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1

Measured partitioning coefficients for parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 114 historically contaminated sediments: part 1. K(OC) values.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) partitioning coefficients between sediment organic carbon and water (K(OC)) values were determined using 114 historically contaminated and background sediments collected from eight different rural and urban waterways in the northeastern United States. More than 2100 individual K(OC) values were measured in quadruplicate for PAHs ranging from two to six rings, along with the first reported K(OC) values for alkyl PAHs included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) sediment narcosis model for the prediction of PAH toxicity to benthic organisms. Sediment PAH concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 8600 microg/g (U.S. EPA 16 parent PAHs), but no observable trends in K(OC) values with concentration were observed for any of the individual PAHs. Literature K(OC) values that are commonly used for environmental modeling are similar to the lowest measured values for a particular PAH, with actual measured values typically ranging up to two orders of magnitude higher for both background and contaminated sediments. For example, the median log K(OC) values we determined for naphthalene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.7, respectively, compared to typical literature K(OC) values for the same PAHs of 2.9, 4.8, and 5.8, respectively. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common practice of using PAH K(OC) values derived from spiked sediments and modeled values based on n-octanol-water coefficients can greatly overestimate the actual partitioning of PAHs into water from field sediments. PMID:17089713

Hawthorne, Steven B; Grabanski, Carol B; Miller, David J

2006-11-01

2

Dissolved Concentrations of PAHs and PCBs Are Often Over-predicted Using Sediment Concentrations and Literature Koc Values  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an increasing amount of chemical and biological evidence that using sediment concentrations and commonly applied Koc values frequently overpredicts interstitial water concentrations of HOCs, and thereby overestimates uptake and/or effects of those chemicals on exposed or...

3

Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems Cetin Kaya Koc  

E-print Network

Cryptosystems Elliptic curves defined over GF(p) or GF(2k) are used in cryptography The arithmetic of GFElliptic Curve Cryptosystems C¸etin Kaya Ko¸c Oregon State University 1 #12;Elliptic Curve differences Elliptic curves over GF(2k) are more popular due to the space and time-efficient algorithms

4

Complete suite of geochemical values computed using wireline logs  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical values of [open quotes]black shale[close quotes] source rocks can be computed from a complete suite of wireline log data. The computed values are: Total Organic Carbon (Wt%). S1, S2, S3, Hydrogen Index, Oxygen Index, Atomic H/C and O/C ratios, Genetic Potential (S1+S2), S2/S3, and Transfomation Ratio (S1/(S1+S2)). The results are most reliable when calibrated to laboratory analyses of samples in the study area. However, in the absence of samples, reasonable estimates can be made using calibration data from analogous depositional and thermal environments and/or professional judgement and experience. The evaluations provide answers to critical geochemical questions relative to: (1) Organic Matter Quantity; T.O.C. (Wt%), S1, and S2. (2) Kerogen Types; I, II, and III, based on T.O.C. vs S2 cross plot and the van Krevelen diagram of Atomic O/C vs Atomic H/C ratios. (3) Thermal Maturation levels; Transfomation Ratio can be converted to Level of Organic Metamorphism (LOM), pyrolysis Tmax (degC), Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro), Time Temperature Index (TTI) and others. Various analog plots and cross plots can be prepared for interpretation. Case history examples are shown and discussed. Lowstand fan deposits on Barbados were studied in outcrop to construct a conceptual reservoir model for prediction of facies assemblages.

Lancaster, J.R. (Evaluation, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)); Atkinson, A. (Occidental International Exploration Production co., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

5

Determination of log P values of new cyclen based antimalarial drug leads using RP-HPLC.  

PubMed

Lipophilicity, expressed by log P, is an important physicochemical property of drugs that affects many biological processes, including drug absorption and distribution. The main purpose of this study to determine the log P values of newly discovered drug leads using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The reference standards, with varying polarity ranges, were dissolved in methanol and analyzed by RP-HPLC using a C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water in a gradient elution mode. A calibration curve was plotted between the experimental log P values and obtained log k values of the reference standard compounds and a best fit line was obtained. The log k values of the new drug leads were determined in the same solvent system and were used to calculate the respective log P values by using the best fit equation. The log P vs. log k data gave a best fit linear curve that had an R2 of 0.9786 with Pvalues of the intercept and slope of 1.19 x 10(-6) and 1.56 x 10(-10), respectively, at 0.05 level of significance. Log P values of 15 new drug leads and related compounds, all of which are derivatives of macrocyclic polyamines and their metal complexes, were determined. The values obtained are closely related to the calculated log P (Clog P) values using ChemDraw Ultra 12.0. This experiment provided efficient, fast and reasonable estimates of log P values of the new drug leads by using RP-HPLC. PMID:25272935

Rudraraju, A V; Amoyaw, P N A; Hubin, T J; Khan, M O F

2014-09-01

6

INCREASING THE ACCURACY OF COMPUTER CALCULATED LOG P (OCT/WATER) VALUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Like many "expert systems," the CLOGP program incorporates a set of empirically derived rules which are supported by accepted theoretical concepts but which cannot be derived directly from these concepts. igher log P values are expected whenever a larger effective solute cavity i...

7

Sustaining conservation values in selectively logged tropical forests: The attained and the attainable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most tropical forests outside protected areas have been or will be selectively logged so it is essential to maximize the conservation values of partially harvested areas. Here we examine the extent to which these forests sustain timber production, retain species, and conserve carbon stocks. We then describe some improvements in tropical forestry and how their implementation can be promoted. A

Francis E. Putz; P. A. Zuidema; T Synnott; M. Pena-Claros; M. A Pinard; D. Sheil; Plinio Sist; Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury; John Palmer; Roderick Zagt

2012-01-01

8

Is Log Ratio a Good Value for Measuring Return in Stock Investments?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring the rate of return is an important issue for theory and practice of investments in the stock market. A common measure for rate of return is the logarithm of the ratio of successive prices (LogRatio). In this paper it is shown that LogRatio as well as arithmetic return rate (Ratio) have several disadvantages. As an alternative relative differences (RelDiff) are proposed to measure return. The stability against numerical and rounding errors of RelDiff is much better than for LogRatios and Ratio). RelDiff values are identical to LogRatios and Return for small absolutes. The usage of RelDiff maps returns to a finite range. For most subsequent analyses this is a big advantage. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated on daily return rates of a large set of actual stocks. It is shown that returns can be modeled with a very simple mixture of distributions in great precision using Relative differences.

Ultsch, Alfred

9

LCGs and CA Cetin Kaya Koc  

E-print Network

generator produces a sequence of integers xi for i = 1, 2, . . . starting with the given initial (seed the same xi+1 value, and the same seed x0 will produce the same sequence x1, x2, . . . There are only is prime, the period w is equal to the order of the element a in the multiplicative group Z p for all x0

10

Is log ratio a good value for measuring return in stock investments  

E-print Network

/Scholes, 1973) relies on the assumption that daily returns are log normal distrib- uted. Markowitz portfolio theory is built on the assumption that returns follow a Gaussian normal distribution (Markowitz

11

Expression of KOC, S100P, mesothelin and MUC1 in pancreatico-biliary adenocarcinomas: development and utility of a potential diagnostic immunohistochemistry panel  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatico-biliary adenocarcinomas (PBA) have a poor prognosis. Diagnosis is usually achieved by imaging and/or endoscopy with confirmatory cytology. Cytological interpretation can be difficult especially in the setting of chronic pancreatitis/cholangitis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) biomarkers could act as an adjunct to cytology to improve the diagnosis. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis and selected KOC, S100P, mesothelin and MUC1 for further validation in PBA resection specimens. Methods Tissue microarrays containing tumour and normal cores in a ratio of 3:2, from 99 surgically resected PBA patients, were used for IHC. IHC was performed on an automated platform using antibodies against KOC, S100P, mesothelin and MUC1. Tissue cores were scored for staining intensity and proportion of tissue stained using a Histoscore method (range, 0–300). Sensitivity and specificity for individual biomarkers, as well as biomarker panels, were determined with different cut-offs for positivity and compared by summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results The expression of all four biomarkers was high in PBA versus normal ducts, with a mean Histoscore of 150 vs. 0.4 for KOC, 165 vs. 0.3 for S100P, 115 vs. 0.5 for mesothelin and 200 vs. 14 for MUC1 (p?values: KOC 84%/100%; S100P 83%/100%; mesothelin 88%/92%; and MUC1 89%/63%. Analysis of a panel of KOC, S100P and mesothelin achieved 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity if at least 2 biomarkers were positive for 10% cut-off; and 100% sensitivity and specificity for 20% cut-off. Conclusion A biomarker panel of KOC, S100P and mesothelin with at least 2 biomarkers positive was found to be an optimum panel with both 10% and 20% cut-offs in resection specimens from patients with PBA. PMID:25071419

2014-01-01

12

Deriving Criteria-supporting Benchmark Values from Empirical Response Relationships: Comparison of Statistical Techniques and Effect of Log-transforming the Nutrient Variable  

EPA Science Inventory

In analyses supporting the development of numeric nutrient criteria, multiple statistical techniques can be used to extract critical values from stressor response relationships. However there is little guidance for choosing among techniques, and the extent to which log-transfor...

13

The War of Codemakers & Codebreakers etin Kaya Ko koc@cs.ucsb.edu  

E-print Network

The War of Codemakers & Codebreakers Çetin Kaya Koç koc@cs.ucsb.edu Since the time of Caesar or even earlier, people are interested in "secret communications" Caesar Generals Enemy Communication Line To hide the content of his messages from the enemy, Caesar developed "an encryption method" = Caesar

Bigelow, Stephen

14

Relation between the fractal distribution of elastic parameters in the earth crust and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value of earthquakes: A method to estimate b-values from sonic well logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonic well logs provide in situ measurements of physical properties and their fluctuations in the earth crust. The analysis of log data from various sites suggests that elastic parameters exhibit a heterogeneous distribution characterized by broad band fractal scaling. However, the significance of this finding for the distribution of stress inside the earth crust has not yet been analyzed. Independently from the works above, it was shown that power law scaling of the number of earthquake with magnitude, expressed in the Gutenberg-Richter relation, can be explained by fractal distributed stress. However, a direct reason for the fractal distribution of stress is still lacking. In this paper we establish relations between the fractal distribution of elastic parameters, stress field variations and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value of earthquakes. We extract information about elastic parameter distribution from sonic logs to create an elastically heterogeneous 3D random medium with a fractal spatial correlation function. Using the finite element program Abaqus we apply an externally homogeneous stress field and compute the resulting stress distribution inside the elastically heterogeneous medium. We use geomechanical considerations to determine the distribution of Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) as a measure of the vicinity to failure. The resulting CFS distribution is highly heterogeneous, of fractal nature and strongly related to the initially assigned elastic parameters. We assume that rupturing, once it is initiated (e.g. by an increase of stress or pore pressure), takes place along isovolumes of CFS. We determine the number size distribution of isovolumes and compute their characteristic area. The distribution of characteristic fault planes and correspondingly magnitudes exhibits power law scaling according to the Gutenberg Richter law. We find that elastic heterogeneity leads to b-values in the range of 1value is reflecting the level of elastic heterogeneity at a considered region. The degree of elastic heterogeneity is a site specific physical parameter, which could explain the variability of the b-value from one region to another. Since the b-value is a direct result of elastic parameter distribution, our method allows to estimate b-values from sonic well logs. The application of our method to well log data measured along the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB, Germany) main hole results in a realistic b-value of b=1.4.

Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

2012-12-01

15

Improved log(gf) Values for Lines of Ni I and New Nickel Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New atomic transition probability measurements for 371 lines of Ni I in the UV through near IR are reported. These results are used to determine the Ni abundance of the Sun and a very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff dwarf star over a range of wavelength and E. P. values to search for non-LTE effects. For reasons only partially understood, strong lines of Ni I are unusually prone to optical depth errors in emission studies on laboratory sources. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine these new transition probabilities. The large echelle spectrometer provides essential UV sensitivity, spectral resolution, and especially freedom from multiplex noise that is needed to eliminate optical depth errors. There is quite good agreement with earlier, but less extensive, sets of measurements by Blackwell et al. (MNRAS 1989, 236, 235) and Wickliffe & Lawler (ApJS 1997 110, 1163). The new Ni I data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate nickel abundances. In the Sun we find log(eps(Ni I)) = 6.28 (sigma = 0.06, 75 lines) and in HD 84937 we find we find log(eps(Ni I)) = 3.89 (sigma = 0.09, 77 lines), yielding [Ni/Fe] = -0.08 from log(eps(Fe)) = 7.52 in the Sun and log(eps(Fe)) = 5.19 in HD 84937. The Saha balance of Ni in HD 84937 is confirmed using 8 lines of Ni II, although these UV ion lines are somewhat saturated. This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (JEL) and NSF grants AST-0908978 and AST-1211585 (CS).

Lawler, James E.; Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

2014-01-01

16

Well Logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides students with three fundamental borehole geophysics experiences using real data -- correlating, mapping, and logging. Students are asked to correlate well logs and construct maps and cross-sections based on that information. Students are also asked to construct a "mud log" from actual drill cuttings and compare their interpretation to that from a borehole geophysics log. This activity as minimal/no quantitative component.

Kevin Brewer

17

VARIATION OF KOC IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM NARRAGANSETT BAY AND LONG ISLAND SOUND: ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF OTHER PARTICULATE CHARACTERISTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

In the first part of this investigation, we examined whether differences in the Kocs of three nonpolar organic chemicals (Lindane, fluoranthene, tetrachlorinated biphenyl (PCB)) from five sites along the New England coast were statistically significant. Although no statistical di...

18

Improved V I Log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ?(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (? = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ?(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (? = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

2014-12-01

19

Improved V II Log(gf) Values, Hyperfine Structure Constants, and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ?(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = -2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

2014-10-01

20

Thermal conditions of the central Sinai Microplate inferred from new surface heat-flow values and continuous borehole temperature logging in central and southern Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports ten new surface heat-flow density (qs) values for central and southern Israel (central Sinai Microplate), whose crystalline crust and lithosphere formed as part of the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield. Heat flow was calculated in Mesozoic sediments using the classical approach of heat-flow determination by implementing in the analysis high-precision continuous temperature logs obtained in air- and/or water-filled boreholes. Thermal conductivity (TC) measured for a large suite of rock samples of lithotypes making up the sequence was assigned to temperature gradients in intervals for which the lithology was known. The heat-flow values obtained for different depth intervals in a borehole as well as the average values for the individual borehole locations cover a narrow range, attesting heat-conduction conditions. A steady-state thermal model along an E-W crustal cross section through the area shows that the observed systematic spatial distribution of the qs values, which range between 50 and 62 mW m-2, can primarily be explained by variations in the thickness of the upper crust and in the ratio between sedimentary and crystalline rocks therein. Given the time lapse of thermal heat transfer through the lithosphere, the qs data monitor the crustal thermal conditions prior to rift- and plume-related lithospheric thermal perturbations that have started in the larger area ca. 30 Ma ago. Observed and modeled qs display the best fit for a pre-Oligocene lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at ˜150 km, which would be at the upper end of LAB depths determined from stable areas of the Arabian Shield (150-120 km) not affected by the young, deep-seated thermal processes that have caused a further uprise of the LAB. Our data imply or predict that the surface heat flow of the Sinai Microplate generally tends to increase along N-S and W-E traverses, from ˜45-50 mW m-2 to ˜55-60 mW m-2. Surface heat flows on the order of 55-60 mW m-2 may be common in the northern Arabian Shield, where it exhibits typical lithosphere structure and composition and is unaffected by young heating processes, compared to values of ?45 mW m-2 recently determined in the southern Arabian Plate for the Arabian Platform.

Schütz, F.; Förster, H.-J.; Förster, A.

2014-05-01

21

Well logging II - Electric and acoustic logging  

SciTech Connect

This book covers electric logging, log interpretation and electromagnetic principles. The book also discuss principles of acoustic logging and details of acoustic log interpretation, including effects of amplitude attenuation devices and investigation of interval transit times.

Jorden, J.R.; Campbell, F.L.

1986-01-01

22

Log Tape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students construct Log Tapes calibrated in base-ten exponents, then use them to derive relationships between base-ten logs (exponents) and antilogs (ordinary numbers).  This is activity B1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

2012-08-03

23

Ionization of Functional Groups: The Meaning and Use of the pKa Values Following our discussion of "weak binding forces", solubility, and LogP, we can see that the  

E-print Network

's review a few facts about acid-base ionization reactions. The acidity for a given functional group related to the Ka is pKa: Defined as: pKa = -logKa. Consider the acid-base ionization of a common is described by the equilibrium shown below: The equilibrium constant for this reaction is Ka. A useful value

Gates, Kent. S.

24

Improved log(gf) Values for Lines of V I and V II, New Vanadium Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) and 203 lines of V II are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with new radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for 1039 lines of V I and V II. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for both spectra. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ?(V) = 3.96 (? = 0.04) based on 93 V I lines and log ?(V) = 1.89 (? = 0.07) based on nine V I lines respectively, and yielding log ?(V) = 3.95 (? = 0.05) based on 15 V II lines and log ?(V) = 1.87 (? = 0.07) based on 68 V II lines respectively1-3.1. Wood et al., ApJS 214:18 (2014), 2. Den Hartog et al. ApJS in press (2014), 3. Lawler et al. ApJS submitted (2014). This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (JEL), NSF AST-1211055 (EDH & JEL), and NSF AST-1211585 (CS).

Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Feigenson, Thomas; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

2015-01-01

25

SCHOOL WEEKLY MILEAGE LOG Team _____________________________ Mileage Log  

E-print Network

SCHOOL WEEKLY MILEAGE LOG Team _____________________________ Mileage Log (team name) Directions for you on the website. Week number Estimated number of children walking Number of days walked this week

26

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

27

Teff and log g Determinations  

E-print Network

A discussion on the determination of effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) is presented. The observational requirements for model-independent fundamental parameters are summarized, including an assessment of the accuracy of these values for the Sun and Vega. The use of various model-dependent techniques for determining Teff and log g are outlined, including photometry, flux fitting, and spectral line ratios. A combination of several of these techniques allows for the assessment of the quality of our parameter determinations. While some techniques can give precise parameter determinations, the overall accuracy of the values is significantly less and sometimes difficult to quantify.

Barry Smalley

2005-09-19

28

Ecological Importance of Submerged Pulpwood Logs in a Maine Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Log drives in Maine from the 1830s to 1976 left an estimated 3.6–7.2 × 10 m of pulpwood logs submerged in the Kennebec River system, principally in Wyman Lake and Indian Pond. Because favorable economics have led to commercial log salvaging, we assessed the ecological value of submerged pulpwood logs in Wyman Lake. Three species of fishes, longnose suckers Catostomus

John R. Moring; Paul D. Eiler; Mary T. Negus; Elizabeth Gibbs

1986-01-01

29

Logs to Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners cut through and investigate rotten logs and then make log-profile puzzles for each other. Learners cut through the limb to expose a vertical profile, study the pattern of decay, and find evidence for the tree’s life history. This activity calls for learners to saw logs, but for younger groups, adults can do the sawing.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1982-01-01

30

Log N-log S in inconclusive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

1983-01-01

31

Teff log g nHe Teff log g A  

E-print Network

#12;#12;B Teff log g nHe Teff log g nHe Teff + #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;2 #12;+ #12;#12;Teff #12;+ °A + + #12;+ Teff log g °A log g - Teff log g - Teff #12;- + + + + log g - Teff #12;#12;Teff #12; 10 #12; 8 #12; 6 -2 4 3 8 9 � 10 #12;#12;Teff log g nHe n

32

Well logging for physical properties  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the fundamentals of well logging techniques for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered include the wellbore environment, logging practice; temperature, electrical and magnetic methods; nuclear radiation logging; acoustic logging; borehole gravimetry; ethology; porosity; saturation; permeability; fluid movement; fractures; elemental analysis; cement; directional surveying; dipmeter logging, and some other interesting applications.

Hearst, J.R.; Nelson, P.H.

1985-01-01

33

6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

34

Logging roads rapidly expanding in Congo rainforest Logging roads rapidly expanding in Congo rainforest  

E-print Network

, economics, and finance on conservation and development (more) CONTENTS Rainforests Tropical Fish Madagascar logging in the area is focused on selective harvesting of high-value tree species, like African mahoganies

35

Engineered Log Jam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Engineered Log Jam on the lower river opposite the new Lower Klallam Tribe Fish Hatchery. The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe project creates salmon habitat on the lower Elwha River in preparation for dam removal and habitat restoration....

36

Blood Glucose Log  

MedlinePLUS

... cut here ¢ cut here ¢ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... plan, physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

37

Transfer Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

ANIMAL TRANSFER LOG Date of Move: ________________ Cage Type C = Auto Water NOTES: B = Water Bottle S = SMZ M = Microisolator ASP # PI GROUP NAME # CAGES [+] ROOM TO DOB COMMENTS STRAIN CODE NEW GROUP NAME NEW ROOM CAGE TYPE PEDIGREE # EAR

38

Interactive Reflective Logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates pr

Benjamin E. Deaton

2010-11-01

39

On Eulerian Log-Gamma Integrals and TornheimWitten Zeta Functions  

E-print Network

. 203] (where it is ascribed to Raabe) as follows: Theorem 1 (Euler). 1 0 log (x) dx = log 2. (5) 2 #12 0 := 0, is Theorem 2 (Raabe). For t 0 1 0 log (x + t) dx = log 2 + t log t - t. (6) Proof. We) Example 1 (Average value of ). Combining Raabe's result (6) for t = 0, 1, . . . n-1 produces 1 n n 0 log

Bailey, David H.

40

NMR logging apparatus  

DOEpatents

Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

2014-05-27

41

Logging on to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

Butler, Kevin

2010-01-01

42

Log of Apollo 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

43

Borehole Geophysical Logging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

44

Petrographic image logging system  

SciTech Connect

The Petrographic Image Logging System (PILS) is a logging system data base for Macintosh computers that allows the merging of traditional wire-line, core, and mud log data with petrographic images. The system is flexible; it allows the user to record, manipulate, and display almost any type of character, graphic, and image information. Character and graphic data are linked and entry in either mode automatically generates the alternate mode. Character/graphic data may include such items as ROP, wire-line log data, interpreted lithologies, ditch cutting lith-percentages, porosity grade and type, grain size, core/DST information, and sample descriptions. Image data may include petrographic and SEM images of cuttings, core, and thin sections. All data are tied to depth. Data are entered quickly and easily in an interactive manner with a mouse, keyboard, and digitizing tablet or may be imported and immediately autoplotted from a variety of environments via modem, network, or removable disk. Color log displays, including petrographic images, are easily available on CRT or as hardcopy. The system consists of a petrographic microscope, video camera, Macintosh computer, video framegrabber and digitizing tablet. Hardcopy is scaleable and can be generated by a variety of color printing devices. The software is written in Supertalk, a color superset of the standard Apple Hypercard programming language, hypertalk. This system is being tested by Mobil in the lab and at the well site. Implementation has provided near 'real-time' core and cuttings images from drilling wells to the geologist back at the office.

Payne, C.J.; Ulrich, M.R.; Maxwell, G.B. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Adams, J.P. (Advanced Logging Technologies, Beaumont, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

45

Well logging for the nontechnical person  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book are: Introduction to logging; Reading logs; Formation parameters; Mud logging; Resistivity measurements; Porosity measurements; Putting it all together; detailed interpretations; Computer-generated logs; Specialty logs.

Johnson, D.E.; Pile, K.E.

1988-01-01

46

Newly developed technology for array resistivity logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistivity logging tools are run in boreholes to locate and quantify the presence of hydrocarbons (oil and gas) in porous rocks. In order to get better reservoir description, three key formation parameters need to be obtained from resistivity logging: (1) formation resistivity Rt; (2) invaded zone resistivity Rxo; (3) invaded length Lxo. None of the conventional resistivity logging tools, normal, lateral, and dual laterolog (DLL), can provide all three parameters with a single run. The newly developed array resistivity logging tool or High-Definition Lateral Log (HDLL, a product developed by Baker Atlas) resistivity tool addresses limitations of existing dual laterolog systems and provides all three parameters with a single run. The key developments in this dissertation are: (1) deep (up to 50 inches from borehole wall) Synthetic Focused Resistivity (SFR) logs from HDLL measurements; (2) shallow (close to 10 inches from borehole wall) SFR logs from HDLL measurements; (3) robust computation of SFR via array processing; (4) inverse vertical resolution matching (IRM) method for SFR; (5) inversion of HDLL array data in both vertical and highly deviated wells. The wellsite interpretation for array resistivity logging is developed by synthesizing focused resistivity logs from the raw HDLL data. The developed SFRs provide a better resolution of the resistivity distribution in both vertical and radial directions than DLL logs. The array processing method is developed to detect and correct errors in the raw measurements, and to evaluate the quality of the data. With the newly developed inverse vertical resolution matching method, we succeed in the resolution matching for the HDLL SFR logs. The HDLL inversion process developed in this study has three major steps: (1) estimating shallow resistivity structure; (2) estimating deep resistivity structure; and, (3) combining the results of the previous steps to produce the entire true resistivity structure. The results in a final model have a constant Rxo, Lxo, and Rt values in each layer. In the presented cases, HDLL-based interpretations show not only improved delineation of the known reservoirs but also extra pay intervals overlooked by DLL-based interpretations.

Zhou, Zhiqiang

47

University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log Specimen Refrigerator Log  

E-print Network

University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log ­ Specimen Refrigerator Log Month / Year Clinical ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: 31 ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: If the refrigerator temperature falls out refrigerator. This record must be kept for one year and then destroyed per State requirement

Oliver, Douglas L.

48

Log evaluation of oil-bearing igneous rocks  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of porosity, water saturation and clay content of oilbearing igneous rocks with well logs is difficult due to the mineralogical complexity of this type of rocks. The log responses to rhyolite and rhyolite tuff; andesite, dacite and zeolite tuff; diabase and basalt have been studied from examples in western Argentina and compared with values observed in other countries. Several field examples show how these log responses can be used in a complex lithology program to make a complete evaluation.

Khatchikian, A.

1983-12-01

49

12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in the main channel of the Hudson River. The log chute in the dam can be seen in the background. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

50

Securing Shareable Life-logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sharing life-log information in a social community has many advantages, both for the user and society. But sharing any type of personal information is a threat to privacy. In particular, life-log information requires higher security considerations since it may contains very sensitive information about the user such as biological information, location, communication logs, etc. In this paper, first we discuss

Reza Rawassizadeh; A Min Tjoa

2010-01-01

51

Characteristics of Virginia's Logging Operations  

E-print Network

Harvesting in Virginia Characteristics of Virginia's Logging Operations Scott M. Barrett Joshua L. Chandler M. There are an estimated 900 logging businesses in Virginia that harvest and transport timber to wood processing facilities. Understanding logging systems, and the equipment utilized, can help everyone involved in the wood supply chain

Liskiewicz, Maciej

52

Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

2008-04-01

53

October 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING  

E-print Network

, and networking equipment, and the applications on the systems. Guide to Computer Security Log Management GuideOctober 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY Shirley Radack, Editor

54

Detection of cracks in computer tomography images of logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Tomography (CT) is being increasingly employed for automated detection and localization of internal defects in logs prior to their sawing. Reliable detection and localization of cracks in CT images of logs is particularly important from the viewpoint of lumber production planning since the presence of cracks substantially reduces the value and also compromises the structural strength of the resulting

Suchendra M. Bhandarkar; Xingzhi Luo; Richard Daniels; E. William Tollner

2005-01-01

55

Digital-log management system  

SciTech Connect

Digital-log data is essential to any petrophysical and log-correlation software package. Gathering of such data, however, is often painstaking and laborious. A significant portion of the interpreter`s valuable time is spent in data compilation and verification. In response to this data management need in Conoco, the digital-log management system (called LMS) was developed. The LMS uses existing data-storage standards and stable technology to implement a common digital-log management solution throughout the company. To achieve system portability, LMS is delivered with a stable well-data model and a comprehensive log catalogue maintained in a relational database.

Tan, A.A.; Potts, J.K.

1995-08-01

56

Well Logging and Logging Analysis of UHP metamorphic Rocks in CCSD Main Hole (0-2000m)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCSD logging engineering gather many modern high technologies and employs various advanced logging tools to survey the sidewall continuously. This can obtain various physical, chemical, geometrical, etc in-situ information of the borehole's profile. So well logging is one of the most important parts and pivotal technologies in the project of CCSD. The main logging methods in CCSD-MH(0-2000m) are laterolog (Rd,Rs), gamma ray(GR), nature gamma spectrometry(U, TH, K), density(DEN), photo electric section exponent (Pe), compensated neutron(CNL), multipole array acoustic (Vp, Vs, Vst), Simultaneous Acoustic-Resistivity-image(Star-II), temperature(T),magnetic susceptibility(MS), three component borehole magnetic and redox potential log,etc. The various metamorphic rocks can be classified by logging curves,and their physical parameters can be acquired by analyzing the response characters of various metamorphic rocks and by statistics. According to the logging cross plot, We can research the clustering of metamorphite's physical property. Five lithologic segments can be obtainend by logging curves. The GR, Th, U, K logging values of segment 1 is lower than the third, fourth and fiveth segment, higher than segment 2; The DEN, Pe values of segment 1 higher than the third, fourth and fiveth segments. The main rocks in segment 1,2,3,4,5 are eclogites, serpentinites, paragneiss, orthogneiss, and eclogites(containing silicon and muscovite ) respectively. Generally, eclogite contain rutile, silicon, muscovite, etc. minerals. These minerals have response obviously on log curves.There are rutile,ilmenite, pyrite mineralized, etc. Making use of DEN, Pe, susceptibility log values, these mineralized layers can be goodly demarcation. For example, on the rutile mineralzed layer, the logging curve response characters are of high density and Pe obviously. The key data of the synthetical seismic record is wave impedance. In this paper, Utilize the data of AC, DEN curves to calculate the wave impedance and compare with the VSP profile, finally analyze the reflectors of the CCSD-MH. Imaging log has a positioning system and very good vertical resolution, and can describe the geological features in detail. Various structure parameters (the size and occurrences of foliation, fracture, fault & vein) have been given by image logging. The main work of logging interpretation of CCSD have done as follows: 1) Character analysis of logging response and restoring the lithologic profile;2) Depth correction and Restoring orientation of cores; 3) Interpretation of imaging geological feature; 4) Research of rock's mechanics character, sonic anisotropy and formation stress; 5) Comparison wave impedance with the VSP profile,analyzing the reflectors; 6)The interpretation of magnetic susceptibility and temperature log. The logging analysis results of UHP metamorphic rocks in CCSD-MH(0-2000m) show that responses of logs curve are abundant, the physical properties of various metamorphic rocks are visibly different;image logging has a positioning system and very good vertical resolution, and can describe the geological features in detail;lithologic segments and mineralized layers can be goodly demarcation by log curves;the log curves can be used for standardizing the geophysical survey, for example, mark out the reflected interface of seismic wave;comparing the results of log curves value with core laboratory analysis,they have good consistency;and so on.

Pan, H.; Niu, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhu, L.; Xu, D.; Wu, H.; Li, S.; Luo, M.

2004-12-01

57

The Lincoln Log  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What exactly was Abraham Lincoln doing on June 11, 1850? As it turns out, he was writing a letter to one Nathaniel Hay, describing the details of a potential home-improvement project. If you're looking for more details on Lincoln's daily doings, click on over to The Lincoln Log. The information on the site was compiled by the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, and in 2003, the materials were redesigned by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Visitors to the site can find out what Lincoln was doing on a particular day by using the drop-down menus on the homepage, and they can also browse by year or click on the "Today's Date in Lincoln's Life" section. Also, visitors can use the "Browse New Entries" to look over newly added materials.

58

Terminology Extraction from Log Files  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

59

Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

2014-04-01

60

Estimating thermal conductivity from core and well log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the presented work was to introduce a method of estimating thermal conductivity using well log data. Many petrophysical properties of rocks can be determined both by laboratory measurements and well-logs. It is thus possible to apply geophysical data to empirical models based on relationships between laboratory measured parameters and derive continuous thermal conductivity values in well profiles. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 62 core samples of Meso-Paleozoic rocks from the Carpathian Foredeep. Mathematical models were derived using multiple regression and neural network methods. Geophysical data from a set of seven well logs: density, sonic, neutron, gamma ray, spectral gamma ray, caliper and resistivity were applied to the obtained models. Continuous thermal conductivity values were derived in three well profiles. Analysis of the obtained results shows good consistence between laboratory data and values predicted from well log data.

G?sior, Irena; Przelaskowska, Anna

2014-08-01

61

Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1988-01-01

62

Illegal Logging and Related Trade  

E-print Network

.1.2 Measuring the response 2 1.2 Methodology 3 1.2.1 Geographical coverage 3 1.2.2 Indicators and meansIllegal Logging and Related Trade Indicators of the Global Response Sam Lawson and Larry MacFaul July 2010 #12;Illegal Logging and Related Trade Indicators of the Global Response Sam Lawson and Larry

63

Well Logging with Californium-252  

SciTech Connect

Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

Boulogne, A.R.

2003-01-06

64

Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.  

PubMed

Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests. PMID:25092495

Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

2014-09-01

65

Coal log abrasion in pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Coal log pipeline (CLP) is an emerging technology for long-distance transportation of coal that has many potential advantages over conventional modes of coal transportation including truck, unit train, and slurry pipelines. For CLP to be technically and economically feasible, the coal logs must be water-resistant and wear-resistant. No more than 3% of weight loss due to wear can be tolerated during pipeline transport. This paper gives data that suggest that such logs can be produced by compaction in a mold. Various factors that affect coal-log wear resistance are described, and methods to produce high-quality logs are discussed. Both laboratory and field tests data are used.

Liu, H.; Cheng, C.C. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

66

Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

Havelund, Klaus

2012-01-01

67

Degraded lands worth protecting: the biological importance of Southeast Asia's repeatedly logged forests.  

PubMed

Southeast Asia is a hotspot of imperiled biodiversity, owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture. The degraded forests that remain after multiple rounds of intensive logging are often assumed to be of little conservation value; consequently, there has been no concerted effort to prevent them from being converted to oil palm. However, no study has quantified the biodiversity of repeatedly logged forests. We compare the species richness and composition of birds and dung beetles within unlogged (primary), once-logged and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. Logging had little effect on the overall richness of birds. Dung beetle richness declined following once-logging but did not decline further after twice-logging. The species composition of bird and dung beetle communities was altered, particularly after the second logging rotation, but globally imperiled bird species (IUCN Red List) did not decline further after twice-logging. Remarkably, over 75 per cent of bird and dung beetle species found in unlogged forest persisted within twice-logged forest. Although twice-logged forests have less biological value than primary and once-logged forests, they clearly provide important habitat for numerous bird and dung beetle species. Preventing these degraded forests from being converted to oil palm should be a priority of policy-makers and conservationists. PMID:20685713

Edwards, David P; Larsen, Trond H; Docherty, Teegan D S; Ansell, Felicity A; Hsu, Wayne W; Derhé, Mia A; Hamer, Keith C; Wilcove, David S

2011-01-01

68

Numerical simulation of responses for cased-hole density logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stabilizing or stimulating oil production in old oil fields requires density logging in cased holes where open-hole logging data are either missing or of bad quality. However, measured values from cased-hole density logging are more severely influenced by factors such as fluid, casing, cement sheath and the outer diameter of the open-hole well compared with those from open-hole logging. To correctly apply the cased-hole formation density logging data, one must eliminate these influences on the measured values and study the characteristics of how the cased-hole density logging instrument responds to these factors. In this paper, a Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique was used to calculate the responses of the far detector of a cased-hole density logging instrument to in-hole fluid, casing wall thickness, cement sheath density and the formation and thus to obtain influence rules and response coefficients. The obtained response of the detector is a function of in-hole liquid, casing wall thickness, the casing's outer diameter, cement sheath density, open-hole well diameter and formation density. The ratio of the counting rate of the detector in the calibration well to that in the measurement well was used to get a fairly simple detector response equation and the coefficients in the equation are easy to acquire. These provide a new way of calculating cased-hole density through forward modelling methods.

Wu, Wensheng; Fu, Yaping; Niu, Wei

2013-10-01

69

budapest_talk.log  

E-print Network

Package xcolor Info: Model `wave' substituted by `hsb' on input line 1360. ... v1.5 Key value parser with default handler suppor t (HO) )) Package hyperref Info: ..... TeX's memory you used: 7306 strings out of 493849 98523 string characters out

70

Some properties of the log-Laplace distribution  

SciTech Connect

A random variable ..gamma.. is said to have the Laplace distribution or the double exponential distribution whenever its probability density function is given by lambda exp(-lambda absolute value (y)), where -infinity < y < infinity and lambda > 0. The random variable X = exp(..gamma..) is said to have the log-Laplace distribution. With the problem of extrapolation to low doses in dose response curves as a motivation, an axiomatic characterization of the log-Laplace distribution is obtained. 1 figure.

Uppuluri, V.R.R.

1980-08-01

71

New materials for fireplace logs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

1971-01-01

72

Animal Room Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

ANIMAL ROOM LOG Room Number: __________ Cage Type Death Cause C = Auto Water EU = Euthanized NOTES: B = Water Bottle FD = Found Dead S = SMZ DR = Drowned M = Microisolator MI = Missing TO = Transfer Out DEATH CAUSE STRAIN CODE GROUP NAME # ? # ? COMMENTS

73

Logs help approximate reservoir temperature  

SciTech Connect

Parameters have been studied to better understand and analytically describe temperature distribution in well bores. Some of these parameters include: fluid temperature behavior in the borehole during well tripping; BHT while drilling; temperature profile over the entire borehole; and determination of true formation temperature from geophysical wire line logging devices. The technique presented in this article corrects open hole log temperatures to true formation temperature.

Fertl, W.H.

1985-04-29

74

Logging damage during planned and unplanned logging operations in the eastern Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Paragominas region of eastern Amazonia, we compared the damage in unplanned and planned logging operations associated with each of five logging phases: (1) tree felling, (2) machine maneuvering to attach felled boles to chokers, (3) skidding boles to log landings, (4) constructing log landings and (5) constructing logging roads. Planned logging was conducted with a rubber-wheeled skidder or

Jennifer S. Johns; Paulo Barreto; Christopher Uhl

1996-01-01

75

APS logDaemon and client library  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a User`s Manual and Reference for the logDaemon and client library. This package provides a general distributed message logging system. A logDaemon may be started anywhere on a subnet. A client which has linked in the client library is provided functions to open a connection to the logDaemon, log messages, and close the connection. The logDaemon maintains one or more log files (in simple ASCII or SDDS format) and an e-mail list based on specifications in a configuration file. Incoming messages are logged to the appropriate file and/or result in e-mail being sent.

Saunders, C.; Kowalkowski, J.

1995-12-13

76

Quantitative Literacy: Working with Log Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for working with and understanding different types of graphs is a common occurrence in everyday life. Examples include anything having to do investments, being an educated juror in a case that involves evidence presented graphically, and understanding many aspect of our current political discourse. Within a science class graphs play a crucial role in presenting and interpreting data. In astronomy, where the range of graphed values is many orders of magnitude, log-axes must be used and understood. Experience shows that students do not understand how to read and interpret log-axes or how they differ from linear. Alters (1996), in a study of college students in an algebra-based physics class, found little understanding of log plotting. The purpose of this poster is to show the method and progression I have developed for use in my “ASTRO 101” class, with the goal being to help students better understand the H-R diagram, mass-luminosity relationship, and digital spectra.

Shawl, S.

2013-04-01

77

Core-log integration: importance of depth control  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental basis for correlation between geology, petrophysics (cores), and geophysics (wireline and seismic) is the proper depth match of the information. Depth correlation of cores has evolved since its inception. The potentially least accurate method of correcting the depth of a core is marking the cores with driller's depths at the time of coring, then later correcting the depths by the difference between bottom depths of the drilling company and the logging company. This method is sometimes accurate and will work only if the driller is on or off depth consistently. Laboratory gamma-ray logging of the core to correlate with the open-hole logs is another way of correlation. If the laboratory logging is done well, then theoretically the core can be put on depth and missing intervals can be identified. The problem in this method lies in the vertical resolution of the open-hole logging tool, which is approximately 2 ft. Therefore, the core can be placed with confidence within 2 ft of its open-hole log depth. For further refining of the depth correlation, it can be shown that tools with increasingly smaller vertical resolutions (such as dipmeters and borehole televiewers) will be of great value. The small vertical resolution of these tools should allow depth correlation based upon visible natural markers within the core that correspond to geophysical responses on the logs.

Knode, T.L.; Vickers, K.V.

1989-03-01

78

Well-logging activities in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The report is a brief survey of the current state of well-logging service in Russia (number and types of crews, structure of well-logging jobs, types of techniques used, well-logging equipment, auxiliary downhole jobs, etc.). Types and peculiarities of well data acquisition and processing hardware and software are discussed (petrophysics included). New well-logging technologies used in Russia (new methods of electric logging data processing, electromagnetic logging, pulse neutron logging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, acoustic tomography, logging-testing-logging technique, etc.) are surveyed. Comparison of the Tengiz field (Kazakhstan) well data obtained by Schlumberger and Neftegazgeofizika Association crews is given. Several problems and drawbacks in equipment and technology used by well-logging crews in Russia are discussed.

Savostyanov, N.A. (Neftegazgeofizika, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

79

Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation  

DOEpatents

A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

Brookshier, William (Downers Grove, IL)

1987-01-01

80

A Method to Dynamic Stochastic Multicriteria Decision Making with Log-Normally Distributed Random Variables  

PubMed Central

We investigate the dynamic stochastic multicriteria decision making (SMCDM) problems, in which the criterion values take the form of log-normally distributed random variables, and the argument information is collected from different periods. We propose two new geometric aggregation operators, such as the log-normal distribution weighted geometric (LNDWG) operator and the dynamic log-normal distribution weighted geometric (DLNDWG) operator, and develop a method for dynamic SMCDM with log-normally distributed random variables. This method uses the DLNDWG operator and the LNDWG operator to aggregate the log-normally distributed criterion values, utilizes the entropy model of Shannon to generate the time weight vector, and utilizes the expectation values and variances of log-normal distributions to rank the alternatives and select the best one. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this developed method. PMID:24223501

Wang, Jian-Qiang; Deng, Sheng-Yue

2013-01-01

81

Mail LOG: Program operating instructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

82

Log Truck-Weighing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

1977-01-01

83

Postfire logging in riparian areas.  

PubMed

We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious. PMID:16922216

Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

2006-08-01

84

Correlation of log response to production in the Austin Chalk  

E-print Network

. Logs for each well were digitized, and average resistivity and gamma values were calculated for the producing interval, and for the lower 70 to 100 ft (21. 5 to 30. 5 m) of the Atco chalk. Deep induction resistivity was then compared to both initial... equation. 21 Table 1. core analyses and average well log values for the Proco Gise ?I, Dimmit County, Texas Depth interval (ft) Porosity (Avg) Water Saturation Gamma (API) Resistivity (ohm-m) 6795 - 6870 0. 025 0. 71 6870 - 7028 0. 036 0. 82...

Behseresht, Cyrus Douglas

1992-01-01

85

Internet Data logging and Display  

E-print Network

. The solution presented here is to accomplish these goals is to include a miniature web server in a remote-logging module, which we designed as part of our device. Thus allowing data to be accessed more frequently, via the Internet. As it currently stands...

Sweeney, J., Jr.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. S.

2001-01-01

86

Postfire Logging in Riparian Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually

GORDON H. REEVES; PETER A. BISSON; BRUCE E. RIEMAN; LEE E. BENDA

2006-01-01

87

Outdoor Education Student Log Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

88

Message Logging in Mobile Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependable mobile computing is enhanced by indepen- dent recovery, low power consumption and no dependence on stable storage at the mobile host. Existing recovery pro- tocols proposed for mobile environments typically create consistent global checkpoints that do not guarantee inde- pendent recovery and low power consumption. This paper demonstrates the advantages of message logging by de- scribing a receiver based

Bin Yao; Kuo-feng Ssu; W. Kent Fuchs

1999-01-01

89

Extensible Log VISualization Christopher Humphries  

E-print Network

, Visualization Keywords Intrusion Detection, Forensics, Logs Management 1. INTRODUCTION As computer systems) are now com- monplace. Although intrusion detection systems are now quite efficient, they often fail in bringing the human back in the loop. Visualization tools have been proposed to help users un- derstand what

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Australian Government on ILLEGAL logging  

E-print Network

Australian Government the AXE on ILLEGAL logging Bringing down a practical approach AN AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DISCUSSION PAPER WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS ON THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DISCUSSION PAPER ARE INVITED also acting as good stewards of the world's environment. While the Australian Government has

91

The Impact of the Russian Log Export Tariff on the Global Market for Logs and Lumber  

E-print Network

announced its plan to implement a series of log export tariffs designed to reduce the export of raw logsThe Impact of the Russian Log Export Tariff on the Global Market for Logs and Lumber CINTRAFOR News moved to restrict the export of unprocessed logs. On February 5th, 2007, the Russian government

92

Effects of mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla) logging on small mammal communities, habitat structure, and seed predation in the southeastern Amazon Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast areas of the Amazon have been subjected to low-intensity selective logging for high value timber species such as mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla). Although the ecological consequences of such logging are often assumed to be minimal, few studies have directly tested this assumption. In this paper we examine the effects of various intensities of mahogany logging on small mammal communities, habitat

Thomas D. Lambert; Jay R. Malcolm; Barbara L. Zimmerman

2005-01-01

93

Applying multiwell normalization in open hole log analysis  

E-print Network

A major problem when analyzing open hole well logging data in large fields is the fact that the logs were run using different logging service companies, using different logging tools over a long time span. To obtain correct log interpretations...

Sinanan, Haydn Brent

1997-01-01

94

Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND–1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND–1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237–342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND–1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND–1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692–1018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.

2012-01-01

95

Sorption of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from water by surface soils  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of {sup 14}C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evaluated by using batch-shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (foc) were linear, and regression analysis was used to determine a value of the sorption coefficient (KD) of 30400 mL/g. This value corresponds to a value of log Koc of 6.66, where Koc is the partition coefficient normalized on the basis of soil organic carbon content. Significant interferences attributed to the presence of nonseparable suspended particles were apparent in the measurement of the water-phase concentrations of TCDD for experiments involving the high-foc soil. Prewashing the soil from one to five consecutive times with water appeared to reduce these interferences, as individual-point distribution ratios approached the Koc value determined for the low-foc soil. The measured value of log Koc agrees with the reported estimate of log Koc 6.6 for TCDD made by applying the cosolvent theory to isotherm data generated with water/methanol mixtures.

Walters, R.W.; Ostazeski, S.A.; Guiseppi-Elie, S.

1989-01-01

96

sequence quality values Sanger sequencing  

E-print Network

phred sequence quality values #12;Sanger sequencing · DNA is fragmented · Cloned to a plasmid concept of phred quality values #12;Phred Qualities )(log10 10 pq -= · p=error probability for the base · if p=0.01 (1% chance of error), then q=20 · Phred quality values are rounded to the nearest integer #12

Borenstein, Elhanan

97

Audit Log for Forensic Photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

98

Keep a "SLOG" (Sleep Log)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (1st on the page), learners keep a "SLOG" or Sleep Log to study their sleep patterns. Learners keep track of their sleep behavior and the dreams that they have each night on the "Dream Journal Worksheet" and "Sleep Journal Worksheet" included in this activity guide. This guide also includes twenty questions for learners to consider when recording and analyzing their dreams.

2011-09-19

99

Chemical logging of geothermal wells  

DOEpatents

The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01

100

Geophysical logging for mineral and engineering applications  

SciTech Connect

The book contains nonpetroleum logging methods and the more exotic techniques. Contents: History; Formation types; Borehole effects and mud; Electric logging systems; Radioactivity methods; Magnetic methods; Mechanical methods and sampling methods; Analog and digital systems; Interpretation methods.

Hallenburg, J.K.

1983-01-01

101

Probabilistic Inductive Querying Using ProbLog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how probabilistic reasoning and inductive querying can be combined within ProbLog, a recent probabilistic extension of Prolog. ProbLog can be regarded as a database system that supports both probabilistic and inductive reasoning through a variety of querying mechanisms. After a short introduction to ProbLog, we provide a survey of the different types of inductive queries that ProbLog supports, and show how it can be applied to the mining of large biological networks.

de Raedt, Luc; Kimmig, Angelika; Gutmann, Bernd; Kersting, Kristian; Costa, Vítor Santos; Toivonen, Hannu

102

Using Well Logs in the Petroleum Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise shows how well logs are used in the petroleum industry. It is designed as a first exposure to well logs for undergraduate geology majors and introduces not only well logs and their interpretation as proxies for stratigraphic sections, but also investigates concepts of porosity and permeability, oil reservoirs, and structural traps.

Walter Borowski

103

University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log  

E-print Network

University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log Information below must be compared to the monthly of the last page of the usage log. Employee's Name:Business Device - Cell Phone Number: Printed Name Cell Phone Usage Logs attached? Certification and Signature: The information listed on the Cell Phone

Sin, Peter

104

Secure audit logs to support computer forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many real-world applications, sensitive information must be kept it log files on an untrusted machine. In the event that an attacker captures this machine, we would like to guarantee that he will gain little or no information from the log files and to limit his ability to corrupt the log files. We describe a computationally cheap method for making

Bruce Schneier; John Kelsey

1999-01-01

105

Infinite log-concavity: developments and conjectures  

E-print Network

[4] conjectured that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave. Using a computer of infinite log-concavity. We investigate related questions about the columns of Pascal's triangle, q this to be a conjecture that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave, although we will later discuss

McNamara, Peter

106

Quantitative generalizations for catchment sediment yield following forest logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published data for temperate forests across the world are analyzed to investigate the potential for generalized quantitative expressions of catchment sediment yield impact in the years immediately following logging. Such generalizations would be useful in a variety of forestry and engineering tasks and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. Data were assembled for paired catchment studies (51 catchments including 16 controls) that enabled the postlogging sediment yield impact to be compared with both the prelogging period and an undisturbed control catchment, using a specially defined relative response factor. Three categories of impact were derived: low-moderate, high, and very high, defined by specific ranges in the maximum value of the relative response factor. The maximum increase in specific sediment yield (in t km-2 yr-1) following logging is 1 order of magnitude above the control sediment yield at both the annual and storm event scales, at least under normal circumstances of Best Management Practice. There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield and the proportion of catchment logged, at least at the general scale. A cumulative probability distribution for the year in which the maximum postlogging sediment yield occurs, shows the majority of cases falling in the first 2 years. These generalizations refer to the broad response to logging as a function of ground disturbance, for example, by logging technique, roads, and burning. Although limited to order of magnitude quantification, they provide a basis for first estimates and for a general appreciation of an impact problem.

Bathurst, James C.; Iroumé, Andrés.

2014-11-01

107

Data Mining of Network Logs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

Collazo, Carlimar

2011-01-01

108

Log-amplitude statistics for Beck-Cohen superstatistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a possible generalization of Beck-Cohen superstatistical processes, we study non-Gaussian processes with temporal heterogeneity of local variance. To characterize the variance heterogeneity, we define log-amplitude cumulants and log-amplitude autocovariance and derive closed-form expressions of the log-amplitude cumulants for ?2, inverse ?2, and log-normal superstatistical distributions. Furthermore, we show that ?2 and inverse ?2 superstatistics with degree 2 are closely related to an extreme value distribution, called the Gumbel distribution. In these cases, the corresponding superstatistical distributions result in the q-Gaussian distribution with q=5/3 and the bilateral exponential distribution, respectively. Thus, our finding provides a hypothesis that the asymptotic appearance of these two special distributions may be explained by a link with the asymptotic limit distributions involving extreme values. In addition, as an application of our approach, we demonstrated that non-Gaussian fluctuations observed in a stock index futures market can be well approximated by the ?2 superstatistical distribution with degree 2.

Kiyono, Ken; Konno, Hidetoshi

2013-05-01

109

Valuing Essays: Essaying Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

Badley, Graham

2010-01-01

110

Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL] [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Maxwell, Don E [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL] [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

111

32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be maintained...An engineer's bell book shall be maintained as an adjunct to the engineering log. (c) The Chief...preparation of the deck and engineering logs and adjunct...

2010-07-01

112

32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall each...

2010-07-01

113

Automatic well log correlation using neural networks  

E-print Network

of string manipulation operations (addition, deletion, and insertion). The method requires the use of porosity, gamma ray, and resistivity logs. It was tested on 17 logs from the Athabasca area in northern Alberta, Canada. Wu and Nyland estimated... horsepowez per square inch. Success of the network was not clear. Derek et al. applied neural networks to the problem of identification of sandstone lithofacies using the response of gamma ray, neutron and density logs. Network learning was based on error...

Habiballah, Walid Abdulrahim

1991-01-01

114

Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

1993-01-01

115

Wean-Tail Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

A SP #: ________________ _ Investigator: _________________ WEAN / TAIL CLIP LOG Strain: ___________________ Room Number: ___________________ STRAIN CODE WEAN DATE # ? # ? COMMENTS WATER A OR B # CAGES DOB TAILCLIP DATE CAGE / LITTER

116

Advertise Subscribe Log in Register Advanced search  

E-print Network

Advertise Subscribe Log in Register Advanced search Home News Comment Special reports People's opposition to nuclear power. Advertisement Advertisement Friday, 20 April 2012 Economics Business Information

117

Prediction of soil sorption coefficients using model molecular structures for organic matter and the quantum mechanical COSMO-SAC model.  

PubMed

The soil sorption coefficient, K(OC), is an important property affecting the environmental fate of organic molecules. Difficulties associated with measuring K(OC) have led to many attempts to predict this property, but most rely on empirical descriptors for the soil phase determined from correlations with measured K(OC) data, and are thereby limited by the data quality and diversity. A new method is presented to predict K(OC) for nonionic organic compounds that requires only molecular structures. No calibration is performed. Using model humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) molecular structures from the literature, the soil organic matter is modeled as an organic solvent composed of HA or FA molecules. K(OC) is predicted as an organic solvent-water partition coefficient using the quantum mechanics-based model COSMO-SAC. The log K(OC) values for a set of 440 diverse, environmentally relevant chemicals are predicted with a root-mean-square error of 0.84-1.08, depending on which model HA or FA is used. PMID:21194217

Phillips, Kathy L; Di Toro, Dominic M; Sandler, Stanley I

2011-02-01

118

Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present concepts for downhole instrumentation that could be used in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). We envision optical borehole-logging instruments that could monitor bacterial concentration, mineralogy, aromatic organics, temperature and oxygen concentration, allowing for the in situ monitoring of time-dependent microbial and short-scale geologic processes and provide valuable in situ data on stratigraphy to supplement core analyses, especially where instances of missing or damaged core sections make such studies difficult. Incorporated into these instruments will be a sampling/inoculation tool to allow for the recovery and/or manipulation of particularly interesting sections of the borehole wall for further study, enabling a series of microbiological studies. The borehole tools we will develop revolve around key emerging technologies and methods, some of which are briefly described below: 1) Autofluorescence Spectroscopy: Building on past instruments, we will develop a new borehole logger that searches for microbial life and organics using fluorescence spectroscopy. Many important organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) and biomolecules (e.g. aromatic amino acids, proteins, methanogenic coenzymes) fluoresce when excited with ultraviolet and visible light. Through the careful selection of excitation wavelength(s) and temporal gating parameters, a borehole logging instrument can detect and differentiate between these different compounds and the mineral matrix in which they exist. 2) Raman Spectroscopy: Though less sensitive than fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is more definitive: it can provide important mineral phase distribution/proportions and other chemical data enabling studies of mineralogy and microbe-mineral interactions (when combined with fluorescence). 3) Borehole Camera: Imaging of the borehole wall with extended information in the UV, visible, and NIR for a more informative view can provide a lot of insight to in situ processes. 4) Temperature and Oxygen Sensors: The ambient temperature will be recorded as well as the presence of oxygen. Oxygen presence can be measured using a fluorescence quenching fiber optic probe to avoid interference from other gases. We forsee that this technology will enable experiments including studies of gene transfer, microbial habitat, in situ stratigraphy and hydrological processes. In addition, though designed to scan borehole walls, GOLD could be used to scan core samples as they are recovered for rapid quantification and analysis in order to discover samples of particular interest that could then be prioritized for more in-depth, traditional analysis.

Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

2008-12-01

119

Flow rate logging seepage meter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

120

2009 Daily Fire Log Date & Time  

E-print Network

2009 Daily Fire Log Fire Log Date & Time Occurred Occurred General Location Nature of the Fire Comment 03/16/09 1432 Outside of Corbett Theater Unintentional-Other Abstract art project caught on fire 03/31/09 1833 Lot T Unintentional- Machinery/Industrial Motor vehicle caught on fire; fire department

Boyce, Richard L.

121

2010 Daily Fire Log Date & Time  

E-print Network

2010 Daily Fire Log Fire Log Date & Time Occurred General Location Nature of the Fire Comment 2/24/10 1930 Dorm- Commonwealth Hall Unintentional ­Heating equipment Small fire caused by books being placed materials Report of a trash can on fire in front of AS&T; fire extinguished; fire department responded

Boyce, Richard L.

122

Food Log by snapping and processing images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the current status of FoodLog, a multimedia Internet application that enables easy capture and archival of information regarding our daily meals. The primary purpose of FoodLog is to facilitate dietary management support with minimum manual recording of information. It analyzes image archives that belong to a user to identify images of meals. Further image analysis determines the nutritional

Kiyoharu Aizawa; Gamhewage C. de Silva; Makoto Ogawa; Yohei Sato

2010-01-01

123

Securing Shareable Life-logs Reza Rawassizadeh  

E-print Network

Securing Shareable Life-logs Reza Rawassizadeh Institute of Software Technology and Interactive-log information requires higher security consid- erations since it may contains very sensitive information about time. Furthermore, general security approaches which might decrease security related risks for life

124

47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...log entries as follows: (1) The date and time of each occurrence or incident required to be...log must be shown opposite the entry and the time must be expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (2) “ON WATCH” must be...

2014-10-01

125

Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

126

Monthly Tank Inspection Log Name of Campus  

E-print Network

Monthly Tank Inspection Log Name of Campus Street Address of Campus City, State, and Zip Code standing water Drip pans are not overflowing (or have standing water) Containment curbing is in good supplies #12;Monthly Tank Inspection Log Name of Campus Street Address of Campus City, State, and Zip Code

Rosen, Jay

127

Injection Well Logging Using Viscous EOR Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new tool has been developed that overcomes problems associated with logging injection wells in the presence of viscous fluids. The tool was evaluated in the laboratory and the field in water and polymer injection wells. Results indicate that the tool provides better information than conventional equipment. Special attention to log interpretation is required in zones where the flow pattern

Bruce Knight; Mohammad Davarzani

1986-01-01

128

Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence  

PubMed Central

Background Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Results Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Conclusions Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models. PMID:24330636

2013-01-01

129

Salvage Logging, Ecosystem Processes, and Biodiversity Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging—a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil prop- erties and nutrient levels, increase

D. B. LINDENMAYER; R. F. NOSS

2006-01-01

130

JAS log volume estimates of New Zealand radiata pine and Douglas-fir logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sectionally measured radiata pine and Douglas$r sawlog data has been analysed to study the relationship between true volume and that derived using the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS). Although JAS volume estimates on logs of average dimensions are close to true cubic, large errors are introduced with increase in log taper and decrease in small-end diameter. Introduction Softwood logs exported from

J. C. Ellis; D. H. Sanders; D. Pont

131

Illegal timber logging in Vietnam: Who profits from forest privatization connected with a logging ban?  

E-print Network

1 Illegal timber logging in Vietnam: Who profits from forest privatization connected with a logging the distribution of income from illegal timber logging in northern Vietnam. The Vietnamese government implemented actors' control over markets and power derived from state positions. I. Introduction Vietnam's forest

132

The Rule of Five revisited: applying log D in place of log P in drug-likeness filters.  

PubMed

The much publicized "Rule of 5" has been widely adopted among the pharmaceutical industry. It is used as a first step filter to perform virtual screening of compound libraries, in an effort to quickly eliminate lead candidates that have poor physicochemical properties for oral bioavailabilty. One of the key parameters used therein is log P, which is a useful descriptor, but one that fails to take into account variation in the lipophilicity of a drug with respect to the ionic states present at key biological pH values. Given that the majority of commercial pharmaceuticals contain an ionizable moiety, we propose that log D is a better descriptor for lipophilicity in the context of the Rule of 5. It gives more physiologically relevant results, thereby reducing the number of potential false-negatives incorrectly eliminated in screening. Using a series of commercial compound libraries, this study showed that the adapted Rule of 5 using log D instead of log P provides notable improvement in pass rate for compounds that have the desired lipophilicity at a relevant physiological pH. PMID:17530776

Bhal, Sanjivanjit K; Kassam, Karim; Peirson, Ian G; Pearl, Greg M

2007-01-01

133

Data Encryption Standard Cetin Kaya Koc  

E-print Network

non-government researchers to study the design and theory of block ciphers His ideas (S-boxes, round involvement was found suspicious by some There were conspiracy theories' about the DES having a "backdoor

134

Professor Cetin Koc Network Security Expert  

E-print Network

that use to be 3000 miles away, and almost a non-factor in our social, economic, and spiritual well being bills. Our children do their homework and we conduct business or work affairs. It is becoming so

135

Design of Log-Map \\/ Max-Log-Map Decoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of turbo-code decoding starts with the formation of a posteriori\\u000aprobabilities (APPs) for each data bit, which is followed by choosing the\\u000adata-bit value that corresponds to the maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability\\u000afor that data bit. Upon reception of a corrupted code-bit sequence, the process\\u000aof decision making with APPs allows the MAP algorithm to determine the

Mihai Timis

2009-01-01

136

Utilization of Electrical Impedance Tomography to Detect Internal Anomalies in Southern Pine Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large body of research has shown that knowledge of internal defect location in logs prior to sawing has the potential to significantly increase lumber value yield. This paper describes a relatively low-capital log scanning technique based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to image anomalies interior to sawlogs. Static testing results showed that knots, juvenile and compression wood internal to logs can be detected. Although resolution is lower than that of CT and NMR technologies, the low cost of this EIT application should render it competitive.

Steele, Philip; Cooper, Jerome

2006-03-01

137

Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

Weiman, Carl F. R.

1992-01-01

138

Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

1992-01-01

139

D-dimensional log gravity  

SciTech Connect

We study Einstein gravity in dimensions D{>=}4 modified by curvature squared at critical point where the theory contains only massless gravitons. We show that at the critical point a new mode appears leading to a logarithmic gravity in the theory. The corresponding logarithmic solution may provide a gravity description of logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT) in higher dimensions. We note also that for special values of the parameters of the theory, the model admits solutions with nonrelativistic isometries.

Alishahiha, Mohsen; Fareghbal, Reza [School of physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-04-15

140

CMLOG: A common message logging system  

SciTech Connect

The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States). Control Software Group

1997-12-01

141

Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

1994-01-01

142

Formation mechanical properties and the sonic log  

SciTech Connect

A program is presented that calculates the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks from sonic logs. The program was written in Microsoft BASIC and the source code for MS-DOS, Apple Macintosh, and Amiga personal computers is given.

Elphick, R.Y.

1988-11-01

143

2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00262  

E-print Network

Activity on 06/22/10 #12;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00258 Reported: 06/21/10 1400 Occurred: 06 Location: 28 Faren Drive (Rental Property) Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Basement flooded by heavy

Boyce, Richard L.

144

Applications of Finite Difference Synthetic Acoustic Logs  

E-print Network

Finite difference synthetic acoustic logs are suitable for studying wave propagation in vertically varying boreholes and in boreholes with continuously varying properties. Snapshots for the traditional smooth bore in a ...

Stephen, R. A.

1984-01-01

145

Logging-while-coring method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

Goldberg, David S. (New York, NY); Myers, Gregory J. (Cornwall, NY)

2007-11-13

146

Infinite log-concavity: developments and conjectures  

E-print Network

Given a sequence (a_k) = a_0, a_1, a_2,... of real numbers, define a new sequence L(a_k) = (b_k) where b_k = a_k^2 - a_{k-1} a_{k+1}. So (a_k) is log-concave if and only if (b_k) is a nonnegative sequence. Call (a_k) "infinitely log-concave" if L^i(a_k) is nonnegative for all i >= 1. Boros and Moll conjectured that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave. Using a computer and a stronger version of log-concavity, we prove their conjecture for the nth row for all n Pascal's triangle, q-analogues, symmetric functions, real-rooted polynomials, and Toeplitz matrices. In addition, we offer several conjectures.

McNamara, Peter R W

2008-01-01

147

Logging-while-coring method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

2007-01-30

148

DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 ..mu..CGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 ..mu..CGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists.

Emilia, D.A.; Allen, J.W.; Chessmore, R.B.; Wilson, R.B.

1981-03-01

149

Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging--a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil properties and nutrient levels, increase erosion, modify hydrological regimes and aquatic ecosystems, and alter patterns of landscape heterogeneity These impacts can be assigned to three broad and interrelated effects: (1) altered stand structural complexity; (2) altered ecosystem processes and functions; and (3) altered populations of species and community composition. Some impacts may be different from or additional to the effects of traditional logging that is not preceded by a large natural disturbance because the conditions before, during, and after salvage logging may differ from those that characterize traditional timber harvesting. The potential impacts of salvage logging often have been overlooked, partly because the processes of ecosystem recovery after natural disturbance are still poorly understood and partly because potential cumulative effects of natural and human disturbance have not been well documented. Ecologically informed policies regarding salvage logging are needed prior to major natural disturbances so that when they occur ad hoc and crisis-mode decision making can be avoided. These policies should lead to salvage-exemption zones and limits on the amounts of disturbance-derived biological legacies (e.g., burned trees, logs) that are removed where salvage logging takes place. Finally, we believe new terminology is needed. The word salvage implies that something is being saved or recovered, whereas from an ecological perspective this is rarely the case. PMID:16922212

Lindenmayer, D B; Noss, R F

2006-08-01

150

Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

Houghton, R. A.

1999-01-01

151

Toxic species evolution from guayule fireplace logs  

E-print Network

Bennett (H ad of Department) August 1988 ABSTRACT Toxic Species Evolution from Guayule Fireplace Logs. (August 19SS) Kristi Lee Soderman, B. S. , Texas A&M University; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. John P. Wagner A study of smoke produced during... burning of guayule fireplace logs was conducted to determine if any unusually toxic species were present. An ASTM D-4100 Arapahoe smoke chamber was used to generate smoke for smoke mass determinations, chemical analyses, and particle size distribution...

Soderman, Kristi Lee

1988-01-01

152

RoboLog Koblenz 2002 - Team Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RoboLog Team. The RoboLog team participated in the simulator competitions in 1999 (Stockholm), 2000 (Melbourne), and 2001 (Seattle). 3 people, Jan Murray, Oliver Obst and Frieder Stolzenburg (team leader), form the core of the team. There are cur-rently 7 additional members, namely Heni Ben Amor, Joschka B?odecker, Marion Lev-elink, Jana Lind, Christoph Ringelstein, Markus Rollmann, and Karsten Sturm. As

Jan Murray; Oliver Obst; Frieder Stolzenburg

2002-01-01

153

Conserving Forest Wildlife and Other Ecosystem Services: Opportunity Costs and The Valuation of Alternative Logging Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems supply a wide variety of valued commodities, including ecological services. Valuing these commodities and determining the implications of their valuation for the optimal management of ecosystems is challenging. This paper considers the optimal spatial use of forest ecosystems given that they can be utilised for conserving wildlife species and for producing logs. It takes into account the alternatives of

Clement A. Tisdell

2012-01-01

154

The Borneo Project : Indonesia Fails to Stop Illegal Logging, Report Says Indonesia Fails to Stop Illegal Logging, Report Says  

E-print Network

Megawati Sukarnoputri to take the lead in fighting corruption. "The president must give leadership of log rails, logging camps and log ponds have been developed across the park. The situation is worse

155

Lipophilicity Screening of Novel Drug-like Compounds and Comparison to cLogP  

PubMed Central

We determined the distribution coefficients of solutes between a polymer film phase (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with 67% (w/w) dioctyl sebacate (DOS)) and an aqueous phase in a 96-well format. The parallel measurement approach is efficient and uses very little material. Polymer-water distribution coefficients (Dpw) at different pH values yield the pKa and polymer-water partition coefficient values (Ppw) of the solutes. Log Ppw of a prominent drug-like compound, 2H-1, 2, 6-thiadiazine, 3-methyl-5-phenyl-, 1, 1-dioxide, is in good agreement with cLogP, while the pKa value is substantially different from calculated values. This method has been also successfully applied to a library of novel drug-like compounds. Log Dpw values (at pH 4.0, 7.0, 10.0) of 24 novel drug-like compounds have been determined with good reproducibility with the 96-well plate approach. Differences between experimental values and a variety of available calculated values are significant. This emphasizes the need for laboratory separations-based measurements of logD. PMID:22939208

Lu, Dujuan; Chambers, Peter; Wipf, Peter; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Englert, Danielle; Weber, Stephen

2012-01-01

156

Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux often focus on annual timescales but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics with non-parametric quantile regression forests (QRF) based on high-frequency (3 min) discharge measurements and sediment concentration data sampled every 30-60 min in similar-sized (˜0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the random forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ˜80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. In particular, dry-season logging dampened the relative role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We show that QRFs outperform traditional sediment rating curves (SRCs) in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

2014-03-01

157

Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3-min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors which in turn provides model uncertainties. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. Particularly dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

Mohr, C.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroume, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

2013-12-01

158

Applications of geothermal well log data for evaluation of reservoir potential  

SciTech Connect

A great many geothermal reservoirs are naturally fractured stems with porosity supplied by both the macroscopic fracture system and by dispersed intergranular or vuggy porosity. Flow properties, the use of log data for well test interpretation in such systems, and the log derivable parameters that may be of most value for evaluation are discussed here. Parameters for describing behavior of two-phase geothermal systems are also mentioned. Determination of reservoir dimensions is another important problem aggravated in geothermal resource evaluation by our limited knowledge of the geophysics of geothermal systems. The use of resistivity log data to deduce constraints on the inversion of surface resistivity data is examined. Potentially valuable applications of resistivity log data in deducing reservoir dimensions and reaching decisions on exploratory drilling are indicated.

Rigby, F.A.

1981-03-01

159

Reduced-impact logging and biodiversity conservation: a case study from Borneo.  

PubMed

A key driver of rain forest degradation is rampant commercial logging. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques dramatically reduce residual damage to vegetation and soils, and they enhance the long-term economic viability of timber operations when compared to conventionally managed logging enterprises. Consequently, the application of RIL is increasing across the tropics, yet our knowledge of the potential for RIL also to reduce the negative impacts of logging on biodiversity is minimal. We compare the impacts of RIL on birds, leaf-litter ants, and dung beetles during a second logging rotation in Sabah, Borneo, with the impacts of conventional logging (CL) as well as with primary (unlogged) forest. Our study took place 1-8 years after the cessation of logging. The species richness and composition of RIL vs. CL forests were very similar for each taxonomic group. Both RIL and CL differed significantly from unlogged forests in terms of bird and ant species composition (although both retained a large number of the species found in unlogged forests), whereas the composition of dung beetle communities did not differ significantly among forest types. Our results show little difference in biodiversity between RIL and CL over the short-term. However, biodiversity benefits from RIL may accrue over longer time periods after the cessation of logging. We highlight a severe lack of studies investigating this possibility. Moreover, if RIL increases the economic value of selectively logged forests (e.g., via REDD+, a United Nations program: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries), it could help prevent them from being converted to agricultural plantations, which results in a tremendous loss of biodiversity. PMID:22611854

Edwards, David P; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Larsen, Trond H; Hsu, Wayne W; Benedick, Suzan; Wilcove, David S

2012-03-01

160

Determining factors behind the PageRank log-log plot  

E-print Network

Determining factors behind the PageRank log-log plot Yana Volkovich1 , Nelly Litvak1 , and Debora Donato2 1 University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, The Netherlands 2 Yahoo! Research studies of the Web agree that in-degree follows a power law with exponent = 1.1 for cumulative plot

Litvak, Nelly

161

Mutual Exclusion with O(log2 log n) Amortized Work  

E-print Network

Mutual Exclusion with O(log2 log n) Amortized Work Michael A. Bender Stony Brook University.gilbert@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract-- This paper presents a new algorithm for mutual exclusion in which each passage through performance by exploiting a connection between mutual exclusion and approximate counting. 1. INTRODUCTION

Bender, Michael

162

Mutual Exclusion with O(log 2 log n) Amortized Work Michael A. Bender  

E-print Network

Mutual Exclusion with O(log 2 log n) Amortized Work Michael A. Bender Stony Brook University.gilbert@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract--- This paper presents a new algorithm for mutual exclusion in which each passage through performance by exploiting a connection between mutual exclusion and approximate counting. 1. INTRODUCTION

Bender, Michael

163

Log management comprehensive architecture in Security Operation Center (SOC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread use of information, variety of security logs have increased greatly, which due need for security log management. Organizations requirements have imposed to collect, store, and analyze tremendous volumes of log data across entire infrastructure for extended durations and at increasingly granular levels. It is the process of generating, transmitting, storing, analyzing, and disposing security log data from

Afsaneh Madani; Saed Rezayi; Hossein Gharaee

2011-01-01

164

Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators  

SciTech Connect

We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)] and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schroedinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m=m{sub 0}t/t{sub 0} and {omega}={omega}{sub 0}t{sub 0}/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and {omega} constant.

Bessa, V.; Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE 60455-760 (Brazil)

2011-06-15

165

Swept energy source acoustic logging system  

SciTech Connect

An acoustic energy mode propagation speed or travel time measurement system for use in well logging is disclosed. A downhole sonde is provided with an acoustic transmitter and at least one acoustic receiver. The transmitter is repetitively driven with a unique or characteristic swept frequency signal. Propagated acoustic energy detected at the receiver is cross-correlated with the characteristic transmitter swept frequency signal to provide indications of the arrival of various modes of acoustic energy propagation at the receiver. Logs as a function of borehole depth of the speed of propagation of the various modes of propagation may be derived.

Mailett, A.J.

1984-05-22

166

Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of 235U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

2015-03-01

167

Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)], 10.1063/1.1664991 and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schrödinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m = m0t/t0 and ? = ?0t0/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and ? constant.

Bessa, V.; Guedes, I.

2011-06-01

168

MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

169

Value, Value, Where Is the Value?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

Kaufman, Roger

2003-01-01

170

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle

171

Place Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activites cover place value of ones, tens, hundreds and thousands. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Dinosaur Numbers (place value) Game #2: Shark Numbers (place value) Game #3: Place Value Golf (harder) ...

Mrs. Christian

2007-03-21

172

JourneyLog 64 5 Vehicle tracking  

E-print Network

JourneyLog 64 5 Vehicle tracking blinkx 8 Five years on Tomas Pfister 11 Graduate story Raspberry -- January 2012-- £20The journal of The Cambridge CompuTer lab ring #12;2 ©The Cambridge Computer Lab Ring anni- versary while the Cambridge Computer Lab Ring will turn ten years old. The Ring will be marking

Haddadi, Hamed

173

Calibrator for radioactivity well logging tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioactivity well logging tool including a gamma radiation detector is field calibrated with the help of a flexible sheet with a radioactive substance dispersed therein, is wrapped about the tool so as to completely surround the detector. The sheet is made of an elastomer such as polyurethane, and the radioactive substance is carnotite. This sheet is placed within a

Waggoner

1978-01-01

174

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2012-07-01

175

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2011-07-01

176

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2013-07-01

177

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2014-07-01

178

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2010-07-01

179

Alpana Bhatt Reservoir properties from well logs  

E-print Network

Summary In this dissertation we have developed multiple networks systems (multi nets or committee machines and for identifying lithofacies from wireline and measurement while drilling (MWD) logs. The method is much more of a committee machine is a multilayer perceptron network (MLP) whose optimum architecture and size of training

Ursin, Bjørn

180

BYU Astronomical Society Observation Log Book  

E-print Network

System 1 Messier 4 NGC 40 Double Stars 54 Variable Stars 69 Misc. Objects 72 Blank Log Pages 76 Indexes, bright solar system, and select NGC objects. Many of the best double stars, variable stars, and other giveth his light by day, and the moon giveth her light by night, and the stars also give their light

Hart, Gus

181

There's Life in Those Dead Logs!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

2006-01-01

182

MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

183

USGS Training on Borehole Geophysical Logging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS hydrologist holds an electromagnetic induction borehole logging tool while the tool is calibrated. The hydrologist was participating in a USGS class on how to use electromagnetic induction geophysical methods for groundwater investigations, conducted by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch o...

184

Method and apparatus for shear wave logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for shear wave logging which utilizes relatively high frequency sweep control transmission and subsequent correlation of received signals in order to define travel times of horizontally polarized shear and\\/or torsional wave energy. The apparatus includes specific sonde structure for effecting firm contact of transmitting and receiving elements with the borehole wall.

J. R. Hopkins; C. E. Payton; K. H. Waters

1983-01-01

185

Method and apparatus for shear wave logging  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for shear wave logging which utilizes relatively high frequency sweep control transmission and subsequent correlation of received signals in order to define travel times of horizontally polarized shear and/or torsional wave energy. The apparatus includes specific sonde structure for effecting firm contact of transmitting and receiving elements with the borehole wall.

Hopkins, J.R.; Payton, C.E.; Waters, K.H.

1983-04-19

186

Swept energy source acoustic logging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acoustic energy mode propagation speed or travel time measurement system for use in well logging is disclosed. A downhole sonde is provided with an acoustic transmitter and at least one acoustic receiver. The transmitter is repetitively driven with a unique or characteristic swept frequency signal. Propagated acoustic energy detected at the receiver is cross-correlated with the characteristic transmitter swept

Mailett

1984-01-01

187

Elemental concentration logging with a germanium spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The German deep-well project is currently drilling a scientific well in northeastern Bavaria at the intersection of the African and Northern European tectonic plates. This well is scheduled to be drilled to a depth of {approximately}10 km to study the geochemical processes involved in the alteration of minerals under high temperature and pressure. As an initial stage in this project, a well was drilled to a depth of 4 km within 200 m of the site selected for the deep well. This well was fully cored and extensively logged with both commercial and experimental logging systems. Cores, as well as cuttings and fluids, were extensively analyzed in a well-site laboratory established specifically for that purpose. One of the experimental logging systems run in the 4-km well was a gamma-ray spectrometer that used a {sup 252}Cf source for delayed activation measurements and a neutron generator that produces 14-MeV neutrons for thermal neutron-capture gamma-ray measurements. There were two primary goals of this project. The first was to confirm the validity of elemental concentration determinations from commercial logging equipment, based on NaI(Tl) detectors, in this crystalline rock environment. The commercial equipment determines the elements: aluminum, silicon, sulfur, calcium, titanium, iron, gadolinium, potassium, thorium, and uranium. The second was to determine additional elemental concentrations that can be used to enhance the geo-chemical studies of the crystalline rock mineralogy.

Peterson, C.A.; Schweitzer, J.S. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States)); Draxler, J.K.

1991-11-01

188

Modelling tropical forests response to logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

2013-04-01

189

Ethical aspects of web log data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web logs (blogs) are growing in use, expanding beyond a personal means to exchange and record ideas to tools that are used by organisations as forums, mechanisms for knowledge management, and for purposes of persuasion (such as advertising) or influence (such as dissemination of political viewpoints). Because ideas are expressed as electronically recorded words, blogs can be data mined (or

David L. Olson

2008-01-01

190

Discussion logs for h-childhood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new moderated H-Net discussion list seeks to link international scholars studying the history of childhood and youth in all regions and time periods. Resources available at the site include discussion threads, message logs, a review project, and academic announcements.

191

High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as

J. R. Giles; K. J. Dooley

1997-01-01

192

Derive capillary pressure from well logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical

A. Ibrahim; R. Desbrandes; Z. Bassiouni

1994-01-01

193

Indonesia to fight illegal logging Kurniawan Hari  

E-print Network

Indonesia to fight illegal logging Kurniawan Hari The government should set up a task force to deal -- the government must eliminate the roots of the problem," Lemhannas head Ermaya Suradinata told a House Commission in the current fiscal year and was three times Indonesia's foreign debt budget. Commission members said the sand

194

Technology & Science Web MSNBC Cosmic Log  

E-print Network

"; and a member of the board of the Council for the Advancement of Science Writing. Check out Boyle's biography or send a message to Cosmic Log via cosmiclog@msnbc.com. Not-so-stupid microbe tricks Posted: Tuesday into a surface structure Smit calls the "S-layer." Researchers found that the bacteria's self-assembly system

Lovley, Derek

195

Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but potentially overlook important geomorphic responses on shorter time scales immediately following timber harvest. Sediments fluxes are commonly estimated from linear regression of intermittent measurements of water and sediment discharge using sediment rating curves (SRCs). However, these often unsatisfactorily reproduce non-linear effects such as discharge-load hystereses. We resolve such important dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3 min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~ 0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~ 80% of the total sediment load was transported during rare but high magnitude runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. The variability of sediment flux of these rare events spans four orders of magnitude. In particular dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more moderate events. We show that QRFs outperforms traditional SRCs in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment discharge at high temporal resolution.

Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

2013-09-01

196

Determining Earthquake Recurrence Intervals from Trench Logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trench logs of the San Andreas Fault at Pallett Creek, CA are the data base for a lab or homework assignment that teaches about relative dating, radiometric dating, fault recurrence intervals and the reasons for uncertainty in predicting geologic phenomena. Students are given a trench log that includes several fault strands and dated stratigraphic horizons. They estimate the times of faulting based on bracketing ages of faulted and unfaulted strata. They compile a table with the faulting events from the trench log and additional events recognized in nearby trenches, then calculate maximum, minimum and average earthquake recurrence intervals for the San Andreas Fault in this area. They conclude by making their own prediction for the timing of the next earthquake. While basically an exercise in determining relative ages of geologic horizons and events, this assignment includes radiometric dates, recurrence intervals, and an obvious societal significance that has been well received by students. With minor modifications, this exercise has been used successfully with elementary school students through university undergraduate geology majors. Less experienced students can work in groups, with each group determining the age of a single fault strand; combining the results from different groups and calculating recurrence intervals can then be done as a class activity. University students in an introductory geology course for non-majors can add their data from the trench log to an existing table with other faulting events already provided. The exercise can be made more challenging for advanced students by using logs from several different trenches, requiring students to design the table themselves, and giving students the uncertainties for the radiometric dates rather than simple ages for the strata. Most studentsâat all levelsâare initially frustrated by their inability to determine an exact date of faulting from the available data. They gain a new appreciation for the task of the geoscientist who attempts to relate geologic phenomena to the human, rather than geologic, time scale.

Patricia Cashman

197

Land-sharing versus land-sparing logging: reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

Selective logging is a major driver of rainforest degradation across the tropics. Two competing logging strategies are proposed to meet timber demands with the least impact on biodiversity: land sharing, which combines timber extraction with biodiversity protection across the concession; and land sparing, in which higher intensity logging is combined with the protection of intact primary forest reserves. We evaluate these strategies by comparing the abundances and species richness of birds, dung beetles and ants in Borneo, using a protocol that allows us to control for both timber yield and net profit across strategies. Within each taxonomic group, more species had higher abundances with land-sparing than land-sharing logging, and this translated into significantly higher species richness within land-sparing concessions. Our results are similar when focusing only on species found in primary forest and restricted in range to Sundaland, and they are independent of the scale of sampling. For each taxonomic group, land-sparing logging was the most promising strategy for maximizing the biological value of logging operations. PMID:23955803

Edwards, David P; Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Larsen, Trond H; Andrews, David J R; Derhé, Mia A; Docherty, Teegan D S; Hsu, Wayne W; Mitchell, Simon L; Ota, Takahiro; Williams, Leah J; Laurance, William F; Hamer, Keith C; Wilcove, David S

2014-01-01

198

Selective Logging Disturbance And Isotopic Composition Of Repired CO2 In Western Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the controls of gas exchange in primary and disturbed forests within the Amazon Basin is central to understanding the global carbon cycle, since tropical forests account for 40% of the carbon stored globally in terrestrial biomass. Stable isotope ratio analyses (13C, 18O) of atmospheric CO2 provide useful information regarding the balance between photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss in rainforest ecosystems and of the stomatal constraints on photosynthetic gas exchange. One useful isotopic parameter we have measured is the carbon isotope ratio of all respiration emerging from the ecosystem (del13Cr). Our recent observations suggest a direct relationship between logging activities and del13Cr values in these forests. Logging activities at the LBA site in Santarem, Para, began with the removal of lianas before the dry season and afterward selective logging. This logging activity opened the forest and resulted in a 4per mil shift in del13CR. During the following wet season (2002/2003), eddy covariance measurements at the logged site reported increased ecosystem gas exchange. Coincident with this increase in net ecosystem exchange, we observed a decrease in del13CR consistent with a decreased stomatal limitation on photosynthetic gas exchange in the logged forest.

Ometto, J. P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Berry, J.; Miller, S.; Goulden, M.

2003-12-01

199

Regional-scale Hydrostratigraphic Analysis of the Paskapoo Aquifer Using Normalized Gamma-ray Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paskapoo Formation is the major groundwater aquifer system in western Alberta, Canada. The aquifer system covers approximately 65,000 km2, has over 69,000 groundwater wells completed in it, has a maximum thickness of 800 m and consists of a fluvial mudstone and sandstone complex. The formation is divided into the upper Dalehurst Member, the mud dominated Lacombe Member and the basal Haynes Member. In order to develop hydrostratigraphic models of the Paskapoo Fm., it is necessary to understand the distribution and connectivity of the sandstone remnants. Mapping these features is a particularly difficult problem given the size of the region and the complexity of fluvial systems. In 2006 the Government of Alberta mandated that all wire line log readings, including natural gamma-ray logs, must be collected to surface. Tens of thousands of new exploration and production wells have been drilled and logged since 2006. Since wire line logs are in the public domain, it has created a large source of new data for mapping shallow aquifer systems. However, much of the shallow data of interest is collected through casing. A gamma-ray normalization algorithm has been developed to approximately correct for the dampening effects of the casing so that the cased and uncased API log values are equivalent. The algorithm is based on estimating the second and ninety-fifth percentiles of the API values in uncased zones in wells with similar geology to the cased zones that are to be corrected. The API values of cased zones are then adjusted so that their second and ninety-fifth API percentiles are the same as the uncased values. Mudstone and sandstone zones in the logs can be discriminated and the continuity of sandstone units can be investigated. The Haynes member has been previously described as made up of set of stacked sandstone channels. Logs show that the Haynes member is a thick sandstone unit up to 100 m thick and extending over 100 km perpendicular to the Rocky Mountain's thrust front. Logs also show that the Haynes Member is absent in the northern Paskapoo Fm. The overlying Lacombe member is clearly distinguishable from the Haynes member and it consists of smaller channel sandstone remnants which cannot be correlated over large distances, consistent with its description of a mud dominated system. Areas of higher and lower sand fraction are evident in the records. Mapping sand fractions is extremely important as it exerts first order control on regional hydraulic conductivity, vertical conductivity and connectivity within the aquifer. The normalized gamma logs offer a powerful new tool for regional aquifer characterization in Alberta.

Bentley, L. R.; Quartero, E.; Leier, A.; Bechtel, D.

2013-12-01

200

Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006.

Nelson, P.H.

1996-12-31

201

The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

Boldt, Elihu

1989-01-01

202

Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation surveying. Nineteen (19) of the 44 wells without magnetic deviation data were selected for the planned gyroscopic logging based on their location relative to facilities, site boundaries, and contaminant transport concerns. In total, 44 aquifer wells (25 with magnetic deviation data and 19 without) are recommended for planned gyroscopic logging.

Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

2002-04-01

203

Geostatistical Procedures for Developing Three-Dimensional Aquifer Models from Drillers' Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hydrostratigraphic Drilling Record Assessment (HyDRA) project is developing procedures for employing the vast but highly qualitative hydrostratigraphic information contained in drillers' logs in the development of quantitative three-dimensional (3D) depictions of subsurface properties for use in flow and transport models to support groundwater management practices. One of the project's objectives is to develop protocols for 3D interpolation of lithological data from drillers' logs, properly accounting for the categorical nature of these data. This poster describes the geostatistical procedures developed to accomplish this objective. Using a translation table currently containing over 62,000 unique sediment descriptions encountered during the transcription of over 15,000 logs in the Kansas High Plains aquifer, the sediment descriptions are translated into 71 standardized terms, which are then mapped into a small number of categories associated with different representative property (e.g., hydraulic conductivity [K]) values. Each log is partitioned into regular intervals and the proportion of each K category within each interval is computed. To properly account for their compositional nature, a logratio transform is applied to the proportions. The transformed values are then kriged to the 3D model grid and backtransformed to determine the proportion of each category within each model cell. Various summary measures can then be computed from the proportions, including a proportion-weighted average K and an entropy measure representing the degree of mixing of categories within each cell. We also describe a related cross-validation procedure for assessing log quality.

Bohling, G.; Helm, C.

2013-12-01

204

What loggers leave behind: Impacts on big-leaf mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla) commercial populations and potential for post-logging recovery in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of current harvest practices for high-value Meliaceae can be assessed by quantifying logging intensity and projecting growth and survival by post-logging populations over anticipated intervals between harvests. From 100%-area inventories of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) covering 204ha or more at eight logged and unlogged forest sites across southern Brazilian Amazonia, we report generally higher landscape-scale densities and smaller

James Grogan; Stephen B. Jennings; R. Matthew Landis; Mark Schulze; Anadilza M. V. Baima; J. do Carmo A. Lopes; Julian M. Norghauer; L. Rogério Oliveira; Frank Pantoja; Diane Pinto; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Edson Vidal; Barbara L. Zimmerman

2008-01-01

205

Linear-log counting-rate meter uses transconductance characteristics of a silicon planar transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Counting rate meter compresses a wide range of data values, or decades of current. Silicon planar transistor, operating in the zero collector-base voltage mode, is used as a feedback element in an operational amplifier to obtain the log response.

Eichholz, J. J.

1969-01-01

206

Case history of Cotton Valley sand log interpretation for a North Louisiana field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate porosity and water saturation determination of Cotton Valley sandstone is difficult since porosities below 12 are typically encountered. In this low porosity range the errors introduced in the process of obtaining log derived porosity and water saturation values can cause significant misinterpretation of productive potential. Such errors can be due to the presence of secondary matrix mineralization, parameters selected

Ganer

1983-01-01

207

Algorithm for detecting defects in wooden logs using ground penetrating radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently there are no suitable non-invasive methods for precisely detecting the subsurface defects in logs in real time. Internal defects such as knots, decays, and embedded metals are of greatest concern for lumber production. While defects such as knots and decays (rots) are of major concern related to productivity and yield of high value wood products, embedded metals can damage

Dayakar Devaru; Udaya B. Halabe; B. Gopalakrishnan; Sachin Agrawal; Shawn Grushecky

2005-01-01

208

Effects of physical-chemical characteristics on the sorption of selected endocrine disruptors by dissolved organic matter surrogates.  

PubMed

Sorption coefficients (K(oc) values) of selected endocrine disruptors for a wide variety of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured using fluorescence quenching and solubility enhancement. 17beta-Estradiol, estriol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, p-nonylphenol, p-tert-octylphenol, and dibutylphthalate were selected as endocrine disruptors. Aldrich humic acid, Suwannee River humic and fulvic acids, Nordic fulvic acid, alginic acid, dextran, and tannic acid were selected as DOM surrogates. The resulting sorption coefficients (log K(oc)) were independent of octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K(ow)) of the selected endocrine disruptors, indicating the hydrophobic interaction is not the predominant sorption mechanism. Moreover, the K(oc) values for the selected endocrine disruptors, especially the steroid estrogens, correlated much better with UV absorptivity at 272 nm (A272) and phenolic group concentration of the DOM than with either the H/O or the (O+N)/C atomic ratio of the DOM. This suggests that the sorption mechanism is closely related to the interaction between pi-electrons and the hydrogen bonds, i.e., the affinity between phenolic groups of the steroid estrogens and DOM is suggested to provide a relatively large contribution to the overall sorption and yield the K(oc) values of the steroid estrogens as high as those of the alkylphenols and dibutylphthalate, which are suggested to be dominated by nonspecific hydrophobic interaction. PMID:12854701

Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Liljestrand, Howard M; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Morita, Masatoshi

2003-06-15

209

The Nevada Test Site neutron log calibrator  

SciTech Connect

A new calibrator for neutron logs in large-diameter holes has been built at the Nevada Test Site. It consists of two cylinders, each made of six wedge-shaped cells. The outside diameter of each cylinder is 4.8 m, and the inside diameter is 2.4 m; the height is 2.3 m. The cells were filled with mixtures of hydrated alumina, tabular alumina, sand, and water to achieve a large range of bulk density and hydrogen index. A new calibration algorithm, using three-dimensional interpolation in hydrogen index-gap-density space has been developed to determine hydrogen index from log data. There is evidence that the new algorithm is slightly more accurate than the previous algorithm.

Hearst, J.R.

1994-02-01

210

INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis  

SciTech Connect

SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

2012-08-31

211

Load Value Speculation Value Prediction  

E-print Network

1 Load Value Speculation Value Prediction Value Locality Speculative Execution Instruction Level All instructions actually predictable! But loads are most predictable and incur longest latencies. Hence better to predict only loads. On the cache side Even one cache miss per one hundred accesses can

Kucuk, Gurhan

212

Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

M. Royhan Gani

213

Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

Duplichan, Staycle C.

2009-01-01

214

THE GIANT SUKHOI LOG GOLD DEPOSIT. SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sukhoi Log gold deposit is cenhally located in the L,€na goldfield region, approximately 850 lcn IrlE fmm the city of Irkutsk, aad is hoshd in Upper Proterozoic marine sandstone, carbonaceous slate and phyuita, metemorphos€d to low greensddst faci€s in an ouflying part of the major Akitkan Foldbelt. Ihe disseminated pyritic tabular orebody has no outcrop, is defined solely by

B. L. Woodl; Moscow N. L

215

A composite lithology log while drilling  

SciTech Connect

A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. At present, lithology logs are produced at the well site by mud loggers. They provide basic description and relative amounts of lithologies. Major difficulties are encountered in relating the cuttings to their original formations due to mixing in the drilling mud while transporting to the surface, sloughing shales, flawed sampling, etc. This results in a poor control on the stratigraphic sequence and on the depth of formation boundaries. A composite log can be produced after drilling this additional inputs such as wireline, petrography, and paleontology. This process is labor intensive and expensive. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution to bed boundaries, (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input results in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries.

Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

1988-01-01

216

A composite lithology log while drilling  

SciTech Connect

A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution of bed boundaries. (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input will result in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries. The log will serve the geologist as well as the driller, petrophysicist, and reservoir engineer. It will form the basis for more comprehensive formation evaluation while drilling by adding hydrocarbon and MWD log data.

Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

1988-02-01

217

Precision pressure/temperature logging tool  

SciTech Connect

Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

1998-01-01

218

Log-transforming the matter power spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate whether non-linear effects on the large-scale power spectrum of dark matter, namely the increase in small-scale power and the smearing of baryon acoustic oscillations, can be decreased by a log-transformation or emulated by an exponential transformation of the linear spectrum. To that end we present a formalism to convert the power spectrum of a log-normal field to the power spectrum of the logarithmic Gaussian field and vice versa. All ingredients of our derivation can already be found in various publications in cosmology and other fields. We follow a more pedagogical approach providing a detailed derivation, application examples, and a discussion of implementation subtleties in one text. We use the formalism to show that the non-linear increase in small-scale power in the matter power spectrum is significantly smaller for the log-transformed spectrum which fits the linear spectrum (with less than 20% error) for redshifts down to 1 and k ? 1.0 h Mpc. For lower redshifts the fit to the linear spectrum is not as good, but the reduction of non-linear effects is still significant. Similarly, we show that applying the linear growth factor to the logarithmic density leads to an automatic increase in small-scale power for low redshifts fitting to third-order perturbation spectra and Cosmic Emulator spectra with an error of less than 20%. Smearing of baryon acoustic oscillations is at least three times weaker, but still present.

Greiner, M.; Enßlin, T. A.

2015-02-01

219

Derive capillary pressure from well logs  

SciTech Connect

A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical data where core data is absent or not representative of in-situ conditions. It is based on using log data to derive a water saturation vs. depth profile in the transition zone of the formation of interest. The log-derived water saturation distribution is then correlated to generalized capillary pressure curves typical of the formation studied. The capillary pressure type curves are generated from available core data and other petrophysical information. Relative permeability curves are then generated using correlations based on Purcell's model. The technique can be used in multi-layered and homogeneous reservoirs provided that one homogeneous layer is at least 20 ft thick.

Ibrahim, A. (Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Desbrandes, R.; Bassiouni, Z. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1994-07-01

220

Chiral Gravity, Log Gravity and Extremal CFT  

E-print Network

We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS3 vacuum have positive energy. Non-chiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity-- the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions --has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic CFT. Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We normally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

Alexander Maloney; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger

2009-03-26

221

Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT  

SciTech Connect

We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

Maloney, Alexander [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Song Wei [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2010-03-15

222

Geostatistical Simulation of Acoustic Log Data for Seismic Depth Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Seismic reflection methods measure the time a seismic wave takes to travel through the ground, from the user defined source to a series of signal monitoring sensors known as geophones. The measured times need to be depth converted to allow for integration with other geological data. In order to convert from time to depth, an estimate of the rock volume velocity field must be made. The velocity field estimate can be made by assignment of velocity estimates to a geological model independent of the seismic processing. This article presents the results of using the acoustic geophysical log data extrapolated via sequential Gaussian simulation to derive the velocity field. The uncertainties associated with the velocity estimates were significant and provided the means to assess confidence limits for the actual depth determination. The technique is assessed by application to a major coal deposit, approximately 2.1 m thick and 210 m deep. Considering only the uncertainty associated with estimating the velocity field, half of the confidence interval values showed approximately 1 m of uncertainty in depth. The application of sequential Gaussian simulation to model the 3D distribution of acoustic velocity can be extended to other geophysical log parameters or derived estimates.

Koppe, Vanessa Cerqueira; Costa, Joao Felipe Coimbra Leite, E-mail: jfelipe@ufrgs.br; Koppe, Jair Carlos; Gambin, Fernando [UFRGS, Mining Engineering Department (Brazil); Fallon, Gary; Davies, Nick [Now Geophysical Resources and Services, Formerly Xstrata Inc (Australia)

2007-12-15

223

Studies on phase and group velocities from acoustic logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is still argued whether we measure phase or group velocities using acoustic logging tools. In this paper, three kinds of models are used to investigate this problem by theoretical analyses and numerical simulations. First, we use the plane-wave superposition model containing two plane waves with different velocities and able to change the values of phase velocity and group velocity. The numerical results show that whether phase velocity is higher or lower than group velocity, using the slowness-time coherence (STC) method we can only get phase velocities. Second, according to the results of the dispersion analysis and branch-cut integration, in a rigid boundary borehole model the results of dispersion curves and the waveforms of the first-order mode show that the velocities obtained by the STC method are phase velocities while group velocities obtained by arrival time picking. Finally, dipole logging in a slow formation model is investigated using dispersion analysis and real-axis integration. The results of dispersion curves and full wave trains show similar conclusions as the borehole model with rigid boundary conditions.

Wang, Jing; Chen, De-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Lan; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; He, Xiao; Wang, Xiu-Ming

2012-03-01

224

Cotton Valley Sandstone of East Texas: a log-core study  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of calculations of various reservoir parameters, from logs and cores, provides guidelines for understanding reservoir evaluation in the Cotton Valley Sandstone of east Texas. The cores and logs are from the Carthage field area in Panola County. In these rocks, grain size distribution and the degree of shaliness, in addition to porosity, control permeability and irreducible water saturation. Clays in the Cotton Valley are mainly illite and chlorite. Cementation factor and saturation exponent values vary on a bed-by-bed basis; however, values of a = 1, m = 1.83, and an average value of n = 1.89 are acceptable for general evaluations. Sun's BITRI program was used to compute values for lithology porosity and water saturation, in good agreement with standard core and x-ray analysis. Cotton Valley Sandstone intervals with porosities less than 4% appear to be nonproductive.

Wilson, D.A.; Hensel, W.M. Jr.

1984-09-01

225

8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED JACKSLIP USED FOR HAULING LOGS UP TO SAWMILL. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

226

Acoustic Waveform Logging - Advances In Theory And Application  

E-print Network

Full-waveform acoustic logging has made significant advances in both theory and application in recent years, and these advances have greatly increased the capability of log analysts to measure the physical properties of ...

Cheng, C. H.

227

Effects of borehole stability on well log data  

E-print Network

In this thesis we analyze the effects of borehole irregularities on well logs and develop methods to obtain reliable formation properties from such logs. Data from a well in eastern Venezuela are analysed. Borehole ...

Grandi Karam, Samantha, 1973-

2003-01-01

228

21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning, maintenance (except routine maintenance such as lubrication and adjustments), and use shall be included in individual equipment logs that show the date, time,...

2011-04-01

229

Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

230

Theoretical studies of permeability inversion from seismoelectric logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeability is one of the most important parameters for evaluating the level of difficulty in oil and gas exploitation. A quick, continuous and accurate in-situ estimate of reservoir permeability is highly significant. Stoneley wave logs have been used to determine formation permeability (Tang and Cheng, 1996). However, the inversion errors of this method are too big in low-permeability formations, especially in high-porosity and low-permeability formations resulting from the high clay content in pores. In this study, we propose to invert permeability by using the full waveforms of seismoelectric logs with low frequencies. This method is based on the relationship of permeability with the ratio of the electric excitation intensity to the pressure field's (REP) with respect to the Stoneley wave in seismoelectric logs. By solving the governing equations for electrokinetic coupled wavefields in homogeneous fluid-saturated porous media (Pride, 1994), we calculate the full waveforms of the borehole seismoelectric wavefields excited by a point pressure source and investigate frequency-dependent excitation intensities of the mode waves and excitation intensities of the real branch points in seismoelectric logs. It is found that the REP's phase, which reflects the phase discrepancy between the Stoneley-wave-induced electric field and the acoustic pressure, is sensitive to formation permeability. To check the relation between permeability and REP's phase qualitatively, an approximate expression of the tangent of the REP's argument is derived theoretically as tan(?EP) ?-?c/? = -??/ (2?f? ??f?0), where ?EPdenotes the arguments of the REP and their principal value is the REP's phase,? is the angular frequency,?c is a critical angular frequency that separates the low-frequency viscous flow from the high-frequency inertial flow, ? is the porosity, ?? is the tortuosity, ?0 is the Darcy permeability, ?f and ? are the density and the viscosity of the pore fluid, f is the frequency. According to this approximate expression, if porosity, tortuosity and pore fluid properties (density and viscosity) have been measured by some methods or estimated by empirical formulas, permeability can be inverted by calculating tan(?EP) and using its corresponding frequency. To test this method, permeabilities of different sandstones are inverted from the synthetic full-waveform data of the seismoelectric logs. A modified inversion process is proposed based on the analysis of the inversion errors, by which the relative errors are controlled below 25% and they are smaller than those of the permeability inversion from the Stoneley wave logs. This study is supported by National Natural Science Foundations of China (41174110), Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province of China (QC2010025), Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20102302120024), Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (2011M500651).

Hu, H.; Guan, W.; Zhao, W.

2012-04-01

231

Interpretation of well log response in the Austin chalk  

E-print Network

-m The intermediate resistivities are the re ult of water re-entering the pores following hydrocarbon migration. Fractures were identified from standard logs by comparing porosity log responses with the gamma-ray, caliper and resistivity logs. An increase... in density and neutron porosities relative to sonic transit time indicate the presence of secondary porosity due to fracturing. Comparison with the gamma-ray log helps to distinguish secondary porosity from an increase in total porosity due to increased...

Hinds, Gregory Scott

1990-01-01

232

Improving Logging and Recovery Performance in Phoenix\\/App  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoenix\\/App supports software components whose states are made persistent across a system crash via redo recovery, replaying logged interactions. Our initial prototype force logged all request\\/reply events resulting from inter-component method calls and returns. This paper describes an enhanced prototype that implements: (i) log optimizations to improve normal execution performance; and (ii) checkpointing to improve recovery performance. Logging is reduced

Roger S. Barga; Shimin Chen; David B. Lomet

2004-01-01

233

Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

2009-01-01

234

The Learning Log as an Integrated Instructional Assessment Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of student learning logs is recommended as a means for both students and teacher to assess second-language learning. The approach encourages learners to analyze their learning difficulties and plan for overcoming them. Incorporated into portfolios, logs can be used to analyze progress. Sample log sheet and chart used as a framework for…

Topaz, Beverley

1997-01-01

235

Developing an Educational Reminder System for a Handheld Encounter Log  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Medical students increasingly log patient encounters on handheld computers. Detailed patient records captured at the bedside would allow these log programs to complement medical education with automated reminders. We evaluated progress toward this goal. Methods: A series of electronic student encounter logs (ESEL) were designed to quickly re- cord common diagnoses in a family medicine clerkship. Common

Walton Sumner; John Campbell; Sarah C. Irving

236

Post-Wildfire Logging Hinders Regeneration and Increases Fire Risk  

E-print Network

study underscores that, after logging, the mitigation of short-term fire risk is not possible withoutPost-Wildfire Logging Hinders Regeneration and Increases Fire Risk D. C. Donato,1 * J. B. Fontaine after large fires (1). The view that postfire (salvage) logging diminishes fire risk via fuel reduction

Johnson, Matthew

237

Learning Logs in the Science Classroom: The Literacy Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses one of the most functional forms of writing to learn, the two-column learning logs. Two-column learning logs are based on the premise that collecting information and processing information are two very different aspects of learning. Two-column logs allow students to connect the facts and theories of science to…

Steenson, Cheryl

2006-01-01

238

How to use interaction logs effectively for usability evaluation  

E-print Network

of logging analysis and interview techniques to evaluate the usability of web distributed applications Systems ­ Evaluation and Methodology. General Terms Human Factors Keywords Interaction logs, usabilityHow to use interaction logs effectively for usability evaluation Jens Gerken, Peter Bak, Hans

Reiterer, Harald

239

Intensifying the Group Member's Experience Using the Group Log.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the use of a group log in which members analyze the content and process of each session using a suggested format. The log promotes dialogue between the leader and each group member and involves members more fully in the group process. Feedback indicates the log is valuable. (JAC)

Valine, Warren J.

1983-01-01

240

EFFECTS OF LOG HANDLING AND STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological and chemical effects of three types of log storage on water quality were investigated. Three flow-through log ponds, two wet deck operations, and five log rafting areas were studied. Both biological and chemical aspects of stream quality can be adversely affected b...

241

Evaluating Web Access Log Mining Algorithms: A Cognitive Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide availability of web access logs makes them ideal data sources for the mining of web behavior for electronic commerce competitiveness. Unfortunately, since such logs were originally meant for debugging purposes, they cannot be used directly for mining. Hence, much work has been done to preprocess the logs into a suitable form and subsequently mine them. However, such existing

Yew-Kwong Woon; Wee-Keong Ng; Ee-peng Lim

2002-01-01

242

Proposed calibration facility for pulsed neutron logging tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In qualitative applications of pulsed neutron logs, systematic differences among measurements made by different logging tools are relatively unimportant. However, accurate quantitative results are desirable in some cases (e.g., recompletion projects with several zones of potential interest and tertiary recovery projects). Pulsed neutron logging tools can be calibrated in a test facility whose physical properties are accurately established at the

W. R. Mills; W. A. Hoyer; J. Tittman; B. F. Wilson

1977-01-01

243

Nonblocking and Orphan-Free Message Logging Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently existing message logging protocols demon- strate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inher - ent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol pre - vents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires

Lorenzo Alvisi; Bruce Hoppe; Keith Marzullo

1993-01-01

244

Group Counseling for Counselor Candidates: The Group Log.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of a Group Log to evaluate the personal growth experienced and group skills learned in group counseling in which the counselor-in-training writes a Group Log for each group experience. The evaluation criteria of the log are presented in terms of therapeutic forces and group dynamics observed, self-awareness…

DeEsch, Jesse B.

245

Evaluating and logging tight rocks of south Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling and production experience in the tight-rock oil- and gas-producing sands in south Texas have taught operators the importance of comprehensive logging programs for evaluating the formations, notes Schlumberger Well Services. Sample logs from throughout the play show that porosity and shaliness are often the deciding factors in determining whether a zone will produce commercially. The minimum logging program needed

Fett

1980-01-01

246

Certified and Uncertified Logging Concessions Compared in Gabon: Changes in Stand Structure, Tree Species, and Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest management certification is assumed to promote sustainable forest management, but there is little field-based evidence to support this claim. To help fill this gap, we compared a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)-certified with an adjacent uncertified, conventionally logged concession (CL) in Gabon on the basis of logging damage, above-ground biomass (AGB), and tree species diversity and composition. Before logging, we marked, mapped, and measured all trees >10 cm dbh in 20 and twelve 1-ha permanent plots in the FSC and CL areas, respectively. Soil and tree damage due to felling, skidding, and road-related activities was then assessed 2-3 months after the 508 ha FSC study area and the 200 ha CL study area were selectively logged at respective intensities of 5.7 m3/ha (0.39 trees/ha) and 11.4 m3/ha (0.76 trees/ha). For each tree felled, averages of 9.1 and 20.9 other trees were damaged in the FSC and CL plots, respectively; when expressed as the impacts per timber volume extracted, the values did not differ between the two treatments. Skid trails covered 2.9 % more of the CL surface, but skid trail length per unit timber volume extracted was not greater. Logging roads were wider in the CL than FSC site and disturbed 4.7 % more of the surface. Overall, logging caused declines in AGB of 7.1 and 13.4 % at the FSC and CL sites, respectively. Changes in tree species composition were small but greater for the CL site. Based on these findings and in light of the pseudoreplicated study design with less-than perfect counterfactual, we cautiously conclude that certification yields environmental benefits even after accounting for differences in logging intensities.

Medjibe, V. P.; Putz, Francis E.; Romero, Claudia

2013-03-01

247

An evaluation of the use of drillers' logs in lithologic studies of the Ogallala Formation of the southern high plains of Texas, progress report, 1970-71  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Logs made by water-well drillers were analyzed in conjunction with test-hole drilling and geophysical logging to evaluate usefulness of the driller's log in delineating areas that would be suitable for artificial recharge of the Ogallala Formation. This preliminary study indicates that lack of detailed and accurate information in many drillers' logs prevents their use as a reliable source of lithologic information. For many applications, such as evaluation of potential areas for artificial recharge, the value of more complete and more accurate information will be readily apparent as these applications become more widespread. More effort will be required in collecting lithologic information as part of the drilling operations.

Wilson, C.A.; Smith, J.T.; Thompson, G.L.; Sandeen, W.M.

1972-01-01

248

Gradually truncated log-normal in USA publicly traded firm size distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistical distribution of firm size for USA and Brazilian publicly traded firms through the Zipf plot technique. Sale size is used to measure firm size. The Brazilian firm size distribution is given by a log-normal distribution without any adjustable parameter. However, we also need to consider different parameters of log-normal distribution for the largest firms in the distribution, which are mostly foreign firms. The log-normal distribution has to be gradually truncated after a certain critical value for USA firms. Therefore, the original hypothesis of proportional effect proposed by Gibrat is valid with some modification for very large firms. We also consider the possible mechanisms behind this distribution.

Gupta, Hari M.; Campanha, José R.; de Aguiar, Daniela R.; Queiroz, Gabriel A.; Raheja, Charu G.

2007-03-01

249

Cotton Valley sandstones of east Texas: a log-core study  

SciTech Connect

The Cotton Valley sandstone is associated with many fields in east Texas and north Louisiana and is of upper Jurassic age. The sand-shale sequence is encountered at depths ranging from 8000 to 12,000 ft. The average reservoir temperature is 250 F. The gross sand interval may be 1500 ft thick with many correlative producing zones. It is typified by low porosities and permeabilities. Hydraulic fracturing is almost a universal practice. Many productive zones exhibit water contacts, therefore, the sizing of fracture treatments becomes critical. The first priority is to identify potentially productive intervals. This can only be accomplished through accurate calculations of porosity and water saturation. Test conducted on reservoir rock material aid in the evaluation of log responses. Such tests provide a base for selecting the best logging tools for determining porosity. They provide measured values for variables required in water saturation formulas and confirm lithologies indicated from log calculations. 12 references.

Wilson, D.A.; Hensel, W.M. Jr.

1982-01-01

250

Prediction of thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks from well logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of heat-flow density in boreholes requires reliable values for the change of temperature and rock thermal conductivity with depth. As rock samples for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity (TC) are usually rare geophysical well logs are used alternatively to determine TC. A common procedure in the latter approach is the use of empirical relations between TC and different petrophysical properties. Although numerous prediction equations were developed in the past five decades, none of these seem to be universally applicable for all major types of sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evaporites). In addition, these relations mostly are suitable only for regions and lithotypes for which they were originally developed. A new set of predictive equations is presented which overcomes these limitations and which allows the prediction of the rock matrix TC based on different combinations of standard geophysical well-logs. In combination with a feasible mixing-model (i.e. geometric mean model) bulk TC is computed along borehole profiles. The underlying approach was proposed by Fuchs & Förster (2014) and rests upon the detailed analysis of the interrelations between major physical parameters (i.e. thermal conductivity, density, hydrogen index, sonic interval transit time, gamma-ray response, photoelectric factor) of artificial mineral assemblages consisting 15 rock-forming minerals that are used in different combinations to typify sedimentary rocks. The predictive capacity of the new equations is evaluated on subsurface data from four boreholes drilled into the Mesozoic sequence of the North German Basin, including more than 1700 laboratory-measured thermal-conductivity values. Results are compared with those from other approaches published in the past. The new approach predicts TC with a mean error between 10 and 15 % compared to earlier approaches of much higher error of 15-35 % (and sometimes higher).

Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

2014-05-01

251

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

252

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

253

New approach to automated labeling of internal features of hardwood logs using CT images  

SciTech Connect

In a typical sawmill, logs enter the mill and go through a de-barking process. Following this operation they go to the headrig where a sawyer moves the log repeatedly past a saw to remove boards one at a time. Before computed tomography (CT) scanning or any other type of internal log scanning can be applied in industrial operations, there are several hurdles that must be overcome. First, there needs to be some way to automatically interpret scan information so that it can provide the saw operator with the information needed to make proper sawing decisions. A sequence of x-ray tomographs cannot be readily synthesized into a three-dimensional (3D) mental model by human operators (2). For the purposes of sawing the log cylinder into high-value boards, this means accurately locating, sizing, and labeling internal defects. Second, this defect recognition procedure must oprerate at real time speeds, so that scanning, image reconstruction, and image interpretation and display can be integrated into mill processing. Third, a 3D display of a log and its defects for the sawyer is only the first step toward real efficiency. The work described here addresses the first and second, of these processing needs. The next section discusses previous work in these areas.

Schmoldt, D.L.; Li, P.; Abbott, A.L.

1996-12-31

254

Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot?  

PubMed Central

Forests in Southeast Asia are rapidly being logged and converted to oil palm. These changes in land-use are known to affect species diversity but consequences for the functional diversity of species assemblages are poorly understood. Environmental filtering of species with similar traits could lead to disproportionate reductions in trait diversity in degraded habitats. Here, we focus on dung beetles, which play a key role in ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling and seed dispersal. We use morphological and behavioural traits to calculate a variety of functional diversity measures across a gradient of disturbance from primary forest through intensively logged forest to oil palm. Logging caused significant shifts in community composition but had very little effect on functional diversity, even after a repeated timber harvest. These data provide evidence for functional redundancy of dung beetles within primary forest and emphasize the high value of logged forests as refugia for biodiversity. In contrast, conversion of forest to oil palm greatly reduced taxonomic and functional diversity, with a marked decrease in the abundance of nocturnal foragers, a higher proportion of species with small body sizes and the complete loss of telecoprid species (dung-rollers), all indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of dung beetles within plantations. These changes also highlight the vulnerability of community functioning within logged forests in the event of further environmental degradation.

Edwards, F A; Edwards, D P; Larsen, T H; Hsu, W W; Benedick, S; Chung, A; Vun Khen, C; Wilcove, D S; Hamer, K C

2014-01-01

255

Nonlinear filters with log-homotopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive and test a new nonlinear filter that implements Bayes' rule using an ODE rather than with a pointwise multiplication of two functions. This avoids one of the fundamental and well known problems in particle filters, namely "particle collapse" as a result of Bayes' rule. We use a log-homotopy to construct this ODE. Our new algorithm is vastly superior to the classic particle filter, and we do not use any proposal density supplied by an EKF or UKF or other outside source. This paper was written for normal engineers, who do not have homotopy for breakfast.

Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

2007-09-01

256

VAFLE: visual analytics of firewall log events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present VAFLE, an interactive network security visualization prototype for the analysis of firewall log events. Keeping it simple yet effective for analysts, we provide multiple coordinated interactive visualizations augmented with clustering capabilities customized to support anomaly detection and cyber situation awareness. We evaluate the usefulness of the prototype in a use case with network traffic datasets from previous VAST Challenges, illustrating its effectiveness at promoting fast and well-informed decisions. We explain how a security analyst may spot suspicious traffic using VAFLE. We further assess its usefulness through a qualitative evaluation involving network security experts, whose feedback is reported and discussed.

Ghoniem, Mohammad; Shurkhovetskyy, Georgiy; Bahey, Ahmed; Otjacques, Benoît.

2013-12-01

257

Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

1949-01-01

258

Acoustic Logging Modeling by Refined Biot's Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explicit uniform completely conservative finite difference scheme for the refined Biot's equations is proposed. This system is modified according to the modern theory of dynamic permeability and tortuosity in a fluid-saturated elastic porous media. The approximate local boundary transparency conditions are constructed. The acoustic logging device is simulated by the choice of appropriate boundary conditions on its external surface. This scheme and these conditions are satisfactory for exploring borehole acoustic problems in permeable formations in a real axial-symmetrical situation. The developed approach can be adapted for a nonsymmetric case also.

Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

259

Identifying related journals through log analysis  

PubMed Central

Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

2009-01-01

260

The usage of velocity deviation log (VDL) in order to recognize porosity types and trends in permeability of the Asmari and Jahrum reservoirs units in the KHESHT oil field (Kazeroon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porosity value is one of the most important factors which determine the oil volume and also basis of economical or uneconomical calculation of a distinct oil field. By combining the logs, nowadays, very detailed and precise issues could be recognized, for instance we could point examining of porosity types and trends in permeability by using the velocity deviation log (VDL). Velocity devotion log which is calculated by combination sonic log with the Norton porosity or density log provides tool to obtain down hole information on the predominate pore type in carbonates the log can be use to trace the down hole distribution of digenetic processes and to estimate trends in permeability. Generally speaking, porosity and velocity have inverted relationship; nevertheless the type of porosity changes this relationship. In order to establish the velocity deviation log at first; by using the Wyllie equation, porosity log was exchanged to synthetic velocity log, acquired real velocity difference from sonic log and the acquired synthetic velocity from the porosity log is expressed as velocity deviation log. With log being deviated to left and right, the type of porosity would be identified .this method is applied for the Asmari and Jahrum reservoirs units of the Khesht oil field in Kazeroon (Fars),And in one of the wells. This log approves the boundary of Formations which is along with unconformities and even zoning whether is based on porosity value or change of lithology, and also the results which are gotten from the log have close similarities with the results of thin section studies in terms of porosity. Drawing of log and calculation of petrophysic parameters are done by Geolog software.

Morshedi Pour, Amin; Lotfpour, Masoud; Enayati, Aliasghar

2010-05-01

261

Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

2000-08-01

262

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1989-01-01

263

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

Vail, W.B. III.

1989-02-14

264

Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.

1988-01-01

265

Crop Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While economic data on crop values are strictly commercial/ agricultural summaries, they can be useful as surrogate indices of land use/ cover change, or in estimating food subsidies (e.g. waste grain) for wildlife. Posted by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economics and Statistics System at Cornell University, the site contains the "annual marketing year average prices and value of production of principal crops". Principal crops include barley (all, feed, and malting), hay, oats, rye, wheat (all, winter, durum, and other spring), upland and American-pima cotton and cottonseed, corn, dry beans, flaxseed, peanuts, sorghum, soybeans, sunflowers, and rice. These data are provided by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA).

266

PREDICTING SOIL SORPTION COEFFICIENTS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS USING A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The soil/sediment adsorption partition coefficient normalized to organic carbon (Koc) is extensively used to assess the fate of organic chemicals in hazardous waste sites. Several attempts have been made to estimate the value of Koc from chemical structure ...

267

Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were estimated, including volume of clay matrix, volume of matrix other than clay, density of matrix other than clay, density of matrix, intrinsic permeability, specific yield, and specific storage. Geophysical logs were used to (1) determine lithology, (2) correlate lithologic and permeable zones, (3) calibrate seismic reprocessing, (4) calibrate transient-electromagnetic surveys, and (5) calibrate uphole-survey interpretations. Logs were used at the drill site to (1) determine permeability zones, (2) determine dissolved-solids content, which is a function of water resistivity, and (3) design wells accordingly. Data and properties derived from logs were used to determine transmissivity and specific yield of aquifer materials.

Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

1994-01-01

268

A comparison of new ultrasonic cement and casing evaluation logs with standard cement bond logs  

SciTech Connect

New ultrasonic inspection techniques have been implemented to evaluate cement bond and casing conditions. These techniques, relying on state of the art downhole, high-speed waveform digitization, can successfully determine cement voids and channels and also provide accurate bond information in the presence of a microannulus. The downhole microprocessor controlled electronics transmits the digitized waveforms to the surface for computations and display. The downhole waveforms are then viewed by the operator in real time to insure proper log quality. Numerous log examples showing comparisons with the standard Cement Bond Log (CBL) demonstrate that the accuracy and resolution of the new approach provide much more information. Casing conditions are determined using both acoustic caliper measurements and a new casing thickness measurement technique. The acoustic caliper measurement not only determines accurately the casing inside diameter, but also detects the pipe gap at casing collars. The new measurement determines actual casing thickness variations due to internal or external pipe wear or corrosion. Experimental results along with log examples show the effectiveness and accuracy of measuring the actual casing thickness at the well site in real time.

Sheives, T.C.; Tello, L.N.; Maki, V.E. Jr.; Standley, T.E.; Blankinship, T.J.

1986-01-01

269

Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging  

E-print Network

harvesting affects 700,000-850,000 hectares of forest per year in Indonesia, but widespread illegal logging from the illicit trade. Illegal cutting is also hurting legitimate timber-harvesting businesses and development (more) CONTENTS Rainforests Tropical Fish Madagascar Pictures Kids' Site About Contact Archives

270

Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.  

PubMed

The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

2013-08-01

271

No-reference image quality assessment based on log-derivative statistics of natural scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an efficient blind/no-reference image quality assessment algorithm using a log-derivative statistical model of natural scenes. Our method, called DErivative Statistics-based QUality Evaluator (DESIQUE), extracts image quality-related statistical features at two image scales in both the spatial and frequency domains. In the spatial domain, normalized pixel values of an image are modeled in two ways: pointwise-based statistics for single pixel values and pairwise-based log-derivative statistics for the relationship of pixel pairs. In the frequency domain, log-Gabor filters are used to extract the fine scales of the image, which are also modeled by the log-derivative statistics. All of these statistics can be fitted by a generalized Gaussian distribution model, and the estimated parameters are fed into combined frameworks to estimate image quality. We train our models on the LIVE database by using optimized support vector machine learning. Experiment results tested on other databases show that the proposed algorithm not only yields a substantial improvement in predictive performance as compared to other state-of-the-art no-reference image quality assessment methods, but also maintains a high computational efficiency.

Zhang, Yi; Chandler, Damon M.

2013-10-01

272

Algorithm for detecting defects in wooden logs using ground penetrating radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently there are no suitable non-invasive methods for precisely detecting the subsurface defects in logs in real time. Internal defects such as knots, decays, and embedded metals are of greatest concern for lumber production. While defects such as knots and decays (rots) are of major concern related to productivity and yield of high value wood products, embedded metals can damage the saw blade and significantly increase the down time and maintenance costs of saw mills. Currently, a large number of logs end up being discarded by saw mills, or result in low value wood products since they include defects. Nondestructive scanning of logs using techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) prior to sawing can greatly increase the productivity and yield of high value lumber. In this research, the GPR scanned data has been analyzed to differentiate the defective part of the wooden log from the good part. The location and size of the defect has been found in the GPR scanned data using the MATLAB algorithm. The output of this algorithm can be used as an input for generating operating instructions for a CNC sawing machine. This paper explains the advantages of the GPR technique, experimental setup and parameters used, data processing using RADAN software for detection of subsurface defects in logs, GPR data processing and analysis using MATLAB algorithm for automated defect detection, and comparison of results between the two processing methods. The results show that GPR in conjunction with the proposed algorithm provides a very promising technique for future on-line implementation in saw mills.

Devaru, Dayakar; Halabe, Udaya B.; Gopalakrishnan, B.; Agrawal, Sachin; Grushecky, Shawn

2005-11-01

273

Valuing Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How well are adult and community learning providers doing when it comes to ensuring equality of opportunity (EO) and valuing diversity? Many are in transition from a defensive position of emphasising legal compliance towards making respect for diversity intrinsic to their strategic aims, plans and actions, according to the February edition of…

Watters, Kate

2005-01-01

274

Value Added  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

Welch, Matt

2004-01-01

275

Estimating monthly streamflow values by cokriging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cokriging is applied to estimation of missing monthly streamflow values in three records from gaging stations in west central Virginia. Missing values are estimated from optimal consideration of the pattern of auto- and cross-correlation among standardized residual log-flow records. Investigation of the sensitivity of estimation to data configuration showed that when observations are available within two months of a missing value, estimation is improved by accounting for correlation. Concurrent and lag-one observations tend to screen the influence of other available observations. Three models of covariance structure in residual log-flow records are compared using cross-validation. Models differ in how much monthly variation they allow in covariance. Precision of estimation, reflected in mean squared error (MSE), proved to be insensitive to this choice. Cross-validation is suggested as a tool for choosing an inverse transformation when an initial nonlinear transformation is applied to flow values. ?? 1986 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Solow, A.R.; Gorelick, S.M.

1986-01-01

276

Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.  

PubMed

Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25088557

Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercio?lu, Ca?an Hakk?; Koh, Lian Pin

2014-08-18

277

Curve fitting using logarithmic function for sea bed logging data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research work is to conduct curve fitting using mathematical equations that relate location of the hydrocarbon (HC) at different depth to different frequencies. COMSOL MultiPhysics software was used to generate models of the seabed logging technique which consists of air, sea water, sediment and HC layer. Seabed Logging (SBL) is a technique to find the resistive layers under seabed by transmitting low frequency of EM waves through sea water and sediment. As HC is known to have high resistivity which is about 30-500?m, EM waves will be guided and reflected back and detected by the receiver that are placed on the seafloor. In SBL, low frequency is used to obtain greater wavelength which allows EM waves to penetrate at longer distance and each frequency used has different skin depth. The frequencies used in this project were 0.5Hz, 0.25Hz, 0.125Hz and 0.0625Hz and the depths of the HC were varied from 1000m to 3000m with increment of 250m. Data generated from the simulations using COMSOL software was extracted for the set up with and without HC and few trend lines were developed and R2 were calculated for each equation and curve. The calculated R2 were compared between data with HC to no HC at each depth and it was found that the calculated R2 values were very well fitted for deeper HC depth. This indicates that as depth of HC is higher, it is difficult to distinguish data with and without HC presence; and perhaps a new technique can be explored.

Daud, Hanita; Razali, Radzuan; Zaki, M. Ridhwan O.; Shafie, Afza

2014-10-01

278

Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

2012-01-01

279

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2012-08-30

280

Hydraulic parameters estimation from well logging resistivity and geoelectrical measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a methodology is suggested for deriving hydraulic parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity combining classical hydrogeological data with geophysical measurements. Estimates values of transmissivity and conductivity, with this approach, can reduce uncertainties in numerical model calibration and improve data coverage, reducing time and cost of a hydrogeological investigation at a regional scale. The conventional estimation of hydrogeological parameters needs to be done by analyzing wells data or laboratory measurements. Furthermore, to make a regional survey many wells should be considered, and the location of each one plays an important role in the interpretation stage. For this reason, the use of geoelectrical methods arises as an effective complementary technique, especially in developing countries where it is necessary to optimize resources. By combining hydraulic parameters from pumping tests and electrical resistivity from well logging profiles, it was possible to adjust three empirical laws in a semi-confined alluvial aquifer in the northeast of the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina). These relations were also tested to be used with surficial geoelectrical data. The hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity estimated in porous material were according to expected values for the region (20 m/day; 457 m2/day), and are very consistent with previous results from other authors (25 m/day and 500 m2/day). The methodology described could be used with similar data sets and applied to other areas with similar hydrogeological conditions.

Perdomo, S.; Ainchil, J. E.; Kruse, E.

2014-06-01

281

Well-log interpretation of carbonate reservoirs with bimodal porosity  

E-print Network

log interpretation are also shown in the figure. Water-free oil production comes from the perforations in the zones with bimodal porosity. 22 Gamma-ray (GR), caliper (CAL), density porosity (Pp), and neutron porosity (0N) logs through.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 LIST OF FIGURES (continued) Figure Page 14 Gamma-ray (GR), caliper (CAL), density porosity (QD), and neutron porosity (8N) logs through the Smackover in the Tabor 1B well, Bayou Middle Fork field, Claiborne Parish, Louisiana. Perforated...

Tandircioglu, Ahmet

1990-01-01

282

Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings  

SciTech Connect

An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

1982-04-01

283

Static dictionaries on AC{sup 0} RAMs: Query time {Theta} ({radical}log n/log log n) is necessary and sufficient  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we consider solutions to the static dictionary problem on AC{sup 0} RAMs, i.e. random access machines where the only restriction on the finite instruction set is that all computational instructions are in AC{sup 0}. Our main result is a tight upper and lower bound of {Theta}({radical}log n/ log log n) on the time for answering membership queries in a set of size n when reasonable space is used for the data structure storing the set; the upper bound can be obtained using O(n) space, and the lower bound holds even if we allow space 2{sup polylog n}. Several variations of this result are also obtained Among others, we show a tradeoff between time and circuit depth under the unit-cost assumption: any RAM instruction set which permits a linear space, constant query time solution to the static dictionary problem must have an instruction of depth {Omega}(log w/ log log w), where w is the word size of the machine (and log the size of the universe). This matches the depth of multiplication and integer division, used in the perfect hashing scheme by Fredman, Komlos and Szemeredi.

Andersson, A. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Miltersen, P.B. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Riis, S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Thorup, M. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)

1996-12-31

284

Compilation of network activity logs on a DECnet host  

SciTech Connect

Log files are created for all incoming connection requests on a DECnet host. These log files contain connection data such as the requesting source, destination, and throughput. The procedures (referred to as collect software) outlined in this report, were written to collect these log files, to extract the essential information, and to condense the data into one-line records. The two VAX/VMS systems at SNLA that currently run these procedures compile network transaction logs on a weekly basis. This document is intended for VAX/VMS system managers who wish to install, and possibly modify, this software.

George, M.

1987-07-01

285

7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

286

QSPR for prediction of subcooled vapor pressures (log PL) of polychlorinated trans-azobenzenes.  

PubMed

In this study the values of subcooled vapor pressures (log P(L)) were estimated for 209 trans chloroazobenzenes (Ct-ABs) that fill some gaps in analytical and experimental data on these compounds. There are 209 chloro derivatives of trans azobenzenes that are relatively stable and more environmentally relevant than 209 chloro cis congeners. The calculations models were based on the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) scheme using the semi-empirical method (PM6) in molecular package (MOPAC) software and density functional theory (DFT) method using B3LYP functional and 6-311++G** basis set) in Gaussian 03 software method and the artificial neural networks (ANNs) prediction. The values of log P(L) predicted by models used varied between -3.94 to -2.66 for Mono-; -4.85 to -2.97 for Di-; -5.18 to -3.17 for Tri-; -6.02 to -3.77 for Tetra-; -6.64 to -4.64 for Penta-; -7.36 to -4.76 for Hexa-; -7.54 to -5.79 for Hepta-; -7.75 to -6.64 for Octa-; -7.89 to -7.44 for Nona-Ct-Abs; and -8.09 and -8.13 for Deca-Ct-AB. Based on these values Ct-ABs can be grouped localized among relatively low (log P(L) -4 to -2) and low (log P(L) < -4) mobile Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Both the calculation methods employed were characterized by similar prediction ability of subcooled vapor pressure values of Ct-ABs, while those of PM6 are much more efficient due to a cheaper hardware used and around 300-fold less time spent on calculations. PMID:22560028

Wilczy?ska-Piliszek, Agata J; Piliszek, S?awomir; Falandysz, Jerzy

2012-01-01

287

Regional evaluation of formation fluid salinity by SP Log, Ivishak Sandstone, North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Formation water salinity in the Triassic Ivishak Sandstone was calculated from the spontaneous potential (SP) log in 72 wells extending 260 mi from the western part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) eastward to the Kavik gas field and from 10 mi north of the coastline southward to the edge of the coastal plane to investigate a fluid-migration model for the North Slope basin. The determination of total dissolved solids (TDS), reported as NaCl equivalents, comes from Schlumberger relations using the resistivity of the formation fluids (R/sub W/) calculated from the SP log. The R/sub W/ value was calculated from the relation R/sub W/ = R/sub mf//10/sup -(SP/k)/, where R/sub mf/ is the resistivity of the mud filtrate, SP is the SP log reading, and k is the temperature coefficient (60 + 0.133 F), where F is the formation temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit. TDS values calculated from the SP log are generally within 20% of those obtained from analysis of the small number of available water samples. The TDS in the Ivishak Sandstone ranges from 8 to 32 parts per thousand (ppt) and averages 23 ppt across the entire North Slope with lower values of 8 to 11 ppt observed only in the area of the Kavik gas field, indicating replacement of connate sea water by meteoric water. A weak trend of increasing TDS from northwest (14 ppt) to southeast (32 ppt) may be depth controlled. The relatively narrow range of TDS and values no lower than 8 ppt may be due to the long residence time of fluids within the formation and thus allowing for water-rock equilibrium conditions to be established. Basin reconstructions indicate that meteoric recharge of the Ivishak Sandstone last occurred during Early Cretaceous time through subaerial exposure of the formation, extending from north of Harrison Bay to north of the Sadlerochit Mountains.

Woodward, P.V.

1987-05-01

288

Tracking the Inside Intruder Using Net Log on Debug Logging in Microsoft Windows Server Operating Systems  

SciTech Connect

In today's well-connected environments of the Internet, intranets, and extranets, protecting the Microsoft Windows network can be a daunting task for the security engineer. Intrusion Detection Systems are a must-have for most companies, but few have either the financial resources or the people resources to implement and maintain full-scale intrusion detection systems for their networks and hosts. Many will at least invest in intrusion detection for their Internet presence, but others have not yet stepped up to the plate with regard to internal intrusion detection. Unfortunately, most attacks will come from within. Microsoft Windows server operating systems are widely used across both large and small enterprises. Unfortunately, there is no intrusion detection built-in to the Windows server operating system. The security logs are valuable but can be difficult to manage even in a small to medium sized environment. So the question arises, can one effectively detect and identify an in side intruder using the native tools that come with Microsoft Windows Server operating systems? One such method is to use Net Logon Service debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity. This paper discusses how to use Net Logon debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity both in real-time and for forensic analysis.

Davis, CS

2004-01-20

289

Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

2013-04-01

290

Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

2013-12-01

291

Valuing Stillbirths.  

PubMed

Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

2014-11-14

292

The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.  

PubMed

In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework. PMID:25126485

Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

2014-01-01

293

Real-Time System Log Monitoring/Analytics Framework  

SciTech Connect

Analyzing system logs provides useful insights for identifying system/application anomalies and helps in better usage of system resources. Nevertheless, it is simply not practical to scan through the raw log messages on a regular basis for large-scale systems. First, the sheer volume of unstructured log messages affects the readability, and secondly correlating the log messages to system events is a daunting task. These factors limit large-scale system logs primarily for generating alerts on known system events, and post-mortem diagnosis for identifying previously unknown system events that impacted the systems performance. In this paper, we describe a log monitoring framework that enables prompt analysis of system events in real-time. Our web-based framework provides a summarized view of console, netwatch, consumer, and apsched logs in real- time. The logs are parsed and processed to generate views of applications, message types, individual/group of compute nodes, and in sections of the compute platform. Also from past application runs we build a statistical profile of user/application characteristics with respect to known system events, recoverable/non-recoverable error messages and resources utilized. The web-based tool is being developed for Jaguar XT5 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing facility.

Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL] [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

294

Log-Multiplicative Association Models as Item Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Log-multiplicative association (LMA) models, which are special cases of log-linear models, have interpretations in terms of latent continuous variables. Two theoretical derivations of LMA models based on item response theory (IRT) arguments are presented. First, we show that Anderson and colleagues (Anderson & Vermunt, 2000; Anderson & Bockenholt,…

Anderson, Carolyn J.; Yu, Hsiu-Ting

2007-01-01

295

Bio-logging science: sensing beyond the boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-logging has emerged as a tool in animal biology much as genomics has emerged as a tool in the study of cellular and organ function. Bio-logging is certain to increase in its importance and to influence the way we study events and processes that are beyond the usual boundaries of perception and that are remote from the observer. It is

Ian L. Boyd; Akiko Kato; Yan Ropert-Coudert

2004-01-01

296

A RAPID METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LOG P FOR ORGANIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The logarithm of the retention time (log RT) of organic chemicals on a permanently bonded (C-18) reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography system is shown to be linearly related to the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P). A rapid, inexpensive te...

297

A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs  

SciTech Connect

The cement bond log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than 20 years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation with cement bond logs. Cement bond logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed on the log measurements is needed to evaluate the log properly. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of cement bond logs that fall into this category are be presented.

Bigelow, E.L.

1985-07-01

298

A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs  

SciTech Connect

The Cement Bond Log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal in order to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than twenty years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation, ostensibly, with Cement Bond Logs. Cement Bond Logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed upon the log measurements is needed in order to properly evaluate the log. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of Cement Bond Logs which fall into this category are presented.

Bigelow, E.L.

1985-03-01

299

Tracking Observations: Using Handhelds and Computers for Classroom Observation Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the synergistic use of handheld computers and desktop computers as tools for grade school teachers to record observational data from their classrooms. The system uses handheld devices to tersely log events in situ, and allows later reflection and elaboration through annotation of the logged events on desktop computer. The terse, ephemeral capture of events coupled with post-hoc

Hashi Bai; Greydon Buckley; Mark Howard; Edward Lank

2007-01-01

300

Restrain from Pervasive Logging Employing Geo-Temporal Policies  

E-print Network

with the reluctant party. The prototype is developed on an Android-based smart phone that works as a life log device with a policy controller. The phone is connected to an Infrared Transmitter/Receiver with an interface board researchers to digitize day to day activities, thus, increasing the social acceptance of personal life logging

Tanaka, Jiro

301

Design and Use of the Stratigraphic Strip Log.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of a strip log as a diagrammatic representation of the information available in a sequence of sedimentary rocks. Describes the design of the strip log (both symbolically and by visual/spatial patterns) and some of the possible interpretations that can be made using them. (TW)

Fichter, Lynn Stanton

1987-01-01

302

Web Log Analysis: A Study of Instructor Evaluations Done Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on developing a relatively simple method for analyzing web-logs. It also explores the challenges and benefits of web-log analysis. The study of student behavior on this site provides insights into website design and the effectiveness of this site in particular. Another benefit realized from the paper is the ease with which these…

Klassen, Kenneth J.; Smith, Wayne

2004-01-01

303

Acoustic well logging system having multiplexed filter digitizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a downhole well logging system including a fluid tight sonde sized and adapted for passage through a well bore for use in acoustic well logging for acoustic travel time measurement and full waveform acoustic signal processing comprising: means housed in the sonde for generating a high frequency content acoustic signal having several propagation modes in a well

Zimmer

1989-01-01

304

Error log analysis: statistical modeling and heuristic trend analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most error-log analysis studies perform a statistical fit to the data assuming a single underlying error process. The authors present the results of an analysis that demonstrates that the log is composed of at least two error processes: transient and intermittent. The mixing of data from multiple processes requires many more events to verify a hypotheses using traditional statistical analysis.

Ting-Ting Y. Lin; Daniel P. Siewiorek

1990-01-01

305

Comic Layout for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log  

E-print Network

Comic Layout for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log Ruck Thawonmas and Tomonori Shuda Abstract The paper presents our system for generating comics from game log. In particular, comic layout is focused. In order to achieve more comic-like expressivity, we extend an existing comic layout process

Thawonmas, Ruck

306

Camerawork Editor for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log  

E-print Network

Camerawork Editor for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log Ruck Thawonmas, Ko Oda, and Tomonori the camerawork of comic generated automatically from online-game play log by a system recently developed by us. The proposed module enables the user to readily edit the camerawork of a comic frame. We discuss results

Thawonmas, Ruck

307

Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

2014-01-01

308

Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…

Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

2012-01-01

309

Alert Detection in System Logs Adam J. Oliner  

E-print Network

Alert Detection in System Logs Adam J. Oliner , Alex Aiken Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 supercomputers: using logs representing over 746 million processor-hours, in which anomalous events called alerts those alerts. We formalize the alert detection task in these terms, describe how Nodeinfo uses

Aiken, Alex

310

Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa  

PubMed Central

We found a high seroprevalence of HIV among young women in a commercial logging area in Cameroon. The vulnerability of these young women could be related to commercial logging and the social and economic networks it induces. The environmental changes related to this industry in Equatorial Africa may facilitate HIV dissemination. PMID:15550206

Bourgeois, Anke; Mpoudi, Mireille; Butel, Christelle; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngolé, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric

2004-01-01

311

Complex Exponents and Log-Periodic Corrections in Frustrated Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been observed that rupture processes in highly disordered media and earthquakes exhibit universal log-periodic corrections to scaling. We argue that such corrections should actually be present in a wide class of disordered systems and provide a theoretical framework to handle them. At the naivest level, a natural explanation for log-periodic corrections is discrete scale invariance, a notion

H. Saleur; D. Sornette

1996-01-01

312

Preprocessing and Mining Web Log Data for Web Personalization  

E-print Network

Preprocessing and Mining Web Log Data for Web Personalization M. Baglioni1 , U. Ferrara2 , A. Romei/26, 56017 S. Martino Ulmiano (PI) Italy ferrara@ksolutions.it Abstract. We describe the web usage mining behaviour of a web site users. The models are inferred from the access logs of a web server by means of data

Ruggieri, Salvatore

313

Determination of Log K[subscript ow] Values for Four Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though many undergraduates are interested in medicine, relatively few experiments related to drug design and development are included in introductory chemistry laboratory courses. In this experiment, aqueous solutions of four different drugs (acetaminophen, caffeine, phenacetin, and sulfanilamide) are extracted using 1-octanol, a mimic of the…

Harris, Mark F.; Logan, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

314

Valuing vaccination.  

PubMed

Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

2014-08-26

315

Valuing vaccination  

PubMed Central

Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

2014-01-01

316

Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

Liu, H.

1992-03-01

317

Raster images offer low-cost well log preservation  

SciTech Connect

Well log data saved as depth-calibrated raster images provide an economic alternative to digital formats for preserving this valuable information into the future. Although often thrown away after vectorization, raster imaged well logs may be the key for a global computer-readable format for legacy hardcopy data. Over the past several decades, oil and gas companies have acquired an enormous volume of well logs, maps, and seismic and core data. Preservation of, and access to, valuable data such as well logs is critical to the petroleum industry. These legacy data are stored on multiple media and contain information for a variety of applications in addition to resource exploration and development, such as environmental protection, water management, global change studies, and basic and applied research. The paper discusses well logs, acquisition cost, storage requirements, ease of use, costs and benefits.

Cisco, S.L. [Cisco and Associates, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-16

318

The ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample (BCS) - I. The compilation of the sample and the cluster log N-log S distribution  

E-print Network

We present a 90 per cent flux-complete sample of the 201 X-ray brightest clusters of galaxies in the northern hemisphere (dec > 0 deg), at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 20 deg), with measured redshifts z x 10^(-12) erg cm^(-2) s^{-1) in the 0.1-2.4 keV band. The sample, called the ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample (BCS), is selected from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and is the largest X-ray selected cluster sample compiled to date. In addition to Abell clusters, which form the bulk of the sample, the BCS also contains the X-ray brightest Zwicky clusters and other clusters selected from their X-ray properties alone. Effort has been made to ensure the highest possible completeness of the sample and the smallest possible contamination by non-cluster X-ray sources. X-ray fluxes are computed using an algorithm tailored for the detection and characterization of X-ray emission from galaxy clusters. These fluxes are accurate to better than 15 per cent (mean 1 sigma error). We find the cumulative log N-log S distribution of clusters to follow a power law k S^(-alpha) with alpha=1.31 (+0.06)(-0.03) (errors are the 10th and 90th percentiles) down to fluxes of 2 x 10^(-12) erg cm^(-2) s^(-1), i.e. considerably below the BCS flux limit. Although our best-fitting slope disagrees formally with the canonical value of -1.5 for a Euclidean distribution, the BCS log N-log S distribution is consistent with a non-evolving cluster population if cosmological effects are taken into account.

H. Ebeling; A. C. Edge; H. Böhringer; S. W. Allen; C. S. Crawford; A. C. Fabian; W. Voges; J. P. Huchra

1998-12-21

319

Rendering log aesthetic curves via Runge-Kutta method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Log Aesthetic Curves (LAC) are visually pleasing curves which has been developed using monotonic curvature profile. Hence, it can be easily implemented in product design environment, e.g, Rhino 3D CAD systems. LAC is generally represented in an integral form of its turning angle. Traditionally, Gaussian-Kronrod method has been used to render this curve which consumes less than one second for a given interval. Recently, Incomplete Gamma Function was proposed to represent LAC analytically which decreases the computation time up to 13 times. However, only certain value of shape parameters (denoted as ?) which dictates the types of curves generated for LAC, can be used to compute LAC. In this paper, the classical Runge-Kutta (RK4) method is proposed to evaluate LAC numerically to reduce the LAC computation time for arbitrary, ?. The preliminary result looks promising where the evaluation time is decreased tremendously. This paper also demonstrates the accuracy control of LAC by reducing the stepsize of RK4. The computation time and the accuracy for various ?, are also illustrated in the last section of this paper.

Gobithaasan, R. U.; Meng, T. Y.; Piah, A. R. M.; Miura, K. T.

2014-07-01

320

Annual Logging Symposium, June 26-29, 2005 JOINT STOCHASTIC INVERSION OF PETROPHYSICAL LOGS AND 3D  

E-print Network

SPWLA 46th Annual Logging Symposium, June 26-29, 2005 JOINT STOCHASTIC INVERSION OF PETROPHYSICAL of litho- facies and petrophysical properties. The proposed approach is based on a stochastic global-facies, and petrophysical parameters between wells that exhibit a vertical resolution intermediate between that of well logs

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

321

Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem sustainability could be decreased by better slash removal in the Angara region, removal of trees killed by fire in the Zabaikal region, and tree planting after fires in drier conditions where natural regeneration is hampered by soil overheating and grass proliferation.

Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

2013-12-01

322

Methane hydrate pore saturation evaluation from geophysical logging and pressure core analysis, at the first offshore production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 2013, the first offshore production test form methane hydrate (MH) concentrated zone (MHCZ) was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21) at the AT1 site located in the north-western slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. Before the production test, extensive geophysical logging and pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System were conducted in 2012 at monitoring well (AT1-MC) and coring well (AT1-C), in order to obtain basic information for the MH reservoir characterization. MH pore saturation (Sh) is one of the important basic parameters not only for reservoir characterization, but also the resource assessment. However, precise evaluation of Sh from geophysical logging is still challenging technical issue. The MHCZ confirmed by the geophysical logging at AT1-MC has a turbidite assemblage (from several tens of centimeters to a few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness; it is composed of lobe/sheet type sequences in the upper part, and relatively thick channel sand sequences in the lower part. In this study, the Sh evaluated from geophysical logging data were compared with those evaluated from pressure core analysis. Resistivity logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log were used for the Sh evaluation by geophysical logging. Standard Archie equation was applied for Sh evaluation from resistivity log, while density magnetic resonance (DMR) method was used for Sh evaluation from NMR log. The Sh from pressure core samples were evaluated using the amount of dissociated gas volume, together with core sample bulk volume, measured porosity, net sand intervals, and assumed methane solubility in pore water. In the upper part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from resistivity log showed distinct difference in value between sand and mud layers, compared to Sh from NMR log. Resistivity log has higher vertical resolution than NMR log, so it is favorable for these kinds of thin bed evaluation. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which showed fairly good agreement with core derived Sh. On the other hand, lower part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from both resistivity and NMR log showed higher background value and relatively smoother curve than upper part. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which was also showed good agreement with core derived Sh. This study was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21).

Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Nagao, J.

2013-12-01

323

Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs  

SciTech Connect

Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

2009-05-26

324

DETERMINATION OF THE LIPOPHILICITY PARAMETERS LOG PCALCD, RM0 AND LOG PTLC OF NEW ANTICANCER ACYLAMINOALKYL- AND SULFONYLAMINOALKYLAZAPHENOTHIAZINES BY COMPUTATIONAL METHODS AND REVERSED-PHASE THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipophilicity parameters of twenty-two new acylaminoalkyl- and sulfonylaminoalkyl-azaphenothiazines of two types (dipyridothiazines A1-A11 and diquinothiazines B1-B11) were determined theoretically using 11 computational methods and experimentally by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. The theoretical log Pcalcd values differed dramatically depending on the calculating programs. The experimental RM values were linearly dependent on the concentration of acetone in the mobile phase and extrapolated

Beata Morak-M?odawska; Ma?gorzata Jele?; Krystian Pluta

2011-01-01

325

An {Omega}({radical}log log n) lower bound for routing in optical networks  

SciTech Connect

Optical communication is likely to significantly speed up parallel computation because the vast bandwidth of the optical medium can be divided to produce communication networks of very high degree. However, the problem of contention in high-degree networks makes the routing problem in these networks theoretically (and practically) difficult. In this paper we examine Valiant`s h-relation routing problem, which is a fundamental problem in the theory of parallel computing. The h-relation routing problem arises both in the direct implementation of specific parallel algorithms on distributed-memory machines and in the general simulation of shared memory models such as the PRAM on distributed-memory machines. In an h-relation routing problem each processor has up to h messages that it wishes to send to other processors and each processor is the destination of at most h messages. We present a lower bound for routing an h-relation (for any h > 1) on a complete optical network of size -n. Our lower bound applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task. Specifically, we show that the expected number of communication steps required to route an arbitrary h-relation is {Omega}(h + {radical}log log n). This is the first known lower bound for this problem which does not restrict the class of algorithms under consideration.

Goldberg, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerrum, M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science; MacKenzie, P.D. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Computer Sciences

1993-11-06

326

Status Report of the Measurement Service for the CERN Accelerator Logging  

E-print Network

The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) Logging service is aimed to satisfy the requirement of capturing and storing any relevant accelerator data to track its variation over time. This service is presently operational on the whole CERN accelerator complex, from ion and proton sources to LHC, and has become a critical component of the CERN control systems. The focus is given to the measurement part of this service, which is responsible for the data acquisition and preparation (processing, filtering, concentration) prior to its storage in database and file systems. Incoming data is often processed by a concentration layer, the processes that transform data of multiple devices into single values according to well defined rules and then publish them further on, to the LHC Logging among others. The paper describes the architecture and presents the solutions to the very challenging requirements imposed by the LHC in terms of overall performance and reliability. The efficiency of the data acquisition and filtering as well ...

Gourber-Pace, M; Misiowiec, M

2009-01-01

327

Two design techiques for 2-D FIR LoG filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most popular technique for edge detection is based on the convolution of the image with a LoG operator namely the Laplacian of Gaussian characterized by a space constant a. We propose an approximation of this operator in the frequency domain by means of a finite impulse response filter with powers-of-two coefficients. According to the space constant value two types of realization are considered the direct form or a Chebyshev structure derived on the McClellan transformation. Both techniques lead to efficient implementation of the filters which do not require actual multipliers. Results on a test image are presented for those multiplierless filters together with those obtained by a direct computation of the LoG operator with infinite precision coefficients and it is concluded there are no significant differences.

Siohan, Pierre; Pele, Danielle; Ouvrard, Valery

1990-09-01

328

Project to transcribe old ship logs provides important weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kathy Wendolkowski is a citizen scientist. It's a term that Wendolkowski considers far too lofty for what she claims is simply a happy addiction that she and others have for transcribing old logs from naval ship and other vessels. They perform this task to glean the regularly recorded weather data from those logs for the benefit of science. For Wendolkowski, though, greater satisfaction comes from reading what the logs also reveal about the daily lives of the sailors as well as any accompanying historical drama.

Showstack, Randy

2012-11-01

329

Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk.  

PubMed

We present data from a study of early conifer regeneration and fuel loads after the 2002 Biscuit Fire, Oregon, USA, with and without postfire logging. Natural conifer regeneration was abundant after the high-severity fire. Postfire logging reduced median regeneration density by 71%, significantly increased downed woody fuels, and thus increased short-term fire risk. Additional reduction of fuels is necessary for effective mitigation of fire risk. Postfire logging can be counterproductive to the goals of forest regeneration and fuel reduction. PMID:16400111

Donato, D C; Fontaine, J B; Campbell, J L; Robinson, W D; Kauffman, J B; Law, B E

2006-01-20

330

Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

1980-01-01

331

2D Log-Gabor Wavelet Based Action Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency response of log-Gabor function matches well the frequency response of primate visual neurons. In this letter, motion-salient regions are extracted based on the 2D log-Gabor wavelet transform of the spatio-temporal form of actions. A supervised classification technique is then used to classify the actions. The proposed method is robust to the irregular segmentation of actors. Moreover, the 2D log-Gabor wavelet permits more compact representation of actions than the recent neurobiological models using Gabor wavelet.

Li, Ning; Xu, De

332

Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington  

SciTech Connect

This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S. (comps.)

1983-12-01

333

Proceedings of the second PFN uranium logging seminar  

SciTech Connect

The Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) uranium logging system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy is described in some detail in papers by the staff that was involved in the final phase of the development project, and by others associated with the project as users of the logging probe or builders of some of the probe hardware. Descriptions are provided of the probe's electronic circuits, the uphole instrumentation, the log interpretation technique, field experience, neutron detection hardware, neutron generator design, life-test results, and observations by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation personnel regarding the use of the probe and its results.

Not Available

1983-01-01

334

Logging into UCF Financials through the myUCF Portal Page 1 of 2 Logging into UCF Financials through the myUCF Portal  

E-print Network

Logging into UCF Financials through the myUCF Portal Page 1 of 2 11/29/2010 Logging into UCF Financials through the myUCF Portal Follow the instructions below to log into the UCF Financials system through the myUCF portal. You may want to print a copy of this Addy Note to refer to during the log

Wu, Shin-Tson

335

Determination of soil–water sorption coefficients of volatile methylsiloxanes  

PubMed Central

The sorption behaviors of 4 cyclic and linear volatile methyl siloxane (VMS) compounds between water and organic matter in 3 United Kingdom soils were studied by a batch equilibrium method using13C-enriched sorbates. Sorption and desorption kinetics and isotherms were determined for octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), and decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4). Concentrations of [13C]-VMS in the soil and aqueous phases were measured directly by extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry techniques. All VMS compounds were sorbed rapidly, reaching constant distributions in all soils by 24?h. Desorption kinetics were very rapid, with reattainment of equilibrium within 1?h. In the main, linear isotherms were observed for aqueous concentrations at or below 4% of the solubility limits. The average sorption organic carbon partition coefficient (log?KOC) values across soils were 4.23 for D4, 5.17 for D5, 4.32 for L3, and 5.13 for L4, with standard deviations of 0.09 to 0.34. Desorption KOC values were systematically greater by 0.1 log units to 0.3 log units. The linear isotherms and low variation in KOC values across soils suggested partitioning-dominated sorption of the VMS. Compared with traditional hydrophobic organic compounds, KOC values for the VMS compounds were significantly lower than expected on the basis of their octanol–water partition coefficients. A linear free energy relationship analysis showed that these differences could be rationalized quantitatively in terms of the inherent characteristics of the VMS compounds, combined with the differences in solvation properties of organic matter and octanol. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014; 33:1937–1945. PMID:24862578

Kozerski, Gary E; Xu, Shihe; Miller, Julie; Durham, Jeremy

2014-01-01

336

New Insights into the Consequences of Post-Windthrow Salvage Logging Revealed by Functional Structure of Saproxylic Beetles Assemblages  

PubMed Central

Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models) as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green-tree retention approach to windthrown trees will preserve natural succession and associated communities of disturbed spruce forests. PMID:25050914

Thorn, Simon; Bässler, Claus; Gottschalk, Thomas; Hothorn, Torsten; Bussler, Heinz; Raffa, Kenneth; Müller, Jörg

2014-01-01

337

5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE (Features 9 and 10) AT FAR LEFT AND HOUSE (Feature 13) AT CENTER (n.d.) - Gold Dust Mine, Mill & Camp Complex, Wards Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

338

Evaluation of Potash Grade with Gamma-ray Logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potassium is an emitter of gamma-ray radiation, consequently deposits of potash can be detected and evaluated using gamma-ray logs. A method originally designed to evaluate uranium deposits in boreholes can also be applied to potash deposits. The method equates the depth-integral of a gamma-ray log to the grade-thickness product of a potash-bearing bed or series of beds. The average grade of a bed is then determined by dividing by the overall bed thickness, which can also be obtained from the gamma-ray log. The method was tested using gamma-ray logs and potash assays from boreholes near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

Nelson, Philip H.

2007-01-01

339

3. View of corner connecting log section to north section ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of corner connecting log section to north section of building. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 12, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

340

2. SOUTHWEST CORNER DETAIL, SHOWING LOG CONSTRUCTION AND DIAGONAL STONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SOUTHWEST CORNER DETAIL, SHOWING LOG CONSTRUCTION AND DIAGONAL STONE PATTERN IN CHINKING - Charles Wollerton House, Valley Creek & Sunset Hollow Roads vicinity (East Bradford Township), Downingtown, Chester County, PA

341

Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.  

PubMed

Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

2015-01-01

342

TRUTH & CONSEQUENCES... LOG 437/537: MODEL-THEORETIC SEMANTICS  

E-print Network

TRUTH & CONSEQUENCES... LOG 437/537: MODEL-THEORETIC SEMANTICS Spring 2013, TT 11:45am-1:00pm Dr to the fundamental concepts and methods of model-theoretic semantics and their applications in logic, foundations

Liu, Paul

343

11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near the Minnesota end of the bridge - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

344

11. A closeup view of the log chute showing the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. A closeup view of the log chute showing the turn below the Glens Falls Dam. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

345

15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS THE LAST REMAINING EXAMPLE OF CCC BUILT "RUSTIC STYLE" GUARD RAIL IN PARK. VIEW NE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

346

Heuristic search method for optimal zonation of well logs  

SciTech Connect

Optimal zonation of well-log data, that is, determining an optimal number of major segments such as waveforms in a log, may be achieved by employing a criterion of minimum variance (within a segment) and a heuristic search of potential boundary (link) points of digitized log data. This new method is based on an algorithm originally devised by D.M. Hawkins and D.F. Merriam in 1973. Their method can be improved by introducing a heuristic search procedure, thereby decreasing computer time by 7- to 50-fold, depending on the number of data points and configuration of the logs. Time saving is proportional to the size of the data set. Three examples - one hypothetical and two real-are used to illustrate the modification of the Hawkins and Merriam algorithm.

Chen, H.C.; Fang, J.H.

1986-07-01

347

Logging while fishing technique results in substantial savings  

SciTech Connect

During wireline logging operations, tools occasionally become stuck in the borehole and require fishing. A typical fishing job can take anywhere from 1{1/2}--4 days. In the Gulf of Mexico, a fishing job can easily cost between $100,000 and $500,000. These costs result from nonproductive time during the fishing trip, associated wiper trip and relogging the well. Logging while fishing (LWF) technology is a patented system capable of retrieving a stuck fish and completing the logging run during the same pipe descent. Completing logging operations using LWF method saves time and money. The technique also provides well information where data may not otherwise have been obtained. Other benefits include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety.

Tollefsen, E.; Everett, M.

1996-12-01

348

47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153...

2011-10-01

349

47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153...

2012-10-01

350

47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153...

2010-10-01

351

47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153...

2013-10-01

352

16. DETAIL IN CELLAR, SOUTH SIDE, SHOWING VERTICAL OAK LOGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. DETAIL IN CELLAR, SOUTH SIDE, SHOWING VERTICAL OAK LOGS GOING INTO THE GROUND AND SHORT RUBBLE STONE PIERS SUPPORTING FLOOR BEAMS (POTEAUX EN TERRE CONSTRUCTION) - Amoureaux House, 327 St. Mary's Road, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

353

13. INTERIOR DETAIL OF LOG LINTEL FRAMING OF TRANSVERSE WING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. INTERIOR DETAIL OF LOG LINTEL FRAMING OF TRANSVERSE WING WINDOW - Camp Cleawox Organizational Tract, Lodge Building, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

354

Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

1986-06-01

355

14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging FSTD discrepancies. Each...

2010-01-01

356

14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging FSTD discrepancies. Each...

2011-01-01

357

14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

358

16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG UNIDENTIFIED SECTION OF GOAT TRAIL MINING ROAD - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

359

13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

360

21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major...

2010-04-01

361

TR-023 Geomorphology March 2002 Post-logging landslide rates  

E-print Network

TR-023 Geomorphology March 2002 Post-logging landslide rates in the Cascade Mountains, southwestern ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife #12;Citation: Millard, T., T ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Summary

362

51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-18) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

363

50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southwest (view similar to HALS no. LA-1-21) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

364

Log-domain circuit models of chemical reactions  

E-print Network

We exploit the detailed similarities between electronics and chemistry to develop efficient, scalable bipolar or subthreshold log-domain circuits that are dynamically equivalent to networks of chemical reactions. Our ...

Mandal, Soumyajit

365

Respirator Inspection Log For Non-SCBA emergency Use Respirators  

E-print Network

Respirator Inspection Log For Non-SCBA emergency Use Respirators Appendix E For emergency use respirators, the following checklist will be used monthly to inspect the respirator. The wearer shall initial

Slatton, Clint

366

Value Stream Mapping Value Stream Mapping VSM  

E-print Network

Value Stream Mapping (VSM)(VSM) #12;Value Stream Mapping VSM 1 Value Stream Mapping VSM 1 Value Stream Current State Map As-Is State / - Process owner - Process owner #12) #12;Value Stream MappingValue Stream Mapping End to End Patient Flow Register OPD/ER Admit Dischargeg

Laksanacharoen, Sathaporn

367

Logging while drilling keeps horizontal well on small target  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that the logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurement to two resistivities of different characteristics had led to a new interpretation method for the analysis of horizontal wells. By logging deep and shallow resistivity in real-time, marker beds were identified to help maintain well bore trajectory. The resistivity measurements were split into vertical and horizontal components to provide additional information of

J. Leake; F. Shray

1991-01-01

368

Bio-logging and animal welfare: practical refinements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although bio-logging can benefit both science and animal welfare, its applica- tion involves procedures that can cause animals pain, suffering and distress. It is essential— for both animal welfare and good science—to identify all sources of potential suffering asso- ciated with bio-logging and then to minimise suffering and improve welfare. This paper sum- marises key welfare concerns regarding wild animal

Penny Hawkins

2004-01-01

369

The G+\\/GraphLog Visual Query System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The video presentation “The G+\\/GraphLog Visual Query System” gives an overview of the capabilities of the ongoing implementation of the G+ Visual Query System for visualizing both data and queries as graphs. The system provides an environment for expressing queries in GraphLog [Con89, CM89, CM90], as well as for browsing, displaying and editing graphs. The visual query system also supports

Mariano P. Consens; Alberto O. Mendelzon

1990-01-01

370

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

2003-02-10

371

Fossil Big Bang Turbulence log k , 1/m  

E-print Network

Fossil Big Bang Turbulence 35 log k , 1/m -15 3127-19-23 k2T +1/3 k2T 1/2 = l l+1 Cl +1/6 log k , 1 is irreversible, triggering formation of quantum- gravitational-turbulence and a Big Bang Universe. Entropy-Obukhov turbulent mixing theory the temperature spectrum should be T = -1/3k-5/3 between the Planck scale

Wang, Deli

372

Geophysical logs of selected wells in Eastern Washington  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of geophysical well logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The geophysical logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Results of the geohydrologic study are discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

1983-12-01

373

AL-log: Integrating Datalog and Description Logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an integrated system for knowledge representation, calledAL-log, based on description logics and the deductive database language Datalog. AL-log embodies two subsystems, called structural and relational. The former allows for the definition of structural knowledge about classes of interest (concepts) and membership relation between objects and classes. The latter allows for the definition of relational knowledge about objects described

Francesco M. Donini; Maurizio Lenzerini; Daniele Nardi; Andrea Schaerf

1998-01-01

374

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

2003-02-10

375

Latent log-linear models for handwritten digit classification.  

PubMed

We present latent log-linear models, an extension of log-linear models incorporating latent variables, and we propose two applications thereof: log-linear mixture models and image deformation-aware log-linear models. The resulting models are fully discriminative, can be trained efficiently, and the model complexity can be controlled. Log-linear mixture models offer additional flexibility within the log-linear modeling framework. Unlike previous approaches, the image deformation-aware model directly considers image deformations and allows for a discriminative training of the deformation parameters. Both are trained using alternating optimization. For certain variants, convergence to a stationary point is guaranteed and, in practice, even variants without this guarantee converge and find models that perform well. We tune the methods on the USPS data set and evaluate on the MNIST data set, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of our proposed models. Our models, although using significantly fewer parameters, are able to obtain competitive results with models proposed in the literature. PMID:22064798

Deselaers, Thomas; Gass, Tobias; Heigold, Georg; Ney, Hermann

2012-06-01

376

Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change  

PubMed Central

Long-term (21–30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km2 Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990–2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994–1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5–15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km?2 a?1 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout 210Pb and 137Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km2 Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7–13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992–1993 and 1999–2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale. PMID:22006973

Walsh, R. P. D.; Bidin, K.; Blake, W. H.; Chappell, N. A.; Clarke, M. A.; Douglas, I.; Ghazali, R.; Sayer, A. M.; Suhaimi, J.; Tych, W.; Annammala, K. V.

2011-01-01

377

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG-INACTIVATION WITH OZONE USING EFFLUENT CT 10, GEOMETRIC MEAN CT 10 EXTENDED INTEGRATED CT 10 AND EXTENDED-CSTR CALCULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ("LT2ESWTR") contains Cryptosporidium log-inactivation CT tables. Depending on the water temperature, the Cryptosporidium CT values that are listed are 15 to 25 times greater than CT values fo...

378

The velocity logs as a support for geologic interpretation in the Transylvanian and Pannonian depressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Velocities from seismic and sonic logging data are used for a better understanding of sedimentary, magmatic and tectonic processes in the Transylvanian and Pannonian depressions. On the basis of velocity data, in the Transylvanian Depression some features of sedimentary and magmatic rocks can be distinguished: a nonhomogenous with salt, and homogeneous salt formation both of Badenian age (velocities smaller than 4000m/s and about 4500m/s, respectively); an alternation of intervals of Badenian - Sarmatian age with large velocities(3600 - 5200 m/s), specific for diagenised arenaceous rocks, and small velocities (2800 - 3400 m/s), characteristic for poorly diagenised rocks; two intervals of Malm dolomites with very high velocities (6600 - 7000 m/s) formed in a cold reducing environment; and ophiolitic rocks (3300 - 4600 m/s) of an effusive nature and/or in an alterate state. Time values from seismic loggings in Transylvanian Depression suggest: (1) small dip values for beds of the entire Neogene investigated column, in case of the structures in the central part of the depression; (2) growing dip values of the beds in the deep parts of the Neogene column, in case of structures in the marginal parts of the depression. The pattern of gradually growing velocity values with depth suggests the Teriary relatively monotonous Tertiary subsidence of the Transylvanian Depression. An active dynamics with short repeated raisings of the source zone and/or sinking of the depositional zone is indicated by the Badenian - Sarmatian psamitic pelitic alternating intervals; long time intervals of rapid subsidence and sedimentation are absent. Velocity data from seismic logging in the Pannonian Depression suggest a relatively uniform Neogene subsidence and sedimentation in the northern and central sectors of the eastern part of the depression; sonic loggings suggest a Neogene subsidence and sedimentation with an important late Miocene phase of rapid subsidence and sedimentation, in the south Timiºoara sector of the Pannonian Depression. The borehole recordings indicate small velocity intervals of altered and fissured basement upper part; their importance as hydrocarbon productive rocks is proved. Taking into account the revealed features of both depressions we think that velocity data are of a real value for geologic interpretation.

Damian, A.

2003-04-01

379

Values in Education and Education in Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major purpose of this book is to set out some of the key issues and debates relating to the importance of values in education and of education in values. After an introductory chapter about the concept of values and values education, part 1 provides a variety of perspectives on the values that underpin contemporary education. The introduction…

Halstead, J. Mark, Ed.; Taylor, Monica J., Ed.

380

Detection of autoantibodies to a panel of tumor-associated antigens for the diagnosis values of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

To evaluate the diagnostic values of using autoantibodies in sera to a panel of eight tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) of P53, Koc, P62, C-myc, IMP1, Survivn, P16 and Cyclin B1 full-length recombinant proteins for early detection of patients with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and high-risk subjects screening. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect autoantibodies against the eight selected TAAs in 383 sera samples from four groups, including 140 subjects with normal gastric cardia epithelia (NOR), 76 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 79 patients with gastric cardia dysplasia (DYS) and 88 patients with GCA. In addition, the expression of the eight antigens was analyzed in gastric cardia tissues by immunohistochemical method. The individual autoantibodies to six TAAs (P53, P62, IMP1, Survivn P16 and Cyclin B1) were significantly higher in sera from patients with GCA than that in normal subjects (P < 0.05). When autoantibody assay successively accumulated to seven TAAs (P53, Koc, P62, C-myc, IMP1, Survivn and P16), a stepwise increased detection frequency of autoantibodies was found in the four sera groups (13% in NOR, 39% in CAG, 46% in DYS, and 64% in GCA, respectively), the risks to CAG, DYS and GCA steadily increased about 4.4-, 5.7- and 12.0-fold. The sensitivity and the specificity for autoantibodies against the seven TAAs in diagnosing GCA reached up to 64% and 87%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the seven anti-TAA autoantibodies was 0.73 (95%CI: 0.68-0.78) No more increase in sensitivity was found with the addition of new anti-TAA autoantibodies. A combination detection of autoantibodies to TAAs might be helpful to distinguish GCA patients from normal subjects and the patients with gastric cardia precancerous lesions. In addition, further studies in patients with GCA and precancerous lesions using enlarged TAA panels might improve the sensitivity and specificity of cancer detection and high-risk subjects screening. PMID:24612004

Zhou, S L; Ku, J W; Fan, Z M; Yue, W B; Du, F; Zhou, Y F; Liu, Y L; Li, Y; Tang, S; Hu, Y L; Hu, X P; Hou, Z C; Liu, J; Liu, Y; Feng, X S; Wang, L D

2015-05-01

381

Carbon emissions from tropical forest degradation caused by logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of land-use related efforts in developing countries to reduce carbon emissions has been on slowing deforestation, yet international agreements are to reduce emissions from both deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The second ‘D’ is poorly understood and accounted for a number of technical and policy reasons. Here we introduce a complete accounting method for estimating emission factors from selective timber harvesting, a substantial form of forest degradation in many tropical developing countries. The method accounts separately for emissions from the extracted log, from incidental damage to the surrounding forest, and from logging infrastructure, and emissions are expressed as units of carbon per cubic meter of timber extracted to allow for simple application to timber harvesting statistics. We applied the method in six tropical countries (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana, Indonesia, and Republic of Congo), resulting in total emission factors of 0.99-2.33 Mg C m-3. In all cases, emissions were dominated by damage to surrounding vegetation and the infrastructure rather than the logs themselves, and total emissions represented about 3-15% of the biomass carbon stocks of the associated unlogged forests. We then combined the emission factors with country level logging statistics for nine key timber producing countries represented by our study areas to gain an understanding of the order of magnitude of emissions from degradation compared to those recently reported for deforestation in the same countries. For the nine countries included, emissions from logging were on average equivalent to about 12% of those from deforestation. For those nine countries with relatively low emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to half or more of those from deforestation, whereas for those countries with the highest emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to <10% of those from deforestation. Understanding how to account emissions and the magnitude of each emissions source resulting from tropical timber harvesting practices helps identify where there are opportunities to reduce emissions from the second ‘D’ in REDD.

Pearson, Timothy R. H.; Brown, Sandra; Casarim, Felipe M.

2014-03-01

382

Acoustic logging through casing to detect hydrocarbons and determine porosity in the Wilmington Field, CA  

SciTech Connect

The Wilmington Field, located in the Los Angeles Basin, CA, is composed of relatively unconsolidated turbiditic sands waterflooded for more than 40 years. As is common in this and other oil fields in California and elsewhere, considerable bypassed oil remains in place. The water-oil ratio from one well selectively completed in high-oil saturation sands is significantly lower than the water-oil ratio in adjacent wells. We have begun a 2-year test program to identify sands with high remaining oil saturations by logging old cased wells using a high power low frequency acoustic logging tool as part of a project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE PON PS22-94BC14972). Formation compressional-wave velocity is obtained from monopole data. Formation shear-wave velocity is obtained by analyzing dipole wave modes. In some wells, however, problems associated with poor cement-casing and cement-formation bond, casing eccentricity in the well, and tool eccentricity in the casing make it difficult to detect the dipole mode. Where good data has been obtained, compressional-wave velocities determined in the same cased hole from logs recorded by two different companies agree quite well, as do open- and cased-hole compressional and shear-wave velocities. Porosities determined through casing using shear-wave velocities match conventional open-hole log values. Saturations determined from the velocities and their ratio are similar to those calculated using Archie's Law. Relationships between porosities, saturations, and velocities are consistent with theoretical expectations. The results indicate that it is possible to determine porosity and saturation through casing using acoustic methods even in relatively unconsolidated sands such as those found in the Wilmington Field, provided sufficiently good monopole and dipole waveforms can be obtained.

Moos, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Hooks, A. (MPI, Houston, TX (United States)); Walker, S. (Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

383

Acoustic logging through casing to detect hydrocarbons and determine porosity in the Wilmington Field, CA  

SciTech Connect

The Wilmington Field, located in the Los Angeles Basin, CA, is composed of relatively unconsolidated turbiditic sands waterflooded for more than 40 years. As is common in this and other oil fields in California and elsewhere, considerable bypassed oil remains in place. The water-oil ratio from one well selectively completed in high-oil saturation sands is significantly lower than the water-oil ratio in adjacent wells. We have begun a 2-year test program to identify sands with high remaining oil saturations by logging old cased wells using a high power low frequency acoustic logging tool as part of a project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE PON PS22-94BC14972). Formation compressional-wave velocity is obtained from monopole data. Formation shear-wave velocity is obtained by analyzing dipole wave modes. In some wells, however, problems associated with poor cement-casing and cement-formation bond, casing eccentricity in the well, and tool eccentricity in the casing make it difficult to detect the dipole mode. Where good data has been obtained, compressional-wave velocities determined in the same cased hole from logs recorded by two different companies agree quite well, as do open- and cased-hole compressional and shear-wave velocities. Porosities determined through casing using shear-wave velocities match conventional open-hole log values. Saturations determined from the velocities and their ratio are similar to those calculated using Archie`s Law. Relationships between porosities, saturations, and velocities are consistent with theoretical expectations. The results indicate that it is possible to determine porosity and saturation through casing using acoustic methods even in relatively unconsolidated sands such as those found in the Wilmington Field, provided sufficiently good monopole and dipole waveforms can be obtained.

Moos, D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hooks, A. [MPI, Houston, TX (United States); Walker, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

384

In vitro propagation of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wang) K. Koc  

E-print Network

excision from the parent plant, all explants were cultured under an -2 -1 -2 initial light intensity of 11 uEm s for one week and then at 43 uEm -1 0 s at 26 + 1 C for the remainder of the experiment. Treatments with R Clorox at 5. 0, 7. 5 or 10. 0... and non ? etiolated pecan stem sections. Page 21 2 IBA/ time treatments of in vitro-derived explants. R 3 Influence of Clorox on contamination of cultures. 23 26 4 Influence of stock plant lig(t treatment on contamination of cultures treated...

Hansen, Keith Christian

1982-01-01

385

High-Speed RSA Implementation Cetin Kaya Koc  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.8.1 Montgomery Exponentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.8.2 An Example.5.2 The Sliding Window Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.5.3 Constant Length Nonzero Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.5.4 Variable Length Nonzero Windows

386

A decade of change in the saproxylic beetle fauna of eucalypt logs in the Warra long-term log-decay experiment, Tasmania. 2. Log-size effects, succession, and the functional significance of rare species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first decade of sequential and cyclical sampling of the saproxylic beetles of twelve freshly felled Eucalyptus obliqua logs at Warra, Tasmania has allowed comparisons between larger-diameter mature and smaller-diameter regrowth log-classes\\u000a and between successive sampling cycles and years; and consideration of the interplay between these two aspects. The two log-classes\\u000a support different assemblages, with the mature log-class hosting consistently

Simon J. Grove; Lynette Forster

2011-01-01

387

Four Decades of Forest Persistence, Clearance and Logging on Borneo  

PubMed Central

The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2) of Borneo's area (737,188 km2) was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2%) in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%). We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km?2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km?2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8%) of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo. PMID:25029192

Gaveau, David L. A.; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Sheil, Doug; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Nasi, Robert; Quinones, Marcela; Wielaard, Niels; Meijaard, Erik

2014-01-01

388

Biological legacies buffer local species extinction after logging  

PubMed Central

Clearcutting has been identified as a main threat to forest biodiversity. In the last few decades, alternatives to clearcutting have gained much interest. Living and dead trees are often retained after harvest to serve as structural legacies to mitigate negative effects of forestry. However, this practice is widely employed without information from systematic before–after control-impact studies to assess the processes involved in species responses after clearcutting with retention. We performed a large-scale survey of the occurrence of logging-sensitive and red-listed bryophytes and lichens before and after clearcutting with the retention approach. A methodology was adopted that, for the first time in studies on retention approaches, enabled monitoring of location-specific substrates. We used uncut stands as controls to assess the variables affecting the survival of species after a major disturbance. In total, 12 bryophyte species and 27 lichen species were analysed. All were classified as sensitive to logging, and most species are also currently red-listed. We found that living and dead trees retained after final harvest acted as refugia in which logging-sensitive species were able to survive for 3 to 7 years after logging. Depending on type of retention and organism group, between 35% and 92% of the species occurrences persisted on retained structures. Most species observed outside retention trees or patches disappeared. Larger pre-harvest population sizes of bryophytes on dead wood increased the survival probability of the species and hence buffered the negative effects of logging. Synthesis and applications. Careful spatial planning of retention structures is required to fully embrace the habitats of logging-sensitive species. Bryophytes and lichens persisted to a higher degree in retention patches compared to solitary trees or in the clearcut area. Retaining groups of trees in logged areas will help to sustain populations of species over the clearcut phase. When possible, old logs should be moved into retention patches to provide a more beneficial environment for dead wood-dependent species. Our study also highlights the need for more before–after control-impact studies of retention forestry to explore factors influencing the survival of species after logging. PMID:25653456

Rudolphi, Jörgen; Jönsson, Mari T; Gustafsson, Lena

2014-01-01

389

User's manual for geophysical well-logging software programs  

SciTech Connect

Since 1958 the Ground-Water Surveillance Program for the Hanford Site has made geophysical logging measurements in most of the 800 wells and deep boreholes that have been drilled on the Hanford Site. In 1980 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which conducts the Ground-Water Surveillance Program, began forming a computerized data base for storing and retrieving geophysical well log data and developing software for quantitative analysis of the well log data. This report, designed to serve as a user's guide, documents the data base system that handles the well log data. Two programs, DIGLOG1 and LOGIT, are used to manipulate the data. The program DIGLOG1 translates analog paper strip charts into digital format; the program LOGIT is a general utility program that edits, displays, checks, stores, writes, and deletes sets of well log data. These two programs do not provide sophisticated display and analytical capabilities; rather, they provide programs that give the user easy access to powerful standard analytical software.

Petrie, G.M.; Gibson, D.; Blair, S.C.

1983-02-01

390

Classification of Log-Polar-Visual Eigenfaces using Multilayer Perceptron  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a simple novel approach to tackle the challenges of scaling and rotation of face images in face recognition. The proposed approach registers the training and testing visual face images by log-polar transformation, which is capable to handle complicacies introduced by scaling and rotation. Log-polar images are projected into eigenspace and finally classified using an improved multi-layer perceptron. In the experiments we have used ORL face database and Object Tracking and Classification Beyond Visible Spectrum (OTCBVS) database for visual face images. Experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly improves the recognition performances from visual to log-polar-visual face images. In case of ORL face database, recognition rate for visual face images is 89.5% and that is increased to 97.5% for log-polar-visual face images whereas for OTCBVS face database recognition rate for visual images is 87.84% and 96.36% for log-polar-visual face images.

Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Nasipuri, Mita; Kundu, Mahantapas; Basu, Dipak Kumar

2010-01-01

391

Application of the spread-spectrum technique in well logging  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the novel concept of employing the noise insensitive spread-spectrum technique in well logging. The proposed design of a spread-spectrum device improves the performance of well logging tools, particularly within highly noisy environments. The heart of the device is a shift register which generates a pseudorandom binary code sequence. A coder is connected to the transmitter and codes the probing signal by utilizing the pseudorandom sequence. A decoder is connected to the receiver and correlates the return signal to the same sequence, which is used as a sliding reference. Shifts as small as a fraction of a bit are unambiguously resolvable, and distance resolution of the order of micrometers is achievable. Spread-spectrum well logging tools can operate even with coded signal-to-noise ratio below zero-dB. The spread-spectrum device can be interfaced with any available wave transmitting logging tool. However, tools employing acoustic waves are favorable because the acoustic wave propagation velocity is low and allows the use of inexpensive electronics. The problems associated with high temperatures which are commonly encountered In geothermal reservoirs are bypassed, since the spread-spectrum device can be located either inside the well logging tool or together with the supporting electronics on the surface.

Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Dadakarides, Simos D.

1988-01-01

392

Logging with coiled tubing less effective than with drill pipe  

SciTech Connect

Coiled tubing offered neither economic nor operational advantages over drill pipe for conveying logging tools in open hole shallow horizontal wells in Germany. In the past 2 years, Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GMbH (MEEG) participated in completing eight shallow horizontal wells. These were medium-to-short radius wells at measured depths of between 850 and 2,000 m. The average horizontal section was 350 m. The logging tools were conveyed by coiled tubing or drill pipe. MEEG attempted to log five wells with coiled tubing-conveyed tools, four with 1 1/2-in. tubing. Total depth was reached reliably in only one well, the shallowest and with the shortest horizontal section. Simulation programs were unreliable for calculating the downhole forces of the coil/tool combination or predicting possible helical lockups. In wells with drill pipe-conveyed logs, the tool combination could always be pushed to total depth, and the operations were generally faster and cost less than logging with coiled tubing. Also, drill pipe allowed longer and heavier tool strings. For reliable operations, coiled tubing needs to be more rigid, rig-up/rig-down times need to be improved, and the simulation programs must be more reliable for predicting downhole lock-up.

Van Den Bosch, R. (Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel, Celle (Germany))

1994-01-31

393

Micrometeorology of a Tropical Rainforest Before and After Selective Logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are using long-term eddy covariance to directly measure the effects of selective logging on the energy and trace gas exchange of a tropical forest, as a component of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). We began measurements in June 2000 from a 65 m tall tower in a primary evergreen stand in the Tapajos National Forest (km 83), Para, Brazil, that was selectively logged during the fall of 2001. In addition to the core flux measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor, momentum, and heat, sensors have been installed to measure vertical profiles CO2, H2O, wind velocity, and temperature within and above the forest, to aid in understanding the complex micrometeorology that determines the transfer between the forest and the atmosphere. In addition, after the logging a second 65 m tall tower was installed in a large gap created by the logging, and similarly instrumented. Here, we address the micrometeorology of the forest, both before and after the logging.

Miller, S. D.; Goulden, M. L.; Menton, M. C.; Doughty, C.; da Rocha, H.; Freitas, H.; Figueira, M. A.; da Sousa, C. A.

2002-12-01

394

A complete X-ray sample of the high latitude sky from HEAO-1 A-2: log N lo S and luminosity functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was performed in which a complete X-ray survey of the 8.2 steradians of the sky at galactic latitudes where the absolute value of b is 20 deg down to a limiting sensitivity of 3.1 x ten to the minus 11th power ergs/sq cm sec in the 2-10 keV band. Of the 85 detected sources 17 were identified with galactic objects, 61 were identified with extragalactic objects, and 7 remain unidentified. The log N - log S relation for the non-galactic objects is well fit by the Euclidean relationship. The X-ray spectra of these objects were used to construct log N - log S in physical units. The complete sample of identified sources was used to construct X-ray luminosity functions, using the absolute maximum likelihood method, for clusters galaxies and active galactic nuclei.

Piccinotti, G.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Marshall, F. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Shafer, R. A.

1981-01-01

395

Vacuum-soaking of wood chip shiitake (Lentinula edodes) logs to reduce soak time and log weight variability and to stimulate mushroom yield.  

PubMed

Synthetic logs were vacuum-soaked or regular-soaked to determine the effects of soaking on yield and mushroom size, log weight variability and water distribution within the log. Yields (g/log) from substrates vacuum-soaked were higher by 26.7%, 18.6% and 35.8% (mean = 27.2%) for crops I, II and III, respectively, when compared with regular-soaked. However, mushroom size averaged only 11.2 g for vacuum-soaked logs vs 17 g for regular-soaked logs (51.8% larger for regular-soaked). The time required for vacuum-soaking logs was generally less than 3 min, compared with regular-soaking times ranging over 3-15 h. Water tended to accumulate more in the outside zone in the vacuum-soaked logs, compared with regular-soaked logs. Mean moisture contents for crops I and II for outside, middle and interior zones of vacuum-soaked logs were 66%, 47.5% and 42.2%, respectively, while regular-soaked logs for the same zones were 62.4%, 52.1% and 50.9%, respectively. Vacuum-soaked log weights had lower standard deviations than weights for regular-soaked logs in four out of six soaks, indicating a more uniform soaking process. PMID:11833530

Royse, D J; Rhodes, T W; Sanchez, J E

2002-01-01

396

Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

Ponganis, Paul J.

2007-02-01

397

DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues  

PubMed Central

The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones. PMID:25870777

Alfredsen, Gry; Filbakk, Tore; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

2015-01-01

398

Borehole Logging from Sample Collection to Borehole Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In January of 2003, CSUF drilled and completed a deep multiport-monitoring well on the north side of campus. This was done in order to gain a better understanding of the local subsurface geology and groundwater conditions in and around CSUF. Samples were collected from the drill hole (boring) every 5-feet. The total depth of the well is 870 feet below ground surface (grade). Borehole geophysical data (E-log) information was collected from the boring prior to the installation of the well pipe. As you describe the soil samples, compare and contrast your findings to those of the geophysical signature (gamma-ray log) found in the accompanying "E-log" for the boring.

Richard Laton

399

Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

1981-01-01

400

Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

2012-08-01

401

Keystroke Logging in Writing Research: Using Inputlog to Analyze and Visualize Writing Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Keystroke logging has become instrumental in identifying writing strategies and understanding cognitive processes. Recent technological advances have refined logging efficiency and analytical outputs. While keystroke logging allows for ecological data collection, it is often difficult to connect the fine grain of logging data to the underlying…

Leijten, Marielle; Van Waes, Luuk

2013-01-01

402

Determining the Effects of Logging on Orangutan Behaviour and Survival in Ketambe, Sumatra, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this project is to determine the impact of illegal logging on orangutan behaviour, ecology and survival at the Ketambe research site, northern Sumatra, Indonesia. To design sustainable logging systems it is of critical importance to determine the effect that logging has on a forest's inhabitants and whether or not the logging ultimately threatens their long-term survival.

S. A. Wich; Suci Utami; T. Mitra Setia

403

Density estimation from the sonic log: A case study  

SciTech Connect

In this case study, the authors estimate the bulk densities which would be measured by the density log in a well. They base this estimate on the sonic log, a derived lithology log and velocity-density trend curves. Two published methods based on Gardner et al.`s (1974) relationship and an alternate approach that utilizes an areal trend analysis are evaluated. In comparison with the observed density, the Gardner`s relationship underpredicts the shale density and overpredicts the sand density. A modification of Gardner`s equation (Castagna et al., 1993), which utilizes different coefficients for each lithology, produces a better estimate. However, the results vary from well to well. A local data base within their study area provides an empirical calibration to improve upon the Gardner-type relationships for this area. Approximately 1,000 square miles with 50 wells make up their study area in offshore Louisiana, centered on South Marsh island Block 106. These logs constitute a local data base for determining trends in velocity and density for a two component lithology of sand and shale. The authors identify a linear relationship between the density and logarithm of velocity for both sand and shale. Mixing the sand and shale relationships based on their volume lithologic fractions, they arrive at their density estimate. In comparison to the modified Gardner`s method, a comparable to better estimate of the densities is obtained. Furthermore, the linear relationship allows for easy fine-tuning of the local density prediction. If a portion of the well has a density log, they can calibrate the relationships for the remainder of the well. These results show a remarkable fit to the density curve, with errors of less than 2%. When discrepancies are evident, the predicted curve can be used to edit other logs or to indicate the presence of gas.

DiSiena, J.P.; Hilterman, F.J. [Geophysical Development Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

404

Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

2013-01-01

405

Meta-Analysis of Mass Balances Examining Chemical Fate during Wastewater Treatment  

PubMed Central

Mass balances are an instructive means for investigating the fate of chemicals during wastewater treatment. In addition to the aqueous-phase removal efficiency (?), they can inform on chemical partitioning, transformation, and persistence, as well as on the chemical loading to streams and soils receiving, respectively, treated effluent and digested sewage sludge (biosolids). Release rates computed on a per-capita basis can serve to extrapolate findings to a larger scale. This review examines over a dozen mass balances conducted for various organic wastewater contaminants, including prescription drugs, estrogens, fragrances, antimicrobials, and surfactants of differing sorption potential (hydrophobicity), here expressed as the 1-octanol?water partition coefficient (KOW) and the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (KOC). Major challenges to mass balances are the collection of representative samples and accurate quantification of chemicals in sludge. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data identified sorption potential as the principal determinant governing chemical persistence in biosolids. Occurrence data for organic wastewater compounds detected in digested sludge followed a simple nonlinear model that required only KOW or KOC as the input and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.9 in both instances. The model predicted persistence in biosolids for the majority (>50%) of the input load of organic wastewater compounds featuring a log10KOW value of greater than 5.2 (log10KOC > 4.4). In contrast, hydrophobicity had no or only limited value for estimating, respectively, ? and the overall persistence of a chemical during conventional wastewater treatment. PMID:18800497

2008-01-01

406

An expert system advisor for well log quality control  

E-print Network

, in identical formats for quality control of the sonic, gamma ray and dual induction well logs. A ~ial system program shell served as the fork for building the ~ system. The system has been written as a prototype model. With minimal alterations... PORTION OF THE WELL IOG QUALZIY CONTROL ~ SYSZEM ADVISOR APPENDIX C ? ~TION OF TAXONCMIES 59 59 62 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont. ) DUAL INDUCTION IOG Page 64 APPENDIX D ? ~CE TREES FOR THE GAK% RAY, DUAL INDUCTION AND SONIC IOGS 68 GAMMA RAY LOG...

Warnken, Dean Kennedy

1988-01-01

407

Pulsed neutron gamma-ray logging in archaeological site survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An archaeological survey method based on neutron gamma-ray logging is described. The method relies on the measurement of capture gamma radiation induced by neutron irradiation from a pulsed generator. This technique provides elemental information on the irradiated zone by spectroscopic analysis of the gamma-ray data. This approach has been studied with Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, irradiation volume for a deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator and sampling volume for the D-T source were estimated. In addition, a neutron log response, which illustrates the capability of the neutron tool to localize artifacts lying beneath the surface, is shown.

Miceli, A.; Festa, G.; Gorini, G.; Senesi, R.; Andreani, C.

2013-12-01

408

NADIR: Monitoring, Error Handling, and Logging with Tango  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ingest and transport of a large amount of astronomical data, in geographically distributed archives, imply some challenging issues, like remote control and configuration, monitoring and logging anomalous conditions, fault tolerance and error handling. Based on this considerations and on our experience in data management, we started development of a New Archiving Distributed InfrastructuRe (NADIR), using Tango (Team 2013; S. Gara 2012), a well known distributed control system (DCSs) within scientific environments, taking advantage of its key features, like reliability, scalability, logging and alarm system, consolidated pattern and template, to solve this complexity. In this paper we discuss about design choices and technical aspects around this project.

De Marco, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.

2014-05-01

409

Towards a Stochastic Cellular Automata Model of Log Wood Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Describing the combustion of log wood and others solid fuels with complex geometry, considerable water content and often heterogenous struture is a nontrivial task. Stochastic Cellular Automata models offer a promising approach for modelling such processes. Combustion models of this type exhibit several similarities to the well-known forest fire models, but there are also significant differences between those two types of models. These differences call for a detailed analysis and the development of supplementary modeling approaches. In this article we define a qualitative two-dimensional model of burning log wood, discuss the most important differences to classical forest fire models and present some preliminary results.

Lichtenegger, Klaus; Schappacher, Wilhelm; Hebenstreit, Babette; Schmidl, Christoph; Höftberger, Ernst

2014-03-01

410

Reservoir microfacies and their logging response of gas hydrate in the Qilian Mountain permafrost in Northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Qilian Mountain permafrost is located in the north margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in northwest China. The permafrost area is about 10×104 Km2, and dominated by mountain permafrost. The mean annual ground temperature is 1.5 to 2.4 centigrade and the thickness of permafrost is generally 50 to 139 m. The gas hydrate was sampled successfully in the 133-396m interval from holes DK-1, DK-2 and DK-3 and tested by microRaman spectroscopy in the hydrate laboratory of the Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology during June to September in 2009. The exploratory drilling indicated that gas hydrate and its abnormal occurrence are mainly developed 130-400 m beneath permafrost. The strata belong to the Jiangcang Formation of middle Jurassic. Based on lithology, sedimentary structure and sequence and other facies markers, reservoir microfacies of gas hydrate are identified as underwater distributary channel and interdistributary bay in delta front of delta and deep lake mudstone facies in lacustrine. The underwater distributary channel in delta front of delta is dominated by fine sandstone. It has little mudstone. The grain size generally becomes finer, and scour-filling structure, parallel bedding, cross bedding and wavy bedding develop successively from bottom to top in one phase of channel. In vertical multi-period distributary channels superimpose, forming thick sandstone, and sometimes a thin mudstone develop between two channels. The interdistributaty bay is characterized by mudstone with little siltstone and fine sandstone. The lithology column shows mudstone interbedded with thin sandstone. Horizon bedding and lenticular bedding are the main structure. The gas hydrate usually presents visible white (smoky gray when mixing with mud) ice-like lamina in fissures or invisible micro disseminated occurrence in pores of sandstone. Honeycomb pores formed by the decomposition of gas hydrate are usually found in sandstone. The deep lake is dominated by thick dark grey mudstone and oil shale with horizon bedding. Some plant clasts can be found in mudstone. The gas hydrate generally presents white ice-like lamina in fissures of mudstone and oil shale. Underwater distributary channel and interdistributary bay have big variation amplitude on the logging curves. The extend of gamma (Gr) logging curve is 30 to 140 API, the acoustic (AC) logging curve is 300 to 400?s/m and the apparent resistivity (Rt) logging curve is 20-60?×m. The sandstone layer has characteristics of low Gr and AC value and high Rt value, whereas the mudstone layer has characteristics of high Gr and AC value and low Rt value. In shape, the underwater distributary channel shows tooth-like funnel-shaped pattern on Gr logging curve and bell-shaped pattern on Rt curve, whereas the underwater distributary bay presents tooth-like box-shaped pattern on both Gr and Rt curves. Deep lake mudstone has a relatively small variation amplitude on the logging curves. The extend of Gr logging curve is 45-80 API, the AC logging curve is 280-325?s/m, and the Rt logging curve is 25-50?×m. In the Gr and Rt logging curves, it generally presents box-shaped or tooth-like box-shaped pattern.

Liu, H.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Z.

2012-12-01

411

AN ENTROPIC UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR POSITIVE OPERATOR VALUED MEASURES  

E-print Network

AN ENTROPIC UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR POSITIVE OPERATOR VALUED MEASURES MICHEL RUMIN Abstract. Extending a recent result by Frank and Lieb, we show an entropic uncertainty principle for mixed states, uncertainty principle, homogeneous spaces, log-Sobolev. 1 #12;2 MICHEL RUMIN We shall see that when

Rumin, Michel

412

An entropic uncertainty principle for positive operator valued measures  

E-print Network

Extending a recent result by Frank and Lieb, we show an entropic uncertainty principle for mixed states in a Hilbert space relatively to pairs of positive operator valued measures that are independent in some sense. This yields spatial-spectral uncertainty principles and log-Sobolev inequalities for invariant operators on homogeneous spaces, which are sharp in the compact case.

Michel Rumin

2011-10-25

413

On generalisations of the log-Normal distribution by means of a new product definition in the Kapteyn process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the modification of the Kapteyn multiplicative process using the q-product of Borges [E.P. Borges, A possible deformed algebra and calculus inspired in nonextensive thermostatistics, Physica A 340 (2004) 95]. Depending on the value of the index q a generalisation of the log-Normal distribution is yielded. Namely, the distribution increases the tail for small (when q<1) or large (when q>1) values of the variable upon analysis. The usual log-Normal distribution is retrieved when q=1, which corresponds to the traditional Kapteyn multiplicative process. The main statistical features of this distribution as well as related random number generators and tables of quantiles of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance are presented. Finally, we illustrate the validity of this scenario by describing a set of variables of biological and financial origin.

Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.

2012-07-01

414

A Low-Cost Directional Log Periodic Log Spiral Antenna Emily McMilin1, Doug Henke2, Stephane Claude2, and Jens Bornemann1  

E-print Network

log spiral (LPLS) antenna. Design Details Fig. 1 shows a four-arm LPLS antenna above the groundA Low-Cost Directional Log Periodic Log Spiral Antenna Emily McMilin1, Doug Henke2, St of parabolic dishes, each with an antenna feed situated at its focal point. The type of antenna feed selected

Bornemann, Jens

415

Determination of the lipophilicity (log P o/w) of organic compounds by microemulsion liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Four microemulsion liquid chromatography (MELC) systems and one micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) system have been evaluated as potential high-throughput screening platforms capable of modeling the partitioning behaviors of drug compounds in an n-octanol/water system and predicting their lipophilicity (i.e., log P values). The microemulsion mobile phases is consisted of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), butanol, octane, heptanes, octanol and water. A linear solvation energy relationship (LSER)-based method was used to compare the MELC and MLC systems, as well as several other biochemical systems, and to identify the optimal system by comparing their Euclidean distances with the LSER coefficients. The most effective MELC system had a mobile phase consisting of 3.0% (w/w) SDS, 6.0% (w/w) butanol, 0.8% (w/w) octanol, and 90.2% (w/w) water (pH 6.4). The results showed that it gave superior results to the other chromatographic systems in terms of its ability to predict the log P values of drug compounds. PMID:25459940

Xu, Liyuan; Li, Liangxing; Huang, Jindian; Yu, Suna; Wang, Jing; Li, Ning

2015-01-01

416

A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not possible with the given data set. Additional statistical criteria such as the statistical significance of regressions are used to guide the subsequent calibration of geophysical data in terms of hydraulic variables in those situations where quantitative data inversion is considered appropriate.

Paillet, F.L.; Crowder, R.E.

1996-01-01

417

Determination of true static formation temperature from well logs  

SciTech Connect

Several concepts that attempt to determine static (true) formation temperature from log-derived BHT measurements with and without knowledge of drilling fluid circulation time have been reviewed. Whereas several refined models are available, the simple Horner-type technique provides quick and reliable static (true) formation temperature estimates.

Fertl, W.H.; Chilingarian, G.V.; Yen, T.F.

1986-01-01

418

Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir  

E-print Network

Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir and Redwood Forests Philip B. Durgin United and chemical properties of soil often to a critical extent. By promoting aggregation, soil organic matter affects erodibility,1 infiltration,2 water reten- tion,3 and shear strength of soil.4 Organic matter

Standiford, Richard B.

419

Towards sharing life-log information with society  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are living in an era of social media such as online communities and social networking sites. Exposing or sharing personal information with these communities has risks as well as benefits and there is always a trade off between the risks versus the benefits of using these technologies. Life-logs are pervasive tools or systems which sense and capture contextual information

Reza Rawassizadeh

2012-01-01

420

1. OVERVIEW OF AREA B OF SITE, SHOWING LOG BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW OF AREA B OF SITE, SHOWING LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE AT LEFT (Features 9 and 10), RUIN AND SHED IN CENTER (Features 11 and 12), AND HOUSE RUIN AT RIGHT (Feature 13), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Gold Dust Mine, Mill & Camp Complex, Wards Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

421

Efficient solutions to the replicated log and dictionary problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose efficient algorithms to maintain a replicated dictionary using a log in an unreliable network. A non-serializable approach is used to achieve high concurrency. The solutions are resilient to both node and communication failures. Optimizations are developed for networks which are not completely connected.

Gene T. J. Wuu; Arthur J. Bernstein

1984-01-01

422

20. DETAIL OF DOOR TO FIRST LOG PEN OF NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. DETAIL OF DOOR TO FIRST LOG PEN OF NORTH WALL (north wall of north entry (right side), at the southeast corner of first of four pens which form the north wall of the barn). VIEW LOOKING WEST. Date: July 10, 1937; negative #10636 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

423

Log-based distributed intrusion detection for hybrid networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel hybrid distributed security operation center which collects logs that are generated by any application, service, and protocol regardless of the layer of the protocol stack and the device (e.g., router); providing a global view of the supervised system based on which complex and distributed intrusions can be detected. Our HDSOC further (i) distributes its capabilities and

Francoise Sailhan; Julien Bourgeois

2008-01-01

424

Snag longevity in relation to wildfire and postfire salvage logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snags create nesting, foraging, and roosting habitat for a variety of wildlife species. Removal of snags through postfire salvage logging reduces the densities and size classes of snags remaining after wildfire. We determined important variables associated with annual persistence rates (the probability a snag remains standing from 1 year to the next) of large conifer snags (?23cm diameter breast height

Robin E. Russell; Victoria A. Saab; Jonathan G. Dudley; Jay J. Rotella

2006-01-01

425

44. View of log boom (downstream) protecting fish screens at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. View of log boom (downstream) protecting fish screens at Dingle Basin, looking northeast from south side of basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

426

43. View of log boom (upstream) protecting fish screens at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. View of log boom (upstream) protecting fish screens at Dingle Basin, looking southwest from north side of basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, PUget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

427

Estimating the Service Time of Web Clients using Server Logs  

E-print Network

Estimating the Service Time of Web Clients using Server Logs Oscar Ardaiz Dep. Arquitectura de Freitag Dep. Arquitectura de Computadores Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya Jordi Girona, 1­3, Barcelona (España) felix@ac.upc.es Leandro Navarro Dep. Arquitectura de Computadores Universidad Politécnica

Freitag, Felix

428

Web User Clustering from Access Log Using Belief Function  

E-print Network

such as tar- geting users for advertising. By using the concept of mass distribution in Dempster of information. In E-commerce, companies want to analyze the user's preferences to place advertisements resources on the Internet. Web access log contains a lot of information that allows us to observe user

Phoha, Vir V.

429

A Log-Barrier Method for Mesh Quality Improvement  

E-print Network

into a constrained optimization problem. We solve this unconstrained optimization problem using an interior point be reformulated as a smooth constrained optimization problem. Our technique solves the latter problem using a log-barrier interior point method and uses the gradient of the objective function to efficiently converge

Shontz, Suzanne M.

430

Estimators and Characteristics of Logging Residue in California : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study, designed to meet the needs of site-specific analysis of logging residue throughout the State of California, has two primary objectives. First was to develop analytical tools for estimating the volume of logging residue for any uniquely defined supply zone in California. Volume estimators developed in this study relate residue volume to both timber harvest volume and acreage. Second was to describe and classify residue by characteristics that affect utilization. Residue materials were classified as to gross and net volume of logging residue by diameter and length, for live, and dead and cull; to number of pieces of residue per acre, by diameter and length; to volume of residue by percent sound (chippability), in cubic feet per acre; to accessibility of residue on cutover areas, by slope and distance to road; and to volume by softwoods and hardwoods. Residue ratios and characteristics data are displayed for eight sample strata in California, based on geographic area, owner class - harvest method, and forest type. Within geographical areas owner class - harvest method strata were selected on the basis of expected differences in residue volume, availability of data, and land management objectives. A separate stratum was selected for the Ponderosa pine forest type in eastern California based on expected differences in residue volume and characteristics. Study results are based on measurements of logging residue on 220 cutover areas allocated across the eight strata. 12 refs., 8 figs., 47 tabs.

Howard, James O.; Bulgrin, Julianne K.

1985-04-19

431

Analysis of a very large web search engine query log  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an analysis of an AltaVista Search Engine query log consisting of approximately 1 billion entries for search requests over a period of six weeks. This represents almost 285 million user sessions, each an attempt to fill a single information need. We present an analysis of individual queries, query duplication, and query sessions. We also present

Craig Silverstein; Hannes Marais; Monika Henzinger; Michael Moricz

1999-01-01

432

Publishing Search Logs A Comparative Study of Privacy Guarantees  

E-print Network

Machanavajjhala Guozhang Wang Xiaokui Xiao Johannes Gehrke Abstract--Search engine companies collect the "database. Search engine companies, however, are wary of publishing search logs in order not to disclose sensitive. Search engines play a crucial role in the navigation through the vastness of the Web. Today's search

Keinan, Alon

433

Vol. 43, No. 2 August 1999 Mariners Weather Log  

E-print Network

weather both in the United States and Europe. Along the United States east coast, a class of storms American continent meets the Gulf Stream warm air. Development of these storms can sometimes be explosive Log Table of Contents Hurricane Avoidance Using the "34-Knot Wind Radius" and "1-2-3" Rules

434

DARK ENERGY FROM THE LOG-TRANSFORMED CONVERGENCE FIELD  

SciTech Connect

A logarithmic transform of the convergence field improves 'the information content', i.e., the overall precision associated with the measurement of the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum, by improving the covariance matrix properties. The translation of this improvement in the information content to that in cosmological parameters, such as those associated with dark energy, requires knowing the sensitivity of the log-transformed field to those cosmological parameters. In this paper, we use N-body simulations with ray tracing to generate convergence fields at multiple source redshifts as a function of cosmology. The gain in information associated with the log-transformed field does lead to tighter constraints on dark energy parameters, but only if shape noise is neglected. The presence of shape noise quickly diminishes the advantage of the log-mapping, more quickly than we would expect based on the information content. With or without shape noise, using a larger pixel size allows for a more efficient log-transformation.

Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sato, Masanori [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Takada, Masahiro [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Dodelson, Scott, E-mail: hee-jongseo@lbl.gov [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

2012-03-20

435

Acquiring Explicit User Goals From Search Query Logs Markus Strohmaier  

E-print Network

distribution. 1. Introduction To realize the vision of intelligent, goal-oriented agents on the web, agentsAcquiring Explicit User Goals From Search Query Logs Markus Strohmaier Graz University goals is crucial for realizing the vision of intelligent agents acting upon user intent on the web

436

Study identifies Niger Delta log parameter, VSP trends  

SciTech Connect

The general characteristics of various electrical log measurements vs depth in the Niger Delta were established and used to delineate the top of overpressured zones in the area. Measurements used in this study are resistivity, sonic, density, acoustic impedance, and Schlumberger's RFT. Charts which can be used to evaluate and control pore pressure in the area are presented.

Ichara, M.J.; Auboubo, A.A.

1985-03-04

437

Design of Large Scale Log Analysis Studies A short tutorial...  

E-print Network

identifiable data 00:32 ...now I know... 00:35 ... you get a lot of weird things..hold on... 00:38 "Are:44 So that's where you can get surprised... you're like, where is this... how does this relate of behavior with detailed instrumentation User Groups In the wild, real-world tasks, probe for detail Log

Dumais, Susan

438

The Ultimate Messier Object Log PDF Enter Notes  

E-print Network

by Messier # List star atlas info for all objects, sorted by Messier #. Credits & Copyrights Visit the SEDS notes, sort on several different fields, and print field notes for star parties. This special version Page #12;The Ultimate Messier Log M001Messier # TaurusConstellation CBinocular Difficulty Chart Page

Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

439

Using Log Linear Analysis for Categorical Family Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Goodman technique of log linear analysis is ideal for family research, because it is designed for categorical (non-quantitative) variables. Variables are dichotomized (for example, married/divorced, childless/with children) or otherwise categorized (for example, level of permissiveness, life cycle stage). Contingency tables are then…

Moen, Phyllis

440

SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale  

E-print Network

and mineralogy is crucial in order to identify the "right" pay-zone intervals for shale gas production. Also of production from shale gas reservoirs. In this study, synthetic geomechanical logs (Including following cases during reservoir modeling in Shale Gas fields. A common source of securing such data

Mohaghegh, Shahab

441

Time series analysis of a Web search engine transaction log  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we use time series analysis to evaluate predictive scenarios using search engine transactional logs. Our goal is to develop models for the analysis of searchers' behaviors over time and investigate if time series analysis is a valid method for predicting relationships between searcher actions. Time series analysis is a method often used to understand the underlying characteristics

Ying Zhang; Bernard J. Jansen; Amanda Spink

2009-01-01

442

MEMBER CENTER: Create Account | Log In Email Print Text Size  

E-print Network

. He was one of the developers of the new monitoring system. Digestive System News Holiday Travel, BadMEMBER CENTER: Create Account | Log In Email Print Text Size Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux WEDNESDAY, June 20 (HealthDay News) -- A wireless monitoring system that uses electrical impulses

Chiao, Jung-Chih

443

Frame Selection for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log  

E-print Network

Frame Selection for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log Tomonori Shuda and Ruck Thawonmas a comic generating system that visualizes an online-game play. Our system was inspired by a former work of Shamir et al. However, comics generated in their work can have series of similar frames when multiple

Thawonmas, Ruck

444

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-09-05

445

FRACTURE RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION BY FIBER-OPTIC DISTRIBUTED TEMPERATURE LOG  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important features of the fiber-optic distributed temperature log is its ability to acquire continuous, instantaneous and simultaneous temperature profile along the entire wellbore. Series of successive temperature profiles sampled every one minute or so enable to analyze transient temperature phenomena, which may pertain to important reservoir properties. For example, when change of rate occurred to the fluid

Naotsugu IKEDA

446

17. Integrating Engineered Log JamTechnology into River Rehabilitation  

E-print Network

17. Integrating Engineered Log JamTechnology into River Rehabilitation Tim Abbe, George Pess, David R. Montgomery, and Kevin L. Fetherston ABSTRACT Reach-scale river rehabilitation projects using and engineering practices. The ELJ demonstration projects were developed as part of river rehabilitation efforts

Montgomery, David R.

447

What to expect when logging the Cotton Valley trend  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration within the low-porosity, low-permeability sections of the Cotton Valley sands and limestones of E. Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas has proven economic only within the last 5 to 8 yr due to improved gas prices and advanced reservoir analyzation and stimulation techniques. This work details those logging suites necessary to properly assess these less than optimum reservoirs, and illustrates, through

P. Nangle; W. H. Fertl; E. Jr. Frost

1982-01-01

448

Logging, a bigger threat to the rainforest than we knew  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The amount of land in the Amazon rainforest that's being damaged by human activities is twice as large as we had previously thought, suggests a new study. That's because researchers didn't have a good idea of how much logging was occurring there, until now.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2005-10-20

449

Learning Dense Models of Query Similarity from User Click Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work is to integrate query similarity metrics as features into a dense model that can be trained on large amounts of query log data, in order to rank query rewrites. We propose features that incorpo- rate various notions of syntactic and semantic similarity in a generalized edit distance frame- work. We use the implicit feedback of

Fabio De Bona; Stefan Riezler; Keith Hall; Massimiliano Ciaramita; Amac Herdagdelen; Maria Holmqvist

2010-01-01

450

Landslides After Clearcut Logging in a Coast Redwood Forest1  

E-print Network

163 Landslides After Clearcut Logging in a Coast Redwood Forest1 Leslie M. Reid2 and Elizabeth T. Keppeler2 Abstract Landslides have been mapped at least annually in the 473 ha North Fork Caspar Creek watershed since 1985, allowing evaluation of landslide distribution, characteristics, and rates associated

Standiford, Richard B.

451

Mariners Weather Log Vol. 45, No. 2 August 2001  

E-print Network

guess I have it. This is my first real issue of the Mariners Weather Log. When I came aboard in late the pieces went. I hope my shoulders are wide enough to carry on this great endeavor. Also, I do really appreciate all who have helped me on my indoctrination into the wonderful world of NOAA administration

452

Timber production in selectively logged tropical forests in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective logging is an extensive land-use practice in South America. Governments in the region have enacted policies to promote the establishment and maintenance of economically productive and sustainable forest industries. However, both biological and policy constraints threaten to limit the viability of the industry over the long term. Biological constraints, such as slow tree growth rates, can be overcome somewhat

Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Geoffrey Blate; John McGlocklin; Frank Merry; M. Peña-Claros; Johan Zweede

2007-01-01

453

Mining Criminal Networks from Chat Log Farkhund Iqbal  

E-print Network

, cyber predation, cyber threatening, blackmail, and drug trafficking. One way to fight cybercrime to analyze online messages for the purpose of crime investigation. Our framework takes the chat log from into topics, identifies the information relevant to crime investigation, and visualizes the knowledge

Fung, Benjamin C. M.

454

Study on Vibration of Logging Harvester in Forest Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

The logging harvester is made up of a walking mechanism, a mechanical arm, a felling head and a driving control system, which can do the works of felling, limbing, measuring and bucking. Because the ground surface of the forest land is very rough, the vibration should be studied when it is going in the forest land in order to prevent

Xu Wenxuan; Lu Huaimin; Guo Xiuli

2010-01-01

455

Collecting Weather Data and Keeping a Weather Log  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students make daily observations of temperature, sky conditions, wind speed and direction, and precipitation type and amount, and record their observations in a log book. They will also compare their observations to those from online sources and analyze their data for class discussion. Follow-up and extension activities are also included.

456

12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

457

Development, Implementation and Assessment of a Progressive Reading Log System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in upper-level Engineering classes such as Fluid Mechanics often find themselves faced with over 60 pages of reading a week in addition to assigned problems and exam preparation. Since the reading of the textbook is often infrequently assessed, this aspect of course learning is often postponed or omitted. In addition, with this amount of reading, many students quickly find themselves so far behind in the reading that they can no longer catch up. A reading log system where content responsibility is progressively shifted from the instructors questions to student identification and reflection has been developed and implemented in junior-level Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics courses to address several of the issues associated with student use of the textbook. The goal of the reading log is to improve student use of resource material and to provide opportunities for students to develop skills in reading scientific material. Reflective questioning, guided identification of key concepts, probing questions and cyclic problems are some of the tools that are used to stimulate student use of the textbook. In addition, the progressive content of the reading logs is designed to transition the student from rote learning to self-reflection and synthesis of understanding. To evaluate the effectiveness of the resource, student surveys and responses to reading log questions have beenused to guide its development.

Benson, Daniel

458

Lawson Job Description Acknowledgment Instructions Log In to Lawson  

E-print Network

Lawson Job Description Acknowledgment Instructions · Log In to Lawson o Lawson Web Address: - https. Updated 3/15/10 Page 1 of 6 #12;Lawson Job Description Acknowledgment Instructions Click "My Job Description" · Click "My Job Description" from the Employee Central section of your home page o "My Job

Gleeson, Joseph G.

459

Lawson Job Description Acknowledgment Verification Instructions Log In to Lawson  

E-print Network

Lawson Job Description Acknowledgment Verification Instructions · Log In to Lawson o Lawson Web Lawson e-mail your password to you. Updated 3/15/10 Page 1 of 3 #12;Lawson Job Description Acknowledgment Verification Instructions Click "Employee's Sign-off of their Job Description" · Click "Employee's Sign

Gleeson, Joseph G.

460

Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

2011-01-01

461

Synthetic Temperature-Depth Transients Based On Solar Forcing vs. Observed From Repeated Well Temperature Logs in the Canadian Prairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-logs in boreholes made initially two decades ago, and repeated a single decade ago, were recently repeated in 2006 and 2007. Modelling of the synthetic temperature-depth transients shows that repeated logs in the Canadian Prairies follow surface air temperature change forcing for the time interval between logs with surface temperature changes 0.2°C, and 0.4°C, for time spans of one and two decades, respectively. Composite top of the atmosphere (TOA) solar irradiance recorded by satellite since 1978 was scaled to the regional latitude/longitude position of the repeated logging experiment to provide a forcing signal to model subsurface temperatures, as previously done with SAT data. The feedback parameter used is assumed a priori as 3.0*COS(latitude in degrees) - 0.42) Wm-2/°C, which yields 0.71 - 0.59 for latitudes 49-52° and mean sensitivity 1.41 - 1.69 °C/Wm-2. While these sensitivity values correspond to equilibrium models in the transient times before the climate system reaches the equilibrium, the temperature change is smaller and likely closer to 1°C/Wm-2. Even for this higher mean sensitivity, the temperature response is not large enough to explain the ground surface temperature change. As surface air temperature forcing explains the observed sub-surface transients, factors other than solar forcing must be responsible for the observed large recent warming, likely anthropogenic changes related to the greenhouse effect.

Skinner, W.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Safanda, J.

2009-12-01

462

Evaluation of estimation methods for organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A critically evaluated set of 94 soil water partition coefficients normalized to soil organic carbon content (Koc) is presented for 11 classes of organic chemicals. This data set is used to develop and evaluate Koc estimation methods using three different descriptors. The three types of descriptors used in predicting Koc were octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), molecular connectivity (mXt) and linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The best results were obtained estimating Koc from Kow, though a slight improvement in the correlation coefficient was obtained by using a two-parameter regression with Kow and the third order difference term from mXt. Molecular connectivity correlations seemed to be best suited for use with specific chemical classes. The LSER provided a better fit than mXt but not as good as the correlation with Koc. The correlation to predict Koc from Kow was developed for 72 chemicals; log Koc = 0.903* log Kow + 0.094. This correlation accounts for 91% of the variability in the data for chemicals with log Kow ranging from 1.7 to 7.0. The expression to determine the 95% confidence interval on the estimated Koc is provided along with an example for two chemicals of different hydrophobicity showing the confidence interval of the retardation factor determined from the estimated Koc. The data showed that Koc is not likely to be applicable for chemicals with log Kow Koc correlation developed using Kow as a descriptor was compared with three nonclass-specific correlations and two 'commonly used' class-specific correlations to determine which method(s) are most suitable.

Baker, James R.; Mihelcic, James R.; Luehrs, Dean C.; Hickey, James P.

1997-01-01

463

From Value Chain to Value Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a value chain has assumed a dominant position in the strategic analysis of industries. However, the value chain is underpinned by a particular value creating logic and its application results in particular strategic postures. Adopting a network perspective provides an alternative perspective that is more suited to New Economy organisations, particularly for those where both the product

Anna Rylander

2006-01-01

464

What's the Value in Value-Added?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

Duffrin, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

465

Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) methods could reduce CO2 emissions by 30-50% across at least 20% of remaining tropical forests. We developed two cost effective and robust indices for comparing the climate benefits (reduced CO2 emissions) due to RIL. The indices correct for variability in the volume of commercial timber among concessions. We determined that a correction for variability in terrain slope was not needed. We found that concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, N = 3), when compared with noncertified concessions (N = 6), did not have lower overall CO2 emissions from logging activity (felling, skidding, and hauling). On the other hand, FSC certified concessions did have lower emissions from one type of logging impact (skidding), and we found evidence of a range of improved practices using other field metrics. One explanation of these results may be that FSC criteria and indicators, and associated RIL practices, were not designed to achieve overall emissions reductions. Also, commonly used field metrics are not reliable proxies for overall logging emissions performance. Furthermore, the simple distinction between certified and noncertified concessions does not fully represent the complex history of investments in improved logging practices. To clarify the relationship between RIL and emissions reductions, we propose the more explicit term 'RIL-C' to refer to the subset of RIL practices that can be defined by quantified thresholds and that result in measurable emissions reductions. If tropical forest certification is to be linked with CO2 emissions reductions, certification standards need to explicitly require RIL-C practices. PMID:24022913

Griscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E

2014-03-01

466

Geothermal regime of Tarim basin, NW China: insights from borehole temperature logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal regime of sedimentary basin is vital for understanding basin (de)formation process, hydrocarbon generation status and assessing the resource potential. Located at the Precambrian craton block, the Tarim basin is the largest intermountain basin in China, which is also the ongoing target of oil and gas exploration. Previous knowledge of thermal regime of this basin is from limited oil exploration borehole testing temperature, the inherent deficiency of data of this type makes accurate understanding of its thermal regime impossible. Here we reported our latest steady temperature logging results in this basin and analyze its thermal regime as well. In this study, 10 temperature loggings are conducted in the northern Tarim basin where the major oil and gas fields are discovered. All the boreholes for temperature logging are non-production wells and are shut in at least more than 2~3 years, ensuring the temperature equilibrium after drilling. The derived geothermal gradient varies from 20.2 to 26.1 degree/km, with a mean of 22.0 degree/km. However, some previous reported gradients in this area are obviously lower than our results; for example, the previous gradient of THN2 well is 13.2 degree/km but 23.2 degree/km in this study, and not enough equilibrium time in previous logging accounts for this discrepancy. More important, it is found that high gradients usually occur in the gas field and the gradients of the gas fields are larger than those in other oil fields, indicating higher thermal regime in gas field. The cause of this phenomenon is unclear, and the upward migration of hot fluid along fault conduit is speculated as the possible mechanism for this high geothermal anomaly in the oil and gas fields. Combined with measured thermal conductivity data, 10 new heat flow values are also achieved, and the heat flow of the Tarim basin is between 38mW/m2 and 52mW/m2, with a mean of 43 mW/m2. This relatively low heat flow is coincident with that of typical Precambrian craton basin in the world, considering that the Tarim basin has not experienced obvious Meso-Cenozoic tectono-thermal events after its formation. The heat flow distribution of the Tarim basin is characterized by large values in the uplift areas and low in the depressions, showing the influence of lateral contrast in thermal properties within the basin on present-day geothermal regime.

Liu, S.; Lei, X.

2013-12-01

467

Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project  

SciTech Connect

The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

Lance Prothro, Sigmund Drellack, Margaret Townsend

2009-03-25

468

Annual Logging Symposium, June 3-6, 2007 JOINT INVERSION OF DENSITY AND RESISTIVITY LOGS FOR THE  

E-print Network

LOGS FOR THE IMPROVED PETROPHYSICAL ASSESSMENT OF THINLY-BEDDED CLASTIC ROCK FORMATIONS Zhipeng Liu interpretation across interbedded rock formations. This situation routinely gives rise to inaccurate assessments of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation across interbedded rock formations and to reduce non

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

469

Rock Mechanical Properties from Logs Petrophysics : Concepts and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the "geomechanics from logs" (GML) research project is to develop model-driven predictive software for determining rock mechanical properties (specifically rock strength, compressibility and fracability) from other, more easily measured, rock properties (e.g. lithology, porosity, clay volume, velocity) routinely derived from nuclear, resistivity and acoustic logging tools. To this end, geomechanics from logs seeks to increase fundamental understanding of the primary geologic controls on rock mechanical properties and to translate this new insight into novel predictive tools. In detail, GML predictors rely on (i) the generation of relational rock mechanical properties databases incorporating QC'd core-based laboratory measurements (both in-house and high-precision published data); (ii) the use of established rock physics models (e.g. friable sand, contact cement models) to investigate theoretical relationships between geologic processes, reservoir environment, rock microstructure and elastic, bulk and transport petrophysical attributes/properties; (iii) the subdivision of database rocks into generic lithotypes (e.g. sand, shaly sand, sandy shale, shale) with common petrophysical attributes/properties; (iv) the use of multivariate statistics to generate lithotype-dependent empirical predictive relationships between mechanical properties and log-derived petrophysical attributes/properties; (v) the estimation of uncertainties associated with predictive function parameters; (vi) the application and validation of mechanical properties predictive tools to well-documented case studies (e.g. sand strength for perforation stability, rock compressibility for reservoir simulation) to test overall performance and quantify uncertainty in predictions. This paper presents the results of various rock strength, rock compressibility and rock fracability case studies conducted in wells of different stratigraphic age and depositional environment. Overall, GML (i) facilitated a step-change in fundamental (rock physics-based) understanding of complex geologic controls (rock microstructure and reservoir environment) on formation mechanical parameters; (ii) generated predictive algorithms relating core-derived rock mechanical parameters (specifically formation strength, compressibility and fracability) to petrophysical parameters determined directly from logging tools; and (iii) resulted in the implementation of these predictive algorithms and associated uncertainty quantification within log-analysis software.

Gaillot, Philippe; Crawford, Brian; Alramahi, Bashar; Karner, Steve

2010-05-01

470

Bidirectional log-polar mapping for invariant object recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The representation of visual information in human striate cortex is of significance to machine vision. Invariance to certain geometrical transformations in the field-of-view may be provided by the computational anatomy of the visual cortex. For example, there is evidence that the retino-cortical mapping is closely approximated by a log-polar transform. When combined with the foveation response, log-polar mapping can provide a basis for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant perception. There is also evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the spatial frequency content of its input. Although a Fourier transform is physiologically implausible, some authors have suggested its use for invariant object recognition because the magnitude of the Fourier transform is shift invariant. The Fourier transform magnitude operation followed by log-polar mapping can also provide a basis for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant perception. Both of these image-transform (feature mapping) algorithms give mathematical invariance to translation, rotation, and dilation. For an automatic recognition system, however, the feature mapping module has to be robust to discretization error, noise, and possible obscuration. Robustness considerations led to the development of the bi- directional log-polar mapping (BPM) algorithm. The BPM algorithm overcomes the pixel- dropout problems associated with conventional approaches to log-polar mapping. The authors evaluate several feature mapping models, both biologically and mathematically inspired, for their effect on recognition performance when embedded in a neural-network-based, object- recognition system. The modular recognition system, consisting of image restoration, detection, segmentation, feature extraction, invariant mapping, and classification, is being developed to classify objects in laser radar range imagery. Synthetic laser radar range images of four vehicles rotated in the field-of-view, scaled to various ranges, and corrupted by increasing levels of sensor noise are used for this evaluation. This study indicates that feature mapping based on the bi-directional log-polar map provides translation, rotation, and scale- invariant recognition capabilities as well as robustness to noise and discretization.

Mehanian, Courosh; Rak, Steven J.

1991-08-01

471

Resistance and resilience of the forest soil microbiome to logging-associated compaction  

PubMed Central

Soil compaction is a major disturbance associated with logging, but we lack a fundamental understanding of how this affects the soil microbiome. We assessed the structural resistance and resilience of the microbiome using a high-throughput pyrosequencing approach in differently compacted soils at two forest sites and correlated these findings with changes in soil physical properties and functions. Alterations in soil porosity after compaction strongly limited the air and water conductivity. Compaction significantly reduced abundance, increased diversity, and persistently altered the structure of the microbiota. Fungi were less resistant and resilient than bacteria; clayey soils were less resistant and resilient than sandy soils. The strongest effects were observed in soils with unfavorable moisture conditions, where air and water conductivities dropped well below 10% of their initial value. Maximum impact was observed around 6–12 months after compaction, and microbial communities showed resilience in lightly but not in severely compacted soils 4 years post disturbance. Bacteria capable of anaerobic respiration, including sulfate, sulfur, and metal reducers of the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, were significantly associated with compacted soils. Compaction detrimentally affected ectomycorrhizal species, whereas saprobic and parasitic fungi proportionally increased in compacted soils. Structural shifts in the microbiota were accompanied by significant changes in soil processes, resulting in reduced carbon dioxide, and increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions from compacted soils. This study demonstrates that physical soil disturbance during logging induces profound and long-lasting changes in the soil microbiome and associated soil functions, raising awareness regarding sustainable management of economically driven logging operations. PMID:24030594

Hartmann, Martin; Niklaus, Pascal A; Zimmermann, Stephan; Schmutz, Stefan; Kremer, Johann; Abarenkov, Kessy; Lüscher, Peter; Widmer, Franco; Frey, Beat

2014-01-01

472

Resistance and resilience of the forest soil microbiome to logging-associated compaction.  

PubMed

Soil compaction is a major disturbance associated with logging, but we lack a fundamental understanding of how this affects the soil microbiome. We assessed the structural resistance and resilience of the microbiome using a high-throughput pyrosequencing approach in differently compacted soils at two forest sites and correlated these findings with changes in soil physical properties and functions. Alterations in soil porosity after compaction strongly limited the air and water conductivity. Compaction significantly reduced abundance, increased diversity, and persistently altered the structure of the microbiota. Fungi were less resistant and resilient than bacteria; clayey soils were less resistant and resilient than sandy soils. The strongest effects were observed in soils with unfavorable moisture conditions, where air and water conductivities dropped well below 10% of their initial value. Maximum impact was observed around 6-12 months after compaction, and microbial communities showed resilience in lightly but not in severely compacted soils 4 years post disturbance. Bacteria capable of anaerobic respiration, including sulfate, sulfur, and metal reducers of the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, were significantly associated with compacted soils. Compaction detrimentally affected ectomycorrhizal species, whereas saprobic and parasitic fungi proportionally increased in compacted soils. Structural shifts in the microbiota were accompanied by significant changes in soil processes, resulting in reduced carbon dioxide, and increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions from compacted soils. This study demonstrates that physical soil disturbance during logging induces profound and long-lasting changes in the soil microbiome and associated soil functions, raising awareness regarding sustainable management of economically driven logging operations. PMID:24030594

Hartmann, Martin; Niklaus, Pascal A; Zimmermann, Stephan; Schmutz, Stefan; Kremer, Johann; Abarenkov, Kessy; Lüscher, Peter; Widmer, Franco; Frey, Beat

2014-01-01

473

SedMob: A mobile application for creating sedimentary logs in the field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SedMob is an open-source, mobile software package for creating sedimentary logs, targeted for use in tablets and smartphones. The user can create an unlimited number of logs, save data from each bed in the log as well as export and synchronize the data with a remote server. SedMob is designed as a mobile interface to SedLog: a free multiplatform package for drawing graphic logs that runs on PC computers. Data entered into SedMob are saved in the CSV file format, fully compatible with SedLog.

Wolniewicz, Pawel

2014-05-01

474

The Teaching of Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews prior approaches to instilling values so as to discuss the importance of teaching values now. Suggests how student affairs preparation program curricula can help practitioners learn how to teach values. Identifies five recent changes in campus values and uses examples to show how student affairs practitioners use core values. (RJM)

Moore, Leila V.; Hamilton, Deborah H.

1993-01-01

475

Solving the Hamiltonian constraint for 1+log trumpets  

E-print Network

The puncture method specifies black hole data on a hypersurface with the aid of a conformal rescaling of the metric that exhibits a coordinate singularity at the puncture point. When constructing puncture initial data by solving the Hamiltonian constraint for the conformal factor, the coordinate singularity requires special attention. The standard way to treat the pole singularity occurring in wormhole puncture data is not generally applicable to trumpet puncture data. We investigate a new approach based on inverse powers of the conformal factor and present numerical examples for single punctures of the wormhole and 1+log-trumpet type. Additionally, we describe a method to solve the Hamiltonian constraint for two 1+log trumpets for a given extrinsic curvature with non-vanishing trace. We investigate properties of this constructed initial data during binary black hole evolutions and find that the initial gauge dynamics is reduced.

Tim Dietrich; Bernd Bruegmann

2013-09-12

476

Semantic annotation for live and posterity logging of video documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadcasters usually envision two basic applications for video databases: Live Logging and Posterity Logging. The former aims at providing effective annotation of video in quasi-real time and supports extraction of meaningful clips from the live stream; it is usually performed by assistant producers working at the same location of the event. The latter provides annotation for later reuse of video material and is the prerequisite for retrieval by content from video digital libraries; it is performed by trained librarians. Both require that annotation is performed, at a great extent, automatically. Video information structure must encompass both low-intermediate level video organization and event relationships that define specific highlights and situations. Analysis of the visual data of the video stream permits to extract hints, identify events and detect highlights. All of this must be supported by a-priori knowledge of the video domain and effective reasoning engines capable to capture the inherent semantics of the visual events.

Bertini, Marco; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Nunziati, W.

2003-06-01

477

Slimhole Drilling, Logging, and Completion Technology - An Update  

SciTech Connect

Using slim holes (diameter < 15 cm) for geothermal exploration and small-scale power production can produce significant cost savings compared to conventional rotary-drilling methods. In addition, data obtained from slim holes can be used to lower the risks and costs associated with the drilling and completion of large-diameter geothermal wells. As a prime contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories has worked with industry since 1992 to develop and promote drilling, testing, and logging technology for slim holes. This paper describes the current status of work done both in-house and contracted to industry. It focuses on drilling technology, case histories of slimhole drilling projects, data collection and rig instrumentation, and high-temperature logging tools.

FINGER,JOHN T.; JACOBSON,RONALD D.

1999-10-07

478

Acoustic well logging system having multiplexed filter digitizing  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a downhole well logging system including a fluid tight sonde sized and adapted for passage through a well bore for use in acoustic well logging for acoustic travel time measurement and full waveform acoustic signal processing comprising: means housed in the sonde for generating a high frequency content acoustic signal having several propagation modes in a well borehole; means for detecting arriving acoustic energy signals propagated through a well borehole and for generating analog electrical signal waveforms representative thereof; selectable analog high pass filter means housed in the sonde for supplying, in response to a control signal, selectably filtered representations of the representative analog waveform electrical signals as input to an analog to digital converter for conversion to digital form; and means housed in the sonde and responsive to signals output from the analog to digital converter, for generating the control signal to the selectable filter.

Zimmer, M.D.

1989-01-10

479

What to expect when logging the Cotton Valley trend  

SciTech Connect

Exploration within the low-porosity, low-permeability sections of the Cotton Valley sands and limestones of E. Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas has proven economic only within the last 5 to 8 yr due to improved gas prices and advanced reservoir analyzation and stimulation techniques. This work details those logging suites necessary to properly assess these less than optimum reservoirs, and illustrates, through specific well cases, how deliverability from well to well can vary due to delicate differences in reservoir properties. It is evident from the case wells illustrated that not all tight Cotton Valley sand or limestone wells result in high-rate flows. That being the case, it is important that detailed logging analysis be utilized so optimum stimulation procedures can be designed at each well site. Improperly place perforations or poorly designed and operated stimulation procedures can result in a bad well, where a successful one was possible.

Nangle, P.; Fertl, W.H.; Frost, E. Jr.

1982-10-01

480

Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. PMID:24628366

Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

2014-08-01

481

88. Groundhog Mountain. View of the log fire lookout constructed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

88. Groundhog Mountain. View of the log fire lookout constructed by the Virginia State Forest service in the summer of 1942. A buck or Yankee fence crosses the foreground with a snake fence in the background. Civilian public service employees began erecting the rail fences in April 1939. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

482

Mining User Position Log for Construction of Personalized Activity Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a scenario in which a smart phone automatically saves the user’s positional records for personalized location-based\\u000a applications. The smart phone will infer patterns of user activities from the historical records and predict user’s future\\u000a movements. In this paper, we present algorithms for mining the evolving positional logs in order to identify places of significance\\u000a to user and representative paths

Hui Fang; Wen-jing Hsu; Larry Rudolph

2009-01-01

483

Analysis of multiple-arm conical log-spiral antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

AnN-arm log-spiral antenna may be excited inN - 1orthogonal modes ofN-tuple input. A rigorous solution to the spiral antenna of more than two arms is obtained by numerical solution of the integral equations. Results for a four-arm spiral, including current distribution, half-power beamwidth, beam orientation, and gain and phase centers, are presented. The propagation constant of the current waves along

A. Atia; K. Mei

1971-01-01

484

Algorithms for Quantum Computation: Discrete Log and Factoring (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peter W. ShorAT&T Bell LabsRoom 2D-149600 Mountain Ave.Murray Hill, NJ 07974 USAemail: shor@research.att.comAbstractThis paper gives algorithms for the discrete log and the factoring problems thattake random polynomial time on a quantum computer (thus giving the first examplesof quantum cryptanalysis).1 IntroductionSince the discovery of quantum mechanics, people have found the behavior of the laws ofprobability in quantum mechanics counterintuitive. Because of

Peter W. Shor

1994-01-01

485

Paleomagnetic Logs: A Tool for Dating Lake Erie's Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the lithology, paleomagnetic and Mossbauer Effect Spectroscopy (MES) log data and 14C determinations of cores taken from three small basins located in western Lake Erie, in conjunction with data obtained from earlier studies, has been used to re-evaluate the postglacial history of the area. After the re-advance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the Huron basin and

J. S. Mothersill; P. J. Schurer

2003-01-01

486

Development of geothermal logging systems in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of (potassium, uranium and thorium) is in the calibration phase, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A fluid sampling tool is in the design phase. All tools are designed for operation at conditions exceeding 400 C, and for deployment in the slim holes produced by mining-coring operations. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry and scientific drilling programs to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. These cooperative efforts depend upon quality guidelines such as those under development within the international Ocean Drilling Program.

Lysne, P.

1994-04-01

487

Preprocessing and Mining Web Log Data for Web Personalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the web usage mining activities of an on-going project, called ClickWorld3, that aims at extracting models of the nav- igational behaviour of a web site users. The models are inferred from the access logs of a web server by means of data and web mining tech- niques. The extracted knowledge is deployed to the purpose of ofiering a

Miriam Baglioni; U. Ferrara; Andrea Romei; Salvatore Ruggieri; Franco Turini

2003-01-01

488

Comic Layout for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents our system for generating comics from game log. In particular, comic layout is focused. In order to achieve\\u000a more comic-like expressivity, we extend an existing comic layout process proposed by Shamir et al. as follows. First, tiny\\u000a frames are introduced for being placed vertically in the same row. Second, splash frames taking up space of several rows

Ruck Thawonmas; Tomonori Shuda

489

An ecosystem model for tropical forest disturbance and selective logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new three-dimensional version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model (CASA-3D) was developed to simulate regional carbon cycling in tropical forest ecosystems after disturbances such as logging. CASA-3D has the following new features: (1) an alternative approach for calculating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) using new high-resolution satellite images of forest canopy gap fraction; (2) a pulse disturbance module

Maoyi Huang; Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Joseph A. Berry

2008-01-01

490

Instant well-log inversion with a parallel computer  

SciTech Connect

Well-log analysis requires several vectors of input data to be inverted with a physical model that produces more vectors of output data. The problem is inherently suited to either vectorization or parallelization. PLATO (parallel log analysis, timely output) is a research prototype system that uses a parallel architecture computer with memory-mapped graphics to invert vector data and display the result rapidly. By combining this high-performance computing and display system with a graphical user interface, the analyst can interact with the system in real time'' and can visualize the result of changing parameters on up to 1,000 levels of computed volumes and reconstructed logs. It is expected that such instant'' inversion will remove the main disadvantages frequently cited for simultaneous analysis methods, namely difficulty in assessing sensitivity to different parameters and slow output response. Although the prototype system uses highly specific features of a parallel processor, a subsequent version has been implemented on a conventional (Serial) workstation with less performance but adequate functionality to preserve the apparently instant response. PLATO demonstrates the feasibility of petroleum computing applications combining an intuitive graphical interface, high-performance computing of physical models, and real-time output graphics.

Kimminau, S.J.; Trivedi, H.

1993-08-01

491

Unveiling ALMA software behavior using a decoupled log analysis framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALMA Software is a complex distributed system installed in more than one hundred of computers, which interacts with more than one thousand of hardware device components. A normal observation follows a flow that interacts with almost that entire infrastructure in a coordinated way. The Software Operation Support team (SOFTOPS) comprises specialized engineers, which analyze the generated software log messages in daily basis to detect bugs, failures and predict eventual failures. These log message can reach up to 30 GB per day. We describe a decoupled and non-intrusive log analysis framework and implemented tools to identify well known problems, measure times taken by specific tasks and detect abnormal behaviors in the system in order to alert the engineers to take corrective actions. The main advantage of this approach among others is that the analysis itself does not interfere with the performance of the production system, allowing to run multiple analyzers in parallel. In this paper we'll describe the selected framework and show the result of some of the implemented tools.

Gil, Juan Pablo; Tejeda, Alexis; Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Saez, Norman

2014-07-01

492

Log-Gabor filters for image-based vehicle verification.  

PubMed

Vehicle detection based on image analysis has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to its low cost, flexibility, and potential toward collision avoidance. In particular, vehicle verification is especially challenging on account of the heterogeneity of vehicles in color, size, pose, etc. Image-based vehicle verification is usually addressed as a supervised classification problem. Specifically, descriptors using Gabor filters have been reported to show good performance in this task. However, Gabor functions have a number of drawbacks relating to their frequency response. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal and evaluation of a new descriptor based on the alternative family of log-Gabor functions for vehicle verification, as opposed to existing Gabor filter-based descriptors. These filters are theoretically superior to Gabor filters as they can better represent the frequency properties of natural images. As a second contribution, and in contrast to existing approaches, which transfer the standard configuration of filters used for other applications to the vehicle classification task, an in-depth analysis of the required filter configuration by both Gabor and log-Gabor descriptors for this particular application is performed for fair comparison. The extensive experiments conducted in this paper confirm that the proposed log-Gabor descriptor significantly outperforms the standard Gabor filter for image-based vehicle verification. PMID:23475361

Arróspide, Jon; Salgado, Luis

2013-06-01

493

On Efficient Confidence Intervals for the Log-Normal Mean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data obtained in biomedical research is often skewed. Examples include the incubation period of diseases like HIV/AIDS and the survival times of cancer patients. Such data, especially when they are positive and skewed, is often modeled by the log-normal distribution. If this model holds, then the log transformation produces a normal distribution. We consider the problem of constructing confidence intervals for the mean of the log-normal distribution. Several methods for doing this are known, including at least one estimator that performed better than Coxxs method for small sample sizes. We also construct a modified version of Coxxs method. Using simulation, we show that, when the sample size exceeds 30, it leads to confidence intervals that have good overall properties and are better than Coxxs method. More precisely, the actual coverage probability of our method is closer to the nominal coverage probability than is the case with Coxxs method. In addition, the new method is computationally much simpler than other well-known methods.

Chami, Peter; Antoine, Robin; Sahai, Ashok

494

Eliminating log rolling as a spine trauma order  

PubMed Central

Background: Currently, up to 25% of patients with spinal cord injuries may experience neurologic deterioration during the initial management of their injuries. Therefore, more effective procedures need to be established for the transportation and care of these to reduce the risk of secondary neurologic damage. Here, we present more acceptable methods to minimize motion in the unstable spine during the management of patients with traumatic spine injuries. Methods: This review summarizes more than a decade of research aimed at evaluating different methods of caring for patients with spine trauma. Results: The most commonly utilized technique to transport spinal cord injured patients, the log rolling maneuver, produced more motion than placing a patient on a spine board, removing a spine board, performing continuous lateral therapy, and positioning a patient prone for surgery. Alternative maneuvers that produced less motion included the straddle lift and slide, 6 + lift and slide, scoop stretcher, mechanical kinetic therapy, mechanical transfers, and the use of the operating table to rotate the patient to the prone position for surgical stabilization. Conclusions: The log roll maneuver should be removed from the trauma response guidelines for patients with suspected spine injuries, as it creates significantly more motion in the unstable spine than the readily available alternatives. The only exception is the patient who is found prone, in which case the patient should then be log rolled directly on to the spine board utilizing a push technique. PMID:22905325

Conrad, Bryan P.; Rossi, Gianluca Del; Horodyski, Mary Beth; Prasarn, Mark L.; Alemi, Yara; Rechtine, Glenn R.

2012-01-01

495

Application of Nuclear Well Logging Techniques to Lunar Resource Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of neutron and gamma ray measurements for the analysis of material composition has become well established in the last 40 years. Schlumberger has pioneered the use of this technology for logging wells drilled to produce oil and gas, and for this purpose has developed neutron generators that allow measurements to be made in deep (5000 m) boreholes under adverse conditions. We also make ruggedized neutron and gamma ray detector packages that can be used to make reliable measurements on the drill collar of a rotating drill string while the well is being drilled, where the conditions are severe. Modern nuclear methods used in logging measure rock formation parameters like bulk density and porosity, fluid composition, and element abundances by weight including hydrogen concentration. The measurements are made with high precision and accuracy. These devices (well logging sondes) share many of the design criteria required for remote sensing in space; they must be small, light,