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1

In silico model for predicting soil organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (KOC) of organic chemicals.  

PubMed

As a kind of in silico method, the methodology of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has been shown to be an efficient way to predict soil organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients (KOC) values. In the present study, a total of 824 logKOC values were used to develop and validate a QSAR model for predicting KOC values. The model statistics parameters, adjusted determination coefficient (R(2)adj) of 0.854, the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.472, the leave-one-out cross-validation squared correlation coefficient (Q(2)LOO) of 0.850, the external validation coefficient Q(2)ext of 0.761 and the RMSEext of 0.558 were obtained, which indicate satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability. The squared Moriguchi octanol-water partition coefficient (MLOGP2) explained 66.5% of the logKOC variance. The applicability domain of the current model has been extended to emerging pollutants like polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorochemicals and heterocyclic toxins. The developed model can be used to predict the compounds with various functional groups including CC, CC, OH, O, CHO, CO, CO(O), COOH, C6H5, NO2, NH2, NH, N, NN, NHC(O)NH, OC(O)NH2, C(O)NH2, X(F, Cl, Br, I), S, SH, S(O)2, OS(O)2, NHS(O)2, (SR)2PH(OR)2 and Si. PMID:25084062

Wang, Ya; Chen, Jingwen; Yang, Xianhai; Lyakurwa, Felichesmi; Li, Xuehua; Qiao, Xianliang

2015-01-01

2

Use of Well Logs to Provide Formation Design Values for Hydraulic Fracture Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presnts wireline tool usage in providing proper design parameter values for hydraulic fracture treatments and in evaluating the success of such a treatment. Examples of logging suites are provided and methods are presented for converting log measurements into design values. Techniques are discussed and a matrix chart has been developed for relating tool capabilities with design requirements. It

S. Ameri; H. H. Rieke

1981-01-01

3

On the hydrophobicity of peptides: Comparing empirical predictions of peptide log P values.  

PubMed

Peptides are of great therapeutic potential as vaccines and drugs. Knowledge of physicochemical descriptors, including the partition coefficient logP, is useful for the development of predictive Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs). We have investigated the accuracy of available programs for the prediction of logP values for peptides with known experimental values obtained from the literature. Eight prediction programs were tested, of which seven programs were fragment-based methods: XLogP, LogKow, PLogP, ACDLogP, AlogP, Interactive Analysis's LogP and MlogP; and one program used a whole molecule approach: QikProp. The predictive accuracy of the programs was assessed using r(2) values, with ALogP being the most effective (r( 2) = 0.822) and MLogP the least (r(2) = 0.090). We also examined three distinct types of peptide structure: blocked, unblocked, and cyclic. For each study (all peptides, blocked, unblocked and cyclic peptides) the performance of programs rated from best to worse is as follows: all peptides - ALogP, QikProp, PLogP, XLogP, IALogP, LogKow, ACDLogP, and MlogP; blocked peptides - PLogP, XLogP, ACDLogP, IALogP, LogKow, QikProp, ALogP, and MLogP; unblocked peptides - QikProp, IALogP, ALogP, ACDLogP, MLogP, XLogP, LogKow and PLogP; cyclic peptides - LogKow, ALogP, XLogP, MLogP, QikProp, ACDLogP, IALogP. In summary, all programs gave better predictions for blocked peptides, while, in general, logP values for cyclic peptides were under-predicted and those of unblocked peptides were over-predicted. PMID:17597897

Thompson, Sarah J; Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Holliday, John D; Flower, Darren R

2006-01-01

4

Is log ratio a good value for measuring return in stock investments  

E-print Network

. The approach is tested on a large database of daily stock prices. 2 The Data In this paper data from stockIs log ratio a good value for measuring return in stock investments Alfred Ultsch Databionics the rate of return is an important issue for theory and practice of in- vestments in the stock market

5

INCREASING THE ACCURACY OF COMPUTER CALCULATED LOG P (OCT/WATER) VALUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Like many "expert systems," the CLOGP program incorporates a set of empirically derived rules which are supported by accepted theoretical concepts but which cannot be derived directly from these concepts. igher log P values are expected whenever a larger effective solute cavity i...

6

Urban Wood Waste: Maximizing Log Value for the Sawmill Market David T. Damery, Lecturer  

E-print Network

Urban Wood Waste: Maximizing Log Value for the Sawmill Market David T. Damery, Lecturer Brian C.P. Kane, Asst. Professor, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA How arborists view the issue of "waste wood facilities are rising continually. Disposing of waste wood was once merely a time and labor factor, but now

Schweik, Charles M.

7

Unfavorable successional pathways and the conservation value of logged tropical forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation agencies are increasingly advocating that the survival of many tropical forest species may depend on disturbed forests and are directing scarce conservation resources to managing logged forests. This requires critical evaluation. In this 10-year study, we quantify tree community dynamics in three selectively logged areas harvested at different intensities and compare their recovery to two unlogged areas in Kibale

Colin A. Chapman; Lauren J. Chapman

2004-01-01

8

Recovery of conservation values in Central African rain forest after logging and shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary forests in Central Africa are increasing in importance for biodiversity conservation as old growth forests outside the few protected areas are disappearing rapidly. We examined vegetation recovery in a lowland rain forest area in Cameroon based on a detailed botanical survey of old growth forest and different-aged logging gaps (5–27 years) and shifting cultivation fields (10–60 years). Our analysis

Barend S. Van Gemerden; Gideon N. Shu; Han Olff

2003-01-01

9

Deriving Criteria-supporting Benchmark Values from Empirical Response Relationships: Comparison of Statistical Techniques and Effect of Log-transforming the Nutrient Variable  

EPA Science Inventory

In analyses supporting the development of numeric nutrient criteria, multiple statistical techniques can be used to extract critical values from stressor response relationships. However there is little guidance for choosing among techniques, and the extent to which log-transfor...

10

DCT-BASED SUBPIXEL MOTION ESTIMATION Ut-Va Koc K. J. Ray Liu  

E-print Network

DCT-BASED SUBPIXEL MOTION ESTIMATION Ut-Va Koc K. J. Ray Liu Electrical Engineering Department accuracy. In this paper, we develop DCT-based tech- niques to estimate subpel motion at different desired levels of accuracy in DCT domain without interpolation by estab- lishing subpel sinusoidal orthogonal

Liu, K. J. Ray

11

Reference Values of Serum Transferrin Receptor and sTfR/Log Ferritin Index in Healthy Adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a period of increased iron requirements, which impact on iron status. The purpose of this research is to determine the reference intervals for serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/log ferritin index (sTfR-F index) in healthy adolescents, and their relation with iron parameters and erythropoiesis. A total of 253 healthy adolescents without overweight, aged 12 to 16 years, were selected in a cross-sectional study. Hemoglobin, red cell indices, reticulocyte hemoglobin content (rHb), reticulocytes, ferritin, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphirin, erythropoietin, C-reactive protein, sTfR, and sTfR-F index were measured. Changes in erythropoiesis and iron status in the age interval were observed and analyzed, and linear multiple regression was applied to identify the factors that determine the variability of sTfR and sTfR-F index. Mean values for sTfR and sTfR-F index were 1.32±0.3 mg/L (95% CI, 1.3-1.36) and 0.9±0.25 (95% CI, 0.87-0.93). The reference intervals were 0.84 to 1.97 mg/L and 0.51 to 1.44, respectively. sTfR and sTfR-F index values were significantly higher in boys (1.39±0.3 vs. 1.23±0.26 mg/L, P<0.0001 and 0.93±0.37 vs. 0.86±0.22, P<0.04) and decreased with age (P<0.0001 and 0.04, respectively). No changes were recorded in erythropoietin. Age, sex, pubertal status, and ferritin predicted 24.1% of sTfR variability and age, sex, pubertal status, transferrin saturation, rHb, erythrocytes, and reticulocytes predicted 15% of sTfR-F index variability. PMID:25354256

Vázquez-López, María A; Ibáñez-Alcalde, Mercedes; Lendínez-Molinos, Francisco; Ruíz-Sánchez, Ana M; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; García-García, Emilio; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifón; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio

2014-10-28

12

Stellar weak interaction rates for intermediate-mass nuclei. IV. Interpolation procedures for rapidly varying Lepton capture rates using effective log (ft) values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple expressions for continuum electron and positron capture phase space factors and the associated neutrino energy loss integrals are presented in terms of standard Fermi integrals. Continuous approximations to the relevant Fermi integrals and their first derivatives are made. These allow the computation of effective log (ft)--values, at each temperature and density point, for the continuum lepton capture rates considered

G. M. Fuller; W. A. Fowler; M. J. Newman

1985-01-01

13

Improved log(gf) Values for Lines of Ni I and New Nickel Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New atomic transition probability measurements for 371 lines of Ni I in the UV through near IR are reported. These results are used to determine the Ni abundance of the Sun and a very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff dwarf star over a range of wavelength and E. P. values to search for non-LTE effects. For reasons only partially understood, strong lines of Ni I are unusually prone to optical depth errors in emission studies on laboratory sources. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine these new transition probabilities. The large echelle spectrometer provides essential UV sensitivity, spectral resolution, and especially freedom from multiplex noise that is needed to eliminate optical depth errors. There is quite good agreement with earlier, but less extensive, sets of measurements by Blackwell et al. (MNRAS 1989, 236, 235) and Wickliffe & Lawler (ApJS 1997 110, 1163). The new Ni I data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate nickel abundances. In the Sun we find log(eps(Ni I)) = 6.28 (sigma = 0.06, 75 lines) and in HD 84937 we find we find log(eps(Ni I)) = 3.89 (sigma = 0.09, 77 lines), yielding [Ni/Fe] = -0.08 from log(eps(Fe)) = 7.52 in the Sun and log(eps(Fe)) = 5.19 in HD 84937. The Saha balance of Ni in HD 84937 is confirmed using 8 lines of Ni II, although these UV ion lines are somewhat saturated. This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (JEL) and NSF grants AST-0908978 and AST-1211585 (CS).

Lawler, James E.; Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

2014-01-01

14

VARIATION OF KOC IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM NARRAGANSETT BAY AND LONG ISLAND SOUND: ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF OTHER PARTICULATE CHARACTERISTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

In the first part of this investigation, we examined whether differences in the Kocs of three nonpolar organic chemicals (Lindane, fluoranthene, tetrachlorinated biphenyl (PCB)) from five sites along the New England coast were statistically significant. Although no statistical di...

15

Improved V II Log(gf) Values, Hyperfine Structure Constants, and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ?(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = -2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

2014-10-01

16

Log Tape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students construct Log Tapes calibrated in base-ten exponents, then use them to derive relationships between base-ten logs (exponents) and antilogs (ordinary numbers).  This is activity B1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

17

Micellar electrokinetic chromatography: a new simple tool for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends and for the rapid estimation of their logP values.  

PubMed

For the first time a capillary separation based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with diode array detection (DAD) was developed and validated for the rapid determination of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends. Separations were carried out on a 30 ?m(ID) × 40 cm uncoated fused silica capillaries. The optimized buffer electrolyte was composed of 25 mM sodium tetraborate pH 8.0, 30 mM SDS and n-propanol 20% (v/v). Separations were performed at 30 kV. Sample injection conditions were 0.5 psi, 10s. Diazepam and JWH-015 were used as internal standards. The determination of the analytes was based on the UV signal recorded at 220 nm, corresponding to the maximum wavelength of absorbance of the molecules, whereas peak identification and purity check were also performed on the basis of the acquisition of UV spectra between 200 and 400 nm wavelengths. Under the described conditions, the separation of the compounds was achieved in 25 min without any significant interference from the matrix. Linearity was assessed within a concentration range from 5 to 100 ?g/mL. The intra-day and inter-day imprecision values were below 2.45% for relative migration times and below 10.75% for relative peak areas. The present method was successfully applied to the direct determination of synthetic cannabinoids in 15 different herbal blend samples requiring only sample dilution. In addition, the developed MEKC separation was also applied to estimate the octanol/water partition coefficients (logP) of these new and poorly known molecules. PMID:23022243

Gottardo, Rossella; Bertaso, Anna; Pascali, Jennifer; Sorio, Daniela; Musile, Giacomo; Trapani, Elisa; Seri, Catia; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Tagliaro, Franco

2012-12-01

18

Log Ruler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students construct Log Rulers, finely calibrated in base-10 exponents and numbers (logs and antilogs). They practice reading these scales as accurately as possible, listing all certain figures plus one uncertain figure.  This is activity D1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

19

Processing Value of Small-Diameter Sawtimber at Conventional Stud Sawmills and Modern High-Speed, Small-Log Sawmills in the Western United States-A Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past selective logging of early successional species (e.g., ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)) and effective fire suppression have dramatically altered forest composition and health over millions of acres in the western United States. Implementation of ecological restoration treatments to address these conditions will produce large volumes of small-diameter sawtimber for processing. Since sawmills currently process a majority of sawtimber harvested in

Francis G. Wagner; Carl E. Fiedler; Charles E. Keegan

20

Improved log(gf) Values for Lines of V I and V II, New Vanadium Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) and 203 lines of V II are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with new radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for 1039 lines of V I and V II. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for both spectra. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ?(V) = 3.96 (? = 0.04) based on 93 V I lines and log ?(V) = 1.89 (? = 0.07) based on nine V I lines respectively, and yielding log ?(V) = 3.95 (? = 0.05) based on 15 V II lines and log ?(V) = 1.87 (? = 0.07) based on 68 V II lines respectively1-3.1. Wood et al., ApJS 214:18 (2014), 2. Den Hartog et al. ApJS in press (2014), 3. Lawler et al. ApJS submitted (2014). This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (JEL), NSF AST-1211055 (EDH & JEL), and NSF AST-1211585 (CS).

Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Feigenson, Thomas; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

2015-01-01

21

Log Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students solve exponential equations where the unknown is contained in the exponent. Students learn that taking base-10 or base-2 logs pulls down the exponent, allowing the unknown to be isolated and solved.  This activity is activity C3 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

22

ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA  

E-print Network

ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA THE ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COSTS #12;ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA THE ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COSTS Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 #12;ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA | 2 Executive Summary Indonesia's rainforests are the third

23

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

24

Spring 2011 LogLogTheThe  

E-print Network

Spring 2011 LogLogTheThe Claud Brown wins Distinguished Alum · Warnell remembers Reid Parker, along with Rick Holley and his team in Seattle, for such a great event." Sponsors: B & S Air, Inc. Cell Wells Timberland Special Thanks to our Tournament Co-hosts: A `Plum' of a tournament #12;Spring 2011 1

Prestegard, James H.

25

Logs to Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners cut through and investigate rotten logs and then make log-profile puzzles for each other. Learners cut through the limb to expose a vertical profile, study the pattern of decay, and find evidence for the tree’s life history. This activity calls for learners to saw logs, but for younger groups, adults can do the sawing.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1982-01-01

26

Well log formation evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of well logging tools, techniques, and well logging analysis principles is presented. Because no single well logging tool has been developed to measure all the physical properties of rock needed for detailed analysis, tool combinations that will measure porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbons in place, etc. have been developed for various geologic targets. Recently, computers have played an increasingly

Merkel

1979-01-01

27

Log-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A log-burning stove having a stove door with an angled plate element secured thereto, the top portion of the plate element deflecting combustion gases inwardly to the combustion chamber, and the lower portion deflecting draft air inwardly and downwardly into the combustion chamber, the plate element also forming a log-support and log-sliding surface.

Choate, J.R.

1982-11-23

28

47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.  

...nature of the corrective action. Indications of all parameters whose values are affected by the modulation of the carrier must be read without modulation. The actual time of observation must be included in each log entry. The following...

2014-10-01

29

Well logging: Rock properties, borehole environment, mud and temperature logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book offers an introduction to principles of formation evaluation by well logging plus details of mud and temperature logs. The monograph provides a state-of-the-art update for practicing logging engineers and standard reference for all petroleum engineers and log analysts. The ultimate objective of well logging is to evaluate subsurface formations, and this text describes data gathering methods and engineering

J. R. Jorden; F. L. Campbell

1985-01-01

30

6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

31

Engineered Log Jam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Engineered Log Jam on the lower river opposite the new Lower Klallam Tribe Fish Hatchery. The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe project creates salmon habitat on the lower Elwha River in preparation for dam removal and habitat restoration....

32

Transfer Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

ANIMAL TRANSFER LOG Date of Move: ________________ Cage Type C = Auto Water NOTES: B = Water Bottle S = SMZ M = Microisolator ASP # PI GROUP NAME # CAGES [+] ROOM TO DOB COMMENTS STRAIN CODE NEW GROUP NAME NEW ROOM CAGE TYPE PEDIGREE # EAR

33

Teff log g nHe Teff log g A  

E-print Network

.ac.uk/csj/lines/lte/html/lines.lte.html #12;2 2 2 = (Observation - Model)2 2 , 2 AMOEBA 2 N N 2 Teff log g 2 AMOEBA 2 xi 2 (-1)ii ij = xi - )2 2 , 2 EB-V Teff FFIT Teff EB-V nHe log g EB-V FFIT Teff F = 2 T4 eff, #12;2 AMOEBA SFIT Teff nHe 2 AMOEBA nHe SFIT2 Teff log g 2 nHe Teff log g Teff Teff Teff °A log g Teff log g #12;Teff log g

34

NMR logging apparatus  

DOEpatents

Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

2014-05-27

35

Modes of log gravity  

SciTech Connect

The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional 'critical gravity', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All 'log mode' solutions, which we categorize as 'spin-2' or 'Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin-2 log mode is itself a 'nongauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Townsend, Paul K. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2011-05-15

36

Borehole Geophysical Logging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

37

Log evaluation of oil-bearing igneous rocks  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of porosity, water saturation and clay content of oilbearing igneous rocks with well logs is difficult due to the mineralogical complexity of this type of rocks. The log responses to rhyolite and rhyolite tuff; andesite, dacite and zeolite tuff; diabase and basalt have been studied from examples in western Argentina and compared with values observed in other countries. Several field examples show how these log responses can be used in a complex lithology program to make a complete evaluation.

Khatchikian, A.

1983-12-01

38

RUSPACElog n DSPACElog 2 n= log log n  

E-print Network

RUSPACElog n #12; DSPACElog 2 n= log log n Eric Allender Department of Computer Science Rutgers We present a deterministic algorithmrunning in space O , log2 n=loglogn solv- ing the connectivity in parity logspace 14 , in SC2 20 , and in DSPACElog4=3 n 2 . None of these upper bounds is known to hold

Allender, Eric

39

Log data comparison and quantification  

SciTech Connect

Two geothermal wells were logged with similar wireline logs by several logging companies in a period of five years (1974 to 1979). The results of these equivalent logs are quantitatively different and in some cases qualitatively different. This difference also occurs between the same type of logs recorded at different time intervals by the same logging company. These various log data are related and qualified when logging equipment has not been properly calibrated. All depths referred to for either well are from their respective kelly bushing (KB). The first well (Mesa 31-1) is in the Imperial Valley of California and penetrates a sand, shale, and clay sedimentary lithology with a maximum temperature of 165/sup 0/C (330/sup 0/F) and a total depth of 1882 m (6175 ft). The second well (Phillips 9-1) is in the Roosevelt Hot Springs known geothermal resource areas (KGRA) of southwestern Utah and penetrates hydrothermally altered (low-grade metamorphic) and igneous lithology with a maximum temperature of 225/sup 0/C (440/sup 0/F) and a toatl depth of 2098.5 m (6885 ft). During that period (1974 to 1979) calibration of logging equipment in metamorphic and igneous lithologies could not be done. The logging data from this well is not qualitatively comparable in all cases and indicates the need for calibration. The open-hole log data acquired from Mesa 31-1 and Phillips 9-1 wells were compared to core data from these wells and comparison factors were calculated to better quantify the open-hole log data. Then open-hole log data were compared to the cased-hole log data from various companies and additional comparison factors were calculated for the cased-hole log data. These comparison factors allow for some quantification of these uncalibrated log data.

Mathews, M.; LaDelfe, C.

1981-01-01

40

October 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING  

E-print Network

information related to system security are produced by several sources. Some log entries are created of an organization's systems and information. NIST SP 800-92 begins with basic information about computer securityOctober 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY LOG

41

Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

2008-04-01

42

Tar sand evaluation using geophysical well logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical well logging can provide a record of the lithological variations and oil yield of tar sands. Probes lowered into bore holes at the end of insulated cables yield such records as the spontaneous potential log, the focused resistivity log, the gamma-ray log, the acoustic log and the neutron log. The accuracy of correlations between gamma-ray log response and fines

WALTER H. FERTL; GEORGE V. CHILINGARIAN

1978-01-01

43

Advances in Openhole Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Openhole well logging comprises a broad spectrum of measurements that includes mud, measurement-while-drilling (MWD), and conventional wireline logs. These measurements are the primary source of formation evaluation data used in applications ranging from individual drilling-well appraisals to comprehensive reservoir description studies. Openhole well-logging technology continues to evolve to address the needs for improved accuracy in measuring reservoir properties. Numerous technology

R. D. Felder

1994-01-01

44

Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

2014-04-01

45

PROCESS MINING OF EVENT LOGS IN AUDITING: OPPORTUNITIES AND Hasselt University  

E-print Network

, the source of data for process mining is an "event log", also called an "audit trail", which is defined as "a1 PROCESS MINING OF EVENT LOGS IN AUDITING: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES Mieke Jans Hasselt OF EVENT LOGS IN AUDITING: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES Abstract In this paper we discuss the value

Lin, Xiaodong

46

Minimal Log Gravity  

E-print Network

Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which w...

Giribet, Gaston

2014-01-01

47

Minimal log gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimal massive gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional topologically massive gravity that, when formulated about anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes solving the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the nonlinear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called log gravity, and, despite the weakened falling off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which we compute. We also find time-dependent deformations of Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli that obey Brown-Henneaux asymptotic boundary conditions. The existence of such solutions shows that the Birkhoff theorem does not hold in MMG at the chiral point. Other peculiar features of the theory at the chiral point, such as the degeneracy it exhibits in the decoupling limit, are discussed.

Giribet, Gaston; Vásquez, Yerko

2015-01-01

48

Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1988-01-01

49

Well Logging with Californium-252  

SciTech Connect

Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

Boulogne, A.R.

2003-01-06

50

Sonic log prediction in carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is conducted to study the complications associated with the sonic log prediction in carbonate logs and to investigate the possible solutions to accurately predict the sonic logs in Traverse Limestone. Well logs from fifty different wells were analyzed to define the mineralogy of the Traverse Limestone by using conventional 4-mineral and 3-mineral identification approaches. We modified the conventional 3-mineral identification approach (that completely neglects the gamma ray response) to correct the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log before employing the 3-mineral identification. This modification helped to get the meaningful insight of the data when a plot was made between DGA (dry grain density) and UMA (Photoelectric Volumetric Cross-section) with the characteristic ternary diagram of the quartz, calcite and dolomite. The results were then compared with the 4-mineral identification approach. Contour maps of the average mineral fractions present in the Traverse Limestone were prepared to see the basin wide mineralogy of Traverse Limestone. In the second part, sonic response of Traverse Limestone was predicted in fifty randomly distributed wells. We used the modified time average equation that accounts for the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log, and used it to predict the sonic behavior from density porosity and average porosity. To account for the secondary porosity of dolomite, we subtracted the dolomitic fraction of clean porosity from the total porosity. The pseudo-sonic logs were then compared with the measured sonic logs on the root mean square (RMS) basis. Addition of dolomite correction in modified time average equation improved the results of sonic prediction from neutron porosity and average porosity. The results demonstrated that sonic logs could be predicted in carbonate rocks with a root mean square error of about 4isec/ft. We also attempted the use of individual mineral components for sonic log prediction but the ambiguities in mineral fractions and in the sonic properties of the minerals limited the accuracy of the results.

Islam, Nayyer

51

Bayesian analysis of generalized log-Burr family with R.  

PubMed

Log-Burr distribution is a generalization of logistic and extreme value distributions, which are important reliability models. In this paper, Bayesian approach is used to model reliability data for log-Burr model using analytic and simulation tools. Laplace approximation is implemented for approximating posterior densities of the parameters. Moreover, parallel simulation tools are also implemented using 'LaplacesDemon' package of R. PMID:24839586

Akhtar, Md Tanwir; Khan, Athar Ali

2014-01-01

52

Animal Room Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

ANIMAL ROOM LOG Room Number: __________ Cage Type Death Cause C = Auto Water EU = Euthanized NOTES: B = Water Bottle FD = Found Dead S = SMZ DR = Drowned M = Microisolator MI = Missing TO = Transfer Out DEATH CAUSE STRAIN CODE GROUP NAME # ? # ? COMMENTS

53

Log interpretation of shaly sandstones  

E-print Network

-sandstone equations, 1) "practical" equations requiring only well logs, and 2) "theoretical" equations requiring additional examination of coze. This study has focused on the practical equations because of their wider applicability. These equations are based... of the sandstone. To find the CEC of the sandstone, the CEC of the clay was multiplied by the volume of clay as determined from well logs. Shale Volume The fractional volume of clay was found from the gamma 47 zay by using the Dresser Atlas fozmula...

Baker, Joel Foster

2012-06-07

54

The dry eye disease activity log study.  

PubMed

Prolonged visually stressful activities aggravate dry eye disease (DED). The duration spent on such activities and their relationship with DED clinical features were investigated. Patients completed an activity log as they performed their usual activities over 1 typical rest day and 1 typical work day. The log included time spent in an air-conditioned environment, windy environment, driving, watching television, computer use, reading, watching a movie in the theatre, and wearing contact lens. Average daily activity hours were calculated and correlated with clinical features of DED. Thirty-five logs were returned. Positive correlation was found between watching television and episodic blurred vision (P < 0.01). Computer use was negatively correlated with episodic blur vision, burning sensation, and gritty sensation (P < 0.05). Negative correlation was found between time spent in windy environments, driving, reading, and certain DED symptoms (P < 0.05). Reading correlated positively with severity of corneal fluorescein staining and reduced Schirmer's values (P < 0.03). The use of air conditioning correlated negatively with episodic blur vision but positively with visual blurring that improves with lubricants (P = 0.02). This study is the first to evaluate the relationship between time spent on DED-aggravating activities and DED clinical features. Negative correlations between certain activities and DED symptoms suggest an unconscious modification of lifestyle to alleviate symptoms. PMID:23193384

Iyer, Jayant V; Lee, Sze-Yee; Tong, Louis

2012-01-01

55

Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation  

DOEpatents

A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

Brookshier, W.

1985-02-08

56

Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation  

DOEpatents

A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

Brookshier, William (Downers Grove, IL)

1987-01-01

57

Geological well log analysis. Third ed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, well logs have mainly been used for correlation, structural mapping, and quantitive evaluation of hydrocarbon bearing formations. This third edition of Geologic Well Log Analysis, however, describes how well logs can be used for geological studies and mineral exploration. This is done by analyzing well logs for numerous parameters and indices of significant mineral accumulation, primarily in sediments.

Pirson

1983-01-01

58

Postfire logging in riparian areas.  

PubMed

We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious. PMID:16922216

Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

2006-08-01

59

Characteristics of Virginia's Logging Operations  

E-print Network

harvested (VDOF 2011). Virginia's forest industry produces a broad array of products to meet the needs and transport timber, and mills that produce the forest products we use. Each link is critical and, without all's forest landowners and the manufacturers who produce forest products. Logging businesses operate

Liskiewicz, Maciej

60

Australian Government on ILLEGAL logging  

E-print Network

Australian Government the AXE on ILLEGAL logging Bringing down a practical approach AN AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DISCUSSION PAPER WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS ON THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DISCUSSION PAPER ARE INVITED also acting as good stewards of the world's environment. While the Australian Government has

61

Internet Data logging and Display  

E-print Network

. The solution presented here is to accomplish these goals is to include a miniature web server in a remote-logging module, which we designed as part of our device. Thus allowing data to be accessed more frequently, via the Internet. As it currently stands...

Sweeney, J., Jr.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. S.

2001-01-01

62

2011 Daily Log February 2011  

E-print Network

: 02/28/2011 1349 Incident: Traffic Crash Location: Lot D Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two: 02/26/2011 Incident: Hit and Skip Location: Lot P Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Unknown vehicle struck parked vehicle and left the scene. #12;2011 Daily Log Report #: 2011-00110 Reported: 02

Boyce, Richard L.

63

2010 Daily Log January 2010  

E-print Network

off the road and into a ditch; no injuries. #12;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00042 Reported: 01: 01/31/10 1852 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Stop Location: Johns Hill Road Disposition: Citation vehicle accident with injuries; vehicle towed. Report #: 2010-00047 Reported: 01/28/10 2113 Occurred: Same

Boyce, Richard L.

64

pH-Metric log K calculations of famotidine, naproxen, nizatidine, ranitidine and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

The octanol/water partition coefficient (log K) is one of the most commonly used parameters in structure-activity relationships in many areas such as drug design (including pesticides), pharmacokinetics, anesthesiology, environmental sciences, toxicology, bioaccumulation and predicting skin permeability as a predictive parameter. log K is generally determined using shake flask method, but the possibility of calculating log K using pH-metric titrations and half neutralization points is demonstrated in this study. The potentiometric pH titration technique has been developed as an automatic technique for log K determination but it can be achieved by manual titrations. This technique uses the pKa of the substance. The pKa of the substance shifts pK'a when the titration is repeated in the presence of octanol. log K value of the substance can be determined using pKa, pK'a values and relevant equation. The aim of the study was to determine the log K values of a series of compounds using pH-metric titrations and to compare pH-metric log K determination results with the other methods. The log K values of famotidine, naproxen, nizatidine, ranitidine and salicylic acid were determined using both shake flask method and potentiometric titrations. Their log K values were also calculated theoretically using computer program and all results were compared. The pH-metric log K values were found to be close to the shake flask method results. This method was found to be useful for the determination of log K values as it provides a high degree of accuracy even in the presence of titratable impurities in the solution. PMID:11680809

Degim, T; Zaimoglu, V; Akay, C; Degim, Z

2001-09-01

65

Applying multiwell normalization in open hole log analysis  

E-print Network

A major problem when analyzing open hole well logging data in large fields is the fact that the logs were run using different logging service companies, using different logging tools over a long time span. To obtain correct log interpretations...

Sinanan, Haydn Brent

2012-06-07

66

Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND–1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND–1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237–342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND–1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND–1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692–1018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.

2012-01-01

67

Chemical logging of geothermal wells  

DOEpatents

The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01

68

Log-Euclidean free-form deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Free-Form Deformation (FFD) algorithm is a widely used method for non-rigid registration. Modifications have previously been proposed to ensure topology preservation and invertibility within this framework. However, in practice, none of these yield the inverse transformation itself, and one loses the parsimonious B-spline parametrisation. We present a novel log-Euclidean FFD approach in which a spline model of a stationary velocity field is exponentiated to yield a diffeomorphism, using an efficient scaling-and-squaring algorithm. The log-Euclidean framework allows easy computation of a consistent inverse transformation, and offers advantages in group-wise atlas building and statistical analysis. We optimise the Normalised Mutual Information plus a regularisation term based on the Jacobian determinant of the transformation, and we present a novel analytical gradient of the latter. The proposed method has been assessed against a fast FFD implementation (F3D) using simulated T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance brain images. The overlap measures between propagated grey matter tissue probability maps used in the simulations show similar results for both approaches; however, our new method obtains more reasonable Jacobian values, and yields inverse transformations.

Modat, Marc; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Daga, Pankaj; Cardoso, M. J.; Hawkes, David J.; Ashburner, John; Ourselin, Sébastien

2011-03-01

69

29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

2013-07-01

70

29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

2010-07-01

71

29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”  

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

2014-07-01

72

29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

2011-07-01

73

Balloon logging with the inverted skyline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

Mosher, C. F.

1975-01-01

74

47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...error is to be accomplished using a strike-through formatting effect or a similar software function, and the correction is to...must maintain a log, whether by means of written or automatic logging or a combination thereof. The log must contain the...

2013-10-01

75

47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...error is to be accomplished using a strike-through formatting effect or a similar software function, and the correction is to...must maintain a log, whether by means of written or automatic logging or a combination thereof. The log must contain the...

2012-10-01

76

47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...error is to be accomplished using a strike-through formatting effect or a similar software function, and the correction is to...must maintain a log, whether by means of written or automatic logging or a combination thereof. The log must contain the...

2011-10-01

77

Using Well Logs in the Petroleum Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise shows how well logs are used in the petroleum industry. It is designed as a first exposure to well logs for undergraduate geology majors and introduces not only well logs and their interpretation as proxies for stratigraphic sections, but also investigates concepts of porosity and permeability, oil reservoirs, and structural traps.

Borowski, Walter

78

Infinite log-concavity: developments and conjectures  

E-print Network

[4] conjectured that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave. Using a computer of infinite log-concavity. We investigate related questions about the columns of Pascal's triangle, q this to be a conjecture that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave, although we will later discuss

McNamara, Peter

79

Co-benefits of utilizing logging residues for bioenergy production: The case for East Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the co-benefits associated with the utilization of logging residues for electricity production in East Texas, USA. The benefits evaluated included the value of CO2 emissions displaced due to substituting logging residues for coal in power generation, reductions in site preparation costs during forest regeneration, and creation of jobs and income in local communities. Based on the 2004

Jianbang Gan; C. T. Smith

2007-01-01

80

Pentachlorophenol measurements in body fluids of people in log homes and workplaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated in the normal population (controls), residents of PCP-treated log homes, and persons exposed primarily in the workplace. Blood and urine samples were analyzed by gas chromatography after extraction and acetylation. For 34 controls, serum PCP values ranged from 15–75 ppb with a mean of 40 ppb. For 123 residents of log homes, serum

Richard E. Cline; Robert H. Hill; Donald L. Phillips; Larry L. Needham

1989-01-01

81

Multi-rate flowing Wellbore electric conductivity logging method  

SciTech Connect

The flowing wellbore electric conductivity logging method involves the replacement of wellbore water by de-ionized or constant-salinity water, followed by constant pumping with rate Q, during which a series of fluid electric conductivity logs are taken. The logs can be analyzed to identify depth locations of inflow, and evaluate the transmissivity and electric conductivity (salinity) of the fluid at each inflow point. The present paper proposes the use of the method with two or more pumping rates. In particular it is recommended that the method be applied three times with pumping rates Q, Q /2, and 2Q. Then a combined analysis of the multi-rate data allows an efficient means of determining transmissivity and salinity values of all inflow points along a well with a confidence measure, as well as their inherent or far-field pressure heads. The method is illustrated by a practical example.

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine

2003-04-22

82

Quantitative generalizations for catchment sediment yield following forest logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

data for temperate forests across the world are analyzed to investigate the potential for generalized quantitative expressions of catchment sediment yield impact in the years immediately following logging. Such generalizations would be useful in a variety of forestry and engineering tasks and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. Data were assembled for paired catchment studies (51 catchments including 16 controls) that enabled the postlogging sediment yield impact to be compared with both the prelogging period and an undisturbed control catchment, using a specially defined relative response factor. Three categories of impact were derived: low-moderate, high, and very high, defined by specific ranges in the maximum value of the relative response factor. The maximum increase in specific sediment yield (in t km-2 yr-1) following logging is 1 order of magnitude above the control sediment yield at both the annual and storm event scales, at least under normal circumstances of Best Management Practice. There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield and the proportion of catchment logged, at least at the general scale. A cumulative probability distribution for the year in which the maximum postlogging sediment yield occurs, shows the majority of cases falling in the first 2 years. These generalizations refer to the broad response to logging as a function of ground disturbance, for example, by logging technique, roads, and burning. Although limited to order of magnitude quantification, they provide a basis for first estimates and for a general appreciation of an impact problem.

Bathurst, James C.; Iroumé, Andrés.

2014-11-01

83

Linear Broadcasting and N log log N Election in Unoriented Hypercubes ?  

E-print Network

with sense of direction a O(N logN) solution has been given in MS94], while (e + N logN) messages are neededLinear Broadcasting and N log log N Election in Unoriented Hypercubes ? Stefan Dobrev, Peter, Bratislava, Slovak Republic Abstract. In this paper, we provide e cient broadcasting and elec- tion

Santoro, Nicola

84

Log Chlorine Dioxide Conc. (mg/L) LogTime(days)  

E-print Network

Log Chlorine Dioxide Conc. (mg/L) 1 10 100 LogTime(days) 0.1 1 10 100 Log 90%; n=-0.49 Log 99%; n Network Security, Which is a Better Disinfectant; Chlorine or Chlorine Dioxide? Department of Civil was fit to Delayed Chick Watson model to determine the lag phase magnitude. Chlorine Showed a Lag phase

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

85

Log-amplitude statistics for Beck-Cohen superstatistics.  

PubMed

As a possible generalization of Beck-Cohen superstatistical processes, we study non-Gaussian processes with temporal heterogeneity of local variance. To characterize the variance heterogeneity, we define log-amplitude cumulants and log-amplitude autocovariance and derive closed-form expressions of the log-amplitude cumulants for ?(2), inverse ?(2), and log-normal superstatistical distributions. Furthermore, we show that ?(2) and inverse ?(2) superstatistics with degree 2 are closely related to an extreme value distribution, called the Gumbel distribution. In these cases, the corresponding superstatistical distributions result in the q-Gaussian distribution with q=5/3 and the bilateral exponential distribution, respectively. Thus, our finding provides a hypothesis that the asymptotic appearance of these two special distributions may be explained by a link with the asymptotic limit distributions involving extreme values. In addition, as an application of our approach, we demonstrated that non-Gaussian fluctuations observed in a stock index futures market can be well approximated by the ?(2) superstatistical distribution with degree 2. PMID:23767484

Kiyono, Ken; Konno, Hidetoshi

2013-05-01

86

Fire damage effects on red oak timber product value Joseph M. Marschall a,  

E-print Network

(Quercus velutina, Quercus rubra, and Quercus coccinea) butt logs from trees harvested from three sites value loss to the individual butt log. We identified threshold values for fire-scar height and percent to describe how butt log value loss relates to fire-scar dimensions and residence time (timespan between

Stambaugh, Michael C

87

Leak checker data logging system  

DOEpatents

A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

1996-09-03

88

Leak checker data logging system  

SciTech Connect

A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

Payne, J.J.; Gannon, J.C.

1994-12-31

89

Leak checker data logging system  

DOEpatents

A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

Gannon, Jeffrey C. (Arlington, TX); Payne, John J. (Waterman, IL)

1996-01-01

90

Practical approach to estimate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using Passey's algorithm without sonic log in horizontal well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shale gas evaluation process can be summarized as the selection of sweep spot intervals in the vertical borehole and determination of hydraulic fracturing zones in horizontal borehole. Brittleness index used in the selection of hydraulic fracturing interval is calculated from dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of wireline logging and MWD/LWD data. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated from the sonic and density log data, and therefore the MWD/LWD in the horizontal borehole should be included sonic log to estimate the dynamic elastic constants. This paper proposes a practical method to estimate the elastic moduli based on Passey's algorithm if we can't use the LWD sonic log in the horizontal borehole. To estimate the TOC (Total Organic Content) using the sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log using Passey's algorithm we use the relationship between Delta log R values and core derived-LOM (Level of Maturity) data. Dynamic elastic constants in the horizontal well, i.e. in case of sweet spot zones, can be estimated using the relationships between P-wave velocity and elastic constants in the vertical well, and similarity between the calculated Delta log R values from sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log, respectively. From two Passey's algorithms such as sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log relationships in the vertical well, we can derive the P-wave velocity equating the two Passey's algorithms based on the similarity. Then we can derive the dynamic elastic constants using the relationships between P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic constants. Finally we can estimate the brittleness index from the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We expect that this practical method can be effectively applied if we can't use the LWD sonic logging data of the horizontal borehole.

Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun

2013-04-01

91

Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

1993-01-01

92

Wean-Tail Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

A SP #: ________________ _ Investigator: _________________ WEAN / TAIL CLIP LOG Strain: ___________________ Room Number: ___________________ STRAIN CODE WEAN DATE # ? # ? COMMENTS WATER A OR B # CAGES DOB TAILCLIP DATE CAGE / LITTER

93

The velocity-deviation log: A tool to predict pore type and permeability trends in carbonate drill holes from sonic and porosity or density logs  

SciTech Connect

The velocity-deviation log, which is calculated by combining the sonic log with the neutron-porosity or density log, provides a tool to obtain downhole information on the predominant pore type in carbonates. The log can be used to trace the downhole distribution of diagenetic processes and to estimate trends in permeability. Laboratory measurements on over 300 discrete carbonate samples reveal that sonic velocity is a function not only of total porosity, but also of the predominant pore type. In general, there is an inverse porosity-velocity correlation, but significant deviations occur from this relationship for certain pore types. Frame-forming pore types, such as moldic or intrafossil porosity, result in significantly higher velocity values at equal total porosities than do pore types that are not embedded in a rigid rock frame, such as interparticle porosity or microporosity. The results of the laboratory measurements can be applied to expand interpretations of standard wireline-log data, as shown in this study on two drill holes through Neogene carbonates from the Great Bahama Bank. The velocity-deviation log is calculated by first converting porosity-log data to a synthetic velocity log using a time-average equation. The difference between the real sonic log and the synthetic sonic log can then be plotted as a velocity-deviation log. Because deviations are the result of the variability of velocity at a certain porosity, the deviation log reflects the different rock-physical signatures of the different pore types. Positive velocity deviations mark zones where velocity is higher than expected from the porosity values, such as zones where frame-forming pore types dominate. Zero deviations show intervals where the rock lacks a rigid frame, such as in carbonates with high interparticle porosity or microporosity. Negative deviations mark zones in which sonic log velocities are unusually low, caused, for instance, by a cavernous bore-hole wall, fracturing, or possibly by a high content of free gas. By tracing the velocity deviations continuously downhole, one can identify diagenetic zones that are characterized by these different pore types. In addition, this method can be used to observe permeability trends because pore types influence the permeability of the rock.

Anselmetti, F.S.; Eberli, G.P. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Comparative Sedimentology Lab.

1999-03-01

94

26 MHz 1300 MHz Log periodic antenna  

E-print Network

An, Computer and Power Supplies 2000 MHz ­ 8000 MHz Horn Antenna 3000 MHz High Pass Filter Low Noise26 MHz ­ 1300 MHz Log periodic antenna 1000 MHz ­ 4000 MHz Log periodic antenna Pre Supply Control cable to computer USB port USB to GPIB Cable RF cables from antennas to pre

95

Security Event and Log Management Service  

E-print Network

Management Service 8 A Better Security Event and Log Management Solution 12 IBM Security Operations CenterSecurity Event and Log Management Service: Comprehensive, Cost-effective Approach to Enhance Network Security and Security Data Management IBM Global Technology Services December 2007 #12;Executive

96

Improve reliability with operator log sheets  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there have been significant improvements in computerized vibration and online performance monitoring systems. However, despite all the developments, the importance of monitoring rotating equipment through operator log sheets must not be overlooked or neglected. Operator log sheets filled out during shifts can be very useful tools in detecting problems early, provided they are diligently completed and evaluated during the operating shift. In most cases, performance deviations can be corrected by measured within the control of the operator. If the operator understands the purpose of log sheets, and knows the cause and effect of deviations in operating parameters, he or she will be motivated to complete the log sheets to increase equipment reliability. Logged data should include any operating data from equipment that reveals its mechanical condition or performance. The most common data logged are pressure, temperature, flow, power and vibration. The purposes of log sheets are to: establish and recognize the normal operating parameters and identify deviations in performance data; perform timely corrective actions on deviations to avoid unplanned shutdowns and catastrophic failures; avoid repetitive failures and increase mean time between failures; and provide base line data for troubleshooting. Two case histories are presented to illustrate the usefulness of logs: a compressor thrust bearing problem and steam turbine blade washing.

Devender, A.V.; Ganesan, S.T. [Refineria ISLA S.A., Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

1996-01-01

97

Injection Well Logging Using Viscous EOR Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new tool has been developed that overcomes problems associated with logging injection wells in the presence of viscous fluids. The tool was evaluated in the laboratory and the field in water and polymer injection wells. Results indicate that the tool provides better information than conventional equipment. Special attention to log interpretation is required in zones where the flow pattern

Bruce Knight; Mohammad Davarzani

1986-01-01

98

Applications of an Automated Interlibrary Loan Log.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Marquette University Interlibrary Loan Log, which is an online log of borrowing and lending requests. Applications of the interlibrary loan data for statistical reporting, management decision making, collection development, online enhancement, and copyright monitoring are discussed. (3 references) (CLB)

Beaton, Barbara; Kirk, Jay H.

1988-01-01

99

Learning Logs in Introductory Literature Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the beneficial and sometimes unpredictable implications of a daily reflective writing exercise for introductory literature courses: the learning log. Pseudonymous samples of student writing, coupled with instructor commentary, gesture toward ways in which the learning log's continual implementation and modification foster a…

Babcock, Matthew James

2007-01-01

100

Dynamical evolution of active detached binaries on log Jo - log M diagram and contact binary formation  

E-print Network

Orbital angular momentum (Jo), systemic mass (M) and orbital period (P) distributions of chromospherically active binaries (CAB) and W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) systems were investigated. The diagrams of log Jo - log P, log M - log P and log Jo-log M were formed from 119 CAB and 102 W UMa stars. The log Jo-log M diagram is found to be most meaningful in demonstrating dynamical evolution of binary star orbits. A slightly curved borderline (contact border) separating the detached and the contact systems was discovered on the log Jo - log M diagram. Since orbital size (a) and period (P) of binaries are determined by their current Jo, M and mass ratio q, the rates of orbital angular momentum loss (dlog Jo/dt) and mass loss (dlog M/dt) are primary parameters to determine the direction and the speed of the dynamical evolution. A detached system becomes a contact system if its own dynamical evolution enables it to pass the contact border on the log Jo - log M diagram. Evolution of q for a mass loosing detached system is...

Eker, Z; Bilir, S; Karatas, Y

2006-01-01

101

Dynamical evolution of active detached binaries on log Jo - log M diagram and contact binary formation  

E-print Network

Orbital angular momentum (Jo), systemic mass (M) and orbital period (P) distributions of chromospherically active binaries (CAB) and W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) systems were investigated. The diagrams of log Jo - log P, log M - log P and log Jo-log M were formed from 119 CAB and 102 W UMa stars. The log Jo-log M diagram is found to be most meaningful in demonstrating dynamical evolution of binary star orbits. A slightly curved borderline (contact border) separating the detached and the contact systems was discovered on the log Jo - log M diagram. Since orbital size (a) and period (P) of binaries are determined by their current Jo, M and mass ratio q, the rates of orbital angular momentum loss (dlog Jo/dt) and mass loss (dlog M/dt) are primary parameters to determine the direction and the speed of the dynamical evolution. A detached system becomes a contact system if its own dynamical evolution enables it to pass the contact border on the log Jo - log M diagram. Evolution of q for a mass loosing detached system is unknown unless mass loss rate for each component is known. Assuming q is constant in the first approximation and using the mean decreasing rates of Jo and M from the kinematical ages of CAB stars, it has been predicted that 11, 23 and 39 cent of current CAB stars would transform to W UMa systems if their nuclear evolution permits them to live 2, 4 and 6 Gyrs respectively.

Z. Eker; O. Demircan; S. Bilir; Y. Karatas

2006-09-14

102

Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging  

E-print Network

Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal Organization (ITTO), shippers in Indonesia are threatening to stop transporting logs if the government insists harvesting affects 700,000-850,000 hectares of forest per year in Indonesia, but widespread illegal logging

103

Acoustic logging in low velocity formations  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for acoustically logging an earth formation surrounding a borehole which contains a liquid, the method comprising the steps of: generating P-waves having a predetermined frequency at a first location in the borehole in a manner so that the wave will propagate through a zone in the liquid and then penetrate the formation and be refracted in the formation; contemporaneously introducing gas bubbles into the liquid zone so as to lower the P-waves velocity in the liquid zone to a value less than the P-wave velocity in the formation, wherein the average resonant frequency of the gas bubbles is selected to be greater than the predetermined frequency; and wherein the average resonant frequency is adjusted by varying the average diameter of the bubbles according to the following equation: F/sub R/=l..pi..D)3..mu..YPo/rho)/sup 1/2/ where F/sub R/ is the average resonant frequency of the bubbles; D is the average diameter of the bubbles; Po is the pressure at the bubbles; Rho is the density of the water gas mixture; ..mu..is the Polytropic factor; and Y is the adiabatic constant; and detecting the arrival of the refracted P-waves at at least one receiver spaced vertically from the first location.

Curran, J.W.

1986-09-16

104

Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs  

SciTech Connect

The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

Izotova, T.S. (Ukrainian State Geological Research Institute, Kiev (Ukraine))

1993-09-01

105

Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

Weiman, Carl F. R.

1992-01-01

106

Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

1992-01-01

107

Place Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice place value! Fight the pirates in Pirates Place Value Uncover the hidden picture in Place value hidden picture Take the quiz at place value quiz Keep practicing with Place value to 1000 Stretch your brain with Place value to 100,000 ...

Peake, Mrs.

2011-08-18

108

Exercise Log Date Distance Date Distance  

E-print Network

routine. Are You Starting a New Exercise Program? Stretching Brought to you by Staff Council httpExercise Log Date Distance Date Distance College of Sports Medicine recommends that if you are undertaking an exercise program that you see your

Gering, Jon C.

109

Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

1994-01-01

110

Infinite log-concavity: developments and conjectures  

E-print Network

Given a sequence (a_k) = a_0, a_1, a_2,... of real numbers, define a new sequence L(a_k) = (b_k) where b_k = a_k^2 - a_{k-1} a_{k+1}. So (a_k) is log-concave if and only if (b_k) is a nonnegative sequence. Call (a_k) "infinitely log-concave" if L^i(a_k) is nonnegative for all i >= 1. Boros and Moll conjectured that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave. Using a computer and a stronger version of log-concavity, we prove their conjecture for the nth row for all n Pascal's triangle, q-analogues, symmetric functions, real-rooted polynomials, and Toeplitz matrices. In addition, we offer several conjectures.

McNamara, Peter R W

2008-01-01

111

RIAPROG: logit-log radioimmunoassay data processing  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the users guide and program listings for the 1980 version of RIAPROG. RIAPROG is a program for weighted least squares linear regression using the logit-log model for analysis of RIA results.

Faden, V.B.; Huston, J.C. Jr.; Munson, P.J.; Rodbard, D.

1980-03-01

112

Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging--a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil properties and nutrient levels, increase erosion, modify hydrological regimes and aquatic ecosystems, and alter patterns of landscape heterogeneity These impacts can be assigned to three broad and interrelated effects: (1) altered stand structural complexity; (2) altered ecosystem processes and functions; and (3) altered populations of species and community composition. Some impacts may be different from or additional to the effects of traditional logging that is not preceded by a large natural disturbance because the conditions before, during, and after salvage logging may differ from those that characterize traditional timber harvesting. The potential impacts of salvage logging often have been overlooked, partly because the processes of ecosystem recovery after natural disturbance are still poorly understood and partly because potential cumulative effects of natural and human disturbance have not been well documented. Ecologically informed policies regarding salvage logging are needed prior to major natural disturbances so that when they occur ad hoc and crisis-mode decision making can be avoided. These policies should lead to salvage-exemption zones and limits on the amounts of disturbance-derived biological legacies (e.g., burned trees, logs) that are removed where salvage logging takes place. Finally, we believe new terminology is needed. The word salvage implies that something is being saved or recovered, whereas from an ecological perspective this is rarely the case. PMID:16922212

Lindenmayer, D B; Noss, R F

2006-08-01

113

Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

Houghton, R. A.

1999-01-01

114

CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is a dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.

Frobose, R.H.

1984-11-12

115

Estimating xenobiotic half-lives in humans from rat data: influence of log P.  

PubMed Central

The nature of empirical allometric expressions relating dispositional and kinetic parameters for a given xenobiotic across multiple mammalian species is well known. It has also been demonstrated that a simple allometric relationship may be used to predict kinetic parameters for humans based merely on data for multiple xenobiotics from rats. We decided to explore reasons for the variance in the data arising from the latter method. We were particularly interested in learning whether any physicochemical characteristics of xenobiotics might account for outlying data points (i.e., poor prediction of human half-life from rat half-life). We have explored the influence of lipid solubility as reflected by a xenobiotic's log P value because adipose tissue comprises a significantly larger percentage of total body weight in humans than in rats. We used half-life data from the literature for 127 xenobiotics. A data subset of 102 xenobiotics for which we were able to find estimates of log P values, including several with extremely large log P values, was also analyzed. First and second order models, including and excluding log P, were compared. The simplest of these models can be recast as the familiar allometric relationship having the form Y = a(Xb). The remaining models can be seen as extensions of this relationship. Our results suggest that incorporation of log P into the prediction of xenobiotic half-life in humans from rat half-life data is important only for xenobiotics with extremely large log P values such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. Moreover, a second order model in logarithm of rat half-life accommodates all data points very well, without specifically accounting for log P values. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 4. PMID:9370523

Sarver, J G; White, D; Erhardt, P; Bachmann, K

1997-01-01

116

Tree species diversity and composition in logged and unlogged rainforest of Kudremukh National Park, South India.  

PubMed

Species composition and diversity in logged and unlogged forests were assesed to understand the regeneration of the residual stand twenty years after logging in Kudremukh National Park, South India. Relative density, frequency and basal area were measured by Point Centered Quarter method to calculate the diversity and stand quality. The logged forest harbored lower stem density of mature trees (508 ha(-1)) than unlogged ones (630 ha(-1)). Indeed, logging operations increased the species diversity in the regenerative phase (seedling phase) due to the creation of larger canopy gaps. The extra radiation reaching the ground, facilitated the colonization of early and late secondary species. Ramakrishanan Index of Stand Quality (RISQ) values in logged forest was higher in comparison with unlogged forest, indicating the dominance of early and late secondary species, especially at sapling phase. The light demanding secondary forest species contribute higher percentage to the overall tree population in logged forest. It is observed from the study that a sufficient period of felling cycle should be practiced to reinstate the same set of species prevailed before logging. PMID:16459548

Nagaraja, B C; Somashekar, R K; Raj, M Bunty

2005-10-01

117

Data Encryption Standard Cetin Kaya Koc  

E-print Network

non-government researchers to study the design and theory of block ciphers His ideas (S-boxes, round involvement was found suspicious by some There were conspiracy theories' about the DES having a "backdoor

118

Measured partition coefficients for parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 114 historically contaminated sediments: part 2. Testing the K(OC)K(BC) two carbon-type model.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) desorption partition coefficients between black carbon and water (K(BC)) were determined using 114 historically contaminated and background sediments from eight different rural and urban waterways. Black carbon was measured after oxidation at 375 degrees C for 24 h. Organic carbon-water partition coefficients (K(OC)) required for the calculation of K(BC) values were determined for two- to six-ring parent and C1- to C4-alkyl PAHs based on the lower range of measured K(OC) values from the same sediments and comparisons to literature K(OC) values. Approximately 2,050 log K(BC) values were determined on sediments having a range of total organic carbon from 0.3 to 42% by weight, black carbon from 0.1 to 40% by weight, and total PAH concentrations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 16 parent PAHs) from 0.2 to 8,600 microg/g. Contrary to expectations, PAH partitioning was not better explained using the combined K(OC) and K(BC) models rather than the simple K(OC) model (i.e., K(BC) values for each individual PAH ranged nearly three orders of magnitude). No effect of PAH concentration on measured K(BC) values was apparent. Values of K(BC) also showed no trends with total organic carbon, black carbon, or the presence or absence of a non- aqueous phase liquid. Multiple linear regression analysis with K(OC) and K(BC) as fitted values also failed to explain the variance of the experimental data (r(2) values typically less than 0.20, and standard errors greater than two orders of magnitude). These results demonstrate that models of PAH partitioning that account for different carbon types, although useful for understanding partitioning mechanisms, cannot yet be used to accurately predict PAH partitioning from historically contaminated sediments. PMID:18020686

Hawthorne, Steven B; Grabanski, Carol B; Miller, David J

2007-12-01

119

Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

Collett, T.S.

1998-01-01

120

Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

Collett, Timothy S.

1998-01-01

121

Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux often focus on annual timescales but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics with non-parametric quantile regression forests (QRF) based on high-frequency (3 min) discharge measurements and sediment concentration data sampled every 30-60 min in similar-sized (˜0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the random forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ˜80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. In particular, dry-season logging dampened the relative role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We show that QRFs outperform traditional sediment rating curves (SRCs) in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

2014-03-01

122

Extreme Value Theory for Random Exponentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the limit distribution of upper extreme values of i.i.d. exponential samples {etXi}N i=1 as t ! 1, N ! 1. Two cases are considered: (A) esssupX = 0 and (B) esssupX = 1. We assume that the function h(x) = ¡log P{X > x} (case B) or h(x) = ¡log P{X > ¡1\\/x} (case A) is (normalized) regularly

Leonid V. Bogachev

123

Place Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activites cover place value of ones, tens, hundreds and thousands. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Dinosaur Numbers (place value) Game #2: Shark Numbers (place value) Game #3: Place Value Golf (harder) ...

Christian, Mrs.

2007-03-21

124

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle

125

Enhanced Max-Log-APP and Enhanced Log-APP Decoding for DVB-RCS  

E-print Network

Enhanced Max-Log-APP and Enhanced Log-APP Decoding for DVB-RCS Youssouf Ould for Return Channel via Satellite (DVB- RCS) standard. The proposed techniques are re- ferred criterion are also presented. 1 Introduction DVB-RCS [1] has been standardized by the ETSI for digital video

Kabal, Peter

126

Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

2013-09-01

127

Accuracy and resolution in continuous temperature logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear Backus-Gilbert theory is used for the deconvolution problem of continuously logged borehole temperatures. The main elements of the theory and some numerical and experimental results are given. The accuracy and resolution of the temperature and temperature gradient records are determined by the logging velocity, the probe time constant, the sampling period, the statistical accuracy of data, and the characteristics of the inverse filter. By applying the inverse approach the interrelation between parameters is studied, and the trade-off between accuracy and resolution is emphasized. The inverse method yields well defined temperatures and temperature gradients with associated standard deviations and averaging functions. It is suitable for the processing of continuously logged temperature data with reference to application in terrestrial heat flow and stratigraphic studies.

Nielsen, Søren B.; Balling, Niels

1984-03-01

128

Performance evaluation of active wireline heave compensation systems in marine well logging environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic functionality and performance of a new Schlumberger active wireline heave compensation system on the JOIDES Resolution was evaluated during the sea trial and a 3-year period of the IODP Phase II operations. A suite of software programs was developed to enable real-time monitoring of the dynamics of logging tools, and assess the efficiency of wireline heave compensation during downhole operations. The evaluation of the system effectiveness was performed under normal logging conditions as well as during stationary tests. Logging data were analyzed for their overall quality and repeatability, and to assess the reliability of high-resolution data such as formation microscanner (FMS) electrical images. This revealed that the system reduces 65-80 % of displacement or 88-98 % variance of downhole tool motion in stationary mode under heave conditions of ±0.2-1.5 m and water depths of 300-4,500 m in open holes. Under similar water/heave conditions, the compensator system reduces tool displacement by 50-60 %, or 75-84 % variance in downhole tool motion during normal logging operations. Such compensation efficiency (CE) is comparable to previous compensation systems, but using advanced and upgradeable technologies, and provides 50-85 % heave motion and heave variance attenuation. Moreover, logging down/up at low speeds (300-600 m/h) reduces the system's CE values by 15-20 %, and logging down at higher speeds (1,000-1,200 m/h) eliminates CE values by 55-65 %. Considering the high quality of the logging data collected, it is concluded that the new system can provide an improved level of compensation over previous systems. Also, if practically feasible, future integration of downhole cable dynamics as an input feedback into the current system could further improve its compensation efficiency during logging operations.

Liu, Tanzhuo; Iturrino, Gerardo; Goldberg, David; Meissner, Eric; Swain, Kerry; Furman, Clayton; Fitzgerald, Peter; Frisbee, Nathan; Chlimoun, Joe; Van Hyfte, John; Beyer, Ron

2013-02-01

129

Benefit Analysis for Geothermal Log Interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Formation evaluation is of great importance in geothermal development because of the high capital costs and the fact that successful exploration will only pay off through a subsequent decision to construct a power plant or other utilization facility. Since much formation data is available from well logging, development of new techniques of log interpretation for application to geothermal wells is called for. An analysis of potential nearterm benefits from this program and the types of formation data called for is discussed. Much useful information can be developed by adaptation of techniques used in oil and gas reservoirs, but the different demands of geothermal development from hydrocarbon production also open up new data requirements.

Rigby, F.A.

1980-12-16

130

Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs  

SciTech Connect

A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

1999-07-01

131

Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators  

SciTech Connect

We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)] and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schroedinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m=m{sub 0}t/t{sub 0} and {omega}={omega}{sub 0}t{sub 0}/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and {omega} constant.

Bessa, V.; Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE 60455-760 (Brazil)

2011-06-15

132

The effect of logging and regeneration on groundwater, streamflow and stream salinity in the southern forest of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1960s the Forests Department of Western Australia decided to change its logging strategy in the southern forest from light selection cutting to heavy selection cutting and clear-felling. This raised some concern about the effect on the water resources in the region. Four small catchments (Crowea, Poole, Iffley and Mooralup) were therefore selected in 1975 to study the effect of heavy selection cutting and clear-felling followed by regeneration on streamflow, stream salinity and groundwater levels. The catchments were logged between November 1976 and March 1978. Regeneration began within eighteen months after the completion of logging. During the study (1976-1985) the annual rainfall in the region was generally below the long-term mean. This probably influenced the magnitude and duration of the hydrologic response to logging and regeneration, but not the general trends. Groundwater levels rose for two-four years after logging and then started to fall again. They can be expected to reach the values they would have been at without logging within fifteen years after the beginning of regeneration. In the relatively dry Mooralup catchment, logging had little effect on the groundwater level. As a result of logging streamflow increased for two years (1977 and 1978) and then gradually declined again as the vegetation regenerated. Streamflow is also likely to be back to pre-logging values within fifteen years after the beginning of regeneration. In the Mooralup catchment, where streamflow volumes are naturally small, this may have happened after six years of regeneration. Flow-weighted mean annual stream salinities rose for one-three years after logging but have declined since. Even at their highest level they remained below the upper limit for high-quality drinking water. Stream salinites are likely to return to the level they would be at without logging at the same time as streamflow and groundwater levels.

Borg, H.; Stoneman, G. L.; Ward, C. G.

1988-05-01

133

Deep-Sea Research II 54 (2007) 177182 Bio-logging science: Logging and relaying physical and  

E-print Network

have concerned marine animals. For the past 15 years, the Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) has beenDeep-Sea Research II 54 (2007) 177­182 Editorial Bio-logging science: Logging and relaying physical and biological data using animal-attached tags Bio-logging can be defined as the theory and practice of logging

Hooker, Sascha K.

134

BYU Astronomical Society Observation Log Book  

E-print Network

elements designed for the amateur astronomer: an observation program, and a log book. Brigham Young newcomers to the hobby of astronomy become experienced amateur astronomers. It is designed to be accessible using telescopes within an amateur's capabilities. By working to individually observe and record

Hart, Gus

135

Elemental concentration logging with a germanium spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The German deep-well project is currently drilling a scientific well in northeastern Bavaria at the intersection of the African and Northern European tectonic plates. This well is scheduled to be drilled to a depth of {approximately}10 km to study the geochemical processes involved in the alteration of minerals under high temperature and pressure. As an initial stage in this project, a well was drilled to a depth of 4 km within 200 m of the site selected for the deep well. This well was fully cored and extensively logged with both commercial and experimental logging systems. Cores, as well as cuttings and fluids, were extensively analyzed in a well-site laboratory established specifically for that purpose. One of the experimental logging systems run in the 4-km well was a gamma-ray spectrometer that used a {sup 252}Cf source for delayed activation measurements and a neutron generator that produces 14-MeV neutrons for thermal neutron-capture gamma-ray measurements. There were two primary goals of this project. The first was to confirm the validity of elemental concentration determinations from commercial logging equipment, based on NaI(Tl) detectors, in this crystalline rock environment. The commercial equipment determines the elements: aluminum, silicon, sulfur, calcium, titanium, iron, gadolinium, potassium, thorium, and uranium. The second was to determine additional elemental concentrations that can be used to enhance the geo-chemical studies of the crystalline rock mineralogy.

Peterson, C.A.; Schweitzer, J.S. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States)); Draxler, J.K.

1991-11-01

136

Data-Logging: Effects on Practical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot study of laboratory data logging in three secondary schools found that when computers were used students spent less time measuring, recording, and reporting data and more time observing and discussing. Qualitative changes, however, were much more context dependent. Contextual factors were computer skill, physical nature of the topic under…

Rogers, Laurence; Wild, P.

1996-01-01

137

Effects of Selection Logging on Rainforest Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of data from 212 permanent sample plots provided no evidence of any decline in rainforest productivity after three cycles of selection logging in the tropical rainforests of north Queensland. Relative productivity was determined as the difference between observed diameter increments and increments predicted from a diameter increment function which incorporated tree size, stand density and site quality. Analyses

Jerome K. Vanclay

1990-01-01

138

Indonesia to fight illegal logging Kurniawan Hari  

E-print Network

Indonesia to fight illegal logging Kurniawan Hari The government should set up a task force to deal another $8.1 billion. "Indonesia's economy will collapse if these evil practices are not stopped," Ermaya in the current fiscal year and was three times Indonesia's foreign debt budget. Commission members said the sand

139

Discussion logs for h-childhood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new moderated H-Net discussion list seeks to link international scholars studying the history of childhood and youth in all regions and time periods. Resources available at the site include discussion threads, message logs, a review project, and academic announcements.

140

There's Life in Those Dead Logs!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

2006-01-01

141

2011 Daily Log Report #: 2011-00261  

E-print Network

#: 2011-00249 Reported: 05/16/2011 0742 Occurred: 05/16/2011 0740 Incident: Traffic Crash Location: Lot Log Report #: 2011-00256 Reported: 05/24/2011 0909 Occurred: 05/24/2011 0905 Incident: Traffic Crash/14/2011 0120 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Stop Location: Lot L Disposition: Arrest--Closed Comments

Boyce, Richard L.

142

Modelling tropical forests response to logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

2013-04-01

143

Automatic Determination of Lithology From Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure combining modern wireline measurements with a lithofacies data base has been developed to produce an automatic lithologic description of the formations crossed by a well. The database lithofacies are defined from petrographic knowledge and translated in terms of log responses. The assignment of depth levels to a lithofacies is done with the data base and with a discriminating

Pierre Delfiner; Olivier Peyret; Oberto Serra

1987-01-01

144

A First Look at Logging in Gabon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly released report [.pdf format] from Global Forest Watch (World Resources Institute) takes a first look at Gabon's forestry practices. The report describes how forests are rapidly being conceded to "a handful of logging companies" which export primarily one species of tree to a narrow range of countries.

145

Borehole Acoustics and Logging Reservoir Delineation  

E-print Network

fail to maintain the tool in perfect alignment. This problem is more pronounced in the case of source and receivers the tool is placed in off-axis or tilted positions. In the case of Acoustic Logs by means of bow-type springs and rubber fingers pressing against the formation, these mechanisms may often

Entekhabi, Dara

146

Temperature Data Logging in Missouri Bat Caves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our preliminary results of digitally logged temperatures in Missouri bat caves that are inhabited by the Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis, and the gray bat, Myotis grisescens. Both species are endangered. Eight Indiana bat hibernacula, including one mine, were monitored since the fall of 1998. Four of these included gray bats. The temperatures in some of the hiber- nacula

William R. Elliott; Richard L. Clawson

147

USGS Training on Borehole Geophysical Logging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS hydrologist holds an electromagnetic induction borehole logging tool while the tool is calibrated. The hydrologist was participating in a USGS class on how to use electromagnetic induction geophysical methods for groundwater investigations, conducted by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch o...

148

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2011-07-01

149

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2013-07-01

150

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2010-07-01

151

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2014-07-01

152

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ladder. When a log boom is being worked, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of § 1918.23 shall be provided for each gang working alongside unless other safe means of access (such as the vessel's gangway) is provided. However, no more...

2012-07-01

153

Navjot's nightmare revisited: logging, agriculture, and biodiversity  

E-print Network

tremendous biodiversity loss. This loss is exac- erbated by increased fire frequency. Therefore, we conNavjot's nightmare revisited: logging, agriculture, and biodiversity in Southeast Asia David S Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 117546, Singapore 3 Centre

Vermont, University of

154

BYU Astronomical Society Observation Log Book  

E-print Network

System 1 Messier 4 NGC 40 Double Stars 54 Variable Stars 69 Misc. Objects 72 Blank Log Pages 76 Indexes, bright solar system, and select NGC objects. Many of the best double stars, variable stars, and other giveth his light by day, and the moon giveth her light by night, and the stars also give their light

Hart, Gus

155

MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

156

2011 Daily Log Report #: 2011-00168  

E-print Network

2011 Daily Log March 2011 Report #: 2011-00168 Reported: 03/31/2011 1237 Occurred: 03/31/2011 1235 Incident: Medical Emergency Location: Outside of Student Union Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Female transported to hospital by ambulance for medical treatment. Report #: 2011-00167 Reported: 03/31/2011 1116

Boyce, Richard L.

157

A Wheelchair Usage Monitoring\\/Logging System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real life information on wheelchair usage is important for investigating the effectiveness of certain features, evaluate users' performance, and eventually improve the safety and reliability of wheelchairs. The purpose of the study is to develop a wheelchair usage monitoring\\/logging system that travels with wheelchair users in their daily activity settings and collects data independently. The system consists of a wheel

Dan Ding; Elizabeth Leister; Rory A. Cooper; Donald Spaeth; Rosemarie Cooper; Annmarie Kelleher; Michael L. Boninger

2005-01-01

158

Dirichlet averages of x/sup t/ log x  

SciTech Connect

A neglected class of special functions may be described as Dirichlet averages of chi/sup t/ log chi or equivalently as derivatives of hypergeometric R-functions with respect to the degree of homogeneity. Special cases include the derivative of a Legendre function with respect to the degree and the derivative of Gauss's hypergeometric function with respect to a numerator parameter. There are connections with the logarithmic derivative of the gamma function, with Euler's dilogarithm, and with /sub 3/F/sub 2/; some special cases of /sub 3/F/sub 2/ are thereby evaluated. Applications include a two-point boundary-value problem, mean values, series expansions of elliptic integrals, integral tables, and several physics problems. The discussion of various properties emphasizes series expansions, quadratic transformations, inequalities, and evaluation of special cases, including certain cases of the derivative of a Legendre function with respect to the degree.

Carlson, B.C.

1987-03-01

159

I. (1) (log(|g(x)|)) = g(x) g(x) , (log(logx)) = 1  

E-print Network

A (5/9) I. (1) (log(|g(x)|)) = g(x) g(x) , (log(logx)) = 1 logx(logx) = 1 xlogx (2) ( h(x) g(x) ) = g(x)h(x)-g(x)h(x) g(x)2 , g(x) = e-x + 1, h(x) = ex + 1 ( ex + 1 e-x + 1 ) = (e-x + 1)(ex + 1) - (e-x + 1)(ex + 1) (e-x + 1)2 = 2 + ex + e-x (e-x + 1)2 (3) (1) , (log( x + 1 + x + 2)) = 1 x + 1 + x

Ochiai, Tadashi

160

Determining Earthquake Recurrence Intervals from Trench Logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trench logs of the San Andreas Fault at Pallett Creek, CA are the data base for a lab or homework assignment that teaches about relative dating, radiometric dating, fault recurrence intervals and the reasons for uncertainty in predicting geologic phenomena. Students are given a trench log that includes several fault strands and dated stratigraphic horizons. They estimate the times of faulting based on bracketing ages of faulted and unfaulted strata. They compile a table with the faulting events from the trench log and additional events recognized in nearby trenches, then calculate maximum, minimum and average earthquake recurrence intervals for the San Andreas Fault in this area. They conclude by making their own prediction for the timing of the next earthquake. While basically an exercise in determining relative ages of geologic horizons and events, this assignment includes radiometric dates, recurrence intervals, and an obvious societal significance that has been well received by students. With minor modifications, this exercise has been used successfully with elementary school students through university undergraduate geology majors. Less experienced students can work in groups, with each group determining the age of a single fault strand; combining the results from different groups and calculating recurrence intervals can then be done as a class activity. University students in an introductory geology course for non-majors can add their data from the trench log to an existing table with other faulting events already provided. The exercise can be made more challenging for advanced students by using logs from several different trenches, requiring students to design the table themselves, and giving students the uncertainties for the radiometric dates rather than simple ages for the strata. Most studentsâat all levelsâare initially frustrated by their inability to determine an exact date of faulting from the available data. They gain a new appreciation for the task of the geoscientist who attempts to relate geologic phenomena to the human, rather than geologic, time scale.

Cashman, Patricia

161

Land-sharing versus land-sparing logging: reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

Selective logging is a major driver of rainforest degradation across the tropics. Two competing logging strategies are proposed to meet timber demands with the least impact on biodiversity: land sharing, which combines timber extraction with biodiversity protection across the concession; and land sparing, in which higher intensity logging is combined with the protection of intact primary forest reserves. We evaluate these strategies by comparing the abundances and species richness of birds, dung beetles and ants in Borneo, using a protocol that allows us to control for both timber yield and net profit across strategies. Within each taxonomic group, more species had higher abundances with land-sparing than land-sharing logging, and this translated into significantly higher species richness within land-sparing concessions. Our results are similar when focusing only on species found in primary forest and restricted in range to Sundaland, and they are independent of the scale of sampling. For each taxonomic group, land-sparing logging was the most promising strategy for maximizing the biological value of logging operations. PMID:23955803

Edwards, David P; Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Larsen, Trond H; Andrews, David J R; Derhé, Mia A; Docherty, Teegan D S; Hsu, Wayne W; Mitchell, Simon L; Ota, Takahiro; Williams, Leah J; Laurance, William F; Hamer, Keith C; Wilcove, David S

2014-01-01

162

Regional-scale Hydrostratigraphic Analysis of the Paskapoo Aquifer Using Normalized Gamma-ray Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paskapoo Formation is the major groundwater aquifer system in western Alberta, Canada. The aquifer system covers approximately 65,000 km2, has over 69,000 groundwater wells completed in it, has a maximum thickness of 800 m and consists of a fluvial mudstone and sandstone complex. The formation is divided into the upper Dalehurst Member, the mud dominated Lacombe Member and the basal Haynes Member. In order to develop hydrostratigraphic models of the Paskapoo Fm., it is necessary to understand the distribution and connectivity of the sandstone remnants. Mapping these features is a particularly difficult problem given the size of the region and the complexity of fluvial systems. In 2006 the Government of Alberta mandated that all wire line log readings, including natural gamma-ray logs, must be collected to surface. Tens of thousands of new exploration and production wells have been drilled and logged since 2006. Since wire line logs are in the public domain, it has created a large source of new data for mapping shallow aquifer systems. However, much of the shallow data of interest is collected through casing. A gamma-ray normalization algorithm has been developed to approximately correct for the dampening effects of the casing so that the cased and uncased API log values are equivalent. The algorithm is based on estimating the second and ninety-fifth percentiles of the API values in uncased zones in wells with similar geology to the cased zones that are to be corrected. The API values of cased zones are then adjusted so that their second and ninety-fifth API percentiles are the same as the uncased values. Mudstone and sandstone zones in the logs can be discriminated and the continuity of sandstone units can be investigated. The Haynes member has been previously described as made up of set of stacked sandstone channels. Logs show that the Haynes member is a thick sandstone unit up to 100 m thick and extending over 100 km perpendicular to the Rocky Mountain's thrust front. Logs also show that the Haynes Member is absent in the northern Paskapoo Fm. The overlying Lacombe member is clearly distinguishable from the Haynes member and it consists of smaller channel sandstone remnants which cannot be correlated over large distances, consistent with its description of a mud dominated system. Areas of higher and lower sand fraction are evident in the records. Mapping sand fractions is extremely important as it exerts first order control on regional hydraulic conductivity, vertical conductivity and connectivity within the aquifer. The normalized gamma logs offer a powerful new tool for regional aquifer characterization in Alberta.

Bentley, L. R.; Quartero, E.; Leier, A.; Bechtel, D.

2013-12-01

163

Well Log Data Management (LogDB ) - Its Role and Application in E&P Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Well logging is the process of recording various petro-physical, properties of rock\\/formations penetrated by drilling. Log responses are functions of lithology, porosity, fluid-content and textural variation of formation. This information couple d with characteristics of sedimentary structures derived from high resolution dipmeter surveys provide detailed insight into the sedimentary environment and allows estimation of the reservoir geometry & orientations.

Asim Samanta; Anjani Kumar; Jokhan Ram

164

Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation surveying. Nineteen (19) of the 44 wells without magnetic deviation data were selected for the planned gyroscopic logging based on their location relative to facilities, site boundaries, and contaminant transport concerns. In total, 44 aquifer wells (25 with magnetic deviation data and 19 without) are recommended for planned gyroscopic logging.

Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

2002-04-01

165

Contribution of logging data to sedimentology and stratigraphy. [Electrofacies  

SciTech Connect

A technique has been developed using multivariate analysis of logging data to give a high-resolution sedimentological description of any sequence of formations. The number of different logs and their range allow determination of many of the physical characteristics of the rock. The definition of a lithofacies has been extended by introducing the concept of an electrofacies, constructed on the basis of all the logging data at any depth interval. Each logging datum is considered a descriptor for purposes of establishing electrofacies in a logged interval. Once established, electrofacies then can be correlated with actual geologic facies, if the logged interval has been cored. 23 refs.

Serra, O.; Abbott, H.T.

1982-02-01

166

Geostatistical Procedures for Developing Three-Dimensional Aquifer Models from Drillers' Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hydrostratigraphic Drilling Record Assessment (HyDRA) project is developing procedures for employing the vast but highly qualitative hydrostratigraphic information contained in drillers' logs in the development of quantitative three-dimensional (3D) depictions of subsurface properties for use in flow and transport models to support groundwater management practices. One of the project's objectives is to develop protocols for 3D interpolation of lithological data from drillers' logs, properly accounting for the categorical nature of these data. This poster describes the geostatistical procedures developed to accomplish this objective. Using a translation table currently containing over 62,000 unique sediment descriptions encountered during the transcription of over 15,000 logs in the Kansas High Plains aquifer, the sediment descriptions are translated into 71 standardized terms, which are then mapped into a small number of categories associated with different representative property (e.g., hydraulic conductivity [K]) values. Each log is partitioned into regular intervals and the proportion of each K category within each interval is computed. To properly account for their compositional nature, a logratio transform is applied to the proportions. The transformed values are then kriged to the 3D model grid and backtransformed to determine the proportion of each category within each model cell. Various summary measures can then be computed from the proportions, including a proportion-weighted average K and an entropy measure representing the degree of mixing of categories within each cell. We also describe a related cross-validation procedure for assessing log quality.

Bohling, G.; Helm, C.

2013-12-01

167

What loggers leave behind: Impacts on big-leaf mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla) commercial populations and potential for post-logging recovery in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of current harvest practices for high-value Meliaceae can be assessed by quantifying logging intensity and projecting growth and survival by post-logging populations over anticipated intervals between harvests. From 100%-area inventories of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) covering 204ha or more at eight logged and unlogged forest sites across southern Brazilian Amazonia, we report generally higher landscape-scale densities and smaller

James Grogan; Stephen B. Jennings; R. Matthew Landis; Mark Schulze; Anadilza M. V. Baima; J. do Carmo A. Lopes; Julian M. Norghauer; L. Rogério Oliveira; Frank Pantoja; Diane Pinto; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Edson Vidal; Barbara L. Zimmerman

2008-01-01

168

Linear-log counting-rate meter uses transconductance characteristics of a silicon planar transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Counting rate meter compresses a wide range of data values, or decades of current. Silicon planar transistor, operating in the zero collector-base voltage mode, is used as a feedback element in an operational amplifier to obtain the log response.

Eichholz, J. J.

1969-01-01

169

Log polar image sensor in CMOS technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design, design issues, fabrication and performance of a log-polar CMOS image sensor. The sensor is developed for the use in a videophone system for deaf and hearing impaired people, who are not capable of communicating through a 'normal' telephone. The system allows 15 detailed images per second to be transmitted over existing telephone lines. This framerate is sufficient for conversations by means of sign language or lip reading. The pixel array of the sensor consists of 76 concentric circles with (up to) 128 pixels per circle, in total 8013 pixels. The interior pixels have a pitch of 14 micrometers, up to 250 micrometers at the border. The 8013-pixels image is mapped (log-polar transformation) in a X-Y addressable 76 by 128 array.

Scheffer, Danny; Dierickx, Bart; Pardo, Fernando; Vlummens, Jan; Meynants, Guy; Hermans, Lou

1996-08-01

170

High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system  

SciTech Connect

A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions.

Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

1997-05-01

171

Ultrasonic techniques in oil well logging  

SciTech Connect

Oil well logging is used to provide the oil and gas industry with information essential to discovering and extracting hydrocarbons. This paper addresses two ultrasonic measurements that are presently used in oil well logging. The most widely used is an ultrasonic technique that evaluates the integrity of the cement seal after a steel casing has been lowered and cemented in place. This instrument is also capable of monitoring the effects of corrosion both on the inner and outer surfaces of the casing. The measurement is based on a pulsed resonant technique. Less widely used is the Borehole Televiewer, an ultrasonic scanning device based on a pulse-echo technique. It provides an acoustic image of geologic features such as rock layers and fractures.

Havira, R.M.

1988-01-01

172

Place Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has explanatory lessons, interactive practice, and challenge games all dealing with place value. Includes information, practice, and games on place value of two, three, six and seven digit numbers and expandend notation for two, three, six, and seven digit numbers. Problems are randomly selected and students receive immediate feedback with the correct response. The bottom of each lesson page contains timed exercises.

AAA Math

2007-12-12

173

Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

Duplichan, Staycle C.

2009-01-01

174

Automatic well log correlation using neural networks  

E-print Network

. Importance of Well Log Correlations 1. 2. Neural Networks 1. 3. Research Objective II LITERATURE REVIEW. 2. 1. Point-To-Point Correlation 2. 2. Zone-To-Zone Correlation 2. 3. NN Applications in the Petroleum Industry 2. 4. Other Applications of NN...: Network Learning Time 39 Table 3: Summary of Zones Identified . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Automation of various tasks in the petroleum industry has the advantage of reducing project completion time, and improving productivity of engineers. The falling...

Habiballah, Walid Abdulrahim

1991-01-01

175

Toxic species evolution from guayule fireplace logs  

E-print Network

burning of guayule fireplace logs was conducted to determine if any unusually toxic species were present. An ASTM D-4100 Arapahoe smoke chamber was used to generate smoke for smoke mass determinations, chemical analyses, and particle size distribution... tests. Analyses included physical and chemical fuel analyses according to ASTM standards, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of gaseous and particulate phases, and emission spectroscopy. The particle size distribution was determined by the use of a...

Soderman, Kristi Lee

2012-06-07

176

Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

Gani, M. R.

177

Log-transforming the matter power spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate whether non-linear effects on the large-scale power spectrum of dark matter, namely the increase in small-scale power and the smearing of baryon acoustic oscillations, can be decreased by a log-transformation or emulated by an exponential transformation of the linear spectrum. To that end we present a formalism to convert the power spectrum of a log-normal field to the power spectrum of the logarithmic Gaussian field and vice versa. All ingredients of our derivation can already be found in various publications in cosmology and other fields. We follow a more pedagogical approach providing a detailed derivation, application examples, and a discussion of implementation subtleties in one text. We use the formalism to show that the non-linear increase in small-scale power in the matter power spectrum is significantly smaller for the log-transformed spectrum which fits the linear spectrum (with less than 20% error) for redshifts down to 1 and k ? 1.0 h Mpc. For lower redshifts the fit to the linear spectrum is not as good, but the reduction of non-linear effects is still significant. Similarly, we show that applying the linear growth factor to the logarithmic density leads to an automatic increase in small-scale power for low redshifts fitting to third-order perturbation spectra and Cosmic Emulator spectra with an error of less than 20%. Smearing of baryon acoustic oscillations is at least three times weaker, but still present.

Greiner, M.; Enßlin, T. A.

2015-02-01

178

Derive capillary pressure from well logs  

SciTech Connect

A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical data where core data is absent or not representative of in-situ conditions. It is based on using log data to derive a water saturation vs. depth profile in the transition zone of the formation of interest. The log-derived water saturation distribution is then correlated to generalized capillary pressure curves typical of the formation studied. The capillary pressure type curves are generated from available core data and other petrophysical information. Relative permeability curves are then generated using correlations based on Purcell's model. The technique can be used in multi-layered and homogeneous reservoirs provided that one homogeneous layer is at least 20 ft thick.

Ibrahim, A. (Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Desbrandes, R.; Bassiouni, Z. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1994-07-01

179

Precision pressure/temperature logging tool  

SciTech Connect

Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

1998-01-01

180

Studies on phase and group velocities from acoustic logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is still argued whether we measure phase or group velocities using acoustic logging tools. In this paper, three kinds of models are used to investigate this problem by theoretical analyses and numerical simulations. First, we use the plane-wave superposition model containing two plane waves with different velocities and able to change the values of phase velocity and group velocity. The numerical results show that whether phase velocity is higher or lower than group velocity, using the slowness-time coherence (STC) method we can only get phase velocities. Second, according to the results of the dispersion analysis and branch-cut integration, in a rigid boundary borehole model the results of dispersion curves and the waveforms of the first-order mode show that the velocities obtained by the STC method are phase velocities while group velocities obtained by arrival time picking. Finally, dipole logging in a slow formation model is investigated using dispersion analysis and real-axis integration. The results of dispersion curves and full wave trains show similar conclusions as the borehole model with rigid boundary conditions.

Wang, Jing; Chen, De-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Lan; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; He, Xiao; Wang, Xiu-Ming

2012-03-01

181

14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section 125.407 ...OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR...Reports § 125.407 Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes...

2010-01-01

182

Acoustic Waveform Logging - Advances In Theory And Application  

E-print Network

Full-waveform acoustic logging has made significant advances in both theory and application in recent years, and these advances have greatly increased the capability of log analysts to measure the physical properties of ...

Cheng, C. H.

183

4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on later extension. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

184

Theoretical studies of permeability inversion from seismoelectric logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeability is one of the most important parameters for evaluating the level of difficulty in oil and gas exploitation. A quick, continuous and accurate in-situ estimate of reservoir permeability is highly significant. Stoneley wave logs have been used to determine formation permeability (Tang and Cheng, 1996). However, the inversion errors of this method are too big in low-permeability formations, especially in high-porosity and low-permeability formations resulting from the high clay content in pores. In this study, we propose to invert permeability by using the full waveforms of seismoelectric logs with low frequencies. This method is based on the relationship of permeability with the ratio of the electric excitation intensity to the pressure field's (REP) with respect to the Stoneley wave in seismoelectric logs. By solving the governing equations for electrokinetic coupled wavefields in homogeneous fluid-saturated porous media (Pride, 1994), we calculate the full waveforms of the borehole seismoelectric wavefields excited by a point pressure source and investigate frequency-dependent excitation intensities of the mode waves and excitation intensities of the real branch points in seismoelectric logs. It is found that the REP's phase, which reflects the phase discrepancy between the Stoneley-wave-induced electric field and the acoustic pressure, is sensitive to formation permeability. To check the relation between permeability and REP's phase qualitatively, an approximate expression of the tangent of the REP's argument is derived theoretically as tan(?EP) ?-?c/? = -??/ (2?f? ??f?0), where ?EPdenotes the arguments of the REP and their principal value is the REP's phase,? is the angular frequency,?c is a critical angular frequency that separates the low-frequency viscous flow from the high-frequency inertial flow, ? is the porosity, ?? is the tortuosity, ?0 is the Darcy permeability, ?f and ? are the density and the viscosity of the pore fluid, f is the frequency. According to this approximate expression, if porosity, tortuosity and pore fluid properties (density and viscosity) have been measured by some methods or estimated by empirical formulas, permeability can be inverted by calculating tan(?EP) and using its corresponding frequency. To test this method, permeabilities of different sandstones are inverted from the synthetic full-waveform data of the seismoelectric logs. A modified inversion process is proposed based on the analysis of the inversion errors, by which the relative errors are controlled below 25% and they are smaller than those of the permeability inversion from the Stoneley wave logs. This study is supported by National Natural Science Foundations of China (41174110), Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province of China (QC2010025), Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20102302120024), Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (2011M500651).

Hu, H.; Guan, W.; Zhao, W.

2012-04-01

185

The Learning Log as an Integrated Instructional Assessment Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of student learning logs is recommended as a means for both students and teacher to assess second-language learning. The approach encourages learners to analyze their learning difficulties and plan for overcoming them. Incorporated into portfolios, logs can be used to analyze progress. Sample log sheet and chart used as a framework for…

Topaz, Beverley

1997-01-01

186

Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon  

E-print Network

Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon Gregory P. Asner* , Eben N. Broadbent extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest

Camara, Gilberto

187

Effects of partial logging systems on bird assemblages in Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on bird assemblages of several partial logging systems were examined in dry eucalypt forests in Tasmania. Densities and species composition of birds in partially logged areas were compared with those in adjacent mature forest, with clearfelled areas sometimes also being sampled.In the first study, the effects of advanced growth retention logging, which involves retaining all young trees with

Robert J. Taylor; Murray E. Haseler

1995-01-01

188

EOR: well logs sharpen focus on residual saturation. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of what the enhanced recovery specialist must know about the reservoir under consideration can be measured, calculated, or deduced from well logging data. Appropriate well logging procedures for this type of formation evaluation would include resistivity, radioactivity, dielectric constant, and acoustic well logs. This work describes the principles and procedures for assessing residual oil saturation of a subsurface formation

1983-01-01

189

ADL Logging Architecture JIGI determines all server addresses from  

E-print Network

ADL Logging Architecture JIGI logging server JIGI determines all server addresses from from the authentication server) JIGI user authentication server Note: JIGI authentication is logically; if the former, server adds sequence numbers to preserve record order (ODBC or other) middleware logging server

Janée, Greg

190

Improved selective logging detection with Landsat images in tropical regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logging is a major form of forest degradation in the tropical regions like Brazilian Amazon. It alters the tropical habitat environments and results in release of carbons as well. The traditional way of logging is through forest clearing, which converts forest to other land uses such as agriculture or rangeland. Recently a new form of forest degradation is selective logging,

Jiaguo Qi; Cuizhen Wang; Eraldo Matricardi; David Skole

2002-01-01

191

Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

2009-01-01

192

Predicting road erosion rates in selectively logged tropical rain forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main sediment sources created by selective harvesting of tropical rain forests come from building access roads and log haulage tracks that often extend the drainage network and deliver large quantities of sediment to channels. When unchecked, these tracks develop into gullies that continue to erode long after logging. Several years after harvesting, hollow log culverts beneath access roads can

IAN DOUGLAS

2003-01-01

193

Experimental correlation between the p Ka value of sulfonphthaleins with the nature of the substituents groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results obtained from a spectrophotometry study performed on some indicators of the sulfonphtaleins like phenol red (PR), thymol blue (TB), bromothymol blue (BTB), xylenol orange (XO) and methylthymol blue (MTB). During the first stage the acidity constants of some of the indicators were determined using the data from spectrophotometry, potentiometry and with the use of the software SQUAD. These were as follows: for the equilibrium 2H + BTB ? H 2BTB, log ?2 = 15.069 ± 0.046 and for H + BTB ? HBTB, log ?1 = 8.311 ± 0.044. For the XO and the MTB five values were calculated for each, namely, for MTB: log ?5 = 42.035, log ?4 = 38.567 ± 0.058, log ?3 = 32.257 ± 0.057, log ?2 = 23.785 ± 0.057, and log ?1 = 12.974 ± 0.045 while for XO: log ?5 = 40.120 ± 0.102, log ?4 = 35.158 ± 0.062, log ?3 = 29.102 ± 0.053, log ?2 = 21.237 ± 0.044, and log ?1 = 11.682 ± 0.044. During the second stage, a study was conducted on the effect of the substituents present in the indicators to determine the effect of different functional groups on the p Ka value corresponding to the last indicator's dissociation.

Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Barrera-Diaz, Carlos; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

2008-04-01

194

Lipophilicity assessment of basic drugs (log P(o/w) determination) by a chromatographic method.  

PubMed

A previously reported chromatographic method to determine the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P(o/w)) of organic compounds is used to estimate the hydrophobicity of bases, mainly commercial drugs with diverse chemical nature and pK(a) values higher than 9. For that reason, mobile phases buffered at high pH to avoid the ionization of the solutes and three different columns (Phenomenex Gemini NX, Waters XTerra RP-18 and Waters XTerra MS C(18)) with appropriate alkaline-resistant stationary phases have been used. Non-ionizable substances studied in previous works were also included in the set of compounds to evaluate the consistency of the method. The results showed that all the columns provide good estimations of the log P(o/w) for most of the compounds included in this study. The Gemini NX column has been selected to calculate log P(o/w) values of the set of studied drugs, and really good correlations between the determined log P(o/w) values and those considered as reference were obtained, proving the ability of the procedure for the lipophilicity assessment of bioactive compounds with very different structures and functionalities. PMID:21820118

Pallicer, Juan M; Sales, Joaquim; Rosés, Martí; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth

2011-09-16

195

GGDMLE: a computer program which finds maximum likelihood estimates for the generalized log gamma distribution.  

PubMed

A FORTRAN program is described which finds maximum likelihood estimates for the generalized log gamma model for survival time data. The model includes regression variables which are assumed to be linearly related to log survival time and handles censored data. The shape parameter is treated as fixed in the optimization procedure (a modification of Powell's hybrid method), but the program can find maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) for several different values of the shape parameter in one run. The other parameters can be optionally fixed so special cases of the generalized log gamma (GLG) model, such as the log exponential, extreme value and normal models, can be studied. A subroutine is included which calculates initial parameter estimates for a given shape parameter value which can be used to start the optimization procedure. After some background mathematics, a description of how to use the program is given, including input/output features, a description of the subroutines and an explanation of the flow of control. An application, using data from Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, is presented to illustrate the program's use. PMID:6897716

Hogg, S A; Ciampi, A; Lawless, J

1982-12-01

196

Certified and uncertified logging concessions compared in Gabon: changes in stand structure, tree species, and biomass.  

PubMed

Forest management certification is assumed to promote sustainable forest management, but there is little field-based evidence to support this claim. To help fill this gap, we compared a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)-certified with an adjacent uncertified, conventionally logged concession (CL) in Gabon on the basis of logging damage, above-ground biomass (AGB), and tree species diversity and composition. Before logging, we marked, mapped, and measured all trees >10 cm dbh in 20 and twelve 1-ha permanent plots in the FSC and CL areas, respectively. Soil and tree damage due to felling, skidding, and road-related activities was then assessed 2-3 months after the 508 ha FSC study area and the 200 ha CL study area were selectively logged at respective intensities of 5.7 m(3)/ha (0.39 trees/ha) and 11.4 m(3)/ha (0.76 trees/ha). For each tree felled, averages of 9.1 and 20.9 other trees were damaged in the FSC and CL plots, respectively; when expressed as the impacts per timber volume extracted, the values did not differ between the two treatments. Skid trails covered 2.9 % more of the CL surface, but skid trail length per unit timber volume extracted was not greater. Logging roads were wider in the CL than FSC site and disturbed 4.7 % more of the surface. Overall, logging caused declines in AGB of 7.1 and 13.4 % at the FSC and CL sites, respectively. Changes in tree species composition were small but greater for the CL site. Based on these findings and in light of the pseudoreplicated study design with less-than perfect counterfactual, we cautiously conclude that certification yields environmental benefits even after accounting for differences in logging intensities. PMID:23277438

Medjibe, V P; Putz, Francis E; Romero, Claudia

2013-03-01

197

An evaluation of the use of drillers' logs in lithologic studies of the Ogallala Formation of the southern high plains of Texas, progress report, 1970-71  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Logs made by water-well drillers were analyzed in conjunction with test-hole drilling and geophysical logging to evaluate usefulness of the driller's log in delineating areas that would be suitable for artificial recharge of the Ogallala Formation. This preliminary study indicates that lack of detailed and accurate information in many drillers' logs prevents their use as a reliable source of lithologic information. For many applications, such as evaluation of potential areas for artificial recharge, the value of more complete and more accurate information will be readily apparent as these applications become more widespread. More effort will be required in collecting lithologic information as part of the drilling operations.

Wilson, C.A.; Smith, J.T.; Thompson, G.L.; Sandeen, W.M.

1972-01-01

198

Dynamical evolution of active detached binaries on the logJo-logM diagram and contact binary formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital angular momentum (OAM, Jo), systemic mass (M) and orbital period (P) distributions of chromospherically active binaries (CAB) and W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) systems were investigated. The diagrams of and logJo-logM were formed from 119 CAB and 102 W UMa stars. The logJo-logM diagram is found to be most meaningful in demonstrating dynamical evolution of binary star orbits. A

Z. Eker; O. Demircan; S. Bilir; Y. Karatas

2006-01-01

199

Prediction of thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks from well logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of heat-flow density in boreholes requires reliable values for the change of temperature and rock thermal conductivity with depth. As rock samples for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity (TC) are usually rare geophysical well logs are used alternatively to determine TC. A common procedure in the latter approach is the use of empirical relations between TC and different petrophysical properties. Although numerous prediction equations were developed in the past five decades, none of these seem to be universally applicable for all major types of sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evaporites). In addition, these relations mostly are suitable only for regions and lithotypes for which they were originally developed. A new set of predictive equations is presented which overcomes these limitations and which allows the prediction of the rock matrix TC based on different combinations of standard geophysical well-logs. In combination with a feasible mixing-model (i.e. geometric mean model) bulk TC is computed along borehole profiles. The underlying approach was proposed by Fuchs & Förster (2014) and rests upon the detailed analysis of the interrelations between major physical parameters (i.e. thermal conductivity, density, hydrogen index, sonic interval transit time, gamma-ray response, photoelectric factor) of artificial mineral assemblages consisting 15 rock-forming minerals that are used in different combinations to typify sedimentary rocks. The predictive capacity of the new equations is evaluated on subsurface data from four boreholes drilled into the Mesozoic sequence of the North German Basin, including more than 1700 laboratory-measured thermal-conductivity values. Results are compared with those from other approaches published in the past. The new approach predicts TC with a mean error between 10 and 15 % compared to earlier approaches of much higher error of 15-35 % (and sometimes higher).

Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

2014-05-01

200

The Borneo Project : Indonesia Fails to Stop Illegal Logging, Report Says Indonesia Fails to Stop Illegal Logging, Report Says  

E-print Network

The Borneo Project : Indonesia Fails to Stop Illegal Logging, Report Says Indonesia Fails to Stop Illegal Logging, Report Says by Irwan Firdaus, The Associated Press January 15th, 2003 JAKARTA, Indonesia -- Corruption in Indonesia's police and military has contributed to a surge in illegal logging that has

201

In-Home Demonstration of the Reduction of Woodstove Emissions from the Use of Densified Logs.  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

Barnett, Stockton G.; Bidhouse, Roger D.

1992-07-07

202

In-home demonstration of the reduction of woodstove emissions from the use of densified logs  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

Barnett, S.G.; Bighouse, R.D.

1992-07-07

203

Acoustic Logging Modeling by Refined Biot's Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explicit uniform completely conservative finite difference scheme for the refined Biot's equations is proposed. This system is modified according to the modern theory of dynamic permeability and tortuosity in a fluid-saturated elastic porous media. The approximate local boundary transparency conditions are constructed. The acoustic logging device is simulated by the choice of appropriate boundary conditions on its external surface. This scheme and these conditions are satisfactory for exploring borehole acoustic problems in permeable formations in a real axial-symmetrical situation. The developed approach can be adapted for a nonsymmetric case also.

Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

204

VAFLE: visual analytics of firewall log events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present VAFLE, an interactive network security visualization prototype for the analysis of firewall log events. Keeping it simple yet effective for analysts, we provide multiple coordinated interactive visualizations augmented with clustering capabilities customized to support anomaly detection and cyber situation awareness. We evaluate the usefulness of the prototype in a use case with network traffic datasets from previous VAST Challenges, illustrating its effectiveness at promoting fast and well-informed decisions. We explain how a security analyst may spot suspicious traffic using VAFLE. We further assess its usefulness through a qualitative evaluation involving network security experts, whose feedback is reported and discussed.

Ghoniem, Mohammad; Shurkhovetskyy, Georgiy; Bahey, Ahmed; Otjacques, Benoît.

2013-12-01

205

Identifying related journals through log analysis  

PubMed Central

Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

2009-01-01

206

Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

1949-01-01

207

Crop Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While economic data on crop values are strictly commercial/ agricultural summaries, they can be useful as surrogate indices of land use/ cover change, or in estimating food subsidies (e.g. waste grain) for wildlife. Posted by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economics and Statistics System at Cornell University, the site contains the "annual marketing year average prices and value of production of principal crops". Principal crops include barley (all, feed, and malting), hay, oats, rye, wheat (all, winter, durum, and other spring), upland and American-pima cotton and cottonseed, corn, dry beans, flaxseed, peanuts, sorghum, soybeans, sunflowers, and rice. These data are provided by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA).

208

PREDICTING SOIL SORPTION COEFFICIENTS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS USING A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The soil/sediment adsorption partition coefficient normalized to organic carbon (Koc) is extensively used to assess the fate of organic chemicals in hazardous waste sites. Several attempts have been made to estimate the value of Koc from chemical structure ...

209

Value Added  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

Welch, Matt

2004-01-01

210

Student Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the social, political, economic, and cultural values of students at Northern Michigan University by using a College Student Questionnaire (CSQ) administered to a stratified random sample of full-time undergraduates. The variables were: sex, class, and residence. The CSQ consisted of 200 multiple-choice questions designed to…

Stordahl, Kalmer E.

211

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

Vail, W.B. III.

1989-02-14

212

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1989-01-01

213

Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.

1988-01-01

214

Estimating monthly streamflow values by cokriging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cokriging is applied to estimation of missing monthly streamflow values in three records from gaging stations in west central Virginia. Missing values are estimated from optimal consideration of the pattern of auto- and cross-correlation among standardized residual log-flow records. Investigation of the sensitivity of estimation to data configuration showed that when observations are available within two months of a missing value, estimation is improved by accounting for correlation. Concurrent and lag-one observations tend to screen the influence of other available observations. Three models of covariance structure in residual log-flow records are compared using cross-validation. Models differ in how much monthly variation they allow in covariance. Precision of estimation, reflected in mean squared error (MSE), proved to be insensitive to this choice. Cross-validation is suggested as a tool for choosing an inverse transformation when an initial nonlinear transformation is applied to flow values. ?? 1986 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Solow, A.R.; Gorelick, S.M.

1986-01-01

215

Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.  

PubMed

The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

2013-08-01

216

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2012-08-30

217

Value creation  

SciTech Connect

In 1994 a group of gathering and processing companies commissioned Sterling Consulting Group of Houston Texas to conduct a benchmarking study to analyze the industry and measure performance of individual companies in a manner unique from previous cost oriented benchmarking studies. The study, Eagles View, focused on strategic issues that effect performance. The study used four types of benchmarking: value, operational, function, and process benchmarking. The paper describes the study methodology.

Roussel, D.C. [Cyclone Development, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-11-01

218

Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.  

PubMed

Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25088557

Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercio?lu, Ca?an Hakk?; Koh, Lian Pin

2014-08-18

219

Curve fitting using logarithmic function for sea bed logging data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research work is to conduct curve fitting using mathematical equations that relate location of the hydrocarbon (HC) at different depth to different frequencies. COMSOL MultiPhysics software was used to generate models of the seabed logging technique which consists of air, sea water, sediment and HC layer. Seabed Logging (SBL) is a technique to find the resistive layers under seabed by transmitting low frequency of EM waves through sea water and sediment. As HC is known to have high resistivity which is about 30-500?m, EM waves will be guided and reflected back and detected by the receiver that are placed on the seafloor. In SBL, low frequency is used to obtain greater wavelength which allows EM waves to penetrate at longer distance and each frequency used has different skin depth. The frequencies used in this project were 0.5Hz, 0.25Hz, 0.125Hz and 0.0625Hz and the depths of the HC were varied from 1000m to 3000m with increment of 250m. Data generated from the simulations using COMSOL software was extracted for the set up with and without HC and few trend lines were developed and R2 were calculated for each equation and curve. The calculated R2 were compared between data with HC to no HC at each depth and it was found that the calculated R2 values were very well fitted for deeper HC depth. This indicates that as depth of HC is higher, it is difficult to distinguish data with and without HC presence; and perhaps a new technique can be explored.

Daud, Hanita; Razali, Radzuan; Zaki, M. Ridhwan O.; Shafie, Afza

2014-10-01

220

Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

2012-01-01

221

Tolerance bounds for log gamma regression models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present procedure for finding lower confidence bounds for the quantiles of Weibull populations, on the basis of the solution of a quadratic equation, is more accurate than current Monte Carlo tables and extends to any location-scale family. It is shown that this method is accurate for all members of the log gamma(K) family, where K = 1/2 to infinity, and works well for censored data, while also extending to regression data. An even more accurate procedure involving an approximation to the Lawless (1982) conditional procedure, with numerical integrations whose tables are independent of the data, is also presented. These methods are applied to the case of failure strengths of ceramic specimens from each of three billets of Si3N4, which have undergone flexural strength testing.

Jones, R. A.; Scholz, F. W.; Ossiander, M.; Shorack, G. R.

1985-01-01

222

Squirt flow influence on sonic log parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most sedimentary rocks contain movable fluid in the pores. Hydrodynamic effects due to wave-induced oscillatory fluid flow can lead to significant changes of velocities and attenuations of elastic waves in these rocks. In this paper, we consider the influence of a squirt flow (local flow between the pores of different compressibility) on the sonic log response. The calculations are performed using a unified model describing the joint influence of squirt flow and Biot's global flow. The results show that the influence of the squirt flow increases with increase of a signal frequency. This influence is relatively small in the case of the Stoneley wave but it is significant in the case of P and S waves.

Markova, I.; Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markov, M.; Gurevich, B.

2014-02-01

223

Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

1986-01-01

224

PCB design of balanced log-periodic antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Log periodic antennas are widely used in EMI\\/Antenna measurement because of their ultra wideband properties. When designing a planar log-periodic antenna, the feeding method is a main issue. In this paper, a planar log-periodic antenna is fed by a planar Marchand balun. The whole design is illustrated on a PCB without any supporting device. The bandwidth ranges from 1.2 GHz

Tzu-Hsuan Weng; Yi-Cheng Lin

2009-01-01

225

Volatile logging in n-fault-tolerant distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce two enhancements to optimistic recovery which allow messages to be logged without performing any I\\/O to stable storage. The first permits messages to be instantaneously logged in volatile storage, as in the sender-based message logging technique of D.B. Johnson and W. Zwaenepoel (1987), but without their restriction of single-fault-tolerance. The second permits message data and\\/or message arrival

Robert E. Strom; David F. Bacon; Shaula A. Yemini

1988-01-01

226

The logN-logS relationship of normal X-ray emitting galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have selected a flux limited serendipitous sample of galaxies from the cross-correlation of the BMW (Brera Multiscale Wavelet) ROSAT HRI and the LEDA (Lyon - Meudon Extragalactic Database) Catalogues. This sample is used to study the X-ray properties of normal galaxies in the local universe. We also find that the logN-logS distribution we derived for a serendipitous subsample, optically and X-ray flux limited, is consistent with the euclidean slope in the flux range FX(0.5 - 2) ˜ 1.1 - 110 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We further show that the same law is valid over 4 decades, from the bright sample derived from the RASS data to the very faint detections in deep XMM-Newton fields.

Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter A.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

227

Tracking the Inside Intruder Using Net Log on Debug Logging in Microsoft Windows Server Operating Systems  

SciTech Connect

In today's well-connected environments of the Internet, intranets, and extranets, protecting the Microsoft Windows network can be a daunting task for the security engineer. Intrusion Detection Systems are a must-have for most companies, but few have either the financial resources or the people resources to implement and maintain full-scale intrusion detection systems for their networks and hosts. Many will at least invest in intrusion detection for their Internet presence, but others have not yet stepped up to the plate with regard to internal intrusion detection. Unfortunately, most attacks will come from within. Microsoft Windows server operating systems are widely used across both large and small enterprises. Unfortunately, there is no intrusion detection built-in to the Windows server operating system. The security logs are valuable but can be difficult to manage even in a small to medium sized environment. So the question arises, can one effectively detect and identify an in side intruder using the native tools that come with Microsoft Windows Server operating systems? One such method is to use Net Logon Service debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity. This paper discusses how to use Net Logon debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity both in real-time and for forensic analysis.

Davis, CS

2004-01-20

228

Valuing vaccination  

PubMed Central

Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

2014-01-01

229

Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

2013-04-01

230

Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

2013-12-01

231

Determination of Log K[subscript ow] Values for Four Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though many undergraduates are interested in medicine, relatively few experiments related to drug design and development are included in introductory chemistry laboratory courses. In this experiment, aqueous solutions of four different drugs (acetaminophen, caffeine, phenacetin, and sulfanilamide) are extracted using 1-octanol, a mimic of the…

Harris, Mark F.; Logan, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

232

The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.  

PubMed

In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework. PMID:25126485

Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

2014-01-01

233

Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

2012-11-01

234

Experimental correlation between the pKa value of sulfonphthaleins with the nature of the substituents groups.  

PubMed

This work presents the results obtained from a spectrophotometry study performed on some indicators of the sulfonphtaleins like phenol red (PR), thymol blue (TB), bromothymol blue (BTB), xylenol orange (XO) and methylthymol blue (MTB). During the first stage the acidity constants of some of the indicators were determined using the data from spectrophotometry, potentiometry and with the use of the software SQUAD. These were as follows: for the equilibrium 2H+BTB<-->H(2)BTB, log beta(2)=15.069+/-0.046 and for H+BTB<-->HBTB, log beta(1)=8.311+/-0.044. For the XO and the MTB five values were calculated for each, namely, for MTB: log beta(5)=42.035, log beta(4)=38.567+/-0.058, log beta(3)=32.257+/-0.057, log beta(2)=23.785+/-0.057, and log beta(1)=12.974+/-0.045 while for XO: log beta(5)=40.120+/-0.102, log beta(4)=35.158+/-0.062, log beta(3)=29.102+/-0.053, log beta(2)=21.237+/-0.044, and log beta(1)=11.682+/-0.044. During the second stage, a study was conducted on the effect of the substituents present in the indicators to determine the effect of different functional groups on the pK(a) value corresponding to the last indicator's dissociation. PMID:17716940

Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Barrera-Diaz, Carlos; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

2008-04-01

235

Web Log Analysis: A Study of Instructor Evaluations Done Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on developing a relatively simple method for analyzing web-logs. It also explores the challenges and benefits of web-log analysis. The study of student behavior on this site provides insights into website design and the effectiveness of this site in particular. Another benefit realized from the paper is the ease with which these…

Klassen, Kenneth J.; Smith, Wayne

2004-01-01

236

Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs  

E-print Network

Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs Sourabh Jain, Inderpreet Singh National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 Email: greg@bronevetsky.com Abstract--Supercomputers are prone to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find

Chandra, Abhishek

237

Preprocessing DNS Log Data for Effective Data Mining  

E-print Network

Preprocessing DNS Log Data for Effective Data Mining Mark E. Snyder Department of Computer Science--The Domain Name Service (DNS) provides a critical function in directing Internet traffic. Defending DNS servers from bandwidth attacks is assisted by the ability to effectively mine DNS log data for statistical

Sundaram, Ravi

238

Explicit Expressions for Moments of Log Normal Order Statistics  

E-print Network

Explicit Expressions for Moments of Log Normal Order Statistics Saralees Nadarajah First version: 31 December 2006 Research Report No. 23, 2006, Probability and Statistics Group School of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Explicit Expressions for Moments of Log Normal Order Statistics by Saralees

Sidorov, Nikita

239

Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir  

E-print Network

Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir and Redwood Forests Philip B. Durgin United. This source of nitrogen can decisively affect forest regeneration.5 Because organic matter is a necessary and vital soil constituent, the effect of logging on the amount of soil organic matter needs to be assessed

Standiford, Richard B.

240

Effects of logging on stream environments and faunas in Nelson  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various logging practices on stream environments and faunas were studied at the Golden Downs State Forest in Nelson. Comparisons were made between the features of a control stream with an unmodified forest catchment and three streams whose catchments had been affected by different logging practices. Measurements were made of stream flow, water temperature, stream bed sedimentation, suspended

E. Graynoth

1979-01-01

241

Design and Use of the Stratigraphic Strip Log.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of a strip log as a diagrammatic representation of the information available in a sequence of sedimentary rocks. Describes the design of the strip log (both symbolically and by visual/spatial patterns) and some of the possible interpretations that can be made using them. (TW)

Fichter, Lynn Stanton

1987-01-01

242

47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to or involved in an investigation by the FCC and about which the licensee has been...specifically authorized in writing by the FCC to destroy them. Logs incident to or...reading devices shall be available to permit FCC inspection of logs pursuant to §...

2013-10-01

243

Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…

Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

2012-01-01

244

Determining In-Situ Stress Profiles From Logs.  

E-print Network

is an important input for the model. This was also shown in previous studies such as "ABC" method. #12;12 SPE 90070 Shahab D. Mohaghegh Methodology To deduce formation lithology from logs a fuzzy system was developed. The fuzzy system uses three logs and 27 rules in order to decide on the formation lithology

Mohaghegh, Shahab

245

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-01-01

246

Automated Variance Reduction Applied to Nuclear Well-Logging Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo method enables detailed, explicit geometric, energy and angular representations, and hence is considered to be the most accurate method available for solving complex radiation transport problems. Because of its associated accuracy, the Monte Carlo method is widely used in the petroleum exploration industry to design, benchmark, and simulate nuclear well-logging tools. Nuclear well-logging tools, which contain neutron

John C. Wagner; Douglas E. Peplow; Thomas M. Evans

2008-01-01

247

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil\\/water contact,

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-01-01

248

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-01-01

249

Well logging and its applications in cased holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cased-hole well logging concepts are reviewed which are currently used to explore for bypassed hydrocarbons in abandoned or old workover wells; in fresh, brackish, or unknown formation water salinities; evaluate hydrocarbons in new wells in which open-hole logs could not be run; monitor production behavior and depletion in reservoirs under primary driving mechanisms, breakthrough in waterfloods, chemical and micellar projects,

Fertl

1982-01-01

250

Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

2014-01-01

251

Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16 ± 1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained. PMID:16901980

Asner, Gregory P.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E.; Silva, José N. M.

2006-01-01

252

Preprocessing and Mining Web Log Data for Web Personalization  

E-print Network

Preprocessing and Mining Web Log Data for Web Personalization M. Baglioni1 , U. Ferrara2 , A. Romei/26, 56017 S. Martino Ulmiano (PI) Italy ferrara@ksolutions.it Abstract. We describe the web usage mining behaviour of a web site users. The models are inferred from the access logs of a web server by means of data

Ruggieri, Salvatore

253

Basic ESP Activation 1. Log on as root  

E-print Network

Basic ESP Activation 1. Log on as root 2. Command line configuration # espconfig -createadmin_system_ip_address> * 3. Log into ESP (default user is `administrator', default password is `partner') 3.1 Via internet) * Using a remote graphical system to access ESP via internet Browser (item 3.1) #12;

Frandsen, Søren

254

Transaction clustering of web log data files using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly web applications found to impact on numerous environments. The web log data offer more promises and particularly application of the genetic algorithms is significant as it represents the relations between different data components. We have used simple genetic algorithms to log files and we found that the preliminary results are more promising there by open more avenues for future

Daisy Jacobs; S. Sarasvady; Pit. Pichappan

2007-01-01

255

TR-023 Geomorphology March 2002 Post-logging landslide rates  

E-print Network

TR-023 Geomorphology March 2002 Post-logging landslide rates in the Cascade Mountains, southwestern.P. Rollerson and B. Thomson. 2002. Post- logging landslide rates in the Cascade Mountains, south- western..................................................................................................................................7 4.1.1 Clearcut Landslides (Tables 2 and 3)....................................................................

256

A RAPID METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LOG P FOR ORGANIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The logarithm of the retention time (log RT) of organic chemicals on a permanently bonded (C-18) reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography system is shown to be linearly related to the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P). A rapid, inexpensive te...

257

Real-Time System Log Monitoring/Analytics Framework  

SciTech Connect

Analyzing system logs provides useful insights for identifying system/application anomalies and helps in better usage of system resources. Nevertheless, it is simply not practical to scan through the raw log messages on a regular basis for large-scale systems. First, the sheer volume of unstructured log messages affects the readability, and secondly correlating the log messages to system events is a daunting task. These factors limit large-scale system logs primarily for generating alerts on known system events, and post-mortem diagnosis for identifying previously unknown system events that impacted the systems performance. In this paper, we describe a log monitoring framework that enables prompt analysis of system events in real-time. Our web-based framework provides a summarized view of console, netwatch, consumer, and apsched logs in real- time. The logs are parsed and processed to generate views of applications, message types, individual/group of compute nodes, and in sections of the compute platform. Also from past application runs we build a statistical profile of user/application characteristics with respect to known system events, recoverable/non-recoverable error messages and resources utilized. The web-based tool is being developed for Jaguar XT5 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing facility.

Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL] [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

258

What's new in well logging and formation evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

Prensky, S.

2011-01-01

259

Raster images offer low-cost well log preservation  

SciTech Connect

Well log data saved as depth-calibrated raster images provide an economic alternative to digital formats for preserving this valuable information into the future. Although often thrown away after vectorization, raster imaged well logs may be the key for a global computer-readable format for legacy hardcopy data. Over the past several decades, oil and gas companies have acquired an enormous volume of well logs, maps, and seismic and core data. Preservation of, and access to, valuable data such as well logs is critical to the petroleum industry. These legacy data are stored on multiple media and contain information for a variety of applications in addition to resource exploration and development, such as environmental protection, water management, global change studies, and basic and applied research. The paper discusses well logs, acquisition cost, storage requirements, ease of use, costs and benefits.

Cisco, S.L. [Cisco and Associates, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-16

260

Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility  

E-print Network

Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

2011-01-01

261

Rendering log aesthetic curves via Runge-Kutta method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Log Aesthetic Curves (LAC) are visually pleasing curves which has been developed using monotonic curvature profile. Hence, it can be easily implemented in product design environment, e.g, Rhino 3D CAD systems. LAC is generally represented in an integral form of its turning angle. Traditionally, Gaussian-Kronrod method has been used to render this curve which consumes less than one second for a given interval. Recently, Incomplete Gamma Function was proposed to represent LAC analytically which decreases the computation time up to 13 times. However, only certain value of shape parameters (denoted as ?) which dictates the types of curves generated for LAC, can be used to compute LAC. In this paper, the classical Runge-Kutta (RK4) method is proposed to evaluate LAC numerically to reduce the LAC computation time for arbitrary, ?. The preliminary result looks promising where the evaluation time is decreased tremendously. This paper also demonstrates the accuracy control of LAC by reducing the stepsize of RK4. The computation time and the accuracy for various ?, are also illustrated in the last section of this paper.

Gobithaasan, R. U.; Meng, T. Y.; Piah, A. R. M.; Miura, K. T.

2014-07-01

262

Congo cancels logging contracts, calls for sustainable forest management Congo cancels logging contracts, calls for sustainable forest management  

E-print Network

: Contact News options News index | RSS | Add to MyYahoo! POPULAR PAGES Rainforests Rain forests Amazon to the second largest rainforest on Earth after the Amazon. In recent years the forest have been threatenedCongo cancels logging contracts, calls for sustainable forest management Congo cancels logging

263

Peru: Illegal Mahogany Logging Continues in Reserve for Uncontacted Tribes Widespread illegal mahogany logging continues inside Peru's Muruanahua Territorial Reserve  

E-print Network

agreement with the U.S. Moreover, the logging violates the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), under which mahogany is listed. The investigation included river patrols and overflights along the Mapuya and Yurua rivers (see Map). The Mapuya River A large logging operation is based

264

Quality measures for geostatistical prediction of log-normal soil properties.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A signature of non-linear processes in the soil is the non-normal distribution of soil properties. A common non-normal distribution is the log-normal, in which the variable Z can be transformed to a variable with a normal distribution by Y = log e(Z). Log-normal variables are common in soil geochemistry and hydrology. It is standard practice in geostatistics to use the log-transformation for such variables before spatial modelling and prediction, and there are procedures to back-transform predictions of Y to the original scale of measurement Z. This is important because values on the original scale are commonly required either for scientific purposes or for practical applications such as the assessment of potential contaminant concentrations in soil. One of the strengths of geostatistics is that geostatistical prediction returns a prediction error variance. Furthermore, this variance can be computed before a survey is undertaken, for a range of possible different sampling networks, since it depends only on the disposition of sample sites, and the variogram model of spatial dependence. This allows the most efficient network to be selected: one which will provide estimates of sufficient precision (where the prediction error variances are within acceptable bounds) without over-sampling. In log-normal kriging the prediction error variance depends not only on the variogram and the sampling array, but also on the conditional mean value of the variable, which is not known until after sampling. This means that the usual pre-survey quality measures which can be computed to guide the planning of geostatistical surveys are not available for log-normal variables. Given that many critical variables, such as contaminant concentrations, are often log-normally distributed, this is a serious gap in the capablity of geostatistics to facilitate rational sampling design for environmental management and monitoring. In this paper I propose and demonstrate some quality measures that can be computed, pre-survey, for different sampling networks for log-normal variables. I propose measures that are suitable both for point kriging, when predictions are obtained for the same sample support as the observations, and for block kriging when the predictions are upscaled to a region, such as a management unit or a regular block. The quality measures are dimensionless prediction intervals, scaled relative to the unknown median value of the target conditional distribution. In the point kriging case the distribution of interest is the conditional distribution of the variable at the target location. In the block kriging case the distribution is that of the spatial median value over the block. These quality measures are illustrated in a case study on the spatial variability of some critical metals and metalloids in the soil of eastern England. Target values of the quality measures are defined in terms of the requirements that land managers or regulators may specify for uncertainty in final predictions, and the sampling effort required to meet these is computed.

Lark, R. M.

2012-04-01

265

Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem sustainability could be decreased by better slash removal in the Angara region, removal of trees killed by fire in the Zabaikal region, and tree planting after fires in drier conditions where natural regeneration is hampered by soil overheating and grass proliferation.

Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

2013-12-01

266

Methane hydrate pore saturation evaluation from geophysical logging and pressure core analysis, at the first offshore production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 2013, the first offshore production test form methane hydrate (MH) concentrated zone (MHCZ) was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21) at the AT1 site located in the north-western slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. Before the production test, extensive geophysical logging and pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System were conducted in 2012 at monitoring well (AT1-MC) and coring well (AT1-C), in order to obtain basic information for the MH reservoir characterization. MH pore saturation (Sh) is one of the important basic parameters not only for reservoir characterization, but also the resource assessment. However, precise evaluation of Sh from geophysical logging is still challenging technical issue. The MHCZ confirmed by the geophysical logging at AT1-MC has a turbidite assemblage (from several tens of centimeters to a few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness; it is composed of lobe/sheet type sequences in the upper part, and relatively thick channel sand sequences in the lower part. In this study, the Sh evaluated from geophysical logging data were compared with those evaluated from pressure core analysis. Resistivity logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log were used for the Sh evaluation by geophysical logging. Standard Archie equation was applied for Sh evaluation from resistivity log, while density magnetic resonance (DMR) method was used for Sh evaluation from NMR log. The Sh from pressure core samples were evaluated using the amount of dissociated gas volume, together with core sample bulk volume, measured porosity, net sand intervals, and assumed methane solubility in pore water. In the upper part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from resistivity log showed distinct difference in value between sand and mud layers, compared to Sh from NMR log. Resistivity log has higher vertical resolution than NMR log, so it is favorable for these kinds of thin bed evaluation. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which showed fairly good agreement with core derived Sh. On the other hand, lower part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from both resistivity and NMR log showed higher background value and relatively smoother curve than upper part. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which was also showed good agreement with core derived Sh. This study was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21).

Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Nagao, J.

2013-12-01

267

Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs  

SciTech Connect

Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

2009-05-26

268

Determination of soil–water sorption coefficients of volatile methylsiloxanes  

PubMed Central

The sorption behaviors of 4 cyclic and linear volatile methyl siloxane (VMS) compounds between water and organic matter in 3 United Kingdom soils were studied by a batch equilibrium method using13C-enriched sorbates. Sorption and desorption kinetics and isotherms were determined for octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), and decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4). Concentrations of [13C]-VMS in the soil and aqueous phases were measured directly by extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry techniques. All VMS compounds were sorbed rapidly, reaching constant distributions in all soils by 24?h. Desorption kinetics were very rapid, with reattainment of equilibrium within 1?h. In the main, linear isotherms were observed for aqueous concentrations at or below 4% of the solubility limits. The average sorption organic carbon partition coefficient (log?KOC) values across soils were 4.23 for D4, 5.17 for D5, 4.32 for L3, and 5.13 for L4, with standard deviations of 0.09 to 0.34. Desorption KOC values were systematically greater by 0.1 log units to 0.3 log units. The linear isotherms and low variation in KOC values across soils suggested partitioning-dominated sorption of the VMS. Compared with traditional hydrophobic organic compounds, KOC values for the VMS compounds were significantly lower than expected on the basis of their octanol–water partition coefficients. A linear free energy relationship analysis showed that these differences could be rationalized quantitatively in terms of the inherent characteristics of the VMS compounds, combined with the differences in solvation properties of organic matter and octanol. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014; 33:1937–1945. PMID:24862578

Kozerski, Gary E; Xu, Shihe; Miller, Julie; Durham, Jeremy

2014-01-01

269

Strategies to Combat Illegal Logging and Forest Crime Magnitude of the problem  

E-print Network

Strategies to Combat Illegal Logging and Forest Crime Magnitude of the problem Illegal logging. In the public forests of the U.S., illegal logging also is a persistent problem. Illegal logging at this scale annual development assistance in public education and health. The tendency for illegal logging

270

Long-term effects of logging in a Neotropical rain forest in Suriname  

Microsoft Academic Search

after logging were analysed in a logging and silvicultural experiment, where 15, 23 and 46 m3\\/ha had been extracted in the late 1970s. It is shown that logging in this tropical rain forest did not lead to substantial changes in biodiversity. Furthermore, areas disturbed by logging recovered well and trees damaged during logging often survived and developed into good quality

W. B. J. Jonkers; K Tjon; J. Wirjosentono

271

Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

1980-01-01

272

Project to transcribe old ship logs provides important weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kathy Wendolkowski is a citizen scientist. It's a term that Wendolkowski considers far too lofty for what she claims is simply a happy addiction that she and others have for transcribing old logs from naval ship and other vessels. They perform this task to glean the regularly recorded weather data from those logs for the benefit of science. For Wendolkowski, though, greater satisfaction comes from reading what the logs also reveal about the daily lives of the sailors as well as any accompanying historical drama.

Showstack, Randy

2012-11-01

273

New insights into the consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging revealed by functional structure of saproxylic beetles assemblages.  

PubMed

Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models) as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green-tree retention approach to windthrown trees will preserve natural succession and associated communities of disturbed spruce forests. PMID:25050914

Thorn, Simon; Bässler, Claus; Gottschalk, Thomas; Hothorn, Torsten; Bussler, Heinz; Raffa, Kenneth; Müller, Jörg

2014-01-01

274

New Insights into the Consequences of Post-Windthrow Salvage Logging Revealed by Functional Structure of Saproxylic Beetles Assemblages  

PubMed Central

Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models) as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green-tree retention approach to windthrown trees will preserve natural succession and associated communities of disturbed spruce forests. PMID:25050914

Thorn, Simon; Bässler, Claus; Gottschalk, Thomas; Hothorn, Torsten; Bussler, Heinz; Raffa, Kenneth; Müller, Jörg

2014-01-01

275

51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-18) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

276

50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southwest (view similar to HALS no. LA-1-21) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

277

VEHICLE USAGE LOG Department ________________________________________ Vehicle Homebase ____________________________ Week Ended (Sunday) _________________  

E-print Network

VEHICLE USAGE LOG Department ________________________________________ Vehicle Homebase ____________________________ Week Ended (Sunday) _________________ Door #____________ License Plate ____________________ Vehicle/Supplies (Enter Description such as grade sheets, artifacts, money, etc.) 6. Taking vehicle to Automotive Shop

Yang, Zong-Liang

278

10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures. (d) The applicant shall establish and submit to the Commission its program for annual inspections of the job performance of each logging supervisor to ensure that the Commission's regulations, license requirements, and the...

2010-01-01

279

11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near the Minnesota end of the bridge - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

280

14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

281

13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

282

5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE (Features 9 and 10) AT FAR LEFT AND HOUSE (Feature 13) AT CENTER (n.d.) - Gold Dust Mine, Mill & Camp Complex, Wards Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

283

3. View of corner connecting log section to north section ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of corner connecting log section to north section of building. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 12, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

284

16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG UNIDENTIFIED SECTION OF GOAT TRAIL MINING ROAD - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

285

Optimized Hypergraph Clustering-based Network Security Log Mining*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With network's growth and popularization, network security experts are facing bigger and bigger network security log. Network security log is a kind of valuable and important information recording various network behaviors, and has the features of large-scale and high dimension. Therefore, how to analyze these network security log to enhance the security of network becomes the focus of many researchers. In this paper, we first design a frequent attack sequencebased hypergraph clustering algorithm to mine the network security log, and then improve this algorithm with a synthetic measure of hyperedge weight and two optimization functions of clustering result. The experimental results show that the synthetic measure and optimization functions can promote significantly the coverage and precision of clustering result. The optimized hypergraph clustering algorithm provides a data analyzing method for intrusion detecting and active forewarning of network.

Che, Jianhua; Lin, Weimin; Yu, Yong; Yao, Wei

286

Evaluation of Potash Grade with Gamma-ray Logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potassium is an emitter of gamma-ray radiation, consequently deposits of potash can be detected and evaluated using gamma-ray logs. A method originally designed to evaluate uranium deposits in boreholes can also be applied to potash deposits. The method equates the depth-integral of a gamma-ray log to the grade-thickness product of a potash-bearing bed or series of beds. The average grade of a bed is then determined by dividing by the overall bed thickness, which can also be obtained from the gamma-ray log. The method was tested using gamma-ray logs and potash assays from boreholes near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

Nelson, Philip H.

2007-01-01

287

Partnership Logging Accidents Cornelis de Hoop, LA Forest Products Lab  

E-print Network

Partnership Logging Accidents · by · Cornelis de Hoop, LA Forest Products Lab · Albert Lefort Agreement · 1998 & 1999 Accident Reports · 25 injuries reported · 185 loggers signed up · 8 deaths 1999

288

13. INTERIOR DETAIL OF LOG LINTEL FRAMING OF TRANSVERSE WING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. INTERIOR DETAIL OF LOG LINTEL FRAMING OF TRANSVERSE WING WINDOW - Camp Cleawox Organizational Tract, Lodge Building, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

289

47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153...

2010-10-01

290

15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS THE LAST REMAINING EXAMPLE OF CCC BUILT "RUSTIC STYLE" GUARD RAIL IN PARK. VIEW NE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

291

Revised 11/2011 Multi-User Log Exception  

E-print Network

was checked back in Required Information in Log Date and time the card was checked out Detailed purchase will result in a Violation Notification against myself. Cardholder Signature Date Date and time the card

292

Well logging and completion technology for horizontal wellbores  

SciTech Connect

In highly deviated and, particularly, horizontal wellbores, special hardware systems guide, push, and/or pump the logging instrument assembly toward the bottom, i.e., the end of the wellbore, and to log the interval of interest. The present paper discusses basic pipe-conveyed logging (PCL) systems and the coiled-tubing-conveyed (CTC) system for completion and perforating applications in horizontal well bores, which already have proven successful in Europe, the US, and Canada. Open- and cased-hole field applications, with special emphasis on the Cretaceous Austin Chalk in Texas and the Bakken Shale in Wyoming, will illustrate today's technology and review advantages and possible constraints of these well logging and completion techniques.

Fertl, W.H. (Atlas Wireline Services, Houston, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

293

Well-log interpretation of carbonate reservoirs with bimodal porosity  

E-print Network

WELL-LOG INTERPRETATION OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS WITH BIMODAL POROSITY A Thesis by AHMET TANDIRCIOGLU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Geology WELL-LOG INTERPRETATION OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS WITH BIMODAL POROSITY A Thesis by AHMET TANDIRCIOGLU Approved as to style and content by: Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) ayne . Ahr (Member...

Tandircioglu, Ahmet

2012-06-07

294

Calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a neutron well logging tool  

E-print Network

to the Formation Porosity . IV. 3 Sensitivity Coefficients Due to the Medium Porosity . . IV. 4 Sensitivity Coefficients Due to the Medium Thickness . V CONCLUSIONS 26 26 27 31 33 REFERENCES APPENDIX 34 A s4'AM ? BE NEUTRON SOURCE SPECTRUM . . 35 B... Coefficients Due to the Medium Porosity 30 9 Sensitivity Coefficients Due to the Medium Thickness 10 Am ? Be Neutron Source Spectrum 32 37 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. l Background of Neutron Well Logging In oil snd natural gas well logging...

Chen, Chien-Hsiang

1993-01-01

295

Vergence control for robotic heads using log-polar images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a real-time vergence control mechanism based on, log-polar images, developed for a robot head. The real-time control of active vision systems imposes strong constraints on the computational complexity of the vision algorithms. In this paper, we illustrate that vergence of a stereo head can be achieved at reduced computational cost using log-polar images. These images have higher

Alexandre Bernardino; Josh Santos-Victor

1996-01-01

296

Tracking Planar Structures With Log-Polar Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This work presents an algorithm to track planar surfaces by registering log-polar images. We start bymotivating the choice of the planar model and the log-polar geometry. Tracking is important for many robotic applicationssuch as navigation, ego{motion estimation, vehicle stabilization, mosaic creation. We describe the developedalgorithm and present simulation results of a pan and tilt camera translating freely in 3D

Alexandre Bernardino; José Santos-victor; Giulio Sandini

297

Field comparison of conventional and new technology temperature logging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field tests were conducted in the summer of 1995 on four state-of-the-art temperature logging systems: an analog, electric-line, system; two pressure and temperature recording memory tools (in-hole computer systems); and a Distributed optical fibre Temperature Sensing (DTS) system. The tools produced accurate, detailed, temperature versus depth and temperature gradient versus depth logs at depths to 2 km and temperatures to

Ken W. Wisian; David D. Blackwell; Stefano Bellani; Joe A. Henfling; Randy A. Normann; Peter C. Lysne; Andrea Förster; Jörg Schrötter

1998-01-01

298

Fossil Big Bang Turbulence log k , 1/m  

E-print Network

Fossil Big Bang Turbulence 35 log k , 1/m -15 3127-19-23 k2T +1/3 k2T 1/2 = l l+1 Cl +1/6 log k , 1 is irreversible, triggering formation of quantum- gravitational-turbulence and a Big Bang Universe. Entropy-Obukhov turbulent mixing theory the temperature spectrum should be T = -1/3k-5/3 between the Planck scale

Wang, Deli

299

Correlation of log response to production in the Austin Chalk  

E-print Network

CORRELATION OF LOG RESPONSE TO PRODUCTION IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by CYRUS DOUGLAS BEHSERESHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Geology CORRELATION OF LOG RESPONSE TO PRODUCTION IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by CYRUS DOUGLAS BEHSERESHT Approved as to style and content by: Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) Thomas T. Tieh (Member) Ronald...

Behseresht, Cyrus Douglas

2012-06-07

300

Interpretation of well log response in the Austin chalk  

E-print Network

INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOG RESPONSE IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by GREGORY SCOTT HINDS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1990 Major Subject: Geology INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOG RESPONSE IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by GREGORY SCOTT HINDS Approved as to style and content by; Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) Wayne . Ahr (Member) I R. . Brimhall (Member) Joh...

Hinds, Gregory Scott

2012-06-07

301

Interlake production established using quantitative hydrocarbon well-log analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production was established in a new pay zone of the basal Interlake Formation adjacent to production in Midway field in Williams County, North Dakota. Hydrocarbon saturation, which was computed using hydrocarbon well-log (mud-log) data, and computed permeability encouraged the operator to run casing and test this zone. By use of drilling rig parameters, drilling mud properties, hydrocarbon-show data from the

J. Lancaster; A. Atkinson

1988-01-01

302

Total Organic Carbon Content Determined From Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total organic-carbon (TOC) content present in potential source rocks significantly affects the response of various well logs. This paper discusses and illustrates well-log anomalies caused by TOC as observed on various wireline measurements, including resistivity (or conductivity), acoustic, nuclear (density and neutron), gamma ray, natural gamma ray spectra, and pulsed neutron (sigma and carbon\\/oxygen (C\\/O) ratio). Field examples of these

Walter Fertl; George Chilingar

1988-01-01

303

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

2003-02-10

304

The human factors of implementing shift work in logging operations.  

PubMed

A fairly recent development in the forest industry is the use of shift work in logging in the southeastern U.S. Logging company owners are implementing shift work as an opportunity to increase production and potentially reduce the cost of producing each unit of wood, without consideration of the potential impacts on the logging crew. There are many documented physiological and psychological impacts on workers from shift work in a variety of industries, although few address forestry workers in the U.S. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information about how logging company owners were implementing shift work in seven southeastern states. Data collected during the interviews included employee turnover, shift hours, shift scheduling, safety considerations, and production impacts. Various work schedules were employed. The majority of the schedules encompassed less than 24 hours per day. Permanent and rotating shift schedules were found. None of the logging company owners used more than two crews in a 24-hour period. Additional safety precautions were implemented as a result of working after dark. No in-woods worker accidents or injuries were reported by any of those interviewed. Results indicate that a variety of work schedules can be successfully implemented in the southeastern logging industry. PMID:19044168

Mitchell, D L; Gallagher, T V; Thomas, R E

2008-10-01

305

A new digital multiscale pulsed neutron logging system  

SciTech Connect

A new multiscale pulsed neutron capture logging system (PDK/sup SM/-100) is discussed. The instrument is a 1 11/16-in. (1.7-cm) -diameter, microprocessor-controlled logging sonde that processes raw data occurring in the short- and long-spaced detectors. The timing spectrum (10 ..mu..sec per channel and 100 channels for the decay component) of the detector events is accumulated downhole and transmitted to the surface computer logging system upon command by a pulse code modulation data transmission system. This configuration makes use of significantly increased count rates to improve log repeatability greatly. Unique data reduction techniques are also possible with the high-resolution data. The gamma rays during the burst of 14-MeV neutrons are also processed. This unique feature allows derivation of the ratio of inelastic to capture count rates, which is a function of porosity. All conventional pulsed neutron capture (PNC) responses can be observed with the new pulsed neutron logging (PNL) system. However, many additional aspects of formation evaluation are possible as well. Several of the more unique features of the system are demonstrated in specific log examples.

Randall, R.R.; Gray, T.P.; Craik, G.C.; Hopkinson, E.C.

1987-12-01

306

Use of multidimensional transport methodology on nuclear logging problems  

SciTech Connect

A review is made of multidimensional radiation transport techniques that are being used to model nuclear oil well logging measurements. Both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods are employed for this work, and it is found that the realism that can be incorporated into these models has led to greater understanding of all kinds of logging measurements. As a result, models are now used as part of the new logging tool design process in much the same way that they are used to support nuclear reactor and shielding designs. Despite the success so far, there is still room to improve both Monte Carlo and especially deterministic methods for logging applications. Monte Carlo codes, impressive as they are, are still expensive computations for many logging problems. Although improvements in basic Monte Carlo can still be made, it seems that the next significant improvement in the efficiency of Monte Carlo will come from computer architecture in the form of multiprocessor machines. On the other hand, the prinicipal limitation of deterministic calculations centers mainly on the lack of accurate, practical, three-dimensional transport capabilities. With this in mind, some recent work to extend a nodal, discrete ordinates method to three dimensions for logging applications is reviewed.

Ullo, J.J.

1986-02-01

307

Values in Education and Education in Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major purpose of this book is to set out some of the key issues and debates relating to the importance of values in education and of education in values. After an introductory chapter about the concept of values and values education, part 1 provides a variety of perspectives on the values that underpin contemporary education. The introduction…

Halstead, J. Mark, Ed.; Taylor, Monica J., Ed.

308

Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change  

PubMed Central

Long-term (21–30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km2 Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990–2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994–1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5–15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km?2 a?1 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout 210Pb and 137Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km2 Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7–13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992–1993 and 1999–2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale. PMID:22006973

Walsh, R. P. D.; Bidin, K.; Blake, W. H.; Chappell, N. A.; Clarke, M. A.; Douglas, I.; Ghazali, R.; Sayer, A. M.; Suhaimi, J.; Tych, W.; Annammala, K. V.

2011-01-01

309

Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change.  

PubMed

Long-term (21-30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km(2) Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990-2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994-1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5-15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km(-2) a(-1) 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout (210)Pb and (137)Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km(2) Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7-13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992-1993 and 1999-2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale. PMID:22006973

Walsh, R P D; Bidin, K; Blake, W H; Chappell, N A; Clarke, M A; Douglas, I; Ghazali, R; Sayer, A M; Suhaimi, J; Tych, W; Annammala, K V

2011-11-27

310

Establishing cosmetic preservative efficacy by use of D-values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decimal reduction time (D-value) is the time required for inactivation of 90% of the population of test organisms subjected to a lethal agent. The D-value is calculated from the plot of the log number of surviving organisms\\/g as a function of the time after inoculation into the product. This value provides a quantitative expression of the rate of death

D. S. ORTH

311

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG-INACTIVATION WITH OZONE USING EFFLUENT CT 10, GEOMETRIC MEAN CT 10 EXTENDED INTEGRATED CT 10 AND EXTENDED-CSTR CALCULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ("LT2ESWTR") contains Cryptosporidium log-inactivation CT tables. Depending on the water temperature, the Cryptosporidium CT values that are listed are 15 to 25 times greater than CT values fo...

312

Imprints of log-periodic self-similarity in the stock market  

E-print Network

Detailed analysis of the log-periodic structures as precursors of the financial crashes is presented. The study is mainly based on the German Stock Index (DAX) variation over the 1998 period which includes both, a spectacular boom and a large decline, in magnitude only comparable to the so-called Black Monday of October 1987. The present example provides further arguments in favour of a discrete scale-invariance governing the dynamics of the stock market. A related clear log-periodic structure prior to the crash and consistent with its onset extends over the period of a few months. Furthermore, on smaller time-scales the data seems to indicate the appearance of analogous log-periodic oscillations as precursors of the smaller, intermediate decreases. Even the frequencies of such oscillations are similar on various levels of resolution. The related value $\\lambda \\approx 2$ of preferred scaling ratios is amazingly consistent with those found for a wide variety of other complex systems. Similar analysis of the major American indices between September 1998 and February 1999 also provides some evidence supporting this concept but, at the same time, illustrates a possible splitting of the dynamics that a large market may experience.

S. Drozdz; F. Ruf; J. Speth; M. Wojcik

1999-05-12

313

Carbon emissions from tropical forest degradation caused by logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of land-use related efforts in developing countries to reduce carbon emissions has been on slowing deforestation, yet international agreements are to reduce emissions from both deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The second ‘D’ is poorly understood and accounted for a number of technical and policy reasons. Here we introduce a complete accounting method for estimating emission factors from selective timber harvesting, a substantial form of forest degradation in many tropical developing countries. The method accounts separately for emissions from the extracted log, from incidental damage to the surrounding forest, and from logging infrastructure, and emissions are expressed as units of carbon per cubic meter of timber extracted to allow for simple application to timber harvesting statistics. We applied the method in six tropical countries (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana, Indonesia, and Republic of Congo), resulting in total emission factors of 0.99-2.33 Mg C m-3. In all cases, emissions were dominated by damage to surrounding vegetation and the infrastructure rather than the logs themselves, and total emissions represented about 3-15% of the biomass carbon stocks of the associated unlogged forests. We then combined the emission factors with country level logging statistics for nine key timber producing countries represented by our study areas to gain an understanding of the order of magnitude of emissions from degradation compared to those recently reported for deforestation in the same countries. For the nine countries included, emissions from logging were on average equivalent to about 12% of those from deforestation. For those nine countries with relatively low emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to half or more of those from deforestation, whereas for those countries with the highest emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to <10% of those from deforestation. Understanding how to account emissions and the magnitude of each emissions source resulting from tropical timber harvesting practices helps identify where there are opportunities to reduce emissions from the second ‘D’ in REDD.

Pearson, Timothy R. H.; Brown, Sandra; Casarim, Felipe M.

2014-03-01

314

Acoustic logging through casing to detect hydrocarbons and determine porosity in the Wilmington Field, CA  

SciTech Connect

The Wilmington Field, located in the Los Angeles Basin, CA, is composed of relatively unconsolidated turbiditic sands waterflooded for more than 40 years. As is common in this and other oil fields in California and elsewhere, considerable bypassed oil remains in place. The water-oil ratio from one well selectively completed in high-oil saturation sands is significantly lower than the water-oil ratio in adjacent wells. We have begun a 2-year test program to identify sands with high remaining oil saturations by logging old cased wells using a high power low frequency acoustic logging tool as part of a project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE PON PS22-94BC14972). Formation compressional-wave velocity is obtained from monopole data. Formation shear-wave velocity is obtained by analyzing dipole wave modes. In some wells, however, problems associated with poor cement-casing and cement-formation bond, casing eccentricity in the well, and tool eccentricity in the casing make it difficult to detect the dipole mode. Where good data has been obtained, compressional-wave velocities determined in the same cased hole from logs recorded by two different companies agree quite well, as do open- and cased-hole compressional and shear-wave velocities. Porosities determined through casing using shear-wave velocities match conventional open-hole log values. Saturations determined from the velocities and their ratio are similar to those calculated using Archie's Law. Relationships between porosities, saturations, and velocities are consistent with theoretical expectations. The results indicate that it is possible to determine porosity and saturation through casing using acoustic methods even in relatively unconsolidated sands such as those found in the Wilmington Field, provided sufficiently good monopole and dipole waveforms can be obtained.

Moos, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Hooks, A. (MPI, Houston, TX (United States)); Walker, S. (Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

315

Acoustic logging through casing to detect hydrocarbons and determine porosity in the Wilmington Field, CA  

SciTech Connect

The Wilmington Field, located in the Los Angeles Basin, CA, is composed of relatively unconsolidated turbiditic sands waterflooded for more than 40 years. As is common in this and other oil fields in California and elsewhere, considerable bypassed oil remains in place. The water-oil ratio from one well selectively completed in high-oil saturation sands is significantly lower than the water-oil ratio in adjacent wells. We have begun a 2-year test program to identify sands with high remaining oil saturations by logging old cased wells using a high power low frequency acoustic logging tool as part of a project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE PON PS22-94BC14972). Formation compressional-wave velocity is obtained from monopole data. Formation shear-wave velocity is obtained by analyzing dipole wave modes. In some wells, however, problems associated with poor cement-casing and cement-formation bond, casing eccentricity in the well, and tool eccentricity in the casing make it difficult to detect the dipole mode. Where good data has been obtained, compressional-wave velocities determined in the same cased hole from logs recorded by two different companies agree quite well, as do open- and cased-hole compressional and shear-wave velocities. Porosities determined through casing using shear-wave velocities match conventional open-hole log values. Saturations determined from the velocities and their ratio are similar to those calculated using Archie`s Law. Relationships between porosities, saturations, and velocities are consistent with theoretical expectations. The results indicate that it is possible to determine porosity and saturation through casing using acoustic methods even in relatively unconsolidated sands such as those found in the Wilmington Field, provided sufficiently good monopole and dipole waveforms can be obtained.

Moos, D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hooks, A. [MPI, Houston, TX (United States); Walker, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

316

Environmental effects and characterization of the Egyptian radioactive well logging calibration pad facility.  

PubMed

A set of ten radioactive well-logging calibration pads were constructed in one of the premises of the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA), Egypt, at 6th October city. These pads were built for calibrating geophysical well-logging instruments. This calibration facility was conducted through technical assistance and practical support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and (ARCN). There are five uranium pads with three different uranium concentrations and borehole diameters. The other five calibration pads include one from each of the following: blank, potassium, thorium, multi layers and mixed. More than 22 t of various selected Egyptian raw materials were gathered for pad construction from different locations in Egypt. Pad's site and the surrounding area were spectrometrically surveyed before excavation for the construction process of pad-basin floor. They yielded negligible radiation values which are very near to the detected general background. After pad's construction, spectrometric measurements were carried out again in the same locations when the exposed bore holes of the pads were closed. No radioactivity leakage was noticed from the pads. Meanwhile, dose rate values were found to range from 0.12 to 1.26 mS/y. They were measured during the opening of bore holes of the pads. These values depend mainly upon the type and concentration of the pads as well as their borehole diameters. The results of radiospectrometric survey illustrate that the specification of top layers of the pads were constructed according to international standards. PMID:24140880

Al Alfy, Ibrahim Mohammad

2013-12-01

317

A decade of change in the saproxylic beetle fauna of eucalypt logs in the Warra long-term log-decay experiment, Tasmania. 2. Log-size effects, succession, and the functional significance of rare species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first decade of sequential and cyclical sampling of the saproxylic beetles of twelve freshly felled Eucalyptus obliqua logs at Warra, Tasmania has allowed comparisons between larger-diameter mature and smaller-diameter regrowth log-classes\\u000a and between successive sampling cycles and years; and consideration of the interplay between these two aspects. The two log-classes\\u000a support different assemblages, with the mature log-class hosting consistently

Simon J. Grove; Lynette Forster

2011-01-01

318

Model discrimination and expected slope values in species-area studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sum, we show that contrary to Sugihara's (1981) claim, the distribution of slope values from log-log species-area curves (z) can be accounted for as the distribution of the product of two independent variables r and sy\\/sx. This strengthens our point that many slope values between 0.2-0.4 are expected independently of biological grounds. We therefore reaffirm our view that slope

Edward F. Connor; Earl D. McCoy; B. J. Cosby

1983-01-01

319

Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in Table 1 are shown in red on the trench logs. All radiocarbon ages are calibrated and given with 2 standard deviation age ranges. Our studies suggest that the Central Range Fault is a Holocene fault capable of producing damaging earthquakes in Trinidad

Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel

2009-01-01

320

Biological legacies buffer local species extinction after logging  

PubMed Central

Clearcutting has been identified as a main threat to forest biodiversity. In the last few decades, alternatives to clearcutting have gained much interest. Living and dead trees are often retained after harvest to serve as structural legacies to mitigate negative effects of forestry. However, this practice is widely employed without information from systematic before–after control-impact studies to assess the processes involved in species responses after clearcutting with retention. We performed a large-scale survey of the occurrence of logging-sensitive and red-listed bryophytes and lichens before and after clearcutting with the retention approach. A methodology was adopted that, for the first time in studies on retention approaches, enabled monitoring of location-specific substrates. We used uncut stands as controls to assess the variables affecting the survival of species after a major disturbance. In total, 12 bryophyte species and 27 lichen species were analysed. All were classified as sensitive to logging, and most species are also currently red-listed. We found that living and dead trees retained after final harvest acted as refugia in which logging-sensitive species were able to survive for 3 to 7 years after logging. Depending on type of retention and organism group, between 35% and 92% of the species occurrences persisted on retained structures. Most species observed outside retention trees or patches disappeared. Larger pre-harvest population sizes of bryophytes on dead wood increased the survival probability of the species and hence buffered the negative effects of logging. Synthesis and applications. Careful spatial planning of retention structures is required to fully embrace the habitats of logging-sensitive species. Bryophytes and lichens persisted to a higher degree in retention patches compared to solitary trees or in the clearcut area. Retaining groups of trees in logged areas will help to sustain populations of species over the clearcut phase. When possible, old logs should be moved into retention patches to provide a more beneficial environment for dead wood-dependent species. Our study also highlights the need for more before–after control-impact studies of retention forestry to explore factors influencing the survival of species after logging. PMID:25653456

Rudolphi, Jörgen; Jönsson, Mari T; Gustafsson, Lena

2014-01-01

321

Four Decades of Forest Persistence, Clearance and Logging on Borneo  

PubMed Central

The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2) of Borneo's area (737,188 km2) was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2%) in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%). We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km?2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km?2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8%) of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo. PMID:25029192

Gaveau, David L. A.; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Sheil, Doug; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Nasi, Robert; Quinones, Marcela; Wielaard, Niels; Meijaard, Erik

2014-01-01

322

User's manual for geophysical well-logging software programs  

SciTech Connect

Since 1958 the Ground-Water Surveillance Program for the Hanford Site has made geophysical logging measurements in most of the 800 wells and deep boreholes that have been drilled on the Hanford Site. In 1980 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which conducts the Ground-Water Surveillance Program, began forming a computerized data base for storing and retrieving geophysical well log data and developing software for quantitative analysis of the well log data. This report, designed to serve as a user's guide, documents the data base system that handles the well log data. Two programs, DIGLOG1 and LOGIT, are used to manipulate the data. The program DIGLOG1 translates analog paper strip charts into digital format; the program LOGIT is a general utility program that edits, displays, checks, stores, writes, and deletes sets of well log data. These two programs do not provide sophisticated display and analytical capabilities; rather, they provide programs that give the user easy access to powerful standard analytical software.

Petrie, G.M.; Gibson, D.; Blair, S.C.

1983-02-01

323

Hyporheic exchange due to channel-spanning logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow of river water around large woody debris (LWD) creates pressure gradients along the riverbed that drive a large zone of river-groundwater mixing, or hyporheic exchange. Flume experiments and numerical simulations show that river water downwells into the riverbed upstream of a channel-spanning log and upwells downstream. Exchange rates are greatest near the log and decay exponentially with distance upstream and downstream. We developed equations for bed pressure profiles and hyporheic exchange rates in the vicinity of a channel-spanning log that can be used to evaluate the impact of LWD removal or reintroduction on hyporheic mixing. The magnitude of pressure disturbance along the bed (and thus hyporheic exchange) increases with the fraction of channel depth blocked by the log and channel Froude number. Exchange rates are relatively insensitive to relative depth of the log (gap ratio). At natural densities, LWD in lowland streams drives reach-averaged hyporheic exchange rates similar to a ripple-covered bed. However, the length scales and residence times of hyporheic exchange due to LWD are greater. By removing LWD from streams, humans have altered patterns and rates of hyporheic exchange, which influence habitat distribution and quality for invertebrates and fish.

Sawyer, Audrey H.; Bayani Cardenas, M.; Buttles, Jim

2011-08-01

324

A complete X-ray sample of the high latitude sky from HEAO-1 A-2: log N lo S and luminosity functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was performed in which a complete X-ray survey of the 8.2 steradians of the sky at galactic latitudes where the absolute value of b is 20 deg down to a limiting sensitivity of 3.1 x ten to the minus 11th power ergs/sq cm sec in the 2-10 keV band. Of the 85 detected sources 17 were identified with galactic objects, 61 were identified with extragalactic objects, and 7 remain unidentified. The log N - log S relation for the non-galactic objects is well fit by the Euclidean relationship. The X-ray spectra of these objects were used to construct log N - log S in physical units. The complete sample of identified sources was used to construct X-ray luminosity functions, using the absolute maximum likelihood method, for clusters galaxies and active galactic nuclei.

Piccinotti, G.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Marshall, F. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Shafer, R. A.

1981-01-01

325

Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

2012-08-01

326

Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

1981-01-01

327

End user searching: A Web log analysis of NAVER, a Korean Web search engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transaction logs of NAVER, a major Korean Web search engine, were analyzed to track the information-seeking behavior of Korean Web users. These transaction logs include more than 40 million queries collected over 1 week. This study examines current transaction log analysis methodologies and proposes a method for log cleaning, session definition, and query classification. A term definition method which is

Soyeon Park; Joon Ho Lee; Hee Jin Bae

2005-01-01

328

The Export Supporting System for Ecological Logging of Natural Forest based on ArcGIS engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest harvesting operation is based on Logging design, scientific harvesting design can reduce the negative impacts of logging activities on forest ecosystems. This article based on the C# language of NET technology, combining with the technical regulation of ecological Logging, management of control method and growth model of natural forest, developed the user-oriented Export Supporting System for Ecological Logging of

Zhao Jing; Liu Dong-lan; Zheng Xiao-xian; Ning Yang-cui; Sun Qi

2010-01-01

329

Persistence of Historical Logging Impacts on Channel Form in Mainstem North Fork Caspar Creek1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract: The old-growth redwood forest of North Fork Caspar Creek was clear- cut logged between 1860 and 1904. Transportation of logs involved construction of a splash dam in the headwaters of North Fork Caspar Creek. Water stored behind the dam was released during large storms to enable log drives. Before log drives could be conducted, the stream

Michael B. Napolitano

330

Advanced interpretation technique integrates well-log and core data for thinly bedded reservoir evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating reservoir parameters derived from log and core data allows previously bypassed, thin productive zones to be identified. Recent advancement in enhanced data acquisition methods and well-log interpretation techniques have reduced problems encountered with conventional well logging and data analyses. Improved data acquisition methods record filter-free data at higher sample rates. Advanced log interpretation techniques utilize enhanced porosity, shaliness, and

A. Sinha; B. Simmons; T. Lawrence

1989-01-01

331

Keystroke Logging in Writing Research: Using Inputlog to Analyze and Visualize Writing Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Keystroke logging has become instrumental in identifying writing strategies and understanding cognitive processes. Recent technological advances have refined logging efficiency and analytical outputs. While keystroke logging allows for ecological data collection, it is often difficult to connect the fine grain of logging data to the underlying…

Leijten, Marielle; Van Waes, Luuk

2013-01-01

332

Coal-log pipeline system development. [Contains bibliography  

SciTech Connect

One of the four tasks of the contract awarded by the Energy-Related Inventions Program, US Department of Energy, is to test and demonstrate a small model of the injection system for coal logs. Because the injection system works in a coordinated manner with the pumping and ejection systems, it is difficult to separately demonstrate them. Consequently, it was decided to broaden the scope of this task to build and test an entire system of CLP (Coal Log Pipeline) including the injection system (intake), the pumping system and the ejection system. Such a demo unit will also allow us to test a complete system of CLP, a task that must be done sooner or later. Additional costs for constructing this demonstration CLP system are provided by the CLP Consortium which, at present, consists of nine companies. One purpose of this test program is to determine the optimal conditions necessary for the fabrication of binderless coal logs. An earlier literature review indicated that the moisture content, temperature, compaction pressure, and maximum coal particle size will have the greatest influence on the quality of compacted coal logs. Consequently, the test program described in last quarter's report was design to investigate these variables. In the coal log extrusion experiment, Powder River Basin coal dried and with 5 wt % asphalt was extruded from 1.6 in., 1.7 in. and 2 in. diameter dies continuously and at various speeds. The extrusion temperature was 300 {degrees}F. Coal log formation was still not satisfactory but extrusion improves as die diameter was decreased. This achievement now allows conditions of temperature, asphalt concentration, speed and die conditions to be explored in future experiments. The literature review in this progress report update focuses on reports published by the International Briquetting Association during 1953 to 1961. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-01-01

333

Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

2013-01-01

334

MORE EXACT VALUES OF THE HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS Thomas J. Osler  

E-print Network

, and and are Fibonacci and Lucas numbers respectively, then we have the exact values nF nL ( ) 5 2sinh log 1 . 2 n n F = Recall that both the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers satisfy the recursion relation . With the Fibonacci replace the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences in [3]. Both of these new sequences satisfy the recursion

Osler, Thomas

335

An entropic uncertainty principle for positive operator valued measures  

E-print Network

Extending a recent result by Frank and Lieb, we show an entropic uncertainty principle for mixed states in a Hilbert space relatively to pairs of positive operator valued measures that are independent in some sense. This yields spatial-spectral uncertainty principles and log-Sobolev inequalities for invariant operators on homogeneous spaces, which are sharp in the compact case.

Michel Rumin

2011-10-25

336

AN ENTROPIC UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR POSITIVE OPERATOR VALUED MEASURES  

E-print Network

AN ENTROPIC UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR POSITIVE OPERATOR VALUED MEASURES MICHEL RUMIN Abstract. Extending a recent result by Frank and Lieb, we show an entropic uncertainty principle for mixed states, uncertainty principle, homogeneous spaces, log-Sobolev. 1 #12;2 MICHEL RUMIN We shall see that when

Rumin, Michel

337

Density of the Values Set of the Tau Function  

E-print Network

It is shown that the density of the values set {Tau(n): n > x/log x. The currently known density is #{Tau(n) : n > x^(1/2+o(1)), and the expected density is #{Tau(n) : n 2, which arises as a singular case of this analysis, is discussed within.

N. A. Carella

2014-04-10

338

An expert system advisor for well log quality control  

E-print Network

, in identical formats for quality control of the sonic, gamma ray and dual induction well logs. A ~ial system program shell served as the fork for building the ~ system. The system has been written as a prototype model. With minimal alterations... PORTION OF THE WELL IOG QUALZIY CONTROL ~ SYSZEM ADVISOR APPENDIX C ? ~TION OF TAXONCMIES 59 59 62 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont. ) DUAL INDUCTION IOG Page 64 APPENDIX D ? ~CE TREES FOR THE GAK% RAY, DUAL INDUCTION AND SONIC IOGS 68 GAMMA RAY LOG...

Warnken, Dean Kennedy

2012-06-07

339

QUANTIFICATION OF IN-SITU GAS HYDRATES WITH WELL LOGS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study evaluates in detail the expected theoretical log responses and the actual log responses within one stratigraphically controlled hydrate horizon in six wells spaced throughout the Kuparuk Oil Field. Detailed examination of the neutron porosity and sonic velocity responses within the horizon is included. In addition, the theoretical effect of the presence of hydrates on the neutron porosity and sonic velocity devices has been examined in order to correct for such an effect on the calculation of formation properties such as porosity and hydrate saturation. Also presented in the paper is a technique which allows the conclusive identification of a potential hydrate occurrence.

Collett, Timothy S.; Godbole, Sanjay P.; Economides, Christine

1984-01-01

340

Reservoir microfacies and their logging response of gas hydrate in the Qilian Mountain permafrost in Northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Qilian Mountain permafrost is located in the north margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in northwest China. The permafrost area is about 10×104 Km2, and dominated by mountain permafrost. The mean annual ground temperature is 1.5 to 2.4 centigrade and the thickness of permafrost is generally 50 to 139 m. The gas hydrate was sampled successfully in the 133-396m interval from holes DK-1, DK-2 and DK-3 and tested by microRaman spectroscopy in the hydrate laboratory of the Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology during June to September in 2009. The exploratory drilling indicated that gas hydrate and its abnormal occurrence are mainly developed 130-400 m beneath permafrost. The strata belong to the Jiangcang Formation of middle Jurassic. Based on lithology, sedimentary structure and sequence and other facies markers, reservoir microfacies of gas hydrate are identified as underwater distributary channel and interdistributary bay in delta front of delta and deep lake mudstone facies in lacustrine. The underwater distributary channel in delta front of delta is dominated by fine sandstone. It has little mudstone. The grain size generally becomes finer, and scour-filling structure, parallel bedding, cross bedding and wavy bedding develop successively from bottom to top in one phase of channel. In vertical multi-period distributary channels superimpose, forming thick sandstone, and sometimes a thin mudstone develop between two channels. The interdistributaty bay is characterized by mudstone with little siltstone and fine sandstone. The lithology column shows mudstone interbedded with thin sandstone. Horizon bedding and lenticular bedding are the main structure. The gas hydrate usually presents visible white (smoky gray when mixing with mud) ice-like lamina in fissures or invisible micro disseminated occurrence in pores of sandstone. Honeycomb pores formed by the decomposition of gas hydrate are usually found in sandstone. The deep lake is dominated by thick dark grey mudstone and oil shale with horizon bedding. Some plant clasts can be found in mudstone. The gas hydrate generally presents white ice-like lamina in fissures of mudstone and oil shale. Underwater distributary channel and interdistributary bay have big variation amplitude on the logging curves. The extend of gamma (Gr) logging curve is 30 to 140 API, the acoustic (AC) logging curve is 300 to 400?s/m and the apparent resistivity (Rt) logging curve is 20-60?×m. The sandstone layer has characteristics of low Gr and AC value and high Rt value, whereas the mudstone layer has characteristics of high Gr and AC value and low Rt value. In shape, the underwater distributary channel shows tooth-like funnel-shaped pattern on Gr logging curve and bell-shaped pattern on Rt curve, whereas the underwater distributary bay presents tooth-like box-shaped pattern on both Gr and Rt curves. Deep lake mudstone has a relatively small variation amplitude on the logging curves. The extend of Gr logging curve is 45-80 API, the AC logging curve is 280-325?s/m, and the Rt logging curve is 25-50?×m. In the Gr and Rt logging curves, it generally presents box-shaped or tooth-like box-shaped pattern.

Liu, H.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Z.

2012-12-01

341

Modified log-wake law for turbulent flow in smooth pipes Loi log-trainée modifiée pour écoulement turbulent en conduite à paroi lisse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified log-wake law for turbulent flow in smooth pipes is developed and tested with laboratory data. The law consists of three terms: a log term, a sine-square term and a cubic term. The log term reflects the restriction of the wall, the sine-square term expresses the contribution of the pressure gradient, and the cubic term makes the standard log-wake

JUNKE GUO; PIERRE Y. JULIEN

2003-01-01

342

What's the Value in Value-Added?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

Duffrin, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

343

CLERY DAILY CRIME LOGS INSTRUCTIONS AND EXPLANATION The purpose of the daily crime log is to record all criminal incidents and alleged criminal  

E-print Network

CLERY DAILY CRIME LOGS ­ INSTRUCTIONS AND EXPLANATION The purpose of the daily crime log is to record all criminal incidents and alleged criminal incidents that are reported to the UCSF Police Department. The log is designed to disclose crime information on a timelier basis than the annual statistical

Derisi, Joseph

344

Ethanol and ambrosia beetles in Douglas fir logs with and without branches  

Microsoft Academic Search

November-felled Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) logs with and without branches were left lying on the forest floor through August. In May, as the logs were being colonized by ambrosia beetles,Trypodendron lineatum (Oliv.) andGnathotrichus retusus (LeConte), the ethanol, acetaldehyde, and water concentrations in the delimbed logs were significantly higher than in the branched logs. Since both log types received

Rick G. Kelsey

1994-01-01

345

Evaluation of estimation methods for organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A critically evaluated set of 94 soil water partition coefficients normalized to soil organic carbon content (Koc) is presented for 11 classes of organic chemicals. This data set is used to develop and evaluate Koc estimation methods using three different descriptors. The three types of descriptors used in predicting Koc were octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), molecular connectivity (mXt) and linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The best results were obtained estimating Koc from Kow, though a slight improvement in the correlation coefficient was obtained by using a two-parameter regression with Kow and the third order difference term from mXt. Molecular connectivity correlations seemed to be best suited for use with specific chemical classes. The LSER provided a better fit than mXt but not as good as the correlation with Koc. The correlation to predict Koc from Kow was developed for 72 chemicals; log Koc = 0.903* log Kow + 0.094. This correlation accounts for 91% of the variability in the data for chemicals with log Kow ranging from 1.7 to 7.0. The expression to determine the 95% confidence interval on the estimated Koc is provided along with an example for two chemicals of different hydrophobicity showing the confidence interval of the retardation factor determined from the estimated Koc. The data showed that Koc is not likely to be applicable for chemicals with log Kow Koc correlation developed using Kow as a descriptor was compared with three nonclass-specific correlations and two 'commonly used' class-specific correlations to determine which method(s) are most suitable.

Baker, James R.; Mihelcic, James R.; Luehrs, Dean C.; Hickey, James P.

1997-01-01

346

Experimental setup affects the particle formation rate and its slope d(log J)/d(log C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have simulated the formation of sulfuric acid-dimethylamine clusters in different experimental setups and in the atmosphere. We demonstrate that the cluster formation rate may be different in flow tube experiments than in chamber experiments due to the depletion of some trace compound. We also show that applying the nucleation theorem in a situation where all its assumptions do not hold may lead to erroneous results: the slope d(log J)/d(log C) of the formation rate versus the sulfuric acid concentration is in many conditions 4, although each step of the formation process decreases the Gibbs energy of the system and there is no critical cluster.

Kupiainen, Oona; Olenius, Tinja; Vehkamäki, Hanna

2013-05-01

347

The Value of Reciprocity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

2007-01-01

348

Values for Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are values? Where do our values come from? How do our values make a difference in education? For educational leaders to achieve distinction in their practice, it is vital to establish clear personal values rather than reacting to the implicit values of others. This engaging book guides readers in considering the values they bring to their…

Haydon, Graham

2007-01-01

349

A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not possible with the given data set. Additional statistical criteria such as the statistical significance of regressions are used to guide the subsequent calibration of geophysical data in terms of hydraulic variables in those situations where quantitative data inversion is considered appropriate.

Paillet, F.L.; Crowder, R.E.

1996-01-01

350

NGO briefing paper on combating illegal logging and related trade  

E-print Network

to act now to address the problem of illegal logging that has major ecological, economic and social and corporate actors accountable, reduce their environmental and social footprint on the worlds forests and help set an example for reform of the international forestry sector. Civil society groups welcome

351

Ethics, Logs and Videotape: Ethics in Large Scale User Trials  

E-print Network

Ethics, Logs and Videotape: Ethics in Large Scale User Trials and User Generated Content Abstract ethical responsibilities we have towards participants. This workshop brings together researchers to discuss the ethical issues of running large-scale user trials, and to provide guidance for future research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Feedback Control Theory and Processing System Log Streams Research Project  

E-print Network

Feedback Control Theory and Processing System Log Streams by Wei Xu Research Project Submitted, and on exploring general techniques of applying feedback control theory to distributed computer systems. We have. All problems addressed are solved systematically with feedback-control-theory. We discuss three uses

Xu, Wei

353

Study on Vibration of Logging Harvester in Forest Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

The logging harvester is made up of a walking mechanism, a mechanical arm, a felling head and a driving control system, which can do the works of felling, limbing, measuring and bucking. Because the ground surface of the forest land is very rough, the vibration should be studied when it is going in the forest land in order to prevent

Xu Wenxuan; Lu Huaimin; Guo Xiuli

2010-01-01

354

What Supercomputers Say: A Study of Five System Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we hope to automatically detect and diagnose fail- ures in large-scale computer systems, we must study real deployed systems and the data they generate. Progress has been hampered by the inaccessibility of empirical data. This paper addresses that dearth by examining system logs from five supercomputers, with the aim of providing use- ful insight and direction for future research

Adam J. Oliner; Jon Stearley

2007-01-01

355

DARK ENERGY FROM THE LOG-TRANSFORMED CONVERGENCE FIELD  

SciTech Connect

A logarithmic transform of the convergence field improves 'the information content', i.e., the overall precision associated with the measurement of the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum, by improving the covariance matrix properties. The translation of this improvement in the information content to that in cosmological parameters, such as those associated with dark energy, requires knowing the sensitivity of the log-transformed field to those cosmological parameters. In this paper, we use N-body simulations with ray tracing to generate convergence fields at multiple source redshifts as a function of cosmology. The gain in information associated with the log-transformed field does lead to tighter constraints on dark energy parameters, but only if shape noise is neglected. The presence of shape noise quickly diminishes the advantage of the log-mapping, more quickly than we would expect based on the information content. With or without shape noise, using a larger pixel size allows for a more efficient log-transformation.

Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sato, Masanori [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Takada, Masahiro [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Dodelson, Scott, E-mail: hee-jongseo@lbl.gov [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

2012-03-20

356

Log Sanitization: Auditing a Database Under Retention Restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auditing the changes to a database is critical for identifying malicious behavior, maintaining data quality, and improving system performance. But an accurate audit log is a historical record of the past that can also pose a serious threat to privacy. Policies which limit data retention conict with the goal of accurate auditing, and data owners have to carefully balance the

Wentian Lu; Gerome Miklau

357

Tabu Search based solution methods for scheduling log-trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Tabu Search based solution heuristics for the Timber Transport Vehi- cle Routing Problem (TTVRP) that differ with respect to solution space. The TTVRP is characterized as follows: a fleet of m log-trucks which are situated at the respective homes of the truck drivers has to fulfil n transports of round timber between different wood stor- age locations and

Patrick Hirsch; Manfred Gronalt

358

An Improved Logging and Checkpointing Scheme for Recoverable Distributed Shared  

E-print Network

to continue work after transient failures. Using checkpoints, it is not necessary to roll back to the beginning of the process but the processes need to roll back to the latest checkpoint. The logging is in by the process. Hence, when a process has to rollback, the dependent processes have to roll back together

Yeom, Heon Young

359

Primal sketch feature extraction from a log-polar image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We present a novel approachfor extracting primal sketch features (edges, bars, blobs andends) from a log-polar image. Symmetry operators and a PCA pre-processing module precedea set of neural networks that learn the feature's class and contrast. Experiments show theprocess accurately extracts the desired feature-based image description.

Herman Martins Gomes; Robert B. Fisher

2003-01-01

360

Straight Lines and Circles in the Log-Polar Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foveal or spatially-variant image representations are important compo- nents of active vision systems. Log-polar sampling is a particularly power- ful example as a result of the simplicity with which expansion and rotation can be handled. These properties are exploited here for the detection of gen- eral straight lines, line segments, and circles through the foveation point. An efficient and practical

David Young

2000-01-01

361

Instructional Conversations and Literature Logs. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) report examines the effect of "Instructional Conversations and Literature Logs" used in combination. The goal of "Instructional Conversations" is to help English language learners develop reading comprehension ability along with English language proficiency. "Instructional Conversations" are small-group…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

362

Logging threatens Indonesia's biodiversity By Dianthus Saputra Estey in Jakarta  

E-print Network

Logging threatens Indonesia's biodiversity By Dianthus Saputra Estey in Jakarta Monday 13 October 2003, 16:57 Makka Time, 13:57 GMT A tenth of the world's tropical rainforests lie in Indonesia year," Togu Manurung from Forest Watch Indonesia said. This ranks the depletion of Indonesia

363

Analysis of a very large web search engine query log  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an analysis of an AltaVista Search Engine query log consisting of approximately 1 billion entries for search requests over a period of six weeks. This represents almost 285 million user sessions, each an attempt to fill a single information need. We present an analysis of individual queries, query duplication, and query sessions. We also present

Craig Silverstein; Hannes Marais; Monika Henzinger; Michael Moricz

1999-01-01

364

1. OVERVIEW OF AREA B OF SITE, SHOWING LOG BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW OF AREA B OF SITE, SHOWING LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE AT LEFT (Features 9 and 10), RUIN AND SHED IN CENTER (Features 11 and 12), AND HOUSE RUIN AT RIGHT (Feature 13), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Gold Dust Mine, Mill & Camp Complex, Wards Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

365

Thesis summary Comparative phylogeography of two rotting-log-  

E-print Network

Thesis summary Comparative phylogeography of two rotting-log- dependent springtails from the Great of biodiversity; and (3) to evaluate the degree of phylogeographical congruence between the two springtail species phylogeographical predictions were formulated. Individuals of each springtail species were intensively sampled

Garrick, Ryan

366

Data-Logging and Supervisory Control in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are being increasingly used in a multitude of applications such as environmental and structural health monitoring, and condition-based maintenance. Even though the sensors collect a vast amount of data, only a tiny fraction of this data may be useful. This paper proposes a data-logging & supervisory control architecture to manage the information gathered by the WSN

Aditya N. Das; Frank L. Lewis; Dan O. Popa

2006-01-01

367

A small-diameter NMR logging tool for groundwater investigations.  

PubMed

A small-diameter nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool has been developed and field tested at various sites in the United States and Australia. A novel design approach has produced relatively inexpensive, small-diameter probes that can be run in open or PVC-cased boreholes as small as 2 inches in diameter. The complete system, including surface electronics and various downhole probes, has been successfully tested in small-diameter monitoring wells in a range of hydrogeological settings. A variant of the probe that can be deployed by a direct-push machine has also been developed and tested in the field. The new NMR logging tool provides reliable, direct, and high-resolution information that is of importance for groundwater studies. Specifically, the technology provides direct measurement of total water content (total porosity in the saturated zone or moisture content in the unsaturated zone), and estimates of relative pore-size distribution (bound vs. mobile water content) and hydraulic conductivity. The NMR measurements show good agreement with ancillary data from lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydrogeologic measurements, and provide valuable information for groundwater investigations. PMID:23425428

Walsh, David; Turner, Peter; Grunewald, Elliot; Zhang, Hong; Butler, James J; Reboulet, Ed; Knobbe, Steve; Christy, Tom; Lane, John W; Johnson, Carole D; Munday, Tim; Fitzpatrick, Andrew

2013-01-01

368

Dual-cone double-helical downhole logging device  

DOEpatents

A broadband downhole logging device includes a double-helix coil wrapped over a dielectric support and surrounded by a dielectric shield. The device may also include a second coil longitudinally aligned with a first coil and enclosed within the same shield for measuring magnetic permeability of downhole formations and six additional coils for accurately determining downhole parameters.

Yu, Jiunn S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01

369

Profiling Event Logs to Configure Risk Indicators for Process Delays  

E-print Network

1 Introduction Managing risks is one of the top priorities in corporate and government organ: CIOs Must Link Risk Management and Compliance to Business Priorities" #12;use information systemsProfiling Event Logs to Configure Risk Indicators for Process Delays Anastasiia Pika1 , Wil M. P

van der Aalst, Wil

370

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty; K. Kishore

2001-01-01

371

A Rule-Based System for Well Log Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-assisted approaches to well log correlation are of interest to engineers and geologists for two reasons. In large field studies, a computer can be used simply to reduce the time required to correlate zones of interest. It is also possible that computer-assisted correlations may suggest zonal matches of interest and originality that might not have been considered. This paper presents

Richard Startzman; Tsai-Bao Kuo

1987-01-01

372

Determination of Lithology From Well Logs by Statistical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of predicting lithology by statistical analysis of wireline log measurements with calibration to a core lithology standard. Although an example of the technique applied to the Shublik formation of the Prudhoe Bay area, North Slope, AK, is developed and presented, the method can be applied to any field where some core has been taken. The

J. M. Busch; W. G. Fortney; L. N. Berry

1987-01-01

373

Evaluation of a geothermal well logging, DST and Pit test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly discusses logging and testing operations and certain related physical aspects in geothermal well evaluations. A good understanding of thermal and hydrological characteristics of geothermal reservoirs are essential in geothermal well evaluations. Within geothermal reservoirs, in evaluating the wells, the two most important parameters that first could be estimated, then measured or calculated, are temperature and productivity. Well

Tansev; Erdal O

1978-01-01

374

Formation evaluation: benefits of downhole logging while drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new downhole measurement systems, coupled with mud-pulse telemetry techniques, allows real time surface evaluation of downhole parameters while drilling. Currently available systems, such as Exploration Logging's DLWD tool, combine formation resistivity and natural gamma ray sensors with directional survey and other measurements. These parameters aid formation evaluation, pressure evaluation, well-bore positioning, and drilling efficiency. For real time

J. A. Turvill; G. W. Troy

1983-01-01

375

Formation Evaluation of Oshioka Field Using Geophysical Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation evaluation of Oshioka field was performed to identify hydrocarbon bearing reservoir and study reservoir properties based on data from the two wells. This was carried out with Petrel and Hydrocarbon Data System (HDS) Log analysis Software packages. The two wells contained sufficient data to allow detailed analysis, including porosity, water saturation, permeability and net-to-gross. The consistency of the

I. Aigbedion; S. E. Iyayi

376

How to use interaction logs effectively for usability evaluation  

E-print Network

evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION Since Google started to release new web sites and services in a beta stadium://flickR.com commercial tools like Alterwind Web-Log Analyzer2 or Google Analytics3 and therefore optimize the navigation available to a large audience. Examples are InfoZoom which was used for example for the ADAC Website for car

Reiterer, Harald

377

Log shifted gamma approximation to lognormal sum distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the log shifted gamma (LSG) approximation to model the sum of M lognormal distributed random variables. The closed-form probability density function (PDF) of the resulting LSG random variable (RV) is presented and its parameters are derived from those of the M individual lognormal RV by using an iterative moment matching technique. Simulation results on the cumulative distribution

C. L. Joshua Lam; Tho Le-Ngoc

2005-01-01

378

Snag longevity in relation to wildfire and postfire salvage logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snags create nesting, foraging, and roosting habitat for a variety of wildlife species. Removal of snags through postfire salvage logging reduces the densities and size classes of snags remaining after wildfire. We determined important variables associated with annual persistence rates (the probability a snag remains standing from 1 year to the next) of large conifer snags (?23cm diameter breast height

Robin E. Russell; Victoria A. Saab; Jonathan G. Dudley; Jay J. Rotella

2006-01-01

379

Distinguishing Humans from Bots in Web Search Logs  

E-print Network

Distinguishing Humans from Bots in Web Search Logs Omer M. Duskin Dror G. Feitelson School characterize human web search behavior, and to study the effects of bot activity. However, available workload of these non-human behaviors as "bots". Bots are not unique to web search activity, and the need to distinguish

Feitelson, Dror

380

RFID Supplement for Mobile-Based Life Log System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel life log system, Life Pod, which collects user's activities by a mobile phone in the real world, and displays them in a blog like style. Engaging sensors installed in mobile phone and information attached to objects, users can easily record their daily activity anytime, anywhere. Implementation of RFID system to Life Pod also

Atsunori Minamikawa; Nobuhide Kotsuka; Masaru Honjo; Daisuke Morikawa; Satoshi Nishiyama; Masayoshi Ohashi

2007-01-01

381

A 1-V CMOS log-domain integrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel circuit implementation of a CMOS log-domain integrator is presented. Unlike most other implementations, it does not require placing of MOSFETs in separated wells, and therefore allows very compact filters, which are fully compatible with modern standard CMOS technologies. Besides the saving of chip area, this also helps to reduce parasitic capacitances. The most important advantage of this circuit

Dominique Python; Manfred Punzenberger; Christian C. Enz

1999-01-01

382

Landslides After Clearcut Logging in a Coast Redwood Forest1  

E-print Network

163 Landslides After Clearcut Logging in a Coast Redwood Forest1 Leslie M. Reid2 and Elizabeth T. Keppeler2 Abstract Landslides have been mapped at least annually in the 473 ha North Fork Caspar Creek watershed since 1985, allowing evaluation of landslide distribution, characteristics, and rates associated

Standiford, Richard B.

383

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-09-05

384

Memoirs of Togetherness from Audio Logs Danil Korchagin  

E-print Network

of the same user centric device such as mobile phone. Being asynchronously driven it allows automatically the gap between user centric media devices and social networks. Many of our enduring experiences, holidays investigation concerns the possibility of multiple audio log (recorded by user centric devices such as mobile

385

MEMBER CENTER: Create Account | Log In Email Print Text Size  

E-print Network

. He was one of the developers of the new monitoring system. Digestive System News Holiday Travel, BadMEMBER CENTER: Create Account | Log In Email Print Text Size Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux WEDNESDAY, June 20 (HealthDay News) -- A wireless monitoring system that uses electrical impulses

Chiao, Jung-Chih

386

STRUCTURED COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS LOGS TO DIAGNOSE  

E-print Network

STRUCTURED COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS LOGS TO DIAGNOSE PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS Karthik Nagaraj Analyzer Distributed Systems: BitTorrent 2 Download Time (sec) CDF TRANSMISSION! 180 nodes 20% slower Piece Times 3 Per-piece Download Time (sec) CDF 10 sec at start 54 sec at finish TRANSMISSION! sed! awk

Neville, Jennifer

387

Disturbance, selective logging and bird diversity: a Neotropical forest study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and structure of bird communities, and the damage to forest structure were sur- veyed in northern French Guiana (northeastern Amazonia) one year and ten years after selective logging and compared with the situation in a similar undisturbed primary forest. A point-count method was used in which 937 0.25 ha sample plots were censused for 20 minutes each, and

JEAN-MARC THIOLLAY

1997-01-01

388

uthor'sCopy Improving Documentation by Repairing Event Logs  

E-print Network

A uthor'sCopy Improving Documentation by Repairing Event Logs Andreas Rogge-Solti1 , Ronny S. Mans2.-Dr.-Helmert-Strasse 2-3, 14482 Potsdam {andreas.rogge-solti,mathias.weske}@hpi.uni-potsdam.de 2 Department

van der Aalst, Wil

389

12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

390

Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

2011-01-01

391

Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) methods could reduce CO2 emissions by 30-50% across at least 20% of remaining tropical forests. We developed two cost effective and robust indices for comparing the climate benefits (reduced CO2 emissions) due to RIL. The indices correct for variability in the volume of commercial timber among concessions. We determined that a correction for variability in terrain slope was not needed. We found that concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, N = 3), when compared with noncertified concessions (N = 6), did not have lower overall CO2 emissions from logging activity (felling, skidding, and hauling). On the other hand, FSC certified concessions did have lower emissions from one type of logging impact (skidding), and we found evidence of a range of improved practices using other field metrics. One explanation of these results may be that FSC criteria and indicators, and associated RIL practices, were not designed to achieve overall emissions reductions. Also, commonly used field metrics are not reliable proxies for overall logging emissions performance. Furthermore, the simple distinction between certified and noncertified concessions does not fully represent the complex history of investments in improved logging practices. To clarify the relationship between RIL and emissions reductions, we propose the more explicit term 'RIL-C' to refer to the subset of RIL practices that can be defined by quantified thresholds and that result in measurable emissions reductions. If tropical forest certification is to be linked with CO2 emissions reductions, certification standards need to explicitly require RIL-C practices. PMID:24022913

Griscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E

2014-03-01

392

Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project  

SciTech Connect

The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

Lance Prothro, Sigmund Drellack, Margaret Townsend

2009-03-25

393

In vitro propagation of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wang) K. Koc  

E-print Network

% for 10 minutes were found to be effective for the establishment of axenic cultures. Because 10% Clorox did not R result in burning or necrosis of the explants, it was used for the remainder of the experiments. Benzyladenine (BA) was used in liquid.... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE Overview of Woody Plant Tissue Culture Components of the Nutrient Medium Inorganic Salts Vitamins Growth Regulators Cytokinins. Auxins Gibberellins. Abscisic acid. Phenolic compounds...

Hansen, Keith Christian

1982-01-01

394

Logging history (1820–2000) of a heavily exploited southern boreal forest landscape: Insights from sunken logs and forestry maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two centuries, logging has caused major, but unquantified, compositional and structural changes in the southern portion of the North American boreal forest. In this study, we used a series of old forest inventory maps coupled with a new dendrochronological approach for analyzing timber floating histories in order to document the long-term transformation (1820–2000) of a southern boreal

Yan Boucher; Dominique Arseneault; Luc Sirois

2009-01-01

395

Prospects for Reduced Impact Logging in Central African logging concessions Driss Ezzine de Blas *, Manuel Ruiz Perez 1  

E-print Network

, 28049 Madrid, Spain 1. Introduction West and Central Africa represents the second largest area, this paper reviews logging concession systems in Central Africa from the first records ­ based on early descriptions by French led research in West and Central Africa (CTFT, 1976) ­ to the most recent studies

396

Maslow and Values Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

Farmer, Rodney

1978-01-01

397

Hydraulic Properties of Diatomaceous Structure on Physical Properties and Wire-line Logging - An example of off Sanriku, North Japan -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg. 186, two sites (Site 1150 and Site 1151) were drilled on the continental slope of the deep-sea forearc basin of northern Japan. Diatomaceous sediments were recovered Site 1150 (39° 10.9' N, 143° 19.9' E) and Site 1151 (38° 45.1' N, 143° 20.0' E), and the depth of each site is 1181.60 mbsf and 1113.60 mbsf, respectively. This area is under the influence of the Oyashio current and is one of the highly bio-productive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (Motoyama et al., 2004). The combination of high productivity and active tectonic deformation that often caused high rate accumulating of fossil and organic rich sediments. The onboard results of porosity measurements show high value (50-70 %) down to 1000 mbsf, and obviously higher than nearby subduction trench, Nankai Trough (Taylor and Fisher, 1993). There is a possibility that diatomaceous shell keep a frame structure from effective stress and load pressure. On another drilling site result, DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) Leg. 19 located 60 km to the north of ODP sites, was reported high value of porosity, but recognized only shallow range (>500 mbsf) (Shephard and Bryant, 1980). We focused on the relationships between physical property, microstructure, and logging data at deep range(~1000 mbsf). We picked 14 samples to observe microstructure using SEM and measure permeability using flow-ump approach (1.5-4.5 MPa). Logging data were collected using wireline logging (Sacks and Suyehiro, 2003). Based on these results, it is expected that microstructure and logging can be integrated into a general model of core-log correlation. We observed many pores in and around diatom fossils using SEM even in the sample from deeper than 1000 mbsf, and measured pore size distribution and permeability at each depth. Generally, porosity decreases by effective stress and load pressure, and permeability also decrease with down hole. In this site, we recognized down hole decreases of pore space and preservations of diatom shell by using SEM. However, measured permeability displayed subtle patterns in downhole. These results can be considered that intact diatom shells don't always contribute to permeability, while fractured fabrics play good correlation with consolidation. Furthermore, correlations between water content ratio, permeability, and ithostratigraphic variance can be considered as a good index for hydraulic sedimental conditions. In this presentation, We show results of data integration of lithostratigraphy, measurements values, logging data, and physical properties.

Ojima, T.; Saito, S.

2013-12-01

398

Rolling Deck to Repository III: Shipboard Event Logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data gathered during NSF-supported scientific research cruises represent an important component of the overall oceanographic data collection. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) pilot project aims to improve access to basic shipboard data and ultimately reduce the work required to provide that access. Improved access will be achieved through identification of best practices for shipboard data management, identification of standard metadata and data products from research cruises, development of metadata schemas to describe a research cruise, and development of a prototype data discovery system that could be used by the entire NSF-supported academic research fleet. Shoreside data managers will work collaboratively with ship technicians and vessel operators to develop approaches that scale from smaller coastal vessels to larger open ocean research vessels. One of the coordinated subprojects within the R2R project will focus on development of a shipboard event logging system that would incorporate best practice guidelines, a metadata schema and new and existing applications to generate a scientific sampling event log in the form of a digital text file. A cruise event logging system enables researchers to record digitally all scientific sampling events and assign a unique event identifier to each entry. Decades of work conducted within large coordinated ocean research programs (JGOFS, GLOBEC, WOCE and RIDGE) have shown that creation of a shipboard sampling event log can facilitate greatly the subsequent integration of data sets from individual investigators. In addition to providing a quick way to determine what types of data might have been collected during a cruise, the sampling event log can be used to visualize the relationship, both temporally and geospatially, between the diverse types of sampling events conducted during a research cruise. Research questions in marine ecology or modeling projects are inherently multi-disciplinary and require access to a variety of data types. Improvements in cruise metadata reporting, including a sampling event log that could be contributed routinely to a centralized data repository, should improve access to research cruise data and facilitate accurate reuse of those data by colleagues.

Chandler, C. L.; Arko, R.; Miller, S. P.; Dorsk, A.; McCue, S.; Fisichella, D. C.

2008-12-01

399

Quantifying metal ions binding onto dissolved organic matter using log-transformed absorbance spectra.  

PubMed

This study introduces the concept of consistent examination of changes of log-transformed absorbance spectra of dissolved organic matter (DOM) at incrementally increasing concentrations of heavy metal cations such as copper, cadmium, and aluminum at environmentally relevant concentrations. The approach is designed to highlight contributions of low-intensity absorbance features that appear to be especially sensitive to DOM reactions. In accord with this approach, log-transformed absorbance spectra of fractions of DOM from the Suwannee River were acquired at varying pHs and concentrations of copper, cadmium, and aluminum. These log-transformed spectra were processed using the differential approach and used to examine the nature of the observed changes of DOM absorbance and correlate them with the extent of Me-DOM complexation. Two alternative parameters, namely the change of the spectral slope in the range of wavelengths 325-375 nm (DSlope325-375) and differential logarithm of DOM absorbance at 350 nm (DLnA350) were introduced to quantify Cu(II), Cd(II), and Al(III) binding onto DOMs. DLnA350 and DSlope325-375 datasets were compared with the amount of DOM-bound Cu(II), Cd(II), and Al(III) estimated based on NICA-Donnan model calculations. This examination showed that the DLnA350 and DSlope325-375 acquired at various pH values, metal ions concentrations, and DOM types were strongly and unambiguously correlated with the concentration of DOM-bound metal ions. The obtained experimental results and their interpretation indicate that the introduced DSlope325-375 and DLnA35 parameters are predictive of and can be used to quantify in situ metal ions interactions with DOMs. The presented approach can be used to gain more information about DOM-metal interactions and for further optimization of existing formal models of metal-DOM complexation. PMID:23490103

Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Korshin, Gregory V; Benedetti, Marc F

2013-05-01

400

Resistance and resilience of the forest soil microbiome to logging-associated compaction  

PubMed Central

Soil compaction is a major disturbance associated with logging, but we lack a fundamental understanding of how this affects the soil microbiome. We assessed the structural resistance and resilience of the microbiome using a high-throughput pyrosequencing approach in differently compacted soils at two forest sites and correlated these findings with changes in soil physical properties and functions. Alterations in soil porosity after compaction strongly limited the air and water conductivity. Compaction significantly reduced abundance, increased diversity, and persistently altered the structure of the microbiota. Fungi were less resistant and resilient than bacteria; clayey soils were less resistant and resilient than sandy soils. The strongest effects were observed in soils with unfavorable moisture conditions, where air and water conductivities dropped well below 10% of their initial value. Maximum impact was observed around 6–12 months after compaction, and microbial communities showed resilience in lightly but not in severely compacted soils 4 years post disturbance. Bacteria capable of anaerobic respiration, including sulfate, sulfur, and metal reducers of the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, were significantly associated with compacted soils. Compaction detrimentally affected ectomycorrhizal species, whereas saprobic and parasitic fungi proportionally increased in compacted soils. Structural shifts in the microbiota were accompanied by significant changes in soil processes, resulting in reduced carbon dioxide, and increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions from compacted soils. This study demonstrates that physical soil disturbance during logging induces profound and long-lasting changes in the soil microbiome and associated soil functions, raising awareness regarding sustainable management of economically driven logging operations. PMID:24030594

Hartmann, Martin; Niklaus, Pascal A; Zimmermann, Stephan; Schmutz, Stefan; Kremer, Johann; Abarenkov, Kessy; Lüscher, Peter; Widmer, Franco; Frey, Beat

2014-01-01

401

Resistance and resilience of the forest soil microbiome to logging-associated compaction.  

PubMed

Soil compaction is a major disturbance associated with logging, but we lack a fundamental understanding of how this affects the soil microbiome. We assessed the structural resistance and resilience of the microbiome using a high-throughput pyrosequencing approach in differently compacted soils at two forest sites and correlated these findings with changes in soil physical properties and functions. Alterations in soil porosity after compaction strongly limited the air and water conductivity. Compaction significantly reduced abundance, increased diversity, and persistently altered the structure of the microbiota. Fungi were less resistant and resilient than bacteria; clayey soils were less resistant and resilient than sandy soils. The strongest effects were observed in soils with unfavorable moisture conditions, where air and water conductivities dropped well below 10% of their initial value. Maximum impact was observed around 6-12 months after compaction, and microbial communities showed resilience in lightly but not in severely compacted soils 4 years post disturbance. Bacteria capable of anaerobic respiration, including sulfate, sulfur, and metal reducers of the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, were significantly associated with compacted soils. Compaction detrimentally affected ectomycorrhizal species, whereas saprobic and parasitic fungi proportionally increased in compacted soils. Structural shifts in the microbiota were accompanied by significant changes in soil processes, resulting in reduced carbon dioxide, and increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions from compacted soils. This study demonstrates that physical soil disturbance during logging induces profound and long-lasting changes in the soil microbiome and associated soil functions, raising awareness regarding sustainable management of economically driven logging operations. PMID:24030594

Hartmann, Martin; Niklaus, Pascal A; Zimmermann, Stephan; Schmutz, Stefan; Kremer, Johann; Abarenkov, Kessy; Lüscher, Peter; Widmer, Franco; Frey, Beat

2014-01-01

402

VALUE CREATION ANALYSIS. ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of the Economic Value Added comes from Hamilton (1877) and Marshall (1890), which showed that companies can create wealth if you manage to earn more than their own capital costs and liabilities. Economic Value Added is an indicator for measuring performance based on real economic profits of the company product, which allows measurement of its success or failure

Silvia Petrescu; Ciprian Apostol

2009-01-01

403

Hydrologic characteristics of the Madison Limestone, the Minnelusa Formation, and equivalent rocks as determined by well-logging formation evaluation, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical logs from wells distributed throughout the Powder River Basin were digitized, processed, and interpreted to get a regional understanding of the lithologic and ground-water characteristics of aquifers in the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation. The percentage of sand, porosity, and apparent ground-water resistivity of the Minnelusa closely follow structural trends in the basis. Values increase from the structural axis

W. J. Head; R. H. Merkel

1977-01-01

404

Universal cable head for a multiconductor logging cable  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a universal cable head. It comprises: an armored logging cable having up to seven electrical conductors therein and incorporating a woven wire rope, and a surrounding armor wrap; stress relieving stinger means on the cable; an encircling housing to transfer axial loads from the cable to the housing; an internal transverse bulkhead within the housing adjacent to an internal cavity therein; electrical feedthrus for connection of conductors in the logging cable; exposed mating connectors electrically connected to the feedthrus; the housing extending past and encircling the mating connectors; and a rotatable, shoulder limited sleeve on the exterior of the housing having threading means thereon for connecting with a mating female connector.

Ip, M.

1989-10-17

405

Paleomagnetic Logs: A Tool for Dating Lake Erie's Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the lithology, paleomagnetic and Mossbauer Effect Spectroscopy (MES) log data and 14C determinations of cores taken from three small basins located in western Lake Erie, in conjunction with data obtained from earlier studies, has been used to re-evaluate the postglacial history of the area. After the re-advance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the Huron basin and

J. S. Mothersill; P. J. Schurer

2003-01-01

406

Development of geothermal logging systems in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of (potassium, uranium and thorium) is in the calibration phase, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A fluid sampling tool is in the design phase. All tools are designed for operation at conditions exceeding 400 C, and for deployment in the slim holes produced by mining-coring operations. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry and scientific drilling programs to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. These cooperative efforts depend upon quality guidelines such as those under development within the international Ocean Drilling Program.

Lysne, P.

1994-04-01

407

Logs and snags in a shola forest of Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a tropical wet montane evergreen forest in the southern peninsular India, the estimated stocking of dead wood is 90 ± 3\\u000a stems·ha?1 and the total dead wood volume is 70.7 m3·ha?1. When the logs (downed dead trees more than 10.1 cm in diameter) constitute about 80% of the total deadwood stocking and\\u000a volume, the rest is by snags (sound

U. M. Chandrashekara; V. Sibichan

2006-01-01

408

An ecosystem model for tropical forest disturbance and selective logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new three-dimensional version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model (CASA-3D) was developed to simulate regional carbon cycling in tropical forest ecosystems after disturbances such as logging. CASA-3D has the following new features: (1) an alternative approach for calculating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) using new high-resolution satellite images of forest canopy gap fraction; (2) a pulse disturbance module to modify aboveground carbon pools following forest disturbance; (3) a regrowth module that simulates changes in community composition by considering gap phase regeneration; and (4) a radiative transfer module to simulate the dynamic three-dimensional light environment above the canopy and within gaps after forest disturbance. The model was calibrated with and tested against field observations from experimental logging plots in the Large-scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. The sensitivity of key model parameters was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the uncertainties in simulated NPP and respiration associated with model parameters and meteorological variables were assessed. We found that selective logging causes changes in forest architecture and composition that result in a cascading set of impacts on the carbon cycling of rainforest ecosystems. Our model sensitivity and uncertainty analyses also highlight the paramount importance of measuring changes in canopy gap fraction from satellite data, as well as canopy light-use efficiency from ecophysiological measurements, to understand the role of forest disturbance on landscape and regional carbon cycling in tropical forests. In sum, our study suggests that CASA-3D may be suitable for regional-scale applications to assess the large-scale effects of selective logging, to provide guidance for forest management, and to understand the role of forest disturbance in regional and global climate studies.

Huang, Maoyi; Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael; Berry, Joseph A.

2008-03-01

409

First Order Optic Flow from Log-Polar Sampled Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first-order spatial derivatives of optic flow — dilation, shear and rotation — provide powerful information about motion and surface layout. The log-polar sampled image (LSI) is of increasing interest for active vision, and is particularly well-suited to the measurement of local first-order flow. We explain why this is, propose a simple least-squares method for measuring first-order flow in an

H. Tunley; D. Young

1994-01-01

410

Analysis of Log Files Applying Mining Techniques and Fuzzy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the explosive growth of data available on the Internet, a recent area of investigation called Web Mining has arise. In\\u000a this paper, we will study general aspects of this area, principally the process of Web Usage Mining where log files are analyzed.\\u000a These files register the activity of the user when interact with the Web. In the Web Usage

Víctor H. Escobar-jeria; Maria J. Martín-bautista; Daniel Sánchez; María Amparo Vila Miranda

2007-01-01

411

Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. PMID:24628366

Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

2014-08-01

412

An ecosystem model for tropical forest disturbance and selective logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new three-dimensional version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model (CASA-3D) was developed to simulate regional carbon cycling in tropical forest ecosystems after disturbances such as logging. CASA-3D has the following new features: (1) an alternative approach for calculating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) using new high-resolution satellite images of forest canopy gap fraction; (2) a pulse disturbance module

Maoyi Huang; Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Joseph A. Berry

2008-01-01

413

Disturbance, selective logging and bird diversity: a Neotropical forest study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and structure of bird communities, and the damage to forest structure were surveyed in northern French Guiana (northeastern Amazonia) one year and ten years after selective logging and compared with the situation in a similar undisturbed primary forest. A point-count method was used in which 937 0.25ha sample plots were censused for 20 minutes each, and their vegetation

JEAN-MARC THIOLLAY

1997-01-01

414

Log-periodic behavior in a forest-fire model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores log-periodicity in a forest-fire cellular-automata model. At each time step of this model a tree is dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is unoccupied, the tree is planted. Then, for a given sparking frequency, matches are dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is occupied by a tree, the tree ignites and

B. D. Malamud; G. Morein; D. L. Turcotte

2005-01-01

415

Chemical changes and carbon isotope variations in a cross-section of a large Miocene gymnospermous log  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The cross-sectional radius of a 3-m (diam.) brown coal gymnospermous log of Miocene age, previously analyzed for carbohydrate and lignin methoxyl content by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, was examined using stable carbon isotopic ratios in order to determine if the isotopic composition could be related to chemical changes or to radial position. This study found a possible relationship between ??13C-values and radial position; however, these changes cannot be linked to carbohydrate content and are probably attributable to changing growth conditions during the lifetime of the tree. An apparent linear relationship between the changes in carbohydrate content after sodium para-periodate treatment and corresponding changes in the ??13C-values indicates constant isotopic fractionation between lignin and carbohydrates along the cross-sectional radius. This result indicates that diagenesis has not produced any significant change in the lignin-carbohydrate carbon isotopic fractionation or, alternatively, that diagenesis has erased any fractionation pattern that once existed. A sample of fresh wood from another gymnospermous species was analyzed by the same methods and found to have lignin-carbohydrate carbon isotopic fractionation significantly different from that of the Miocene log section samples, suggesting that differences may be species-related or that the complex mixture of carbohydrates in the fresh wood was isotopically different from that of the degraded wood, and the whole Miocene log was uniformly altered. ?? 1992.

Bates, A.L.; Spiker, E. C.

1992-01-01

416

Statistical model for source rock maturity and organic richness using well-log data, Bakken Formation, Williston basin, United States  

SciTech Connect

A study of the Bakken Formation, the proposed source rock for much of the hydrocarbons generated in the Williston basin, was done using bulk density, neutron porosity, and resistivity logs, and formation temperatures. Principal components, cluster, and discriminant analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of organic matter controls much of the variability in the log values. Present-day total organic carbon values are high in the central part of the basin near northeastern Montana and along the east edge of the basin, and low in the area of the Nesson anticline and along the southwest edge of the basin. Using a regression of density on temperature and the analysis of residuals from this regression, hydrocarbon maturity effects were partially separated from depositional effects. These analyses suggest that original concentrations of organic matter were low near the limits of the Bakken and increased to a high in northeastern Montana. The pre-maturation distribution of total organic carbon and the present-day total organic carbon distribution, as determined by statistical analyses of well-log data, agree with the results of geochemical analyses. The distributions can be explained by a relatively simple depositional pattern and thermal history for the Bakken. 6 figures, 3 tables.

Krystinik, K.B.; Charpentier, R.R.

1987-01-01

417

Instant well-log inversion with a parallel computer  

SciTech Connect

Well-log analysis requires several vectors of input data to be inverted with a physical model that produces more vectors of output data. The problem is inherently suited to either vectorization or parallelization. PLATO (parallel log analysis, timely output) is a research prototype system that uses a parallel architecture computer with memory-mapped graphics to invert vector data and display the result rapidly. By combining this high-performance computing and display system with a graphical user interface, the analyst can interact with the system in real time'' and can visualize the result of changing parameters on up to 1,000 levels of computed volumes and reconstructed logs. It is expected that such instant'' inversion will remove the main disadvantages frequently cited for simultaneous analysis methods, namely difficulty in assessing sensitivity to different parameters and slow output response. Although the prototype system uses highly specific features of a parallel processor, a subsequent version has been implemented on a conventional (Serial) workstation with less performance but adequate functionality to preserve the apparently instant response. PLATO demonstrates the feasibility of petroleum computing applications combining an intuitive graphical interface, high-performance computing of physical models, and real-time output graphics.

Kimminau, S.J.; Trivedi, H.

1993-08-01

418

Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

419

On Efficient Confidence Intervals for the Log-Normal Mean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data obtained in biomedical research is often skewed. Examples include the incubation period of diseases like HIV/AIDS and the survival times of cancer patients. Such data, especially when they are positive and skewed, is often modeled by the log-normal distribution. If this model holds, then the log transformation produces a normal distribution. We consider the problem of constructing confidence intervals for the mean of the log-normal distribution. Several methods for doing this are known, including at least one estimator that performed better than Coxxs method for small sample sizes. We also construct a modified version of Coxxs method. Using simulation, we show that, when the sample size exceeds 30, it leads to confidence intervals that have good overall properties and are better than Coxxs method. More precisely, the actual coverage probability of our method is closer to the nominal coverage probability than is the case with Coxxs method. In addition, the new method is computationally much simpler than other well-known methods.

Chami, Peter; Antoine, Robin; Sahai, Ashok

420

Using the jackknife for estimation in log link Bernoulli regression models.  

PubMed

Bernoulli (or binomial) regression using a generalized linear model with a log link function, where the exponentiated regression parameters have interpretation as relative risks, is often more appropriate than logistic regression for prospective studies with common outcomes. In particular, many researchers regard relative risks to be more intuitively interpretable than odds ratios. However, for the log link, when the outcome is very prevalent, the likelihood may not have a unique maximum. To circumvent this problem, a 'COPY method' has been proposed, which is equivalent to creating for each subject an additional observation with the same covariates except the response variable has the outcome values interchanged (1's changed to 0's and 0's changed to 1's). The original response is given weight close to 1, while the new observation is given a positive weight close to 0; this approach always leads to convergence of the maximum likelihood algorithm, except for problems with convergence due to multicollinearity among covariates. Even though this method produces a unique maximum, when the outcome is very prevalent, and/or the sample size is relatively small, the COPY method can yield biased estimates. Here, we propose using the jackknife as a bias-reduction approach for the COPY method. The proposed method is motivated by a study of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25388125

Lipsitz, Stuart R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Arriaga, Alex; Sinha, Debajyoti; Gawande, Atul A

2015-02-10

421

Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

2010-11-01

422

Possibilities of three-component geoacoustic logging at hydrocarbon deposits.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geophysical method of oil-gas borehole investigation devised at the Institute of geophysics UB of RAS studies characteristics of geoacoustic emission (GAE) over the frequency range of 0.1÷5 kHz which displays peculiarities of fluid-gas dynamic processes in a volume of geological environment. More over: 1. The second displacement derivative (acceleration) of borehole walls' vibrations is recorded. 2. The three-component system of orthogonal transducers-accelerometers in a protecting casing of a borehole instrument with the diameter of 40-42 mm enabling to divide geoenvironment microvibrations into three directions is applied. 3. Frequency composition of recorded geoacoustic signals is analyzed. 4. Values of measured and calculated parameters representing distribution of signal amplitudes according to three components at four frequency bands are evaluated. Three-component geoacoustic logging at hydrocarbon deposits solves the following problems: · Estimation of fluid saturation character at a qualitative level; · Detection of fluid flow outside and inside the casing string with division into fluid types; · Detection of fluid flow position in chambers of a cement ring with division into fluid types; · Detection of non-sealed points of borehole equipment; · Location of gas-water, gas-oil ad water-oil contacts; · Study of inflow section in a perforated interval of casing string which determines the boundaries of efficient intervals; · Detection of sections with high absorption of drilling fluid in an open shaft; · Test for leaks of the column (together with thermometry); · Detection of intervals of fluid movement in horizontal direction outside a casing string within seams (it is impossible to determine them by other methods); · Detection of industrial deposits; · Revelation of water-flooded intervals of a hydrocarbon deposit. Transducers-accelerometers with relative coefficient of transverse conversion not more than 6% allow confident division of signals into three directions. Transverse sensitivity of a transducer is determined by its maximum sensitivity to oscillations in a direction perpendicular to its main axis that is parallel to the surface where it is placed. The equipment [1] has sensitivity that enables to record an acoustic response of geoenvironment to deformations in the order of 10-8 - 10-11 m. Geoacoustic signals in sedimentary rocks are recorded by three orthogonal transducers-accelerometers of PVT type (piezoelectric vibromeasuring transducer). Transducers with coefficients of conversion not less than 6-10 µV*s2/mm are installed into a borehole instrument. Amplitude level of signals at different frequency bands is presented in units of recorded acceleration mm/s2. Small amplitude of geoenvironment microvibrations is an additional optimum condition to divide signals from three directions. Thus, signals from three directions are fixed at preset depth in a borehole which makes it possible to compare their amplitude at different frequency bands. References: 1. Yu. G. Astrakhantsev and A. K. Troyanov, RF Patent No. 2 445 653, 2012.

Trojanov, Alexandr; Astrakhantsev, Yurie; Nachapkin, Nikolay; Beloglasova, Nadejda; Bajenova, Evgenia; Vdovin, Alexey

2013-04-01

423

Physical properties of fault zone rocks from SAFOD: Tying logging data to high-pressure measurements on drill core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2005, Phase 2 of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole was completed and logged with wireline tools including a dipole sonic tool to measure P- and S-wave velocities. A zone of anomalously low velocity was detected from 3150 to 3414 m measured depth (MD), corresponding with the subsurface location of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ). This low velocity zone is 5-30% slower than the surrounding host rock. Within this broad low-velocity zone, several slip surfaces were identified as well as two actively deforming shear zones: the southwest deformation zone (SDZ) and the central deformation zone (CDZ), located at 3192 and 3302 m MD, respectively. The SAFZ had also previously been identified as a low velocity zone in seismic velocity inversion models. The anomalously low velocity was hypothesized to result from either (a) brittle deformation in the damage zone of the fault, (b) high fluid pressures with in the fault zone, or (c) lithological variation, or a combination of the above. We measured P- and S-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequencies on saturated 2.5 cm diameter core plug samples taken from SAFOD core obtained in 2007 from within the low velocity zone. The resulting values fall into two distinct groups: foliated fault gouge and non-gouge. Samples of the foliated fault gouge have P-wave velocities between 2.3-3.5 km/s while non-gouge samples lie between 4.1-5.4 km/s over a range of effective pressures from 5-70 MPa. There is a good correlation between the log measurements and laboratory values of P-and S wave velocity at in situ pressure conditions especially for the foliated fault gouge. For non-gouge samples the laboratory values are approximately 0.08-0.73 km/s faster than the log values. This difference places the non-gouge velocities within the Great Valley siltstone velocity range, as measured by logs and ultrasonic measurements performed on outcrop samples. As a high fluid pressure zone was not encountered during SAFOD drilling, we use the ultrasonic velocities of SAFOD core and analogous outcrop samples to determine if the velocity reduction is due to lithologic variations or the presence of deformational fabrics and alteration in the fault zone. Preliminary analysis indicates that while the decrease in velocity across the broad fault zone is heavily influenced by fractures, the extremely low velocities associated with the actively deforming zones are more likely caused by the development of scaly fabric with clay coatings on the fracture surfaces. Analysis of thin sections and well logs are used to support this interpretation.

Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.

2013-12-01

424

Five Values of Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

2011-01-01

425

Values and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every social studies teacher must consciously move to relate his course to the value dilemmas of youth and the value-laden issues of our time. A variety of writings by youth have been included to serve as source materials for classroom teachers and to provide significant insights into the values of youth. The section, Values in the Classroom:…

Barr, Robert D., Ed.

426

Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

Wade, Angela

2012-01-01

427

CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS  

E-print Network

CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS A study prepared@riia.org February 2002 #12;Controlling the international trade in illegally logged timber and wood products Page 2........................................................................................................................................ 7 WHY CONTROL INTERNATIONAL TRADE

428

Coal log fabrication: State-of-the-art for pipeline transportation  

SciTech Connect

The development of coal log pipeline technology includes methods to manufacture coal logs. To make coal logs, coal particles are compacted or extruded into solid cylinders capable of conveyance through water-filled pipelines. Various compaction and extrusion methods have been studied in projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, and most recently in an National Science Foundation/State/University/Industry Center. The purpose of this report is to present the state-of-the-art of coal log manufacturing methods. Coal logs can be made by various methods from different coals, at room temperature and heated, and with and without the use of binder. Logs are made primarily from subbituminous coal, but bituminous coals have also been used. The coal log suitability for pipeline transport is tested by static immersion in pressurized water and by circulation in pipeline flow loops. The recent results for coal log manufacturing are presented and discussed.

Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.; Burkett, W.J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Capsule Pipeline Research Center

1994-12-31

429

47 CFR 73.1800 - General requirements related to the station log.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false General requirements related to the station log. 73.1800 Section 73.1800...SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1800 General requirements related to the station log. (a) The licensee of each...

2010-10-01

430

TITANium Quick Tips How to log into TITANium and enter a Community  

E-print Network

TITANium Quick Tips How to log into TITANium and enter a Community: 1. Log into your portal with your user name and password. 2. Click on the TITANium tab. 3. Click on TITANium Communities 4 navigating TITANium Communities. #12;

de Lijser, Peter

431

36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? 1254...12 Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a) If you bring personal computers, scanners, tape recorders,...

2013-07-01

432

36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?  

...false Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? 1254...12 Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a) If you bring personal computers, scanners, tape recorders,...

2014-07-01

433

MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE CENTERS STUDENT SERVICES ACTIVITY LOG/EVENT RECORD  

E-print Network

MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE CENTERS STUDENT SERVICES ACTIVITY LOG/EVENT RECORD Use this log for all. ENROLLEES BY TYPE: (Check one) ______ GENDER: ETHNICITY: ___ Mathematics ____ Female ___ African ___ No ___ Mathematics ___ Science ___ Technology ___ Other Describe: ____________________ 12. DESCRIPTION: (Purpose

434

36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and...NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and...If you bring personal computers, scanners, tape recorders...cameras, personal computers, and other...

2010-07-01

435

Forward Modeling of the Induction Log Response of a Fractured Geologic Formation  

E-print Network

Induction logging is a well-developed geophysical method with multiple applications. It has been used extensively in academic research as well as in industry. Induction logging is a controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) exploration method...

Bray, Steven Hunter

2013-05-02

436

STABLE PAIR, TROPICAL, AND LOG CANONICAL COMPACT MODULI SPACES OF DEL PEZZO SURFACES  

E-print Network

STABLE PAIR, TROPICAL, AND LOG CANONICAL COMPACT MODULI SPACES OF DEL PEZZO SURFACES PAUL HACKING compactification. 1 #12;2 PAUL HACKING, SEAN KEEL, AND JENIA TEVELEV 1.2. Theorem. The variety Y n is log minimal

Tevelev, Jenia

437

Upper-crustal scattering parameters as derived from induced micro-seismicity and acoustic log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In deterministic seismology it is assumed, that each inhomogeneity within the traversed medium causes a travel time shift and/or special phase in the observed seismogram. This information may then be used to analyze the properties of the inhomogeneity (e.g. location, size). However, this method is only successful for inhomogeneities larger than the station separation, the Fresnel zone and the wavelength. In the Earth's curst there exist many small-scale heterogeneities. Stochastic models can be used to determine the most important statistical parameters of the small-scale inhomogeneities neglecting their exact locations. In high-frequency seismograms (> 1 Hz) information on heterogeneity and seismic absorption is reflected by wave trains following the direct wave featuring decreasing amplitude with increasing lapse time, know as Coda waves. Since seismic wave propagation through a heterogeneous and absorbing medium is an extremely complex process, it has become common practice to use seismogram envelopes instead of complete waveforms to gain insight in the attenuation properties. Besides the manifestation in high-frequency seismograms information on heterogeneity can be extracted from well-logs. Borehole measurements provide detailed 1D information on the distribution of elastic properties within the upper crust at scales from about one meter to several kilometers. Strong random fluctuations in seismic velocity having short wavelengths superposed on a step-like structure represent here the deterministic and stochastic components of the crustal structure. These observations suggest a description of the crust as a random medium with a broad spectrum of heterogeneity. In the framework of developing techniques for the estimation of attenuation properties in geothermal reservoirs, as part of the German research program Geothermal Energy and High-performance Drilling (gebo), seismogram envelope inversion and statistical analysis of acoustic logs have been applied to data from the German Continental Deep Drilling (KTB) project. In the present research a passive seismic data set is considered which was acquired during a long-term hydraulic fracturing treatment at the KTB in 2000. Induced seismicity was recorded with a temporal seismic network, consisting of 40 stations, at epicentral distances less than 20 km. Processed seismic events have magnitudes Ml ˜ 1.0. Acoustic log data comprise the P- and S-wave velocity distribution logged in two boreholes. In the pilot borehole continuous data reach from the surface (28 m) to a depth of approx. 4000 m, while for the main borehole coherent logs are available between 285 m and 7160 m. Scattering and intrinsic attenuation, derived from micro-seismic events at the KTB, reasonably match regional attenuation models for Southern Germany. In contrast, scattering strength estimated from acoustic log data exceeds the regional attenuation models by one order of magnitude. The scattering coefficient shows weak but almost identical frequency dependence for both types of analysis that is best-described by a power-law form. From the frequency dependence it can be inferred that a von Kármán-type of random medium is a good model for representing the fractured geothermal reservoir at the KTB. The estimated Hurst exponent, related to the scattering coefficient, is also in good agreement with reference values derived for the upper crust.

Fielitz, Daniel; Wegler, Ulrich

2013-04-01

438

Two-stage recovery of amphibian assemblages following selective logging of tropical forests.  

PubMed

There is a lack of quantitative information on the effectiveness of selective-logging practices in ameliorating effects of logging on faunal communities. We conducted a large-scale replicated field study in 3 selectively logged moist semideciduous forests in West Africa at varying times after timber extraction to assess post logging effects on amphibian assemblages. Specifically, we assessed whether the diversity, abundance, and assemblage composition of amphibians changed over time for forest-dependent species and those tolerant of forest disturbance. In 2009, we sampled amphibians in 3 forests (total of 48 study plots, each 2 ha) in southwestern Ghana. In each forest, we established plots in undisturbed forest, recently logged forest, and forest logged 10 and 20 years previously. Logging intensity was constant across sites with 3 trees/ha removed. Recently logged forests supported substantially more species than unlogged forests. This was due to an influx of disturbance-tolerant species after logging. Simultaneously Simpson's index decreased, with increased in dominance of a few species. As time since logging increased richness of disturbance-tolerant species decreased until 10 years after logging when their composition was indistinguishable from unlogged forests. Simpson's index increased with time since logging and was indistinguishable from unlogged forest 20 years after logging. Forest specialists decreased after logging and recovered slowly. However, after 20 years amphibian assemblages had returned to a state indistinguishable from that of undisturbed forest in both abundance and composition. These results demonstrate that even with low-intensity logging (?3 trees/ha) a minimum 20-year rotation of logging is required for effective conservation of amphibian assemblages in moist semideciduous forests. Furthermore, remnant patches of intact forests retained in the landscape and the presence of permanent brooks may aid in the effective recovery of amphibian assemblages. PMID:23282143

Adum, Gilbert Baase; Eichhorn, Markus Peter; Oduro, William; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

2013-04-01

439

An index of geophysical well logging in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geophysical logs have been obtained in more than 170 wells in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1968. These logs include natural gamma, electric, caliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, and fluid velocity. Most of the logs are for wells in the Coastal Plain Province of eastern Virginia. Geophysical logs aid in the interpretation of properties of earth materials, including the capacity to store and transmit water in the immediate vicinity of the well bore.

Mulheren, M. Patrick; Larson, J.D.; Hopkins, Herbert T.

1982-01-01

440

Modified log-wake law for turbulent flow in smooth pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified log-wake law for turbulent flow in smooth pipes is developed and tested with laboratory data. The law consists of three terms: a log term, a sine-square term and a cubic term. The log term reflects the restriction of the wall, the sine-square term expresses the contribution of the pressure gradient, and the cubic term makes the standard log-wake

Junke Guo; Pierre Y. Julien

2003-01-01

441

Precipitation Follows the Logging in the Amazon Basin: Interpretation of the CAM3CLM3 Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of logging on precipitation in the Amazon region is investigated based on numerical experiments using the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 coupled with the Community land surface model version 3 (CAM3-CLM3). Three different representations of logging are examined, each corresponding to a different type of logging (ranging from selective logging, clear cut to half-forest-clearing). Results show that precipitation

R. Mei; G. Wang

2008-01-01

442

Rain follows logging in the Amazon? Results from CAM3–CLM3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of logging on precipitation in the Amazon region is investigated based on numerical experiments using the community\\u000a atmosphere model version 3 coupled with the community land surface model version 3 (CAM3–CLM3). Three different representations\\u000a of logging are examined, ranging from selective logging, to partial deforestation, to clear cut. Precipitation increases in\\u000a response to modest selective logging, and decreases

Rui Mei; Guiling Wang

2010-01-01

443

Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs Technical Report  

E-print Network

Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs Technical Report Department Minneapolis, MN 55455-0159 USA TR 09-018 Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs;#12;Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs Sourabh Jain, Inderpreet Singh, Abhishek

Chandra, Abhishek

444

EFFECTS OF SELECTIVE LOGGING METHODS ON SUSPENDED SOLIDS CONCENTRATION AND TURBIDITY LEVEL IN STREAMWATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZULKIFLI, Y. & ANHAR, S. 1994. Effects of selective logging methods on suspended solids concentration and turbidity level in streamwater. The impacts of 'conventional ' and 'closely-supervised' selective logging methods on streamwater quality were studied in three small catchments in the Berembun Forest Reserve, Negri Sembilan, Peninsu- lar Malaysia. The former method was typical of present commercial logging practices while

Zulkifli Yusop; Anhar Suki

445

Effects of isolation, logging and dispersal on woody-species richness of islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation effects on species richness of woody plants were investigated in a system of islands that were created by the filling of the Clarks Hill Reservoir, Georgia. This reservoir was built between 1946–1954. Some islands were logged and cleared of woody plants prior to the filling of the reservoir and others were not logged. The presence of logged versus unlogged

Ronen Kadmon; H. Ronald Pulliam

1995-01-01

446

Sediment and wood accumulations in humid tropical headwater streams: Effects of logging and riparian buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of sediment, wood, and detritus (leaves and small branches) accumulations were examined in four headwater tributaries subjected to different treatments (unlogged, logged with riparian buffer, and logged with no buffer) 16 and 40 months after timber harvesting in the Bukit Tarek Experimental Watershed, Peninsular Malaysia. Sediment transport from hillslope logging roads and skid trails resulted in large sediment

Takashi Gomi; Roy C. Sidle; Shoji Noguchi; Junjiro N. Negishi; Abdul Rahim Nik; Shozo Sasaki

2006-01-01

447

Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population 8 Southern States and Maine Cornelis F. de Hoop  

E-print Network

10.0 Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population ­ 8 Southern States and Maine by Cornelis F. de 31, 2002 #12;10.1 SURVEYS OF THE LOGGING CONTRACTOR POPULATION Once the Logging Capacity Study a reliable source of documented knowledge about the population as a whole. One way to do this is to survey

Wu, Qinglin

448

Supplementary Materials Supplementary Table 1 -Log-odds nucleotide substitution with methyl-C as  

E-print Network

.4220 -0.8334 0.1941 1.1661 2.3447 3.0562 #12;Supplementary Figure 1 - Log-Odds Ratio of Nucleotide-axis) not considering cytosine methylation. #12;Supplementary Figure 2 - Log-Odds Ratio of Nucleotide Substitution methylation. #12;Supplementary Figure 3 - Log-odds Ratio of Nucleotide Base Transitions: Unique Tandem Repeats

Jacobsen, Steve

449

Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

2007-01-01

450

Log-Periodic Power Law as a Predictor of Catastrophic Events: A New Mathematical  

E-print Network

Log-Periodic Power Law as a Predictor of Catastrophic Events: A New Mathematical Justification describe this behavior in detail. The emergence of log-periodic power law in disaster prediction. The history of log-periodic power law applications started with space exploration. To be able to safely return

Kreinovich, Vladik

451

Identification of internal defect of sugar maple logs from CT images using supervised classification methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar maple logs (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were scanned using X-ray medical scanner in order to develop a classification procedure for this type of imagery (CT images). The classification procedure was required in order to separate sapwood from colored heartwood, knots, rot and bark. Five logs coming from a freshly cut tree (group 1) and three logs sampled from a sawmill

Gerson Rojas; Alfonso Condal; Robert Beauregard; Daniel Verret; Roger E. Hernández

2006-01-01

452

Arrays of synthetic acoustic well logging waveforms: Computation and source design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrays of synthetic acoustic well logging waveforms are useful in the initial development of signal processing methods, as an aid in understanding actual well logging data, and in an analysis-by-synthesis approach to data inversion. In this paper, we present a fast and accurate method for the numerical evaluation of arrays of synthetic acoustic well logging waveforms associated with a homogeneous

ANDREW L. KURKJIAN; Shu-Kong Chang

1983-01-01

453

Application of geophysical well logging to coal mining operations. [Discussion of field experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the design of wireline logging equipment (initially designed for the petroleum industry) and improved computerized analyses of these logging measurements provide reliable information for coal evaluation and associated mining operations. Properly applied well log analysis concepts allow a continuous, in-situ evaluation of coal seams including thickness, moisture, and ash content. Formation strength parameters (elastic rock constants such

J. Kowalski; W. H. Fertl

1977-01-01

454

Theory of equivalent artificial networks simulating the subsurface formations, and their application in electric well logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well logging is the basic source of continuous information, along the borehole axis, in evaluating oil and gas-bearing formations. Thus, the accuracy of well logging equipment is of utmost importance. In this paper an electric network is suggested for the calibration of electric well logging equipment and the examination of their accuracy and reliability. The electric connection between the downhole

Barlai

1979-01-01

455

ForPeerReview Interpretation of hydraulic rock types with resistivity logs in  

E-print Network

hydraulic rock types. Core data and well logs acquired from a deep-drilling exploration well penetratingForPeerReview Interpretation of hydraulic rock types with resistivity logs in Tertiary deepwater://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/interpretation Interpretation #12;ForPeerReview Interpretation of hydraulic rock types with resistivity logs in Tertiary

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

456

EARLY STAGES OF PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING LOGGING AND BURNING IN THE WESTERN CASCADES OF OREGON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative changes were documented for 7 years on permanent milacre plots located in three clearcut logged units in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Plant cover and composition were observed the year prior to logging the old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii forest, after logging but before burning, and during each of five growing seasons following broadcast slash burning. Total plant cover was

C. T. DYRNESS

457

Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest degradation by selective logging and forest fire in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective logging and forest fires have increased at a rapid pace in tropical regions in recent decades. Forest disturbances caused by selective logging and forest fires may vary in scale, ranging from local damage to forest canopy, habitats, soils, and biodiversity, to global changes caused by logging-related release of carbon into the atmosphere. This study provides a regional assessment of

Eraldo A. T. Matricardi

2007-01-01

458

When big trees fall: Damage and carbon export by reduced impact logging in southern Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined carbon export in whole logs and carbon accumulation as coarse woody debris (CWD) produced from forest damage during all phases of the first and second year of a certified reduced impact logging (RIL) timber harvest in southern Amazonia. Our measurements included a 100% survey of roads and log decks, assessment of canopy damage and ground disturbance in skid

Ted R. Feldpausch; Stefan Jirka; Carlos A. M. Passos; Franklin Jasper; Susan J. Riha

2005-01-01

459

Forest damage caused by selection logging of mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla) in northern Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the damage caused by selection logging of mahogany in a tropical forest in northern Belize and compared it with damage reported in other Neotropical logging and disturbance studies. We mapped skid roads and tree felling sites, and assessed soil compaction, loss of canopy cover, damage to saplings and trees, seedling survival and seedling height growth. Logging had been

Andrew A. Whitman; Nicholas V. L. Brokaw; John M. Hagan

1997-01-01

460

SEMI-AUTOMATED VIDEO LOGGING BY INCREMENTAL AND TRANSFER LEARNING Jongdae Kim and John Collomosse  

E-print Network

to reduce the logging burden further through automatic recogni- tion of objects in the real-time video stream. In this paper we describe a semi-automatic system for log- ging video in real-time using a touchSEMI-AUTOMATED VIDEO LOGGING BY INCREMENTAL AND TRANSFER LEARNING Jongdae Kim and John Collomosse

Collomosse, John

461

Petrophysical inversion of borehole array-induction logs: Part I --Numerical examples  

E-print Network

electromagnetic-induction logs with multiple radial lengths of investigation array-induction logs en- ablePetrophysical inversion of borehole array-induction logs: Part I -- Numerical examples Faruk O for the quantitative petrophysical evaluation of borehole array-induction measure- ments. The methodology is based

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

462

Web Log Mining Based On Fuzzy Immunity Clonal Selection Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web log mining is an important application of data mining and has been widely explored. In this paper, we propose a novel fuzzy immunity clonal selection neural network (FICSNN) algorithm and apply the fuzzy immunity clonal selection neural network to the process of mining web log. The rule set which is extracted from the web log by fuzzy immunity clonal

Zhenguo Chen

2007-01-01

463

Performance and Improved Design of the Log Spiral of Revolution Monochromator  

E-print Network

#12;Performance and Improved Design of the Log Spiral of Revolution Monochromator 1 9 1 1 ^ D Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 Abstract. We show that, whereas the present log spiral of revolution The log spiral of revolution (LSR), highly oriented graphite (HOPG) monochromator has proven

Frenkel, Anatoly

464

Corrections and Design Studies of Borehole Logging Tools with the help of Monte Carlo Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole logging tools are used for measuring a detailed record of a geological formation that is penetrated by a borehole. Values of interest of a geological formation are for example its density, chemical composition and porosity. Density of a formation can be measured using tools based on a chemical CS-137 gamma ray source. Porosity can be measured using a chemical AmBe neutron source. The resulting measurement of the tool, for example the density of a formation, has to be corrected for borehole influences such as borehole fluid or borehole size. These corrections depend on the individual tool design. The best way to calculate this vast number of corrections is using Monte-Carlo simulations. The software of choice is the MCNP5 package(1) . At Antares Datensysteme simulations are further used in pre design studies, to get the best physical layout of a tool.

Reinhardt, Heiko

2014-06-01

465

Genesis Analysis of High-Gamma Ray Sandstone Reservoir and Its Log Evaluation Techniques: A Case Study from the Junggar Basin, Northwest China  

PubMed Central

In the Junggar basin, northwest China, many high gamma-ray (GR) sandstone reservoirs are found and routinely interpreted as mudstone non-reservoirs, with negative implications for the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. Then, the high GR sandstone reservoirs' recognition principles, genesis, and log evaluation techniques are systematically studied. Studies show that the sandstone reservoirs with apparent shale content greater than 50% and GR value higher than 110API can be regarded as high GR sandstone reservoir. The high GR sandstone reservoir is mainly and directly caused by abnormally high uranium enrichment, but not the tuff, feldspar or clay mineral. Affected by formation's high water sensitivity and poor borehole quality, the conventional logs can not recognize reservoir and evaluate the physical property of reservoirs. Then, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs is proposed and proved to be useful in reservoir recognition and physical property evaluation. PMID:24078797

Wang, Liang; Mao, Zhiqiang; Sun, Zhongchun; Luo, Xingping; Song, Yong; Liu, Zhen

2013-01-01

466

Studies on log Po/w of quinoxaline di-N-oxides: a comparison of RP-HPLC experimental and predictive approaches.  

PubMed

As reported in our previous papers, a series of quinoxaline-2-carboxamide 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives were synthesized and studied as anti-tuberculosis agents. Here, the capability of the shake-flask method was studied and the retention time (expressed as log K) of 20 compounds were determined by RP-HPLC analysis. We found that the prediction of log P by the RP-HPLC analysis can result in a high accuracy and can replace the shake-flask method avoiding the experimental problems presented by quinoxaline di-N-oxides. The studied compounds were subjected to the ALOGPS module with the aim of comparing experimental log P(o/w) values and predicted data. Moreover, a preliminary in silico screening of the QSAR relationship was made confirming the influence of reduction peak potential, lipophilicity, H-bond donor capacity and molecular dimension descriptors on anti-tuberculosis activity. PMID:22143549

Moreno, Elsa; Gabano, Elisabetta; Torres, Enrique; Platts, James A; Ravera, Mauro; Aldana, Ignacio; Monge, Antonio; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia

2011-01-01

467

Genesis analysis of high-gamma ray sandstone reservoir and its log evaluation techniques: a case study from the Junggar basin, northwest China.  

PubMed

In the Junggar basin, northwest China, many high gamma-ray (GR) sandstone reservoirs are found and routinely interpreted as mudstone non-reservoirs, with negative implications for the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. Then, the high GR sandstone reservoirs' recognition principles, genesis, and log evaluation techniques are systematically studied. Studies show that the sandstone reservoirs with apparent shale content greater than 50% and GR value higher than 110API can be regarded as high GR sandstone reservoir. The high GR sandstone reservoir is mainly and directly caused by abnormally high uranium enrichment, but not the tuff, feldspar or clay mineral. Affected by formation's high water sensitivity and poor borehole quality, the conventional logs can not recognize reservoir and evaluate the physical property of reservoirs. Then, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs is proposed and proved to be useful in reservoir recognition and physical property evaluation. PMID:24078797

Wang, Liang; Mao, Zhiqiang; Sun, Zhongchun; Luo, Xingping; Song, Yong; Liu, Zhen

2013-01-01

468

78 FR 73206 - Logging Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information contained in the Logging Operations Standard are necessary...for each machine. Since the Logging Operations final rule has been in effect since 1995, OSHA assumes that...requirements contained in the Logging Operations Standard (29...

2013-12-05

469

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2011-07-01

470

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2013-07-01

471

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2014-07-01

472

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2012-07-01

473

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2010-07-01

474

Log spiral of revolution highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monochromator for fluorescence x-ray absorption edge fine structure  

E-print Network

Log spiral of revolution highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monochromator for fluorescence x based on a log spiral of revolution covered with highly oriented pyrolytic graphite developed a log spiral2 of revolution, graphite mono- chromator. This detector offers advantages

Frenkel, Anatoly

475

Discrimination of Radionuclides in High-Resolution Spectral Gamma Logging  

SciTech Connect

Since 1995, the Hanford Geophysical Logging Project has been performing high-resolution spectral gamma logging in steel-cased boreholes at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project has established a baseline of contamination conditions in the vicinity of the single-shell tank farms and recently began collecting data in boreholes associated with liquid waste disposal sites. Detection and quantification of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the subsurface is based on specific gamma energy lines between 185 and 2615 keV. Liquid waste sites in the vicinity of the Plutonium Finishing Plant are known to contain various transuranic radionuclides, primarily plutonium isotopes, Np-237, and Am-241. These are generally characterized as alpha emitters, but they do emit detectable gamma rays within the energy range of the spectral gamma logging system. The co-existence of several transuranic radionuclides presents analysis challenges because many gamma rays have similar energies (i.e., within 3 keV). Neutron activity may also be observed as a result of ({alpha}, n) interactions. Assessment of neutron activity and gamma energy spectra can provide information on the presence and concentration of transuranic radionuclides and may provide clues as to the chemical state of the waste. The presence of Am-241 presents a special problem in that shielding effects of the relatively thick steel borehole casing preclude detection of the characteristic gamma ray at 59.6 keV. A secondary gamma ray at 662.40 keV may be mistaken for Cs-137 (661.62 keV), which is commonly detected as a fission product or as an indicator of fallout from atmospheric weapons tests. Because of the large difference in gamma yields, this can lead to significant errors in contamination assessment. Strategies and lessons learned for the accurate identification and quantification of man-made radionuclides are presented. (authors)

Henwood, P.D.; McCain, R.G. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, 1100 Jadwin Avenue, Suite 300, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2006-07-01

476

Games of corruption: How to suppress illegal logging.  

PubMed

Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results. PMID:25451516

Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh

2015-02-21

477

Education, Values, and Valuing in Cosmopolitan Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe a cosmopolitan orientation toward the place of values in human life. We argue that a cosmopolitan outlook can assist people in engaging the challenges of being thrown together with others whose roots, traditions, and inheritances differ. We show that cosmopolitanism implies neither an elite nor an aloof posture toward…

Hansen, David T.; Burdick-Shepherd, Stephanie; Cammarano, Cristina; Obelleiro, Gonzalo

2009-01-01

478

What's the Value in Value-Added?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the profession of teaching continues to get more attention given recent events, a growing number of school districts from New York to California are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. The Teacher Incentive Fund has awarded 95 grants since…

Duffrin, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

479

Outcome Values and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the hypothesis that aggressive children attach more value to rewarding outcomes of aggression and less to negative outcomes than do nonaggressive children. Sex differences in outcome values were also examined. (PCB)

Boldizar, Janet P.; And Others

1989-01-01

480

High voltage supply for neutron tubes in well logging applications  

DOEpatents

A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The "biased pulse" supply of the invention combines DC and "full pulse" techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

Humphreys, D. Russell (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

481

Logging Burma's Frontier Forests: Resources and the Regime  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Resources Institute (WRI) created this site to promote the publication of the book under the same title. However, users will find ample information on Burma's forests and logging practices at this website. An introductory section describes the project's goals and main findings, and is accompanied by color graphics and tables. In the "Burma Interactive Maps" section, several clickable maps provide an in-depth view of forest cover for mainland Southeast Asia. A "Conclusion and Recommendations" section elaborates the authors' main points, and a compilation of selected resources rounds out the site.

482

WebLog Expert Lite 4.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you have a website designed to promote a collection of Louis XIV chaise lounges or just one to document your own life activities, this handy application will suit many different types of sites. WebLog Expert Lite 4.2 allows users to find out information about visitors to such sites, including how they got there and which operating systems that were using. The program also produces simple HTML reports, complete with tables and charts. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.

2007-01-01

483

Identifying Extreme Exposure Values  

Cancer.gov

There are various perspectives on whether to exclude potentially unlikely exposure values. If the researcher chooses to do so, several approaches exist for identifying extreme values. We examined the plausibility of the reported frequencies for each food item in the NHANES 2009-10 DSQ and chose to exclude extreme values using a method that identifies them based on the actual distribution of the sample, but also minimizes the number of values excluded.

484

Place Value Rocks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play these educational math games and test your knowledge of Place Value! Can you use Place Value Blocks to help you represent different digits? Test your ability to write out given numbers into sentences with Cookies! How sharp are your place value skills? Test your knowledge with Golfing with numbers!! Be the hero of the day as you practice place value skills in the Lifeguard game! Reveal the ...

Ms.roberts

2009-03-04

485

EFFECTS OF LITHOLOGY ON TELEVIEWER-LOG QUALITY AND FRACTURE INTERPRETATION.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Representative televiewer logs illustrating natural fractures in such common rock types as granite, gabbro, basalt, schist, sandstone, limestone and shale are presented in addition to photographs of the same fractures in core samples. These examples demonstrate the many difficulties in recognizing fractures on televiewer logs compared to fractures in logs because of the vertical scale distortion on televiewer logs and from drilling damage to the fractures at the borehole wall. All of these results demonstrate that significant fracture widening usually occurs during drilling, explaining why fractures described by the core logger as closed can be consistently detected on televiewer logs.

Paillet, F.L.; Keys, W.S.; Hess, A.E.

1985-01-01

486

A novel method for quantitative geosteering using azimuthal gamma-ray logging.  

PubMed

A novel method for quantitative geosteering by using azimuthal gamma-ray logging is proposed. Real-time up and bottom gamma-ray logs when a logging tool travels through a boundary surface with different relative dip angles are simulated with the Monte Carlo method. Study results show that response points of up and bottom gamma-ray logs when the logging tool moves towards a highly radioactive formation can be used to predict the relative dip angle, and then the distance from the drilling bit to the boundary surface is calculated. PMID:25479436

Yuan, Chao; Zhou, Cancan; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Song; Li, Chaoliu

2015-02-01

487

Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516  

SciTech Connect

Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2013-07-01

488

Values and Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does extrinsic motivation inhibit or foster creativity? Whereas previous researchers examined the effects of externally controlled extrinsic motivation on creativity, we focus on the effects of self-determined extrinsic motivation arising from one's personally held core values. In this study, we present a theoretical argument which predicts that (a) creative behavior is fostered by certain value types, inhibited by other value

Joseph Kasof; Chuansheng Chen; Amy Himsel; Ellen Greenberger

2007-01-01

489

From Values to \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mella, par. 1-4) Strictly speaking, firms are considered as systems for the creation of economic and financial value for their shareholders, and their performance - profit and the value of capital - is measured by a coherent system of monetary values. Nevertheless, if we do not limit our view to simply the shareholders but consider instead a vast group of

Patrizia Gazzola; Piero Mella

490

Summer Place Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play some fun games with your new place value skills Match the number words to the standard form to find the place value mystery picture. Can you solve the place value puzzler? Click on easy and follow the instructions. Check your score after the picture is shown. How many tries did it take you to be able to see the picture. If it ...

Korth, Mrs.

2009-07-27

491

Values Drive the Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

Cook, Les P.

2010-01-01

492

Values in Further Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

Halliday, John, Ed.

493

Emergy and Nonmarket Value  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

494

Values in the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching for values instead of knowledge would significantly change education. Could the psychosocial values of goodness, beauty, search for truth, social organization, and economics be rank ordered? Can and how should such life-survival values as health, sex, aggression and self-defense, language, and love be taught in school? (Author/SB)

Wees, W. R.

1980-01-01

495

Multicriteria evaluation of simulated logging scenarios in a tropical rain forest.  

PubMed

Forest growth models are useful tools for investigating the long-term impacts of logging. In this paper, the results of the rain forest growth model FORMIND were assessed by a multicriteria decision analysis. The main processes covered by FORMIND include tree growth, mortality, regeneration and competition. Tree growth is calculated based on a carbon balance approach. Trees compete for light and space; dying large trees fall down and create gaps in the forest. Sixty-four different logging scenarios for an initially undisturbed forest stand at Deramakot (Malaysia) were simulated. The scenarios differ regarding the logging cycle, logging method, cutting limit and logging intensity. We characterise the impacts with four criteria describing the yield, canopy opening and changes in species composition. Multicriteria decision analysis was used for the first time to evaluate the scenarios and identify the efficient ones. Our results plainly show that reduced-impact logging scenarios are more 'efficient' than the others, since in these scenarios forest damage is minimised without significantly reducing yield. Nevertheless, there is a trade-off between yield and achieving a desired ecological state of logged forest; the ecological state of the logged forests can only be improved by reducing yields and enlarging the logging cycles. Our study also demonstrates that high cutting limits or low logging intensities cannot compensate for the high level of damage caused by conventional logging techniques. PMID:15217720

Huth, Andreas; Drechsler, Martin; Köhler, Peter

2004-07-01

496

Ethanol and ambrosia beetles in Douglas fir logs with and without branches.  

PubMed

November-felled Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) logs with and without branches were left lying on the forest floor through August. In May, as the logs were being colonized by ambrosia beetles,Trypodendron lineatum (Oliv.) andGnathotrichus retusus (LeConte), the ethanol, acetaldehyde, and water concentrations in the delimbed logs were significantly higher than in the branched logs. Since both log types received the same rainfall, lower water contents in branched logs was probably the result of absorbed water being transported through the branches via capillary movement and evaporation. Lower tissue water levels could have prevented the establishment and maintenance of anaerobic conditions, thus limiting the synthesis of acetaldehyde and ethanol in the branched logs. By late August, the beetle densities in delimbed logs were 9-16 times greater than in the branched logs. Log ethanol concentrations could be a key chemical factor affecting the ambrosia beetle attack densities. Acetaldehyde concentrations in the logs also may have affected the attack densities. PMID:24241994

Kelsey, R G

1994-12-01

497

Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin  

SciTech Connect

Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs.

Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

1985-09-01

498

Assessment of geophysical logs from borehole USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Commercial logging contractors, Western Atlas, Schlumberger, and Edcon obtained borehole geophysical logs at the site of a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drill hole USW-G2 was picked for this test of suitable logging tools and logging technology, both representing state-of-the-art technology by these commercial companies. Experience gained by analysis of existing core data and a variety of logs obtained earlier by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas served as a guide to a choice of logs to be obtained. Logs were obtained in water-filled borehole in zeolitized tuff (saturated zone) and in air-filled borehole largely in unaltered welded tuff (unsaturated zone).

Nelson, P.H. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Schimschal, U. [Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)

1993-05-01

499

Precipitation Follows the Logging in the Amazon Basin: Interpretation of the CAM3-CLM3 Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of logging on precipitation in the Amazon region is investigated based on numerical experiments using the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 coupled with the Community land surface model version 3 (CAM3-CLM3). Three different representations of logging are examined, each corresponding to a different type of logging (ranging from selective logging, clear cut to half-forest-clearing). Results show that precipitation increases in response to the logging representation that corresponds to selective-logging and decreases in response to the other two. Further experiments indicate that the increase of precipitation following selective logging is due to the decrease of surface albedo, resulting from the lower-than-observed contrast between bare soil albedo and vegetation canopy albedo in CLM3. This study demonstrates the complexity of representing land cover changes in climate models, and underlines the importance of accuracy in albedo measurement from satellite remote sensing.

Mei, R.; Wang, G.

2008-12-01

500

Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7 do not include long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous-potential, or single-point resistivity. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7A include only caliper and natural-gamma logs.

Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

1991-01-01