countermeasure to improve locomotor performance during re-adaptation, and it is suggested that the benefits of SA training may be further enhanced by improving detection of weak sensory signals via mechanisms such as stochastic resonance when a non-zero level of stochastic white noise based electrical stimulation is applied to the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of using SVS to improve short-term adaptation in a sensory discordant environment during performance of a locomotor task.

  19. Locomotor adaptation to a soleus EMG-controlled antagonistic exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Keith E; Kinnaird, Catherine R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-04-01

    Locomotor adaptation in humans is not well understood. To provide insight into the neural reorganization that occurs following a significant disruption to one's learned neuromuscular map relating a given motor command to its resulting muscular action, we tied the mechanical action of a robotic exoskeleton to the electromyography (EMG) profile of the soleus muscle during walking. The powered exoskeleton produced an ankle dorsiflexion torque proportional to soleus muscle recruitment thus limiting the soleus' plantar flexion torque capability. We hypothesized that neurologically intact subjects would alter muscle activation patterns in response to the antagonistic exoskeleton by decreasing soleus recruitment. Subjects practiced walking with the exoskeleton for two 30-min sessions. The initial response to the perturbation was to "fight" the resistive exoskeleton by increasing soleus activation. By the end of training, subjects had significantly reduced soleus recruitment resulting in a gait pattern with almost no ankle push-off. In addition, there was a trend for subjects to reduce gastrocnemius recruitment in proportion to the soleus even though only the soleus EMG was used to control the exoskeleton. The results from this study demonstrate the ability of the nervous system to recalibrate locomotor output in response to substantial changes in the mechanical output of the soleus muscle and associated sensory feedback. This study provides further evidence that the human locomotor system of intact individuals is highly flexible and able to adapt to achieve effective locomotion in response to a broad range of neuromuscular perturbations. PMID:23307949

  20. What Is the Evidence for Physical Therapy Poststroke? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Veerbeek, Janne Marieke; van Wegen, Erwin; van Peppen, Roland; van der Wees, Philip Jan; Hendriks, Erik; Rietberg, Marc; Kwakkel, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical therapy (PT) is one of the key disciplines in interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update of the evidence for stroke rehabilitation interventions in the domain of PT. Methods and Findings Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding PT in stroke rehabilitation were retrieved through a systematic search. Outcomes were classified according to the ICF. RCTs with a low risk of bias were quantitatively analyzed. Differences between phases poststroke were explored in subgroup analyses. A best evidence synthesis was performed for neurological treatment approaches. The search yielded 467 RCTs (N = 25373; median PEDro score 6 [IQR 5–7]), identifying 53 interventions. No adverse events were reported. Strong evidence was found for significant positive effects of 13 interventions related to gait, 11 interventions related to arm-hand activities, 1 intervention for ADL, and 3 interventions for physical fitness. Summary Effect Sizes (SESs) ranged from 0.17 (95%CI 0.03–0.70; I2 = 0%) for therapeutic positioning of the paretic arm to 2.47 (95%CI 0.84–4.11; I2 = 77%) for training of sitting balance. There is strong evidence that a higher dose of practice is better, with SESs ranging from 0.21 (95%CI 0.02–0.39; I2 = 6%) for motor function of the paretic arm to 0.61 (95%CI 0.41–0.82; I2 = 41%) for muscle strength of the paretic leg. Subgroup analyses yielded significant differences with respect to timing poststroke for 10 interventions. Neurological treatment approaches to training of body functions and activities showed equal or unfavorable effects when compared to other training interventions. Main limitations of the present review are not using individual patient data for meta-analyses and absence of correction for multiple testing. Conclusions There is strong evidence for PT interventions favoring intensive high repetitive task-oriented and task-specific training in all

  1. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  2. What Is the Nature of Poststroke Language Recovery and Reorganization?

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on three main topics related to the nature of poststroke language recovery and reorganization. The first topic pertains to the nature of anatomical and physiological substrates in the infarcted hemisphere in poststroke aphasia, including the nature of the hemodynamic response in patients with poststroke aphasia, the nature of the peri-infarct tissue, and the neuronal plasticity potential in the infarcted hemisphere. The second section of the paper reviews the current neuroimaging evidence for language recovery in the acute, subacute, and chronic stages of recovery. The third and final section examines changes in connectivity as a function of recovery in poststroke aphasia, specifically in terms of changes in white matter connectivity, changes in functional effective connectivity, and changes in resting state connectivity after stroke. While much progress has been made in our understanding of language recovery, more work needs to be done. Future studies will need to examine whether reorganization of language in poststroke aphasia corresponds to a tighter, more coherent, and efficient network of residual and new regions in the brain. Answering these questions will go a long way towards being able to predict which patients are likely to recover and may benefit from future rehabilitation. PMID:23320190

  3. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  4. Kinematic study of locomotor recovery after spinal cord clip compression injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alluin, Olivier; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Leblond, Hugues; Fehlings, Michael G; Rossignol, Serge

    2011-09-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), precise assessment of motor recovery is essential to evaluate the outcome of new therapeutic approaches. Very little is known on the recovery of kinematic parameters after clinically-relevant severe compressive/contusive incomplete spinal cord lesions in experimental animal models. In the present study we evaluated the time-course of kinematic parameters during a 6-week period in rats walking on a treadmill after a severe thoracic clip compression SCI. The effect of daily treadmill training was also assessed. During the recovery period, a significant amount of spontaneous locomotor recovery occurred in 80% of the rats with a return of well-defined locomotor hindlimb pattern, regular plantar stepping, toe clearance and homologous hindlimb coupling. However, substantial residual abnormalities persisted up to 6 weeks after SCI including postural deficits, a bias of the hindlimb locomotor cycle toward the back of the animals with overextension at the swing/stance transition, loss of lateral balance and impairment of weight bearing. Although rats never recovered the antero-posterior (i.e. homolateral) coupling, different levels of decoupling between the fore and hindlimbs were measured. We also showed that treadmill training increased the swing duration variability during locomotion suggesting an activity-dependent compensatory mechanism of the motor control system. However, no effect of training was observed on the main locomotor parameters probably due to a ceiling effect of self-training in the cage. These findings constitute a kinematic baseline of locomotor recovery after clinically relevant SCI in rats and should be taken into account when evaluating various therapeutic strategies aimed at improving locomotor function. PMID:21770755

  5. Predictive Measures of Locomotor Performance on an Unstable Walking Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Goel, R.; Wood, S. J.; Cohen, H. S.; Oddsson, L. I.; Seidler, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion requires integration of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory information to produce the appropriate motor output to control movement. The degree to which these sensory inputs are weighted and reorganized in discordant sensory environments varies by individual and may be predictive of the ability to adapt to novel environments. The goals of this project are to: 1) develop a set of predictive measures capable of identifying individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability, and 2) use this information to inform the design of training countermeasures designed to enhance the ability of astronauts to adapt to gravitational transitions improving balance and locomotor performance after a Mars landing and enhancing egress capability after a landing on Earth.

  6. Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognition and Motor Function Poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Quaney, Barbara M.; Boyd, Lara A.; McDowd, Joan M.; Zahner, Laura H.; He, Jianghua; Mayo, Matthew S.; Macko, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits impede stroke recovery. Aerobic exercise (AEX) improves cognitive executive function (EF) processes in healthy individuals, although the learning benefits after stroke are unknown. Objective To understand AEX-induced improvements in EF, motor learning, and mobility poststroke. Methods Following cardiorespiratory testing, 38 chronic stroke survivors were randomized to 2 different groups that exercised 3 times a week (45-minute sessions) for 8 weeks. The AEX group (n = 19; 9 women; 10 men; 64.10 ± 12.30 years) performed progressive resistive stationary bicycle training at 70% maximal heart rate, whereas the Stretching Exercise (SE) group (n = 19; 12 women; 7 men; 58.96 ± 14.68 years) performed stretches at home. Between-group comparisons were performed on the change in performance at “Post” and “Retention” (8 weeks later) for neuropsychological and motor function measures. Results Vo2max significantly improved at Post with AEX (P = .04). AEX also improved motor learning in the less-affected hand, with large effect sizes (Cohen’s d calculation). Specifically, AEX significantly improved information processing speed on the serial reaction time task (SRTT; ie, “procedural motor learning”) compared with the SE group at Post (P = .024), but not at Retention. Also, at Post (P = .038), AEX significantly improved predictive force accuracy for a precision grip task requiring attention and conditional motor learning of visual cues. Ambulation and sit-to-stand transfers were significantly faster in the AEX group at Post (P = .038), with balance control significantly improved at Retention (P = .041). EF measurements were not significantly different for the AEX group. Conclusion AEX improved mobility and selected cognitive domains related to motor learning, which enhances sensorimotor control after stroke. PMID:19541916

  7. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood–oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest. We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA. Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state. The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  8. Poststroke epilepsy: update and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Zelano, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural–metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug–drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care. Stroke severity, cortical location, young age, and haemorrhage remain the most important risk factors. Second, although more studies are needed, epidemiological data indicate that the risk of PSE may be influenced, for instance, by statin treatment. Third, studies are emerging regarding the treatment and prognosis of PSE. Levetiracetam and lamotrigine may be well tolerated treatment options and seizure freedom is achieved in at least a similar proportion of patients as in other epilepsies. Furthermore, new animal models such as photothrombotic stroke gives hope of a more clear understanding of PSE epileptogenesis in the near future. In summary, PSE shows indications of maturing into an independent epilepsy research field. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of PSE and provides an update on management issues such as diagnosis, AED selection, and prognosis. Finally, future research challenges in the field are outlined. PMID:27582897

  9. Poststroke epilepsy: update and future directions.

    PubMed

    Zelano, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural-metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug-drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care. Stroke severity, cortical location, young age, and haemorrhage remain the most important risk factors. Second, although more studies are needed, epidemiological data indicate that the risk of PSE may be influenced, for instance, by statin treatment. Third, studies are emerging regarding the treatment and prognosis of PSE. Levetiracetam and lamotrigine may be well tolerated treatment options and seizure freedom is achieved in at least a similar proportion of patients as in other epilepsies. Furthermore, new animal models such as photothrombotic stroke gives hope of a more clear understanding of PSE epileptogenesis in the near future. In summary, PSE shows indications of maturing into an independent epilepsy research field. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of PSE and provides an update on management issues such as diagnosis, AED selection, and prognosis. Finally, future research challenges in the field are outlined. PMID:27582897

  10. Neuroscience insights improve neurorehabilitation of poststroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2011-02-01

    The treatment of aphasias-acquired language disorders-caused by stroke and other neurological conditions has benefitted from insights from neuroscience and neuropsychology. Hebbian mechanisms suggest that massed practice and exploitation of residual neurological capacities can aid neurorehabilitation of patients with poststroke aphasia, and progress in basic neuroscience research indicates that the language system of the human brain is functionally interwoven with perceptual and motor systems. Intensive speech and language therapies, including constraint-induced aphasia therapy, that activate both the linguistic and concordant motor circuits utilize the knowledge gained from these advances in neuroscience research and can lead to surprisingly rapid improvements in language performance, even in patients with chronic aphasia. Drug-based therapies alone and in conjunction with behavioral language therapies also increase language performance in patients with aphasia. Furthermore, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical stimulation techniques that target neuronal activity within perilesional areas might help patients with aphasia to regain lost language functions. Intensive language-action therapies that lead to rapid improvements in language skills might provide a new opportunity for investigating fast plastic neuronal changes in the areas of the brain associated with language processing. Here, we review progress in basic neuroscience research and its translational impact on the neurorehabilitation of language disorders after stroke. PMID:21297651

  11. The Neurobiological Pathogenesis of Poststroke Depression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is an important consequence after stroke, with negative impact on stroke outcome. The pathogenesis of PSD is complicated, with some special neurobiological mechanism, which mainly involves neuroanatomical, neuron, and biochemical factors and neurogenesis which interact in complex ways. Abundant studies suggested that large lesions in critical areas such as left frontal lobe and basal ganglia or accumulation of silent cerebral lesions might interrupt the pathways of monoamines or relevant pathways of mood control, thus leading to depression. Activation of immune system after stroke produces more cytokines which increase glutamate excitotoxicity, results in more cell deaths of critical areas and enlargement of infarctions, and, together with hypercortisolism induced by stress or inflammation after stroke which could decrease intracellular serotonin transporters, might be the key biochemical change of PSD. The interaction among cytokines, glucocorticoid, and neurotrophin results in the decrease of hippocampal neurogenesis which has been proved to be important for mood control and pharmaceutical effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and might be another promising pathway to understand the pathogenesis of PSD. In order to reduce the prevalence of PSD and improve the outcome of stroke, more relevant studies are still required to clarify the pathogenesis of PSD. PMID:24744682

  12. Poststroke Cell Therapy of the Aged Brain

    PubMed Central

    Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Filfan, Madalina; Uzoni, Adriana; Pourgolafshan, Pouya; Buga, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    During aging, many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with reduced neurogenesis and a decline in the proliferation of stem/progenitor cells. The development of the stem cell (SC), the regenerative therapy field, gained tremendous expectations in the diseases that suffer from the lack of treatment options. Stem cell based therapy is a promising approach to promote neuroregeneration after brain injury and can be potentiated when combined with supportive pharmacological drug treatment, especially in the aged. However, the mechanism of action for a particular grafted cell type, the optimal delivery route, doses, or time window of administration after lesion is still under debate. Today, it is proved that these protections are most likely due to modulatory mechanisms rather than the expected cell replacement. Our group proved that important differences appear in the aged brain compared with young one, that is, the accelerated progression of ischemic area, or the delayed initiation of neurological recovery. In this light, these age-related aspects should be carefully evaluated in the clinical translation of neurorestorative therapies. This review is focused on the current perspectives and suitable sources of stem cells (SCs), mechanisms of action, and the most efficient delivery routes in neurorestoration therapies in the poststroke aged environment. PMID:26347826

  13. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-03-01

    Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest.We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA.Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state.The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  14. The mirror neuron system in post-stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Different treatments for stroke patients have been proposed; among them the mirror therapy and motion imagery lead to functional recovery by providing a cortical reorganization. Up today the basic concepts of the current literature on mirror neurons and the major findings regarding the use of mirror therapy and motor imagery as potential tools to promote reorganization and functional recovery in post-stroke patients. Bibliographic research was conducted based on publications over the past thirteen years written in English in the databases Scielo, Pubmed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge. The studies showed how the interaction among vision, proprioception and motor commands promotes the recruitment of mirror neurons, thus providing cortical reorganization and functional recovery of post-stroke patients. We conclude that the experimental advances on Mirror Neurons will bring new rational therapeutic approaches to post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24134862

  15. Discriminating poststroke depression from stroke by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabonomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianqi; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Dan; Wang, Lin; Yu, Lijun; Wu, Hongjing; Wang, Dan; Qiu, Xuerong

    2016-01-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD), the most common psychiatric disease that stroke survivors face, is estimated to affect ~30% of poststroke patients. However, there are still no objective methods to diagnose PSD. In this study, to explore the differential metabolites in the urine of PSD subjects and to identify a potential biomarker panel for PSD diagnosis, the nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic method was applied. Ten differential metabolites responsible for discriminating PSD subjects from healthy control (HC) and stroke subjects were found, and five of these metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers (lactate, α-hydroxybutyrate, phenylalanine, formate, and arabinitol). The panel consisting of these five metabolites provided excellent performance in discriminating PSD subjects from HC and stroke subjects, achieving an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.946 in the training set (43 HC, 45 stroke, and 62 PSD subjects). Moreover, this panel could classify the blinded samples from the test set (31 HC, 33 stroke, and 32 PSD subjects) with an area under the curve of 0.946. These results laid a foundation for the future development of urine-based objective methods for PSD diagnosis and investigation of PSD pathogenesis. PMID:27536114

  16. Discriminating poststroke depression from stroke by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabonomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianqi; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Dan; Wang, Lin; Yu, Lijun; Wu, Hongjing; Wang, Dan; Qiu, Xuerong

    2016-01-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD), the most common psychiatric disease that stroke survivors face, is estimated to affect ~30% of poststroke patients. However, there are still no objective methods to diagnose PSD. In this study, to explore the differential metabolites in the urine of PSD subjects and to identify a potential biomarker panel for PSD diagnosis, the nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic method was applied. Ten differential metabolites responsible for discriminating PSD subjects from healthy control (HC) and stroke subjects were found, and five of these metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers (lactate, α-hydroxybutyrate, phenylalanine, formate, and arabinitol). The panel consisting of these five metabolites provided excellent performance in discriminating PSD subjects from HC and stroke subjects, achieving an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.946 in the training set (43 HC, 45 stroke, and 62 PSD subjects). Moreover, this panel could classify the blinded samples from the test set (31 HC, 33 stroke, and 32 PSD subjects) with an area under the curve of 0.946. These results laid a foundation for the future development of urine-based objective methods for PSD diagnosis and investigation of PSD pathogenesis. PMID:27536114

  17. A review of bilateral training for upper extremity hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Upper extremity hemiparesis is the most common post-stroke disability. Longitudinal studies have indicated that 30-66% of stroke survivors do not have full arm function 6 months post-stroke. The current gold standard for treatment of mild post-stroke upper limb impairment is constraint-induced therapy but, because of the inclusion criteria, alternative treatments are needed which target more impaired subjects. Bilateral arm training has been investigated as a potential rehabilitation intervention. Bilateral arm training encompasses a number of methods including: (1) bilateral isokinematic training; (2) mirror therapy using bilateral training; (3) device-driven bilateral training; and (4) bilateral motor priming. Neural mechanisms mediating bilateral training are first reviewed. The key bilateral training studies that have demonstrated evidence of efficacy will then be discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning clinical implications based on the reviewed literature. PMID:19517519

  18. Post-stroke fatigue: qualitative study of three focus groups.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Nancy A; Stube, Jan E

    2010-06-01

    Fatigue affects many persons after cerebrovascular accident, particularly those with mild stroke. A qualitative methodology using focus groups with 19 community-living post-stroke survivors was utilized to explore the occupational impact of fatigue as communicated by the participants. Although self-report of a small sample of the United States' post-stroke population will have limitations in generalizability, this study identifies specific health-related quality of life issues that can occur with post-stroke fatigue. The participants felt unprepared for the fatigue phenomenon and struggled to adapt, with fatigue having a debilitating influence upon daily occupational performance and roles, including social participation, return to work, driving, reading and sleeping. The participants indicated that exercise (such as walking and water aerobics) and use of assistive technology were helpful strategies in reducing fatigue. The occupational performance and role impact identified by participants in this study can inform the design of effective occupational therapy interventions and further quantitative study of persons with post-stroke fatigue. PMID:19787634

  19. Chromium supplementation improved post-stroke brain infarction and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Mao, Frank Chiahung; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Lai, Nai-Wei; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is common after acute stroke and is associated with a worse outcome of stroke. Thus, a better understanding of stress hyperglycemia is helpful to the prevention and therapeutic treatment of stroke. Chromium is an essential nutrient required for optimal insulin activity and normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Beyond its nutritional effects, dietary supplement of chromium causes beneficial outcomes against several diseases, in particular diabetes-associated complications. In this study, we investigated whether post-stroke hyperglycemia involved chromium dynamic mobilization in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and whether dietary supplement of chromium improved post-stroke injury and alterations. Stroke rats developed brain infarction, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Post-stroke hyperglycemia was accompanied by elevated secretion of counter-regulatory hormones including glucagon, corticosterone, and norepinephrine, decreased insulin signaling in skeletal muscles, and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Correlation studies revealed that counter-regulatory hormone secretion showed a positive correlation with chromium loss and blood glucose increased together with chromium loss. Daily chromium supplementation increased tissue chromium levels, attenuated brain infarction, improved hyperglycemia, and decreased plasma levels of glucagon and corticosterone in stroke rats. Our findings suggest that stroke rats show disturbance of tissue chromium homeostasis with a net loss through urinary excretion and chromium mobilization and loss might be an alternative mechanism responsible for post-stroke hyperglycemia. PMID:26477944

  20. Patients' Experiences of Disruptions Associated with Post-Stroke Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Sylvia; Barbour, Rosaline S.; Brady, Marian; Clark, Alexander M.; Paton, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Post-stroke dysarthria rehabilitation should consider social participation for people with dysarthria, but before this approach can be adopted, an understanding of the psychosocial impact of dysarthria is required. Despite the prevalence of dysarthria as a result of stroke, there is a paucity of research into this communication…

  1. Understanding gait control in post-stroke: implications for management.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Arya, Kamal Narayan; Sharma, Pawan; Garg, R K

    2012-01-01

    The role of the brain in post-stroke gait is not understood properly, although the ability to walk becomes impaired in more than 80% of post-stroke patients. Most, however, regain some ability to walk with either limited mobility or inefficient, asymmetrical or unsafe gait. Conventional intervention focuses on support of weak muscles or body part by use of foot orthosis and walking aids. This review provides an overview of available evidence of neuro-kinesiology & neurophysiology of normal and post-stroke gait. The role of the spinal cord has been explored, more in animals than humans. Mammalian locomotion is based on a rhythmic, "pacemaker" activity of the spinal stepping generators. Bipedal human locomotion is different from quadripedal animal locomotion. However, knowledge derived from the spinal cord investigation of animals, is being applied for management of human gait dysfunction. The potential role of the brain is now recognized in the independent activation of muscles during walking. The brain modifies the gait pattern during the complex demands of daily activities. Though the exact role of the motor cortex in control of gait is unclear, available evidence may be applied to gait rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. PMID:22196422

  2. Urut Melayu for Poststroke Patients: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fadzil, Fariza; Ahmad, Norlaili; Abd Ghani, Norsuria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, had been introduced into three pioneer hospitals in Malaysia, as part of the integrated hospital program. It was introduced primarily for the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. After almost 3 years since it was first implemented, there are currently plans to extend it to other hospitals in the country. Information from this study will contribute toward a better future implementation plan. Objectives This study was conducted to gain an insight into the experiences and views of poststroke patients and their urut Melayu practitioners. Methods A qualitative study design was adopted. A total of 17 semistructured in-depth interviews were carried out with poststroke patients who were undergoing urut Melayu treatment at one of the three integrated hospitals. Information was solicited from their accompanying caregivers whenever necessary. The 2 urut Melayu practitioners at the hospital were also interviewed. All the interviews were carried out in Malay by the authors, at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit of the relevant hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded into categories through a constant-comparison method of data analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative descriptions of the themes. Results It was found that urut Melayu was sought by patients who had experienced stroke brought about by hypertension and postdelivery complications. They reported the unique characteristics of urut Melayu and their positive experiences with it. Conclusions Urut Melayu has potential as a complementary therapy for poststroke patients. It is recommended that the number of practitioners at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit be increased to provide the optimum care for poststroke patients. PMID:22236030

  3. Monitoring Locomotor Load in Soccer: Is Metabolic Power, Powerful?

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M; Manouvrier, C; Cassirame, J; Morin, J-B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of metabolic power (P) estimated from locomotor demands during soccer-specific drills. 14 highly-trained soccer players performed a soccer-specific circuit with the ball (3×1-min bouts, interspersed with 30-s passive recovery) on 2 different occasions. Locomotor activity was monitored with 4-Hz GPSs, while oxygen update (VO2) was collected with a portable gas analyzer. P was calculated using either net VO2 responses and traditional calorimetry principles (PVO2, W.kg(-1)) or locomotor demands (PGPS, W.kg(-1)). Distance covered into different speed, acceleration and P zones was recorded. While PGPS was 29±10% lower than PVO2 (d<- 3) during the exercise bouts, it was 85±7% lower (d<- 8) during recovery phases. The typical error between PGPS vs. PVO2 was moderate: 19.8%, 90% confidence limits: (18.4;21.6). The correlation between both estimates of P was small: 0.24 (0.14;0.33). Very large day-to-day variations were observed for acceleration, deceleration and > 20 W.kg(-1) distances (all CVs > 50%), while average Po2 and PGPS showed CVs < 10%. ICC ranged from very low- (acceleration and > 20 W.kg(-1) distances) to-very high (PVO2). PGPS largely underestimates the energy demands of soccer-specific drills, especially during the recovery phases. The poor reliability of PGPS >20 W.kg(-1) questions its value for monitoring purposes in soccer. PMID:26393813

  4. Kinematic data analysis for post-stroke patients following bilateral versus unilateral rehabilitation with an upper limb wearable robotic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Fedulow, Irina; Simkins, Matt; Abrams, Gary M; Byl, Nancy; Rosen, Jacob

    2013-03-01

    Robot-assisted stroke rehabilitation has become popular as one approach to helping patients recover function post-stroke. Robotic rehabilitation requires four important elements to match the robot to the patient: realistic biomechanical robotic elements, an assistive control scheme enabled through the human-robot interface, a task oriented rehabilitation program based on the principles of plasticity, and objective assessment tools to monitor change. This paper reports on a randomized clinical trial utilizing a complete robot-assisted rehabilitation system for the recovery of upper limb function in patients post-stroke. In this study, a seven degree-of-freedom (DOF) upper limb exoskeleton robot (UL-EXO7) is applied in a rehabilitation clinical trial for patients stable post-stroke (greater than six months). Patients had a Fugl-Meyer Score between 16-39, were mentally alert (> 19 on the VA Mini Mental Status Exam) and were between 27 and 70 years of age. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups: bilateral robotic training, unilateral robotic training, and usual care. This study is concerned with the changes in kinematics in the two robotic groups. Both patient groups played eight therapeutic video games over 12 sessions (90 min, two times a week). In each session, patients intensively played the different combination of video games that directly interacted with UL-EXO7 under the supervision of research assistant. At each session, all of the joint angle data was recorded for the evaluation of therapeutic effects. A new assessment metric is reported along with conventional metrics. The experimental result shows that both groups of patients showed consistent improvement with respect to the proposed and conventional metrics. PMID:22855233

  5. Powered robotic exoskeletons in post-stroke rehabilitation of gait: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Louie, Dennis R; Eng, Janice J

    2016-01-01

    Powered robotic exoskeletons are a potential intervention for gait rehabilitation in stroke to enable repetitive walking practice to maximize neural recovery. As this is a relatively new technology for stroke, a scoping review can help guide current research and propose recommendations for advancing the research development. The aim of this scoping review was to map the current literature surrounding the use of robotic exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation in adults post-stroke. Five databases (Pubmed, OVID MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials) were searched for articles from inception to October 2015. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Articles were included if they utilized a robotic exoskeleton as a gait training intervention for adult stroke survivors and reported walking outcome measures. Of 441 records identified, 11 studies, all published within the last five years, involving 216 participants met the inclusion criteria. The study designs ranged from pre-post clinical studies (n = 7) to controlled trials (n = 4); five of the studies utilized a robotic exoskeleton device unilaterally, while six used a bilateral design. Participants ranged from sub-acute (<7 weeks) to chronic (>6 months) stroke. Training periods ranged from single-session to 8-week interventions. Main walking outcome measures were gait speed, Timed Up and Go, 6-min Walk Test, and the Functional Ambulation Category. Meaningful improvement with exoskeleton-based gait training was more apparent in sub-acute stroke compared to chronic stroke. Two of the four controlled trials showed no greater improvement in any walking outcomes compared to a control group in chronic stroke. In conclusion, clinical trials demonstrate that powered robotic exoskeletons can be used safely as a gait training intervention for stroke. Preliminary findings suggest that exoskeletal gait training is equivalent to traditional therapy

  6. Persistent post-stroke depression in mice following unilateral medial prefrontal cortical stroke.

    PubMed

    Vahid-Ansari, F; Lagace, D C; Albert, P R

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common outcome following stroke that is associated with poor recovery. To develop a preclinical model of PSD, we targeted a key node of the depression-anxiety circuitry by inducing a unilateral ischemic lesion to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) stroke. Microinjection of male C57/BL6 mice with endothelin-1 (ET-1, 1600 pmol) induced a small (1 mm(3)) stroke consistently localized within the left mPFC. Compared with sham control mice, the stroke mice displayed a robust behavioral phenotype in four validated tests of anxiety including the elevated plus maze, light-dark, open-field and novelty-suppressed feeding tests. In addition, the stroke mice displayed depression-like behaviors in both the forced swim and tail suspension test. In contrast, there was no effect on locomotor activity or sensorimotor function in the horizontal ladder, or cylinder and home cage activity tests, indicating a silent stroke due to the absence of motor abnormalities. When re-tested at 6 weeks post stroke, the stroke mice retained both anxiety and depression phenotypes. Surprisingly, at 6 weeks post stroke the lesion site was infiltrated by neurons, suggesting that the ET-1-induced neuronal loss in the mPFC was reversible over time, but was insufficient to promote behavioral recovery. In summary, unilateral ischemic lesion of the mPFC results in a pronounced and persistent anxiety and depression phenotype with no evident sensorimotor deficits. This precise lesion of the depression circuitry provides a reproducible model to study adaptive cellular changes and preclinical efficacy of novel interventions to alleviate PSD symptoms. PMID:27483381

  7. Locomotor stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of 'bath salt' cathinones.

    PubMed

    Gatch, Michael B; Taylor, Cynthia M; Forster, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    A number of psychostimulant-like cathinone compounds are being sold as 'legal' alternatives to methamphetamine or cocaine. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether cathinone compounds stimulate motor activity and have discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of cocaine and/or methamphetamine. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, mephedrone, naphyrone, flephedrone, and butylone were tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) from saline. All compounds fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. Several commonly marketed cathinones produce discriminative stimulus effects comparable with those of cocaine and methamphetamine, which suggests that these compounds are likely to have similar abuse liabilities. MDPV and naphyrone produced locomotor stimulant effects that lasted much longer than those of cocaine or methamphetamine and therefore may be of particular concern, particularly because MDPV is one of the most commonly found substances associated with emergency room visits because of adverse effects of taking 'bath salts'. PMID:23839026

  8. Learning the spatial features of a locomotor task is slowed after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tyrell, Christine M.; Helm, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The capacity for humans to learn a new walking pattern has been explored with a split-belt treadmill during single sessions of adaptation, but the split-belt treadmill can also be used to study longer-term motor learning. Although the literature provides some information about motor learning after stroke, existing studies have primarily involved the upper extremity and the results are mixed. The purpose of this study was to characterize learning of a novel locomotor task in stroke survivors. We hypothesized that the presence of neurological dysfunction from stroke would result in slower learning of a locomotor task and decreased retention of what was learned and that these deficits would be related to level of sensorimotor impairment. Sixteen participants with stroke and sixteen neurologically intact participants walked on a split-belt treadmill for 15 min on 5 consecutive days and during a retention test. Step length and limb phase were measured to capture learning of the spatial and temporal aspects of walking. Learning the spatial pattern of split-belt treadmill walking was slowed after stroke compared with neurologically intact subjects, whereas there were no differences between these two groups in learning the temporal pattern. During the retention test, poststroke participants demonstrated equal retention of the split-belt treadmill walking pattern compared with those who were neurologically intact. The results suggest that although stroke survivors are slower to learn a new spatial pattern of gait, if given sufficient time they are able to do so to the same extent as those who are neurologically intact. PMID:24790172

  9. Locomotor Experience Affects Self and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchiyama, Ichiro; Anderson, David I.; Campos, Joseph J.; Witherington, David; Frankel, Carl B.; Lejeune, Laure; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of locomotor experience on visual proprioception in 8-month-old infants. "Visual proprioception" refers to the sense of self-motion induced in a static person by patterns of optic flow. A moving room apparatus permitted displacement of an entire enclosure (except for the floor) or the side walls and ceiling. In…

  10. Neuronal control of locomotor handedness in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Sean M.; Kain, Jamey S.; de Bivort, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically identical individuals display variability in their physiology, morphology, and behaviors, even when reared in essentially identical environments, but there is little mechanistic understanding of the basis of such variation. Here, we investigated whether Drosophila melanogaster displays individual-to-individual variation in locomotor behaviors. We developed a new high-throughout platform capable of measuring the exploratory behavior of hundreds of individual flies simultaneously. With this approach, we find that, during exploratory walking, individual flies exhibit significant bias in their left vs. right locomotor choices, with some flies being strongly left biased or right biased. This idiosyncrasy was present in all genotypes examined, including wild-derived populations and inbred isogenic laboratory strains. The biases of individual flies persist for their lifetime and are nonheritable: i.e., mating two left-biased individuals does not yield left-biased progeny. This locomotor handedness is uncorrelated with other asymmetries, such as the handedness of gut twisting, leg-length asymmetry, and wing-folding preference. Using transgenics and mutants, we find that the magnitude of locomotor handedness is under the control of columnar neurons within the central complex, a brain region implicated in motor planning and execution. When these neurons are silenced, exploratory laterality increases, with more extreme leftiness and rightiness. This observation intriguingly implies that the brain may be able to dynamically regulate behavioral individuality. PMID:25953337

  11. Neuronal control of locomotor handedness in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Sean M; Kain, Jamey S; de Bivort, Benjamin L

    2015-05-26

    Genetically identical individuals display variability in their physiology, morphology, and behaviors, even when reared in essentially identical environments, but there is little mechanistic understanding of the basis of such variation. Here, we investigated whether Drosophila melanogaster displays individual-to-individual variation in locomotor behaviors. We developed a new high-throughout platform capable of measuring the exploratory behavior of hundreds of individual flies simultaneously. With this approach, we find that, during exploratory walking, individual flies exhibit significant bias in their left vs. right locomotor choices, with some flies being strongly left biased or right biased. This idiosyncrasy was present in all genotypes examined, including wild-derived populations and inbred isogenic laboratory strains. The biases of individual flies persist for their lifetime and are nonheritable: i.e., mating two left-biased individuals does not yield left-biased progeny. This locomotor handedness is uncorrelated with other asymmetries, such as the handedness of gut twisting, leg-length asymmetry, and wing-folding preference. Using transgenics and mutants, we find that the magnitude of locomotor handedness is under the control of columnar neurons within the central complex, a brain region implicated in motor planning and execution. When these neurons are silenced, exploratory laterality increases, with more extreme leftiness and rightiness. This observation intriguingly implies that the brain may be able to dynamically regulate behavioral individuality. PMID:25953337

  12. Neurophysiologic Correlates of Post-stroke Mood and Emotional Control

    PubMed Central

    Doruk, Deniz; Simis, Marcel; Imamura, Marta; Brunoni, André R.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Anghinah, Renato; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. The emotion sub-domain of Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-Emotion) was used to assess post-stroke mood and emotional control. The relation between SIS-Emotion and neurophysiologic measures was assessed by using covariance mapping and univariate linear regression. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and adjust for potential confounders. Neurophysiologic measures included power asymmetry and coherence assessed by electroencephalography (EEG); and motor threshold, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Results: Lower scores on SIS-Emotion was associated with (1) frontal EEG power asymmetry in alpha and beta bands, (2) central EEG power asymmetry in alpha and theta bands, and (3) lower inter-hemispheric coherence over frontal and central areas in alpha band. SIS-Emotion also correlated with higher ICF and MT in the unlesioned hemisphere as measured by TMS. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study using EEG and TMS to index neurophysiologic changes associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric imbalance measured by EEG power and coherence, as well as an increased ICF in the unlesioned hemisphere measured by TMS might be relevant markers associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control which can guide future studies investigating new diagnostic and treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:27625600

  13. Gait post-stroke: Pathophysiology and rehabilitation strategies.

    PubMed

    Beyaert, C; Vasa, R; Frykberg, G E

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed neural control and biomechanical description of gait in both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects. In addition, we reviewed most of the gait rehabilitation strategies currently in use or in development and observed their principles in relation to recent pathophysiology of post-stroke gait. In both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects, motor control is organized on a task-oriented basis using a common set of a few muscle modules to simultaneously achieve body support, balance control, and forward progression during gait. Hemiparesis following stroke is due to disruption of descending neural pathways, usually with no direct lesion of the brainstem and cerebellar structures involved in motor automatic processes. Post-stroke, improvements of motor activities including standing and locomotion are variable but are typically characterized by a common postural behaviour which involves the unaffected side more for body support and balance control, likely in response to initial muscle weakness of the affected side. Various rehabilitation strategies are regularly used or in development, targeting muscle activity, postural and gait tasks, using more or less high-technology equipment. Reduced walking speed often improves with time and with various rehabilitation strategies, but asymmetric postural behaviour during standing and walking is often reinforced, maintained, or only transitorily decreased. This asymmetric compensatory postural behaviour appears to be robust, driven by support and balance tasks maintaining the predominant use of the unaffected side over the initially impaired affected side. Based on these elements, stroke rehabilitation including affected muscle strengthening and often stretching would first need to correct the postural asymmetric pattern by exploiting postural automatic processes in various particular motor tasks secondarily beneficial to gait. PMID:26547547

  14. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  15. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off.

    PubMed

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  16. Frontal Cortical Atrophy as a Predictor of Poststroke Apathy.

    PubMed

    Mihalov, Ján; Mikula, Peter; Budiš, Jaroslav; Valkovič, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify associations between the symptoms of poststroke apathy and sociodemographic, stroke-related (severity of stroke, degree of disability, and performance in activities of daily living), and radiological correlates. We determined the degree of cortical and subcortical brain atrophy, the severity of white matter and basal ganglia lesions on baseline computed tomography (CT) scans, and the localization of acute ischemia on control CT or magnetic resonance imaging scans in subacute stages of stroke. During follow-up examinations, in addition to the assessment of apathy symptoms using the Apathy Scale, we also evaluated symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The study included 47 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Correlates significantly associated with apathy, determined at baseline and during follow-up, were entered into the "predictive" and "associative" multiple regression models, respectively. Frontal cortical atrophy and symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with poststroke apathy symptoms. In order to model an interrelation between both cortical atrophy and white matter lesions and aging, we supplemented 2 additional "predictive" models using interaction variables, whereby we confirmed the role of frontal cortical atrophy as a predictor of poststroke apathy also as a function of the increasing age of patients. PMID:27056065

  17. Factors Related to Gait Function in Post-stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ki Hun; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Kun Jae; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait function after a stroke is an important factor for determining a patient’s ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). The objective of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with gait function in post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-nine stroke patients (16 females and 23 males; average age 67.82 ± 10.96 years; post-onset duration: 200.18 ± 27.14 days) participated in this study. [Methods] Their gait function, motor function (Manual Muscle Test [MMT] and Brünnstrom stage), level of cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination score [MMSE], and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for the Geriatric Population [LOTCA-G]), and ADL (Korean modified Barthel index [K-MBI]) were assessed. [Results] The degree of gait function showed significant positive correlations with the following variables: MMT of the elbow, knee, ankle and wrist; Brünnstrom stage; MMSE; LOTCA-G subscores except motor praxis; K-MBI. Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed the Brünnstrom stage was the only explanatory variable closely associated with gait level. [Conclusion] Gait function of post-stroke patients was related to motor function, cognition, and ADL. In particular, there is a significant association between gait level and the Brünnstrom stages, reflecting the importance of monitoring the motor recovery of gait function in post-stroke patients. PMID:25540503

  18. Tongue acupuncture in treatment of post-stroke dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Haiyan; Ma, Benxu; Gao, Xia; Gao, Huanmin

    2015-01-01

    Tongue acupuncture is a technique that treats illness through acupuncture applied to the tongue. This study was designed to assess its therapeutic effects in the treatment of post-stroke dysphagia. A clinical control study was conducted with randomly selected 180 patients with post-stroke dysphagia. The patients were assigned into 2 groups: 90 in the Tongue acupuncture group received tongue acupuncture on the basis of conventional medication, 90 in the conventional acupuncture group received acupuncture on the neck and wrist. Acupoints in the tongue are Juanquan (EX-HN10) (at the midpoint of dorsal raphe of the tongue) and Haiquan (EX-HN11) (Sublingual frenulum midpoint). Acupoits on the body are Fengchi (GB20) and Neiguan (PC6). The effective rate, the national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS), TV X-ray fluoroscopy swallowing function (VFSS), the incidence rate of pneumonia were used to evaluate the efficacy after 4 weeks treatment. The NIHSS and VFSS of tongue acupuncture group were improved significantly than that of the conventional group (P < 0.01, respectively). The incidence rate of pneumonia decreased (P < 0. 01). The effective rate of the tongue acupuncture group was higher than that of conventional group (96.67% vs. 66.67%, P < 0. 01). On the basis of the conventional medication, tongue acupuncture would effectively improve the swallow functions, decrease the neurological deficit and reduce the incidence of pneumonia in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. PMID:26550374

  19. The evolution of locomotor rhythmicity in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Ross, Callum F; Blob, Richard W; Carrier, David R; Daley, Monica A; Deban, Stephen M; Demes, Brigitte; Gripper, Janaya L; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Kilbourne, Brandon M; Landberg, Tobias; Polk, John D; Schilling, Nadja; Vanhooydonck, Bieke

    2013-04-01

    Differences in rhythmicity (relative variance in cycle period) among mammal, fish, and lizard feeding systems have been hypothesized to be associated with differences in their sensorimotor control systems. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the locomotion of tachymetabolic tetrapods (birds and mammals) is more rhythmic than that of bradymetabolic tetrapods (lizards, alligators, turtles, salamanders). Species averages of intraindividual coefficients of variation in cycle period were compared while controlling for gait and substrate. Variance in locomotor cycle periods is significantly lower in tachymetabolic than in bradymetabolic animals for datasets that include treadmill locomotion, non-treadmill locomotion, or both. When phylogenetic relationships are taken into account the pooled analyses remain significant, whereas the non-treadmill and the treadmill analyses become nonsignificant. The co-occurrence of relatively high rhythmicity in both feeding and locomotor systems of tachymetabolic tetrapods suggests that the anatomical substrate of rhythmicity is in the motor control system, not in the musculoskeletal components. PMID:23550769

  20. Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates motor learning post-stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nyeonju; Summers, Jeffery J; Cauraugh, James H

    2016-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an attractive protocol for stroke motor recovery. The current systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of tDCS on motor learning post-stroke. Specifically, we determined long-term learning effects by examining motor improvements from baseline to at least 5 days after tDCS intervention and motor practise. 17 studies reported long-term retention testing (mean retention interval=43.8 days; SD=56.6 days) and qualified for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Assessing primary outcome measures for groups that received tDCS and motor practise versus sham control groups created 21 valid comparisons: (1) 16 clinical assessments and (2) 5 motor skill acquisition tests. A random effects model meta-analysis showed a significant overall effect size=0.59 (p<0.0001; low heterogeneity, T(2)=0.04; I(2)=22.75%; and high classic fail-safe N=240). 4 moderator variable analyses revealed beneficial effects of tDCS on long-term motor learning: (1) stimulation protocols: anodal on the ipsilesional hemisphere, cathodal on the contralesional hemisphere, or bilateral; (2) recovery stage: subacute or chronic stroke; (3) stimulation timing: tDCS before or during motor practise; and (4) task-specific training or conventional rehabilitation protocols. This robust meta-analysis identified novel long-term motor learning effects with tDCS and motor practise post-stroke. PMID:26319437

  2. Pair Housing Reverses Post-Stroke Depressive Behaviour in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajkumar; Friedler, Brett D.; Harris, Nia M.; McCullough, Louise D.

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation (SI) has been linked epidemiologically to high rates of morbidity and mortality following stroke. In contrast, strong social support enhances recovery and lowers stroke recurrence. However, the mechanism by which social support influences stroke recovery has not been adequately explored. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of post-stroke pair housing and SI on behavioural phenotypes and chronic functional recovery in mice. Young male mice were paired for 14 days before a 60 minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham surgery and assigned to various housing environments immediately after stroke. Post-stroke mice paired with either a sham or stroke partner showed significantly higher (p<0.05) sociability after MCAO than isolated littermates. Sociability deficits worsened over time in isolated animals. Pair-housed mice showed restored sucrose consumption (p<0.05) and reduced immobility in the tail suspension test compared to isolated cohorts. Pair-housed stroked mice demonstrated significantly reduced cerebral atrophy after 6 weeks (17.5 ± 1.5% in PH vs. 40.8 ± 1.3% in SI; p<0.001). Surprisingly, total brain arginase-1, a marker of a M2 “alternatively activated” myeloid cells was higher in isolated mice. However, a more detailed assessment of cellular expression showed a significant increase in the number of microglia that co-labeled with arginase-1 in the peri-infarct region in PH stroke mice compared to SI mice. Pair housing enhances sociability and reduces avolitional and anhedonic behaviour. Pair housing reduced serum IL-6 and enhanced peri-infarct microglia arginase-1 expression. Social interaction reduces post-stroke depression and improves functional recovery. PMID:24793492

  3. Transcriptomics of Post-Stroke Angiogenesis in the Aged Brain

    PubMed Central

    Buga, Ana Maria; Margaritescu, Claudiu; Scholz, Claus Juergen; Radu, Eugen; Zelenak, Christine; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the obvious clinical significance of post-stroke angiogenesis in aged subjects, a detailed transcriptomic analysis of post-stroke angiogenesis has not yet been undertaken in an aged experimental model. In this study, by combining stroke transcriptomics with immunohistochemistry in aged rats and post-stroke patients, we sought to identify an age-specific gene expression pattern that may characterize the angiogenic process after stroke. We found that both young and old infarcted rats initiated vigorous angiogenesis. However, the young rats had a higher vascular density by day 14 post-stroke. “New-for-stroke” genes that were linked to the increased vasculature density in young animals included Angpt2, Angptl2, Angptl4, Cib1, Ccr2, Col4a2, Cxcl1, Lef1, Hhex, Lamc1, Nid2, Pcam1, Plod2, Runx3, Scpep1, S100a4, Tgfbi, and Wnt4, which are required for sprouting angiogenesis, reconstruction of the basal lamina (BL), and the resolution phase. The vast majority of genes involved in sprouting angiogenesis (Angpt2, Angptl4, Cib1, Col8a1, Nrp1, Pcam1, Pttg1ip, Rac2, Runx1, Tnp4, Wnt4); reconstruction of a new BL (Col4a2, Lamc1, Plod2); or tube formation and maturation (Angpt1, Gpc3, Igfbp7, Sparc, Tie2, Tnfsf10), had however, a delayed upregulation in the aged rats. The angiogenic response in aged rats was further diminished by the persistent upregulation of “inflammatory” genes (Cxcl12, Mmp8, Mmp12, Mmp14, Mpeg1, Tnfrsf1a, Tnfrsf1b) and vigorous expression of genes required for the buildup of the fibrotic scar (Cthrc1, Il6ra, Il13ar1, Il18, Mmp2, Rassf4, Tgfb1, Tgfbr2, Timp1). Beyond this barrier, angiogenesis in the aged brains was similar to that in young brains. We also found that the aged human brain is capable of mounting a vigorous angiogenic response after stroke, which most likely reflects the remaining brain plasticity of the aged brain. PMID:24672479

  4. A parallel cholinergic brainstem pathway for enhancing locomotor drive

    PubMed Central

    Smetana, Roy; Juvin, Laurent; Dubuc, Réjean; Alford, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The brainstem locomotor system is believed to be organized serially from the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) to reticulospinal neurons, which in turn, project to locomotor neurons in the spinal cord. In contrast, we now identify in lampreys, brainstem muscarinoceptive neurons receiving parallel inputs from the MLR and projecting back to reticulospinal cells to amplify and extend durations of locomotor output. These cells respond to muscarine with extended periods of excitation, receive direct muscarinic excitation from the MLR, and project glutamatergic excitation to reticulospinal neurons. Targeted block of muscarine receptors over these neurons profoundly reduces MLR-induced excitation of reticulospinal neurons and markedly slows MLR-evoked locomotion. Their presence forces us to rethink the organization of supraspinal locomotor control, to include a sustained feedforward loop that boosts locomotor output. PMID:20473293

  5. Postural control in order to prevent chronic locomotor injuries in top level athletes.

    PubMed

    Bandettini, Marina Piazza; Innocenti, Giovanni; Contini, Massimo; Paternostro, Ferdinando; Lova, Raffaele Molino

    2003-01-01

    Chronic injuries of the locomotor apparatus represent the main cause of drop-out among top level gymnasts. The aim of the present paper was to verify whether the postural control, investigated by using an integrated approach and accordingly optimized, could be an effective tool for the secondary prevention of training-related disorders of the locomotor apparatus, in a cohort of 20 young female athletes practicing rythmic gymnastic at top level. After a preliminary medical consultation all the subjects underwent a static and dynamic baropodometric test, an ophtalmological and a dental screening. Then athletes were given prescriptions based upon the results of the above named examination. After 6 months, symptoms were completely disappeared in 80% and remarkably improved in 20%, and at baropodometric test, the contact duration as well as the contact surface, the max and mean contact pressure were significantly increased in all the athletes. Our data show that the proposed integrated approach is actually an effective tool for the secondary prevention of training related disorders of the locomotor apparatus. PMID:14974501

  6. Modelling the locomotor energetics of extinct hominids.

    PubMed

    Kramer, P A

    1999-10-01

    Bipedality is the defining characteristic of Hominidae and, as such, an understanding of the adaptive significance and functional implications of bipedality is imperative to any study of human evolution. Hominid bipedality is, presumably, a solution to some problem for the early hominids, one that has much to do with energy expenditure. Until recently, however, little attention could be focused on the quantifiable energetic aspects of bipedality as a unique locomotor form within Primates because of the inability to measure empirically the energy expenditure of non-modern hominids. A recently published method provides a way of circumventing the empirical measurement dilemma by calculating energy expenditure directly from anatomical variables and movement profiles. Although the origins of bipedality remain clouded, two discernible forms of locomotor anatomy are present in the hominid fossil record: the australopithecine and modern configurations. The australopithecine form is best represented by AL 288-1, a partial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis, and is characterized as having short legs and a wide pelvis. The modern form is represented by modern humans and has long legs and a narrow pelvis. Human walking is optimized to take advantage of the changing levels of potential and kinetic energy that occur as the body and limbs move through the stride cycle. Although this optimization minimizes energy expenditure, some energy is required to maintain motion. I quantify this energy by developing a dynamic model that uses kinematic equations to determine energy expenditure. By representing both configurations with such a model, I can compare their rates of energy expenditure. I find that the australopithecine configuration uses less energy than that of a modern human. Despite arguments presented in the anthropological literature, the shortness of the legs of AL 288-1 provides no evidence that she was burdened with a compromised or transitional locomotor anatomy

  7. Complaints of poststroke insomnia and its treatment with mianserin.

    PubMed

    Palomäki, Heikki; Berg, Anu; Meririnne, Esa; Kaste, Markku; Lönnqvist, Riitta; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence and associations of symptoms of insomnia in patients with acute ischemic stroke, and evaluated whether mianserin as a sedative antidepressant is beneficial in the treatment of poststroke insomnia. One hundred consecutively hospitalized patients were randomized to receive 60 mg/day of mianserin (n = 51) or placebo for 1 year in a double-blind trial with a 6-month follow-up after the therapy. Symptoms of insomnia were assessed with the three insomnia-related items of the Hamilton Depression Scale; patients were defined as insomniacs if any of these items was positive. Complaints of insomnia occurred in 68% of patients on admission, and in 49% at 18 months, and they were as frequent in all subgroups of patients. From 2 months, symptoms of insomnia were associated independently with depression. Living alone before stroke (at 0 and 2 months) and age (at 12 months) were other independent predictors of insomnia. The rate of recovery as evaluated by the insomnia score was more rapid in patients on mianserin than in those on placebo. At 2 months, the scores were significantly different favoring mianserin treatment (1.3 vs. 0.8, p = 0.02). We conclude that insomnia is a common complaint after ischemic stroke. Mianserin had a beneficial influence on the recovery from symptoms of insomnia, even though the intensity of poststroke depression was low. PMID:12499712

  8. Control of robotic assistance using poststroke residual voluntary effort.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Nathaniel S; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick E

    2015-03-01

    Poststroke hemiparesis limits the ability to reach, in part due to involuntary muscle co-activation (synergies). Robotic approaches are being developed for both therapeutic benefit and continuous assistance during activities of daily living. Robotic assistance may enable participants to exert less effort, thereby reducing expression of the abnormal co-activation patterns, which could allow participants to reach further. This study evaluated how well participants could perform a reaching task with robotic assistance that was either provided independent of effort in the vertical direction or in the sagittal plane in proportion to voluntary effort estimated from electromyograms (EMG) on the affected side. Participants who could not reach targets without assistance were enabled to reach further with assistance. Constant anti-gravity force assistance that was independent of voluntary effort did not reduce the quality of reach and enabled participants to exert less effort while maintaining different target locations. Force assistance that was proportional to voluntary effort on the affected side enabled participants to exert less effort and could be controlled to successfully reach targets, but participants had increased difficulty maintaining a stable position. These results suggest that residual effort on the affected side can produce an effective command signal for poststroke assistive devices. PMID:25373107

  9. Socially assistive robotics for post-stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Matarić, Maja J; Eriksson, Jon; Feil-Seifer, David J; Winstein, Carolee J

    2007-01-01

    Background Although there is a great deal of success in rehabilitative robotics applied to patient recovery post stroke, most of the research to date has dealt with providing physical assistance. However, new rehabilitation studies support the theory that not all therapy need be hands-on. We describe a new area, called socially assistive robotics, that focuses on non-contact patient/user assistance. We demonstrate the approach with an implemented and tested post-stroke recovery robot and discuss its potential for effectiveness. Results We describe a pilot study involving an autonomous assistive mobile robot that aids stroke patient rehabilitation by providing monitoring, encouragement, and reminders. The robot navigates autonomously, monitors the patient's arm activity, and helps the patient remember to follow a rehabilitation program. We also show preliminary results from a follow-up study that focused on the role of robot physical embodiment in a rehabilitation context. Conclusion We outline and discuss future experimental designs and factors toward the development of effective socially assistive post-stroke rehabilitation robots. PMID:17309795

  10. New insights into the pathophysiology of post-stroke spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Francisco, Gerard E.

    2015-01-01

    Spasticity is one of many consequences after stroke. It is characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in resistance during passive stretch, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex. The underlying mechanism of the hyperexcitable stretch reflex, however, remains poorly understood. Accumulated experimental evidence has supported supraspinal origins of spasticity, likely from an imbalance between descending inhibitory and facilitatory regulation of spinal stretch reflexes secondary to cortical disinhibition after stroke. The excitability of reticulospinal (RST) and vestibulospinal tracts (VSTs) has been assessed in stroke survivors with spasticity using non-invasive indirect measures. There are strong experimental findings that support the RST hyperexcitability as a prominent underlying mechanism of post-stroke spasticity. This mechanism can at least partly account for clinical features associated with spasticity and provide insightful guidance for clinical assessment and management of spasticity. However, the possible role of VST hyperexcitability cannot be ruled out from indirect measures. In vivo measure of individual brainstem nuclei in stroke survivors with spasticity using advanced fMRI techniques in the future is probably able to provide direct evidence of pathogenesis of post-stroke spasticity. PMID:25914638

  11. Of mice and men: modelling post-stroke depression experimentally

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, G; Gertz, K; Heinz, A; Endres, M

    2014-01-01

    At least one-third of stroke survivors suffer from depression. The development of comorbid depression after stroke is clinically highly significant because post-stroke depression is associated with increased mortality, slows recovery and leads to worse functional outcomes. Here, we review the evidence that post-stroke depression can be effectively modelled in experimental rodents via a variety of approaches. This opens an exciting new window onto the neurobiology of depression and permits probing potential underlying mechanisms such as disturbed cellular plasticity, neuroendocrine dysregulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in a novel context. From the point of view of translational stroke research, extending the scope of experimental investigations beyond the study of short-term end points and, in particular, acute lesion size, may help improve the relevance of preclinical results to human disease. Furthermore, accumulating evidence from both clinical and experimental studies offers the tantalizing prospect of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic antidepressants as the first pharmacological therapy for stroke that would be available during the subacute and chronic phases of recovery. Interdisciplinary neuropsychiatric research will be called on to dissect the mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects of antidepressants on stroke recovery. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24838087

  12. Traditional Japanese Medicine Daikenchuto Improves Functional Constipation in Poststroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Takehiro; Takayama, Shin; Tobita, Muneshige; Ishida, Shuichi; Katayose, Dai; Shinkawa, Mitsutoshi; Oikawa, Takashi; Aonuma, Takanori; Kaneko, Soichiro; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Iwasaki, Koh; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Poststroke patients with functional constipation, assessed by the Rome III criteria, from 6 hospitals were recruited in a study on the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on constipation. Thirty-four patients (17 men and 17 women; mean age: 78.1 ± 11.6 years) were randomly assigned to 2 groups; all patients received conventional therapy for constipation, and patients in the DKT group received 15 g/day of DKT for 4 weeks. Constipation scoring system (CSS) points and the gas volume score (GVS) (the measure of the intestinal gas volume calculated from plain abdominal radiographs) were recorded before and after a 4-week observation period. The total score on the CSS improved significantly in the DKT group compared to the control (P < 0.01). In addition, scores for some CSS subcategories (frequency of bowel movements, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and need for enema/disimpaction) significantly improved in the DKT group (P < 0.01, P = 0.049, and P = 0.03, resp.). The GVS was also significantly reduced in the DKT group compared to the control (P = 0.03). DKT in addition to conventional therapy is effective in treating functional constipation in poststroke patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial and was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (no. UMIN000007393). PMID:25089144

  13. Dynamic Control of Posture Across Locomotor Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Earhart, Gammon M.

    2013-01-01

    Successful locomotion depends on postural control to establish and maintain appropriate postural orientation of body segments relative to one another and to the environment, and to ensure dynamic stability of the moving body. This paper provides a framework for considering dynamic postural control, highlighting the importance of coordination, consistency, and challenges to postural control posed by various locomotor tasks such as turning and backward walking. The impacts of aging and various movement disorders on postural control are discussed broadly in an effort to provide a general overview of the field and recommendations for assessment of dynamic postural control across different populations in both clinical and research settings. Suggestions for future research on dynamic postural control during locomotion are also provided and include discussion of opportunities afforded by new and developing technologies, the need for long-term monitoring of locomotor performance in everyday activities, gaps in our knowledge of how targeted intervention approaches modify dynamic postural control, and the relative paucity of literature regarding dynamic postural control in movement disorder populations other than Parkinson disease. PMID:24132838

  14. Development of a spinal locomotor rheostat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Issberner, Jon; Sillar, Keith T

    2011-07-12

    Locomotion in immature animals is often inflexible, but gradually acquires versatility to enable animals to maneuver efficiently through their environment. Locomotor activity in adults is produced by complex spinal cord networks that develop from simpler precursors. How does complexity and plasticity emerge during development to bestow flexibility upon motor behavior? And how does this complexity map onto the peripheral innervation fields of motorneurons during development? We show in postembryonic Xenopus laevis frog tadpoles that swim motorneurons initially form a homogenous pool discharging single action potential per swim cycle and innervating most of the dorsoventral extent of the swimming muscles. However, during early larval life, in the prelude to a free-swimming existence, the innervation fields of motorneurons become restricted to a more limited sector of each muscle block, with individual motorneurons reaching predominantly ventral, medial, or dorsal regions. Larval motorneurons then can also discharge multiple action potentials in each cycle of swimming and differentiate in terms of their firing reliability during swimming into relatively high-, medium-, or low-probability members. Many motorneurons fall silent during swimming but can be recruited with increasing locomotor frequency and intensity. Each region of the myotome is served by motorneurons spanning the full range of firing probabilities. This unfolding developmental plan, which occurs in the absence of movement, probably equips the organism with the neuronal substrate to bend, pitch, roll, and accelerate during swimming in ways that will be important for survival during the period of free-swimming larval life that ensues. PMID:21709216

  15. The GALS locomotor screen and disability.

    PubMed Central

    Plant, M J; Linton, S; Dodd, E; Jones, P W; Dawes, P T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Examination of the locomotor system is frequently neglected. Therefore, the GALS locomotor screen (Gait, Arms, Legs, Spine) has been proposed by Doherty et al as a practical method of identifying functionally important problems. This study was designed to test whether this screen reflects functional impairment, as measured by accepted health status measures. METHODS--Two observers performed the GALS screen in a total of 83 patients with a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. The examination components of GALS were rated by a simple 0 to 3 scale. Physical ability was further assessed by Health Activity Questionnaire (HAQ), Barthel index and Steinbrocker's ARA classification. RESULTS--For the total patient group, Spearman correlations between GALS and the three functional indices were good (r = 0.62 to 0.71, p < 0.001). Correlations were equally good for rheumatoid arthritis patients alone (r = 0.65 to 0.70, p < 0.001), but less good although still significant for the other miscellaneous rheumatic conditions (r = 0.31 to 0.46, p < 0.05). Observed proportional agreement between the two observers for the individual scores was > 70%, with a kappa statistic k = 0.49 to 0.74. CONCLUSIONS--The GALS screen is a reliable and valid measure of functional ability, compared with standard accepted indices in a variety of musculoskeletal diseases. This supports the proposal for its use as a screening test by general practitioners and medical students. PMID:8311541

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci for Locomotor Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Katherine W.; Morgan, Theodore J.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2006-01-01

    Locomotion is an integral component of most animal behaviors and many human diseases and disorders are associated with locomotor deficits, but little is known about the genetic basis of natural variation in locomotor behavior. Locomotion is a complex trait, with variation attributable to the joint segregation of multiple interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL), with effects that are sensitive to the environment. We assessed variation in a component of locomotor behavior (locomotor reactivity) in a population of 98 recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster and mapped four QTL affecting locomotor reactivity by linkage to polymorphic roo transposable element insertion sites. We used complementation tests of deficiencies to fine map these QTL to 12 chromosomal regions and complementation tests of mutations to identify 13 positional candidate genes affecting locomotor reactivity, including Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine. Linkage disequilibrium mapping in a population of 164 second chromosome substitution lines derived from a single natural population showed that polymorphisms at Ddc were associated with naturally occurring genetic variation in locomotor behavior. These data implicate variation in the synthesis of bioamines as a factor contributing to natural variation in locomotor reactivity. PMID:16783013

  17. Locomotor Behaviour of Blattella germanica Modified by DEET

    PubMed Central

    Sfara, Valeria; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A.; Zerba, Eduardo N.; Alzogaray, Raúl A.

    2013-01-01

    N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the active principle of most insect repellents used worldwide. However, its toxicity on insects has not been widely studied. The aim of this work is to study the effects of DEET on the locomotor activity of Blattella germanica. DEET has a dose-dependent repellent activity on B. germanica. Locomotor activity was significantly lower when insects were pre-exposed to 700 µg/cm2 of DEET for 20 or 30 minutes, but it did not change when pre-exposure was shorter. Locomotor activity of insects that were pre-exposed to 2.000 µg/cm2 of DEET for 10 minutes was significantly lower than the movement registered in controls. No differences were observed when insects were pre-exposed to lower concentrations of DEET. A 30-minute pre-exposure to 700 µg/cm2 of DEET caused a significant decrease in locomotor activity. Movement was totally recovered 24 h later. The locomotor activity measured during the exposure to different concentrations of DEET remained unchanged. Insects with decreased locomotor activity were repelled to the same extent than control insects by the same concentration of DEET. We demonstrated that the repellency and modification of locomotor activity elicited by DEET are non-associated phenomena. We also suggested that the reduction in locomotor activity indicates toxicity of DEET, probably to insect nervous system. PMID:24376701

  18. Locomotor behaviour of Blattella germanica modified by DEET.

    PubMed

    Sfara, Valeria; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A; Zerba, Eduardo N; Alzogaray, Raúl A

    2013-01-01

    N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the active principle of most insect repellents used worldwide. However, its toxicity on insects has not been widely studied. The aim of this work is to study the effects of DEET on the locomotor activity of Blattella germanica. DEET has a dose-dependent repellent activity on B. germanica. Locomotor activity was significantly lower when insects were pre-exposed to 700 µg/cm(2) of DEET for 20 or 30 minutes, but it did not change when pre-exposure was shorter. Locomotor activity of insects that were pre-exposed to 2.000 µg/cm(2) of DEET for 10 minutes was significantly lower than the movement registered in controls. No differences were observed when insects were pre-exposed to lower concentrations of DEET. A 30-minute pre-exposure to 700 µg/cm(2) of DEET caused a significant decrease in locomotor activity. Movement was totally recovered 24 h later. The locomotor activity measured during the exposure to different concentrations of DEET remained unchanged. Insects with decreased locomotor activity were repelled to the same extent than control insects by the same concentration of DEET. We demonstrated that the repellency and modification of locomotor activity elicited by DEET are non-associated phenomena. We also suggested that the reduction in locomotor activity indicates toxicity of DEET, probably to insect nervous system. PMID:24376701

  19. Estrogen therapy increases BDNF expression and improves post-stroke depression in ovariectomy-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qiaoer; Cheng, Yifan; Jin, Kunlin; Cheng, Jianhua; Lin, Yuanshao; Lin, Zhenzhen; Wang, Liuqing; Shao, Bei

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of exogenous estrogen on post-stroke depression. Rats were exposed to chronic mild stress following middle cerebral artery occlusion. The occurrence of post-stroke depression was evaluated according to the changes in preference for sucrose and performance in a forced swimming test. Estrogen therapy significantly improved these neurological symptoms, indicating that estrogen is effective in treating post-stroke depression. Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression was reported in the hippocampus of rats that had been treated with estrogen for two weeks, suggesting that BDNF expression may be an important contributor to the improvement of post-stroke depression that is observed following estrogen therapy. PMID:27602095

  20. A post-stroke rehabilitation system integrating robotics, VR and high-resolution EEG imaging.

    PubMed

    Steinisch, Martin; Tana, Maria Gabriella; Comani, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    We propose a system for the neuro-motor rehabilitation of upper limbs in stroke survivors. The system is composed of a passive robotic device (Trackhold) for kinematic tracking and gravity compensation, five dedicated virtual reality (VR) applications for training of distinct movement patterns, and high-resolution EEG for synchronous monitoring of cortical activity. In contrast to active devices, the Trackhold omits actuators for increased patient safety and acceptance levels, and for reduced complexity and costs. VR applications present all relevant information for task execution as easy-to-understand graphics that do not need any written or verbal instructions. High-resolution electroencephalography (HR-EEG) is synchronized with kinematic data acquisition, allowing for the epoching of EEG signals on the basis of movement-related temporal events. Two healthy volunteers participated in a feasibility study and performed a protocol suggested for the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. Kinematic data were analyzed by means of in-house code. Open source packages (EEGLAB, SPM, and GMAC) and in-house code were used to process the neurological data. Results from kinematic and EEG data analysis are in line with knowledge from currently available literature and theoretical predictions, and demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of the proposed rehabilitation system to monitor neuro-motor recovery. PMID:23797283

  1. Feedback-Mediated Upper Extremities Exercise: Increasing Patient Motivation in Poststroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Maša D.; Kostić, Miloš D.; Rodić, Sindi Z.; Konstantinović, Ljubica M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This proof-of-concept study investigated whether feedback-mediated exercise (FME) of the affected arm of hemiplegic patients increases patient motivation and promotes greater improvement of motor function, compared to no-feedback exercise (NFE). Method. We developed a feedback-mediated treatment that uses gaming scenarios and allows online and offline monitoring of both temporal and spatial characteristics of planar movements. Twenty poststroke hemiplegic inpatients, randomly assigned to the FME and NFE group, received therapy five days a week for three weeks. The outcome measures were evaluated from the following: (1) the modified drawing test (mDT), (2) received therapy time—RTT, and (3) intrinsic motivation inventory—IMI. Results. The FME group patients showed significantly higher improvement in the speed metric (P < 0.01), and smoothness metric (P < 0.01), as well as higher RTT (P < 0.01). Significantly higher patient motivation is observed in the FME group (interest/enjoyment subscale (P < 0.01) and perceived competence subscale (P < 0.01)). Conclusion. Prolonged endurance in training and greater improvement in certain areas of motor function, as well as very high patient motivation and strong positive impressions about the treatment, suggest the positive effects of feedback-mediated treatment and its high level of acceptance by patients. PMID:24991557

  2. Use of virtual reality to promote hand therapy post-stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupikova, Daria; Stoykov, Nikolay; Vick, Randy; Li, Yu; Kamper, Derek; Listenberger, Molly

    2013-03-01

    A novel artistic virtual reality (VR) environment was developed and tested for use as a rehabilitation protocol for post-stroke hand rehabilitation therapy. The system was developed by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, art therapists, occupational therapists, and VR artists to improve patients' motivation and engagement. Specific exercises were developed to explicitly promote the practice of therapeutic tasks requiring hand and arm coordination for upper extremity rehabilitation. Here we describe system design, development, and user testing for efficiency, subject's satisfaction and clinical feasibility. We report results of the completed qualitative, pre-clinical pilot study of the system effectiveness for therapy. Fourteen stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis participated in a single training session within the environment to gauge user response to the protocol through a custom survey. Results indicate that users found the system comfortable, enjoyable, tiring; instructions clear, and reported a high level of satisfaction with the VR environment and rehabilitation task variety and difficulty. Most patients reported very positive impressions of the VR environment and rated it highly, appreciating its engagement and motivation. We are currently conducting a longitudinal intervention study over 6 weeks in stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis. Initial results following use of the system on the first subjects demonstrate that the system is operational and can facilitate therapy for post stroke patients with upper extremity impairment.

  3. Effect of caffeine on cocaine locomotor stimulant activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B

    1986-03-01

    The effect of caffeine on the locomotor stimulant activity induced by intravenous cocaine in rats was investigated. Low doses of caffeine (20 mg/kg IP) potentiated the locomotor activity induced by 1, 2.5 mg/kg intravenous doses of cocaine and higher doses of caffeine (50, 100 mg/kg IP) had no significant effect. The locomotor stimulant effect of 20 mg/kg IP dose of caffeine per se in vehicle was significantly higher and that with 100 mg/kg dose significantly lower than that of the vehicle control. Thus caffeine produced dose-dependent effects on cocaine-induced locomotor stimulant activity, with low dose potentiating and higher doses having no significant effect on such activity. Pharmacokinetic or dispositional factors did not appear to play a role in potentiation of cocaine locomotor stimulant activity by caffeine. PMID:3703910

  4. Poststroke Hip Fracture: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, Mineral-Bone Metabolism, Outcomes, and Gaps in Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Alexander; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Davis, Michael; Smith, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence, clinical and laboratory characteristics, and short-term outcomes of poststroke hip fracture (HF). Methods. A cross-sectional study of 761 consecutive patients aged ≥60 years (82.3 ± 8.8 years; 75% females) with osteoporotic HF. Results. The prevalence of poststroke HF was 13.1% occurring on average 2.4 years after the stroke. The poststroke group compared to the rest of the cohort had a higher proportion of women, subjects with dementia, history of TIA, hypertension, coronary artery disease, secondary hyperparathyroidism, higher serum vitamin B12 levels (>350 pmol/L), walking aid users, and living in residential care facilities. The majority of poststroke HF patients had vitamin D insufficiency (68%) and excess bone resorption (90%). This group had a 3-fold higher incidence of postoperative myocardial injury and need for institutionalisation. In multivariate analysis, independent indicators of poststroke HF were female sex (OR 3.6), history of TIA (OR 5.2), dementia (OR 4.1), hypertension (OR 3.2), use of walking aid (OR 2.5), and higher vitamin B12 level (OR 2.3). Only 15% of poststroke patients received antiosteoporotic therapy prior to HF. Conclusions. Approximately one in seven HFs occurs in older stroke survivors and are associated with poorer outcomes. Early implementation of fracture prevention strategies is needed. PMID:24187647

  5. Functional characterization of a mouse model for central post-stroke pain

    PubMed Central

    Gritsch, Simon; Bali, Kiran Kumar; Kuner, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke patients often suffer from a central neuropathic pain syndrome called central post-stroke pain. This syndrome is characterized by evoked pain hypersensitivity as well as spontaneous, on-going pain in the body area affected by the stroke. Clinical evidence strongly suggests a dysfunction in central pain pathways as an important pathophysiological factor in the development of central post-stroke pain, but the exact underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of central post-stroke pain, we generated a mouse model that is based on a unilateral stereotactic lesion of the thalamic ventral posterolateral nucleus, which typically causes central post-stroke pain in humans. Results Behavioral analysis showed that the sensory changes in our model are comparable to the sensory abnormalities observed in patients suffering from central post-stroke pain. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of spinal and peripheral key components of the pain system had no effect on the induction or maintenance of the evoked hypersensitivity observed in our model. In contrast, microinjection of lidocaine into the thalamic lesion completely reversed injury-induced hypersensitivity. Conclusions These results suggest that the evoked hypersensitivity observed in central post-stroke pain is causally linked to on-going neuronal activity in the lateral thalamus. PMID:27030713

  6. Post-stroke emotional incontinence or bipolar disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Mnif, Leila; Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, Jawaher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Post-stroke emotional incontinence and bipolar disorder are two disorders that involve the dysfunction of brain structures responsible for emotional regulation. The objective of this work is to study the links between these disorders through a clinical case. Case report We present the case of a 43-year-old man without previous psychiatric history who experienced emotional incontinence after cerebrovascular events. He reacted promptly to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. However, he experienced his first episode of hypomania after 6 months of antidepressant therapy. Adjunctive therapy with valproic acid and low-dose paroxetine was eventually added, resulting in complete improvement of both emotional incontinence and hypomania after 4 additional months of treatment. Conclusion The clinician should carefully explore any history of premorbid bipolar disorder, personality disorder characterized by mood instability, and family history of bipolar disorder. PMID:27536109

  7. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  8. Discriminative and locomotor effects of five synthetic cathinones in rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Gatch, Michael B.; Rutledge, Margaret; Forster, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Synthetic cathinones continue to be sold as “legal” alternatives to methamphetamine or cocaine. As these marginally legal compounds become controlled, suppliers move to other, unregulated compounds. Objectives The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether several temporarily controlled cathinone compounds, which are currently abused on the street, stimulate motor activity and have discriminative stimulus effects similar to cocaine and/or methamphetamine. Methods Methcathinone, pentedrone, pentylone, 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), and 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) were tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline. Results Methcathinone, pentedrone, and pentylone produced locomotor stimulant effects which lasted up to 6 hours. In addition, pentylone produced convulsions and lethality at 100 mg/kg. 4-MEC produced locomotor stimulant effects which lasted up to 2 hours. Methcathinone, pentedrone, pentylone, 3-FMC, and 4-MEC each produced discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of cocaine and methamphetamine. Conclusions All of the tested compounds produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to either those of cocaine, methamphetamine or both, which suggests that these compounds are likely to have similar abuse liability to cocaine and/or methamphetamine. Pentylone may be more dangerous on the street, as it produced adverse effects at doses that produced maximal stimulant-like effects. PMID:25281225

  9. Afferent control of locomotor CPG: insights from a simple neuromechanical model.

    PubMed

    Markin, Sergey N; Klishko, Alexander N; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Lemay, Michel A; Prilutsky, Boris I; Rybak, Ilya A

    2010-06-01

    A simple neuromechanical model has been developed that describes a spinal central pattern generator (CPG) controlling the locomotor movement of a single-joint limb via activation of two antagonist (flexor and extensor) muscles. The limb performs rhythmic movements under control of the muscular, gravitational and ground reaction forces. Muscle afferents provide length-dependent (types Ia and II) and force-dependent (type Ib from the extensor) feedback to the CPG. We show that afferent feedback adjusts CPG operation to the kinematics and dynamics of the limb providing stable "locomotion." Increasing the supraspinal drive to the CPG increases locomotion speed by reducing the duration of stance phase. We show that such asymmetric, extensor-dominated control of locomotor speed (with relatively constant swing duration) is provided by afferent feedback independent of the asymmetric rhythmic pattern generated by the CPG alone (in "fictive locomotion" conditions). Finally, we demonstrate the possibility of reestablishing stable locomotion after removal of the supraspinal drive (associated with spinal cord injury) by increasing the weights of afferent inputs to the CPG, which is thought to occur following locomotor training. PMID:20536917

  10. Functional redundancy of ventral spinal locomotor pathways.

    PubMed

    Loy, David N; Magnuson, David S K; Zhang, Y Ping; Onifer, Stephen M; Mills, Michael D; Cao, Qi-lin; Darnall, Jessica B; Fajardo, Lily C; Burke, Darlene A; Whittemore, Scott R

    2002-01-01

    Identification of long tracts responsible for the initiation of spontaneous locomotion is critical for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair strategies. Pathways derived from the mesencephalic locomotor region and pontomedullary medial reticular formation responsible for fictive locomotion in decerebrate preparations project to the thoracolumbar levels of the spinal cord via reticulospinal axons in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF). However, white matter regions critical for spontaneous over-ground locomotion remain unclear because cats, monkeys, and humans display varying degrees of locomotor recovery after ventral SCIs. We studied the contributions of myelinated tracts in the VLF and ventral columns (VC) to spontaneous over-ground locomotion in the adult rat using demyelinating lesions. Animals received ethidium bromide plus photon irradiation producing discrete demyelinating lesions sufficient to stop axonal conduction in the VLF, VC, VLF-VC, or complete ventral white matter (CV). Behavior [open-field Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores and grid walking] and transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials (tcMMEP) were studied at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after lesion. VLF lesions resulted in complete loss or severe attenuation of tcMMEPs, with mean BBB scores of 18.0, and no grid walking deficits. VC lesions produced behavior similar to VLF-lesioned animals but did not significantly affect tcMMEPs. VC-VLF and CV lesions resulted in complete loss of tcMMEP signals with mean BBB scores of 12.7 and 6.5, respectively. Our data support a diffuse arrangement of axons within the ventral white matter that may comprise a system of multiple descending pathways subserving spontaneous over-ground locomotion in the intact animal. PMID:11756515

  11. The impact of patient's weight on post-stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Treger, Iuly

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of patient's weight on rehabilitation outcomes in first-event stroke patients. Design Retrospective, observational comparative study. 102 first-time stroke male and female patients admitted to the 52-bed neurology rehabilitation department in a rehabilitation hospital were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), Functional Independence Measure (FIM) on admission and at discharge, as well as the delta-FIM (FIM on admission - FIM at discharge) were evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the FIM and the NIHSS scores between BMI groups (normal, overweight, moderate and severe obesity). Results A statistically significant negative correlation (rho = -0.20, p = 0.049) was found between FIM change and BMI, that remained significant after adjustments for age, sex and hospitalisation days. No difference was found between groups in FIM or NIHSS change between BMI groups. Conclusions In sub-acute post-stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in rehabilitation hospital, BMI was negatively associated with the improvement of functional parameters. Patients' BMI should be taken into consideration when predicting rehabilitation outcome for stroke patients. Further investigations are needed to identify the functional parameters affected by the patients' BMI. Implications for Rehabilitation In sub-acute post-stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in rehabilitation hospital, BMI was negatively associated with the improvement of functional parameters. Patients' BMI should be taken into consideration when predicting rehabilitation outcome for stroke patients. New rehabilitation strategies should be designed to improve the functional outcomes of rehabilitation of obese patients. PMID:27248186

  12. Cost of post-stroke outpatient care in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Seyed Majid Akhavan; Mazlan, Mazlina; Abdullah, Saini Jeffery Freddy; Engkasan, Julia Patrick

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to investigate the direct cost of outpatient care for patients with stroke, as well as the relationship between the aforementioned cost and the sociodemographic and stroke characteristics of the patients. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with first-ever stroke who were attending outpatient stroke rehabilitation, and their family members. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to obtain information regarding the cost of outpatient care. Stroke severity was measured using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. RESULTS This study comprised 49 patients (28 men, 21 women) with a mean age of 60.2 (range 35–80) years. The mean total cost incurred was USD 547.10 (range USD 53.50–4,591.60), of which 36.6% was spent on attendant care, 25.5% on medical aids, 15.1% on travel expenses, 14.1% on medical fees and 8.5% on out-of-pocket expenses. Stroke severity, age > 70 years and haemorrhagic stroke were associated with increased cost. The mean cost of attending outpatient therapy per patient was USD 17.50 per session (range USD 6.60–30.60), with travelling expenses (41.8%) forming the bulk of the cost, followed by medical fees (38.1%) and out-of-pocket expenses (10.9%). Multiple regression analysis showed that stroke severity was the main determinant of post-stroke outpatient care cost (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION Post-stroke outpatient care costs are significantly influenced by stroke severity. The cost of attendant care was the main cost incurred during the first three months after hospital discharge, while travelling expenses was the main cost incurred when attending outpatient stroke rehabilitation therapy. PMID:25715857

  13. Crossed linguo-buccal reflex in post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Nagumo, K; Hirayama, K; Nakajima, Y; Takahashi, M

    2000-12-15

    A pathological crossed orofacial reflex, called crossed linguo-buccal reflex in the present study, was observed in approximately 1/3 of post-stroke patients with central facial palsy. Stroking with pressure two or three times with a split wooden tongue-blade to the tongue or palate contralateral to the central facial palsy elicited a reflex movement consisting of retraction of the angle of mouth and medio-posterior withdrawal of the buccal mucosa on the paretic side. Seventy-seven patients with central hemifacial palsy caused by a unilateral cerebral lesion were examined clinically, electromyographically and by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, three men with bilateral cerebral lesions and bilateral crossed linguo-buccal reflexes were electromyographically examined. Twenty-two patients with unilateral cerebral lesions had this reflex. It was found that this reflex was most frequently observed in patients with a capsulo-caudate lesion involving the head of the caudate nucleus, the anterior limb and genu of the internal capsule. The electromyogram of the reflex showed increased activity in the orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, risorius, zygomaticus major and buccinator muscles on the paretic side with a long latency (254-856 ms), and a prolonged after-discharge after the stimulation. Reciprocal inhibition was observed in patients with bilateral positive reflexes. These findings suggest that liberation of the polysynaptic brainstem reflex in the medulla oblongata and pons from the indirect corticobulbar inhibition may underlie the occurrence of the crossed linguo-buccal reflex in post-stroke patients. PMID:11102639

  14. Time-sensitive reorganization of the somatosensory cortex poststroke depends on interaction between Hebbian and homeoplasticity: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Bains, Amarpreet Singh; Schweighofer, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    Together with Hebbian plasticity, homeoplasticity presumably plays a significant, yet unclear, role in recovery postlesion. Here, we undertake a simulation study addressing the role of homeoplasticity and rehabilitation timing poststroke. We first hypothesize that homeoplasticity is essential for recovery and second that rehabilitation training delivered too early, before homeoplasticity has compensated for activity disturbances postlesion, is less effective for recovery than training delivered after a delay. We developed a neural network model of the sensory cortex driven by muscle spindle inputs arising from a six-muscle arm. All synapses underwent Hebbian plasticity, while homeoplasticity adjusted cell excitability to maintain a desired firing distribution. After initial training, the network was lesioned, leading to areas of hyper- and hypoactivity due to the loss of lateral synaptic connections. The network was then retrained through rehabilitative arm movements. We found that network recovery was unsuccessful in the absence of homeoplasticity, as measured by reestablishment of lesion-affected inputs. We also found that a delay preceding rehabilitation led to faster network recovery during the rehabilitation training than no delay. Our simulation results thus suggest that homeoplastic restoration of prelesion activity patterns is essential to functional network recovery via Hebbian plasticity. PMID:25274347

  15. Changes in task-based effective connectivity in language networks following rehabilitation in post-stroke patients with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi; Meier, Erin L; Kapse, Kushal J; Glynn, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined regions in the left and right hemisphere language network that were altered in terms of the underlying neural activation and effective connectivity subsequent to language rehabilitation. Eight persons with chronic post-stroke aphasia and eight normal controls participated in the current study. Patients received a 10 week semantic feature-based rehabilitation program to improve their skills. Therapy was provided on atypical examples of one trained category while two control categories were monitored; the categories were counterbalanced across patients. In each fMRI session, two experimental tasks were conducted: (a) picture naming and (b) semantic feature verification of trained and untrained categories. Analysis of treatment effect sizes revealed that all patients showed greater improvements on the trained category relative to untrained categories. Results from this study show remarkable patterns of consistency despite the inherent variability in lesion size and activation patterns across patients. Across patients, activation that emerged as a function of rehabilitation on the trained category included bilateral IFG, bilateral SFG, LMFG, and LPCG for picture naming; and bilateral IFG, bilateral MFG, LSFG, and bilateral MTG for semantic feature verification. Analysis of effective connectivity using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) indicated that LIFG was the consistently significantly modulated region after rehabilitation across participants. These results indicate that language networks in patients with aphasia resemble normal language control networks and that this similarity is accentuated by rehabilitation. PMID:26106314

  16. Changes in task-based effective connectivity in language networks following rehabilitation in post-stroke patients with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Meier, Erin L.; Kapse, Kushal J.; Glynn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined regions in the left and right hemisphere language network that were altered in terms of the underlying neural activation and effective connectivity subsequent to language rehabilitation. Eight persons with chronic post-stroke aphasia and eight normal controls participated in the current study. Patients received a 10 week semantic feature-based rehabilitation program to improve their skills. Therapy was provided on atypical examples of one trained category while two control categories were monitored; the categories were counterbalanced across patients. In each fMRI session, two experimental tasks were conducted: (a) picture naming and (b) semantic feature verification of trained and untrained categories. Analysis of treatment effect sizes revealed that all patients showed greater improvements on the trained category relative to untrained categories. Results from this study show remarkable patterns of consistency despite the inherent variability in lesion size and activation patterns across patients. Across patients, activation that emerged as a function of rehabilitation on the trained category included bilateral IFG, bilateral SFG, LMFG, and LPCG for picture naming; and bilateral IFG, bilateral MFG, LSFG, and bilateral MTG for semantic feature verification. Analysis of effective connectivity using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) indicated that LIFG was the consistently significantly modulated region after rehabilitation across participants. These results indicate that language networks in patients with aphasia resemble normal language control networks and that this similarity is accentuated by rehabilitation. PMID:26106314

  17. Speed-Dependent Modulation of the Locomotor Behavior in Adult Mice Reveals Attractor and Transitional Gaits

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Maxime; Josset, Nicolas; Roussel, Marie; Couraud, Sébastien; Bretzner, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion results from an interplay between biomechanical constraints of the muscles attached to the skeleton and the neuronal circuits controlling and coordinating muscle activities. Quadrupeds exhibit a wide range of locomotor gaits. Given our advances in the genetic identification of spinal and supraspinal circuits important to locomotion in the mouse, it is now important to get a better understanding of the full repertoire of gaits in the freely walking mouse. To assess this range, young adult C57BL/6J mice were trained to walk and run on a treadmill at different locomotor speeds. Instead of using the classical paradigm defining gaits according to their footfall pattern, we combined the inter-limb coupling and the duty cycle of the stance phase, thus identifying several types of gaits: lateral walk, trot, out-of-phase walk, rotary gallop, transverse gallop, hop, half-bound, and full-bound. Out-of-phase walk, trot, and full-bound were robust and appeared to function as attractor gaits (i.e., a state to which the network flows and stabilizes) at low, intermediate, and high speeds respectively. In contrast, lateral walk, hop, transverse gallop, rotary gallop, and half-bound were more transient and therefore considered transitional gaits (i.e., a labile state of the network from which it flows to the attractor state). Surprisingly, lateral walk was less frequently observed. Using graph analysis, we demonstrated that transitions between gaits were predictable, not random. In summary, the wild-type mouse exhibits a wider repertoire of locomotor gaits than expected. Future locomotor studies should benefit from this paradigm in assessing transgenic mice or wild-type mice with neurotraumatic injury or neurodegenerative disease affecting gait. PMID:26941592

  18. Long-Term Effects of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation in Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vestito, Lucilla; Rosellini, Sara; Mantero, Massimo; Bandini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been suggested to improve language function in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Most studies on aphasic patients, however, were conducted with a very limited follow-up period, if any. In this pilot, single-blind study on chronic post-stroke aphasic patients, we aimed to verify whether or not tDCS is able to extend its beneficial effects for a longer period of time (21 weeks after the end of stimulation). Three aphasic patients underwent anodal tDCS (A-tDCS, 20 min, 1.5 mA) and sham stimulation (S-tDCS) over the left frontal (perilesional) region, coupled with a simultaneous naming training (on-line tDCS). Ten consecutive sessions (5 days per week for 2 weeks) were implemented. In the first five sessions, we used a list of 40 figures, while in the subsequent five sessions we utilized a second set of 40 figures differing in word difficulty. At the end of the stimulation period, we found a significant beneficial effect of A-tDCS (as compared to baseline and S-tDCS) in all our subjects, regardless of word difficulty, although with some inter-individual differences. In the follow-up period, the percentage of correct responses persisted significantly better until the 16th week, when an initial decline in naming performance was observed. Up to the 21st week, the number of correct responses, though no longer significant, was still above the baseline level. These results in a small group of aphasic patients suggest a long-term beneficial effect of on-line A-tDCS. PMID:25352798

  19. Differences in Plantar Flexor Fascicle Length and Pennation Angle between Healthy and Poststroke Individuals and Implications for Poststroke Plantar Flexor Force Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, John W.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Higginson, Jill S.

    2014-01-01

    Poststroke plantar flexor muscle weakness has been attributed to muscle atrophy and impaired activation, which cannot collectively explain the limitations in force-generating capability of the entire muscle group. It is of interest whether changes in poststroke plantar flexor muscle fascicle length and pennation angle influence the individual force-generating capability and whether plantar flexor weakness is due to uniform changes in individual muscle force contributions. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles for the soleus, medial, and lateral gastrocnemius were measured using ultrasound and compared between ten hemiparetic poststroke subjects and ten healthy controls. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions to poststroke plantar flexor torque were estimated for each muscle. No statistical differences were observed for any muscle fascicle lengths or for the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus pennation angles between paretic, nonparetic, and healthy limbs. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the paretic medial gastrocnemius pennation angle compared to both nonparetic and healthy limbs. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions were smaller on the paretic side. Additionally, bilateral muscle contributions to plantar flexor torque remained the same. While the architecture of each individual plantar flexor muscle is affected differently after stroke, the relative contribution of each muscle remains the same. PMID:25147753

  20. Reliability review of the remote tool delivery system locomotor

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, J.B.

    1999-04-01

    The locomotor being built by RedZone Robotics is designed to serve as a remote tool delivery (RID) system for waste retrieval, tank cleaning, viewing, and inspection inside the high-level waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). The RTD systm is to be deployed through a tank riser. The locomotor portion of the RTD system is designed to be inserted into the tank and is to be capable of moving around the tank by supporting itself and moving on the tank internal structural columns. The locomotor will serve as a mounting platform for a dexterous manipulator arm. The complete RTD system consists of the locomotor, dexterous manipulator arm, cameras, lights, cables, hoses, cable/hose management system, power supply, and operator control station.

  1. Locomotor stereotypy produced by dexbenzetimide and scopolamine is reduced by SKF 83566, not sulpiride.

    PubMed

    Fritts, M E; Mueller, K; Morris, L

    1998-07-01

    Like amphetamine, scopolamine produces locomotor stereotypy (repetitive routes of locomotion) in an open field. To determine whether locomotor stereotypy is a common behavioral effect of anticholingeric agents, several doses of the anticholinergic dexbenzetimide were tested for the ability to produce locomotor stereotypy; like scopolamine, dexbenzetimide produced locomotor stereotypy. To investigate a possible role of dopamine in anticholinergic-induced locomotor stereotypy, we tested the ability of the dopamine D1 antagonist SKF 83566 and the D2 antagonist sulpiride to block the locomotor stereotypy induced by scopolamine as well as dexbenzetimide. SKF 83566 blocked scopolamine- and dexbenzetimide-induced locomotor stereotypy; sulpiride did not reduce dexbenzetimide-induced locomotor stereotypy, but enhanced scopolamine-induced locomotor stereotypy. Hyperlocomotion was reduced by both dopamine antagonists. Results are interpreted in support of the notion that dopamine is the likely candidate mediating locomotor stereotypy. PMID:9678647

  2. Single Limb Exercise Induces Femoral Artery Remodeling and Improves Blood Flow in the Hemiparetic Leg Post-Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Billinger, Sandra A.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Guo, Lisa X.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose After stroke, individuals have decreased mobility of the hemiparetic leg, which demands less muscle oxygen consumption; thus, blood flow decreases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single limb exercise (SLE) on femoral artery blood flow, diameter and peak flow velocity in the hemiparetic leg after stroke. Methods Twelve individuals (60.6 ± 14.5 years of age; 5 male) with chronic stroke (69.1 ± 82.2 months; 5 with right-side hemiparesis) participated in the study. The intervention consisted of a SLE knee extension/flexion protocol three times per week for 4 weeks. Using Doppler ultrasound, bilateral femoral artery blood flow, diameter and peak flow velocity was assessed at baseline, after 2 weeks and after 4 weeks of SLE. Results Using repeated measures ANOVA, femoral artery blood flow, arterial diameter, and blood flow velocity in the hemiparetic limb were significantly improved (p < 0.0001) after the SLE. No significant changes occurred in the non-trained limb for any outcome measures. Conclusions These data suggest that a 4-week SLE training program that increases muscular activity in the hemiparetic limb improves femoral artery blood flow, diameter, and peak velocity. SLE may be an important training strategy in stroke rehabilitation to minimize the vascular changes that occur post-stroke due to decreased activity of the hemiparetic limb. PMID:19520990

  3. [Changes in the Functional Connectivity of Motor Zones in the Use of Multimodal Exoskeleton Complex "Regent" in the Neurorehabilitation of Post-Stroke Patients].

    PubMed

    Saenko, I V; Morozova, S N; Zmeykina, E A; Konovalov, R N; Chervyakov, A V; Poydasheva, A G; Chernikova, L A; Suponeva, N A; Piradov, M A; Kozlovskaya, I B

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the effect of a course of treatment with the use of multimodal complex exoskeleton (MCE) "Regent" on the reorganization of cortical locomotor zones in 14 patients with post-stroke hemiparesis, mainly atthe chronic stage of the disease. Before the course of treatment, we identified specific areas of activation in the primary sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas and the inferior parietal lobules in both affected and healthy hemispheres by means of functional MRI (fMRI) with the use of special passive sensorimotor paradigms. After the course of treatment with MCE, we observed an improvement of temporal characteristics of walking; it was accompanied by a decrease in the activation zones of inferior parietal lobules, especially in the healthy hemisphere, and by a significant increase in the activation zone of primary sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas. The analysis of the functional connectivity of studied zones before and after the course of treatment with MCE showed significant changes in intra- and interhemispheric interactions. PMID:27188148

  4. Acupuncture for Poststroke Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To summarize and evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in relieving poststroke shoulder pain. Methods. Seven databases were searched without language restrictions. All randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of acupuncture for poststroke shoulder pain compared with controls were included. Assessments were performed primarily with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), and effective rates. Results. In all, 188 potentially relevant articles were identified; 12 were randomized controlled trials that met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that acupuncture combined with rehabilitation treatment appeared to be more effective than rehabilitation treatment alone for poststroke shoulder pain, as assessed by VAS (weighted mean difference, 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–2.54; <0.001); FMA (weighted mean difference, 8.70; 95% CI, 6.58–10.82; P < 0.001); and effective rate (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18–1.47; P < 0.001). Conclusions. Although there is some evidence for an effect of acupuncture on poststroke shoulder pain, the results are inconclusive. Further studies with more subjects and a rigorous study design are needed to confirm the role of acupuncture in the treatment of poststroke shoulder pain. PMID:27547224

  5. Essential role of interleukin-6 in post-stroke angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Kälin, Roland E.; Baldinger, Tina; Werner, Christian; Balkaya, Mustafa; Eom, Gina D.; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Kröber, Jan; Miller, Kelly R.; Lindauer, Ute; Laufs, Ulrich; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Heppner, Frank L.

    2012-01-01

    Ambivalent effects of interleukin-6 on the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke have been reported. However, to date, the long-term actions of interleukin-6 after stroke have not been investigated. Here, we subjected interleukin-6 knockout (IL-6−/−) and wild-type control mice to mild brain ischaemia by 30-min filamentous middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion. While ischaemic tissue damage was comparable at early time points, IL-6−/− mice showed significantly increased chronic lesion volumes as well as worse long-term functional outcome. In particular, IL-6−/− mice displayed an impaired angiogenic response to brain ischaemia with reduced numbers of newly generated endothelial cells and decreased density of perfused microvessels along with lower absolute regional cerebral blood flow and reduced vessel responsivity in ischaemic striatum at 4 weeks. Similarly, the early genomic activation of angiogenesis-related gene networks was strongly reduced and the ischaemia-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation observed in wild-type mice was almost absent in IL-6−/− mice. In addition, systemic neoangiogenesis was impaired in IL-6−/− mice. Transplantation of interleukin-6 competent bone marrow into IL-6−/− mice (IL-6chi) did not rescue interleukin-6 messenger RNA expression or the early transcriptional activation of angiogenesis after stroke. Accordingly, chronic stroke outcome in IL-6chi mice recapitulated the major effects of interleukin-6 deficiency on post-stroke regeneration with significantly enhanced lesion volumes and reduced vessel densities. Additional in vitro experiments yielded complementary evidence, which showed that after stroke resident brain cells serve as the major source of interleukin-6 in a self-amplifying network. Treatment of primary cortical neurons, mixed glial cultures or immortalized brain endothelia with interleukin 6-induced robust interleukin-6 messenger RNA transcription in each case

  6. Locomotor Adaptation Improves Balance Control, Multitasking Ability and Reduces the Metabolic Cost of Postural Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Miller, C. A.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Guined, J. R.; Buxton, R. E.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    During exploration-class missions, sensorimotor disturbances may lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial introduction to a novel gravitational environment following a landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of our current project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability training program to facilitate rapid adaptation to these environments. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene. It provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Greater metabolic cost incurred during balance instability means more physical work is required during adaptation to new environments possibly affecting crewmembers? ability to perform mission critical tasks during early surface operations on planetary expeditions. The goal of this study was to characterize adaptation to a discordant sensory challenge across a number of performance modalities including locomotor stability, multi-tasking ability and metabolic cost. METHODS: Subjects (n=15) walked (4.0 km/h) on a treadmill for an 8 -minute baseline walking period followed by 20-minutes of walking (4.0 km/h) with support surface motion (0.3 Hz, sinusoidal lateral motion, peak amplitude 25.4 cm) provided by the treadmill/motion-base system. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of locomotor stability and multi-tasking ability, respectively. Metabolic data (VO2) were collected via a portable metabolic gas analysis system. RESULTS: At the onset of lateral support surface motion, subj ects walking on our treadmill showed an increase in stride frequency and auditory reaction time indicating initial balance and multi-tasking disturbances. During the 20-minute adaptation period, balance control and multi-tasking performance improved. Similarly, throughout the 20-minute adaptation period, VO2 gradually

  7. Feasibility of the adaptive and automatic presentation of tasks (ADAPT) system for rehabilitation of upper extremity function post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for rehabilitation of arm and hand function after stroke recommend that motor training focus on realistic tasks that require reaching and manipulation and engage the patient intensively, actively, and adaptively. Here, we investigated the feasibility of a novel robotic task-practice system, ADAPT, designed in accordance with such guidelines. At each trial, ADAPT selects a functional task according to a training schedule and with difficulty based on previous performance. Once the task is selected, the robot picks up and presents the corresponding tool, simulates the dynamics of the tasks, and the patient interacts with the tool to perform the task. Methods Five participants with chronic stroke with mild to moderate impairments (> 9 months post-stroke; Fugl-Meyer arm score 49.2 ± 5.6) practiced four functional tasks (selected out of six in a pre-test) with ADAPT for about one and half hour and 144 trials in a pseudo-random schedule of 3-trial blocks per task. Results No adverse events occurred and ADAPT successfully presented the six functional tasks without human intervention for a total of 900 trials. Qualitative analysis of trajectories showed that ADAPT simulated the desired task dynamics adequately, and participants reported good, although not excellent, task fidelity. During training, the adaptive difficulty algorithm progressively increased task difficulty leading towards an optimal challenge point based on performance; difficulty was then continuously adjusted to keep performance around the challenge point. Furthermore, the time to complete all trained tasks decreased significantly from pretest to one-hour post-test. Finally, post-training questionnaires demonstrated positive patient acceptance of ADAPT. Conclusions ADAPT successfully provided adaptive progressive training for multiple functional tasks based on participant's performance. Our encouraging results establish the feasibility of ADAPT; its efficacy will next be tested

  8. Modulating the pain network--neurostimulation for central poststroke pain.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Koichi; Seymour, Ben; Saitoh, Youichi

    2015-05-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most under-recognized consequences of stroke, occurring in up to 10% of patients, and is also one of the most difficult to treat. The condition characteristically develops after selective lesions to the spinothalamic system, most often to the ventral posterior thalamus. Here, we suggest that CPSP is best characterized as a disorder of brain network reorganization, and that this characterization offers insight into the inadequacy of most current pharmacological treatments. Accordingly, we review the progress in identification of nonpharmacological treatments, which could ultimately lead to mechanism-based therapeutics. Of the invasive neurostimulation treatments available, electrical motor cortex stimulation seems to be superior to deep brain stimulation of the thalamus or brainstem, but enthusiasm for clinical use of the procedure is limited by its invasiveness. The current preference is for noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation, which, though effective, requires repeated application, causing logistical difficulties. Although CPSP is often severe and remains difficult to treat, future characterization of the precise underlying neurophysiological mechanisms, together with technological innovation, should allow new treatments to evolve. PMID:25896085

  9. The sensory side of post-stroke motor rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Russo, Cristina; Edwards, Dylan J

    2016-04-11

    Contemporary strategies to promote motor recovery following stroke focus on repetitive voluntary movements. Although successful movement relies on efficient sensorimotor integration, functional outcomes often bias motor therapy toward motor-related impairments such as weakness, spasticity and synergies; sensory therapy and reintegration is implied, but seldom targeted. However, the planning and execution of voluntary movement requires that the brain extracts sensory information regarding body position and predicts future positions, by integrating a variety of sensory inputs with ongoing and planned motor activity. Neurological patients who have lost one or more of their senses may show profoundly affected motor functions, even if muscle strength remains unaffected. Following stroke, motor recovery can be dictated by the degree of sensory disruption. Consequently, a thorough account of sensory function might be both prognostic and prescriptive in neurorehabilitation. This review outlines the key sensory components of human voluntary movement, describes how sensory disruption can influence prognosis and expected outcomes in stroke patients, reports on current sensory-based approaches in post-stroke motor rehabilitation, and makes recommendations for optimizing rehabilitation programs based on sensory stimulation. PMID:27080070

  10. Post-stroke epilepsy in Burkina Faso (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Napon, Christian; Dabilgou, Anselme; Kyelem, Julie; Kaboré, Jean

    2016-09-15

    Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) is defined as "recurrent seizures following stroke with confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy". Our objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic PSE aspects at the Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital, the main reference centre for neurological conditions in Burkina Faso. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2006 to December 2014. The data on thirty-two (32) cases of PSE was collected from a total of 1616 patients hospitalized for stroke, representing a rate of 1.98%. The patients' ages ranged from 25 to 77years old with a mean age of 58±10.39. There were 21 men and 11 women, with a gender ratio of 1.9. The time of occurrence of PSE ranged between 10 and 3600days (10years). The brain CT scan helped distinguish the different subtypes of stroke. Sixty-four percent (64%) of the cases experienced ischemic stroke and 36% of the cases cerebral hemorrhage. With regard to medical treatment, 23 patients received monotherapy, and 4 patients dual therapy. Exactly 96.87% of seizures were stabilized during the hospitalization period. PSE is a symptomatic type of epilepsy occurring during stroke sequelae. It is important not to lose sight of this before the occurrence of any focal or generalized seizure after a stroke. PMID:27538600

  11. Increased Th17/Treg Ratio in Poststroke Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinjing; Kenkare, Komal; Li, Shanshan; Desai, Varsha; Wong, John; Luo, Xun; Wood, Lisa J.; Xu, Yuming; Wang, Qing Mei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a major debilitating symptom after stroke. The biological mechanisms underlying poststroke fatigue (PFS) are unknown. We hypothesized that PSF is associated with an alteration in the balance between Th17 and Treg cells. To test this hypothesis we assessed fatigue in 30 stroke survivors using the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC). Peripheral blood was collected for assessment of Th17 and Treg cell populations and measurement of interleukin-10 (IL-10). Participants were dichotomized into severe fatigue (n = 14) and low-moderate fatigue (n = 16) groups by K-mean cluster analysis of FSMC scores. There were no group differences in age, gender, stroke type, stroke severity, or time since stroke. Stroke survivors in the severe fatigue group reported greater anxiety (p = 0.004) and depression (p = 0.001) than in the low-moderate fatigue group. The ratio of Th17 to Treg cells was significantly increased in the severe fatigue group relative to the mild-moderate fatigue group (p = 0.035). Serum levels of IL-10 negatively correlated withTh17/Treg ratio (r = −0.408,  p = 0.025). Our preliminary findings suggest that an imbalance in the Th17/Treg ratio is associated with the severity of PSF. PMID:26166952

  12. Literature and art therapy in post-stroke psychological disorders.

    PubMed

    Eum, Yeongcheol; Yim, Jongeun

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and long-term disability worldwide, and post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common and serious psychiatric complication of stroke. PSD makes patients have more severe deficits in activities of daily living, a worse functional outcome, more severe cognitive deficits and increased mortality as compared to stroke patients without depression. Therefore, to reduce or prevent mental problems of stroke patients, psychological treatment should be recommended. Literature and art therapy are highly effective psychological treatment for stroke patients. Literature therapy divided into poetry and story therapy is an assistive tool that treats neurosis as well as emotional or behavioral disorders. Poetry can add impression to the lethargic life of a patient with PSD, thereby acting as a natural treatment. Story therapy can change the gloomy psychological state of patients into a bright and healthy story, and therefore can help stroke patients to overcome their emotional disabilities. Art therapy is one form of psychological therapy that can treat depression and anxiety in stroke patients. Stroke patients can express their internal conflicts, emotions, and psychological status through art works or processes and it would be a healing process of mental problems. Music therapy can relieve the suppressed emotions of patients and add vitality to the body, while giving them the energy to share their feelings with others. In conclusion, literature and art therapy can identify the emotional status of patients and serve as a useful auxiliary tool to help stroke patients in their rehabilitation process. PMID:25744067

  13. SVM versus MAP on accelerometer data to distinguish among locomotor activities executed at different speeds.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Maurizio; Riganti-Fulginei, Francesco; Bernabucci, Ivan; Laudani, Antonino; Bibbo, Daniele; Muscillo, Rossana; Salvini, Alessandro; Conforto, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Two approaches to the classification of different locomotor activities performed at various speeds are here presented and evaluated: a maximum a posteriori (MAP) Bayes' classification scheme and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) are applied on a 2D projection of 16 features extracted from accelerometer data. The locomotor activities (level walking, stair climbing, and stair descending) were recorded by an inertial sensor placed on the shank (preferred leg), performed in a natural indoor-outdoor scenario by 10 healthy young adults (age 25-35 yrs.). From each segmented activity epoch, sixteen features were chosen in the frequency and time domain. Dimension reduction was then performed through 2D Sammon's mapping. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was trained to mimic Sammon's mapping on the whole dataset. In the Bayes' approach, the two features were then fed to a Bayes' classifier that incorporates an update rule, while, in the SVM scheme, the ANN was considered as the kernel function of the classifier. Bayes' approach performed slightly better than SVM on both the training set (91.4% versus 90.7%) and the testing set (84.2% versus 76.0%), favoring the proposed Bayes' scheme as more suitable than the proposed SVM in distinguishing among the different monitored activities. PMID:24376469

  14. SVM versus MAP on Accelerometer Data to Distinguish among Locomotor Activities Executed at Different Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Riganti-Fulginei, Francesco; Bernabucci, Ivan; Bibbo, Daniele; Muscillo, Rossana

    2013-01-01

    Two approaches to the classification of different locomotor activities performed at various speeds are here presented and evaluated: a maximum a posteriori (MAP) Bayes' classification scheme and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) are applied on a 2D projection of 16 features extracted from accelerometer data. The locomotor activities (level walking, stair climbing, and stair descending) were recorded by an inertial sensor placed on the shank (preferred leg), performed in a natural indoor-outdoor scenario by 10 healthy young adults (age 25–35 yrs.). From each segmented activity epoch, sixteen features were chosen in the frequency and time domain. Dimension reduction was then performed through 2D Sammon's mapping. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was trained to mimic Sammon's mapping on the whole dataset. In the Bayes' approach, the two features were then fed to a Bayes' classifier that incorporates an update rule, while, in the SVM scheme, the ANN was considered as the kernel function of the classifier. Bayes' approach performed slightly better than SVM on both the training set (91.4% versus 90.7%) and the testing set (84.2% versus 76.0%), favoring the proposed Bayes' scheme as more suitable than the proposed SVM in distinguishing among the different monitored activities. PMID:24376469

  15. Sex differences in locomotor effects of morphine in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Rebecca M.; Clark, James L.; Hart, Stephen P.; Pinckney, Megan K.

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in reinforcing, analgesic and other effects of opioids have been demonstrated; however, the extent to which sex differences in motoric effects of opioids contribute to apparent sex differences in their primary effects is not known. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of the prototypic mu opioid agonist morphine on locomotor activity in male vs. female rats. Saline or morphine (1-10 mg/kg) was administered s.c. to adult Sprague-Dawley rats, which were placed into a photobeam apparatus for 3-5 hr to measure activity. Modulation of morphine's effects by gonadal hormones and by handling (either during the test session or for 4 days before the test session) were examined. Morphine initially suppressed and later increased locomotor activity in both sexes relative to their saline-injected controls, but males were more sensitive than females to the initial locomotor suppressant effect of morphine. Intermittent, brief handling during the 3-hr test session blunted morphine-induced locomotor activation in both sexes. Females in proestrus were the most sensitive to morphine's locomotor-stimulant effect, with females in estrus showing the least response to morphine. Gonadectomized (GDX) males with or without testosterone were equally sensitive to morphine's effects, whereas GDX females treated with estradiol showed a blunted response to morphine's effects, similar to intact females in estrus. Brief handling on each of 4 consecutive days pre-test attenuated morphine's locomotor suppressant effect in males but had no effect in females, thereby eliminating the sex difference. These data suggest that sex differences in morphine's effects on locomotor activity can be attributed to gonadal hormones in females, and to differential stress-induced modulation of morphine's effects in males vs. females. PMID:17217999

  16. Post-stroke dysphagia: A review and design considerations for future trials.

    PubMed

    Cohen, David L; Roffe, Christine; Beavan, Jessica; Blackett, Brenda; Fairfield, Carol A; Hamdy, Shaheen; Havard, Di; McFarlane, Mary; McLauglin, Carolee; Randall, Mark; Robson, Katie; Scutt, Polly; Smith, Craig; Smithard, David; Sprigg, Nikola; Warusevitane, Anushka; Watkins, Caroline; Woodhouse, Lisa; Bath, Philip M

    2016-06-01

    Post-stroke dysphagia (a difficulty in swallowing after a stroke) is a common and expensive complication of acute stroke and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and institutionalization due in part to aspiration, pneumonia, and malnutrition. Although most patients recover swallowing spontaneously, a significant minority still have dysphagia at six months. Although multiple advances have been made in the hyperacute treatment of stroke and secondary prevention, the management of dysphagia post-stroke remains a neglected area of research, and its optimal management, including diagnosis, investigation and treatment, have still to be defined. PMID:27006423

  17. Locomotor, discriminative stimulus, and place conditioning effects of MDAI in rodents.

    PubMed

    Gatch, Michael B; Dolan, Sean B; Forster, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    5,6-Methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI) has become a common substitute for (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Ecstasy. MDAI is known to produce MDMA-like discriminative stimulus effects, but it is not known whether MDAI has psychostimulant or hallucinogen-like effects. MDAI was tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for discriminative stimulus effects in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), ±MDMA (1.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) from saline. The ability of MDAI to produce conditioned place preference was also tested in mice. MDAI (3 to 30 mg/kg) depressed locomotor activity from 10 to 60 min. A rebound stimulant effect was observed at 1 to 3.5 h following 30 mg/kg. Lethality occurred in 8/8 mice following 100 mg/kg MDAI. Similarly, MDMA depressed locomotor activity immediately following the administration of 0.25 mg/kg and stimulant effects were observed 50-70 min following the administration of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. MDAI fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of MDMA (2.5 mg/kg), (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), and cocaine (7.5 mg/kg), but produced only 73% methamphetamine-appropriate responding at a dose that suppressed responding (7.5 mg/kg). MDAI produced tremors at 10 mg/kg in one methamphetamine-trained rat. MDAI produced conditioned place preference from 0.3 to 10 mg/kg. The effects of MDAI on locomotor activity and drug discrimination were similar to those produced by MDMA, having both psychostimulant-like and hallucinogen-like effects; thus, MDAI may have similar abuse potential as MDMA. PMID:27028902

  18. Modular diversification of the locomotor system in damselfishes (Pomacentridae).

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Medrano, Rosalía; Frédérich, Bruno; Barber, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    As fish move and interact with their aquatic environment by swimming, small morphological variations of the locomotor system can have profound implications on fitness. Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) have inhabited coral reef ecosystems for more than 50 million years. As such, habitat preferences and behavior could significantly constrain the morphology and evolvability of the locomotor system. To test this hypothesis, we used phylogenetic comparative methods on morphometric, ecological and behavioral data. While body elongation represented the primary source of variation in the locomotor system of damselfishes, results also showed a diverse suite of morphological combinations between extreme morphologies. Results show clear associations between behavior, habitat preferences, and morphology, suggesting ecological constraints on shape diversification of the locomotor system. In addition, results indicate that the three modules of the locomotor system are weakly correlated, resulting in versatile and independent characters. These results suggest that Pomacentridae is shape may result from the interaction between (1) integrated parts of morphological variation that maintain overall swimming ability and (2) relatively independent parts of the morphology that facilitate adaptation and diversification. J. Morphol. 277:603-614, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26919129

  19. The ventromedial hypothalamus oxytocin induces locomotor behavior regulated by estrogen.

    PubMed

    Narita, Kazumi; Murata, Takuya; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that excitation of neurons in the rat ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) induced locomotor activity. An oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) exists in the VMH and plays a role in regulating sexual behavior. However, the role of Oxtr in the VMH in locomotor activity is not clear. In this study we examined the roles of oxytocin in the VMH in running behavior, and also investigated the involvement of estrogen in this behavioral change. Microinjection of oxytocin into the VMH induced a dose-dependent increase in the running behavior in male rats. The oxytocin-induced running activity was inhibited by simultaneous injection of Oxtr-antagonist, (d(CH2)5(1), Try(Me)(2), Orn(8))-oxytocin. Oxytocin injection also induced running behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Pretreatment of the OVX rats with estrogen augmented the oxytocin-induced running activity twofold, and increased the Oxtr mRNA in the VMH threefold. During the estrus cycle locomotor activity spontaneously increased in the dark period of proestrus. The Oxtr mRNA was up-regulated in the proestrus afternoon. Blockade of oxytocin neurotransmission by its antagonist before the onset of the dark period of proestrus decreased the following nocturnal locomotor activity. These findings demonstrate that Oxtr in the VMH is involved in the induction of running behavior and that estrogen facilitates this effect by means of Oxtr up-regulation, suggesting the involvement of oxytocin in the locomotor activity of proestrus female rats. PMID:27237044

  20. Rotation, locomotor activity and individual differences in voluntary ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, D M; Crosley, K J; Keller, R W; Glick, S D; Carlson, J N

    1999-03-27

    Spontaneous turning behavior and locomotor activity were evaluated for their ability to predict differences in the voluntary consumption of ethanol in male Long-Evans rats. Animals were assessed for their preferred direction of turning behavior and for high vs. low levels of spontaneous locomotor activity, as determined during nocturnal testing in a rotometer. Subsequently, preference for a 10% ethanol solution vs. water was determined in a 24-h two-bottle home-cage free-choice paradigm. Rats exhibiting a right-turning preference consumed more ethanol than rats showing a left-turning preference. While locomotor activity alone did not predict differences in drinking, turning and locomotor activity together predicted differences in ethanol consumption. Low-activity right-turning rats consumed more ethanol than all the other groups of rats. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that individual differences in turning behavior are accompanied by different asymmetries in dopamine (DA) function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Individual differences in locomotor activity are associated with differences in nucleus accumbens (NAS) DA function. The present data suggest that variations in mPFC DA asymmetry and NAS DA function may underlie differences in the voluntary consumption of ethanol. PMID:10095014

  1. Decoding post-stroke motor function from structural brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Jane M; Filippone, Maurizio; Girolami, Mark; Ward, Nick S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research based on neuroimaging data has benefited from machine learning methods, which have the ability to provide individualized predictions and to account for the interaction among units of information in the brain. Application of machine learning in structural imaging to investigate diseases that involve brain injury presents an additional challenge, especially in conditions like stroke, due to the high variability across patients regarding characteristics of the lesions. Extracting data from anatomical images in a way that translates brain damage information into features to be used as input to learning algorithms is still an open question. One of the most common approaches to capture regional information from brain injury is to obtain the lesion load per region (i.e. the proportion of voxels in anatomical structures that are considered to be damaged). However, no systematic evaluation has yet been performed to compare this approach with using patterns of voxels (i.e. considering each voxel as a single feature). In this paper we compared both approaches applying Gaussian Process Regression to decode motor scores in 50 chronic stroke patients based solely on data derived from structural MRI. For both approaches we compared different ways to delimit anatomical areas: regions of interest from an anatomical atlas, the corticospinal tract, a mask obtained from fMRI analysis with a motor task in healthy controls and regions selected using lesion-symptom mapping. Our analysis showed that extracting features through patterns of voxels that represent lesion probability produced better results than quantifying the lesion load per region. In particular, from the different ways to delimit anatomical areas compared, the best performance was obtained with a combination of a range of cortical and subcortical motor areas as well as the corticospinal tract. These results will inform the appropriate methodology for predicting long term motor outcomes from early post-stroke

  2. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  3. Developing Sensorimotor Countermeasures to Mitigate Post-Flight Locomotor Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Cohen, H.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Houser, J.; McDonald, P. V.; Seidler, R. D.; Merkle, L. A.; Stelmach, G. E.

    2001-01-01

    Following spaceflight, crewmembers experience postural and locomotor instability. The magnitude and duration of post-flight sensorimotor disturbances increase with longer duration exposure to microgravity. These post-flight postural and locomotor alterations can pose a risk to crew safety and to mission objectives if nominal or emergency vehicle egress is required immediately following long-duration spaceflight. Gait instabilities could prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the Orbiter, Crew Return Vehicle or a future Martian lander leading to compromised mission objectives. We propose a countermeasure that aids in maintaining functional locomotor performance. This includes retaining the ability to perform vehicular egress and meet early mission objectives soon after landing on a planetary surface.

  4. Effects of Sodium Butyrate on Methamphetamine-Sensitized Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Harkness, John H.; Hitzemann, Robert J.; Edmunds, Stephanie; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroadaptations associated with behavioral sensitization induced by repeated exposure to methamphetamine (MA) appear to be involved in compulsive drug pursuit and use. Increased histone acetylation, an epigenetic effect resulting in altered gene expression, may promote sensitized responses to psychostimulants. The role of histone acetylation in the expression and acquisition of MA-induced locomotor sensitization was examined by measuring the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition by sodium butyrate (NaB). For the effect on expression, vehicle or NaB (630 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min prior to MA challenge in mice treated repeatedly with MA (10 days of 2 mg/kg MA) or saline (10 days), and then locomotor response to MA challenge was measured. NaB treatment increased the locomotor response to MA in both acutely MA treated and sensitized animals. For acquisition, NaB was administered 30 min prior to each MA exposure (10 days of 1 or 2 mg/kg), but not prior to the MA challenge test. Treatment with NaB during the sensitization acquisition period significantly increased locomotor activation by MA in sensitized mice only. NaB alone did not significantly alter locomotor activity. Acute NaB or MA, but not the combination, appeared to increase striatal acetylation at histone H4. Repeated treatment with MA, but not NaB or MA plus NaB, increased striatal acetylation at histone H3. Although increased histone acetylation may alter the expression of genes involved in acute locomotor response to MA and in the acquisition of MA-induced sensitization, results for acetylation at H3 and H4 showed little correspondence with behavior. PMID:23137698

  5. Association of locomotor complaints and disability in the Rotterdam study.

    PubMed Central

    Odding, E; Valkenburg, H A; Algra, D; Vandenouweland, F A; Grobbee, D E; Hofman, A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the association between joint complaints and locomotor disability. METHODS--During a home interview survey 1901 men and 3135 women aged 55 years and over (the Rotterdam Study) were asked about joint pain and morning stiffness in the past month, and locomotor disability was assessed by six questions from the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). RESULTS--The prevalence of locomotor disability was 24.5% for men and 40.5% for women. The prevalence of joint pain in men was 0.7% for pain in the hips, knees, and feet simultaneously, 3.7% for pain at two joint sites, 16.0% for pain at one joint site, and 20.4% for pain in the hips and/or knees and/or feet (any joint site); the corresponding estimates for women were 1.9%, 9.0%, 23.7%, and 34.5%, respectively. The prevalence of generalised morning stiffness was 4.9% for men and 10.4% for women. The age adjusted odds ratios for locomotor disability in men ranged from 2.4 of pain at one joint site to 8.8 of pain at all three joint sites; for women these odds ratios varied between 2.5 and 5.7, respectively. The age adjusted odds ratios of generalised morning stiffness were 8.0 for men and 7.3 for women. CONCLUSION--There is a strong and independent association between locomotor disability and age, joint pain, and generalised morning stiffness in people aged 55 years and over. The odds for locomotor disability increase onefold for every year increase in age, while the presence of generalised morning stiffness is of greater influence than the presence of joint pain. PMID:7495342

  6. Determination of the Spontaneous Locomotor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jared K.; Kowalski, Suzanne; Rogina, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an excellent model organism to study environmental and genetic manipulations that affect behavior. One such behavior is spontaneous locomotor activity. Here we describe our protocol that utilizes Drosophila population monitors and a tracking system that allows continuous monitoring of the spontaneous locomotor activity of flies for several days at a time. This method is simple, reliable, and objective and can be used to examine the effects of aging, sex, changes in caloric content of food, addition of drugs, or genetic manipulations that mimic human diseases. PMID:24747955

  7. Determination of the spontaneous locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jared K; Kowalski, Suzanne; Rogina, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an excellent model organism to study environmental and genetic manipulations that affect behavior. One such behavior is spontaneous locomotor activity. Here we describe our protocol that utilizes Drosophila population monitors and a tracking system that allows continuous monitoring of the spontaneous locomotor activity of flies for several days at a time. This method is simple, reliable, and objective and can be used to examine the effects of aging, sex, changes in caloric content of food, addition of drugs, or genetic manipulations that mimic human diseases. PMID:24747955

  8. Genotypic structure of a Drosophila population for adult locomotor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Grechanyi, G.V.; Korzun, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the variation of adult locomotor activity in four samples taken at different times from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster showed that the total variation of this trait is relatively stable in time and has a substantial genetic component. Genotypic structure of the population for locomotor activity is characterized by the presence of large groups of genotypes with high and low values of this trait. A possible explanation for the presence of such groups in a population is cyclic density-dependent selection.

  9. Self-Concept, Disposition, and Resilience of Poststroke Filipino Elderly with Residual Paralysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Tan, Eleanor Lourdes C.; Tan, Ernestine Faye S.; Tan, Justin Ryan L.; Tan, Mervyn C.; Tanciano, Daris Mae M.; Lee Say, Matthew L. Tang

    2012-01-01

    The interplay among self-concept, disposition, and resilience mirrors how the condition affects the emotional status of poststroke Filipino elderly with residual paralysis. Despite healthcare professionals' understanding of these clients' physical conditions, little is known regarding these clients' emotional health status related to stroke.…

  10. Effects of Physical Exercise on Working Memory and Prefrontal Cortex Function in Post-Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Moriya, M; Aoki, C; Sakatani, K

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in healthy older adults, but it is not clear whether this remains the case in post-stroke patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in post-stroke patients using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We studied 11 post-stroke patients. The patients performed Sternberg-type working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40 % of maximal oxygen uptake) with a cycling ergometer for 15 min. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We evaluated behavioral performance (response time and accuracy) of the working memory task. It was found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition (p < 0.01). In addition, NIRS analysis indicated that physical exercise enhanced prefrontal cortex activation, particularly in the right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.05), during the working memory task compared with the control condition. These findings suggest that the moderate-intensity aerobic exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in post-stroke patients. PMID:27526144

  11. The effects of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients with post-stroke depression

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dong; Shan, Jin; Ze, Yu; Xiao-yan, Zeng; Xiao-hua, Hu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To observe the effect of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients with post-stroke depression. [Subjects] Ninety patients with post-stroke depression were randomly divided into 3 groups: fluoxetine treatment group (n = 30), hyperbaric oxygen therapy group (n = 30), and hyperbaric oxygen combined treatment group (n = 30). [Methods] Fluoxetine treatment group received anti-depression drugs (fluoxetine, 20 mg/day), hyperbaric oxygen therapy group received hyperbaric oxygen (once a day, 5 days/week), hyperbaric oxygen combined treatment group received fluoxetine and hyperbaric oxygen treatments as described above. All patients received routine rehabilitation therapy. Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), and Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) scores were evaluated before and at the end of 4th week. The total effective rate of depression release between the 3 groups was also compared at the end of study. [Results] The end scores of HAMD and SSS in the 3 groups were significantly lower than those before treatment. The total effective rate of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy group after treatment was higher than the other two groups. [Conclusions] Combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with post-stroke depression. The total effective rate of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy was higher than other routine anti post-stroke depression treatments. PMID:26157204

  12. The "Living with Dysarthria" Group for Post-Stroke Dysarthria: The Participant Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, C.; Kelly, S.; Paton, G.; Brady, M.; Muir, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The "Living with Dysarthria" group programme, devised for people with post-stroke dysarthia and family members, was piloted twice. Feedback from those who experience an intervention contributes to the evaluation of speech and language therapy programmes, giving the participant view of the intervention's value and guiding…

  13. Evolution of Phonemic Word Fluency Performance in Post-Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Martha Taylor; Postman, Whitney Anne; Cho, Young Susan; Norman, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, quantitative and qualitative changes in responses of people with aphasia were examined on a phonemic fluency task. Eighteen patients were tested at 3-month intervals on the letters F-A-S while they received comprehensive, intensive treatment from 3 to 12 months post-stroke. They returned for a follow-up evaluation at an…

  14. When Does Return of Voluntary Finger Extension Occur Post-Stroke? A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Caroline; Kwakkel, Gert; Nijland, Rinske; van Wegen, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients without voluntary finger extension early post-stroke are suggested to have a poor prognosis for regaining upper limb capacity at 6 months. Despite this poor prognosis, a number of patients do regain upper limb capacity. We aimed to determine the time window for return of voluntary finger extension during motor recovery and identify clinical characteristics of patients who, despite an initially poor prognosis, show upper limb capacity at 6 months post-stroke. Methods Survival analysis was used to assess the time window for return of voluntary finger extension (Fugl-Meyer Assessment hand sub item finger extension≥1). A cut-off of ≥10 points on the Action Research Arm Test was used to define return of some upper limb capacity (i.e. ability to pick up a small object). Probabilities for regaining upper limb capacity at 6 months post-stroke were determined with multivariable logistic regression analysis using patient characteristics. Results 45 of the 100 patients without voluntary finger extension at 8 ± 4 days post-stroke achieved an Action Research Arm Test score of ≥10 points at 6 months. The median time for regaining voluntary finger extension for these recoverers was 4 weeks (lower and upper percentile respectively 2 and 8 weeks). The median time to return of VFE was not reached for the whole group (N = 100). Patients who had moderate to good lower limb function (Motricity Index leg≥35 points), no visuospatial neglect (single-letter cancellation test asymmetry between the contralesional and ipsilesional sides of <2 omissions) and sufficient somatosensory function (Erasmus MC modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment≥33 points) had a 0.94 probability of regaining upper limb capacity at 6 months post-stroke. Conclusions We recommend weekly monitoring of voluntary finger extension within the first 4 weeks post-stroke and preferably up to 8 weeks. Patients with paresis mainly restricted to the upper limb, no visuospatial neglect and

  15. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  16. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O.; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J.; Ndung’u, Michael N.; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J. L.; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J.; Polvikoski, Tuomo M.; Allan, Louise M.; Oakley, Arthur E.; O’Brien, John T.; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  17. Opportunities for Guided Multichannel Non-invasive Transcranial Current Stimulation in Poststroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Otal, Begonya; Dutta, Anirban; Foerster, Águida; Ripolles, Oscar; Kuceyeski, Amy; Miranda, Pedro C.; Edwards, Dylan J.; Ilić, Tihomir V.; Nitsche, Michael A.; Ruffini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide. Functional outcome depends on stroke location, severity, and early intervention. Conventional rehabilitation strategies have limited effectiveness, and new treatments still fail to keep pace, in part due to a lack of understanding of the different stages in brain recovery and the vast heterogeneity in the poststroke population. Innovative methodologies for restorative neurorehabilitation are required to reduce long-term disability and socioeconomic burden. Neuroplasticity is involved in poststroke functional disturbances and also during rehabilitation. Tackling poststroke neuroplasticity by non-invasive brain stimulation is regarded as promising, but efficacy might be limited because of rather uniform application across patients despite individual heterogeneity of lesions, symptoms, and other factors. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces and modulates neuroplasticity, and has been shown to be able to improve motor and cognitive functions. tDCS is suited to improve poststroke rehabilitation outcomes, but effect sizes are often moderate and suffer from variability. Indeed, the location, extent, and pattern of functional network connectivity disruption should be considered when determining the optimal location sites for tDCS therapies. Here, we present potential opportunities for neuroimaging-guided tDCS-based rehabilitation strategies after stroke that could be personalized. We introduce innovative multimodal intervention protocols based on multichannel tDCS montages, neuroimaging methods, and real-time closed-loop systems to guide therapy. This might help to overcome current treatment limitations in poststroke rehabilitation and increase our general understanding of adaptive neuroplasticity leading to neural reorganization after stroke. PMID:26941708

  18. Locomotor Stimulant and Discriminative Stimulus Effects of “Bath Salt” Cathinones

    PubMed Central

    Gatch, Michael B.; Taylor, Cynthia M.; Forster, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of psychostimulant-like cathinone compounds are being sold as “legal” alternatives to methamphetamine or cocaine. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether cathinone compounds stimulate motor activity and have discriminative stimulus effects similar to cocaine and/or methamphetamine. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, mephedrone, naphyrone, flephedrone and butylone were tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline. All compounds fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. Several commonly marketed cathinones produce discriminative stimulus effects comparable to those of cocaine and methamphetamine, which suggests that these compounds are likely to have similar abuse liability. MDPV and naphyrone produced locomotor stimulant effects that lasted much longer than cocaine or methamphetamine and therefore may be of particular concern, particularly since MDPV is one of the most commonly found substances associated with emergency room visits due to adverse effects from taking “bath salts”. PMID:23839026

  19. Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Root Stimulation on the Generation of Locomotor-Like Activity in the Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Pujala, Avinash; Blivis, Dvir; O'Donovan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether dorsal (DR) and ventral root (VR) stimulus trains engage common postsynaptic components to activate the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion in the neonatal mouse spinal cord. VR stimulation did not activate the first order interneurons mediating the activation of the locomotor CPG by sacrocaudal afferent stimulation. Simultaneous stimulation of adjacent dorsal or ventral root pairs, subthreshold for evoking locomotor-like activity, did not summate to activate the CPG. This suggests that locomotor-like activity is triggered when a critical class of efferent or afferent axons is stimulated and does not depend on the number of stimulated axons or activated postsynaptic neurons. DR- and VR-evoked episodes exhibited differences in the coupling between VR pairs. In DR-evoked episodes, the coupling between the ipsilateral and contralateral flexor/extensor roots was similar and stronger than the bilateral extensor roots. In VR-evoked episodes, ipsilateral flexor/extensor coupling was stronger than both the contralateral flexor/extensor and the bilateral extensor coupling. For both types of stimulation, the coupling was greatest between the bilateral L1/L2 flexor-dominated roots. This indicates that the recruitment and/or the firing pattern of motoneurons differed in DR and VR-evoked episodes. However, the DR and VR trains do not appear to activate distinct CPGs because trains of DR and VR stimuli at frequencies too low to evoke locomotor-like activity did so when they were interleaved. These results indicate that the excitatory actions of VR stimulation converge onto the CPG through an unknown pathway that is not captured by current models of the locomotor CPG. PMID:27419215

  20. Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Root Stimulation on the Generation of Locomotor-Like Activity in the Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated whether dorsal (DR) and ventral root (VR) stimulus trains engage common postsynaptic components to activate the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion in the neonatal mouse spinal cord. VR stimulation did not activate the first order interneurons mediating the activation of the locomotor CPG by sacrocaudal afferent stimulation. Simultaneous stimulation of adjacent dorsal or ventral root pairs, subthreshold for evoking locomotor-like activity, did not summate to activate the CPG. This suggests that locomotor-like activity is triggered when a critical class of efferent or afferent axons is stimulated and does not depend on the number of stimulated axons or activated postsynaptic neurons. DR- and VR-evoked episodes exhibited differences in the coupling between VR pairs. In DR-evoked episodes, the coupling between the ipsilateral and contralateral flexor/extensor roots was similar and stronger than the bilateral extensor roots. In VR-evoked episodes, ipsilateral flexor/extensor coupling was stronger than both the contralateral flexor/extensor and the bilateral extensor coupling. For both types of stimulation, the coupling was greatest between the bilateral L1/L2 flexor-dominated roots. This indicates that the recruitment and/or the firing pattern of motoneurons differed in DR and VR-evoked episodes. However, the DR and VR trains do not appear to activate distinct CPGs because trains of DR and VR stimuli at frequencies too low to evoke locomotor-like activity did so when they were interleaved. These results indicate that the excitatory actions of VR stimulation converge onto the CPG through an unknown pathway that is not captured by current models of the locomotor CPG. PMID:27419215

  1. DRUG EFFECTS ON THE LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA’s prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae and the effects of prototype drugs. Zebrafish larvae (6-7 days post-fertilization) were indiv...

  2. Active Gaze, Visual Look-Ahead, and Locomotor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.; Allison, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined observers steering through a series of obstacles to determine the role of active gaze in shaping locomotor trajectories. Participants sat on a bicycle trainer integrated with a large field-of-view simulator and steered through a series of slalom gates. Steering behavior was determined by examining the passing distance through…

  3. Acute neuroactive drug exposures alter locomotor activity in larval zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA's prioritization of toxic chemicals, we are characterizing the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae after exposure to prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. MPTP (1-methyl-4phenyl- 1 ,2,3,6-...

  4. Modulation of locomotor activation by the rostromedial tegmental nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lavezzi, Heather N; Parsley, Kenneth P; Zahm, Daniel S

    2015-02-01

    The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) is a strong inhibitor of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reported to influence neurobiological and behavioral responses to reward omission, aversive and fear-eliciting stimuli, and certain drugs of abuse. Insofar as previous studies implicate ventral mesencephalic dopamine neurons as an essential component of locomotor activation, we hypothesized that the RMTg also should modulate locomotion activation. We observed that bilateral infusions into the RMTg of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) agonist, muscimol, indeed activate locomotion. Alternatively, bilateral RMTg infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, suppress robust activations of locomotion elicited in two distinct ways: (1) by disinhibitory stimulation of neurons in the lateral preoptic area and (2) by return of rats to an environment previously paired with amphetamine administration. The possibility that suppressive locomotor effects of RMTg bicuculline infusions were due to unintended spread of drug to the nearby VTA was falsified by a control experiment showing that bilateral infusions of bicuculline into the VTA produce activation rather than suppression of locomotion. These results objectively implicate the RMTg in the regulation of locomotor activation. The effect is important because much evidence reported in the literature suggests that locomotor activation can be an involuntary behavioral expression of expectation and/or want without which the willingness to execute adaptive behaviors is impaired. PMID:25164249

  5. A Model of Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling in Quadrupeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori,, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion and respiration are not independent phenomena in running mammals because locomotion and respiration both rely on cyclic movements of the ribs, sternum, and associated musculature. Thus, constraints are imposed on locomotor and respiratory function by virtue of their linkage. Specifically, locomotion imposes mechanical constraints on…

  6. Acute Neuroactive Drug Exposures alter Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the development of a rapid in vivo screen for prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae by assessing the acute effects of prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. Initially,...

  7. Locomotor Experience and Use of Social Information Are Posture Specific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Ishak, Shaziela; Karasik, Lana B.; Lobo, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of locomotor experience on infants' perceptual judgments in a potentially risky situation--descending steep and shallow slopes--while manipulating social incentives to determine where perceptual judgments are most malleable. Twelve-month-old experienced crawlers and novice walkers were tested on an adjustable…

  8. Activation of neurotensin receptor type 1 attenuates locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Vadnie, Chelsea A; Hinton, David J; Choi, Sun; Choi, YuBin; Ruby, Christina L; Oliveros, Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel L; Park, Jun Hyun; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neurotensin (NT) suppresses locomotor activity. However, the brain regions that mediate the locomotor depressant effect of NT and receptor subtype-specific mechanisms involved are unclear. Using a brain-penetrating, selective NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) agonist PD149163, we investigated the effect of systemic and brain region-specific NTS1 activation on locomotor activity. Systemic administration of PD149163 attenuated the locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice both in a novel environment and in their homecage. However, mice developed tolerance to the hypolocomotor effect of PD149163 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). Since NTS1 is known to modulate dopaminergic signaling, we examined whether PD149163 blocks dopamine receptor-mediated hyperactivity. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited D2R agonist bromocriptine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-mediated hyperactivity. D1R agonist SKF-81297 (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion was only inhibited by 0.1 mg/kg of PD149163. Since the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the behavioral effects of NT, we examined whether microinjection of PD149163 into these regions reduces locomotion. Microinjection of PD149163 (2 pmol) into the NAc, but not the mPFC suppressed locomotor activity. In summary, our results indicate that systemic and intra-NAc activation of NTS1 is sufficient to reduce locomotion and NTS1 activation inhibits D2R-mediated hyperactivity. Our study will be helpful to identify pharmacological factors and a possible therapeutic window for NTS1-targeted therapies for movement disorders. PMID:24929110

  9. Mental practice for relearning locomotor skills.

    PubMed

    Malouin, Francine; Richards, Carol L

    2010-02-01

    Over the past 2 decades, much work has been carried out on the use of mental practice through motor imagery for optimizing the retraining of motor function in people with physical disabilities. Although much of the clinical work with mental practice has focused on the retraining of upper-extremity tasks, this article reviews the evidence supporting the potential of motor imagery for retraining gait and tasks involving coordinated lower-limb and body movements. First, motor imagery and mental practice are defined, and evidence from physiological and behavioral studies in healthy individuals supporting the capacity to imagine walking activities through motor imagery is examined. Then the effects of stroke, spinal cord injury, lower-limb amputation, and immobilization on motor imagery ability are discussed. Evidence of brain reorganization in healthy individuals following motor imagery training of dancing and of a foot movement sequence is reviewed, and the effects of mental practice on gait and other tasks involving coordinated lower-limb and body movements in people with stroke and in people with Parkinson disease are examined. Lastly, questions pertaining to clinical assessment of motor imagery ability and training strategies are discussed. PMID:20022993

  10. Effects of the Nerve Mobilization Technique on Lower Limb Function in Patients with Poststroke Hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hyun-Kyu; Cho, Hyuk-Shin; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a sciatic nerve mobilization technique on improvement of lower limb function in patient with poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects] Twenty- two stroke patients participated in this study. [Methods] They were randomly selected based on selection criteria and divided into two groups. In the subject group (n=10), sciatic nerve mobilization with conventional physical therapy was applied to patients. In the control group (n=10), only conventional physical therapy was applied to stroke patients. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pressure, sway, total pressure, angle of the knee joint, and functional reaching test results in the intervention at two weeks and at four weeks. [Conclusion] The present study showed that sciatic nerve mobilization with conventional physical therapy was more effective for lower limb function than conventional physical therapy alone in patient with poststroke hemiparesis. PMID:25140078

  11. Systematic hypothesis for post-stroke depression caused inflammation and neurotransmission and resultant on possible treatments.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyun; Ling, Shucai; Yang, Yang; Hu, Zhiying; Davies, Henry; Fang, Marong

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a prevalent complex psychiatric disorder that causes delay to functional recovery from rehabilitation and also increases cognitive impairment. The etiology of PSD remains controversial and appears to be physical and psycho-social in origin, alone or in combination. The causes of PSD as well as the mechanisms conferring beneficial antidepressant effects in the context of ischemic brain injury are still unknown. In addition, appropriate treatment strategies for therapy to prevent stroke-induced depression-like behavior remain to be developed. This paper, therefore, proposes two hypotheses for post-stroke depression: The inflammatory hypothesis, which is the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines resulting from brain ischemia in cerebral areas causing the pathogenesis of post-stroke depression and the glutamate hypothesis, where the excess glucocorticoids released from stress-induced over-activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) lead to dysfunction of glutamatergic transmission. Neurotrophins, especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) both play various roles in the central nervous system (CNS), attenuate apoptosis in cultured neurons, stimulate neurogenesis and increase survival and protect neuronal tissues from cell death induced by ischemia or depression. We also touch upon recent treatment strategies including inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, SSRI, neurotrophins and cell-based therapies. In the present review, we provide an overview of recent evidence concerning the mechanisms of post-stroke depression and propose four prospective treatment strategies so as to provide references for clinical evidence-based medications. PMID:24878979

  12. Analgesic effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on central post-stroke pain.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sea-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Do; Kim, Kyung-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Pain that occurs after a stroke lowers the quality of life. Such post-stroke pain is caused in part by the brain lesion itself, called central post-stroke pain. We investigated the analgesic effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients through quantitative sensory testing. Fourteen participants with central post-stroke pain (7 female and 7 male subjects) were recruited and were allocated to either tDCS (n = 7) or sham-tDCS (n = 7) group. Their ages ranged from 45 to 55 years. tDCS was administered for 20 min at a 2-mA current intensity, with anodal stimulations were performed at primary motor cortex. The sham-tDCS group was stimulated 30-second current carrying time. Both group interventions were given for 3 days per week, for a period of 3 weeks. Subjective pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0 to 10. Sensations of cold and warmth, and pain from cold and heat were quantified to examine analgesic effects. The sham-tDCS group showed no statistically significant differences in time. In contrast, tDCS group showed decreased VAS scores and skin temperature (p < 0.05). The threshold temperatures for the sense of cold and pain from cold increased (p < 0.05), and those for the sense of warmth and pain from heat decreased (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that tDCS improved sensory identification and exerted analgesic effects in the stroke patients with central post-stroke pain. PMID:25341455

  13. Effect of auditory constraints on motor performance depends on stage of recovery post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Aluru, Viswanath; Lu, Ying; Leung, Alan; Verghese, Joe; Raghavan, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop evidence-based rehabilitation protocols post-stroke, one must first reconcile the vast heterogeneity in the post-stroke population and develop protocols to facilitate motor learning in the various subgroups. The main purpose of this study is to show that auditory constraints interact with the stage of recovery post-stroke to influence motor learning. We characterized the stages of upper limb recovery using task-based kinematic measures in 20 subjects with chronic hemiparesis. We used a bimanual wrist extension task, performed with a custom-made wrist trainer, to facilitate learning of wrist extension in the paretic hand under four auditory conditions: (1) without auditory cueing; (2) to non-musical happy sounds; (3) to self-selected music; and (4) to a metronome beat set at a comfortable tempo. Two bimanual trials (15 s each) were followed by one unimanual trial with the paretic hand over six cycles under each condition. Clinical metrics, wrist and arm kinematics, and electromyographic activity were recorded. Hierarchical cluster analysis with the Mahalanobis metric based on baseline speed and extent of wrist movement stratified subjects into three distinct groups, which reflected their stage of recovery: spastic paresis, spastic co-contraction, and minimal paresis. In spastic paresis, the metronome beat increased wrist extension, but also increased muscle co-activation across the wrist. In contrast, in spastic co-contraction, no auditory stimulation increased wrist extension and reduced co-activation. In minimal paresis, wrist extension did not improve under any condition. The results suggest that auditory task constraints interact with stage of recovery during motor learning after stroke, perhaps due to recruitment of distinct neural substrates over the course of recovery. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms of progression of motor recovery and lay the foundation for personalized treatment algorithms post-stroke. PMID

  14. Morphometry of the hippocampal microvasculature in post-stroke and age-related dementias

    PubMed Central

    Burke, M J C; Nelson, L; Slade, J Y; Oakley, A E; Khundakar, A A; Kalaria, R N

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimal vascular function is vital for prevention of dementia. We hypothesized that elderly post-stroke survivors who preserve cognitive function show unperturbed cerebral microvasculature compared with those who develop dementia. Methods Using stereological spherical probe software, we compared the length density (Lv, cumulative vessel length per unit tissue volume) of hippocampal microvessels in post mortem brain tissue from post-stroke survivors, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and normal ageing control subjects. We also assessed microvessel diameters in the same subjects. Microvessels were identified by markers of endothelial cells (glucose transporter 1; GLUT1), basement membrane (collagen IV; COL4) and smooth muscle cell α-actin (SMA). Results We found increased Lv of both GLUT1 and COL4 immunostained microvessels (P < 0.05) in the hippocampal CA1 region of post-stroke demented (PSD) and AD cases compared with post-stroke nondemented (PSND), control and VaD subjects. However, no changes were apparent in the CA2 region. We also noted significant increase in Lv in the entorhinal cortex of AD compared with PSND and PSD subjects. The mean diameter of microvessels was decreased in PSD, compared with PSND, as well as in AD and VaD compared with controls. Cumulative frequency analysis showed PSND subjects to have significantly greater proportion of microvessels with diameters, ranging from 7 to 12 μm. Conclusions An increase in microvascular Lv in AD and PSD suggests either an increase in angiogenesis or the formation of newer microvessel loops in response to cerebral hypoperfusion. The decreased vessel diameters found in AD and VaD suggests increased vasoconstriction in dementia. PMID:24003901

  15. Force wave transmission through the human locomotor system.

    PubMed

    Voloshin, A; Wosk, J; Brull, M

    1981-02-01

    A method to measure the capability of the human shock absorber system to attenuate input dynamic loading during the gait is presented. The experiments were carried out with two groups: healthy subjects and subjects with various pathological conditions. The results of the experiments show a considerable difference in the capability of each group's shock absorbers to attenuate force transmitted through the locomotor system. Comparison shows that healthy subjects definitely possess a more efficient shock-absorbing capacity than do those subjects with joint disorders. Presented results show that degenerative changes in joints reduce their shock absorbing capacity, which leads to overloading of the next shock absorber in the locomotor system. So, the development of osteoarthritis may be expected to result from overloading of a shock absorber's functional capacity. PMID:7253613

  16. Multi-terrain locomotor interactions in flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeaton, Isaac; Baumgardner, Grant; Ross, Shane; Socha, John

    Arboreal snakes of the genus Chrysopelea are the only known snakes to glide. To execute aerial locomotion, a snake uses one of several stereotyped jumps from a tree into the air, while simultaneously flattening its body into an aerodynamically favorable shape. Large amplitude traveling waves are propagated posteriorly during the stable glide, while landing involves body wrapping, passive body compression, and energy absorption through compliance in the landing substrate to dissipate the accumulated kinetic energy from the glide. In all of these locomotor events, from interacting with cylindrical branches, falling through the air, grasping compliant tree branches and leaves, to landing on solid ground, snakes appropriate the same body morphology and perhaps the same basic neural mechanisms. Here we discuss our use of computational models and animal experiments to understand how flying snakes interact with and locomote on and through multiple media, potentially providing principles for legless locomotor designs. Supported by NSF 1351322.

  17. MDMA (ecstasy) modulates locomotor and prefrontal cortex sensory evoked activity.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Kristal; Burks, Tilithia; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-12-11

    Ingestion of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) leads to heightened response to sensory stimulation; thus, MDMA is referred to as "ecstasy" because it produces pleasurable enhancement of such sensation. There have been no electrophysiological studies that report the consequences of MDMA on sensory input. The present study was initiated to study the effects of acute and chronic MDMA on locomotor activity and sensory evoked field potential from freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent electrodes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The main findings of this study are that: (1) acute MDMA augments locomotor behavior and attenuates the incoming sensory input, (2) chronic treatment of MDMA elicits behavioral sensitization, (3) chronic administration of MDMA results in attenuation of the baseline activity of the sensory evoked field potential, and (4) administration of rechallenge MDMA result in enhancement of the PFC sensory evoked field potential. PMID:19769950

  18. Association Between Serum Levels of Vitamin D and the Risk of Post-Stroke Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaowen; Ren, Wenwei; Cheng, Jianhua; Zhu, Beilei; Jin, Qianqian; Wang, Liping; Chen, Cao; Zhu, Lin; Chang, Yaling; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; Lv, Dezhao; Shao, Bei; Zhang, Shunkai; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low levels of serum vitamin D are common in patients with mood disorders and stroke. It has been shown that low levels of serum vitamin D indicate a risk of depression in post-stroke subjects. Our aim was to determine the relationship between vitamin D and post-stroke anxiety (PSA). A consecutive series of 226 first acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited and followed up for 1 month. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured within 24 hours of admission. Patients with significant clinical symptoms of anxiety and a Hamilton anxiety scale score >7 were diagnosed as having PSA. In addition, 100 healthy subjects were recruited as controls and underwent measurements of serum vitamin D. A total of 60 patients (26.55%) showed anxiety at 1 month. Both PSA patients and non-PSA patients had lower serum levels of vitamin D than healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between PSA and serum levels of vitamin D. Low serum levels of vitamin D (≤38.48 nmol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSA (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.21–5.13, P = 0.01). Serum vitamin D status is related to the occurrence of anxiety in post-stroke patients and may be an independent risk factor of PSA after 1 month. PMID:27149477

  19. Factors associated with post-stroke depression and fatigue: lesion location and coping styles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Changjuan; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Li; Ma, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Nan; Hao, Junwei

    2016-02-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) and post-stroke fatigue (PSF) are frequent and persistent problems among stroke survivors. Therefore, awareness of signs and symptoms of PSD and PSF is important for their treatment and recovery from stroke. Additionally, since sudden serious illness can result in disequilibrium, early institution of a coping process is essential to restoring stability. The brain damage of stroke leaves patients with unique physical and mental dysfunctions for which coping maybe a key resource while rebuilding lives. We evaluated 368 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke for post-stroke emotional disorders at admission and 3 months later. PSD was evaluated by using the Beck Depression Inventory, and PSF was scored with the Fatigue Severity Scale. The Social Support Rating Scale and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire were also used as measurement tools. Locations of lesions were based on MRI. Those scans revealed infarcts located in the basal ganglia, corona radiate and internal capsule and constituted the independent factors associated with PSF 3 months after stroke occurrence. Conversely, PSD was not related to lesion location. Acceptance-resignation related to PSD and PSF both at admission and 3 months after stroke. Avoidance was the independent factor most closely related to PSD, whereas confrontation was the independent factor best related to PSF at 3 months after stroke onset. PMID:26568559

  20. Regional Coherence Alterations Revealed by Resting-State fMRI in Post-Stroke Patients with Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chen; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Deng-Ling; Jiao, Yun; Tang, Tian-Yu; Ju, Shenghong; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Post-stroke cognitive dysfunction greatly influences patients’ quality of life after stroke. However, its neurophysiological basis remains unknown. This study utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the alterations in regional coherence in patients after subcortical stroke. Methods Resting-state fMRI measurements were acquired from 16 post-stroke patients with poor cognitive function (PSPC), 16 post-stroke patients with good cognitive function (PSGC) and 30 well-matched healthy controls (HC). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to detect alterations in regional coherence. Abnormalities in regional coherence correlated with scores on neuropsychological scales. Results Compared to the HC and the PSGC, the PSPC showed remarkably decreased ReHo in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and the left posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus. ReHo in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex positively correlated with the scores on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (r = 0.399, P = 0.036) and the Complex Figure Test-delayed recall subtest (r = 0.397, P = 0.036) in all post-stroke patients. Moreover, ReHo in the left posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus positively correlated with the scores on the Forward Digit Span Test (r = 0.485, P = 0.009) in all post-stroke patients. Conclusions Aberrant regional coherence was observed in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices in post-stroke patients with cognitive dysfunction. ReHo could represent a promising indicator of neurobiological deficiencies in post-stroke patients. PMID:27454170

  1. Assessing locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine in rodents.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Drake; Dupree, Jameson P; Bibbey, Alex D; Sizemore, Glen M

    2012-01-01

    Locomotor activity procedures are useful for characterizing the behavioral effects of a drug, the influence of pharmacological, neurobiological, and environmental manipulations on drug sensitivity, and changes in activity following repeated administration (e.g., tolerance or sensitization) are thought to be related to the development of an addiction-like behavioral phenotype. The effects of cocaine on locomotor activity have been relatively extensively characterized. Many of the published studies use between-subject experimental designs, even though changes in sensitivity within a particular individual due to experimental manipulations, or behavioral and pharmacological histories is potentially the most important outcome as these changes may relate to differential development of an addiction-like phenotype in some, but not all, animals (including humans). The two behavioral protocols described herein allow extensive within-subject analyses. The first protocol uses daily locomotor activity levels as a stable baseline to assess the effects of experimental manipulations, and the second uses a pre- versus post-session experimental design to demonstrate the importance of drug-environment interactions in determining the behavioral effects of cocaine. PMID:22231824

  2. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Cruchet, Steeve; Gustafson, Kyle; Benton, Richard; Floreano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs—locomotor bouts—matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior. PMID:26600381

  3. Sigma ligand S14905 and locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hascoet, M; Bourin, M; Payeur, R; Lombet, A; Peglion, J L

    1995-12-01

    The binding and locomotor profile of a new sigma ligand, S14905, (isobutyl-N-(1-indan-2yl-piperid-4-yl)N-methyl carbamate, furamate) was studied. The binding data revealed that S14905 has a high affinity for sigma receptors and very low affinity for both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. We have demonstrated that this sigma ligand prevents the locomotor stimulation induced by morphine (32 and 64 mg/kg), cocaine (16 mg/kg), amphetamine (4 mg/kg) and adrafinil (32 mg/kg) at doses lower than those required to depress spontaneous locomotor activity. The antagonism observed in the present study seems to be more specific of morphine induced hyperlocomotion. The high affinity of this compound for sigma receptors makes it a good choice to study the role of this receptor in the CNS. In addition, S14905 does not directly block dopamine receptors but may modulate them in some manner, and would thus warrant further study as a potential atypical antipsychotic agent, and an antagonist for the hyperactivity induced by opiate drug. PMID:8998401

  4. Locomotor and verbal distance judgments in action and vista space.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Johanna; Krauss, Elsa; Münch, Agnes; Jungmann, Reiner; Oberfeld, Daniel; Hecht, Heiko

    2011-04-01

    Judging distances is crucial when interacting with the environment. For short distances in action space (up to 30 m), both explicit verbal estimates and locomotor judgments are fairly accurate. For large distances, data have remained scarce. In two laboratory experiments, our observers judged distances to visual targets presented stereoscopically, either by giving a verbal estimate or by walking the distance to the target on a treadmill. While verbal judgments remained linearly scaled over the whole range of distances from 20 to 262 m, locomotor judgments fell short at distances above 100 m, indicating that observers overestimated the distance they had traveled and increasingly did so as a function of actual target distance. This pattern persisted when controlling for the potential confound of fatigue or reluctance to walk. We discuss different approaches to explain our findings and stress the importance of a differential use of distance cues. A model of leaky path integration showed a good fit with our locomotor data. PMID:21365183

  5. Virtual immersion for post-stroke hand rehabilitation therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsoupikova, Daria; Stoykov, Nikolay S; Corrigan, Molly; Thielbar, Kelly; Vick, Randy; Li, Yu; Triandafilou, Kristen; Preuss, Fabian; Kamper, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. Impairment of upper extremity function is a common outcome following stroke, often to the detriment of lifestyle and employment opportunities. While the upper extremity is a natural target for therapy, treatment may be hampered by limitations in baseline capability as lack of success may discourage arm and hand use. We developeda virtual reality (VR) system in order to encourage repetitive task practice. This system combined an assistive glove with a novel VR environment. A set of exercises for this system was developed to encourage specific movements. Six stroke survivors with chronic upper extremity hemiparesis volunteered to participate in a pilot study in which they completed 18 one-hour training sessions with the VR system. Performance with the system was recorded across the 18 training sessions. Clinical evaluations of motor control were conducted at three time points: prior to initiation of training, following the end of training, and 1 month later. Subjects displayed significant improvement on performance of the virtual tasks over the course of the training, although for the clinical outcome measures only lateral pinch showed significant improvement. Future expansion to multi-user virtual environments may extend the benefits of this system for stroke survivors with hemiparesis by furthering engagement in the rehabilitation exercises. PMID:25558845

  6. Timing of Locomotor Recovery from Anoxia Modulated by the white Gene in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chengfeng; Robertson, R Meldrum

    2016-06-01

    Locomotor recovery from anoxia follows the restoration of disordered ion distributions and neuronal excitability. The time taken for locomotor recovery after 30 sec anoxia (around 10 min) is longer than the time for the propagation of action potentials to be restored (<1 min) in Drosophila wild type. We report here that the white (w) gene modulates the timing of locomotor recovery. Wild-type flies displayed fast and consistent recovery of locomotion from anoxia, whereas mutants of w showed significantly delayed and more variable recovery. Genetic analysis including serial backcrossing revealed a strong association between the w locus and the timing of locomotor recovery, and haplo-insufficient function of w(+) in promoting fast recovery. The locomotor recovery phenotype was independent of classic eye pigmentation, although both are associated with the w gene. Introducing up to four copies of mini-white (mw(+)) into w1118 was insufficient to promote fast and consistent locomotor recovery. However, flies carrying w(+) duplicated to the Y chromosome showed wild-type-like fast locomotor recovery. Furthermore, Knockdown of w by RNA interference (RNAi) in neurons but not glia delayed locomotor recovery, and specifically, knockdown of w in subsets of serotonin neurons was sufficient to delay the locomotor recovery. These data reveal an additional role for w in modulating the timing of locomotor recovery from anoxia. PMID:27029736

  7. Stereoselective Effects of Abused "Bath Salt" Constituent 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone in Mice: Drug Discrimination, Locomotor Activity, and Thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Brenda M; Williamson, Adrian; Suzuki, Masaki; Rice, Kenner C; Fantegrossi, William E

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of illicit "bath salts" products. MDPV is a chiral molecule, but the contribution of each enantiomer to in vivo effects in mice has not been determined. To address this, mice were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline, and substitutions with racemic MDPV, S(+)-MDPV, and R(-)-MDPV were performed. Other mice were implanted with telemetry probes to monitor core temperature and locomotor responses elicited by racemic MDPV, S(+)-MDPV, and R(-)-MDPV under a warm (28°C) or cool (20°C) ambient temperature. Mice reliably discriminated the cocaine training dose from saline, and each form of MDPV fully substituted for cocaine, although marked potency differences were observed such that S(+)-MDPV was most potent, racemic MDPV was less potent than the S(+) enantiomer, and R(-)-MDPV was least potent. At both ambient temperatures, locomotor stimulant effects were observed after doses of S(+)-MDPV and racemic MDPV, but R(-)-MDPV did not elicit locomotor stimulant effects at any tested dose. Interestingly, significant increases in maximum core body temperature were only observed after administration of racemic MDPV in the warm ambient environment; neither MDPV enantiomer altered core temperature at any dose tested, at either ambient temperature. These studies suggest that all three forms of MDPV induce biologic effects, but R(-)-MDPV is less potent than S(+)-MDPV and racemic MDPV. Taken together, these data suggest that the S(+)-MDPV enantiomer is likely responsible for the majority of the biologic effects of the racemate and should be targeted in therapeutic efforts against MDPV overdose and abuse. PMID:26769917

  8. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Poststroke Patients with Upper Limb Hemiparesis: Preliminary Study of a 15-Day Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 [plus…

  9. The effects of central post-stroke pain on quality of life and depression in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Şahin-Onat, Şule; Ünsal-Delialioğlu, Sibel; Kulaklı, Fazıl; Özel, Sumru

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effects of central poststroke pain on quality of life, functionality, and depression in stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients with stroke having central poststroke pain (a mean age of 60.6±8.5 years; 14 males, 10 females; Group I) and 24 similar age-and gender-matched patients with stroke without central poststroke pain (Group II) were enrolled. Characteristics of pain were recorded in patients with stroke having central poststroke pain. The Visual Analogue Scale and Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale were used to evaluate pain. The Functional Independence Measure was used to assess functionality, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess quality of life (QoL), and the Beck Depression Inventory was used to assess depression. [Results] There were no significant differences in Functional Independence Measure and Beck Depression Inventory. Some of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey domains (physical role limitations, pain, and physical scores) in Group II were significantly higher than those in Group I. Additionally, we found that a unit increase in Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs score led to 0.679 decrease in physical score and 0.387 decrease in mental score. [Conclusion] The physical component of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey is negatively affected in patient with central poststroke pain, but the mood and mental components of the scale unaffected. PMID:26957737

  10. Modifications in ankle dorsiflexor activation by applying a torque perturbation during walking in persons post-stroke: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Results obtained in a previous study (Gait Posture 34:358–363, 2011) have shown that, in non-disabled participants, a specific increase in ankle dorsiflexor (Tibialis anterior [TA]) activation can be induced by walking with a torque perturbation that plantarflexes the ankle during the swing phase. After perturbation removal, the increased TA activation persisted temporarily and was associated with a more dorsiflexed ankle during swing. The objective of the present case-series study was to verify if these results can be reproduced in persons post-stroke. Methods Six participants who sustained a stroke walked on a treadmill before, during and after exposure to a torque perturbation applied at the ankle by a robotized ankle-foot orthosis. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, ankle and knee kinematics, and the electromyographic activity of TA and Soleus were recorded. Mean amplitude of the TA burst located around toe off and peak ankle dorsiflexion angle during swing were compared across the 3 walking periods for each participant. Results At the end of the walking period with the perturbation, TA mean amplitude was significantly increased in 4 of the 6 participants. Among these 4 participants, modifications in TA activation persisted after perturbation removal in 3 of them, and led to a statistically significant increase in peak dorsiflexion during swing. Clinical implications This approach may be helpful to evaluate the residual adaptive capacity in the ankle dorsiflexors after a stroke and guide decision-making for the selection of optimal rehabilitation interventions. Future work will investigate the clinical impact of a multiple-session gait training based on this approach in persons presenting a reduced ankle dorsiflexion during the swing phase of walking. PMID:24912626

  11. A combined approach of bedside clinical examination and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in poststroke dysphagia: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Sureshkumar; Menon, Unnikrishnan K; Anandakuttan, Anandkumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: As with most neurologic conditions, stroke involves impairment of the swallowing mechanism. This could be a spectrum of issues, the worst of which is aspiration. At the same time, the prolonged presence of a naso-gastric tube (NGT) has its own morbidity. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is one reliable method to assess the structural and functional status of the oropharynx and larynx, during the swallowing process. Objective: To study the utility of FEES in decision-making with respect to resumption of oral intake in stroke patients. To document the findings of FEES in stroke patients, and to look for correlations between these and the site of stroke. Materials and Methods: Protocol insertion of naso-gastric tube in all stroke patients, at presentation. Initial assessment by a neurologist and swallowing therapist, depending on cognitive status of the patient. All patients underwent MRI Brain with diffusion weighted sequences. After detailed clinical examination, they underwent swallow exercises under the supervision of a trained swallowing therapist. The decision to remove NGT was taken clinically by the combined decision of neurologist and swallowing therapist. Then all patients underwent FEES by the ENT surgeon. The final decision for NGT removal was taken as per the FEES findings. Result: Sixteen stroke patients underwent the FEES procedure during a period of six months. The oropharyngeal and laryngeal findings varied depending on the area of stroke involvement. Of these, change in decision regarding swallowing rehabilitation or NGT removal was needed in four patients, following the FEES findings. Conclusions: FEES is an easy, efficient and reliable method to evaluate the swallowing status in stroke patients. In combination with good bedside clinical examination and swallow exercises, it can be a good tool in assessing patients with post- stroke dysphagia. Post-stroke rehabilitation and prevention of aspiration pneumonia can be

  12. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined with effortful swallowing on post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, J-S; Oh, D-H; Hwang, N-K; Lee, J-H

    2016-06-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used as a therapeutic intervention for dysphagia. However, the therapeutic effects of NMES lack supporting evidence. In recent years, NMES combined with traditional swallowing therapy has been used to improve functional recovery in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. This study aimed to investigate the effects of effortful swallowing combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on hyoid bone movement and swallowing function in stroke patients. Fifty stroke patients with mild dysphagia who were able to swallow against the resistance applied by using NMES and cooperate actively in training were included. This study was designed as a 6-week single-blind, randomised, controlled study. In the experimental group, two pairs of electrodes were placed horizontally in the infrahyoid region to depress the hyoid bone. The NMES intensity was increased gradually until the participants felt a grabbing sensation in their neck and performed an effortful swallow during the stimulation. In the placebo group, the same procedure was followed except for the intensity, which was increased gradually until the participants felt an electrical sensation. All participants underwent this intervention for 30 min per session, 5 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) were carried out before and after the intervention and kinematics of the hyoid bone and swallowing function were analysed based on the VFSS. The experimental group revealed a significant increase in anterior and superior hyoid bone movement and the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing function. This intervention can be used as a novel remedial approach in dysphagic stroke patients. PMID:26969528

  13. Pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex in post-stroke, vascular and other ageing-related dementias.

    PubMed

    Foster, Vincent; Oakley, Arthur E; Slade, Janet Y; Hall, Roslyn; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Burke, Matthew; Thomas, Alan J; Khundakar, Ahmad; Allan, Louise M; Kalaria, Raj N

    2014-09-01

    Dementia associated with cerebrovascular disease is common. It has been reported that ∼30% of elderly patients who survive stroke develop delayed dementia (post-stroke dementia), with most cases being diagnosed as vascular dementia. The pathological substrates associated with post-stroke or vascular dementia are poorly understood, particularly those associated with executive dysfunction. Three separate yet interconnecting circuits control executive function within the frontal lobe involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. We used stereological methods, along with immunohistological and related cell morphometric analysis, to examine densities and volumes of pyramidal neurons of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in the frontal lobe from a total of 90 elderly subjects (age range 71-98 years). Post-mortem brain tissues from post-stroke dementia and post-stroke patients with no dementia were derived from our prospective Cognitive Function After Stroke study. We also examined, in parallel, samples from ageing controls and similar age subjects pathologically diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, mixed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, and vascular dementia. We found pyramidal cell volumes in layers III and V in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of post-stroke and vascular dementia and, of mixed and Alzheimer's disease subjects to be reduced by 30-40% compared to post-stroke patients with no dementia and controls. There were no significant changes in neuronal volumes in either the anterior cingulate or orbitofrontal cortices. Remarkably, pyramidal neurons within the orbitofrontal cortex were also found to be smaller in size when compared to those in the other two neocortical regions. To relate the cell changes to cognitive function, we noted significant correlations between neuronal volumes and total CAMCOG, orientation and memory scores and clinical

  14. Sound Stabilizes Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling and Reduces Energy Cost

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Charles P.; Torregrosa, Gérald; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2012-01-01

    A natural synchronization between locomotor and respiratory systems is known to exist for various species and various forms of locomotion. This Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling (LRC) is fundamental for the energy transfer between the two subsystems during long duration exercise and originates from mechanical and neurological interactions. Different methodologies have been used to compute LRC, giving rise to various and often diverging results in terms of synchronization, (de-)stabilization via information, and associated energy cost. In this article, the theory of nonlinear-coupled oscillators was adopted to characterize LRC, through the model of the sine circle map, and tested it in the context of cycling. Our specific focus was the sound-induced stabilization of LRC and its associated change in energy consumption. In our experimental study, participants were instructed during a cycling exercise to synchronize either their respiration or their pedaling rate with an external auditory stimulus whose rhythm corresponded to their individual preferential breathing or cycling frequencies. Results showed a significant reduction in energy expenditure with auditory stimulation, accompanied by a stabilization of LRC. The sound-induced effect was asymmetrical, with a better stabilizing influence of the metronome on the locomotor system than on the respiratory system. A modification of the respiratory frequency was indeed observed when participants cycled in synchrony with the tone, leading to a transition toward more stable frequency ratios as predicted by the sine circle map. In addition to the classical mechanical and neurological origins of LRC, here we demonstrated using the sine circle map model that information plays an important modulatory role of the synchronization, and has global energetic consequences. PMID:23028849

  15. The Drosophila Insulin Receptor Independently Modulates Lifespan and Locomotor Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Michael; Achall, Rajesh; Shirras, Alan; Broughton, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Insulin/IGF-like signalling (IIS) pathway plays an evolutionarily conserved role in ageing. In model organisms reduced IIS extends lifespan and ameliorates some forms of functional senescence. However, little is known about IIS in nervous system ageing and behavioural senescence. To investigate this role in Drosophila melanogaster, we measured the effect of reduced IIS on senescence of two locomotor behaviours, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. Two long-lived fly models with systemic IIS reductions (daGAL4/UAS-InRDN (ubiquitous expression of a dominant negative insulin receptor) and d2GAL/UAS-rpr (ablation of insulin-like peptide producing cells)) showed an amelioration of negative geotaxis senescence similar to that previously reported for the long-lived IIS mutant chico. In contrast, exploratory walking in daGAL4/UAS-InRDN and d2GAL/UAS-rpr flies declined with age similarly to controls. To determine the contribution of IIS in the nervous system to these altered senescence patterns and lifespan, the InRDN was targeted to neurons (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN), which resulted in extension of lifespan in females, normal negative geotaxis senescence in males and females, and detrimental effects on age-specific exploratory walking behaviour in males and females. These data indicate that the Drosophila insulin receptor independently modulates lifespan and age-specific function of different types of locomotor behaviour. The data suggest that ameliorated negative geotaxis senescence of long-lived flies with systemic IIS reductions is due to ageing related effects of reduced IIS outside the nervous system. The lifespan extension and coincident detrimental or neutral effects on locomotor function with a neuron specific reduction (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN) indicates that reduced IIS is not beneficial to the neural circuitry underlying the behaviours despite increasing lifespan. PMID:26020640

  16. The Drosophila insulin receptor independently modulates lifespan and locomotor senescence.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohd Zamri Bin Haji; Hodges, Matt D; Boylan, Michael; Achall, Rajesh; Shirras, Alan; Broughton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    The Insulin/IGF-like signalling (IIS) pathway plays an evolutionarily conserved role in ageing. In model organisms reduced IIS extends lifespan and ameliorates some forms of functional senescence. However, little is known about IIS in nervous system ageing and behavioural senescence. To investigate this role in Drosophila melanogaster, we measured the effect of reduced IIS on senescence of two locomotor behaviours, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. Two long-lived fly models with systemic IIS reductions (daGAL4/UAS-InRDN (ubiquitous expression of a dominant negative insulin receptor) and d2GAL/UAS-rpr (ablation of insulin-like peptide producing cells)) showed an amelioration of negative geotaxis senescence similar to that previously reported for the long-lived IIS mutant chico. In contrast, exploratory walking in daGAL4/UAS-InRDN and d2GAL/UAS-rpr flies declined with age similarly to controls. To determine the contribution of IIS in the nervous system to these altered senescence patterns and lifespan, the InRDN was targeted to neurons (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN), which resulted in extension of lifespan in females, normal negative geotaxis senescence in males and females, and detrimental effects on age-specific exploratory walking behaviour in males and females. These data indicate that the Drosophila insulin receptor independently modulates lifespan and age-specific function of different types of locomotor behaviour. The data suggest that ameliorated negative geotaxis senescence of long-lived flies with systemic IIS reductions is due to ageing related effects of reduced IIS outside the nervous system. The lifespan extension and coincident detrimental or neutral effects on locomotor function with a neuron specific reduction (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN) indicates that reduced IIS is not beneficial to the neural circuitry underlying the behaviours despite increasing lifespan. PMID:26020640

  17. Locomotor energetics and leg length in hominid bipedality.

    PubMed

    Kramer, P A; Eck, G G

    2000-05-01

    Because bipedality is the quintessential characteristic of Hominidae, researchers have compared ancient forms of bipedality with modern human gait since the first clear evidence of bipedal australopithecines was unearthed over 70 years ago. Several researchers have suggested that the australopithecine form of bipedality was transitional between the quadrupedality of the African apes and modern human bipedality and, consequently, inefficient. Other researchers have maintained that australopithecine bipedality was identical to that of Homo. But is it reasonable to require that all forms of hominid bipedality must be the same in order to be optimized? Most attempts to evaluate the locomotor effectiveness of the australopithecines have, unfortunately, assumed that the locomotor anatomy of modern humans is the exemplar of consummate bipedality. Modern human anatomy is, however, the product of selective pressures present in the particular milieu in which Homo arose and it is not necessarily the only, or even the most efficient, bipedal solution possible. In this report, we investigate the locomotion of Australopithecus afarensis, as represented by AL 288-1, using standard mechanical analyses. The osteological anatomy of AL 288-1 and movement profiles derived from modern humans are applied to a dynamic model of a biped, which predicts the mechanical power required by AL 288-1 to walk at various velocities. This same procedure is used with the anatomy of a composite modern woman and a comparison made. We find that AL 288-1 expends less energy than the composite woman when locomoting at walking speeds. This energetic advantage comes, however, at a price: the preferred transition speed (from a walk to a run) of AL 288-1 was lower than that of the composite woman. Consequently, the maximum daily range of AL 288-1 may well have been substantially smaller than that of modern people. The locomotor anatomy of A. afarensis may have been optimized for a particular ecological niche

  18. Using Tests Designed to Measure Individual Sensorimotor Subsystem Perfomance to Predict Locomotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. T.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; Guined, J. R.; DeDios, Y. E.; Stepanyan, V.; Gadd, N. E.; Szecsy, D. L.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the readapation phase following a return to a gravitational environment. These alterations may lead to disruption in the ability to perform mission critical functions during and after these gravitational transitions. Astronauts show significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability following gravitational transitions. The way each individual's brain synthesizes the available visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is likely the basis for much of the variation. Identifying the presence of biases in each person's use of information available from these sensorimotor subsystems and relating it to their ability to adapt to a novel locomotor task will allow us to customize a training program designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Eight tests are being used to measure sensorimotor subsystem performance. Three of these use measures of body sway to characterize balance during varying sensorimotor challenges. The effect of vision is assessed by repeating conditions with eyes open and eyes closed. Standing on foam, or on a support surface that pitches to maintain a constant ankle angle provide somatosensory challenges. Information from the vestibular system is isolated when vision is removed and the support surface is compromised, and it is challenged when the tasks are done while the head is in motion. The integration and dominance of visual information is assessed in three additional tests. The Rod & Frame Test measures the degree to which a subject's perception of the visual vertical is affected by the orientation of a tilted frame in the periphery. Locomotor visual dependence is determined by assessing how much an oscillating virtual visual world affects a treadmill-walking subject. In the third of the visual manipulation tests, subjects walk an obstacle course while wearing up-down reversing prisms. The two remaining tests include direct

  19. Immediate effects of acupuncture on biceps brachii muscle function in healthy and post-stroke subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effects of acupuncture on muscle function in healthy subjects are contradictory and cannot be extrapolated to post-stroke patients. This study evaluated the immediate effects of manual acupuncture on myoelectric activity and isometric force in healthy and post-stroke patients. Methods A randomized clinical trial, with parallel groups, single-blinded study design, was conducted with 32 healthy subjects and 15 post-stroke patients with chronic hemiparesis. Surface electromyography from biceps brachii during maximal isometric voluntary tests was performed before and after 20-min intermittent, and manual stimulation of acupoints Quchi (LI11) or Tianquan (PC2). Pattern differentiation was performed by an automated method based on logistic regression equations. Results Healthy subjects showed a decrease in the root mean-squared (RMS) values after the stimulation of LI11 (pre: 1.392 ± 0.826 V; post: 0.612 ± 0.0.320 V; P = 0.002) and PC2 (pre: 1.494 ± 0.826 V; post: 0.623 ± 0.320 V; P = 0.001). Elbow flexion maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) was not significantly different after acupuncture stimulation of LI11 (pre: 22.2 ± 10.7 kg; post: 21.7 ± 9.5 kg; P = 0.288) or PC2 (pre: 18.8 ± 4.6 kg; post: 18.7 ± 6.0 kg; P = 0.468). Post-stroke patients did not exhibit any significant decrease in the RMS values after the stimulation of LI11 (pre: 0.627 ± 0.335 V; post: 0.530 ± 0.272 V; P = 0.187) and PC2 (pre: 0.601 ± 0.258 V; post: 0.591 ± 0.326 V; P = 0.398). Also, no significant decrease in the MIVC value was observed after the stimulation of LI11 (pre: 9.6 ± 3.9 kg; post: 9.6 ± 4.7 kg; P = 0.499) or PC2 (pre: 10.7 ± 5.6 kg; post: 10.2 ± 5.3 kg; P = 0.251). Different frequency of patterns was observed among healthy subjects and post-stroke patients groups (χ2 = 9.759; P = 0.021). Conclusion Manual acupuncture provides sufficient neuromuscular stimuli to promote immediate changes in motor unit gross recruitment without repercussion in

  20. Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Kerr, Brendan; Neville, Tanya; Ngan, Sybil; Assem, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Behavior, in its broadest definition, can be defined as the motor manifestation of physiologic processes. As such, all behaviors manifest through the motor system. In the fields of neuroscience and orthopedics, locomotion is a commonly evaluated behavior for a variety of disease models. For example, locomotor recovery after traumatic injury to the nervous system is one of the most commonly evaluated behaviors 1-3. Though locomotion can be evaluated using a variety of endpoint measurements (e.g. time taken to complete a locomotor task, etc), semiquantitative kinematic measures (e.g. ordinal rating scales (e.g. Basso Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor (BBB) rating scale, etc)) and surrogate measures of behaviour (e.g. muscle force, nerve conduction velocity, etc), only kinetics (force measurements) and kinematics (measurements of body segments in space) provide a detailed description of the strategy by which an animal is able to locomote 1. Though not new, kinematic and kinetic measurements of locomoting rodents is now more readily accessible due to the availability of commercially available equipment designed for this purpose. Importantly, however, experimenters need to be very familiar with theory of biomechanical analyses and understand the benefits and limitations of these forms of analyses prior to embarking on what will become a relatively labor-intensive study. The present paper aims to describe a method for collecting kinematic and ground reaction force data using commercially available equipment. Details of equipment and apparatus set-up, pre-training of animals, inclusion and exclusion criteria of acceptable runs, and methods for collecting the data are described. We illustrate the utility of this behavioral analysis technique by describing the kinematics and kinetics of strain-matched young adult, middle-aged, and geriatric rats. PMID:21403621

  1. Role of the Contralesional Hemisphere in Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of optimal treatment strategies to improve recovery is limited by the incomplete understanding of the neurobiological principles of recovery. Motor cortex (M1) reorganization of the lesioned hemisphere (ipsilesional M1) plays a major role in post-stroke motor recovery and is a primary target for rehabilitation therapy. Reorganization of M1 in the hemisphere contralateral to the stroke (contralesional M1) may, however, serve as an additional source of cortical reorganization and related recovery. The extent and outcome of such reorganization depends on many factors, including lesion size and time since stroke. In the chronic phase post-stroke, contralesional M1 seems to interfere with motor function of the paretic limb in a subset of patients, possibly through abnormally increased inhibition of lesioned M1 by the contralesional M1. In such patients, decreasing contralesional M1 excitability by cortical stimulation results in improved performance of the paretic limb. However, emerging evidence suggests a potentially supportive role of contralesional M1. After infarction of M1 or its corticospinal projections, there is abnormally increased excitatory neural activity and activation in contralesional M1 that correlates with favorable motor recovery. Decreasing contralesional M1 excitability in these patients may result in deterioration of paretic limb performance. In animal stroke models, reorganizational changes in contralesional M1 depend on the lesion size and rehabilitation treatment and include long-term changes in neurotransmitter systems, dendritic growth, and synapse formation. While there is, therefore, some evidence that activity in contralesional M1 will impact the extent of motor function of the paretic limb in the subacute and chronic phase post-stroke and may serve as a new target for rehabilitation treatment strategies, the precise factors that specifically influence its role in the recovery process remain to be defined. PMID:26528236

  2. Correlations between measures of dynamic balance in individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Vistamehr, Arian; Kautz, Steven A; Bowden, Mark G; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-02-01

    Mediolateral balance control during walking is a challenging task in post-stroke hemiparetic individuals. To detect and treat dynamic balance disorders, it is important to assess balance using reliable methods. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), margin-of-stability (MoS), and peak-to-peak range of angular-momentum (H) are some of the most commonly used measures to assess dynamic balance and fall risk in clinical and laboratory settings. However, it is not clear if these measures lead to similar conclusions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess dynamic balance in post-stroke hemiparetic individuals using BBS, DGI, MoS and the range of H and determine if these measure are correlated. BBS and DGI were collected from 19 individuals post-stroke. Additionally, kinematic and kinetic data were collected while the same individuals walked at their self-selected speed. MoS and the range of H were calculated in the mediolateral direction for each participant. Correlation analyses revealed moderate associations between all measures. Overall, a higher range of angular-momentum was associated with a higher MoS, wider step width and lower BBS and DGI scores, indicating poor balance control. Further, only the MoS from the paretic foot placement, but not the nonparetic foot, correlated with the other balance measures. Although moderate correlations existed between all the balance measures, these findings do not necessarily advocate the use of a single measure as each test may assess different constructs of dynamic balance. These findings have important implications for the use and interpretation of dynamic balance assessments. PMID:26795124

  3. A Comparative Study Between Modified Starch and Xanthan Gum Thickeners in Post-Stroke Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Vilardell, N; Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Speyer, R; Clavé, P

    2016-04-01

    Thickeners are used in post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) as a compensatory therapeutic strategy against aspirations. To compare the therapeutic effects of modified starch (MS) and xanthan gum (XG) thickeners on swallow safety and efficacy in chronic post-stroke OD patients using clinical and videofluoroscopic (VFS) assessment. Patients were studied by clinical assessment (volume-viscosity swallow test, V-VST) and VFS using 3 volumes (5, 10, 20 mL) and 3 viscosities (liquid, nectar and spoon thick), comparing MS and XG. We studied 122 patients (46MS, 76XG). (A) V-VST showed that both thickeners similarly improved safety of swallow. Prevalence of safe swallowing significantly increased with enhanced viscosity (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 47.83 % at liquid, 84.93 % at nectar and 92.96 % at spoon thick; XG: 55.31 % at liquid, 77.78 % at nectar and 97.84 % at spoon thick. Patients on MS reported higher prevalence of pharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosities. (B) VFS: increasing bolus viscosity with either thickener increased prevalence of safe swallows (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 30.25 % liquid, 61.07 % nectar and 92.64 % spoon thick; XG: 29.12 % liquid, 71.30 % nectar and 89.91 % spoon thick. Penetration-aspiration scale score was significantly reduced with increased viscosity with both thickeners. MS increased oral and pharyngeal residues at nectar and spoon-thick viscosities but XG did not. Timing of airway protection mechanisms and bolus velocity were not affected by either thickener. Increasing bolus viscosity with MS and XG thickeners strongly and similarly improved safety of swallow in chronic post-stroke OD by a compensatory mechanism; in contrast only MS thickeners increased oropharyngeal residue. PMID:26607158

  4. Step Length Asymmetry is Representative of Compensatory Mechanisms Used in Post-Stroke Hemiparetic Walking

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jessica L.; Kautz, Steven A.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Post-stroke hemiparetic subjects walk with asymmetrical step lengths that are highly variable between subjects and may be indicative of the underlying impairments and compensatory mechanisms used. The goal of this study was to determine if post-stroke hemiparetic subjects grouped by step length asymmetry have similar abnormal walking biomechanics compared to non-impaired walkers. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded from 55 hemiparetic subjects walking at their self-selected speed and 21 age and speed-matched non-impaired control subjects. Hemiparetic subjects were grouped by paretic step ratio, which was calculated as the paretic step-length divided by the sum of paretic and nonparetic step-lengths, into high (>0.535), symmetric (0.535–0.465) and low (<0.465) groups. Non-parametric Wilcoxin signed-rank tests were used to test for differences in joint kinetic measures between hemiparetic groups and speed-matched control subjects during late single-leg stance and pre-swing. The paretic leg ankle moment impulse was reduced in all hemiparetic subjects regardless of their paretic step ratio. The high group had increased nonparetic leg ankle plantarflexor and knee extensor moment impulses, the symmetric group had increased hip flexor moment impulses on both the paretic and nonparetic leg and the low group had no additional significant differences in joint moment impulses. These results suggest that the direction of asymmetry can be used to identify both the degree of paretic plantarflexor impairment and the compensatory mechanisms used by post-stroke hemiparetic subjects. PMID:21316240

  5. Characteristics of the electrical oscillations evoked by 4-aminopyridine on dorsal root fibers and their relation to fictive locomotor patterns in the rat spinal cord in vitro.

    PubMed

    Taccola, G; Nistri, A

    2005-01-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is suggested to improve symptomatology of spinal injury patients because it may facilitate neuromuscular transmission, spinal impulse flow and the operation of the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG). Since 4-AP can also induce repetitive discharges from dorsal root afferents, this phenomenon might interfere with sensory signals necessary to modulate CPG activity. Using electrophysiological recording from dorsal and ventral roots of the rat isolated spinal cord, we investigated 4-AP-evoked discharges and their relation with fictive locomotor patterns. On dorsal roots 4-AP (5-10 microM) induced sustained synchronous oscillations (3.3+/-0.8 s period) smaller than electrically evoked synaptic potentials, persistent after sectioning off the ventral region and preserved in an isolated dorsal quadrant, indicating their dorsal horn origin. 4-AP oscillations were blocked by tetrodotoxin, or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione and d-amino-phosphonovalerate, or strychnine and bicuculline, suggesting they were network mediated via glutamatergic, glycinergic and GABAergic transmission. Isolated ventral horn areas could not generated 4-AP oscillations, although their intrinsic disinhibited bursting was accelerated by 4-AP. Thus, ventral horn areas contained 4-AP sensitive sites, yet lacked the network for 4-AP induced oscillations. Activation of fictive locomotion by either application of N-methyl-D-aspartate and serotonin or stimulus trains to a single dorsal root reversibly suppressed dorsal root oscillations induced by 4-AP. This suppression was due to depression of dorsal network activity rather than simple block of root discharges. Since dorsal root oscillations evoked by 4-AP were turned off when the fictive locomotor program was initiated, these discharges are unlikely to interfere with proprioceptive signals during locomotor training in spinal patients. PMID:15857720

  6. Training to Facilitate Adaptation to Novel Sensory Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cohen, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    After spaceflight, the process of readapting to Earth s gravity causes locomotor dysfunction. We are developing a gait training countermeasure to facilitate adaptive responses in locomotor function. Our training system is comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene that provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to train subjects to rapidly adapt their gait patterns to changes in the sensory environment. The goal of our present study was to determine if training improved both the locomotor and dual-tasking ability responses to a novel sensory environment and to quantify the retention of training. Subjects completed three, 30-minute training sessions during which they walked on the treadmill while receiving discordant support surface and visual input. Control subjects walked on the treadmill without any support surface or visual alterations. To determine the efficacy of training, all subjects were then tested using a novel visual flow and support surface movement not previously experienced during training. This test was performed 20 minutes, 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months after the final training session. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of postural stability and cognitive effort, respectively. Subjects who received training showed less alteration in stride frequency and auditory reaction time compared to controls. Trained subjects maintained their level of performance over 6 months. We conclude that, with training, individuals became more proficient at walking in novel discordant sensorimotor conditions and were able to devote more attention to competing tasks.

  7. Locomotor behavior and long bone morphology in individual free-ranging chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kristian J; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Hunt, Kevin D; Nishida, Toshisada; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Boesch, Christophe

    2006-04-01

    We combine structural limb data and behavioral data for free-ranging chimpanzees from Taï (Ivory Coast) and Mahale National Parks (Tanzania) to begin to consider the relationship between individual variation in locomotor activity and morphology. Femoral and humeral cross sections of ten individuals were acquired via computed tomography. Locomotor profiles of seven individuals were constructed from 3387 instantaneous time-point observations (87.4 hours). Within the limited number of suitable chimpanzees, individual variation in locomotor profiles displayed neither clear nor consistent trends with diaphyseal cross-sectional shapes. The percentages of specific locomotor modes did not relate well to diaphyseal shapes since neither infrequent nor frequent locomotor modes varied consistently with shapes. The percentage of arboreal locomotion, rather than estimated body mass, apparently had comparatively greater biological relevance to variation in diaphyseal shape. The mechanical consequences of locomotor modes on femoral and humeral diaphyseal shapes (e.g., orientation of bending strains) may overlap between naturalistic modes more than currently is recognized. Alternatively, diaphyseal shape may be unresponsive to mechanical demands of these specific locomotor modes. More data are needed in order to discern between these possibilities. Increasing the sample to include additional free-ranging chimpanzees, or primates in general, as well as devoting more attention to the mechanics of a greater variety of naturalistic locomotor modes would be fruitful to understanding the behavioral basis of diaphyseal shapes. PMID:16376413

  8. Locomotor Tests Predict Community Mobility in Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferland, Chantale; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree

    2012-01-01

    Ambulatory children and youth with cerebral palsy have limitations in locomotor capacities and in community mobility. The ability of three locomotor tests to predict community mobility in this population (N = 49, 27 boys, 6-16 years old) was examined. The tests were a level ground walking test, the 6-min-Walk-Test (6MWT), and two tests of advanced…

  9. Locomotor Trajectories of Stroke Patients during Oriented Gait and Turning

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Angele; Bensmail, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Background The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is widely used to assess locomotion in patients with stroke and is considered to predict the risk of falls. The analysis of locomotor trajectories during the TUG appears pertinent in stroke patients. The aims of this study were i) to analyze locomotor trajectories in patients with stroke during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the TUG, and to compare them with healthy subjects, ii) to determine whether trajectory parameters provide additional information to that provided by the conventional measure (performance time), iii) to compare the trajectory parameters of fallers and non-fallers with stroke and of patients with right and left hemisphere stroke, and iv) to evaluate correlations between trajectory parameters and Berg Balance Scale scores. Methods 29 patients with stroke (mean age 54.2±12.2 years, 18 men, 8 fallers) and 25 healthy subjects (mean age 51.6±8.7 years, 11 men) underwent three-dimensional analysis of the TUG. The trajectory of the center of mass was analyzed by calculation of the global trajectory length, Hausdorff distance and Dynamic Time Warping. The parameters were compared with a reference trajectory during the total task and each sub-task (Go, Turn, Return) of the TUG. Results Values of trajectory parameters were significantly higher for the stroke group during the total TUG and the Go and Turn sub-tasks (p<0.05). Moreover, logistic regression indicated that these parameters better discriminated stroke patients and healthy subjects than the conventional timed performance during the Go sub-task. In addition, fallers were distinguished by higher Dynamic Time Warping during the Go (p<0.05). There were no differences between patients with right and left hemisphere stroke. Discussion and Conclusion The trajectories of the stroke patients were longer and more deviated during the turn and the preceding phase. Trajectory parameters provided additional information to timed performance of this locomotor

  10. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  11. The effects of Xingnao Jieyu capsules on post-stroke depression are similar to those of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yongmei; Fan, Wentao; Liu, Li; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wenjia

    2013-07-01

    The Xingnao Jieyu capsule has been shown to effectively relieve neurologic impairments and lessen depression. It remains poorly understood whether this capsule can be used to treat post-stroke depression. Thus, in the present study, we established a rat model of post-stroke depression using left middle cerebral artery occlusions in combination of chronic unpredictable stress and solitary housing during development. Experimental rats received intragastric perfusion with 0.82, 0.41, and 0.20 g/kg Xingnao Jieyu capsules separately dissolved in 2 mL distilled water. Fluoxetine served as a positive control. The treatment was conducted over 28 days. Sugar water consumption test, open-field test, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining results demonstrated that intragastric perfusion with various doses of Xingnao Jieyu capsules increased sugar water consumption, voluntary behaviors and synaptotagmin mRNA and protein expression in rats with post-stroke depression. These therapeutic effects were similar to those of fluoxetine. These results indicate that Xingnao Jieyu capsules upregulate synaptotagmin expression in hippocampi of rats with post-stroke depression, and exert antidepressant effects. PMID:25206473

  12. Post-stroke depression inhibits improvement in activities of daily living in patients in a convalescent rehabilitation ward

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Kenji; Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Daisuke; Midorikawa, Manabu; Makiyama, Yasushi; Shimoda, Kaori; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There have been no investigations into the improvement of activities of daily living among patients suffering from post-stroke depression on admission to convalescent rehabilitation wards in Japan. This study aimed to assess the improvement of activities in daily living in patients with or without post-stroke depression at the time of admission to a convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 108 stroke patients divided into two groups according to their Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item short form scores. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Functional Independence Measure. The degree of improvement on the Functional Independence Measure was defined as the difference between scores on admission and at discharge. [Results] The Functional Independence Measure gain score was significantly different from the Functional Independence Measure total score. There was a significant interaction between time period and post-stroke depression factors for the Functional Independence Measure total score. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association between Geriatric Depression Scale score and Functional Independence Measure total score. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that post-stroke depression has a negative impact on recovery of activities of daily living and on rehabilitation outcomes in a convalescent rehabilitation ward setting.

  13. The effects of Xingnao Jieyu capsules on post-stroke depression are similar to those of fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yongmei; Fan, Wentao; Liu, Li; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wenjia

    2013-01-01

    The Xingnao Jieyu capsule has been shown to effectively relieve neurologic impairments and lessen depression. It remains poorly understood whether this capsule can be used to treat post-stroke depression. Thus, in the present study, we established a rat model of post-stroke depression using left middle cerebral artery occlusions in combination of chronic unpredictable stress and solitary housing during development. Experimental rats received intragastric perfusion with 0.82, 0.41, and 0.20 g/kg Xingnao Jieyu capsules separately dissolved in 2 mL distilled water. Fluoxetine served as a positive control. The treatment was conducted over 28 days. Sugar water consumption test, open-field test, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining results demonstrated that intragastric perfusion with various doses of Xingnao Jieyu capsules increased sugar water consumption, voluntary behaviors and synaptotagmin mRNA and protein expression in rats with post-stroke depression. These therapeutic effects were similar to those of fluoxetine. These results indicate that Xingnao Jieyu capsules upregulate synaptotagmin expression in hippocampi of rats with post-stroke depression, and exert antidepressant effects. PMID:25206473

  14. Poststroke Depression: Social Workers' Role in Addressing an Underrecognized Psychological Problem for Couples Who Have Experienced Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael J.; Powers, Laurie E.; Lyons, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychological challenge faced by many individuals and families following stroke. Fortunately, poststroke depression is treatable, and even preventable, if social work and other rehabilitation practitioners understand the most common risk factors and become familiar with measures for assessing for depression among…

  15. Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercises in Post-Stroke Dysarthria Intervention: A Randomized Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, C.; Muir, M.; Allen, C.; Jensen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been little robust evaluation of the outcome of speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention for post-stroke dysarthria. Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are a common component of dysarthria intervention. A feasibility study was designed and executed, with participants randomized into two groups, in one of which…

  16. "Hopeless, Sorry, Hopeless": Co-Constructing Narratives of Care with People Who Have Aphasia Post-Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread support for user involvement in health care, people with aphasia (PWA) report feeling ignored and disempowered in care contexts. They also rarely have the opportunity to give feedback on their experiences of care post-stroke. However, it is important for health care professionals to hear this feedback, both to understand the…

  17. Design and evaluation of NEUROBike: a neurorehabilitative platform for bedridden post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Vito; Galardi, Giuseppe; Coscia, Martina; Martelli, Dario; Micera, Silvestro

    2012-11-01

    Over the past decades, a large number of robotic platforms have been developed which provide rehabilitative treatments aimed at recovering walking abilities in post-stroke patients. Unfortunately, they do not significantly influence patients' performance after three months from the accident. One of the main reasons underlying this result seems to be related to the time of intervention. Specifically, although experimental evidences suggest that early (i.e., first days after the injury) and intense neuro-rehabilitative treatments can significantly favor the functional recovery of post-stroke patients, robots require patients to be verticalized. Consequently, this does not allow them to be treated immediately after the trauma. This paper introduces a new robotic platform, named NEUROBike, designed to provide neuro-rehabilitative treatments to bedridden patients. It was designed to provide an early and well-addressed rehabilitation therapy, in terms of kinesiology, efforts, and fatigue, accounting for exercises functionally related to daily motor tasks. For this purpose, kinematic models of leg-joint angular excursions during both walking and sit-to-stand were developed and implemented in control algorithms leading both passive and active exercises. Finally, a set of pilot tests was carried out to evaluate the performance of the robotic platform on healthy subjects. PMID:22955959

  18. Moving Forward by Stimulating the Brain: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Post-Stroke Hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Heather T.; Edwards, Dylan J.; Wortman-Jutt, Susan; Page, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide, with a majority of survivors experiencing long term decrements in motor function that severely undermine quality of life. While many treatment approaches and adjunctive strategies exist to remediate motor impairment, many are only efficacious or feasible for survivors with active hand and wrist function, a population who constitute only a minority of stroke survivors. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a type of non-invasive brain stimulation, has been increasingly utilized to increase motor function following stroke as it is able to be used with stroke survivors of varying impairment levels, is portable, is relatively inexpensive and has few side effects and contraindications. Accordingly, in recent years the number of studies investigating its efficacy when utilized as an adjunct to motor rehabilitation regimens has drastically increased. While many of these trials have reported positive and promising efficacy, methodologies vary greatly between studies, including differences in stimulation parameters, outcome measures and the nature of physical practice. As such, an urgent need remains, centering on the need to investigate these methodological differences and synthesize the most current evidence surrounding the application of tDCS for post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the most recent tDCS literature (published 2014-2015), while highlighting these variations in methodological approach, as well to elucidate the mechanisms associated with tDCS and post-stroke motor re-learning and neuroplasticity. PMID:27555811

  19. Analysis of Trunk Rolling Performances by Mattress Mobility Detection System in Poststroke Patients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Shang-Lin; Lin, Chia-Huei; Lin, Chueh-Ho; Lu, Liang-Hsuan; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Sung, Wen-Hsu; Wei, Shun-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of kinematic variables with quality of trunk control in poststroke patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study included stroke subjects with mild to moderate motor deficit corresponding to Brunnstrom stages 3-4. Trunk functional performance was measured using bed mobility monitor system. All tasks were repeated ten times for both directions in each subject. Outcome measurements included the movement time and displacement of center of pressure (CoP) from supine to side lying and returning. Results. The results revealed that a significant longer turning time was observed when turning from the paretic side toward the nonparetic side compared to the other direction, with an estimated mean difference of 0.427 sec (P = 0.005). We found a significant difference in the time of rolling back to supine position between two directions. The displacement of CoP in rolling back from side lying on the nonparetic side was smaller than that from the paretic side with an estimated mean difference of -0.797 cm (P = 0.023). Conclusions. The impaired trunk mobility was associated with increased movement time and decreased displacement of CoP in poststroke patients. Trunk rolling performance has potential in assessment of stroke patients. PMID:27042672

  20. Upper Limb Immobilisation: A Neural Plasticity Model with Relevance to Poststroke Motor Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Leonardo; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Sterr, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the neural plasticity that occurs after hemiparetic stroke have contributed to the formulation of theories of poststroke motor recovery. These theories, in turn, have underpinned contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies for treating motor deficits after stroke, such as upper limb hemiparesis. However, a relative drawback has been that, in general, these strategies are most compatible with the recovery profiles of relatively high-functioning stroke survivors and therefore do not easily translate into benefit to those individuals sustaining low-functioning upper limb hemiparesis, who otherwise have poorer residual function. For these individuals, alternative motor rehabilitation strategies are currently needed. In this paper, we will review upper limb immobilisation studies that have been conducted with healthy adult humans and animals. Then, we will discuss how the findings from these studies could inspire the creation of a neural plasticity model that is likely to be of particular relevance to the context of motor rehabilitation after stroke. For instance, as will be elaborated, such model could contribute to the development of alternative motor rehabilitation strategies for treating poststroke upper limb hemiparesis. The implications of the findings from those immobilisation studies for contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies will also be discussed and perspectives for future research in this arena will be provided as well. PMID:26843992

  1. Validating ArmAssist Assessment as outcome measure in upper-limb post-stroke telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-de-Pablo, Cristina; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Savic, Andrej; Tomic, Tijana D; Konstantinovic, Ljubica; Keller, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    The ArmAssist is a low-cost robotic system for post-stroke upper-limb telerehabilitation based on serious games. The system incorporates a set of games for the assessment of arm function, the ArmAssist Assessment (AAA), which allows a remote monitoring of the progress of the patient and an automatic adaptation of the therapy. In this study, different components of the AAA are compared against three widely-used clinical tests, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) [1], the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) [2] and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) [3] in order to select the most clinically meaningful ones for the final score provided to patients and therapist, and evaluate their capability to predict or even improve some aspects of these standard scales. All four tests were performed in 38 separate sessions in 19 post-stroke individuals in their sub-acute phase, as part of a broader study. Statistically significant correlation could be shown with the three clinical tests. These preliminary results are promising for the validation of AAA as a fast, automatic and clinically meaningful tool for remote progress assessment and therapy adaptation; however, more data and further analysis is needed to confirm this. PMID:26737324

  2. Analysis of Trunk Rolling Performances by Mattress Mobility Detection System in Poststroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Shang-Lin; Lin, Chia-Huei; Lin, Chueh-Ho; Lu, Liang-Hsuan; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Sung, Wen-Hsu; Wei, Shun-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of kinematic variables with quality of trunk control in poststroke patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study included stroke subjects with mild to moderate motor deficit corresponding to Brunnstrom stages 3-4. Trunk functional performance was measured using bed mobility monitor system. All tasks were repeated ten times for both directions in each subject. Outcome measurements included the movement time and displacement of center of pressure (CoP) from supine to side lying and returning. Results. The results revealed that a significant longer turning time was observed when turning from the paretic side toward the nonparetic side compared to the other direction, with an estimated mean difference of 0.427 sec (P = 0.005). We found a significant difference in the time of rolling back to supine position between two directions. The displacement of CoP in rolling back from side lying on the nonparetic side was smaller than that from the paretic side with an estimated mean difference of −0.797 cm (P = 0.023). Conclusions. The impaired trunk mobility was associated with increased movement time and decreased displacement of CoP in poststroke patients. Trunk rolling performance has potential in assessment of stroke patients. PMID:27042672

  3. Moving Forward by Stimulating the Brain: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Post-Stroke Hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Peters, Heather T; Edwards, Dylan J; Wortman-Jutt, Susan; Page, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide, with a majority of survivors experiencing long term decrements in motor function that severely undermine quality of life. While many treatment approaches and adjunctive strategies exist to remediate motor impairment, many are only efficacious or feasible for survivors with active hand and wrist function, a population who constitute only a minority of stroke survivors. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a type of non-invasive brain stimulation, has been increasingly utilized to increase motor function following stroke as it is able to be used with stroke survivors of varying impairment levels, is portable, is relatively inexpensive and has few side effects and contraindications. Accordingly, in recent years the number of studies investigating its efficacy when utilized as an adjunct to motor rehabilitation regimens has drastically increased. While many of these trials have reported positive and promising efficacy, methodologies vary greatly between studies, including differences in stimulation parameters, outcome measures and the nature of physical practice. As such, an urgent need remains, centering on the need to investigate these methodological differences and synthesize the most current evidence surrounding the application of tDCS for post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the most recent tDCS literature (published 2014-2015), while highlighting these variations in methodological approach, as well to elucidate the mechanisms associated with tDCS and post-stroke motor re-learning and neuroplasticity. PMID:27555811

  4. Population-based study of central post-stroke pain in Rimini district, Italy.

    PubMed

    Raffaeli, William; Minella, Cristina E; Magnani, Francesco; Sarti, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is still an underestimated complication of stroke, resulting in impaired quality of life and, in addition to the functional and cognitive consequences of stroke, the presence of CPSP may be associated with mood disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. This type of pain may also impair activities of daily living and further worsen quality of life, negatively influencing the rehabilitation process. The prevalence of CSPS in the literature is highly variable (1%-12%) according to different studies, and this variability could be influenced by selection criteria and the different ethnic populations being investigated. With this scenario in mind, we performed a population-based study to assess the prevalence of CPSP and its main features in a homogeneous health district (Rimini, Italy), including five hospitals for a total population of 329,970 inhabitants. From 2008 to 2010, we selected 1,494 post-stroke patients and were able to interview 660 patients, 66 (11%) of whom reported pain with related tactile and thermal hyperesthesia, accompanied by needle puncture, tingling, swelling, and pressure sensations. Patients reported motor impairment and disability, which influenced their working ability, rehabilitation, and social life. Despite this severe pain state, there was a high percentage of patients who did not receive adequate treatment for pain. PMID:24092996

  5. Population-based study of central post-stroke pain in Rimini district, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Raffaeli, William; Minella, Cristina E; Magnani, Francesco; Sarti, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is still an underestimated complication of stroke, resulting in impaired quality of life and, in addition to the functional and cognitive consequences of stroke, the presence of CPSP may be associated with mood disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. This type of pain may also impair activities of daily living and further worsen quality of life, negatively influencing the rehabilitation process. The prevalence of CSPS in the literature is highly variable (1%–12%) according to different studies, and this variability could be influenced by selection criteria and the different ethnic populations being investigated. With this scenario in mind, we performed a population-based study to assess the prevalence of CPSP and its main features in a homogeneous health district (Rimini, Italy), including five hospitals for a total population of 329,970 inhabitants. From 2008 to 2010, we selected 1,494 post-stroke patients and were able to interview 660 patients, 66 (11%) of whom reported pain with related tactile and thermal hyperesthesia, accompanied by needle puncture, tingling, swelling, and pressure sensations. Patients reported motor impairment and disability, which influenced their working ability, rehabilitation, and social life. Despite this severe pain state, there was a high percentage of patients who did not receive adequate treatment for pain. PMID:24092996

  6. The Nature of Naming Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia Versus Acute Post-Stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Maggi A.; Kortte, Kathleen; Cloutman, Lauren; Newhart, Melissa; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Seay, Margaret W.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the distribution of error types across subgroups of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia in different vascular locations. Method We analyzed naming errors in 49 individuals with acute left hemisphere ischemic stroke and 55 individuals with three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Location of atrophy or ischemic stroke was characterized using MRI. Results We found that distribution of error types was very similar across all subgroups, irrespective of the site or etiology of the lesion. The only significant difference across groups was the percentage of circumlocutions (F(7, 96) = 3.02, p = .005). Circumlocution errors were highest among logopenic variant PPA (24%) and semantic variant PPA (24%). Semantic coordinate errors were common in all groups, probably because they can arise from disruption of different cognitive processes underlying naming and, therefore, from different locations of brain damage. Conclusions Semantic errors are common among all types of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia, and the type of error depends in part on the location of damage. PMID:20804246

  7. Factors associated with post-stroke depression and emotional incontinence: lesion location and coping styles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Changjuan; Gao, Juan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Fang; Ma, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Rong; Luo, Lanlan; Hao, Junwei

    2016-07-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) and post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI) have attracted worldwide interest in recent years. These emotional disturbances have a negative impact on the rehabilitation process and the associated worse outcome. Consequently, defining the risk factors for development of PSD and PSEI is important. In this study, we evaluated 368 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke at admission and at three months later. PSD was evaluated by using the Beck Depression Inventory, and PSEI was evaluated using Kim's criteria. The Social Support Rating Scale and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire were also used as measurement tools. Multivariate analyses showed that anterior cortex infarction was associated with PSEI three months after stroke occurrence. The appearance of PSD was not related to lesion location. Both motor and sensory dysfunctions was independently associated with PSD at admission, whereas low degree of social utilization was the independent factor associated with PSD 3 months after stroke. Acceptance-resignation is related to PSD and PSEI both at admission and 3 months after stroke. Avoidance was the independent factor related to PSD at 3 months after stroke onset. PMID:26005045

  8. Microcomputerized measurement of the circadian locomotor rhythm in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Tanakadate, A; Ishikawa, H; Hasegawa, K

    1985-02-01

    A computerized close-up video/photoamplifier system was implemented for the study of circadian locomotor rhythm in a population of a ciliate protozoan, Paramecium. This fully microcomputerized system facilitated automatic long-term measurement of three parameters in parallel: (1) numbers of specimens per 10 min traversing beneath a fixed point in an experimental vessel, (2) times taken by specimens to traverse the point, and (3) interval times between subsequent specimens traversing the point. Stochastic analyses using these parameters can derive the circadian fluctuation of physiological variables, such as swimming speed and the frequency of avoiding reaction (abrupt change in swimming direction). The computerized system simultaneously accomplished the acquisition of these three sets of data, their transient storage, and their graphic display according to given format. The system software was constituted so that an experimenter with little computer knowledge, could easily operate the system by answering questions displayed on the computer monitor. PMID:3839082

  9. EEG during pedaling: Evidence for cortical control of locomotor tasks

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sanket; Gourab, Krishnaj; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila; Schmit, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study characterized the brain electrical activity during pedaling, a locomotor-like task, in humans. We postulated that phasic brain activity would be associated with active pedaling, consistent with a cortical role in locomotor tasks. Methods Sixty four channels of electroencephalogram (EEG) and 10 channels of electromyogram (EMG) data were recorded from 10 neurologically-intact volunteers while they performed active and passive (no effort) pedaling on a custom-designed stationary bicycle. Ensemble averaged waveforms, 2 dimensional topographic maps and amplitude of the β (13–35 Hz) frequency band were analyzed and compared between active and passive trials. Results The peak-to-peak amplitude (peak positive–peak negative) of the EEG waveform recorded at the Cz electrode was higher in the passive than the active trials (p < 0.01). β-band oscillations in electrodes overlying the leg representation area of the cortex were significantly desynchronized during active compared to the passive pedaling (p < 0.01). A significant negative correlation was observed between the average EEG waveform for active trials and the composite EMG (summated EMG from both limbs for each muscle) of the rectus femoris (r = −0.77, p < 0.01) the medial hamstrings (r = −0.85, p < 0.01) and the tibialis anterior (r = −0.70, p < 0.01) muscles. Conclusions These results demonstrated that substantial sensorimotor processing occurs in the brain during pedaling in humans. Further, cortical activity seemed to be greatest during recruitment of the muscles critical for transitioning the legs from flexion to extension and vice versa. Significance This is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of EEG recording during pedaling, and owing to similarities between pedaling and bipedal walking, may provide valuable insight into brain activity during locomotion in humans. PMID:23036179

  10. Novel locomotor muscle design in extreme deep-diving whales.

    PubMed

    Velten, B P; Dillaman, R M; Kinsey, S T; McLellan, W A; Pabst, D A

    2013-05-15

    Most marine mammals are hypothesized to routinely dive within their aerobic dive limit (ADL). Mammals that regularly perform deep, long-duration dives have locomotor muscles with elevated myoglobin concentrations that are composed of predominantly large, slow-twitch (Type I) fibers with low mitochondrial volume densities (V(mt)). These features contribute to extending ADL by increasing oxygen stores and decreasing metabolic rate. Recent tagging studies, however, have challenged the view that two groups of extreme deep-diving cetaceans dive within their ADLs. Beaked whales (including Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris) routinely perform the deepest and longest average dives of any air-breathing vertebrate, and short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) perform high-speed sprints at depth. We investigated the locomotor muscle morphology and estimated total body oxygen stores of several species within these two groups of cetaceans to determine whether they (1) shared muscle design features with other deep divers and (2) performed dives within their calculated ADLs. Muscle of both cetaceans displayed high myoglobin concentrations and large fibers, as predicted, but novel fiber profiles for diving mammals. Beaked whales possessed a sprinter's fiber-type profile, composed of ~80% fast-twitch (Type II) fibers with low V(mt). Approximately one-third of the muscle fibers of short-finned pilot whales were slow-twitch, oxidative, glycolytic fibers, a rare fiber type for any mammal. The muscle morphology of beaked whales likely decreases the energetic cost of diving, while that of short-finned pilot whales supports high activity events. Calculated ADLs indicate that, at low metabolic rates, both beaked and short-finned pilot whales carry sufficient onboard oxygen to aerobically support their dives. PMID:23393275

  11. Is poststroke complex regional pain syndrome the combination of shoulder pain and soft tissue injury of the wrist?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Wook; Kim, Yoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Hong, Ji Seong; Lim, Hyun Sun; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with poststroke complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) show different symptoms compared to other types of CRPS, as they usually complain of shoulder and wrist pain with the elbow relatively spared. It is thus also known by the term “shoulder-hand syndrome.” The aim of this study is to present a possible pathophysiology of poststroke CRPS through ultrasonographic observation of the affected wrist before and after steroid injection at the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon in patients suspected with poststroke CRPS. Prospective evaluation and observation, the STROBE guideline checklist was used. Twenty-three patients diagnosed as poststroke CRPS in accordance to clinical criteria were enrolled. They had a Three Phase Bone Scan (TPBS) done and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of EDC tendon was measured by using ultrasonography. They were then injected with steroid at the EDC tendon. The CSA of EDC tendon, visual analogue scale (VAS), and degree of swelling of the wrist were followed up 1 week after the injection. TPBS was interpreted as normal for 4 patients, suspected CRPS for 10 patients, and CRPS for 9 patients. Ultrasonographic findings of the affected wrist included swelling of the EDC tendon. After the injection of steroid to the wrist, CSA and swelling of the affected wrist compared to that before the treatment was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). The VAS score declined significantly after the injection (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that the pathophysiology of poststroke CRPS might be the combination of frozen shoulder or rotator cuff tear of shoulder and soft tissue injury of the wrist caused by the hemiplegic nature of patients with stroke. PMID:27495051

  12. Mechanisms underlying the activity-dependent regulation of locomotor network performance by the Na+ pump

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Picton, Laurence; Li, Wen-Chang; Sillar, Keith T.

    2015-01-01

    Activity-dependent modification of neural network output usually results from changes in neurotransmitter release and/or membrane conductance. In Xenopus frog tadpoles, spinal locomotor network output is adapted by an ultraslow afterhyperpolarization (usAHP) mediated by an increase in Na+ pump current. Here we systematically explore how the interval between two swimming episodes affects the second episode, which is shorter and slower than the first episode. We find the firing reliability of spinal rhythmic neurons to be lower in the second episode, except for excitatory descending interneurons (dINs). The sodium/proton antiporter, monensin, which potentiates Na+ pump function, induced similar effects to short inter-swim intervals. A usAHP induced by supra-threshold pulses reduced neuronal firing reliability during swimming. It also increased the threshold current for spiking and introduced a delay to the first spike in a train, without reducing subsequent firing frequency. This delay was abolished by ouabain or zero K+ saline, which eliminate the usAHP. We present evidence for an A-type K+ current in spinal CPG neurons which is inactivated by depolarization and de-inactivated by hyperpolarization, and accounts for the prolonged delay. We conclude that the usAHP attenuates neuronal responses to excitatory network inputs by both membrane hyperpolarization and enhanced de-inactivation of an A-current. PMID:26541477

  13. Physical exercise down-regulated locomotor side effects induced by haloperidol treatment in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; de Senna, Priscylla Nunes; Paim, Mariana Fontoura; Saur, Lisiani; Blank, Martina; do Nascimento, Patricia; Ilha, Jocemar; Vianna, Mônica Ryff Moreira; Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Achaval, Matilde; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2013-03-01

    Extra-pyramidal symptoms (EPS) such as akinesia, dystonia, gait alteration and tremors are observed when dopamine D2-receptors are blocked by pharmacological agents such as haloperidol. These alterations produce a Parkinson disease-like state (PLS). Physical exercise has been proven to improve gait and locomotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease; we sought to elucidate the effects of physical exercise on PLS induced by chronic administration of haloperidol in rats. We used 48 rats distributed into four groups: Control, Exercise, Haloperidol, and Hal+Exe. All the animals received a daily injection of saline or haloperidol for 30 days, and the exercise groups underwent a daily 30-minute exercise protocol for 20 days. The animals were subjected to the ink-paw test, bar test and open-field test throughout the training period. The haloperidol-induced akinesia increased throughout the days of injections, but exercise was shown to alleviate it. The assessment showed shortened stride length and increased stance width with the use of haloperidol, which were significantly alleviated by exercise. These results indicate that exercise could be an interesting approach towards reducing unwanted EPS caused by haloperidol. PMID:23290938

  14. Effects of coal mine wastewater on locomotor and non-locomotor activities of empire gudgeons (Hypseleotris compressa).

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Melvin, S D; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Wilson, S P

    2016-05-01

    Coal mining represents an important industry in many countries, but concerns exist about the possible adverse effects of minewater releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems. Coal mining generates large volumes of complex wastewater, which often contains high concentrations of dissolved solids, suspended solids, metals, hydrocarbons, salts and other compounds. Traditional toxicological testing has generally involved the assessment of acute toxicity or chronic toxicity with longer-term tests, and while such tests provide useful information, they are poorly suited to ongoing monitoring or rapid assessment following accidental discharge events. As such, there is considerable interest in developing rapid and sensitive approaches to environmental monitoring, and particularly involving the assessment of sub-lethal behavioural responses in locally relevant aquatic species. We therefore investigated behavioural responses of a native Australian fish to coal mine wastewater, to evaluate its potential use for evaluating sub-lethal effects associated with wastewater releases on freshwater ecosystems. Empire gudgeons (Hypseleotris compressa) were exposed to wastewater from two dams located at an open cut coal mine in Central Queensland, Australia and activity levels were monitored using the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor® (LimCo International GmbH). A general decrease in locomotor activity (i.e., low frequency movement) and increase in non-locomotor activity (i.e., high frequency movement including ventilation and small fin movement) was observed in exposed fish compared to those in control water. Altered activity levels were observable within the first hour of exposure and persisted throughout the 15-d experiment. Results demonstrate the potential for using behavioural endpoints as tools for monitoring wastewater discharges using native fish species, but more research is necessary to identify responsible compounds and response thresholds, and to understand the relevance

  15. Do post-stroke patients benefit from robotic verticalization? A pilot-study focusing on a novel neurophysiological approach

    PubMed Central

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Naro, Antonino; Russo, Margherita; Leo, Antonino; Balletta, Tina; Saccá, Ileana; De Luca, Rosaria; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tilt-table equipped with the dynamic foot-support (ERIGO) and the functional electric stimulation could be a safe and suitable device for stabilization of vital signs, increasing patient’s motivation for further recovery, decreasing the duration of hospitalization, and accelerating the adaptation to vertical posture in bedridden patients with brain-injury. Moreover, it is conceivable that verticalization may improve cognitive functions, and induce plastic changes at sensory motor and vestibular system level that may in turn facilitate motor functional recovery. Objective: To test the safety and effectiveness of ERIGO treatment on motor and cognitive functions, cortical plasticity within vestibular and sensory-motor systems in a bedridden post-stroke sample. Methods: 20 patients were randomly divided in two groups that performed ERIGO training (30 sessions) (G1) or physiotherapist-assisted verticalization training (same duration) (G2), beyond conventional neurorehabilitation treatment. Motor and cognitive functions as well as sensory-motor and vestibular system plasticity were investigated either before (T0) or after (T1) the rehabilitative protocols. Results: Both the verticalization treatments were well-tolerated. Notably, the G1 patients had a significant improvement in cognitive function (p = 0.03), global motor function (p = 0.006), sensory-motor (p <  0.001) and vestibular system plasticity (p = 0.02) as compared to G2. Conclusions: ERIGO training could be a valuable tool for the adaptation to the vertical position with a better global function improvement, as also suggested by the sensory-motor and vestibular system plasticity induction. PMID:26410207

  16. Effect of Laryngopharyngeal Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Dysphonia Accompanied by Dysphagia in Post-stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of laryngopharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on dysphonia in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Eighteen patients participated in this study. The subjects were divided into NMES (n=12) and conventional swallowing training only (CST, n=6) groups. The NMES group received NMES combined with CST for 2 weeks, followed by CST without NMES for the next 2 weeks. The CST group received only CST for 4 weeks. All of the patients were evaluated before and at 2 and 4 weeks into the study. The outcome measurements included perceptual, acoustic and aerodynamic analyses. The correlation between dysphonia and swallowing function was also investigated. Results There were significant differences in the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain scale) total score and sound pressure level (SPL) between the two groups over time. The NMES relative to the CST group showed significant improvements in total GRBAS score and SPL at 2 weeks, though no inter-group differences were evident at 4 weeks. The improvement of the total GRBAS scores at 2 weeks was positively correlated with the improved pharyngeal phase scores on the functional dysphagia scale at 2 weeks. Conclusion The results demonstrate that laryngopharyngeal NMES in post-stroke or TBI patients with dysphonia can have promising effects on phonation. Therefore, laryngopharyngeal NMES may be considered as an additional treatment option for dysphonia accompanied by dysphagia after stroke or TBI. PMID:27606266

  17. Development of Training Programs to Optimize Planetary Ambulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Rutley, T. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in functional mobility following their return to Earth due to adaptive responses that occur during exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. Despite significant time spent performing in-flight exercise routines, these training programs have not been able to mitigate postflight alterations in postural and locomotor function. Therefore, the goal of our two inter-related projects (NSBRI-ground based and ISS flight study, "Mobility") is to develop and test gait training programs that will serve to optimize functional mobility during the adaptation period immediately following space flight, thereby improving the safety and efficiency of planetary ambulation. The gait training program entails manipulating the sensory conditions of treadmill exercise to systematically challenge the balance and gait control system. This enhances the overall adaptability of locomotor function enabling rapid reorganization of gait control to respond to ambulation in different gravitational environments. To develop the training program, we are conducting a series of ground-based studies evaluating the training efficacy associated with variation in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability during treadmill walking. We will also determine the optimal method to present training stimuli within and across training sessions to maximize both the efficacy and efficiency of the training procedure. Results indicate that variations in both visual flow and body unloading during treadmill walking leads to modification in locomotor control and can be used as effective training modalities. Additionally, the composition and timing of sensory challenges experienced during each training session has significant impact on the ability to rapidly reorganize locomotor function when exposed to a novel sensory environment. We have developed the capability of producing support surface variation during gait training by mounting a treadmill on a six

  18. Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling in Wheelchair Racing Athletes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Claudio; Wenger, Martin; Leicht, Christof A.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In wheelchair racing, respiratory muscles of the rib cage are concomitantly involved in non-ventilatory functions during wheelchair propulsion. However, the relationship between locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC: the ratio between push and breathing frequency), respiratory parameters and work efficiency is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the LRC in wheelchair racers over different race distances. Methods: Eight trained and experienced wheelchair racers completed three time-trials over the distances of 400, 800, and 5000 m on a training roller in randomized order. During the time trials, ventilatory and gas exchange variables as well as push frequency were continuously registered to determine possible LRC strategies. Results: Four different coupling ratios were identified, namely 1:1; 2:1, 3:1 as well as a 1:1/2:1 alternating type, respectively. The 2:1 coupling was the most dominant type. The 1:1/2:1 alternating coupling type was found predominantly during the 400 m time-trial. Longer race distances tended to result in an increased coupling ratio (e.g., from 1:1 toward 2:1), and an increase in coupling ratio toward a more efficient respiration was found over the 5000 m distance. A significant correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.05) between respiratory frequency and the respiratory equivalent for oxygen was found for the 400 m and the 800 m time-trials. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a higher coupling ratio indicates enhanced breathing work efficiency with a concomitant deeper and slower respiration during wheelchair racing. Thus, the selection of an appropriate LRC strategy may help to optimize wheelchair racing performance. PMID:26858655

  19. Improving post-stroke recovery: the role of the multidisciplinary health care team

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, David J; Forster, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious, long-term disability, the effects of which may be prolonged with physical, emotional, social, and financial consequences not only for those affected but also for their family and friends. Evidence for the effectiveness of stroke unit care and the benefits of thrombolysis have transformed treatment for people after stroke. Previously viewed nihilistically, stroke is now seen as a medical emergency with clear evidence-based care pathways from hospital admission to discharge. However, stroke remains a complex clinical condition that requires health professionals to work together to bring to bear their collective knowledge and specialist skills for the benefit of stroke survivors. Multidisciplinary team working is regarded as fundamental to delivering effective care across the stroke pathway. This paper discusses the contribution of team working in improving recovery at key points in the post-stroke pathway. PMID:26445548

  20. Precise Muscle Selection Using Dynamic Polyelectromyography for Treatment of Post-stroke Dystonia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia has a wide range of causes, but treatment of dystonia is limited to minimizing the symptoms as there is yet no successful treatment for its cause. One of the optimal treatment methods for dystonia is chemodenervation using botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), alcohol injection, etc., but its success depends on how precisely the dystonic muscle is selected. Here, we reported a successful experience in a 49-year-old post-stroke female patient who showed paroxysmal repetitive contractions involving the right leg, which may be of dystonic nature. BTX-A and alcohol were injected into the muscles which were identified by dynamic polyelectromyography. After injection, the dystonic muscle spasm, cramping pain, and the range of motion of the affected lower limb improved markedly, and she was able to walk independently indoors. In such a case, dynamic polyelectromyography may be a useful method for selecting the dominant dystonic muscles. PMID:27446795

  1. Virtual Reality for Sensorimotor Rehabilitation Post-Stroke: The Promise and Current State of the Field.

    PubMed

    Fluet, Gerard G; Deutsch, Judith E

    2013-03-01

    Developments over the past 2 years in virtual reality (VR) augmented sensorimotor rehabilitation of upper limb use and gait post-stroke were reviewed. Studies were included if they evaluated comparative efficacy between VR and standard of care, and or differences in VR delivery methods; and were CEBM (center for evidence based medicine) level 2 or higher. Eight upper limb and two gait studies were included and described using the following categories hardware (input and output), software (virtual task and feedback and presentation) intervention (progression and dose), and outcomes. Trends in the field were commented on, gaps in knowledge identified, and areas of future research and translation of VR to practice were suggested. PMID:24579058

  2. Virtual Reality for Sensorimotor Rehabilitation Post-Stroke: The Promise and Current State of the Field

    PubMed Central

    Fluet, Gerard G.

    2013-01-01

    Developments over the past 2 years in virtual reality (VR) augmented sensorimotor rehabilitation of upper limb use and gait post-stroke were reviewed. Studies were included if they evaluated comparative efficacy between VR and standard of care, and or differences in VR delivery methods; and were CEBM (center for evidence based medicine) level 2 or higher. Eight upper limb and two gait studies were included and described using the following categories hardware (input and output), software (virtual task and feedback and presentation) intervention (progression and dose), and outcomes. Trends in the field were commented on, gaps in knowledge identified, and areas of future research and translation of VR to practice were suggested. PMID:24579058

  3. A Review and Conceptual Model of Dopaminergic Contributions to Poststroke Depression.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Ansley; Elijovich, Lucas; Baughman, Brandon; Conley, Yvette

    2016-10-01

    About one third of all patients recovering from stroke will experience some degree of poststroke depression (PSD). PSD lengthens recovery times and reduces overall quality of life for these individuals. Although demographic, environmental, and clinical factors may explain some of the variability seen, these factors cannot fully predict the development of PSD. Furthermore, the precise mechanism of action is largely unknown. Recent work has begun to shed light on the influence of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine. This article summarizes the current evidence for the involvement of the dopaminergic system for PSD, using both preclinical and clinical models. Finally, a conceptual model is proposed that addresses the contributions of dopamine to the development of PSD. PMID:27579957

  4. The free post-stroke clinic: a successful teaching and learning model.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Barbara M; Seale, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare students are often challenged in understanding the complexities associated with the diagnosis of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, stroke). Due to the diversity of clinical presentations following stroke and the intractable nature of some stroke sequelae, learning to effectively manage persons with stroke cannot always be translated solely through didactic methods. This paper describes a free post-stroke clinic, organized as part of the occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) curricula, that offered hands-on learning with actual patients with stroke, provided a needed service to the community, and established a pathway for university stroke research. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from students, faculty supervisors, and patients. Seventy-eight persons with stroke, of diverse ages, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds, participated in our clinic over the course of a year. In post-clinic questionnaires, all students (n = 119, 100%) reported that the clinic enhanced learning of stroke diagnosis; 98% of PT students (n = 67) and 94% of OT students (n = 52) indicated that the clinic prepared them for future clinical rotations. An average of 93% of patients who participated reported that they made functional progress during the clinic, and 96% indicated they would recommend the clinic to others. Faculty supervisors reported the clinic was ideal for assessing professional and clinical behavior of students. The free post-stroke clinic can serve as an effective learning and teaching model for other educational programs by offering significant benefit to individuals, universities, and communities while simultaneously providing a mechanism for reliable assessment of student readiness for clinical practice. PMID:23224282

  5. Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces improvements in chronic post-stroke aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Vannest, Jennifer; Wu, Steve W.; DiFrancesco, Mark W.; Banks, Christi; Gilbert, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Aphasia affects 1/3 of stroke patients with improvements noted only in some of them. The goal of this exploratory study was to provide preliminary evidence regarding safety and efficacy of fMRI-guided excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the residual left-hemispheric Broca’s area for chronic aphasia treatment. Material/Methods We enrolled 8 patients with moderate or severe aphasia >1 year after LMCA stroke. Linguistic battery was administered pre-/post-rTMS; a semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) fMRI task was used to localize left-hemispheric Broca’s area. RTMS protocol consisted of 10 daily treatments of 200 seconds each using an excitatory stimulation protocol called intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Coil placement was targeted individually to the left Broca’s. Results 6/8 patients showed significant pre-/post-rTMS improvements in semantic fluency (p=0.028); they were able to generate more appropriate words when prompted with a semantic category. Pre-/post-rTMS fMRI maps showed increases in left fronto-temporo-parietal language networks with a significant left-hemispheric shift in the left frontal (p=0.025), left temporo-parietal (p=0.038) regions and global language LI (p=0.018). Patients tended to report subjective improvement on Communicative Activities Log (mini-CAL; p=0.075). None of the subjects reported ill effects of rTMS. Conclusions FMRI-guided, excitatory rTMS applied to the affected Broca’s area improved language skills in patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia; these improvements correlated with increased language lateralization to the left hemisphere. This rTMS protocol appears to be safe and should be further tested in blinded studies assessing its short- and long-term safety/efficacy for post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:21358599

  6. Community participation of patients 12 months post-stroke in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Aimee; Musenge, Eustasius

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQL) is the main goal of rehabilitation. The ability of the stroke-patient to participate in various situations signifies successful rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to establish the extent of community participation and the barriers and facilitators to the participation for stroke patients after their discharge. Method This study formed part of a larger study focusing on the impact of caregiver education on stroke survivors and their careers. This was a longitudinal study comprising 200 patients with first-time ischaemic stroke. Although the patients were followed up at home at 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-stroke, this paper focuses on the 12-months follow-up participation results. Patient functional ability was measured by using the Barthel Index (BI) and the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), whereas participation was measured by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) checklist. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results Patients experienced severe to complete difficulty when undertaking single and multiple tasks without help 12-months post-discharge. They struggled with the preparation of meals, household work and interpersonal interactions, and they had difficulties with community life and partaking in recreation and leisure activities. Immediate family and societal attitudes were viewed as facilitators to community participation whereas friends, transportation services and social security services were viewed as barriers to community participation. Conclusion The patient-ability to socialise and participate in community issues is currently poor. The identified barriers to community participation need to be addressed in order to improve patient-participation in the community post-stroke.

  7. Post-stroke balance rehabilitation under multi-level electrotherapy: a conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Anirban; Lahiri, Uttama; Das, Abhijit; Nitsche, Michael A.; Guiraud, David

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is caused when an artery carrying blood from heart to an area in the brain bursts or a clot obstructs the blood flow thereby preventing delivery of oxygen and nutrients. About half of the stroke survivors are left with some degree of disability. Innovative methodologies for restorative neurorehabilitation are urgently required to reduce long-term disability. The ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function, and connections is called neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity is involved in post-stroke functional disturbances, but also in rehabilitation. It has been shown that active cortical participation in a closed-loop brain machine interface (BMI) can induce neuroplasticity in cortical networks where the brain acts as a controller, e.g., during a visuomotor task. Here, the motor task can be assisted with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) where the BMI will act as a real-time decoder. However, the cortical control and induction of neuroplasticity in a closed-loop BMI is also dependent on the state of brain, e.g., visuospatial attention during visuomotor task performance. In fact, spatial neglect is a hidden disability that is a common complication of stroke and is associated with prolonged hospital stays, accidents, falls, safety problems, and chronic functional disability. This hypothesis and theory article presents a multi-level electrotherapy paradigm toward motor rehabilitation in virtual reality that postulates that while the brain acts as a controller in a closed-loop BMI to drive NMES, the state of brain can be can be altered toward improvement of visuomotor task performance with non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). This leads to a multi-level electrotherapy paradigm where a virtual reality-based adaptive response technology is proposed for post-stroke balance rehabilitation. In this article, we present a conceptual review of the related experimental findings. PMID:25565937

  8. Structural connectome disruption at baseline predicts 6-months post-stroke outcome.

    PubMed

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman; Raj, Ashish; Relkin, Norman; Toglia, Joan; Iadecola, Costantino; O'Dell, Michael

    2016-07-01

    In this study, models based on quantitative imaging biomarkers of post-stroke structural connectome disruption were used to predict six-month outcomes in various domains. Demographic information and clinical MRIs were collected from 40 ischemic stroke subjects (age: 68.1 ± 13.2 years, 17 female, NIHSS: 6.8 ± 5.6). Diffusion-weighted images were used to create lesion masks, which were uploaded to the Network Modification (NeMo) Tool. The NeMo Tool, using only clinical MRIs, allows estimation of connectome disruption at three levels: whole brain, individual gray matter regions and between pairs of gray matter regions. Partial Least Squares Regression models were constructed for each level of connectome disruption and for each of the three six-month outcomes: applied cognitive, basic mobility and daily activity. Models based on lesion volume were created for comparison. Cross-validation, bootstrapping and multiple comparisons corrections were implemented to minimize over-fitting and Type I errors. The regional disconnection model best predicted applied cognitive (R(2)  = 0.56) and basic mobility outcomes (R(2)  = 0.70), while the pairwise disconnection model best predicted the daily activity measure (R(2)  = 0.72). These results demonstrate that models based on connectome disruption metrics were more accurate than ones based on lesion volume and that increasing anatomical specificity of disconnection metrics does not always increase model accuracy, likely due to statistical adjustments for concomitant increases in data dimensionality. This work establishes that the NeMo Tool's measures of baseline connectome disruption, acquired using only routinely collected MRI scans, can predict 6-month post-stroke outcomes in various functional domains including cognition, motor function and daily activities. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27016287

  9. Pharmacological management of central post-stroke pain: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong S

    2014-09-01

    Pain is one of the most troublesome sequelae of stroke. Some of this post-stroke pain is caused by the brain lesion itself; this is called central post-stroke pain (CPSP). Although the prevalence of CPSP is low (1-8 %), persistent, often treatment-resistant, painful sensations are a major problem for stroke patients. The pathogenesis of CPSP remains unknown, but suggested underlying causes include hyperexcitation in the damaged sensory pathways, damage to the central inhibitory pathways, or a combination of the two. For pharmacological treatment, amitriptyline, an adrenergic antidepressant, is currently the first-line drug for CPSP. However, its effect is frequently incomplete and a high dose is commonly not tolerated in stroke patients. Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic, was also found to be effective in a controlled trial and can be used as an alternative or additive therapy. GABAergic drugs with potential calcium channel-blocking effects, such as gabapentin or pregabalin, have recently emerged as a potentially useful therapy. These drugs are effective in various neuropathic pain syndromes, but their effect on CPSP remains to be proven. Pregabalin may improve pain-related anxiety and sleep disturbances. Fluvoxamine and mexiletine may be used adjunctively in some patients. Non-pharmacological treatments such as motor cortex stimulation or deep brain stimulation are used in some centers, but are not proven to be effective. Further well designed clinical trials as well as basic research should be performed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of CPSP and to develop better treatment strategies. PMID:25112542

  10. Low Serum Levels of Uric Acid are Associated With Development of Poststroke Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yingying; Han, Bin; Wang, Liping; Chang, Yaling; Zhu, Lin; Ren, Wenwei; Yan, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiangyang; He, Jincai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Poststroke depression (PSD) is a frequent complication of stroke that has been associated with poorer outcome of stroke patients. This study sought to examine the possible association between serum uric acid levels and the development of PSD. We recruited 196 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 100 healthy volunteers. Serum uric acid levels were tested by uricase-PAP method within 24 hr after admission. Neuropsychological evaluations were conducted at 3-month poststroke. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Diagnosis of PSD was made in accordance with DSM-IV criteria for depression. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Fifty-six patients (28.6%) were diagnosed as having PSD at 3 months. PSD patients showed significantly lower levels of uric acid at baseline as compared to non-PSD patients (237.02 ± 43.43 vs 309.10 ± 67.44 μmol/L, t = −8.86, P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, uric acid levels (≤239.0 and ≥328.1 μmol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSD (OR, 7.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–23.47, P < 0.001 and OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01–0.43, P = 0.01, respectively) after adjustment for possible variables. Serum uric acid levels at admission are found to be correlated with PSD and may predict its development at 3 months after stroke. PMID:26559256

  11. Post-stroke balance rehabilitation under multi-level electrotherapy: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Lahiri, Uttama; Das, Abhijit; Nitsche, Michael A; Guiraud, David

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is caused when an artery carrying blood from heart to an area in the brain bursts or a clot obstructs the blood flow thereby preventing delivery of oxygen and nutrients. About half of the stroke survivors are left with some degree of disability. Innovative methodologies for restorative neurorehabilitation are urgently required to reduce long-term disability. The ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function, and connections is called neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity is involved in post-stroke functional disturbances, but also in rehabilitation. It has been shown that active cortical participation in a closed-loop brain machine interface (BMI) can induce neuroplasticity in cortical networks where the brain acts as a controller, e.g., during a visuomotor task. Here, the motor task can be assisted with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) where the BMI will act as a real-time decoder. However, the cortical control and induction of neuroplasticity in a closed-loop BMI is also dependent on the state of brain, e.g., visuospatial attention during visuomotor task performance. In fact, spatial neglect is a hidden disability that is a common complication of stroke and is associated with prolonged hospital stays, accidents, falls, safety problems, and chronic functional disability. This hypothesis and theory article presents a multi-level electrotherapy paradigm toward motor rehabilitation in virtual reality that postulates that while the brain acts as a controller in a closed-loop BMI to drive NMES, the state of brain can be can be altered toward improvement of visuomotor task performance with non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). This leads to a multi-level electrotherapy paradigm where a virtual reality-based adaptive response technology is proposed for post-stroke balance rehabilitation. In this article, we present a conceptual review of the related experimental findings. PMID:25565937

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF RAT PUPS EXPOSED TO HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium (Cd), triethyltin (TET), and trimethyltin (TMT) are heavy metals which are neurotoxic to developing animals. In the present experiment, preweaning assessment of locomotor activity was used to detect and differentiate between the developmental toxicity of these metals. On ...

  13. Woodlouse locomotor behavior in the assessment of clean and contaminated field sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bayley, M.; Baatrup, E.; Bjerregaard, P.

    1997-11-01

    Specimens of the woodlouse Oniscus asellus were collected at four clean field sites and from a recently closed iron foundry heavily contaminated with zinc, lead, chromium, and nickel. Each of the 30 woodlice per group was housed individually and acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 2 d on a humid plaster of paris substrate. Thereafter, the locomotor behavior of each animal was measured for 4 h employing automated computer-aided video tracking. Linear discriminant analysis of five locomotor parameters revealed average velocity and path length as the principle components separating the polluted site and control animals. Post hoc analysis of the discriminant variable for animals from all five sites showed that the animals from the polluted site where significantly hyperactive when compared to all controls. Further, control animals collected from sites separated by several hundred kilometers were remarkably similar in their locomotor behavior. This preliminary study highlights the potential utility of quantitative analysis of animal locomotor behavior in environmental monitoring.

  14. Involvement of nigral oxytocin in locomotor activity: A behavioral, immunohistochemical and lesion study in male rats.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Laura; Cocco, Cristina; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Sanna, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    Oxytocin is involved in the control of different behaviors, from sexual behavior and food consumption to empathy, social and affective behaviors. An imbalance of central oxytocinergic neurotransmission has been also associated with different mental pathologies, from depression, anxiety and anorexia/bulimia to schizophrenia, autism and drug dependence. This study shows that oxytocin may also play a role in the control of locomotor activity. Accordingly, intraperitoneal oxytocin (0.5-2000μg/kg) reduced locomotor activity of adult male rats. This effect was abolished by d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, an oxytocin receptor antagonist, given into the lateral ventricles at the dose of 2μg/rat, which was ineffective on locomotor activity. Oxytocin (50-200ng/site) also reduced and d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (2μg/site) increased locomotor activity when injected bilaterally into the substantia nigra, a key area in the control of locomotor activity. Conversely, the destruction of nigral neurons bearing oxytocin receptors by the recently characterized neurotoxin oxytocin-saporin injected into the substantia nigra, increased basal locomotor activity. Since oxytocin-saporin injected into the substantia nigra caused a marked reduction of neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (e.g., nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons) and for vesicular glutamate transporters VGluT1, VGluT2 and VGluT3 (e.g., glutamatergic neurons), but not for glutamic acid decarboxylase (e.g., GABAergic neurons), together these findings suggest that oxytocin influences locomotor activity by acting on receptors localized presynaptically in nigral glutamatergic nerve terminals (which control the activity of nigral GABAergic efferent neurons projecting to brain stem nuclei controlling locomotor activity), rather than on receptors localized in the cell bodies/dendrites of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. PMID:27189764

  15. Locomotor behavior of fish hatched from embryos exposed to flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1978-01-01

    Embryos of Fundulus heteroclitus in various stages of development were exposed to space flight conditions aboard Apollo spacecraft and Cosmos satellites. The objective of the study was to ascertain whether fish hatched from these embryos displayed locomotor behavior different from that of control fish of the same age. An electronic monitoring technique was used to record behavior. Results indicate no change in locomotor behavior in fish on Apollo Spacecraft, but inexplicable significant changes were noted in fish aboard Cosmos Satellites.

  16. Bovine growth hormone transgenic mice display alterations in locomotor activity and brain monoamine neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Söderpalm, B; Ericson, M; Bohlooly, M; Engel, J A; Törnell, J

    1999-12-01

    Recent clinical and experimental data indicate a role for GH in mechanisms related to anhedonia/hedonia, psychic energy, and reward. In the present study we have investigated whether bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice and nontransgenic controls differ in spontaneous locomotor activity, a behavioral response related to brain dopamine (DA) and reward mechanisms, as well as in locomotor activity response to drugs of abuse known to interfere with brain DA systems. The animals were tested for locomotor activity once a week for 4 weeks. When first exposed to the test apparatus, bGH transgenic animals displayed significantly more locomotor activity than controls during the entire registration period (1 h). One week later, after acute pretreatment with saline, the two groups did not differ in locomotor activity, whereas at the third test occasion, bGH mice were significantly more stimulated by d-amphetamine (1 mg/kg, ip) than controls. At the fourth test, a tendency for a larger locomotor stimulatory effect of ethanol (2.5 g/kg, ip) was observed in bGH transgenic mice. bGH mice displayed increased tissue levels of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in several brain regions, decreased DA levels in the brain stem, and decreased levels of the DA metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the mesencephalon and diencephalon, compared with controls. In conclusion, bGH mice display more spontaneous locomotor activity than nontransgenic controls in a novel environment and possibly also a disturbed habituation process. The finding that bGH mice were also more sensitive to d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity may suggest that the behavioral differences observed are related to differences in brain DA systems, indicating a hyperresponsiveness of these systems in bGH transgenic mice. These findings may constitute a neurochemical basis for the reported psychic effects of GH in humans. PMID:10579325

  17. Dynamics of the locomotor-respiratory coupling at different frequencies.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Charles P; Bardy, Benoît G

    2015-05-01

    The locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) is a universal phenomenon reported for various forms of rhythmic exercise. In this study, we investigated the effect of movement and respiratory frequencies on LRC. Participants were instructed to cycle or breath in synchrony with a periodic auditory stimulation at preferred and non-preferred frequencies. LRC stability was assessed by frequency and phase coupling indexes using the theory of nonlinear coupled oscillators through the sine circle map model, and the Farey tree. Results showed a stabilizing effect of sound on LRC for all frequencies and for the two systems paced. The sound-induced effect was more prominent when the rhythm of the stimulation corresponded to the preferred frequencies. The adoption of cycling or respiratory frequencies far off preferential ones led to a loss of stability in LRC. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that LRC is not unidirectional-from locomotion onto respiration-but bidirectional between the two systems. They also suggest that auditory information plays an important role in the modulation of LRC. PMID:25796188

  18. Reconstructing the locomotor repertoire of Protopithecus brasiliensis. I. Body size.

    PubMed

    Halenar, Lauren B

    2011-12-01

    An accurate body size estimate is essential for reconstructing and interpreting many aspects of the paleobiology of an extinct taxon. With this in mind, the purpose of this study is two-fold: first, to create statistically robust predictive regression equations for body mass, total body length, and head and body length from postcranial elements using a platyrrhine reference sample, data that do not exist elsewhere in the literature; and, second, to apply those regression equations to the "giant" subfossil platyrrhine Protopithecus brasiliensis, a little-studied taxon represented by a nearly complete skeleton. Building on results of previous work with other primate groups, different skeletal elements, subgroups of the reference sample, and regression models lead to different body size estimates with different standard errors and prediction errors. However, relatively tight clusters of estimates around 20 kg, total length of 1,675 mm, and head and body length of 710 mm are obtained, placing the fossil in the size range of a large male baboon. While not quite as large as the original 25 kg body mass estimate for the fossil, this new estimate is still approximately 150% larger than the largest living New World monkey. Confirmation of its place in a large-bodied size class of platyrrhines has a profound effect on reconstructing the locomotor repertoire of Protopithecus and the evolutionary trajectory of the alouattin lineage. PMID:22042663

  19. Locomotor head movements and semicircular canal morphology in primates

    PubMed Central

    Malinzak, Michael D.; Kay, Richard F.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Animal locomotion causes head rotations, which are detected by the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Morphologic features of the canals influence rotational sensitivity, and so it is hypothesized that locomotion and canal morphology are functionally related. Most prior research has compared subjective assessments of animal “agility” with a single determinant of rotational sensitivity: the mean canal radius of curvature (R). In fact, the paired variables of R and body mass are correlated with agility and have been used to infer locomotion in extinct species. To refine models of canal functional morphology and to improve locomotor inferences for extinct species, we compare 3D vector measurements of head rotation during locomotion with 3D vector measures of canal sensitivity. Contrary to the predictions of conventional models that are based upon R, we find that axes of rapid head rotation are not aligned with axes of either high or low sensitivity. Instead, animals with fast head rotations have similar sensitivities in all directions, which they achieve by orienting the three canals of each ear orthogonally (i.e., along planes at 90° angles to one another). The extent to which the canal configuration approaches orthogonality is correlated with rotational head speed independent of body mass and phylogeny, whereas R is not. PMID:23045679

  20. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-02-17

    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise. PMID:23333554

  1. Human pendulum approach to simulate and quantify locomotor impact loading.

    PubMed

    Lafortune, M A; Lake, M J

    1995-09-01

    The understanding of impact mechanics during locomotion is important for research within the fields of injury prevention and footwear design. Instrumented missiles offer a worthy solution to the lack of control inherent in in vivo activities and to the isolated nature of tissue studies. However, missiles cannot mimic the magnitude and temporal characteristics of locomotion impacts. A human pendulum approach employed the subject's own body as the missile to impart controlled impacts to the lower extremity. The subject is swung toward a force platform instrumented wall while lying supine on a suspended lightweight bed. The ability of the pendulum to reproduce locomotor impact loading was assessed for heel-toe running. Axial reaction force and shank acceleration patterns recorded during pendulum tests in ten subjects were found to closely resemble running patterns and they were obtained without discomfort to the subjects. This new approach relies upon one's own body to impart impacts representative of locomotion. It should prove useful to study human impact loading in a controlled manner. PMID:7559680

  2. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Johnson, Nicholas S; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species. PMID:23735501

  3. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  4. Seasonality in circadian locomotor activity and serum testosterone level in the subtropical tree sparrow (Passer montanus).

    PubMed

    Dixit, Anand S; Singh, Namram S

    2016-05-01

    Seasonality in daily locomotor activity pattern was investigated in the subtropical tree sparrow by exposing a group of birds to natural day lengths (NDL) for 30days and another group to 12L/12D for 14days followed by transfer to constant dim light (LLdim) for another 15days in four different seasons of the year. Serum testosterone levels were also measured during different seasons. Sparrows, under NDL, exhibited distinct circadian rhythmicity in their locomotor activity with almost similar general pattern in different seasons that restricted mainly to the light hours. However, they showed season-dependent differences in the characteristics of circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Birds, when exposed to 12L/12D, showed entrainment of their locomotor activity rhythm with the activity confined mainly during the light phase. Though, tau (τ) under free run conditions did not show any significant difference, the activity period varied significantly in different seasons. The highest level of testosterone was recorded in the spring season that corresponded with the maximum locomotor activity in spring months. The seasonality in daily locomotor activity correlates with the seasonal changes in testosterone levels suggesting the influence of gonadal steroids on endogenous circadian system which is indicative of adaptation of tree sparrow to local photoperiodic conditions. PMID:26945648

  5. Locomotor, feeding and melatonin daily rhythms in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo).

    PubMed

    Vera, L M; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2006-06-15

    Sharpsnout seabream is a marine teleost of increasing interest for Mediterranean aquaculture, but there is still a lack of information regarding its circadian organization. In this study, we have investigated sharpsnout seabream locomotor activity, feeding and plasma melatonin daily rhythms under a 12:12-h LD cycle, as well as the persistence of locomotor activity circadian rhythmicity under constant light (LL) conditions. When submitted to an LD cycle, most sharpsnout seabream displayed a diurnal locomotor pattern, with an average 74% of activity recorded during daytime. However, along the experiment 40% of fish spontaneously changed their locomotor rhythm phasing and became nocturnal. Feeding behaviour, nevertheless, remained strictly diurnal in all cases, with 97% of food demands being made during the light period. Free-running locomotor rhythms were recorded in one third of the fish kept under LL. Daily plasma melatonin levels displayed a rhythmic profile, with low daytime values (111 pg/ml) and high nighttime concentrations (791 pg/ml). Taken together, these results evidence a high degree of plasticity for sharpsnout seabream activity patterns, as well as phasing independence of locomotor and feeding rhythms. Finally, the existence of a well-defined daily rhythm of plasma melatonin was found. PMID:16682061

  6. Disparate effects of pramipexole on locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-li; Breier, Michelle R; Yang, Alex; Swerdlow, Neal R

    2011-10-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle and locomotor activity are both widely studied in the preclinical development of dopaminergic agents, including those acting at D3 dopamine receptors. In mice, the dopamine D3 receptor-preferential agonist pramipexole (PPX) alters locomotor activity in a biphasic manner at doses that have no effect on PPI. The present study examined the time-course of PPX effects on locomotion and PPI in rats. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, PPX (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0mg/kg) was injected prior to measurement of locomotor activity for 90 min in photobeam chambers. Based on disparate early vs. late effects of PPX on locomotion, the effects of PPX (0 vs. 0.3mg/kg) on PPI were tested 20 and 80 min after injection. All doses of PPX decreased locomotor activity for 30 min compared to vehicle, and the higher doses stimulated hyperlocomotion later in the session; the late hyperlocomotion, but not the early hypolocomotion, was blocked by the D2-selective antagonist, L741626 (1.0mg/kg sc). In contrast to its locomotor effects, PPX caused a similar reduction in PPI at 20 and 80 min after administration. These findings suggest both a temporal and pharmacological dissociation between PPX effects on locomotor activity and PPI; these two behavioral measures contribute non-redundant information to the investigation of D3-related behavioral pharmacology. PMID:21683731

  7. Feasibility of using whole body vibration as a means for controlling spasticity in post-stroke patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miyara, Kodai; Matsumoto, Shuji; Uema, Tomohiro; Hirokawa, Takuya; Noma, Tomokazu; Shimodozono, Megumi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2014-02-01

    To examine the feasibility of adapting whole body vibration (WBV) in the hemiplegic legs of post-stroke patients and to investigate the anti-spastic effects, and the improvement of motor function and walking ability. Twenty-five post-stroke patients with lower-limb spasticity were enrolled in the study. Each subject sat with hip joint angles to approximately 90° of flexion, and with knee joint angles to 0° of extension. WBV was applied at 30 Hz (4-8 mm amplitude) for 5 min on hamstrings, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The modified Ashworth scale was significantly decreased, active and passive range of motion (A-ROM, P-ROM) for ankle dorsiflexion and straight leg raising increased, and walking speed and cadence both improved during the 5-min intervention. Our proposed therapeutic approach could therefore be a novel neuro-rehabilitation strategy among patients with various severities. PMID:24439649

  8. Mental Practice Combined with Motor Rehabilitation to Treat Upper Limb Hemiparesis of Post-Stroke Patients: Clinical and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Sergio; Lattari, Eduardo; Paes, Flávia; Rocha, Nuno B.F.; Nardi, Antonio E.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Mura, Gioia; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Carta, Mauro G.; Campos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of disability in the world. Due to the extended lifetime of the world's population, the number of people affected by stroke has increased substantially over the last years. Stroke may lead to sensorimotor deficits, usually causing hemiplegia or hemiparesia. In order to reduce motor deficits and accelerate functional recovery, MP combined with motor rehabilitation was introduced to the rehabilitation process of post-stroke patients. Evidence has shown that MP combining with motor rehabilitation based on activities of daily living was more effective than conventional motor rehabilitation used per se. This combination proved very useful and effective, with significant results in improvement of motor deficits in post-stroke patients. However, further studies must be conducted to determine specific parameters, such as type of imagery, frequency or duration.

  9. Stereoselective Effects of Abused “Bath Salt” Constituent 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone in Mice: Drug Discrimination, Locomotor Activity, and Thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Brenda M.; Williamson, Adrian; Suzuki, Masaki; Rice, Kenner C.

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of illicit “bath salts” products. MDPV is a chiral molecule, but the contribution of each enantiomer to in vivo effects in mice has not been determined. To address this, mice were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline, and substitutions with racemic MDPV, S(+)-MDPV, and R(−)-MDPV were performed. Other mice were implanted with telemetry probes to monitor core temperature and locomotor responses elicited by racemic MDPV, S(+)-MDPV, and R(−)-MDPV under a warm (28°C) or cool (20°C) ambient temperature. Mice reliably discriminated the cocaine training dose from saline, and each form of MDPV fully substituted for cocaine, although marked potency differences were observed such that S(+)-MDPV was most potent, racemic MDPV was less potent than the S(+) enantiomer, and R(−)-MDPV was least potent. At both ambient temperatures, locomotor stimulant effects were observed after doses of S(+)-MDPV and racemic MDPV, but R(−)-MDPV did not elicit locomotor stimulant effects at any tested dose. Interestingly, significant increases in maximum core body temperature were only observed after administration of racemic MDPV in the warm ambient environment; neither MDPV enantiomer altered core temperature at any dose tested, at either ambient temperature. These studies suggest that all three forms of MDPV induce biologic effects, but R(−)-MDPV is less potent than S(+)-MDPV and racemic MDPV. Taken together, these data suggest that the S(+)-MDPV enantiomer is likely responsible for the majority of the biologic effects of the racemate and should be targeted in therapeutic efforts against MDPV overdose and abuse. PMID:26769917

  10. Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy for Treatment of Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia: A Randomized, Blinded, Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Ball, Angel L.; Vannest, Jennifer; Dietz, Aimee R.; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Martin, Amber N.; Hart, Kimberly; Lindsell, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have documented the possibility of treatment-induced improvements in language functions 12 months or longer after stroke. The purpose of the current study was to provide a preliminary estimate of efficacy of constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) when compared to no-intervention in patients with chronic (>1 year) post-stroke aphasia in order to provide the data needed to design an appropriately powered trial. Material/Methods This was a randomized, controlled, single-blinded, pilot trial. We identified 32 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia. Of these, 27 were offered participation, and 24 were randomized (CONSORT diagram): 14 to CIAT and to 10 to no-intervention. CIAT groups received up to 4 hours/day of intervention for 10 consecutive business days (40 hours of therapy). Outcomes were assessed within 1 week of intervention and at 1 and 12 weeks after intervention and included several linguistic measures and a measure of overall subjective communication abilities (mini-Communicative Abilities Log (mini-CAL)). To maintain blinding, clinicians treating patients (CIAT group) did not communicate with other team members and the testing team members were blinded to treatment group assignment. Results Overall, the results of this pilot trial support the results of previous observational studies that CIAT may lead to improvements in linguistic abilities. At 12 weeks, the treatment group reported better subjective communication abilities (mini-CAL) than the no-intervention group (p=0.019). Other measures trended towards better performance in the CIAT group. Conclusions In this randomized, controlled, and blinded pilot study, intensive language therapy (CIAT) led to an improvement in subjective language abilities. The effects demonstrated allow the design of a definitive trial of CIAT in patients with a variety of post-stroke aphasia types. In addition, our experiences have identified important considerations for designing subsequent trial

  11. Poststroke Depression as a Factor Adversely Affecting the Level of Oxidative Damage to Plasma Proteins during a Brain Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cichoń, Natalia; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Niwald, Marta; Saluk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Poststroke depression, the second most serious psychosomatic complication after brain stroke, leads to delay of the rehabilitation process and is associated with an increased disability and cognitive impairment along with increase in term mortality. Research into the biochemical changes in depression is still insufficiently described. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the possible association between plasma protein oxidative/nitrative damages and the development of poststroke depression. We evaluated oxidative/nitrative modifications of specific proteins by measurement of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups levels using ELISA test. Additionally, we checked differences in proteins thiol groups by spectrophotometric assay based on reaction between DTNB and thiols. We also evaluated catalase activity in erythrocytes measured as ability to decompose H2O2. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman's rank. We observed significant (P < 0.001) differences in all oxidative/nitrative stress parameters in brain stroke patients compared to healthy group. Our research shows that oxidative damage of proteins is correlated with the degree of poststroke depression, while nitrative changes do not show any relationship. We demonstrate a positive correlation between the concentration of carbonyl groups and the Geriatric Depression Scale and a negative correlation between the degree of depression and the concentration of -SH groups or catalase activity. PMID:25838867

  12. Changes in skeletal muscle perfusion and spasticity in patients with poststroke hemiparesis treated by robotic assistance (Gloreha) of the hand.

    PubMed

    Bissolotti, Luciano; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Gaffurini, Paolo; Orizio, Claudio; Valdes, Kristin; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case series was to determine the effects of robot-assisted hand rehabilitation with a Gloreha device on skeletal muscle perfusion, spasticity, and motor function in subjects with poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects and Methods] Seven patients, 2 women and 5 men (mean ± SD age: 60.5 ±6.3 years), with hemiparesis (>6 months poststroke), received passive mobilization of the hand with a Gloreha (Idrogenet, Italy), device (30 min per day; 3 sessions a week for 3 weeks). The outcome measures were the total hemoglobin profiles and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) in the muscle tissue evaluated through near-infrared spectroscopy. The Motricity Index and modified Ashworth Scale for upper limb muscles were used to assess mobility of the upper extremity. [Results] Robotic assistance reduced spasticity after the intervention by 68.6% in the upper limb. The Motricity Index was unchanged in these patients after treatment. Regarding changes in muscle perfusion, significant improvements were found in total hemoglobin. There were significant differences between the pre- and posttreatment modified Ashworth scale. [Conclusion] The present work provides novel evidence that robotic assistance of the hand induced changes in local muscle blood flow and oxygen supply, diminished spasticity, and decreased subject-reported symptoms of heaviness and stiffness in subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis. PMID:27134356

  13. Superiority of preventive antibiotic treatment compared with standard treatment of poststroke pneumonia in experimental stroke: a bed to bench approach

    PubMed Central

    Hetze, Susann; Engel, Odilo; Römer, Christine; Mueller, Susanne; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Christian; Meisel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Stroke patients are prone to life-threatening bacterial pneumonia. Previous experimental stroke studies have demonstrated that preventive antibiotic treatment (PAT) improves outcome compared with placebo treatment, which however does not model the clinical setting properly. Here we investigate whether PAT is superior to the current clinical ‘gold standard' for treating poststroke infections. Therefore, we modeled stroke care according to the current stroke guidelines recommending early antibiotic treatment after diagnosing infections. To reliably diagnose pneumonia in living mice, we established a general health score and a magnetic resonance imaging protocol for radiologic confirmation. Compared with standard treatment after diagnosis by these methods, PAT not only abolished pneumonia successfully but also improved general medical outcome. Both, preventive and standard antibiotic treatment using enrofloxacin improved survival in a similar way compared with placebo treatment. However, in contrast to standard treatment, only PAT improved functional outcome assessed by gait analysis. In conclusion, standard and preventive treatment approach reduced poststroke mortality, however at the cost of a worse neurologic outcome compared with preventive approach. These data support the concept of PAT for treating patients at risk for poststroke infections and warrant phase III trials to prove this concept in clinical setting. PMID:23361393

  14. The Relation Between the Presence of Aspiration or Penetration and the Clinical Indicators of Dysphagia in Poststroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeju; Shin, Gayoung; Jun, Ahyoung; Park, Taeok; Ko, Doheung; Choi, Eunhee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between the presence of penetration or aspiration and the occurrence of the clinical indicators of dysphagia. The presence of penetration or aspiration is closely related to the clinical indicators of dysphagia. It is essential to understand these relationships in order to implement proper diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia. Methods Fifty-eight poststroke survivors were divided into two groups: patients with or without penetration or aspiration. Medical records and videofluoroscopic swallowing examinations were reviewed. The occurrence of clinical indicators of dysphagia between two groups was analyzed with Cross Tabulation and the Pearson chi-square test (p<0.05). Results Poststroke survivors with penetration or aspiration had significantly high occurrences of delayed initiation of the swallow (p=0.04) and reduced hyolaryngeal elevation (p<0.01) than those without penetration or aspiration. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that delayed initiation of the swallow is a strong physiological indicator of penetration or aspiration during the oral stage of swallowing in poststroke survivors. For the pharyngeal stage of swallowing, hyoid and laryngeal elevation is a key event related to occurrence of penetration or aspiration. Clinical indicators should be investigated further to allow appropriate implementation of treatment strategies for stroke survivors. PMID:26949674

  15. Changes in skeletal muscle perfusion and spasticity in patients with poststroke hemiparesis treated by robotic assistance (Gloreha) of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Bissolotti, Luciano; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Gaffurini, Paolo; Orizio, Claudio; Valdes, Kristin; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case series was to determine the effects of robot-assisted hand rehabilitation with a Gloreha device on skeletal muscle perfusion, spasticity, and motor function in subjects with poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects and Methods] Seven patients, 2 women and 5 men (mean ± SD age: 60.5 ±6.3 years), with hemiparesis (>6 months poststroke), received passive mobilization of the hand with a Gloreha (Idrogenet, Italy), device (30 min per day; 3 sessions a week for 3 weeks). The outcome measures were the total hemoglobin profiles and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) in the muscle tissue evaluated through near-infrared spectroscopy. The Motricity Index and modified Ashworth Scale for upper limb muscles were used to assess mobility of the upper extremity. [Results] Robotic assistance reduced spasticity after the intervention by 68.6% in the upper limb. The Motricity Index was unchanged in these patients after treatment. Regarding changes in muscle perfusion, significant improvements were found in total hemoglobin. There were significant differences between the pre- and posttreatment modified Ashworth scale. [Conclusion] The present work provides novel evidence that robotic assistance of the hand induced changes in local muscle blood flow and oxygen supply, diminished spasticity, and decreased subject-reported symptoms of heaviness and stiffness in subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis. PMID:27134356

  16. The improvement effect of limited mental practice in individuals with poststroke hemiparesis: the influence of mental imagery and mental concentration

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Katsuhito; Nagano, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether limited mental practice improves the motor performance of poststroke individuals with hemiparesis. [Subjects] Twenty-three participants with poststroke hemiparesis (40–82 years of age) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were divided into four groups with respect to a dart-throwing task: the no-practice, physical practice only, mental practice only, and mental and physical practice groups. The groups were compared in terms of gains in motor performance, mental imagery vividness, and level of concentration during mental practice. [Results] No statistically significant difference was found for gains in motor performance among groups, and there was no correlation between imagery vividness and motor performance gains. However, a correlation was found between gains in motor performance and mental concentration during mental practice. [Conclusion] The results suggested that limited mental practice for individuals with poststroke hemiparesis may not improve motor performance. However, a higher degree of concentration during mental practice may improve motor performance. PMID:26357451

  17. Is There Evidence That Active Videogames Increase Energy Expenditure and Exercise Intensity for People Poststroke and with Cerebral Palsy?

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Judith E; Guarrera-Bowlby, Phyllis; Myslinski, Mary Jane; Kafri, Michal

    2015-02-01

    This article asked and answered the question of whether there was evidence to support the use of videogames for promotion of wellness and fitness for people poststroke and those with cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PEDro using a population, intervention, and outcome (PIO) approach and the key words "stroke (or CP) AND video games (and synonyms) AND energy expenditure (EE) (and synonyms)" was conducted. It yielded two relevant references for people poststroke and five references for people with CP. The literature extraction and synthesis by the categories of the PIO indicated that most studies used only the population of interest, except two that compared the EE with that of healthy controls. The main finding is that both people poststroke (moderate severity) and people with CP (mild severity) can achieve moderate EE playing Wii(™) (Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan), PlayStation(®) (Sony, Tokyo, Japan), and Kinect(™) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) games. Adults with CP of mild severity played the videogames at vigorous levels, whereas those with severe CP played them at low levels. There appears to be an interaction between development and severity that influences the exercise intensity measured by EE. The findings suggests that videogames are a gateway for wellness promotion. PMID:26181678

  18. Bihemispheric Motor Cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Force Steadiness in Post-Stroke Hemiparetic Patients: A Randomized Crossover Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Rafael A.; Midgley, Adrian; Massaferri, Renato; Bernardes, Wendell; Okano, Alexandre H.; Farinatti, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke patients usually exhibit reduced peak muscular torque (PT) and/or force steadiness during submaximal exercise. Brain stimulation techniques have been proposed to improve neural plasticity and help to restore motor performance in post-stroke patients. The present study compared the effects of bihemispheric motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on PT and force steadiness during maximal and submaximal resistance exercise performed by post-stroke patients vs. healthy controls. A double-blind randomized crossover controlled trial (identification number: TCTR20151112001; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.in.th/) was conducted involving nine healthy and 10 post-stroke hemiparetic individuals who received either tDCS (2 mA) or sham stimulus upon the motor cortex for 20 min. PT and force steadiness (reflected by the coefficient of variation (CV) of muscular torque) were assessed during unilateral knee extension and flexion at maximal and submaximal workloads (1 set of 3 repetitions at 100% PT and 2 sets of 10 repetitions at 50% PT, respectively). No significant change in PT was observed in post-stroke and healthy subjects. Force steadiness during knee extension (~25–35%, P < 0.001) and flexion (~22–33%, P < 0.001) improved after tDCS compared to the sham condition in post-stroke patients, but improved only during knee extension (~13–27%, P < 0.001) in healthy controls. These results suggest that tDCS may improve force steadiness, but not PT in post-stroke hemiparetic patients, which might be relevant in the context of motor rehabilitation programs. PMID:27601988

  19. Bihemispheric Motor Cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Force Steadiness in Post-Stroke Hemiparetic Patients: A Randomized Crossover Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Rafael A; Midgley, Adrian; Massaferri, Renato; Bernardes, Wendell; Okano, Alexandre H; Farinatti, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke patients usually exhibit reduced peak muscular torque (PT) and/or force steadiness during submaximal exercise. Brain stimulation techniques have been proposed to improve neural plasticity and help to restore motor performance in post-stroke patients. The present study compared the effects of bihemispheric motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on PT and force steadiness during maximal and submaximal resistance exercise performed by post-stroke patients vs. healthy controls. A double-blind randomized crossover controlled trial (identification number: TCTR20151112001; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.in.th/) was conducted involving nine healthy and 10 post-stroke hemiparetic individuals who received either tDCS (2 mA) or sham stimulus upon the motor cortex for 20 min. PT and force steadiness (reflected by the coefficient of variation (CV) of muscular torque) were assessed during unilateral knee extension and flexion at maximal and submaximal workloads (1 set of 3 repetitions at 100% PT and 2 sets of 10 repetitions at 50% PT, respectively). No significant change in PT was observed in post-stroke and healthy subjects. Force steadiness during knee extension (~25-35%, P < 0.001) and flexion (~22-33%, P < 0.001) improved after tDCS compared to the sham condition in post-stroke patients, but improved only during knee extension (~13-27%, P < 0.001) in healthy controls. These results suggest that tDCS may improve force steadiness, but not PT in post-stroke hemiparetic patients, which might be relevant in the context of motor rehabilitation programs. PMID:27601988

  20. Training-Induced Functional Gains following SCI.

    PubMed

    Ward, P J; Herrity, A N; Harkema, S J; Hubscher, C H

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily, hour-long training sessions significantly improved both locomotor (limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns) and nonlocomotor (bladder function and at-level mechanical allodynia) functions following a moderate contusive spinal cord injury. The amount of training needed to achieve this recovery is unknown. Furthermore, whether this recovery is induced primarily by neuronal activity below the lesion or other aspects related to general exercise is unclear. Therefore, the current study objectives were to (1) test the efficacy of 30 minutes of step training for recovery following a clinically relevant contusion injury in male Wistar rats and (2) test the efficacy of training without hindlimb engagement. The results indicate that as little as 30 minutes of step training six days per week enhances overground locomotion in male rats with contusive spinal cord injury but does not alter allodynia or bladder function. Thirty minutes of forelimb-only exercise did not alter locomotion, allodynia, or bladder function, and neither training protocol altered the amount of in-cage activity. Taken together, locomotor improvements were facilitated by hindlimb step training for 30 minutes, but longer durations of training are required to affect nonlocomotor systems. PMID:27403345

  1. Training-Induced Functional Gains following SCI

    PubMed Central

    Ward, P. J.; Herrity, A. N.; Harkema, S. J.; Hubscher, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily, hour-long training sessions significantly improved both locomotor (limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns) and nonlocomotor (bladder function and at-level mechanical allodynia) functions following a moderate contusive spinal cord injury. The amount of training needed to achieve this recovery is unknown. Furthermore, whether this recovery is induced primarily by neuronal activity below the lesion or other aspects related to general exercise is unclear. Therefore, the current study objectives were to (1) test the efficacy of 30 minutes of step training for recovery following a clinically relevant contusion injury in male Wistar rats and (2) test the efficacy of training without hindlimb engagement. The results indicate that as little as 30 minutes of step training six days per week enhances overground locomotion in male rats with contusive spinal cord injury but does not alter allodynia or bladder function. Thirty minutes of forelimb-only exercise did not alter locomotion, allodynia, or bladder function, and neither training protocol altered the amount of in-cage activity. Taken together, locomotor improvements were facilitated by hindlimb step training for 30 minutes, but longer durations of training are required to affect nonlocomotor systems. PMID:27403345

  2. Contribution of the Mitochondria to Locomotor Muscle Dysfunction in Patients With COPD.

    PubMed

    Taivassalo, Tanja; Hussain, Sabah N A

    2016-05-01

    COPD is a significant public health challenge, notably set to become the third leading cause of death and fifth leading cause of chronic disability worldwide by the next decade. Skeletal muscle impairment is now recognized as a disabling, extrapulmonary consequence of COPD that is associated with reduced quality of life and premature mortality. Because COPD typically manifests in older individuals, these clinical features may overlie normal age-associated declines in muscle function and performance. Although physical inactivity, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia, malnutrition, and medications all likely contribute to this comorbidity, a better understanding of the underlying mechanism is needed to develop effective therapies. Mitochondrial alterations have been described; these alterations include reductions in density and oxidative enzyme activity, increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and induction of muscle proteolysis including autophagy. This review focuses on the perspective that mitochondrial alterations contribute to impaired locomotor muscle performance in patients with COPD by reducing oxidative capacity and thus endurance, as well as by triggering proteolysis and thus contributing to atrophy and weakness. We discuss how the potential underlying mechanisms converge on mitochondria by targeting the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator-1α signaling pathway (thereby reducing mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle oxidative capacity and potentially increasing fiber atrophy) and how taking advantage of normal muscle plasticity and mitochondrial biogenesis may reverse this pathophysiology. We propose recent therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator-1α levels, such as endurance training and exercise mimetic drugs, with the strong rationale for increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and function and thus improving the muscle phenotype in COPD. PMID:26836890

  3. Circadian regulation of locomotor activity and skeletal muscle gene expression in the horse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ann-Marie; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Pat; Blake, Catriona M; Ben Attia, Sarra; Katz, Lisa M; Browne, John A; Gath, Vivian; McGivney, Beatrice A; Hill, Emmeline W; Murphy, Barbara A

    2010-11-01

    Circadian rhythms are innate 24-h cycles in behavioral and biochemical processes that permit physiological anticipation of daily environmental changes. Elucidating the relationship between activity rhythms and circadian patterns of gene expression may contribute to improved human and equine athletic performance. Six healthy, untrained mares were studied to determine whether locomotor activity behavior and skeletal muscle gene expression reflect endogenous circadian regulation. Activity was recorded for three consecutive 48-h periods: as a group at pasture (P), and individually stabled under a light-dark (LD) cycle and in constant darkness (DD). Halter-mounted Actiwatch-L data-loggers recorded light exposure and motor activity. Analysis of mean activity (average counts/min, activity bouts/day, average bout length) and cosinor parameters (acrophase, amplitude, mesor, goodness of fit) revealed a predominantly ultradian (8.9 ± 0.7 bouts/24 h) and weakly circadian pattern of activity in all three conditions (P, LD, DD). A more robust circadian pattern was observed during LD and DD. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the middle gluteal muscles every 4 h for 24 h under DD. One-way qRT-PCR results confirmed the circadian expression (P < 0.05) of six core clock genes (Arntl, Per1, Per2, Nr1d1, Nr1d2, Dbp) and the muscle-specific transcript, Myf6. Additional genes, Ucp3, Nrip1, and Vegfa, demonstrated P values approaching significance. These findings demonstrate circadian regulation of muscle function and imply that human management regimes may strengthen, or unmask, equine circadian behavioral outputs. As exercise synchronizes circadian rhythms, our findings provide a basis for future work determining peak times for training and competing horses, to reduce injury and to achieve optimal performance. PMID:20847133

  4. Locomotor disability: meaning, causes and effects of interventions.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shah; Adamson, Joy; Ayis, Salma; Beswick, Andrew; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of a long-term programme of MRC-funded work on locomotor disability in older people. Specifically it describes the meaning and experience of disability, examines the risk factors for disability and systematically reviews the evidence from randomized trials of complex interventions for disability. We undertook a national prospective study of a representative sample of 999 people aged 65 years or more plus in-depth interviews with a small subsample and a selected sample obtained from hospital sources. Secondary analysis of several large prospective studies was carried out and a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials of the effects of complex interventions for disability. Very few participants subscribed to the constructs of longstanding illness, disability or infirmity that surveys often use. A wide range of social and psychological factors, independently of chronic diseases, were strongly associated with disability. People with greater functional reserve capacity and those with greater self-efficacy were generally less likely to suffer from catastrophic decline in ability and had better quality of life in the face of disability. In reviewing 89 trials (over 97,000 participants) of complex interventions for disability, evidence of benefits was found although no relationship with intensity of intervention was apparent. Our findings on the meaning and experience of disability suggest the need for modifications to routinely used survey questions and for different ways of understanding the need for and receipt of care among older people with disabilities. The diverse risk factors for disability suggest that novel approaches across social, psychological as well as more traditional rehabilitation and behavioural risk factor modification would be worth exploring. Complex interventions appeared to help older people to live independently and limit functional decline irrespective of age and health status

  5. General and Specific Strategies Used to Facilitate Locomotor Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mengnan; Matsubara, Jesse H.; Gordon, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    People make anticipatory changes in gait patterns prior to initiating a rapid change of direction. How they prepare will change based on their knowledge of the maneuver. To investigate specific and general strategies used to facilitate locomotor maneuvers, we manipulated subjects’ ability to anticipate the direction of an upcoming lateral “lane-change” maneuver. To examine specific anticipatory adjustments, we observed the four steps immediately preceding a maneuver that subjects were instructed to perform at a known time in a known direction. We hypothesized that to facilitate a specific change of direction, subjects would proactively decrease margin of stability in the future direction of travel. Our results support this hypothesis: subjects significantly decreased lateral margin of stability by 69% on the side ipsilateral to the maneuver during only the step immediately preceding the maneuver. This gait adaptation may have improved energetic efficiency and simplified the control of the maneuver. To examine general anticipatory adjustments, we observed the two steps immediately preceding the instant when subjects received information about the direction of the maneuver. When the maneuver direction was unknown, we hypothesized that subjects would make general anticipatory adjustments that would improve their ability to actively initiate a maneuver in multiple directions. This second hypothesis was partially supported as subjects increased step width and stance phase hip flexion during these anticipatory steps. These modifications may have improved subjects’ ability to generate forces in multiple directions and maintain equilibrium during the onset and execution of the rapid maneuver. However, adapting these general anticipatory strategies likely incurred an additional energetic cost. PMID:26167931

  6. Initiation of segmental locomotor-like activities by stimulation of ventrolateral funiculus in the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianguo; Magnuson, David S K

    2011-09-01

    Descending control is critically important for the generation of locomotor activities. Yet, our understanding of the descending control system of locomotion is limited. We hypothesized that stimulation of the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) induces rhythmic activity in lumbar neurons that is correlated with locomotor-like activity in the neonatal rat. Intracellular recordings were conducted in the L2-L3 lumbar segments, while locomotor-like output was monitored in the L2 and L5 ventral roots. Stimulation of the VLF at thoracic segments induced locomotor-like activity in the L2 and L5 ventral roots in majority of the preparations (26/33). In a few midline split cord preparations (4/13), VLF stimulation induced rhythmic locomotor-like bursts in either L2 or L5 ventral root without alternating pattern between the ventral roots. The response latencies suggest that VLF stimulation induced antidromic activation (<1 ms, 8 cells), monosynaptic activation (1-3 ms, 18 cells), and oligosynaptic activation (3.5-5 ms, 14 cells) of segmental neurons in the lumbar region. VLF stimulation induced rhythmic membrane potential oscillations with or without bursting of action potentials in 9 of 40 putative interneurons. The membrane potential oscillations were in phase with the locomotor-like output of the L2 ventral root in 7 of the 9 cells while the other 2 cells oscillated in phase with the L5 ventral root activity. We have thus demonstrated that descending axons exist in the VLF which make synaptic connections with segmental neurons in the lumbar region that may be a critical element of the locomotor neural network for the initiation of locomotion. PMID:21858680

  7. Initiation of segmental locomotor-like activities by stimulation of ventrolateral funiculus in the neonatal rat

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, David S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Descending control is critically important for the generation of locomotor activities. Yet, our understanding of the descending control system of locomotion is limited. We hypothesized that stimulation of the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) induces rhythmic activity in lumbar neurons that is correlated with locomotor-like activity in the neonatal rat. Intracellular recordings were conducted in the L2–L3 lumbar segments, while locomotor-like output was monitored in the L2 and L5 ventral roots. Stimulation of the VLF at thoracic segments induced locomotor-like activity in the L2 and L5 ventral roots in majority of the preparations (26/33). In a few midline split cord preparations (4/13), VLF stimulation induced rhythmic locomotor-like bursts in either L2 or L5 ventral root without alternating pattern between the ventral roots. The response latencies suggest that VLF stimulation induced antidromic activation (<1 ms, 8 cells), monosynaptic activation (1–3 ms, 18 cells), and oligosynaptic activation (3.5–5 ms, 14 cells) of segmental neurons in the lumbar region. VLF stimulation induced rhythmic membrane potential oscillations with or without bursting of action potentials in 9 of 40 putative interneurons. The membrane potential oscillations were in phase with the locomotor-like output of the L2 ventral root in 7 of the 9 cells while the other 2 cells oscillated in phase with the L5 ventral root activity. We have thus demonstrated that descending axons exist in the VLF which make synaptic connections with segmental neurons in the lumbar region that may be a critical element of the locomotor neural network for the initiation of locomotion. PMID:21858680

  8. THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL TRAINING ON THE LOCOMOTOR APPARATUS IN ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Pedrinelli, André; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio; Azul Nobre, Ricardo do Serro

    2015-01-01

    Physiological changes taking place on the locomotive apparatus as a result of aging, such as muscular mass loss, body balance loss, reduced bone mass and osteoarthrosis cause limitations to the daily activities of elderly people, compromising their quality of life and making them weaker and dependent. Aged people who regularly practice physical activities have a higher level of functional independence and a better quality of life than the sedentary ones. This article addresses the key physiological changes with aging and provides a review of current literature about the effects of physical exercises on the locomotive apparatus of elderly individuals, specifying the best ways to prescribe physical exercises to this age group. PMID:26998458

  9. Post-stroke aphasia recovery assessed with fMRI and a picture identification task

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Eaton, Kenneth; Ball, Angel L.; Banks, Christi; Vannest, Jennifer; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Page, Stephen; Holland, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stroke patients often display deficits in language function such as correctly naming objects. Our aim was to evaluate the reliability and the patterns of post-stroke language recovery using a picture identification task during fMRI at 4T. Material and Methods 4 healthy and 4 left MCA stroke subjects with chronic (>1 year) aphasia. Ten fMRI scans were performed for each subject over a 10-week period using a picture identification task. Active condition involved presenting subjects with a panel of 4 figures (e.g., drawings of 4 animals) every 6 seconds; subjects indicated which figure matched the written name in the center. Control condition was same/different judgment task of pairs of geometric figures (squares, octagons or combination) presented every 6 seconds. Thirty-second active/control blocks were repeated 5 times each; responses were recorded. Results Patients and controls exhibited similar demographic characteristics: age (46 vs. 53 years), personal handedness (EHI; 89 vs. 95), familial handedness (93 vs. 95) or years of education (14.3 vs. 14.8). For the active condition, controls performed better than patients (97.7% vs. 89.1%, p<0.001); performance was similar for the control condition (99.5% vs. 98.8%, p=0.23). During fMRI, controls exhibited bilateral, L>R positive blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activations in frontal and temporal language areas and symmetric retro-splenial and posterior cingulate areas and symmetric negative BOLD activations in bilateral fronto-temporal language networks. However, the patient group showed positive BOLD activations predominantly in peri-stroke areas and negative BOLD activations in the unaffected (right) hemisphere. Both the control and patient groups displayed high activation reliability (as measured by the ICC) in left frontal and temporal language areas, although the ICC in frontal regions of the patients was spread over a much larger peri-stroke area. Conclusion This study documents the utility

  10. Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP) refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related pain. Despite its recognition as part of the general PSP diagnostic possibilities, the prevalence of MPS has never been characterized in patients with CPSP patients. We performed a cross-sectional standardized clinical and radiological evaluation of patients with definite CPSP in order to assess the presence of other non-neuropathic pain syndromes, and in particular, the role of myofascial pain syndrome in these patients. Methods CPSP patients underwent a standardized sensory and motor neurological evaluation, and were classified according to stroke mechanism, neurological deficits, presence and profile of MPS. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were filled out by all participants. Results Forty CPSP patients were included. Thirty-six (90.0%) had one single ischemic stroke. Pain presented during the first three months after stroke in 75.0%. Median pain intensity was 10 (5 to 10). There was no difference in pain intensity among the different lesion site groups. Neuropathic pain was continuous-ongoing in 34 (85.0%) patients and intermittent in the remainder. Burning was the most common descriptor (70%). Main aggravating factors were contact to cold (62.5%). Thermo-sensory abnormalities were universal. MPS was diagnosed in 27 (67.5%) patients and was more common in the supratentorial extra-thalamic group (P <0.001). No significant differences were observed among the different stroke location groups and pain questionnaires and

  11. Swimming as a Model of Task-Specific Locomotor Retraining After Spinal Cord Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, David S. K.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Brown, Edward H.; Enzmann, Gaby; Angeli, Claudia; Quesada, Peter M.; Burke, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    Background The authors have shown that rats can be retrained to swim after a moderately severe thoracic spinal cord contusion. They also found that improvements in body position and hindlimb activity occurred rapidly over the first 2 weeks of training, reaching a plateau by week 4. Overground walking was not influenced by swim training, suggesting that swimming may be a task-specific model of locomotor retraining. Objective To provide a quantitative description of hindlimb movements of uninjured adult rats during swimming, and then after injury and retraining. Methods The authors used a novel and streamlined kinematic assessment of swimming in which each limb is described in 2 dimensions, as 3 segments and 2 angles. Results The kinematics of uninjured rats do not change over 4 weeks of daily swimming, suggesting that acclimatization does not involve refinements in hindlimb movement. After spinal cord injury, retraining involved increases in hindlimb excursion and improved limb position, but the velocity of the movements remained slow. Conclusion These data suggest that the activity pattern of swimming is hardwired in the rat spinal cord. After spinal cord injury, repetition is sufficient to bring about significant improvements in the pattern of hindlimb movement but does not improve the forces generated, leaving the animals with persistent deficits. These data support the concept that force (load) and pattern generation (recruitment) are independent and may have to be managed together with respect to postinjury rehabilitation. PMID:19270266

  12. Gait improvement after treadmill training in ischemic stroke survivors: A critical review of functional MRI studies☆

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Huang, Dongfeng; O’Young, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Stroke survivors often present with abnormal gait, movement training can improve the walking performance post-stroke, and functional MRI can objectively evaluate the brain functions before and after movement training. This paper analyzes the functional MRI changes in patients with ischemic stroke after treadmill training with voluntary and passive ankle dorsiflexion. Functional MRI showed that there are some changes in some regions of patients with ischemic stroke including primary sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area and cingulate motor area after treadmill training. These findings suggest that treadmill training likely improves ischemic stroke patients’ lower limb functions and gait performance and promotes stroke recovery by changing patients’ brain plasticity; meanwhile, the novel treadmill training methods can better training effects. PMID:25337096

  13. Ceftriaxone attenuates locomotor activity induced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Corley, Gladys; Kovalevich, Jane; Yen, William; Langford, Dianne; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-11-27

    Ceftriaxone (CTX) decreases locomotor activation produced by initial cocaine exposure and attenuates development of behavioral sensitization produced by repeated cocaine exposure. An important question that has not yet been answered is whether or not CTX reduces behavioral sensitization to cocaine in cases in which the antibiotic is administered only during the period of cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure and precedes reintroduction to cocaine. We investigated this question using C57BL/6 mice. Mice pretreated with cocaine (15mg/kg×14 days) and then challenged with cocaine (15mg/kg) after 30 days of cocaine absence displayed sensitization of locomotor activity. For combination experiments, CTX injected during the 30 days of cocaine absence attenuated behavioral sensitization produced by cocaine challenge. In the case in which CTX was injected together with cocaine for 14 days, development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine challenge was also reduced. CTX attenuated the increase in locomotor activity produced by acute cocaine exposure; however, its efficacy was dependent on the dose of cocaine as inhibition was detected against 30mg/kg, but not 15mg/kg, of cocaine. These results from mice indicate that CTX attenuates locomotor activity produced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure and counters cocaine's locomotor activating properties in a paradigm in which the antibiotic is injected during the period of forced cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure. PMID:24120434

  14. Interplay between postcranial morphology and locomotor types in Neotropical sigmodontine rodents

    PubMed Central

    Carrizo, Luz V; Tulli, María J; Dos Santos, Daniel A; Abdala, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Sigmodontine rats are one of the most diverse components of the Neotropical mammal fauna. They exhibit a wide ecological diversity and a variety of locomotor types that allow them to occupy different environments. To explore the relationship between morphology and locomotor types, we analyzed traits of the postcranial osteology (axial and appendicular skeletons) of 329 specimens belonging to 51 species and 29 genera of sigmodontines exhibiting different locomotor types. In this work, postcranial skeletal characters of these rats are considered in an ecomorphological study for the first time. Statistical analyses showed that of the 34 osteological characters considered, 15 were related to the locomotor types studied, except for ambulatory. However, character mapping showed that climbing and jumping sigmodontines are the only taxa exhibiting clear adaptations in their postcranial osteology, which are highly consistent with the tendencies described in many other mammal taxa. Climbing, digging and swimming rats presented statistically differences in traits associated with their vertebral column and limbs, whereas jumping rats showed modifications associated with all the skeletal regions. Our data suggest that sigmodontine rats retain an all-purpose morphology that allows them to use a variety of habitats. This versatility is particularly important when considering the lack of specialization of sigmodontines for a specific locomotor mode. Another possible interpretation is that our dataset probably did not consider relevant information about these groups and should be increased with other types of characters (e.g. characters from the external morphology, myology, etc.). PMID:24372154

  15. A feasibility study on the design and walking operation of a biped locomotor via dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingfeng; Ceccarelli, Marco; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A feasibility study on the mechanical design and walking operation of a Cassino biped locomotor is presented in this paper. The biped locomotor consists of two identical 3 degrees-of-freedom tripod leg mechanisms with a parallel manipulator architecture. Planning of the biped walking gait is performed by coordinating the motions of the two leg mechanisms and waist. A threedimensional model is elaborated in SolidWorks® environment in order to characterize a feasible mechanical design. Dynamic simulation is carried out in MSC.ADAMS® environment with the aims of characterizing and evaluating the dynamic walking performance of the proposed design. Simulation results show that the proposed biped locomotor with proper input motions of linear actuators performs practical and feasible walking on flat surfaces with limited actuation and reaction forces between its feet and the ground. A preliminary prototype of the biped locomotor is built for the purpose of evaluating the operation performance of the biped walking gait of the proposed locomotor.

  16. Glycyrrhizae Radix Methanol Extract Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Locomotor Sensitization and Conditioned Place Preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, ZhengLin; Zhang, Jie; Jung, Ji Yun; Chang, Suchan; Zhou, FuBo; Zhao, JunChang; Lee, Bong Hyeo; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, RongJie

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhizae Radix modulates the neurochemical and locomotor alterations induced by acute psychostimulants in rodents via GABAb receptors. This study investigated the influence of methanol extract from Glycyrrhizae Radix (MEGR) on repeated methamphetamine- (METH-) induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP). A cohort of rats was treated with METH (1 mg/kg/day) for 6 consecutive days, subjected to 6 days of withdrawal, and then challenged with the same dose of METH to induce locomotor sensitization; during the withdrawal period, the rats were administered MEGR (60 or 180 mg/kg/day). A separate cohort of rats was treated with either METH or saline every other day for 6 days in METH-paired or saline-paired chambers, respectively, to induce CPP. These rats were also administered MEGR (180 mg/kg) prior to every METH or CPP expression test. Pretreatment with MEGR (60 and 180 mg/kg/day) attenuated the expression of METH-induced locomotor sensitization dose-dependently, and 180 mg/kg MEGR significantly inhibited the development and expression of METH-induced CPP. Furthermore, administration of a selective GABAb receptor antagonist (SCH50911) prior to MEGR treatment effectively blocked the inhibitory effects of MEGR on locomotor sensitization, but not CPP. These results suggest that Glycyrrhizae Radix blocked repeated METH-induced behavioral changes via GABAb receptors. PMID:25386216

  17. Cocaine counteracts LPS-induced hypolocomotion and triggers locomotor sensitization expression.

    PubMed

    Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Engelke, Douglas Senna; Lunardi, Paula; Mello E Souza, Tadeu; Santos-Junior, Jair Guilherme; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimmune signalling underlies addiction and comorbid depression. Clinical observations indicate that infections and chronic lesions are more frequent in drug users and elevated inflammatory states are evident in cocaine dependents. Therefore, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inflammatory cytokines represent an important tool for the investigation of sickness, depressive illness and addiction behaviour. A major component of addiction is the progressive and persistent increase in locomotor activity after repeated drug administration and even prolonged periods of abstinence. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of locomotor sensitization when a non-sensitizing dose of cocaine is paired with a systemic inflammatory stimulus. LPS and cocaine were administered intraperitonealy in young-adult male C57bl/6 mice during a 5-day acquisition phase. After a 48-h withdrawal period all groups were challenged with cocaine to evaluate locomotor expression. During the acquisition phase, the LPS-treated groups displayed characteristic hypolocomotion related to sickness behaviour. The low dose of cocaine did not increase the distance travelled, characterizing a non-sensitization dose. Groups that received both LPS and cocaine did not display hypolocomotion, indicating that cocaine might counteract hypolocomotion sickness behaviour. Moreover, during challenge, only these animals expressed locomotor sensitization. Our results indicate that LPS could facilitate the expression of locomotor sensitization in mice and that the immune system may modulate cocaine-induced sensitization. PMID:25835320

  18. Prediction of Motor Recovery Using Initial Impairment and fMRI 48 h Poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Alon, Leeor; Ryan, Sophia L.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Weiller, Cornelius; Marshall, Randolph S.

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial interpatient variation in recovery from upper limb impairment after stroke in patients with severe initial impairment. Defining recovery as a change in the upper limb Fugl-Meyer score (ΔFM), we predicted ΔFM with its conditional expectation (i.e., posterior mean) given upper limb Fugl-Meyer initial impairment (FMii) and a putative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recovery measure. Patients with first time, ischemic stroke were imaged at 2.5 ± 2.2 days poststroke with 1.5-T fMRI during a hand closure task alternating with rest (fundamental frequency = 0.025 Hz, scan duration = 172 s). Confirming a previous finding, we observed that the prediction of ΔFM by FMii alone is good in patients with nonsevere initial hemiparesis but is not good in patients with severe initial hemiparesis (96% and 16% of the total sum of squares of ΔFM explained, respectively). In patients with severe initial hemiparesis, prediction of ΔFM by the combination of FMii and the putative fMRI recovery measure nonsignificantly increased predictive explanation from 16% to 47% of the total sum of squares of ΔFM explained. The implications of this preliminary negative result are discussed. PMID:21527788

  19. Altered Intrinsic Regional Activity and Interregional Functional Connectivity in Post-stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Li, Yibo; Li, Rong; Pang, Yajing; Yao, Dezhong; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have examined cerebral function in patients who suffer from aphasia, but the mechanism underlying this disorder remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined alterations in the local regional and remote interregional network cerebral functions in aphasia combined with amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and interregional functional connectivity (FC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 17 post-stroke aphasic patients, all having suffered a stroke in the left hemisphere, as well as 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. The aphasic patients showed significantly increased intrinsic regional activity mainly in the contralesional mesial temporal (hippocampus/parahippocampus, [HIP/ParaHIP]) and lateral temporal cortices. In addition, intrinsic regional activity in the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP was negatively correlated with construction score. Aphasic patients showed increased remote interregional FC between the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP and fusiform gyrus, but reduced FC in the ipsilesional occipital and parietal cortices. These findings suggested that the intrinsic regional brain dysfunctions in aphasia were related to interregional functional connectivity. Changes in the intrinsic regional brain activity and associated remote functional connectivity pattern would provide valuable information to enhance the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of aphasia. PMID:27091494

  20. The Cortical Signature of Central Poststroke Pain: Gray Matter Decreases in Somatosensory, Insular, and Prefrontal Cortices.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Asseyer, S; Taskin, B; Flöel, A; Witte, A V; Mueller, K; Fiebach, J B; Villringer, K; Villringer, A; Jungehulsing, G J

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that cortical structural plasticity plays a crucial role in the emergence and maintenance of chronic pain. Various distinct pain syndromes have accordingly been linked to specific patterns of decreases in regional gray matter volume (GMV). However, it is not known whether central poststroke pain (CPSP) is also associated with cortical structural plasticity. To determine this, we employed T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T and voxel-based morphometry in 45 patients suffering from chronic subcortical sensory stroke with (n = 23) and without CPSP (n = 22), and healthy matched controls (n = 31). CPSP patients showed decreases in GMV in comparison to healthy controls, involving secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), anterior as well as posterior insular cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Comparing CPSP patients to nonpain patients revealed a similar but more restricted pattern of atrophy comprising S2, ventrolateral prefrontal and temporal cortex. Additionally, GMV in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex negatively correlated to pain intensity ratings. This shows for the first time that CPSP is accompanied by a unique pattern of widespread structural plasticity, which involves the sensory-discriminative areas of insular/somatosensory cortex, but also expands into prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, where emotional aspects of pain are processed. PMID:25129889

  1. Interhemispheric Plasticity following Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Chronic Poststroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Griffis, Joseph C.; Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of noninvasive neurostimulation on brain structure and function in chronic poststroke aphasia are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to residual language-responsive cortex in chronic patients using functional and anatomical MRI data acquired before and after iTBS. Lateralization index (LI) analyses, along with comparisons of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation and connectivity during covert verb generation, were used to assess changes in cortical language function. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess effects on regional grey matter (GM). LI analyses revealed a leftward shift in IFG activity after treatment. While left IFG activation increased, right IFG activation decreased. Changes in right to left IFG connectivity during covert verb generation also decreased after iTBS. Behavioral correlations revealed a negative relationship between changes in right IFG activation and improvements in fluency. While anatomical analyses did not reveal statistically significant changes in grey matter volume, the fMRI results provide evidence for changes in right and left IFG function after iTBS. The negative relationship between post-iTBS changes in right IFG activity during covert verb generation and improvements in fluency suggests that iTBS applied to residual left-hemispheric language areas may reduce contralateral responses related to language production and facilitate recruitment of residual language areas after stroke. PMID:26881111

  2. Brain-Mapping Techniques for Evaluating Poststroke Recovery and Rehabilitation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, James C.; Boespflug, Erin L.; Lamy, Martine; Allendorfer, Jane; Chu, Wen-Jang; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2009-01-01

    Brain-mapping techniques have proven to be vital in understanding the molecular, cellular, and functional mechanisms of recovery after stroke. This article briefly summarizes the current molecular and functional concepts of stroke recovery and addresses how various neuroimaging techniques can be used to observe these changes. The authors provide an overview of various techniques including diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), ligand-based positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) PET and SPECT, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Discussion in the context of poststroke recovery research informs about the applications and limitations of the techniques in the area of rehabilitation research. The authors also provide suggestions on using these techniques in tandem to more thoroughly address the outstanding questions in the field. PMID:19008203

  3. Caregiver burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs associated with caring for patients with poststroke spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Vaidyanathan; Graham, Glenn D; DiBonaventura, Marco D; Gillard, Patrick J; Goren, Amir; Zorowitz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many stroke survivors experience poststroke spasticity and the related inability to perform basic activities, which necessitates patient management and treatment, and exerts a considerable burden on the informal caregiver. The current study aims to estimate burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs for caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity. Methods Internet survey data were collected from 153 caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity including caregiving time and difficulty (Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale), Work Productivity and Activity Impairment measures, and caregiver and patient characteristics. Fractional logit models examined predictors of work-related restriction, and work losses were monetized (2012 median US wages). Results Mean Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale time and difficulty scores were 46.1 and 32.4, respectively. Employed caregivers (n=71) had overall work restriction (32%), absenteeism (9%), and presenteeism (27%). Caregiver characteristics, lack of nursing home coverage, and stroke survivors’ disability predicted all work restriction outcomes. The mean total lost-productivity cost per employed caregiver was US$835 per month (>$10,000 per year; 72% attributable to presenteeism). Conclusion These findings demonstrate the substantial burden of caring for stroke survivors with spasticity illustrating the societal and economic impact of stroke that extends beyond the stroke survivor. PMID:26609225

  4. MicroRNA-107 contributes to post-stroke angiogenesis by targeting Dicer-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanan; Mao, Ling; Gao, Yuan; Baral, Suraj; Zhou, Yifan; Hu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that microRNA-107 (miR-107) regulates cell migration in tumor and promotes Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) regulated angiogenesis under hypoxia. We found that miR-107 was strongly expressed in ischemic boundary zone (IBZ) after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats and inhibition of miR-107 could reduce capillary density in the IBZ after stroke. Such finding led us to hypothesize that miR-107 might regulate post-stroke angiogenesis and therefore serve as a therapeutic target. We also found that antagomir-107, a synthetic miR-107 inhibitor, decreased the number of capillaries in IBZ and increased overall infarct volume after pMCAO in rats. We demonstrated that miR-107 could directly down-regulate Dicer-1, a gene that encodes an enzyme essential for processing microRNA (miRNA) precursors. This resulted in translational desupression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) mRNA, thereby increasing expression of endothelial cell-derived VEGF (VEGF165/VEGF164), leading to angiogenesis after stroke. This process might be a protective mechanism for ischemia-induced cerebral injury and miR-107 might be used as a novel tool in stroke treatment. PMID:26294080

  5. Serotonin receptor 2C gene polymorphism associated with post-stroke depression in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, W K; Tang, N; Liao, C D; Liang, H J; Mok, V C T; Ungvari, G S; Wong, K S

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) gene has been shown to play a pivotal role in major depression. We examined the association between post-stroke depression (PSD) and polymorphism in HTR2C. A cohort of 223 patients with acute lacunar stroke admitted to the stroke unit of a university-affiliated regional hospital in Hong Kong was recruited. Three months after the onset of the index stroke, a research assistant administered the locally validated 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. PSD was defined as a geriatric depression scale score of 7 or above. Possible confounding factors, including previous history of stroke, severity of stroke, level of social support, and recent life events, were investigated. All patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of HTR2C. Separate analyses were performed for males and females. Sixty-one patients were found to have PSD. There were significant associations between the HTR2C gene and PSD status in the male patients, but not in the female ones. After adjusting for possible confounders, the rs12837651 T allele (odds ratio = 4.020) and the rs2192371 G allele (odds ratio = 2.866) were found to be significantly associated with PSD in males. Genetic variation in HTR2C receptors appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of PSD in Chinese males. PMID:23765961

  6. The adverse effect of spasticity on 3-month poststroke outcome using a population-based model.

    PubMed

    Belagaje, S R; Lindsell, C; Moomaw, C J; Alwell, K; Flaherty, M L; Woo, D; Dunning, K; Khatri, P; Adeoye, O; Kleindorfer, D; Broderick, J; Kissela, B

    2014-01-01

    Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity's impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS) as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question "Did you have spasticity following your stroke?" on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days (n = 30) or did not have spasticity data available (n = 102) were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status (β = 0.420, 95 CI = 0.194 to 0.645) after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model's R (2) changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors. PMID:25147752

  7. The Adverse Effect of Spasticity on 3-Month Poststroke Outcome Using a Population-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Belagaje, S. R.; Lindsell, C.; Moomaw, C. J.; Alwell, K.; Flaherty, M. L.; Woo, D.; Dunning, K.; Khatri, P.; Adeoye, O.; Kleindorfer, D.; Broderick, J.; Kissela, B.

    2014-01-01

    Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity's impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS) as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question “Did you have spasticity following your stroke?” on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days (n = 30) or did not have spasticity data available (n = 102) were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status (β = 0.420, 95 CI = 0.194 to 0.645) after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model's R2 changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors. PMID:25147752

  8. Do morphological condition indices predict locomotor performance in the lizard Podarcis sicula?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervust, Bart; Lailvaux, Simon P.; Grbac, Irena; Van Damme, Raoul

    2008-09-01

    Biologists have developed a number of simple metrics to assess the health and energetic status of individual organisms and populations. While these condition indices have been widely used to address questions in evolutionary ecology and conservation biology, the ability of such indices to predict ecologically relevant locomotor performance abilities remains unknown. We show here that the functional links between six commonly used morphological condition indices and locomotor performance in two populations of Adriatic lizards ( Podarcis sicula) are weak at best. Indeed, no indices consistently predict either maximum sprint speed or maximum exertion across sexes, seasons or populations. These results cast doubt on the ecological relevance of morphological condition indices in terms of locomotor performance, measured in laboratory conditions, at least in this species. We urge caution in using condition indices as proxies for individual physiological or phenotypic quality in ecological and evolutionary studies.

  9. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie R.; Haussmann, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation. PMID:26179798

  10. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kelsey L; Whitley, Brittany N; Treidel, Lisa A; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C; Stevenson, Jennie R; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-07-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation. PMID:26179798

  11. Plasticity and modular control of locomotor patterns in neurological disorders with motor deficits

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Cappellini, G.; Solopova, I. A.; Grishin, A. A.; MacLellan, M. J.; Poppele, R. E.; Lacquaniti, F.

    2013-01-01

    Human locomotor movements exhibit considerable variability and are highly complex in terms of both neural activation and biomechanical output. The building blocks with which the central nervous system constructs these motor patterns can be preserved in patients with various sensory-motor disorders. In particular, several studies highlighted a modular burst-like organization of the muscle activity. Here we review and discuss this issue with a particular emphasis on the various examples of adaptation of locomotor patterns in patients (with large fiber neuropathy, amputees, stroke and spinal cord injury). The results highlight plasticity and different solutions to reorganize muscle patterns in both peripheral and central nervous system lesions. The findings are discussed in a general context of compensatory gait mechanisms, spatiotemporal architecture and modularity of the locomotor program. PMID:24032016

  12. A Medication Combination for the Treatment of Central Poststroke Pain via the Adjuvant Use of Prednisone With Gabapentin: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Luis; Mattie, Ryan; Irwin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Central poststroke pain is a neuropathic pain syndrome that can occur from pathology of the brain. The case presented is of a woman with multiple comorbidities who was found to have an acute infarct in the left middle and anterior cerebral artery territories. She began to complain of worsening diffuse right upper and lower extremity pain, and central poststroke pain was diagnosed. First-line agents were contraindicated as the result of medical comorbidities, and chronic kidney disease only permitted the use of low-dose gabapentin. The patient's morbid obesity inspired the use of an adjunct medication protocol of a prednisone taper for proper treatment. After starting this treatment regimen, the patient experienced significant pain relief with eventual resolution. A steroid-based treatment protocol was used successfully in the early stages of central poststroke pain with proper side effect management and may have prevented difficult treatment management in the outpatient setting. PMID:26409194

  13. Training Modalities to Increase Sensorimotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform required mission tasks. The goal of our current series of studies is develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project has conducted a series of studies investigating the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges (incongruent visual input, support surface instability) designed to increase adaptability. SA training using a treadmill combined with exposure to altered visual input was effective in producing increased adaptability in a more complex over-ground ambulatory task on an obstacle course. This confirms that for a complex task like walking, treadmill training contains enough of the critical features of overground walking to be an effective training modality. SA training can be optimized by using a periodized training schedule. Test sessions that each contain short-duration exposures to multiple perturbation stimuli allows subjects to acquire a greater ability to rapidly reorganize appropriate response strategies when encountering a novel sensory environment. Using a treadmill mounted on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform we investigated locomotor training responses produced by subjects introduced to a dynamic walking surface combined with alterations in visual flow. Subjects who received this training had improved locomotor performance and faster reaction times when exposed to the novel sensory stimuli compared to control subjects. Results also demonstrate that individual sensory biases (i.e. increased visual dependency) can predict adaptive responses to novel sensory environments suggesting that individual training prescription can be developed to enhance adaptability. These data indicate that SA

  14. Levamisole enhances the rewarding and locomotor-activating effects of cocaine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tallarida, Christopher S.; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Drug Enforcement Agency estimates that 80% of cocaine seized in the United States contains the veterinary pharmaceutical levamisole (LVM). One problem with LVM is that it is producing life-threatening neutropenia in an alarming number of cocaine abusers. The neuropharmacological profile of LVM is also suggestive of an agent with modest reinforcing and stimulant effects that could enhance cocaine’s addictive effects. Methods We tested the hypothesis that LVM (ip) enhances the rewarding and locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine (ip) using rat conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor assays. Effects of LVM by itself were also tested. Results LVM (0–10 mg/kg) produced CPP at 1 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and locomotor activation at 5 mg/kg (P < 0.05). For CPP combination experiments, a statistically inactive dose of LVM (0.1 mg/kg) was administered with a low dose of cocaine (2.5 mg/kg). Neither agent produced CPP compared to saline (P > 0.05); however, the combination of LVM and cocaine produced enhanced CPP compared to saline or either drug by itself (P < 0.01). For locomotor experiments, the same inactive dose of LVM (0.1 mg/kg, ip) was administered with low (10 mg/kg) and high doses (30 mg/kg) of cocaine. LVM (0.1 mg/kg) enhanced locomotor activation produced by 10 mg/kg of cocaine (P < 0.05) but not by 30 mg/kg (P > 0.05). Conclusions LVM can enhance rewarding and locomotor-activating effects of low doses of cocaine in rats while possessing modest activity of its own. PMID:25683823

  15. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  16. Utility of ethological analysis to overcome locomotor confounds in elevated maze models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S M; Wadsworth, G; Fletcher, A; Dourish, C T

    1998-01-01

    The elevated plus-maze is a commonly used model to identify putative anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs. However, the validity of elevated plus-maze and other recently developed variants such as the elevated zero-maze has recently been questioned on the grounds that both the reference anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide and the psychostimulant d-amphetamine increase open arm exploration and stimulate locomotor activity. These findings suggest that measures of "anxiety" in the elevated maze cannot be adequately dissociated from simple changes in locomotor activity, which may confound the interpretation of results obtained using these models. A variety of approaches to assess drug effects on locomotor activity in the elevated maze have been suggested, including the use of total and closed arm entries, as well as supplementary tests such as exploration of the holeboard apparatus. However, all these approaches utilise the measurement of exploration in a novel environment, and as such, could potentially be influenced by either changes in anxiety or locomotor activity. Recently, it has been shown that ethological measures of "risk assessment", such as stretched-attend postures and head-dipping, are sensitive indicators of drug-effects in the elevated maze. The present study assessed the utility of ethological analysis in dissociating locomotor activity from "anxiety" by comparing the effects of d-amphetamine to those of chlordiazepoxide in the rat elevated zero-maze. The results showed that both chlordiazepoxide and d-amphetamine increase the amount of time spent in the open arms and reduce "risk assessment" without increasing line crossing or rearing. These results confirm that under certain test conditions, psychostimulants are capable of producing "false-positives" in elevated maze models, and that both traditional methods and the ethological measures used in this study fail to unequivocally dissociate drug effects on anxiety from effects on locomotor activity. Further

  17. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  18. The locomotor system as seen in Brazilian scientific journals: a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Rocha e Silva, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recent selected publications on the locomotor system available to the readership of Clinics. METHOD: A general survey of articles published in selected Brazilian journals was inspected and 91 articles were critically analyzed. They were categorized and briefly described. A final summary of themes is reproduced here. RESULTS: Papers fall into two main categories: articular and muscular pathology and therapeutics; medical sports. A number of papers are not classifiable under these headings. CONCLUSION: The locomotor system has been extensively analyzed and discussed in the Brazilian scientific press in recent years. Not surprisingly, knee and ankle pathology, soccer and running are dominant themes. PMID:21340230

  19. A novel approach in automatic estimation of rats' loco-motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, Lesya N.; Ivashov, Sergey I.; Vasiliev, Igor A.

    2014-05-01

    The paper contains feasibility study of a method for bioradar monitoring of small laboratory animals loco-motor activity improved by using a corner reflector. It presents results of mathematical simulation of bioradar signal reflection from the animal with the help of finite-difference time-domain method. It was proved both by theoretical and experimental results that a corner reflector usage during monitoring of small laboratory animals loco-motor activity improved the effectiveness of the method by reducing the dependency of the power flux density level from the distance between antennas block and the object.

  20. Encounters with aggressive conspecifics enhance the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marrow, L P; Overton, P G; Brain, P F; Clark, D

    1999-10-01

    Evidence suggests that stress enhances the behavioural actions of cocaine in the rat. Paradoxically, however, encounters with aggressive conspecifics lead to a pattern of cocaine self-administration indicative of a reduced functional impact of the drug. Hence, we examined the effects of aggressive encounters on another behavioural measure-locomotor activity. Encounters between Lister Hooded rats and rats of the aggressive Tryon Maze Dull strain significantly enhanced the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine (20 mg/kg) in the Lister Hooded rats. The results suggest that the discrepant findings derived from self-administration studies are a property of the paradigm rather than a property of the stressor. PMID:20575812

  1. AMPHETAMINE-, SCOPOLAMINE-, AND CAFFEINE-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY FOLLOWING 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE LESIONS OF THE MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    As previously reported, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions to the region of the nucleus accumbens blocked the locomotor activation induced by low doses of d-amphetamine, and produced a supersensitive locomotor response to the dopamine (DA) agonist, apomorphine. This same lesion, ...

  2. Quantification of locomotor activity in larval zebrafish: considerations for the design of high-throughput behavioral studies

    PubMed Central

    Ingebretson, Justin J.; Masino, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput behavioral studies using larval zebrafish often assess locomotor activity to determine the effects of experimental perturbations. However, the results reported by different groups are difficult to compare because there is not a standardized experimental paradigm or measure of locomotor activity. To address this, we investigated the effects that several factors, including the stage of larval development and the physical dimensions (depth and diameter) of the behavioral arena, have on the locomotor activity produced by larval zebrafish. We provide evidence for differences in locomotor activity between larvae at different stages and when recorded in wells of different depths, but not in wells of different diameters. We also show that the variability for most properties of locomotor activity is less for older than younger larvae, which is consistent with previous reports. Finally, we show that conflicting interpretations of activity level can occur when activity is assessed with a single measure of locomotor activity. Thus, we conclude that although a combination of factors should be considered when designing behavioral experiments, the use of older larvae in deep wells will reduce the variability of locomotor activity, and that multiple properties of locomotor activity should be measured to determine activity level. PMID:23772207

  3. Post-Stroke Walking Behaviors Consistent with Altered Ground Reaction Force Direction Control Advise New Approaches to Research and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Wendy L; Gruben, Kreg G

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of walking after stroke requires an understanding of how motor control deficits lead to gait impairment. Traditional therapy focuses on removing specific observable gait behaviors that deviate from unimpaired walking; however, those behaviors may be effective compensations for underlying problematic motor control deficits rather than direct effects of the stroke. Neurological deficits caused by stroke are not well understood, and thus, efficient interventions for gait rehabilitation likely remain unrealized. Our laboratory has previously characterized a post-stroke control deficit that yields a specific difference in direction of the ground reaction force (F, limb endpoint force) exerted with the hemiplegic limb of study participants pushing on both stationary and moving pedals while seated. That task was not dependent on F to retain upright posture, and thus, the task did not constrain F direction. Rather, the F direction was the product of neural preference. It is not known if this specific muscle coordination deficit causes the observed walking deviations, but if present during walking, the deficit would prevent upright posture unless counteracted by compensatory behaviors. Compensations are presented that mechanically counteract the F misdirection to allow upright posture. Those compensations are similar to behaviors observed in stroke patients. Based on that alignment between predictions of this theory and clinical observations, we theorize that post-stroke gait results from the attempt to compensate for the underlying F misdirection deficit. Limb endpoint force direction has been shown to be trainable in the paretic upper limb, making it a feasible goal in the lower limb. If this F misdirection theory is valid, these ideas have tremendous promise for advancing the field of post-stroke gait rehabilitation. PMID:26639659

  4. Effects of neural progenitor cells on post-stroke neurological impairment—a detailed and comprehensive analysis of behavioral tests

    PubMed Central

    Doeppner, Thorsten R.; Kaltwasser, Britta; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in rodents reduces functional impairment after cerebral ischemia. In light of upcoming stroke trials regarding safety and feasibility of NPC transplantation, experimental studies have to successfully analyze the extent of NPC-induced neurorestoration on the functional level. However, appropriate behavioral tests for analysis of post-stroke motor coordination deficits and cognitive impairment after NPC grafting are not fully established. We therefore exposed male C57BL6 mice to either 45 min (mild) or 90 min (severe) of cerebral ischemia, using the thread occlusion model followed by intravenous injection of PBS or NPCs 6 h post-stroke with an observation period of three months. Post-stroke motor coordination was assessed by means of the rota rod, tight rope, corner turn, inclined plane, grip strength, foot fault, adhesive removal, pole test and balance beam test, whereas cognitive impairment was analyzed using the water maze, the open field and the passive avoidance test. Significant motor coordination differences after both mild and severe cerebral ischemia in favor of NPC-treated mice were observed for each motor coordination test except for the inclined plane and the grip strength test, which only showed significant differences after severe cerebral ischemia. Cognitive impairment after mild cerebral ischemia was successfully assessed using the water maze test, the open field and the passive avoidance test. On the contrary, the water maze test was not suitable in the severe cerebral ischemia paradigm, as it too much depends on motor coordination capabilities of test mice. In terms of both reliability and cost-effectiveness considerations, we thus recommend the corner turn, foot fault, balance beam, and open field test, which do not depend on durations of cerebral ischemia. PMID:25374509

  5. Post-stroke depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment: Rationale for, and barriers to, routine screening.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Richard H; Bayley, Mark; Lanctôt, Krista L; Murray, Brian J; Cayley, Megan L; Lien, Karen; Sicard, Michelle N; Thorpe, Kevin E; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Mandzia, Jennifer L; Casaubon, Leanne K; Saposnik, Gustavo; Perez, Yael; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Herrmann, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Stroke can cause neurological impairment ranging from mild to severe, but the impact of stroke extends beyond the initial brain injury to include a complex interplay of devastating comorbidities including: post-stroke depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment ("DOC"). We reviewed the frequency, impact, and treatment options for each DOC condition. We then used the Ottawa Model of Research Use to examine gaps in care, understand the barriers to knowledge translation, identification, and addressing these important post-stroke comorbidities. Each of the DOC conditions is common and result in poorer recovery, greater functional impairment, increased stroke recurrence and mortality, even after accounting for traditional vascular risk factors. Despite the strong relationships between DOC comorbidities and these negative outcomes as well as recommendations for screening based on best practice recommendations from several countries, they are frequently not assessed. Barriers related to the nature of the screening tools (e.g., time consuming in high-volume clinics), practice environment (e.g., lack of human resources or space), as well as potential adopters (e.g., equipoise surrounding the benefits of treatment for these conditions) pose challenges to routine screening implementation. Simple, feasible approaches to routine screening coupled with appropriate, evidence-based treatment protocols are required to better identify and manage depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment symptoms in stroke prevention clinic patients to reduce the impact of these important post-stroke comorbidities. These tools may in turn facilitate large-scale randomized controlled treatment trials of interventions for DOC conditions that may help to improve cardiovascular outcomes after stroke or TIA. PMID:27073189

  6. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  7. Effects of neural progenitor cells on post-stroke neurological impairment-a detailed and comprehensive analysis of behavioral tests.

    PubMed

    Doeppner, Thorsten R; Kaltwasser, Britta; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M

    2014-01-01

    Systemic transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in rodents reduces functional impairment after cerebral ischemia. In light of upcoming stroke trials regarding safety and feasibility of NPC transplantation, experimental studies have to successfully analyze the extent of NPC-induced neurorestoration on the functional level. However, appropriate behavioral tests for analysis of post-stroke motor coordination deficits and cognitive impairment after NPC grafting are not fully established. We therefore exposed male C57BL6 mice to either 45 min (mild) or 90 min (severe) of cerebral ischemia, using the thread occlusion model followed by intravenous injection of PBS or NPCs 6 h post-stroke with an observation period of three months. Post-stroke motor coordination was assessed by means of the rota rod, tight rope, corner turn, inclined plane, grip strength, foot fault, adhesive removal, pole test and balance beam test, whereas cognitive impairment was analyzed using the water maze, the open field and the passive avoidance test. Significant motor coordination differences after both mild and severe cerebral ischemia in favor of NPC-treated mice were observed for each motor coordination test except for the inclined plane and the grip strength test, which only showed significant differences after severe cerebral ischemia. Cognitive impairment after mild cerebral ischemia was successfully assessed using the water maze test, the open field and the passive avoidance test. On the contrary, the water maze test was not suitable in the severe cerebral ischemia paradigm, as it too much depends on motor coordination capabilities of test mice. In terms of both reliability and cost-effectiveness considerations, we thus recommend the corner turn, foot fault, balance beam, and open field test, which do not depend on durations of cerebral ischemia. PMID:25374509

  8. Short-term effects of thermotherapy for spasticity on tibial nerve F-waves in post-stroke patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Kawahira, Kazumi; Etoh, Seiji; Ikeda, Satoshi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2006-03-01

    Thermotherapy is generally considered appropriate for post-stroke patients with spasticity, yet its acute antispastic effects have not been comprehensively investigated. F-wave parameters have been used to demonstrate changes in motor neuron excitability in spasticity and pharmacological antispastic therapy. The present study aimed to confirm the efficacy of thermotherapy for spasticity by evaluating alterations in F-wave parameters in ten male post-stroke patients with spastic hemiparesis (mean age: 49.0±15.0 years) and ten healthy male controls (mean age: 48.7±4.4 years). The subjects were immersed in water at 41°C for 10 min. Recordings were made over the abductor hallucis muscle, and antidromic stimulation was performed on the tibial nerve at the ankle. Twenty F-waves were recorded before, immediately after, and 30 min following thermotherapy for each subject. F-wave amplitude and F-wave/M-response ratio were determined. Changes in body temperature and surface-skin temperature were monitored simultaneously. The mean and maximum values of both F-wave parameters were higher on the affected side before thermotherapy. In the post-stroke patients, the mean and maximum values of both parameters were significantly reduced after thermotherapy ( P<0.01). Hence, the antispastic effects of thermotherapy were indicated by decreased F-wave parameters. Body temperature was significantly increased both immediately after and 30 min after thermotherapy in all subjects. This appeared to play an important role in decreased spasticity. Surface-skin temperature increased immediately after thermotherapy in both groups and returned to baseline 30 min later. These findings demonstrate that thermotherapy is an effective nonpharmacological antispastic treatment that might facilitate stroke rehabilitation.

  9. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  10. Immediate effects of somatosensory stimulation on hand function in patients with poststroke hemiparesis: a randomized cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sun-Mi; Oh, Duck-Won; Chon, Seung-chul

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the immediate effects of somatosensory stimulation on hand function in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. Eleven patients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in this study. Four types (no stimulation, vibration, and light and rough touches) of somatosensory stimulation were performed randomly for 4 days applying only one type of somatosensory stimulation each day. The box and block test (BBT), the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test (JTHFT), hand grip strength (HGS), and movement distance and peak velocity of the wrist joint during a forward-reaching task were measured. The BBT and JTHFT scores for no stimulation [BBT: median (interquartile range), 0.00 (-1.00 to 1.00) and JTHFT: 2.57 (-0.47 to 4.92)] were significantly different from those for vibration [BBT: 3.00 (2.00-5.00) and JTHFT: -16.02 (-23.06 to -4.31)], light touch [BBT: 3.00 (1.00-4.00) and JTHFT: -5.00 (-21.20 to -0.94)], and rough touch [BBT: 2.00 (1.00-4.00) and JTHFT: -6.19 (-18.22 to -3.70)]. The JTHFT score was significantly higher for vibration than that for rough touch (P<0.05). The increase in HGS was significantly greater for light touch than that for no stimulation (P<0.05) and for vibration than that for light touch (P<0.05). There were significant differences for the sagittal and coronal planes in movement distance and for the sagittal and horizontal planes in peak velocity during the forward-reaching task (P<0.05). The findings suggest that somatosensory stimulation may be advantageous to improve the hand function of patients with poststroke hemiparesis, with more favorable effects observed in vibration stimulation. PMID:26258447

  11. Assessment of biofeedback rehabilitation in post-stroke patients combining fMRI and gait analysis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability to walk independently is a primary goal for rehabilitation after stroke. Gait analysis provides a great amount of valuable information, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a powerful approach to define networks involved in motor control. The present study reports a new methodology based on both fMRI and gait analysis outcomes in order to investigate the ability of fMRI to reflect the phases of motor learning before/after electromyographic biofeedback treatment: the preliminary fMRI results of a post stroke subject’s brain activation, during passive and active ankle dorsal/plantarflexion, before and after biofeedback (BFB) rehabilitation are reported and their correlation with gait analysis data investigated. Methods A control subject and a post-stroke patient with chronic hemiparesis were studied. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired during a block-design protocol on both subjects while performing passive and active ankle dorsal/plantarflexion. fMRI and gait analysis were assessed on the patient before and after electromyographic biofeedback rehabilitation treatment during gait activities. Lower limb three-dimensional kinematics, kinetics and surface electromyography were evaluated. Correlation between fMRI and gait analysis categorical variables was assessed: agreement/disagreement was assigned to each variable if the value was in/outside the normative range (gait analysis), or for presence of normal/diffuse/no activation of motor area (fMRI). Results Altered fMRI activity was found on the post-stroke patient before biofeedback rehabilitation with respect to the control one. Meanwhile the patient showed a diffuse, but more limited brain activation after treatment (less voxels). The post-stroke gait data showed a trend towards the normal range: speed, stride length, ankle power, and ankle positive work increased. Preliminary correlation analysis revealed that consistent changes were observed both for the

  12. Novel Multi-System Functional Gains via Task Specific Training in Spinal Cord Injured Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Herrity, April N.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Willhite, Andrea; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Harkema, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Locomotor training (LT) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a rehabilitative therapy used to enhance locomotor recovery. There is evidence, primarily anecdotal, also associating LT with improvements in bladder function and reduction in some types of SCI-related pain. In the present study, we determined if a step training paradigm could improve outcome measures of locomotion, bladder function, and pain/allodynia. After a T10 contusive SCI trained animals (adult male Wistar rats), trained animals began quadrupedal step training beginning 2 weeks post-SCI for 1 h/day. End of study experiments (3 months of training) revealed significant changes in limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns relative to non-trained controls. Importantly, micturition function, evaluated with terminal transvesical cystometry, was significantly improved in the step trained group (increased voiding efficiency, intercontraction interval, and contraction amplitude). Because both SCI and LT affect neurotrophin signaling, and neurotrophins are involved with post-SCI plasticity in micturition pathways, we measured bladder neurotrophin mRNA. Training regulated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) but not BDNF or NT3. Bladder NGF mRNA levels were inversely related to bladder function in the trained group. Monitoring of overground locomotion and neuropathic pain throughout the study revealed significant improvements, beginning after 3 weeks of training, which in both cases remained consistent for the study duration. These novel findings, improving non-locomotor in addition to locomotor functions, demonstrate that step training post-SCI could contribute to multiple quality of life gains, targeting patient-centered high priority deficits. PMID:24294909

  13. Optic flow improves adaptability of spatiotemporal characteristics during split-belt locomotor adaptation with tactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Eikema, Diderik Jan A; Chien, Jung Hung; Stergiou, Nicholas; Myers, Sara A; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Mukherjee, Mukul

    2016-02-01

    Human locomotor adaptation requires feedback and feed-forward control processes to maintain an appropriate walking pattern. Adaptation may require the use of visual and proprioceptive input to decode altered movement dynamics and generate an appropriate response. After a person transfers from an extreme sensory environment and back, as astronauts do when they return from spaceflight, the prolonged period required for re-adaptation can pose a significant burden. In our previous paper, we showed that plantar tactile vibration during a split-belt adaptation task did not interfere with the treadmill adaptation however, larger overground transfer effects with a slower decay resulted. Such effects, in the absence of visual feedback (of motion) and perturbation of tactile feedback, are believed to be due to a higher proprioceptive gain because, in the absence of relevant external dynamic cues such as optic flow, reliance on body-based cues is enhanced during gait tasks through multisensory integration. In this study, we therefore investigated the effect of optic flow on tactile-stimulated split-belt adaptation as a paradigm to facilitate the sensorimotor adaptation process. Twenty healthy young adults, separated into two matched groups, participated in the study. All participants performed an overground walking trial followed by a split-belt treadmill adaptation protocol. The tactile group (TC) received vibratory plantar tactile stimulation only, whereas the virtual reality and tactile group (VRT) received an additional concurrent visual stimulation: a moving virtual corridor, inducing perceived self-motion. A post-treadmill overground trial was performed to determine adaptation transfer. Interlimb coordination of spatiotemporal and kinetic variables was quantified using symmetry indices and analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Marked changes of step length characteristics were observed in both groups during split-belt adaptation. Stance and swing time symmetries were

  14. Multiplex analyte assays to characterize different dementias: brain inflammatory cytokines in poststroke and other dementias.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqing; Oakley, Arthur E; Monteiro, Maria; Tuomela, Katri; Allan, Louise M; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta B; O'Brien, John T; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-02-01

    Both the inflammatory potential and cognitive function decline during aging. The association between the repertoire of inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. Inflammatory cytokines have been reported to be increased, decreased, or unchanged in the cerebrospinal fluid and sera of subjects with dementia. We assessed 112 postmortem brains from subjects diagnosed with poststroke dementia (PSD), vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), comparing those to poststroke nondemented (PSND) subjects and age-matched controls. We analyzed 5 brain regions including the gray and white matter from the frontal and temporal lobes for a panel of cytokine and/or chemokine analytes using multiplex-array assays. Of the 37 analytes, 14 were under or near the detection limits, 7 were close to the lowest detection level, and 16 cytokines were within the linear range of the assay. We observed widely variable concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A at the high end (1-150 ng/mg protein), whereas several of the interleukins (IL, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor) at the low end (1-10 pg/mg). There were also regional variations; most notable being high concentrations of some cytokines (e.g., CRP and angiogenesis panel) in the frontal white matter. Overall, we found decreased concentrations of several cytokines, including IL-1 beta (p = 0.000), IL-6 (p = 0.000), IL-7 (p = 0.000), IL-8 (p = 0.000), IL-16 (p = 0.001), interferon-inducible protein-10 (0.044), serum amyloid A (p = 0.011), and a trend in IL-1 alpha (p = 0.084) across all dementia groups compared to nondemented controls. IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly lower in dementia subjects than in nondemented subjects in every region. In particular, lower levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were notable in the PSD compared to PSND subjects. Because these 2 stroke groups had comparable degree of vascular pathology, the lower production of IL-6 and IL-8 in PSD reaffirms a

  15. Escitalopram and Problem-Solving Therapy for Prevention of Poststroke Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Robert G.; Jorge, Ricardo E.; Moser, David J.; Acion, Laura; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Hegel, Mark; Arndt, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Context Depression occurs in more than half of patients who have experienced a stroke. Poststroke depression has been shown in numerous studies to be associated with both impaired recovery in activities of daily living and increased mortality. Prevention of depression thus represents a potentially important goal. Objective To determine whether treatment with escitalopram or problem-solving therapy over the first year following acute stroke will decrease the number of depression cases that develop compared with placebo medication. Design, Setting, and Participants A multisite randomized controlled trial for prevention of depression among 176 nondepressed patients was conducted within 3 months following acute stroke from July 9, 2003, to October 1, 2007. The 12-month trial included 3 groups: a double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of escitalopram (n=59) with placebo (n=58), and a nonblinded problem-solving therapy group (n=59). Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measure was the development of major or minor poststroke depression based on symptoms elicited by the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) and the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV for depression due to stroke with major depressivelike episode or minor depression (ie, research criteria). Results Patients who received placebo were significantly more likely to develop depression than individuals who received escitalopram (11 major and 2 minor cases of depression [22.4%] vs 3 major and 2 min or cases of depression [8.5%], adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4–8.2; P<.001) and also more likely than individuals who received problem-solving therapy (5 major and 2 minor cases of depression [11.9%], adjusted HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4–3.5; P<.001). These results were adjusted for history of mood disorders and remained significant after considering possible confounders such as age, sex, treatment site

  16. Multiplex analyte assays to characterize different dementias: brain inflammatory cytokines in poststroke and other dementias

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiqing; Oakley, Arthur E.; Monteiro, Maria; Tuomela, Katri; Allan, Louise M.; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta B.; O'Brien, John T.; Kalaria, Raj N.

    2016-01-01

    Both the inflammatory potential and cognitive function decline during aging. The association between the repertoire of inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. Inflammatory cytokines have been reported to be increased, decreased, or unchanged in the cerebrospinal fluid and sera of subjects with dementia. We assessed 112 postmortem brains from subjects diagnosed with poststroke dementia (PSD), vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), comparing those to poststroke nondemented (PSND) subjects and age-matched controls. We analyzed 5 brain regions including the gray and white matter from the frontal and temporal lobes for a panel of cytokine and/or chemokine analytes using multiplex-array assays. Of the 37 analytes, 14 were under or near the detection limits, 7 were close to the lowest detection level, and 16 cytokines were within the linear range of the assay. We observed widely variable concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A at the high end (1–150 ng/mg protein), whereas several of the interleukins (IL, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor) at the low end (1–10 pg/mg). There were also regional variations; most notable being high concentrations of some cytokines (e.g., CRP and angiogenesis panel) in the frontal white matter. Overall, we found decreased concentrations of several cytokines, including IL-1 beta (p = 0.000), IL-6 (p = 0.000), IL-7 (p = 0.000), IL-8 (p = 0.000), IL-16 (p = 0.001), interferon-inducible protein–10 (0.044), serum amyloid A (p = 0.011), and a trend in IL-1 alpha (p = 0.084) across all dementia groups compared to nondemented controls. IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly lower in dementia subjects than in nondemented subjects in every region. In particular, lower levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were notable in the PSD compared to PSND subjects. Because these 2 stroke groups had comparable degree of vascular pathology, the lower production of IL-6 and IL-8 in PSD reaffirms a

  17. The Developmental Effect of Concurrent Cognitive and Locomotor Skills: Time-Sharing from a Dynamical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitall, Jill

    1991-01-01

    Presents research on the effects of concurrent verbal cognition on locomotor skills. Results revealed no interference with coordination variables across age, but some interference with control variables, particularly in younger subjects. Coordination of gait required less attention than setting of control parameters. This coordination was in place…

  18. Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Fiset, Catherine; Rioux, France M.; Surette, Marc E.; Fiset, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. On postnatal day 24 and 40, the pups’ locomotor activity was observed within an open-field test, and from postnatal day 25 to 40, their learning and memory processes were assessed within a Morris Water Maze. The behavioural and cognitive tests revealed that the iron deficient pup group had increased locomotor activity, but solely on postnatal day 40, and that there were no group differences in the Morris Water Maze. In the general discussion, we propose that prenatal iron deficiency induces an increase in nervousness due to anxiety in the progeny, which, in the current study, resulted in an increase of locomotor activity. PMID:26186713

  19. Chemogenetic ablation of dopaminergic neurons leads to transient locomotor impairments in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Rafael; Noble, Sandra; Yoon, Kevin; Anisman, Hymie; Ekker, Marc

    2015-10-01

    To determine the impact of a controlled loss of dopaminergic neurons on locomotor function, we generated transgenic zebrafish, Tg(dat:CFP-NTR), expressing a cyan fluorescent protein-nitroreductase fusion protein (CFP-NTR) under the control of dopamine transporter (dat) cis-regulatory elements. Embryonic and larval zebrafish express the transgene in several groups of dopaminergic neurons, notably in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, diencephalon and caudal hypothalamus. Administration of the pro-drug metronidazole (Mtz) resulted in activation of caspase 3 in CFP-positive neurons and in a reduction in dat-positive cells by 5 days post-fertilization (dpf). Loss of neurons coincided with impairments in global locomotor parameters such as swimming distance, percentage of time spent moving, as well as changes in tail bend parameters such as time to maximal bend and angular velocity. Dopamine levels were transiently decreased following Mtz administration. Recovery of some of the locomotor parameters was observed by 7 dpf. However, the total numbers of dat-expressing neurons were still decreased at 7, 12, or 14 dpf, even though there was evidence for production of new dat-expressing cells. Tg(dat:CFP-NTR) zebrafish provide a model to correlate altered dopaminergic neuron numbers with locomotor function and to investigate factors influencing regeneration of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:26118896

  20. An automated tracking system for Caenorhabditis elegans locomotor behavior and circadian studies application.

    PubMed

    Simonetta, Sergio H; Golombek, Diego A

    2007-04-15

    Automation of simple behavioral patterns, such as locomotor activity, is fundamental for pharmacological and genetic screening studies. Recently, circadian behaviors in locomotor activity and stress responses were reported in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a well-known model in genetics and developmental studies. Here we present a new method for long-term recordings of C. elegans (as well as other similar-sized animals) locomotor activity based on an infrared microbeam scattering. Individual nematodes were cultured in a 96-well microtiter plate; we tested L15, CeMM and E. coli liquid cultures in long-term activity tracking experiments, and found CeMM to be the optimal medium. Treatment with 0.2% azide caused an immediate decrease in locomotor activity as recorded with our system. In addition to the validation of the method (including hardware and software details), we report its application in chronobiological studies. Circadian rhythms in animals entrained to light-dark and constant dark conditions (n=48 and 96 worms, respectively) at 16 degrees C, were analyzed by LS periodograms. We obtained a 24.2+/-0.44 h period (52% of significantly rhythmic animals) in LD, and a 23.1+/-0.40 h period (37.5% of significantly rhythmic animals) under DD. The system is automateable using microcontrollers, of low-cost construction and highly reproducible. PMID:17207862

  1. The effects of nutritional polyunsaturated fatty acids on locomotor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Joachim; Makulska-Gertruda, Ewelina; Reissmann, Andreas; Sontag, Thomas-A; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of nutritional omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on locomotor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), which are used as an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). For 6 weeks, two groups of randomly assigned SHRs received food either enriched with or deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 G/AIN93G). Using an open field, locomotor activity was subsequently assessed for 6 days. A marked difference in locomotor activity as assessed by the distance travelled in the open field was found between the two groups of rats. In comparison with rats fed with omega-3 fatty acid-enriched food, the animals on the omega-3 fatty acid-deficient diet showed a significantly higher locomotor activity. The present findings demonstrated that nutritional enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids was associated with reduced motor activity in an established animal model of ADHD and support the notion that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. PMID:24415401

  2. Effects of cocaine on locomotor activity and schedule-controlled behaviors of inbred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Witkin, J M; Goldberg, S R

    1990-10-01

    Effects of cocaine on several behaviors considered to be reflective of psychomotor stimulation were compared in F344/CR1BR and NBR/NIH inbred rat strains. Effects of cocaine on locomotor activity were compared with effects on either bar-press or nose-poke responses maintained under a multiple fixed-interval 3-min, timeout 1-min schedule of food presentation. In locomotor activity experiments, NBR rats were twice as active as F344 rats under baseline conditions and displayed dose-dependent increases in locomotion (5-20 mg/kg). Maximal increases in locomotor activity of F344 rats were only 200% compared to 1000% in NBR rats. In contrast to locomotor activity, no strain differences in the effects of cocaine were observed under the schedules of food delivery. Bar-pressing under the fixed-interval schedule was increased to a maximum of 150% of control in both rat strains. Nose-poke responding under the fixed-interval schedule was not significantly increased, but timeout rates were increased in both strains. These results suggest that NBR and F344 rats do not differ in general sensitivity to stimulant effects of cocaine but exhibit marked differences in responsivity to cocaine that are dependent upon the behavior studied. Further delineation of the behavioral specificity of strain differences in sensitivity to cocaine should help to identify neurobiological substrates underlying unique biologically determined responses to cocaine. PMID:2080195

  3. Water balance and locomotor performance in three species of neotropical toads that differ in geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Titon, Braz; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Jim, Jorge; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2010-05-01

    Water availability in the environment is a fundamental factor in determining the limits of geographical distribution and the evolution of the physiological characters associated to water balance in anurans. In this paper, we compare some aspects of water balance and the sensitivity of locomotor performance to dehydration at different temperatures for three species of toads from the genus Rhinella, with different levels of dependence on forested environments. Results show patterns associated to interspecific differences in both geographical distribution and time of seasonal reproduction. Sensitivity of locomotor performance to dehydration was lower at low temperatures for R. icterica, the species that are reproductively active during winter and lower at intermediate temperatures for R. schneideri, the species that reproduces mostly during spring, suggesting a pattern of thermal adaptation of locomotor performance for these species. Otherwise, R. ornata, a species with broader reproductive season, shows high sensitivity of locomotor performance to dehydration at all temperatures tested, suggesting a stronger relation of breeding activity with patterns of rainfall than temperature variation. Furthermore, the low rates of water uptake of R. ornata may pose restrictions on the occupation of open areas by this species. PMID:20096361

  4. Locomotor diversification in new world monkeys: running, climbing, or clawing along evolutionary branches.

    PubMed

    Youlatos, Dionisios; Meldrum, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    Modern platyrrhines exhibit a remarkable diversity of locomotor and postural adaptations, which evolved along multiple trajectories since the initial immigration to the island continent of South America. We trace this diversification by reviewing the available paleontological and neontological data for postcranial morphology and ecological adaptation. Fossil platyrrhines are notably diverse, from the Oligocene Branisella, to the varied Patagonian early Miocene quadurpedal-leaping and quadrupedal-climbing fossils of disputed affinities, on through the rich middle Miocene Colombian quadurpedal-leaping forms. More recent taxa exhibit even more derived positional patterns, from the largest suspensory atelids in Pleistocene Brazil, to the remarkable Antillean radiation with suspensory forms and also semiterrestrial species, with postcranial morphology convergent on some Old World monkeys. Field studies of positional behavior of modern platyrrhines set the framework for a spectrum of locomotor adaptations. Central within this spectrum is a cluster of medium-sized species with generalized locomotion (quadrupedal-leaping). At opposite poles lie the more derived conditions: large-bodied species exhibiting locomotor specializations for climbing-suspension; small-bodied species exhibiting adaptations for claw climbing and leaping. This behavior-based spectrum of locomotor diversification is similarly evident in a morphology-based pattern, that is, that produced by the shape of the talus. The implications of the record of platyrrhine postcranial evolution for the competing hypotheses of platyrrhine phylogenetic patterns, the "long lineage hypothesis" and the "stem platyrrhine hypothesis," are considered. PMID:22042747

  5. Developmental Exposure to a Dopaminergic Toxicant Produces Altered Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA’s prioritization of toxic chemicals, we are characterizing the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae after developmental exposure to various classes of prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. ...

  6. Posture, gait and the ecological relevance of locomotor costs and energy-saving mechanisms in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Stephen M; McElroy, Eric J; Biknevicius, Audrone R

    2007-01-01

    A reanalysis of locomotor data from functional, energetic, mechanical and ecological perspectives reveals that limb posture has major effects on limb biomechanics, energy-saving mechanisms and the costs of locomotion. Regressions of data coded by posture (crouched vs. erect) reveal nonlinear patterns in metabolic cost, limb muscle mass, effective mechanical advantage, and stride characteristics. In small crouched animals energy savings from spring and pendular mechanisms are inconsequential and thus the metabolic cost of locomotion is driven by muscle activation costs. Stride frequency appears to be the principal functional parameter related to the decreasing cost of locomotion in crouched animals. By contrast, the shift to erect limb postures invoked a series of correlated effects on the metabolic cost of locomotion: effective mechanical advantage increases, relative muscle masses decrease, metapodial limb segments elongate dramatically (as limbs shift from digitigrade to unguligrade designs) and biological springs increase in size and effectiveness. Each of these factors leads to decreases in the metabolic cost of locomotion in erect forms resulting from real and increasing contributions of pendular savings and spring savings. Comparisons of the relative costs and ecological relevance of different gaits reveal that running is cheaper than walking in smaller animals up to the size of dogs but running is more expensive than walking in horses. Animals do not necessarily use their cheapest gaits for their predominant locomotor activity. Therefore, locomotor costs are driven more by ecological relevance than by the need to optimize locomotor economy. PMID:17482802

  7. Self-Motion Perception during Locomotor Recalibration: More than Meets the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durgin, Frank H.; Pelah, Adar; Fox, Laura F.; Lewis, Jed; Kane, Rachel; Walley, Katherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Do locomotor after effects depend specifically on visual feedback? In 7 experiments, 116 college students were tested, with closed eyes, at stationary running or at walking to a previewed target after adaptation, with closed eyes, to treadmill locomotion. Subjects showed faster inadvertent drift during stationary running and increased distance…

  8. From Walking to Running: Applying a Dynamical Systems Approach to the Development of Locomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitall, Jill; Getchell, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    The locomotor skills of walking and running were compared in newly running infants at 5.5, 7.5, and 9.5 months of independent walking, and then again at 3 years of age. Collective variables showed transitional forms over the first few months of running, indicating a relatively continuous change across the two gait forms. (MDM)

  9. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. PMID:25727211

  10. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, T.; Ervin, R. B.; Duan, H.; Bogue, M. A.; Zamboni, W. C.; Cook, S.; Chung, W.; Zou, F.; Tarantino, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. PMID:25727211

  11. AGE-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE ON LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This experiment examined the effects on locomotor activity of intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) administered to developing and adult rats. 6-OHDA was administered subsequent to pargyline treatment at 3 and 6 days of age; or 6-OHDA was administered subsequent to desmethy...

  12. Dissociation of locomotor and cerebellar deficits in a murine Angelman syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Caroline F; Schonewille, Martijn; Gao, Zhenyu; Aronica, Eleonora M A; Judson, Matthew C; Philpot, Benjamin D; Hoebeek, Freek E; van Woerden, Geeske M; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Elgersma, Ype

    2015-11-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurological disorder that is associated with prominent movement and balance impairments that are widely considered to be due to defects of cerebellar origin. Here, using the cerebellar-specific vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) paradigm, we determined that cerebellar function is only mildly impaired in the Ube3am-/p+ mouse model of AS. VOR phase-reversal learning was singularly impaired in these animals and correlated with reduced tonic inhibition between Golgi cells and granule cells. Purkinje cell physiology, in contrast, was normal in AS mice as shown by synaptic plasticity and spontaneous firing properties that resembled those of controls. Accordingly, neither VOR phase-reversal learning nor locomotion was impaired following selective deletion of Ube3a in Purkinje cells. However, genetic normalization of αCaMKII inhibitory phosphorylation fully rescued locomotor deficits despite failing to improve cerebellar learning in AS mice, suggesting extracerebellar circuit involvement in locomotor learning. We confirmed this hypothesis through cerebellum-specific reinstatement of Ube3a, which ameliorated cerebellar learning deficits but did not rescue locomotor deficits. This double dissociation of locomotion and cerebellar phenotypes strongly suggests that the locomotor deficits of AS mice do not arise from impaired cerebellar cortex function. Our results provide important insights into the etiology of the motor deficits associated with AS. PMID:26485287

  13. The Effects of Acute Exposure to Neuroactive Drugs on the Locomotor Activity of Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA’s prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae using prototypic drugs that act on the central nervous system. Initially, we chose to define the beh...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF ZEBRAFISH LARVAE: TEMPORAL VARIABILITY AND PHOTORESPONSE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of EPA’s effort to develop a rapid, in vivo, vertebrate screen for toxic chemicals, we have begun research to characterize the locomotor activity of 6-day post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae were individually housed and tested in 96-well micro...

  15. Drugs that Target Dopamine Receptors: Changes in Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an effort at the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop a rapid in vivo screen for prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. This includes assessing the acute effects of drugs known...

  16. Effects of Cholestasis on Learning and Locomotor Activity in Bile Duct Ligated Rats

    PubMed Central

    HOSSEINI, Nasrin; ALAEI, Hojjatallah; NASEHI, Mohammad; RADAHMADI, Maryam; Mohammad Reza, ZARRINDAST

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cognitive functions are impaired in patients with liver disease. Bile duct ligation causes cholestasis that impairs liver function. This study investigated the impact of cholestasis progression on the acquisition and retention times in the passive avoidance test and on the locomotor activity of rats. Methods: Cholestasis was induced in male Wistar rats by ligating the main bile duct. Locomotor activity, learning and memory were assessed by the passive avoidance learning test at day 7, day 14, and day 21 post-bile duct ligation. The serum levels of bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were measured. Results: The results showed that acquisition time and locomotor activity were not affected at day 7 and day 14, but they were significantly (P < 0.05) impaired at day 21 post-bile duct ligation compared with the results for the control group. Additionally, memory was significantly impaired on day 7 (P < 0.01), day 14, and day 21 (P < 0.001) compared with the control groups. The levels of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher at day 7, day 14, and day 21 post-bile duct ligation compared with the levels in the sham group. Conclusion: Based on these findings, both liver and memory function were affected in the early stage of cholestasis (7 days after bile duct ligation), while learning and locomotor activity were impaired at 21 days after bile duct ligation following the progression of cholestasis. PMID:24639608

  17. The Impact of Acute Phase Domain-Specific Cognitive Function on Post-stroke Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihong; Lee, Gangpyo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the cognitive function in the acute stage evaluated by domain-specific neuropsychological assessments would be an independent predictor of functional outcome after stroke. Methods Forty patients underwent 4 domain-specific neuropsychological examinations about 3 weeks after the onset of stroke. The tests included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), the construction recall test (CRT), the construction praxis test (CPT), and the verbal fluency test (VFT). The Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) at 3 months and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months were investigated as functional outcome after stroke. Functional improvement was assessed using the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months and subjects were dichotomized into 'good status' and 'poor status' according to mRS at 6 months. The domain-specific cognitive function along with other possible predictors for functional outcome was examined using regression analysis. Results The z-score of CPT (p=0.044) and CRT (p<0.001) were independent predictors for functional improvement measured by the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months after stroke. The z-score of CPT (p=0.049) and CRT (p=0.048) were also independent predictors of functional status at post-stroke 6 months assessed by mRS. Conclusion Impairment in visuospatial construction and memory within one month after stroke can be an independent prognostic factor of functional outcome. Domain-specific neuropsychological assessments could be considered in patients with stroke in the acute phase to predict long-term functional outcome. PMID:27152270

  18. The influence of aging on poststroke depression using a rat model via middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Matthew; Kutz, Ruslan; Gruenbaum, Benjamin F; Cohen, Hagit; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Shapira, Yoram; Zlotnik, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is the most frequent psychological sequela following stroke. While previous studies describe the impact of age on brain infarct volume, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown following ischemia, the role of age on PSD has yet to be described. Here, we examine the influence of age on PSD progression in a rat model of PSD by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). One hundred forty-three rats were divided into three groups. 48 rats 20 weeks of age underwent a sham procedure, 51 rats 20 weeks of age had MCAO, and 44 rats 22-26 months of age had MCAO. Groups were further divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup was used to measure infarct lesion volume, brain edema, and BBB breakdown at 24 h. In the second subgroup at 3 weeks after MCAO, rats were subjected to a sucrose preference test, two-way shuttle avoidance task, forced swimming test, and a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein level measurement. Total and striatal infarct volume, brain edema, and BBB breakdown in the striatum were increased in older rats, as compared with younger rats. While both old and young rats exhibited depressive-like behaviors on each of the behavioral tests and lower BDNF levels post-MCAO, as compared with control rats, there were no differences between old and young rats. Although older rats suffered from larger infarct volumes, increased brain edema and more BBB disruption following MCAO, the lack of behavioral differences between young and old rats suggests that there was no effect of rat age on the incidence of PSD. PMID:23761136

  19. [A complex study of the movement biomechanics in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis].

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, D V; Bulatova, M A; Kovrazhkina, E A; Suvorov, A Iu; Ivanova, G E; Skvortsova, V I

    2012-01-01

    The authors present results of a pilot study on biomechanics of non-cyclic movements of the human consequent verticalization in the ontogenesis of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis (10 patients in the acute stage of cerebral stroke) and 10 healthy volunteers without neurologic and orthopedic pathology. Some movements of therapeutic exercises Balance (a model of ontogenetic kinesitherapy) have been selected for the study. Cinematic parameters have been recorded using a system of motion 3D video analysis, a kinematic model was build in accordance to standard protocols. The skin (native and straightened) electromyogram (EMG) was recorded synchronously with kinematic data using 16-channel electromyography from the following pairs of muscles: mm. sternocleido-mastoideus, trapezius (горизонтальная порция), biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus femoris, adductor magnus. Major differences in the EMG picture between patients and controls were: 1) the EMG "monotony" with the involvement of multiple additional muscles in locomotions with the prevalence of the peculiar "tonic" muscle activity (low amplitudes without distinct peaks), stretching along the whole cycle of movement. In controls, EMG demonstrated variability and had mostly "phasic" character with distinct 1 or 2 peaks; 2) the asymmetry of EMG profile in symmetric movements. i.e. when performed simultaneously from the right and from the left sides. The latter feature may be considered as predictive because it was never found in healthy people. It allows to identify objectively weak muscles even in the absence of visible parethis during the routine neurological examination. PMID:22983241

  20. Reliability of an Electronic Inspiratory Loading Device for Assessing Pulmonary Function in Post-Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong-Bong; Kim, Min-Kyu; Jeong, Ju-Ri; Lee, Wan-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of an electronic inspiratory loading device for the assessment of pulmonary functions: maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity. Material/Methods Subjects were 50 patient volunteers in a rehabilitation hospital who had experienced their first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis during the previous 6 months (26 men, 24 women; mean age [±SD], 55.96 [±12.81] years), with no use of medications that could induce drowsiness, evidence of restrictive lung disease, history of asthma, use of psychotropic drugs, or alcohol consumption habit. Maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity for pulmonary functions were assessed using an electronic inspiratory loading device (PowerBreathe, K5, 2010) by 2 examiners, with patients in an unassisted sitting position, and 1 examiner re-assessed with same patients at the same time of a day after 1 week. Intra-class correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability. Results Intra-rater reliability ranged from intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)=0.959 to 0.986 in variables. For the inter-rater reliability between 2 examiners, the ICCs ranged from 0.933 to 0.985. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were good in variables (maximal inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity). Conclusions The intra- and inter-examiner reliability of the pulmonary function measurements, maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity, for the post-stroke patients was very high. The results suggest that the electronic inspiratory loading device would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment of pulmonary function. PMID:26782369

  1. Reliability of fMRI for Studies of Language in Post-Stroke Aphasia Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Kenneth P.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Altaye, Mekibib; Ball, Angel L.; Kissela, Brett M.; Banks, Christi; Holland, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying change in brain activation patterns associated with post-stroke recovery and reorganization of language function over time requires accurate understanding of inter-scan and inter-subject variability. Here we report inter-scan variability measures for fMRI activation patterns associated with verb generation (VG) and semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) tasks in 4 healthy controls and 4 aphasic left middle cerebral artery (LMCA) stroke subjects. A series of 10 fMRI scans was completed on a 4T Varian scanner for each task for each subject, except for one stroke subject who completed 5 and 6 scans for SDTD and VG, thus yielding 35 and 36 total stroke subject scans for SDTD and VG, respectively. Group composite and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) maps were computed across all subjects and trials for each task. The patterns of reliable activation for the VG and SDTD tasks correspond well to those regions typically activated by these tasks in healthy and aphasic subjects. ICCs for activation were consistently high (R0.05 ≈ 0.8) for individual tasks among both control and aphasic subjects. These voxel-wise measures of reliability highlight regions of low inter-scan variability within language circuitry for control and post-recovery stroke subjects. ICCs computed from the combination of the SDTD/VG data were markedly reduced for both control and aphasic subjects as compared with the ICCs for the individual tasks. These quantitative measures of inter-scan variability support the proposed use of these fMRI paradigms for longitudinal mapping of neural reorganization of language processing following left hemispheric insult. PMID:18411061

  2. Hyperforin promotes post-stroke functional recovery through interleukin (IL)-17A-mediated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Yao, Chengye; Chen, Jiayi; Zhang, Yujing; Yuan, Shiying; Lin, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Hyperforin, the main active ingredient of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum, has been shown to be neuroprotective against acute ischemic stroke. However, the long-term actions of hyperforin on the post-stroke functional recovery and underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. C57BL/6 wild-type mice or interleukin (IL)-17A knock-out mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (60min) followed by reperfusion for 28 days. Here, we found that delayed treatment with hyperforin significantly promoted functional recovery and increased IL-17A expression in the ischemic hemisphere at 28 days post-ischemia (dpi). IL-17A knock-out or anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment significantly attenuated the promoting effects of hyperforin on functional recovery. After screening for neurotrophic factors, we revealed that blocking IL-17A significantly decreased, whereas recombinant mouse IL-17A (rIL-17A) treatment significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Our data also showed that rIL-17A treatment significantly increased CD34 expression and promoted functional recovery at 28dpi, and the promoting effects were attenuated by VEGF neutralizing antibody treatment. Furthermore, hyperforin treatment significantly increased the expression of VEGF and CD34 in the ischemic hemisphere at 28dpi, and the effects were attenuated by blocking IL-17A. Furthermore, VEGF neutralizing antibody significantly attenuated the promoting role of hyperforin on the cerebral CD34 expression. Thus, our results suggest that, in addition to the acute neuroprotection when delivered immediately after ischemic stroke, hyperforin could also promote functional recovery when delivered in the later phases of stroke recovery. Our results also reveal a previously uncharacterized property of IL-17A/VEGF signaling-induced angiogenesis in hyperforin-mediated functional recovery. PMID:27328426

  3. Studies on the animal model of post-stroke depression and application of antipsychotic aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Pak, Malk Eun; Ahn, Sung Min; Hong, Ki Hwan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the question of whether an animal model of post-stroke depression in ischemic stroke can be developed by additional chronic mild stress (CMS) procedures. Behavioral and histopathological analysis was performed for examination of the depressive disorders in CMS, left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and CMS after MCAO (MCAO+CMS) in mice. In all depressant screening tests involving open field, sucrose preference, forced swim and Morris water maze test, MCAO+CMS mice showed more significant depressive behaviors than MCAO mice. MCAO+CMS mice also showed distinct deficits in forced swim and Morris water maze test compared with CMS. In the histopathological analysis, prominent atrophic changes were seen in the striatum and midbrain of MCAO treated mice compared with CMS. MCAO+CMS mice showed a decrease of proliferative and differentiated neuronal cells in the striatum and hippocampus with dopaminergic neuronal injuries in the midbrain as compared with CMS and MCAO alone treated mice. Treatment of MCAO+CMS mice with aripiprazole resulted in reduction of all depressive behaviors examined, particularly in the Morris water maze test. Recovered dopaminergic neuronal injuries in the midbrain and enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus were also demonstrated. Our results suggest that CMS after ischemic stroke can lead to severe depressive-like behavior compared with CMS or MCAO alone treated mice via neurodegeneration in the primary lesion and secondary extrafocal sites and degradation of neurogenesis, and these behavioral and histopathological changes are reversed by treatment with aripiprazole. Thus adjunct therapy with an antipsychotic may exert its antidepressant effects via neuroprotection and neurogenesis in CMS-treated ischemic mice. PMID:25845738

  4. Impact of Poststroke Fatigue on Health-Related Quality of Life of Nigerian Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, Abdulbaqi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A stroke event is often characterized by a number of debilitating consequences that may impact negatively on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of survivors. This study examined the impact of poststroke fatigue (PSF), a persistent and prevalent stroke consequence, on HRQL of Nigerian stroke survivors. Methods One hundred stroke survivors were recruited from the physiotherapy outpatient departments of two tertiary hospitals in Northern Nigeria. The Fatigue Severity Scale and Health-Related Quality of Life in Stroke Patients-26 were respectively used to assess PSF and HRQL. The independent impact of PSF on overall and domain-specific HRQL was examined using hierarchical regression analyses. Results Mean age of the stroke survivors was 55.32 years (SD 13.9 years). The majority were males (66%), had suffered ischemic stroke (70%) and presented with moderately severe disability (42%). After controlling for demographic and stroke-related variables, PSF was found to be significantly and independently associated with all the domains of HRQL albeit at varying degrees. While the influence of PSF on the emotional domain was the most pronounced and uniquely contributed to 15% of the variance in the domain, its influence on the cognitive domain was the least prominent. PSF also solely accounted for 9% of the variation in overall HRQL with higher levels of PSF related with lower HRQL. Conclusions Being a potentially treatable condition, PSF's significant impact on HRQL has implications for successful stroke care and rehabilitation. For instance, addressing PSF through appropriate interventions may assist in enhancing HRQL of stroke survivors. PMID:25328879

  5. Bimodal Respiratory-Locomotor Neurons in the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Jean-Patrick; Juvin, Laurent; Cardoit, Laura; Morin, Didier

    2016-01-20

    Neural networks that can generate rhythmic motor output in the absence of sensory feedback, commonly called central pattern generators (CPGs), are involved in many vital functions such as locomotion or respiration. In certain circumstances, these neural networks must interact to produce coordinated motor behavior adapted to environmental constraints and to satisfy the basic needs of an organism. In this context, we recently reported the existence of an ascending excitatory influence from lumbar locomotor CPG circuitry to the medullary respiratory networks that is able to depolarize neurons of the parafacial respiratory group during fictive locomotion and to subsequently induce an increased respiratory rhythmicity (Le Gal et al., 2014b). Here, using an isolated in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation from neonatal rat in which the respiratory and the locomotor networks remain intact, we show that during fictive locomotion induced either pharmacologically or by sacrocaudal afferent stimulation, the activity of both thoracolumbar expiratory motoneurons and interneurons is rhythmically modulated with the locomotor activity. Completely absent in spinal inspiratory cells, this rhythmic pattern is highly correlated with the hindlimb ipsilateral flexor activities. Furthermore, silencing brainstem neural circuits by pharmacological manipulation revealed that this locomotor-related drive to expiratory motoneurons is solely dependent on propriospinal pathways. Together these data provide the first evidence in the newborn rat spinal cord for the existence of bimodal respiratory-locomotor motoneurons and interneurons onto which both central efferent expiratory and locomotor drives converge, presumably facilitating the coordination between the rhythmogenic networks responsible for two different motor functions. Significance statement: In freely moving animals, distant regions of the brain and spinal cord controlling distinct motor acts must interact to produce the best

  6. Differential Effects of Inhaled Toluene on Locomotor Activity in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Jeffery C.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a world-wide public health concern among adolescents. Most preclinical studies have assessed inhalant effects in adult animals leaving unclear how behavioral effects differ in younger animals. We exposed adolescent (postnatal day [PN] 28) and adult (PN90) male rats to toluene using 1 of 3 exposure patterns. These patterns modeled those reported in toluene abuse in teens and varied concentration, number and length of exposures, as well as the inter-exposure interval. Animals were exposed repeatedly over 12 days to toluene concentrations of 0, 8,000 or 16,000 parts per million (ppm). Locomotor activity was quantified during toluene exposures and for 30 min following completion of the final daily toluene exposure. For each exposure pattern, there were significant toluene concentration-related increases and decreases in locomotor activity compared to the 0-ppm “air” controls at both ages. These changes depended upon when activity was measured – during or following exposure. Compared to adults, adolescents displayed greater locomotor activity on the first day and generally greater increases in activity over days than adults during toluene exposure. Adults displayed greater locomotor activity than adolescents in the “recovery” period following exposure on the first and subsequent days. Age group differences were clearest following the pattern of paced, brief (5-min) repeated binge exposures. The results suggest that locomotor behavior in rats during and following inhalation of high concentrations of toluene depends on age and the pattern of exposure. The results are consistent with dose-dependent shifts in sensitivity and sensitization or tolerance to repeated toluene in the adolescent animals compared to the adult animals. Alternate interpretations are possible and our interpretation is limited by the range of very high concentrations of toluene used. The results imply that both pharmacological and psychosocial factors contribute to the teen

  7. Functional Reorganization of the Locomotor Network in Parkinson Patients with Freezing of Gait

    PubMed Central

    Fling, Brett W.; Cohen, Rajal G.; Mancini, Martina; Carpenter, Samuel D.; Fair, Damien A.; Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

    2014-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is a transient inability to initiate or maintain stepping that often accompanies advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) and significantly impairs mobility. The current study uses a multimodal neuroimaging approach to assess differences in the functional and structural locomotor neural network in PD patients with and without FoG and relates these findings to measures of FoG severity. Twenty-six PD patients and fifteen age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging along with self-reported and clinical assessments of FoG. After stringent movement correction, fifteen PD patients and fourteen control participants were available for analysis. We assessed functional connectivity strength between the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the following locomotor hubs: 1) subthalamic nucleus (STN), 2) mesencephalic and 3) cerebellar locomotor region (MLR and CLR, respectively) within each hemisphere. Additionally, we quantified structural connectivity strength between locomotor hubs and assessed relationships with metrics of FoG. FoG+ patients showed greater functional connectivity between the SMA and bilateral MLR and between the SMA and left CLR compared to both FoG− and controls. Importantly, greater functional connectivity between the SMA and MLR was positively correlated with i) clinical, ii) self-reported and iii) objective ratings of freezing severity in FoG+, potentially reflecting a maladaptive neural compensation. The current findings demonstrate a re-organization of functional communication within the locomotor network in FoG+ patients whereby the higher-order motor cortex (SMA) responsible for gait initiation communicates with the MLR and CLR to a greater extent than in FoG− patients and controls. The observed pattern of altered connectivity in FoG+ may indicate a failed attempt by the CNS to compensate for the loss of connectivity between the STN and SMA and may reflect a loss

  8. Oxidized trilinoleate and tridocosahexaenoate induce pica behavior and change locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Fuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Umeno, Aya; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Kurata, Kenji; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    Pica behavior, a behavior that is characterized by eating a nonfood material such as kaolin and relates to the degree of discomfort in animals, and the variations of locomotor activity of rats after eating deteriorated fat and oil extracted from instant noodles were examined in our previous study. The result shows that oxidized fat and oil with at least 100 meq/kg in peroxide value (PV) increase pica behavior and decrease locomotor activity. In the present study, the same two behaviors were measured using autoxidized trilinoleate (tri-LA) and tridocosahexaenoate (tri-DHA) as a model of vegetable and fish oil, respectively, to compare fatty acid differences against the induction of two behaviors. The oxidized levels of tri-LA and tri-DHA were analyzed with PV and p-anisidine value (AnV), the method to analyze secondary oxidized products. The oxidation levels of respective triacylglycerol (TAG) samples were carefully adjusted to make them having almost the same PV and AnV. As the results, 600 or more meq/kg in PV of both TAGs significantly increased the consumption of kaolin pellets compared to the control group. Furthermore, 300 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-LA and 200 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-DHA demonstrated significant decrease in locomotor activity compared to control group. These results would indicate that the oxidized TAG having the same PV and/or AnV would induce the same type of pica behavior and locomotor activity. Furthermore, that the structure of oxidized products might not be important and the amount of hydroperoxide group and/or aldehyde group in deteriorated fats and oils might affect the pica behavior and locomotor activity were thought. PMID:23535307

  9. Assaying Locomotor Activity to Study Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Parameters in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Joanna C.; Low, Kwang Huei; Pike, Douglas H.; Yildirim, Evrim; Edery, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    Most life forms exhibit daily rhythms in cellular, physiological and behavioral phenomena that are driven by endogenous circadian (≡24 hr) pacemakers or clocks. Malfunctions in the human circadian system are associated with numerous diseases or disorders. Much progress towards our understanding of the mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms has emerged from genetic screens whereby an easily measured behavioral rhythm is used as a read-out of clock function. Studies using Drosophila have made seminal contributions to our understanding of the cellular and biochemical bases underlying circadian rhythms. The standard circadian behavioral read-out measured in Drosophila is locomotor activity. In general, the monitoring system involves specially designed devices that can measure the locomotor movement of Drosophila. These devices are housed in environmentally controlled incubators located in a darkroom and are based on using the interruption of a beam of infrared light to record the locomotor activity of individual flies contained inside small tubes. When measured over many days, Drosophila exhibit daily cycles of activity and inactivity, a behavioral rhythm that is governed by the animal's endogenous circadian system. The overall procedure has been simplified with the advent of commercially available locomotor activity monitoring devices and the development of software programs for data analysis. We use the system from Trikinetics Inc., which is the procedure described here and is currently the most popular system used worldwide. More recently, the same monitoring devices have been used to study sleep behavior in Drosophila. Because the daily wake-sleep cycles of many flies can be measured simultaneously and only 1 to 2 weeks worth of continuous locomotor activity data is usually sufficient, this system is ideal for large-scale screens to identify Drosophila manifesting altered circadian or sleep properties. PMID:20972399

  10. Restraint stress attenuates nicotine’s locomotor stimulant but not discriminative stimulus effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew C.; Mattson, Christina; Shelley, David; LeSage, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Stress enhances the locomotor stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of several addictive drugs (e.g., morphine) in rodents, yet interactions between stress and nicotine’s effects in these behavioral models have not been well established. To this end, the current studies examined the effects of restraint stress on nicotine-induced locomotor activity and nicotine discrimination in rats. We used a novel approach in which onset of stress and nicotine administration occurred concurrently (i.e., simultaneous exposure) to simulate effects of stress on ongoing tobacco use, as well as a more traditional approach in which a delay was imposed between stress and nicotine administration (i.e., sequential exposure). Simultaneous exposure to stress reduced the rate of locomotor sensitization induced by daily injections of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.). A lower dose of nicotine (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) produced modest effects on activity that were generally unaffected by simultaneous exposure to stress. Sequential exposure to stress and nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) slightly suppressed nicotine-induced activity, but did not influence rate of locomotor sensitization. Neither simultaneous nor sequential exposure to stress influenced the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (0.01 – 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.). These data show that restraint stress reduces nicotine’s locomotor stimulant effects, particularly when onset of stress and nicotine exposure occurs simultaneously, but does not influence nicotine discrimination. These findings contrast with the ability of stress to enhance the effects of other drugs in these models. This study also suggests that studying the influence of simultaneous stress exposure on drug effects may be useful for understanding the role of stress in addiction. PMID:24867077

  11. The Predictive Value of Cognitive Impairments Measured at the Start of Clinical Rehabilitation for Health Status 1 Year and 3 Years Poststroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Clara L.; Schepers, Vera P.; Post, Marcel W.; van Heugten, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of screening for cognitive functions at the start of an inpatient rehabilitation programme to predict the health status 1 and 3 years poststroke. In this longitudinal cohort study of stroke patients in inpatient rehabilitation data of 134 participants were analysed. Cognitive and clinical…

  12. Differentiating cognitive functions of poststroke patients with specific brain lesions: A preliminary study on the clinical utility of Cognistat-P.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sam C C; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wu, Yi; Liu, Karen P Y; Xu, Yan-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The Cognistat is widely used to measure the cognitive profile of neurological patients. This study aimed to further obtain evidence on the construct and discriminative validity of the Putonghua version of the Cognistat (Cognistat-P) on poststroke patients with specific brain lesions. Cognistat-P was administered to poststroke patients (n = 98), as well as healthy elderly (n = 40) and adult (n = 34) participants as the control groups. Poststroke patients were further categorized into 4 lesion groups using standard brain slice templates. Exploratory factory analysis reflected a 2-factor structure for the Cognistat-P that resembles that for the original English version. The Construction, Similarities, and Judgment subtests were found to differentiate patients with frontal or parietal lesions from those with subcortical lesions (p < .01, R(2) = .48). The Construction subtest, tapping the "fluid" ability, was the most useful for differentiating patients with parietal lesions from those with subcortical lesions. The Similarities subtest together with the Construction subtest was the most useful for differentiating patients with frontal lesions from those with subcortical lesions. This study established the validity of the Cognistat-P for differentiating poststroke patients with specific brain lesions. Future studies should replicate the results on a larger sample size and test the clinical significance of the Cognistat-P profiles. PMID:26571130

  13. Symptoms of Poststroke Depression among Stroke Survivors: An Appraisal of Psychiatry Needs and Care during Physiotherapy Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ibeneme, Sam Chidi; Anyachukwu, Canice Chukwudi; Nwosu, Akachukwu; Ibeneme, Georgian Chiaka; Bakare, Muideen; Fortwengel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To identify stroke survivors with symptoms of poststroke depression and the extent of psychiatry needs and care they have received while on physiotherapy rehabilitation. Participants. Fifty stroke survivors (22 females and 28 males) at the outpatient unit of Physiotherapy Department, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, who gave their informed consent, were randomly selected. Their age range and mean age were 26-66 years and 54.76 ± 8.79 years, respectively. Method. A multiple case study of 50 stroke survivors for symptoms of poststroke depression was done with Beck's Depression Inventory, mini mental status examination tool, and Modified Motor Assessment Scale. The tests were performed independently by the participants except otherwise stated and scored on a scale of 0-6. Data were analyzed using Z-test for proportional significance and chi-square test for determining relationship between variables, at p < 0.05. Results. Twenty-one (42.0%) stroke survivors had symptoms of PSD, which was significantly dependent on duration of stroke (χ (2) = 21.680, df = 6, and p = 0.001), yet none of the participants had a psychiatry review. Conclusions. Symptoms of PSD may be common in cold compared to new cases of stroke and may need psychiatry care while on physiotherapy rehabilitation. PMID:27190683

  14. Inhibition of Tnf-α R1 signaling can rescue functional cortical plasticity impaired in early post-stroke period.

    PubMed

    Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Zakrzewska, Renata; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is one of the key players in stroke progression and can interfere with brain functioning. We previously documented an impairment of experience-dependent plasticity in the cortex neighboring the stroke-induced lesion, which was accompanied with an upregulation of Tnf-α level in the brain of ischemic mice 1 week after the stroke. Because TNF receptor 1 (TnfR1) signaling is believed to be a major mediator of the cytotoxicity of Tnf-α through activation of caspases, we used an anti-inflammatory intervention aimed at Tnf-α R1 pathway, in order to try to attenuate the detrimental effect of post-stroke inflammation, and investigated if this will be effective in protecting plasticity in the infarct proximity. Aged mice (12-14 months) were subjected to the photothrombotic stroke localized near somatosensory cortex, and immediately after ischemia sensory deprivation was introduced to induce plasticity. Soluble TNF-α R1 (sTNF-α R1), which competed for TNF-α with receptors localized in the brain, was delivered chronically directly into the brain tissue for the whole period of deprivation using ALZET Micro-Osmotic pumps. We have shown that such approach undertaken simultaneously with the stroke reduced the level of TNF-α in the peri-ischemic tissue and was successful in preserving the post-stroke deprivation-induced brain plasticity. PMID:26189092

  15. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysmnesia and the Role of BDNF Val66Met SNP

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haitao; Zhang, Tong; Wen, Mei; Sun, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on dysmnesia and the impact of brain nucleotide neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). This study investigated the impact of low-frequency rTMS on post-stroke dysmnesia and the impact of BDNF Val66Met SNP. Material/Methods Forty patients with post-stroke dysmnesia were prospectively randomized into the rTMS and sham groups. BDNF Val66Met SNP was determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy of Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Rivermead Behavior Memory Test (RBMT) scores, as well as plasma BDNF concentrations, were measured at baseline and at 3 days and 2 months post-treatment. Results MoCA, LOTCA, and RBMT scores were higher after rTMS. Three days after treatment, BDNF decreased in the rTMS group but it increased in the sham group (P<0.05). Two months after treatment, RMBT scores in the rTMS group were higher than in the sham group, but not MoCA and LOTCA scores. Conclusions Low-frequency rTMS may improve after-stoke memory through various pathways, which may involve polymorphisms and several neural genes, but not through an increase in BDNF levels. PMID:25770310

  16. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation Reduces Pain and Somatoparaphrenia in a Severe Chronic Central Post-Stroke Pain Patient: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Spitoni, Grazia Fernanda; Pireddu, Giorgio; Galati, Gaspare; Sulpizio, Valentina; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Central post-stroke pain is a neuropathic syndrome characterized by intolerable contralesional pain and, in rare cases, somatic delusions. To date, there is limited evidence for the effective treatments of this disease. Here we used caloric vestibular stimulation to reduce pain and somatoparaphrenia in a 57-year-old woman suffering from central post-stroke pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the neurological effects of this treatment. Following vestibular stimulation we observed impressive improvements in motor skills, pain, and somatic delusions. In the functional connectivity study before the vestibular stimulation, we observed differences in the patient's left thalamus functional connectivity, with respect to the thalamus connectivity of a control group (N = 20), in the bilateral cingulate cortex and left insula. After the caloric stimulation, the left thalamus functional connectivity with these regions, which are known to be involved in the cortical response to pain, disappeared as in the control group. The beneficial use of vestibular stimulation in the reduction of pain and somatic delusion in a CPSP patient is now documented by behavioral and imaging data. This evidence can be applied to theoretical models of pain and body delusions. PMID:27028404

  17. Medical utilization and cost outcomes for poststroke veterans who receive assistive technology devices from the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Hubbard Winkler, Sandra L; Wu, Samuel; Cowper Ripley, Diane C; Groer, Shirley; Hoenig, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The study objectives were to (1) advance understanding of the relationship between provision of assistive technology devices (ATDs) and healthcare consumption and outcomes in a system that does not limit provision of ATDs to in-home use and (2) determine how the provision of ATDs relates to inpatient/outpatient utilization and costs of services for veterans 12 months poststroke when controlling for case-mix. This was a retrospective study using Department of Veterans Affairs administrative/workload databases to identify 12,046 veterans with stroke during fiscal years 2001 and 2002. Measures were functional gain, inpatient days, outpatient visits, and inpatient and outpatient costs during the first year poststroke. Motor gain for veterans receiving ATDs was higher than for veterans not receiving ATDs (20 vs 9 Functional Independence Measure points, p < 0.001). Provision of a low-end manual wheelchair was associated with increased inpatient days and costs (both p < 0.001). Provision of a power wheelchair was associated with increased inpatient (p = 0.03) and outpatient costs (p < 0.001). Provision of a scooter was associated with increased outpatient visits and outpatient costs (both p < 0.001). Scooters, walking aids, and power wheelchairs were associated with increased outpatient visits, perhaps functioning as outpatient/community enablers. PMID:21480087

  18. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation Reduces Pain and Somatoparaphrenia in a Severe Chronic Central Post-Stroke Pain Patient: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Central post-stroke pain is a neuropathic syndrome characterized by intolerable contralesional pain and, in rare cases, somatic delusions. To date, there is limited evidence for the effective treatments of this disease. Here we used caloric vestibular stimulation to reduce pain and somatoparaphrenia in a 57-year-old woman suffering from central post-stroke pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the neurological effects of this treatment. Following vestibular stimulation we observed impressive improvements in motor skills, pain, and somatic delusions. In the functional connectivity study before the vestibular stimulation, we observed differences in the patient’s left thalamus functional connectivity, with respect to the thalamus connectivity of a control group (N = 20), in the bilateral cingulate cortex and left insula. After the caloric stimulation, the left thalamus functional connectivity with these regions, which are known to be involved in the cortical response to pain, disappeared as in the control group. The beneficial use of vestibular stimulation in the reduction of pain and somatic delusion in a CPSP patient is now documented by behavioral and imaging data. This evidence can be applied to theoretical models of pain and body delusions. PMID:27028404

  19. Symptoms of Poststroke Depression among Stroke Survivors: An Appraisal of Psychiatry Needs and Care during Physiotherapy Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Ibeneme, Sam Chidi; Anyachukwu, Canice Chukwudi; Nwosu, Akachukwu; Ibeneme, Georgian Chiaka; Bakare, Muideen; Fortwengel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To identify stroke survivors with symptoms of poststroke depression and the extent of psychiatry needs and care they have received while on physiotherapy rehabilitation. Participants. Fifty stroke survivors (22 females and 28 males) at the outpatient unit of Physiotherapy Department, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, who gave their informed consent, were randomly selected. Their age range and mean age were 26–66 years and 54.76 ± 8.79 years, respectively. Method. A multiple case study of 50 stroke survivors for symptoms of poststroke depression was done with Beck's Depression Inventory, mini mental status examination tool, and Modified Motor Assessment Scale. The tests were performed independently by the participants except otherwise stated and scored on a scale of 0–6. Data were analyzed using Z-test for proportional significance and chi-square test for determining relationship between variables, at p < 0.05. Results. Twenty-one (42.0%) stroke survivors had symptoms of PSD, which was significantly dependent on duration of stroke (χ2 = 21.680, df = 6, and p = 0.001), yet none of the participants had a psychiatry review. Conclusions. Symptoms of PSD may be common in cold compared to new cases of stroke and may need psychiatry care while on physiotherapy rehabilitation. PMID:27190683

  20. Diagnostics and Training of Affordance Perception in Healthy Young Adults—Implications for Post-Stroke Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Randerath, Jennifer; Frey, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Affordance perception is critical to adaptive behavior. It comprises the ability to evaluate whether the environment and the actor's capabilities enable particular actions. It remains unclear how brain damage and its behavioral sequela impact this ability. Two affordance based judgment tasks were applied in healthy young adults that were adapted for prospective diagnostic purposes in patients. In addition to the commonly analyzed error-rate we included response times and accuracy measures based on a detection theory approach. Moreover, a manipulation was added intended to determine the effectiveness of feedback-based learning. We further applied control tasks that consider whether errors in affordance perception can be explained by errors in perception. Participants responded yes or no to decide prospectively if a given setting would afford a particular action. In study1, 27 participants judged whether their hand would fit through a given aperture (adapted from Ishak et al., 2008). In study2, 19 participants judged whether objects are reachable [adapted from Gabbard et al. (2005)]. For both studies two sessions were administered. In the first session all participants solved the judgment-task without executing the action. In the second session (feedback manipulation), half of the participants were allowed to first judge and then perform the task for each trial (reach forward and touch the object, or fitting the hand into the aperture). Judgments were slowest and errors most frequent for openings or distances close to the individual's actual physical limits. With more extreme settings accuracy increased and responses became faster. Importantly, we found an advantageous effect of feedback on performance in both tasks suggesting that affordance perception is rapidly trainable. Further, the aperture task demonstrated that feedback experienced with one hand can transfer to the other. This may have important implications for rehabilitation. PMID:26778995

  1. Diagnostics and Training of Affordance Perception in Healthy Young Adults-Implications for Post-Stroke Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Randerath, Jennifer; Frey, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Affordance perception is critical to adaptive behavior. It comprises the ability to evaluate whether the environment and the actor's capabilities enable particular actions. It remains unclear how brain damage and its behavioral sequela impact this ability. Two affordance based judgment tasks were applied in healthy young adults that were adapted for prospective diagnostic purposes in patients. In addition to the commonly analyzed error-rate we included response times and accuracy measures based on a detection theory approach. Moreover, a manipulation was added intended to determine the effectiveness of feedback-based learning. We further applied control tasks that consider whether errors in affordance perception can be explained by errors in perception. Participants responded yes or no to decide prospectively if a given setting would afford a particular action. In study1, 27 participants judged whether their hand would fit through a given aperture (adapted from Ishak et al., 2008). In study2, 19 participants judged whether objects are reachable [adapted from Gabbard et al. (2005)]. For both studies two sessions were administered. In the first session all participants solved the judgment-task without executing the action. In the second session (feedback manipulation), half of the participants were allowed to first judge and then perform the task for each trial (reach forward and touch the object, or fitting the hand into the aperture). Judgments were slowest and errors most frequent for openings or distances close to the individual's actual physical limits. With more extreme settings accuracy increased and responses became faster. Importantly, we found an advantageous effect of feedback on performance in both tasks suggesting that affordance perception is rapidly trainable. Further, the aperture task demonstrated that feedback experienced with one hand can transfer to the other. This may have important implications for rehabilitation. PMID:26778995

  2. A geometric morphometric analysis of acetabular shape of the primate hip joint in relation to locomotor behaviour.

    PubMed

    San Millán, Marta; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni; Rissech, Carme; Turbón, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The description of acetabular shape variation among primates is essential for our understanding of the locomotor behaviour and ecology of both extant and fossil species. In this study, we use two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to examine variation in acetabular shape in human and non-human primates and to determine the degree to which it co-varies with locomotor behaviour, while taking both intra and inter-specific variation into account. To these ends, we examined the acetabulum of 303 left hip bones of 27 extant genera of primates (including humans) with different locomotor behaviours. After accounting for shape variation due to sex, size, and phylogeny, the results confirm that acetabular shape varies significantly across locomotor groups. The two most differentiated locomotor groups are leapers and slow-climbing quadrupeds, which exhibit a unique acetabular shape. Furthermore, the acetabulum of humans differed significantly from all other groups, while no significant differences existed between chimpanzees and gorillas. The most noticeable differences are detected in both cranial and dorsal areas and around the acetabular horns. This variation in acetabular morphology may have biomechanical implications at the level of the hip joint, potentially determining joint range motion and load distribution during locomotion. Given the increasing number of published studies on fossil pelves, our results are widely applicable to fossil analyses, with critical implications for paleoanthropological analyses about the complex locomotor behaviour of fossil specimens and their classification into locomotor groups, which may enhance our understanding of their ecological habits. PMID:25929707

  3. [Performance diagnosis of the locomotor system and sensory organs?].

    PubMed

    de Marées, H

    1989-06-01

    The quantitative significance of the sensory organs in sport is discussed by means of the visual parameters static and dynamic visual acuity and the equilibrium that is specific for a particular kind of sport. Spectators with normal visual acuity can identify footballs, tennis balls etc. used in game sports, with relative ease, compared with sports equipment used in athletics. However, since moving objects can attain an angular velocity of 400 degrees/s and higher in certain sports, the mean dynamic visual acuity is unable to cope with such speeds, this being only 200 to 230 degrees/s. Dynamic visual acuity can be trained, thus attaining higher levels in game sports. Processes of balance regulation during cycling (or in rhythmical sports gymnastics) are discussed in connection with and subsequent to the problem of the intersensory perception conflict. Finally, the article sums up criteria for the observation of movement and for minimising intersensory perception conflicts. PMID:2665159

  4. The novel recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent psychomotor stimulant: self-administration and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Aarde, S M; Huang, P K; Creehan, K M; Dickerson, T J; Taffe, M A

    2013-08-01

    Recreational use of the cathinone derivative 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "bath salts") has increased worldwide in past years, accompanied by accounts of health and legal problems in the popular media and efforts to criminalize possession in numerous jurisdictions. Minimal information exists on the effects of MDPV in laboratory models. This study determined the effects of MDPV, alongside those of the better studied stimulant d-methamphetamine (METH), using rodent models of intravenous self-administration (IVSA), thermoregulation and locomotor activity. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer MDPV or METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) or were prepared with radiotelemetry implants for the assessment of body temperature and activity responses to MDPV or METH (0-5.6 mg/kg s.c.). METH and MDPV were consistently self-administered within 10 training sessions (mg/kg/h; METH Mean = 0.4 and Max = 1.15; MDPV Mean = 0.9 and Max = 5.8). Dose-substitution studies demonstrated that behavior was sensitive to dose for both drugs, but MDPV (0.01-0.50 mg/kg/inf) showed greater potency and efficacy than METH (0.1-0.25 mg/kg/inf). In addition, both MDPV and METH increased locomotor activity at lower doses (0.5-1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) and transiently decreased activity at the highest dose (5.6 mg/kg, s.c.). Body temperature increased monotonically with increasing doses of METH but MDPV had a negligible effect on temperature. Stereotypy was associated with relatively high self-administered cumulative doses of MDPV (∼1.5 mg/kg/h) as well as with non-contingent MDPV administration wherein the intensity and duration of stereotypy increased as MDPV dose increased. Thus, MDPV poses a substantial threat for compulsive use that is potentially greater than that for METH. PMID:23597511

  5. [Changes of the locomotor system in sportsmen with back pain].

    PubMed

    Ambartsumov, R M

    2001-01-01

    Sport of high achievements is a complex combination of stressful factors affecting physical and psycological condition of a sportsman. Figure skating is a multicoordinational kind of sports. The analysis of the practical experience shows that movements undue in amplitude in the lumbar spinal column coupled with becoming too cold result in microtraumatization and origination of the pain syndrome in the loin. A 3-yr follow-up of 42 sportsmen-figureskaters of a top class athletic mastery was carried out to develop a system of prophylaxis and effective treatment of lumbar pains in sportsmen-figure skaters. The clinical neurological and orthopedic examination, X-ray, myotonometry of the paravertebral muscules, and USI of the spinal column were all done during the sports season and in the process of treatment. The developed system of a multiple-modality treatment showed efficacy of use of medicamentous (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, chondroprotectors, antihomotoxic therapy, vitamins, and biological stimulants) and non-medicamentous (massage, stretching, physiotherapy, remedial gymnastics, psychological training) treatment options in rehabilitation of those sportsmen presenting with the pain syndrome in the lumbar spine. PMID:15311713

  6. ESCAPS study protocol: a feasibility randomised controlled trial of ‘Early electrical stimulation to the wrist extensors and wrist flexors to prevent the post-stroke complications of pain and contractures in the paretic arm’

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher-Smith, Joanna C; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Sprigg, Nikola; James, Marilyn; Walker, Marion F; Allatt, Kate; Mehta, Rajnikant; Pandyan, Anand D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 70% of patients with stroke experience impaired arm function, which is persistent and disabling for an estimated 40%. Loss of function reduces independence in daily activities and impacts on quality of life. Muscles in those who do not recover functional movement in the stroke affected arm are at risk of atrophy and contractures, which can be established as early as 6 weeks following stroke. Pain is also common. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of delivering early intensive electrical stimulation (ES) to prevent post-stroke complications in the paretic upper limb. Methods and analysis This is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (n=40) with embedded qualitative studies (patient/carer interviews and therapist focus groups) and feasibility economic evaluation. Patients will be recruited from the Stroke Unit at the Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Trust within 72 h after stroke. Participants will be randomised to receive usual care or usual care and early ES to the wrist flexors and extensors for 30 min twice a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. The initial treatment(s) will be delivered by an occupational therapist or physiotherapist who will then train the patient and/or their nominated carer to self-manage subsequent treatments. Ethics and dissemination This study has been granted ethical approval by the National Research Ethics Service, East Midlands Nottingham1 Research Ethics Committee (ref: 15/EM/0006). To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind of the early application (within 72 h post-stroke) of ES to both the wrist extensors and wrist flexors of stroke survivors with upper limb impairment. The results will inform the design of a definitive randomised controlled trial. Dissemination will include 2 peer-reviewed journal publications and presentations at national conferences. Trial

  7. Down-Regulation of KCC2 Expression and Phosphorylation in Motoneurons, and Increases the Number of in Primary Afferent Projections to Motoneurons in Mice with Post-Stroke Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Takuya; Ishida, Kazuto; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Toshihide; Lee, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Spasticity obstructs motor function recovery post-stroke, and has been reported to occur in spinal cord injury and electrophysiological studies. The purpose of the present study was to assess spinal cord circuit spasticity in post-stroke mice. At 3, 7, 21, and 42 d after photothrombotic ischemic cortical injury in C57BL/6J mice, we observed decreased rate-dependent depression (RDD) of the Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) in the affected forelimb of mice compared with the limbs of sham mice and the non-affected forelimb. This finding suggests a hyper-excitable stretch reflex in the affected forelimb. We then performed immunohistochemical and western blot analyses to examine the expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and phosphorylation of the KCC2 serine residue, 940 (S940), since this is the main chloride extruder that affects neuronal excitability. We also performed immunohistochemical analyses on the number of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1)-positive boutons to count the number of Ia afferent fibers that connect to motoneurons. Western bolts revealed that, compared with sham mice, experimental mice had significantly reduced KCC2 expression at 7 d post-stroke, and dephosphorylated S940 at 3 and 7 d post-stroke in motoneuron plasma membranes. We also observed a lower density of KCC2-positive areas in the plasma membrane of motoneurons at 3 and 7 d post-stroke. However, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there were no differences between groups 21 and 42 d post-stroke, respectively. In addition, at 7 and 42 d post-stroke, experimental mice exhibited a significant increase in vGluT1 boutons compared with sham mice. Our findings suggest that both the down-regulation of KCC2 and increases in Ia afferent fibers are involved in post-stroke spasticity. PMID:25546454

  8. Asymmetric control of cycle period by the spinal locomotor rhythm generator in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    Frigon, Alain; Gossard, Jean-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    During walking, a change in speed is accomplished by varying the duration of the stance phase, while the swing phase remains relatively invariant. To determine if this asymmetry in the control of locomotor cycles is an inherent property of the spinal central pattern generator (CPG), we recorded episodes of fictive locomotion in decerebrate cats with or without a complete spinal transection (acute or chronic). During fictive locomotion, stance and swing phases typically correspond to extension and flexion phases, respectively. The extension and flexion phases were determined by measuring the duration of extensor and flexor bursts, respectively. In the vast majority of locomotor episodes, cycle period varied more with the extension phase. This was found without phasic sensory feedback, supraspinal structures, pharmacology or sustained stimulation. We conclude that the control of walking speed is governed by an asymmetry within the organization of the spinal CPG, which can be modified by extraneous factors. PMID:19675066

  9. Angular scale expansion theory and the misperception of egocentric distance in locomotor space

    PubMed Central

    Durgin, Frank H.

    2014-01-01

    Perception is crucial for the control of action, but perception need not be scaled accurately to produce accurate actions. This paper reviews evidence for an elegant new theory of locomotor space perception that is based on the dense coding of angular declination so that action control may be guided by richer feedback. The theory accounts for why so much direct-estimation data suggests that egocentric distance is underestimated despite the fact that action measures have been interpreted as indicating accurate perception. Actions are calibrated to the perceived scale of space and thus action measures are typically unable to distinguish systematic (e.g., linearly scaled) misperception from accurate perception. Whereas subjective reports of the scaling of linear extent are difficult to evaluate in absolute terms, study of the scaling of perceived angles (which exist in a known scale, delimited by vertical and horizontal) provides new evidence regarding the perceptual scaling of locomotor space. PMID:25610539

  10. Building Zebrafish Neurobehavioral Phenomics: Effects of Common Environmental Factors on Anxiety and Locomotor Activity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kaluyeva, Alexandra A; Poudel, Manoj K; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are emerging as an important model organism for neurobehavioral phenomics research. Given the likely variation of zebrafish behavioral phenotypes between and within laboratories, in this study, we examine the influence and variability of several common environmental modifiers on adult zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity. Utilizing the novel tank paradigm, this study assessed the role of various laboratory factors, including experimenter/handling, testing time and days, batch, and the order of testing, on the behavior of a large population of experimentally naive control fish. Although time of the day, experimenter identity, and order of testing had little effect on zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity levels, subtle differences were found for testing days and batches. Our study establishes how zebrafish behaviors are modulated by common environmental/laboratory factors and outlines several implications for zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics research. PMID:26244595

  11. Dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production in rats after acute stress.

    PubMed

    Pertsov, S S; Alekseeva, I V; Koplik, E V; Sharanova, N E; Kirbaeva, N V; Gapparov, M M G

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production were studied in rats demonstrating passive and active behavior in the open field test at different time after exposure to acute emotional stress caused by 12-h immobilization during dark hours. The most pronounced changes in behavior and heat production followed by disturbances in circadian rhythms of these parameters were detected within the first 2 days after stress. In contrast to behaviorally active rats, the most significant decrease in locomotor activity and heat production of passive animals subjected to emotional stress was observed during dark hours. Circadian rhythms of behavior and heat production in rats tended to recover on day 3 after immobilization stress. These data illustrate the specificity of metabolic and behavioral changes reflecting the shift of endogenous biological rhythms in individuals with different prognostic resistance to stress at different terms after exposure to negative emotiogenic stimuli. PMID:24906959

  12. The burden of stroke in the Netherlands: estimating quality of life and costs for 1 year poststroke

    PubMed Central

    van Eeden, M; van Heugten, C; van Mastrigt, G A P G; van Mierlo, M; Visser-Meily, J M A; Evers, S M A A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess and explore over 1 year poststroke (1) the societal costs, (2) changes in costs and quality of life (QoL) and (3) the relation between costs and QoL. Design The current study is a burden of disease study focusing on the cost-of-illness (in Euros) and QoL (in utilities) after stroke. Setting Adult patients with stroke were recruited from stroke units in hospitals and followed for 1 year. Participants Data were collected from 395 patients with stroke. Main outcome measures Costs and QoL expressed in utilities. Methods Cost categories were identified through a bottom-up method. The Dutch 3-level 5-dimensional EuroQol (EQ-5D-3L) was used to calculate utilities. Non-parametric bootstrapping was applied to test for statistical differences in costs. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify predictors for costs and QoL. Robustness of results was tested via sensitivity analyses. Results The total societal costs for 1 year poststroke were €29 484 (n=352) of which 74% were in the first 6 months. QoL remained stable over time. The discharge location was a significant predictor for cost and QoL; men had a significantly higher QoL than women and younger patients (<65) had significantly more costs than older patients (>65). Ceiling effects appear on all dimension of the EQ-5D-3L. Costs and QoL show a weak correlation (r=−0.29). Sensitivity analyses showed robustness of results. Conclusions We found lower patient costs and higher QoL than expected. This may be explained by the good state of health of our study population and by change in the Dutch healthcare system, which has led to considerable shorter hospitalisation poststroke. Future research must question the use of the EQ-5D-3L in a similar population due to ceiling effects. Trial registration number NTR3051. PMID:26614618

  13. Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function allowing astronauts to operate in this unique environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a 1-g environment. Consequently astronauts must spend time readapting to Earth's gravity following their return to Earth. During this readaptation period, alterations in sensorimotor function cause various disturbances in astronaut gait during postflight walking. They often rely more on vision for postural and gait stability and many report the need for greater cognitive supervision of motor actions that previous to space flight were fully automated. Over the last several years our laboratory has investigated postflight astronaut locomotion with the aim of better understanding how adaptive changes in underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contribute to postflight gait dysfunction. Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibularly-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Furthermore, during motor learning, adaptive transitions are composed of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic. Strategic mechanisms represent immediate and transitory modifications in control to deal with changes in the prevailing environment that, if prolonged, induce plastic mechanisms designed to automate new behavioral responses. The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of sensorimotor subsystems such as the vestibular and body load sensing (BLS) somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Further we present data on the two motor learning processes during readaptation of locomotor function after long-duration space flight. Eighteen astronauts performed two tests of locomotion before and after 6 months of space flight: a treadmill walking test to examine vestibular reflexive mechanisms controlling head

  14. Reduced locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in CC chemokine receptor 4 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ambrée, Oliver; Klassen, Irene; Förster, Irmgard; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition. Additionally, we investigated social exploration of CCR4 and CCL17 knockout mice and wild type (WT) controls. CCR4 knockout (CCR4(-/-)) mice exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, diminished locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and social exploration, while their recognition memory was not affected. In contrast, CCL17 deficient mice did not show an altered behavior compared to WT mice regarding locomotor activity, anxiety-related behavior, social exploration, and object recognition memory. In the dark-light and object recognition tests, CCL17(-/-) mice even covered longer distances than WT mice. These data demonstrate a mechanistic or developmental role of CCR4 in the regulation of locomotor and exploratory behaviors, whereas the ligand CCL17 appears not to be involved in the behaviors measured here. Thus, either CCL17 and the alternative ligand CCL22 may be redundant, or CCL22 is the main activator of CCR4 in these processes. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing evidence regarding the involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of behavior. PMID:27469058

  15. QRFP and Its Receptors Regulate Locomotor Activity and Sleep in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Audrey; Chiu, Cindy N.; Mosser, Eric A.; Kahn, Sohini; Spence, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus plays an important role in regulating sleep, but few hypothalamic sleep-promoting signaling pathways have been identified. Here we demonstrate a role for the neuropeptide QRFP (also known as P518 and 26RFa) and its receptors in regulating sleep in zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate. We show that QRFP is expressed in ∼10 hypothalamic neurons in zebrafish larvae, which project to the hypothalamus, hindbrain, and spinal cord, including regions that express the two zebrafish QRFP receptor paralogs. We find that the overexpression of QRFP inhibits locomotor activity during the day, whereas mutation of qrfp or its receptors results in increased locomotor activity and decreased sleep during the day. Despite the restriction of these phenotypes to the day, the circadian clock does not regulate qrfp expression, and entrained circadian rhythms are not required for QRFP-induced rest. Instead, we find that QRFP overexpression decreases locomotor activity largely in a light-specific manner. Our results suggest that QRFP signaling plays an important role in promoting sleep and may underlie some aspects of hypothalamic sleep control. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hypothalamus is thought to play a key role in regulating sleep in vertebrate animals, but few sleep-promoting signaling pathways that function in the hypothalamus have been identified. Here we use the zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, to functionally and anatomically characterize the neuropeptide QRFP. We show that QRFP is exclusively expressed in a small number of neurons in the larval zebrafish hypothalamus that project widely in the brain. We also show that QRFP overexpression reduces locomotor activity, whereas animals that lack QRFP signaling are more active and sleep less. These results suggest that QRFP signaling participates in the hypothalamic regulation of sleep. PMID:26865608

  16. Effects of dopaminergic therapy on locomotor adaptation and adaptive learning in persons with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Roemmich, Ryan T.; Hack, Nawaz; Akbar, Umer; Hass, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are characterized by multifactorial gait deficits, though the factors which influence the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store new gait patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dopaminergic therapy on the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store gait parameters during split-belt treadmill (SBT) walking. Ten participants with idiopathic PD who were being treated with stable doses of orally-administered dopaminergic therapy participated. All participants performed two randomized testing sessions on separate days: once while optimally-medicated (ON meds) and once after 12-hour withdrawal from dopaminergic medication (OFF meds). During each session, locomotor adaptation was investigated as the participants walked on a SBT for ten minutes while the belts moved at a 2:1 speed ratio. We assessed locomotor adaptive learning by quantifying: 1) aftereffects during de-adaptation (once the belts returned to tied speeds immediately following SBT walking) and 2) savings during re-adaptation (as the participants repeated the same SBT walking task after washout of aftereffects following the initial SBT task). The withholding of dopaminergic medication diminished step length aftereffects significantly during de-adaptation. However, both locomotor adaptation and savings were unaffected by levodopa. These findings suggest that dopaminergic pathways influence aftereffect storage but do not influence locomotor adaptation or savings within a single session of SBT walking. It appears important that persons with PD should be optimally-medicated if walking on the SBT as gait rehabilitation. PMID:24698798

  17. Effects of Nicotine on Ethanol-Induced Locomotor Sensitization: A Model of Neuroadaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gubner, Noah R.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2015-01-01

    Co-morbid use of nicotine-containing tobacco products and alcohol (ethanol) is prevalent in young adults initiating use and in alcohol dependent adults, suggesting that these drugs in combination may increase risk to develop dependence on one or both drugs. Neuroadaptations caused by repeated drug exposure are related to the development of drug dependence and vulnerability to relapse. Locomotor sensitization has been used as a behavioral measure used to detect changes in neural drug sensitivity that are thought to contribute to drug dependence and relapse. Locomotor sensitization was measured in the current studies to examine potential differences in the effects of nicotine and ethanol given alone and in combination. Baseline activity levels of DBA/2J mice were assessed on 2 days, then mice were treated for ten days with saline, nicotine (1 or 2 mg/kg of nicotine tartrate), ethanol (1 or 2 g/kg), or nicotine plus ethanol and locomotor activity was assessed every third day. On the following day, all mice were challenged with ethanol to measure the expression of sensitization. Mice treated with both nicotine and ethanol exhibited greater stimulation than predicted from the combined independent effects of these drugs, consistent with our previously published results. The combined effects of nicotine and ethanol on locomotor sensitization were dependent on the dose of ethanol and whether testing was performed after the drugs were given together, or after challenge with ethanol alone. These results suggest that nicotine and ethanol in combination can have neuroadaptive effects that differ from the independent effects of these drugs. PMID:25857831

  18. Plantar tactile perturbations enhance transfer of split-belt locomotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mukul; Eikema, Diderik Jan A; Chien, Jung Hung; Myers, Sara A; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Patterns of human locomotion are highly adaptive and flexible and depend on the environmental context. Locomotor adaptation requires the use of multisensory information to perceive altered environmental dynamics and generate an appropriate movement pattern. In this study, we investigated the use of multisensory information during locomotor learning. Proprioceptive perturbations were induced by vibrating tactors, placed bilaterally over the plantar surfaces. Under these altered sensory conditions, participants were asked to perform a split-belt locomotor task representative of motor learning. Twenty healthy young participants were separated into two groups: no-tactors (NT) and tactors (TC). All participants performed an overground walking trial, followed by treadmill walking including 18 min of split-belt adaptation and an overground trial to determine transfer effects. Interlimb coordination was quantified by symmetry indices and analyzed using mixed repeated-measures ANOVAs. Both groups adapted to the locomotor task, indicated by significant reductions in gait symmetry during the split-belt task. No significant group differences in spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters were observed on the treadmill. However, significant group differences were observed overground. Step and swing time asymmetries learned on the split-belt treadmill were retained and decayed more slowly overground in the TC group whereas in NT, asymmetries were rapidly lost. These results suggest that tactile stimulation contributed to increased lower limb proprioceptive gain. High proprioceptive gain allows for more persistent overground after effects, at the cost of reduced adaptability. Such persistence may be utilized in populations displaying pathologic asymmetric gait by retraining a more symmetric pattern. PMID:26169104

  19. Effect of Temporal Organization of the Visuo-Locomotor Coupling on the Predictive Steering

    PubMed Central

    Rybarczyk, Yves Philippe; Mestre, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the direction of a driver’s gaze while taking a bend show that the individual looks toward the tangent-point of the inside curve. Mathematically, the direction of this point in relation to the car enables the driver to predict the curvature of the road. In the same way, when a person walking in the street turns a corner, his/her gaze anticipates the rotation of the body. A current explanation for the visuo-motor anticipation over the locomotion would be that the brain, involved in a steering behavior, executes an internal model of the trajectory that anticipates the completion of the path, and not the contrary. This paper proposes to test this hypothesis by studying the effect of an artificial manipulation of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the trajectory prediction. In this experiment, subjects remotely control a mobile robot with a pan-tilt camera. This experimental paradigm is chosen to manipulate in an easy and precise way the temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling. The results show that only the visuo-locomotor coupling organized from the visual sensor to the locomotor organs enables (i) a significant smoothness of the trajectory and (ii) a velocity-curvature relationship that follows the “2/3 Power Law.” These findings are consistent with the theory of an anticipatory construction of an internal model of the trajectory. This mental representation used by the brain as a forward prediction of the formation of the path seems conditioned by the motor program. The overall results are discussed in terms of the sensorimotor scheme bases of the predictive coding. PMID:22798955

  20. Membrane potential oscillations in reticulospinal and spinobulbar neurons during locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Einum, James F; Buchanan, James T

    2005-07-01

    Feedback from the spinal locomotor networks provides rhythmic modulation of the membrane potential of reticulospinal (RS) neurons during locomotor activity. To further understand the origins of this rhythmic activity, the timings of the oscillations in spinobulbar (SB) neurons of the spinal cord and in RS neurons of the posterior and middle rhombencephalic reticular nuclei were measured using intracellular microelectrode recordings in the isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparation of the lamprey. A diffusion barrier constructed just caudal to the obex allowed induction of locomotor activity in the spinal cord by bath application of an excitatory amino acid to the spinal bath. All of the ipsilaterally projecting SB neurons recorded had oscillatory membrane potentials with peak depolarizations in phase with the ipsilateral ventral root bursts, whereas the contralaterally projecting SB neurons were about evenly divided between those in phase with the ipsilateral ventral root bursts and those in phase with the contralateral bursts. In the brain stem under these conditions, 75% of RS neurons had peak depolarizations in phase with the ipsilateral ventral root bursts while the remainder had peak depolarizations during the contralateral bursts. Addition of a high-Ca2+, Mg2+ solution to the brain stem bath to reduce polysynaptic activity had little or no effect on oscillation timing in RS neurons, suggesting that direct inputs from SB neurons make a major contribution to RS neuron oscillations under these conditions. Under normal conditions when the brain is participating in the generation of locomotor activity, these spinal inputs will be integrated with other inputs to RS neurons. PMID:15744013

  1. Effect of temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the predictive steering.

    PubMed

    Rybarczyk, Yves Philippe; Mestre, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the direction of a driver's gaze while taking a bend show that the individual looks toward the tangent-point of the inside curve. Mathematically, the direction of this point in relation to the car enables the driver to predict the curvature of the road. In the same way, when a person walking in the street turns a corner, his/her gaze anticipates the rotation of the body. A current explanation for the visuo-motor anticipation over the locomotion would be that the brain, involved in a steering behavior, executes an internal model of the trajectory that anticipates the completion of the path, and not the contrary. This paper proposes to test this hypothesis by studying the effect of an artificial manipulation of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the trajectory prediction. In this experiment, subjects remotely control a mobile robot with a pan-tilt camera. This experimental paradigm is chosen to manipulate in an easy and precise way the temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling. The results show that only the visuo-locomotor coupling organized from the visual sensor to the locomotor organs enables (i) a significant smoothness of the trajectory and (ii) a velocity-curvature relationship that follows the "2/3 Power Law." These findings are consistent with the theory of an anticipatory construction of an internal model of the trajectory. This mental representation used by the brain as a forward prediction of the formation of the path seems conditioned by the motor program. The overall results are discussed in terms of the sensorimotor scheme bases of the predictive coding. PMID:22798955

  2. Modulation of joint moments and work in the goat hindlimb with locomotor speed and surface grade

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Allison S.; Lee, David V.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Goats and other quadrupeds must modulate the work output of their muscles to accommodate the changing mechanical demands associated with locomotion in their natural environments. This study examined which hindlimb joint moments goats use to generate and absorb mechanical energy on level and sloped surfaces over a range of locomotor speeds. Ground reaction forces and the three-dimensional locations of joint markers were recorded as goats walked, trotted and galloped over 0, +15 and −15 deg sloped surfaces. Net joint moments, powers and work were estimated at the goats' hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the stance phase via inverse dynamics calculations. Differences in locomotor speed on the level, inclined and declined surfaces were characterized and accounted for by fitting regression equations to the joint moment, power and work data plotted versus non-dimensionalized speed. During level locomotion, the net work generated by moments at each of the hindlimb joints was small (less than 0.1 J kg−1 body mass) and did not vary substantially with gait or locomotor speed. During uphill running, by contrast, mechanical energy was generated at the hip, knee and ankle, and the net work at each of these joints increased dramatically with speed (P<0.05). The greatest increases in positive joint work occurred at the hip and ankle. During downhill running, mechanical energy was decreased in two main ways: goats generated larger knee extension moments in the first half of stance, absorbing energy as the knee flexed, and goats generated smaller ankle extension moments in the second half of stance, delivering less energy. The goats' hip extension moment in mid-stance was also diminished, contributing to the decrease in energy. These analyses offer new insight into quadrupedal locomotion, clarifying how the moments generated by hindlimb muscles modulate mechanical energy at different locomotor speeds and grades, as needed to accommodate the

  3. The effects of inhaled isoparaffins on locomotor activity and operant performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Bowen, S E; Balster, R L

    1998-11-01

    Very little is known qualitatively or quantitatively about the acute central nervous system effects of isoparaffin solvents that are widely used in household and commercial applications. Four isoparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent products differing in predominant carbon number and volatility (ISOPAR-C, -E -G, -H) were tested for their acute effects on locomotor activity and operant performance after inhalation exposure in mice. For both measures, concentration-effect curves were obtained for 30-min exposures using a within-subject design. The more volatile products, ISOPAR-C and -E, were as easily vaporized under our conditions as vapors such as toluene and TCE, which have acute effects on human behavior and are abused. ISOPAR-G was slowly volatilized and ISOPAR-H could not be completely volatilized within our 30-min exposures, suggesting that acute human exposures may be less likely and that it may be more difficult to abuse them. ISOPAR-C, -E, and -G produced reversible increases in locomotor activity of mice at 4000 and 6000 ppm while ISOPAR-C and -E produced reversible concentration-dependent decreases in rates of schedule-controlled operant behavior in approximately the same concentration range as they affected locomotor activity. The fact that only locomotor activity increases were observed with these isoparaffins provides evidence that they produce a different pattern of effects than those reported for abused solvents such as toluene and TCE. Further research will be needed to determine if this different pattern of effects on animal behavior between isoparaffins and abused solvents is correlated with a different pattern of acute intoxication and abuse potential in humans. PMID:9768561

  4. Comparative locomotor ecology of gibbons and macaques: selection of canopy elements for crossing gaps.

    PubMed

    Cannon, C H; Leighton, M

    1994-04-01

    To examine functional questions of arboreal locomotor ecology, the selection of canopy elements by Bornean agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis) and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) was contrasted, and related to locomotor behaviors. The two species, and in some cases, the macaque sexes, varied in their use of most structural elements. Although both species traveled most frequently in the main canopy layer (macaques: 56%, gibbons: 48%), the gibbons strongly preferred the emergent canopy layer and traveled higher than the macaques (31 vs. 23 m above ground) in larger trees (48 vs. 26 cm dbh). Macaques preferred to cross narrower gaps (50% were in the class 0.1-0.5 m wide) than gibbons (42% were 1.6-3.0 m wide), consistent with the maximum gap width each crossed (3.5 m for macaques, 9 m for gibbons). Macaques could cross only 12% of the gaps encountered in the main canopy, and < 5% of the gaps in each of the other four layers. In contrast, all layers appear relatively continuous for gibbons. Specialized locomotor modes were used disproportionately at the beginning and end of travel segments, further indicating that behavior was organized around gap crossings. A model is defined, the Perceived Continuity Index (PCI), which predicts the relative use of canopy strata for each species, based on the percentage of gaps a species can cross, the frequency of gaps, and median length of continuous canopy structure in each canopy layer. The results support the hypothesis that locomotor behaviors, and strategies of selecting canopy strata for travel, are strongly constrained by wide gaps between trees and are ultimately based on selection for efficient direct line travel between distant points. PMID:8048471

  5. Alpha-asarone improves striatal cholinergic function and locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guozhen; Chen, Shengqiang; Guo, Jialing; Wu, Jie; Yi, Yong-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Hyperactivity is a symptom found in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The animal model of FXS, fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1) knockout (KO) mouse, exhibits robust locomotor hyperactivity. Alpha (α)-asarone, a major bioactive component isolated from Acorus gramineus, has been shown in previous studies to improve various disease conditions including central nervous system disorders. In this study, we show that treatment with α-asarone alleviates locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 KO mice. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this improvement, we evaluated the expressions of various cholinergic markers, as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) levels, in the striatum of Fmr1 KO mice. We also analyzed the AChE-inhibitory activity of α-asarone. Striatal samples from Fmr1 KO mice showed decreased m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m1 mAChR) expression, increased AChE activity, and reduced ACh levels. Treatment with α-asarone improved m1 mAChR expression and ACh levels, and attenuated the increased AChE activity. In addition, α-asarone dose-dependently inhibited AChE activity in vitro. These results indicate that direct inhibition of AChE activity and up-regulation of m1 mAChR expression in the striatum might contribute to the beneficial effects of α-asarone on locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 KO mice. These findings might improve understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for locomotor hyperactivity. PMID:27316341

  6. Effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization: A model of neuroadaptation.

    PubMed

    Gubner, Noah R; Phillips, Tamara J

    2015-07-15

    Co-morbid use of nicotine-containing tobacco products and alcohol (ethanol) is prevalent in young adults initiating use and in alcohol dependent adults, suggesting that these drugs in combination may increase risk to develop dependence on one or both drugs. Neuroadaptations caused by repeated drug exposure are related to the development of drug dependence and vulnerability to relapse. Locomotor sensitization has been used as a behavioral measure used to detect changes in neural drug sensitivity that are thought to contribute to drug dependence and relapse. Locomotor sensitization was measured in the current studies to examine potential differences in the effects of nicotine and ethanol given alone and in combination. Baseline activity levels of DBA/2J mice were assessed on 2 days, then mice were treated for 10 days with saline, nicotine (1 or 2mg/kg of nicotine tartrate), ethanol (1 or 2g/kg), or nicotine plus ethanol and locomotor activity was assessed every third day. On the following day, all mice were challenged with ethanol to measure the expression of sensitization. Mice treated with both nicotine and ethanol exhibited greater stimulation than predicted from the combined independent effects of these drugs, consistent with our previously published results. The combined effects of nicotine and ethanol on locomotor sensitization were dependent on the dose of ethanol and whether testing was performed after the drugs were given together, or after challenge with ethanol alone. These results suggest that nicotine and ethanol in combination can have neuroadaptive effects that differ from the independent effects of these drugs. PMID:25857831

  7. Effects of dopaminergic therapy on locomotor adaptation and adaptive learning in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roemmich, Ryan T; Hack, Nawaz; Akbar, Umer; Hass, Chris J

    2014-07-15

    Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by multifactorial gait deficits, though the factors which influence the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store new gait patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dopaminergic therapy on the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store gait parameters during split-belt treadmill (SBT) walking. Ten participants with idiopathic PD who were being treated with stable doses of orally-administered dopaminergic therapy participated. All participants performed two randomized testing sessions on separate days: once while optimally-medicated (ON meds) and once after 12-h withdrawal from dopaminergic medication (OFF meds). During each session, locomotor adaptation was investigated as the participants walked on a SBT for 10 min while the belts moved at a 2:1 speed ratio. We assessed locomotor adaptive learning by quantifying: (1) aftereffects during de-adaptation (once the belts returned to tied speeds immediately following SBT walking) and (2) savings during re-adaptation (as the participants repeated the same SBT walking task after washout of aftereffects following the initial SBT task). The withholding of dopaminergic medication diminished step length aftereffects significantly during de-adaptation. However, both locomotor adaptation and savings were unaffected by levodopa. These findings suggest that dopaminergic pathways influence aftereffect storage but do not influence locomotor adaptation or savings within a single session of SBT walking. It appears important that persons with PD should be optimally-medicated if walking on the SBT as gait rehabilitation. PMID:24698798

  8. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Morphological Evolution and Locomotor Performance of the Carnivoran Forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Serra, Alberto; Figueirido, Borja; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three-dimensional landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics are used for estimating the influence of phylogeny, allometry and locomotor performance on forelimb shape in living and extinct carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora). The main objective is to investigate morphological convergences towards similar locomotor strategies in the shape of the major forelimb bones. Results indicate that both size and phylogeny have strong effects on the anatomy of all forelimb bones. In contrast, bone shape does not correlate in the living taxa with maximum running speed or daily movement distance, two proxies closely related to locomotor performance. A phylomorphospace approach showed that shape variation in forelimb bones mainly relates to changes in bone robustness. This indicates the presence of biomechanical constraints resulting from opposite demands for energetic efficiency in locomotion –which would require a slender forelimb– and resistance to stress –which would be satisfied by a robust forelimb–. Thus, we interpret that the need of maintaining a trade-off between both functional demands would limit shape variability in forelimb bones. Given that different situations can lead to one or another morphological solution, depending on the specific ecology of taxa, the evolution of forelimb morphology represents a remarkable “one-to-many mapping” case between anatomy and ecology. PMID:24454891

  9. The effect of early environmental manipulation on locomotor sensitivity and methamphetamine conditioned place preference reward.

    PubMed

    Hensleigh, E; Pritchard, L M

    2014-07-15

    Early life stress leads to several effects on neurological development, affecting health and well-being later in life. Instances of child abuse and neglect are associated with higher rates of depression, risk taking behavior, and an increased risk of drug abuse later in life. This study used repeated neonatal separation of rat pups as a model of early life stress. Rat pups were either handled and weighed as controls or separated for 180 min per day during postnatal days 2-8. In adulthood, male and female rats were tested for methamphetamine conditioned place preference reward and methamphetamine induced locomotor activity. Tissue samples were collected and mRNA was quantified for the norepinephrine transporter in the prefrontal cortex and the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens. Results indicated rats given methamphetamine formed a conditioned place preference, but there was no effect of early separation or sex. Separated males showed heightened methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, but there was no effect of early separation for females. Overall females were more active than males in response to both saline and methamphetamine. No differences in mRNA levels were observed across any conditions. These results suggest early neonatal separation affects methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in a sex-dependent manner but has no effects on methamphetamine conditioned place preference. PMID:24713150

  10. Alterations in locomotor activity induced by radioprotective doses of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, M.R.; Walden, T.L.; Davis, H.D.; Dominitz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2) is an effective radioprotectant when administered before irradiation. A notable side effect of this compound is sedation. In separate experiments, the dose-response determinations of the time course of locomotor activity and 30-day survival after 10 Gy gamma irradiation (LD100) were made. Adult male CD2F1 mice were injected subcutaneously with vehicle or DiPGE2 in doses ranging from 0.01 to 40 micrograms per mouse. A dose of 0.01 micrograms did not result in alterations in locomotor behaviour or enhance survival. Doses greater than 1 microgram produced ataxia and enhanced radiation survival in a dose-dependent fashion. Full recovery of locomotor activity did not occur until 6 and 30 hr after injection for the 10 microgram and 40 microgram groups, respectively. Radioprotection was observed when DiPGE2 was administered preirradiation but not postirradiation. Doses of 1 and 10 micrograms were maximally effective as a radioprotectant if injected 5 min prior to irradiation (80%-90% survival). A dose of 40 micrograms resulted in 100% survival when injected 5-30 min before irradiation. Therefore, increasing doses of DiPGE2 resulted in an enhanced effectiveness as a radioprotectant. However, the doses that were the most radioprotective were also the most debilitating to the animal.

  11. Multiple amidated neuropeptides are required for normal circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Taghert, P H; Hewes, R S; Park, J H; O'Brien, M A; Han, M; Peck, M E

    2001-09-01

    In Drosophila, the amidated neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) is expressed by the ventral subset of lateral pacemaker neurons and is required for circadian locomotor rhythms. Residual rhythmicity in pdf mutants likely reflects the activity of other neurotransmitters. We asked whether other neuropeptides contribute to such auxiliary mechanisms. We used the gal4/UAS system to create mosaics for the neuropeptide amidating enzyme PHM; amidation is a highly specific and widespread modification of secretory peptides in Drosophila. Three different gal4 drivers restricted PHM expression to different numbers of peptidergic neurons. These mosaics displayed aberrant locomotor rhythms to degrees that paralleled the apparent complexity of the spatial patterns. Certain PHM mosaics were less rhythmic than pdf mutants and as severe as per mutants. Additional gal4 elements were added to the weakly rhythmic PHM mosaics. Although adding pdf-gal4 provided only partial improvement, adding the widely expressed tim-gal4 largely restored rhythmicity. These results indicate that, in Drosophila, peptide amidation is required for neuropeptide regulation of behavior. They also support the hypothesis that multiple amidated neuropeptides, acting upstream, downstream, or in parallel to PDF, help organize daily locomotor rhythms. PMID:11517257

  12. Home cage locomotor changes in non-human primates after prolonged welding-fume exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong Yong; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Chung, Yong Hyun; Park, Jung Duck; Han, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jong Seong; Heo, Jeong Doo; Yu, Il Je

    2013-12-01

    To define the relationship between the brain concentration of manganese and neurological signs, such as locomotion, after prolonged welding-fume exposure, cynomolgus monkeys were acclimated for 1 month and then divided into three concentration groups: unexposed, low concentration (31 mg/m(3) total suspended particulate (TSP), 0.9 mg/m(3) of Mn), and high concentration (62 mg/m(3) TSP, 1.95 mg/m(3) of Mn) of TSP. The monkeys were exposed to manual metal-arc stainless steel (MMA-SS) welding fumes for 2 h per day over 8 months in an inhalation chamber system equipped with an automatic fume generator. The home cage locomotor activity and patterns were determined using a camera system over 2-4 consecutive days. After 25 and 32 weeks of exposure, the home cage locomotor activity of the high-concentration primates was found to be 5-6 times higher than that of the unexposed primates, and this increased locomotor activity was maintained for 7 weeks after ceasing the welding-fume exposure, eventually subsiding to three times higher after 13 weeks of recovery. Therefore, the present results, along with our previous observations of a high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 signal in the globus pallidus and increased blood Mn concentration, indicate that prolonged welding-fume exposure can cause neurobehavioral changes in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:24304306

  13. Optic Flow Dominates Visual Scene Polarity in Causing Adaptive Modification of Locomotor Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomura, Y.; Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2005-01-01

    Locomotion and posture are influenced and controlled by vestibular, visual and somatosensory information. Optic flow and scene polarity are two characteristics of a visual scene that have been identified as being critical in how they affect perceived body orientation and self-motion. The goal of this study was to determine the role of optic flow and visual scene polarity on adaptive modification in locomotor trajectory. Two computer-generated virtual reality scenes were shown to subjects during 20 minutes of treadmill walking. One scene was a highly polarized scene while the other was composed of objects displayed in a non-polarized fashion. Both virtual scenes depicted constant rate self-motion equivalent to walking counterclockwise around the perimeter of a room. Subjects performed Stepping Tests blindfolded before and after scene exposure to assess adaptive changes in locomotor trajectory. Subjects showed a significant difference in heading direction, between pre and post adaptation stepping tests, when exposed to either scene during treadmill walking. However, there was no significant difference in the subjects heading direction between the two visual scene polarity conditions. Therefore, it was inferred from these data that optic flow has a greater role than visual polarity in influencing adaptive locomotor function.

  14. The iFly Tracking System for an Automated Locomotor and Behavioural Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhoff, Kai J.; Jahn, Thomas R.; Lomas, David A.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Crowther, Damian C.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The use of animal models in medical research provides insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of human disease, and helps identify and test novel therapeutic strategies. Drosophila melanogaster – the common fruit fly – is one of the most established model organisms, as its study can be performed more readily and with far less expense than for other model animal systems, such as mice, fish, or indeed primates. In the case of fruit flies, standard assays are based on the analysis of longevity and basic locomotor functions. Here we present the iFly tracking system, which enables to increase the amount of quantitative information that can be extracted from these studies, and to reduce significantly the duration and costs associated with them. The iFly system uses a single camera to simultaneously track the trajectories of up to 20 individual flies with about 100μm spatial and 33ms temporal resolution. The statistical analysis of fly movements recorded with such accuracy makes it possible to perform a rapid and fully automated quantitative analysis of locomotor changes in response to a range of different stimuli. We anticipate that the iFly method will reduce very considerably the costs and the duration of the testing of genetic and pharmacological interventions in Drosophila models, including an earlier detection of behavioural changes and a large increase in throughput compared to current longevity and locomotor assays. PMID:21698336

  15. Functional analysis of the biceps femoris muscle during locomotor behavior in some primates.

    PubMed

    Kumakura, H

    1989-07-01

    In order to investigate a correlation between morphological variations of the biceps femoris muscle and its homologues in four primate species (Japanese macaque, spider monkey, white-handed gibbon, and chimpanzee) and each type of species-specific locomotor behavior, I carried out both morphological and functional analyses of these muscles. The description of the level of insertion reveals interspecific variation is in the level of crural attachment, especially in species with a bicipital biceps femoris muscle. Electromyograms (EMGs) were induced from both the long and short head of the biceps femoris muscle during four kinds of locomotor behavior (horizontal quadrupedal walking, climbing on an inclined pole, vertical climbing, and bipedal walking). In the case of the monoceptual ischiocruralis lateralis muscle of the Japanese macaque, EMGs were induced from both the one-joint femoral part and the two-joint crural part. Though during horizontal quadrupedal locomotion the crural part of the monocipital-type muscle functioned to maintain the knee joint angle, it functioned to gain propulsive force when the kinematic load became larger, as in vertical climbing and bipedal walking. On the other hand, the long heads of the biceps femoris muscles were active in propulsion regardless of the kinematic load. But in bipedal walking, the long head muscle also acted with the short head muscle to maintain the knee joint angle. These functional features of various biceps femoris muscles of primates correlated with their species-specific locomotor behavior. PMID:2504047

  16. Slipping, sliding and stability: locomotor strategies for overcoming low-friction surfaces.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew J; Higham, Timothy E

    2011-04-15

    Legged terrestrial animals must avoid falling while negotiating unexpected perturbations inherent to their structurally complex environments. Among humans, fatal and nonfatal injuries frequently result from slip-induced falls precipitated by sudden unexpected encounters with low-friction surfaces. Although studies using walking human models have identified some causes of falls and mechanisms underlying slip prevention, it is unclear whether these apply to various locomotor speeds and other species. We used high-speed video and inverse dynamics to investigate the locomotor biomechanics of helmeted guinea fowl traversing slippery surfaces at variable running speeds (1.3-3.6 m s(-1)). Falls were circumvented when limb contact angles exceeded 70 deg, though lower angles were tolerated at faster running speeds (>3.0 m s(-1)). These prerequisites permitted a forward shift of the body's center of mass over the limb's base of support, which kept slip distances below 10 cm (the threshold distance for falls) and maximized the vertical ground reaction forces, thus facilitating limb retraction and the conclusion of the stance phase. These postural control strategies for slip avoidance parallel those in humans, demonstrating the applicability of these strategies across locomotor gaits and the potential for guinea fowl as an insightful model for invasive approaches to understanding limb neuromuscular control on slippery surfaces. PMID:21430214

  17. Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

  18. Acrylamide induces locomotor defects and degeneration of dopamine neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Dan; Yang, Yongsheng; Xu, Tiantian; Li, Ping; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide can form in foods during the cooking process and cause multiple adverse effects. However, the neurotoxicity and mechanisms of acrylamide have not been fully elucidated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we showed that 48 h exposure to 10-625 mg l(-1) acrylamide resulted in a significant decline in locomotor frequency of body bending, head thrashing and pharynx pumping. In addition, acrylamide exposure reduced crawling speeds and changed angles of body bending. It indicates that acrylamide induces locomotor defects, along with parkinsonian-like movement impairment, including bradykinesia and hypokinesia. Acrylamide also affected chemotaxis plasticity and reduced learning ability. Using transgenic nematodes, we found that acrylamide induced downexpression of P(dat-1) and led to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, the enhanced expression of unc-54, encoding a subunit of α-synuclein was found. It illustrates that acrylamide is efficient in inducing crucial parkinsonian pathology, including dopaminergic damage and α-synuclein aggregation. These findings suggest the acrylamide-induced locomotor defects and neurotoxicity are associated with Parkinson's disease. PMID:25876170

  19. An ultradian clock controls locomotor behaviour and cell division in isolated cells of Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Kippert, F

    1996-04-01

    An ultradian clock operates in fast growing cells of the large ciliate, Paramecium tetraurelia. The period of around 70 minutes is well temperature-compensated over the temperature range tested, i.e. between 18 degrees C and 33 degrees C. The Q10 between 18 degrees C and 27 degrees C is 1.08; above 27 degrees C there is a slight overcompensation. The investigation of individual cells has revealed that two different cellular functions are under temporal control by this ultradian clock. First, locomotor behaviour, which is an alternation between a phase of fast swimming with only infrequent turning, and a phase of slow swimming with frequent spontaneous changes of direction. In addition, the ultradian clock is involved in the timing of cell division. Generation times are not randomly distributed, but occur in well separated clusters. At all of the six temperatures tested, the clusters are separated by around 70 minutes which corresponds well to the period of the locomotor behaviour rhythm at the respective temperatures. Whereas the interdivision times were gradually lengthened both above and below the optimum growth temperature, the underlying periodicity remained unaffected. Also cells of different clonal age had identical periods, suggesting that neither the differences in DNA content, not other changes associated with ageing in Paramecium have an effect on the clock. A constant phase relationship was observed between the rhythm in locomotor behaviour and the time window for cell division; this strongly suggests that the same ultradian clock exerts temporal control over both processes. PMID:8718678

  20. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Chee, Melissa J S; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E; Adams, Andrew C; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-10-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ. PMID:26092201

  1. The alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release is suppressed in ghrelin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jerlhag, Elisabet; Landgren, Sara; Egecioglu, Emil; Dickson, Suzanne L; Engel, Jörgen A

    2011-06-01

    Ghrelin, the first endogenous ligand for the type 1A growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1A), plays a role in energy balance, feeding behavior, and reward. Previously, we showed that pharmacologic and genetic suppression of the GHS-R1A attenuates the alcohol-induced stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, and conditioned place preference as well as alcohol consumption in mice, implying that the GHS-R1A is required for alcohol reward. The present study further elucidates the role of ghrelin for alcohol-induced dopamine release in nucleus accumbens and locomotor stimulation by means of ghrelin knockout mice. We found that the ability of alcohol to increase accumbal dopamine release in wild-type mice is not observed in ghrelin knockout mice. Furthermore, alcohol induced a locomotor stimulation in the wild-type