Science.gov

Sample records for log koc values

  1. Dissolved Concentrations of PAHs and PCBs Are Often Over-predicted Using Sediment Concentrations and Literature Koc Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing amount of chemical and biological evidence that using sediment concentrations and commonly applied Koc values frequently overpredicts interstitial water concentrations of HOCs, and thereby overestimates uptake and/or effects of those chemicals on exposed or...

  2. Extended sorption partitioning models for pesticide leaching risk assessments: Can we improve upon the koc concept?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Models used to assess leaching of pesticides to groundwater still rely on the sorption koc value, even though its limitations have been known for several decades, especially for soils of low organic carbon content (i.e. subsoils). This is mainly because the general applicability of any improved model approach that is also simple enough to use for regulatory purposes has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to test and compare alternative models of sorption that could be useful in pesticide risk assessment and management. To this end, a database containing the results of batch sorption experiments for pesticides was compiled from published studies in the literature, which placed at least as much emphasis on measurements in subsoil horizons as in topsoil. The database includes 785 data entries from 34 different published studies and for 21 different active substances. Overall, the apparent koc value, koc(app), roughly doubled as the soil organic carbon content decreased by a factor of ten. Nevertheless, in nearly half of the individual datasets, a constant koc value proved to be an adequate model. Further analysis showed that significant increases in koc(app) in subsoil were found primarily for the more weakly adsorbing compounds (koc valueskoc concept currently used in leaching models should therefore be replaced by an alternative approach that gives a more realistic representation of pesticide sorption in subsoil. The two alternative models tested in this study appear to have widespread applicability and are also simple enough to parameterize for this purpose. PMID:26363724

  3. Statistical external validation and consensus modeling: a QSPR case study for Koc prediction.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Giani, Elisa; Papa, Ester

    2007-03-01

    The soil sorption partition coefficient (log K(oc)) of a heterogeneous set of 643 organic non-ionic compounds, with a range of more than 6 log units, is predicted by a statistically validated QSAR modeling approach. The applied multiple linear regression (ordinary least squares, OLS) is based on a variety of theoretical molecular descriptors selected by the genetic algorithms-variable subset selection (GA-VSS) procedure. The models were validated for predictivity by different internal and external validation approaches. For external validation we applied self organizing maps (SOM) to split the original data set: the best four-dimensional model, developed on a reduced training set of 93 chemicals, has a predictivity of 78% when applied on 550 validation chemicals (prediction set). The selected molecular descriptors, which could be interpreted through their mechanistic meaning, were compared with the more common physico-chemical descriptors log K(ow) and log S(w). The chemical applicability domain of each model was verified by the leverage approach in order to propose only reliable data. The best predicted data were obtained by consensus modeling from 10 different models in the genetic algorithm model population. PMID:16890002

  4. The value of rehabilitating logged rainforest for birds.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Ansell, Felicity A; Ahmad, Abdul H; Nilus, Reuben; Hamer, Keith C

    2009-12-01

    The recent advent of carbon crediting has led to a rapid rise in biosequestration projects that seek to remove carbon from the atmosphere through afforestation and forest rehabilitation. Such projects also present an important potential opportunity to reverse biodiversity losses resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, but the biodiversity benefits of different forms of biosequestration have not been considered adequately. We captured birds in mist nets to examine the effects of rehabilitation of logged forest on birds in Sabah, Borneo, and to test the hypothesis that rehabilitation restores avian assemblages within regenerating forest to a condition closer to that seen in unlogged forest. Species richness and diversity were similar in unlogged and rehabilitated forest, but significantly lower in naturally regenerating forest. Rehabilitation resulted in a relatively rapid recovery of populations of insectivores within logged forest, especially those species that forage by sallying, but had a marked adverse effect on frugivores and possibly reduced the overall abundance of birds within regenerating forest. In view of these results, we advocate increased management for heterogeneity within rehabilitated forests, but we strongly urge an increased role for forest rehabilitation in the design and implementation of a biodiversity-friendly carbon-offsetting market. PMID:19775274

  5. On the hydrophobicity of peptides: Comparing empirical predictions of peptide log P values.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sarah J; Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Holliday, John D; Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    Peptides are of great therapeutic potential as vaccines and drugs. Knowledge of physicochemical descriptors, including the partition coefficient logP, is useful for the development of predictive Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs). We have investigated the accuracy of available programs for the prediction of logP values for peptides with known experimental values obtained from the literature. Eight prediction programs were tested, of which seven programs were fragment-based methods: XLogP, LogKow, PLogP, ACDLogP, AlogP, Interactive Analysis's LogP and MlogP; and one program used a whole molecule approach: QikProp. The predictive accuracy of the programs was assessed using r(2) values, with ALogP being the most effective (r( 2) = 0.822) and MLogP the least (r(2) = 0.090). We also examined three distinct types of peptide structure: blocked, unblocked, and cyclic. For each study (all peptides, blocked, unblocked and cyclic peptides) the performance of programs rated from best to worse is as follows: all peptides - ALogP, QikProp, PLogP, XLogP, IALogP, LogKow, ACDLogP, and MlogP; blocked peptides - PLogP, XLogP, ACDLogP, IALogP, LogKow, QikProp, ALogP, and MLogP; unblocked peptides - QikProp, IALogP, ALogP, ACDLogP, MLogP, XLogP, LogKow and PLogP; cyclic peptides - LogKow, ALogP, XLogP, MLogP, QikProp, ACDLogP, IALogP. In summary, all programs gave better predictions for blocked peptides, while, in general, logP values for cyclic peptides were under-predicted and those of unblocked peptides were over-predicted. PMID:17597897

  6. INCREASING THE ACCURACY OF COMPUTER CALCULATED LOG P (OCT/WATER) VALUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like many "expert systems," the CLOGP program incorporates a set of empirically derived rules which are supported by accepted theoretical concepts but which cannot be derived directly from these concepts. igher log P values are expected whenever a larger effective solute cavity i...

  7. Deriving TDS values in coarse sediments from long normal and electromagnetic logs.

    PubMed

    Van Meir, Nathalie; Lebbe, Luc

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical relationship of quantitatively linked electromagnetic (EM) borehole recordings of the total dissolved solids (TDS) in pore water in the Quaternary deposits of the Belgian coastal plain. First, the long normal (LN) logs are linked to EM logs, then the already developed relationships between LN resistivity measurements and the TDS values are rewritten for EM recordings. The main parameter in these equations is the formation factor, which is derived from ground water analyses and LN logs through Archie's law. The EM recording has several advantages compared to the LN logs. The EM analysis allows measuring in PVC-cased wells and is not hindered by the invasion zone around the well. Furthermore, it has a high vertical resolution. LN logs can be measured only once, after drilling a well; EM recordings can be repeated several times in monitoring wells, which allows the gathering of time-dependent data over a complete vertical cross section. Such data could be obtained with LN logs only in wells with screens over the full-depth interval, which causes a hydraulic short circuit. This short circuit can result in a large artificial flow through the well between different levels, resulting in a salinity profile, which is no longer representative for the studied site. Remediation against short circuiting is a reduction of the screened interval, which strongly reduces the gathered information. The application of the derived equations is one of setting up a monitoring network along the Belgian coast to monitor the trend in salinity levels and comparing present salinity levels with older LN recordings to investigate the salinity changes in the last 30 years. Deep wells already present in the Belgiancoastal plain can then be used to monitor both the fresh water head changes and the salt water evolution. The technique has also been used for parameter identification for which real concentration measurements were needed. PMID:12533073

  8. Is Log Ratio a Good Value for Measuring Return in Stock Investments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ultsch, Alfred

    Measuring the rate of return is an important issue for theory and practice of investments in the stock market. A common measure for rate of return is the logarithm of the ratio of successive prices (LogRatio). In this paper it is shown that LogRatio as well as arithmetic return rate (Ratio) have several disadvantages. As an alternative relative differences (RelDiff) are proposed to measure return. The stability against numerical and rounding errors of RelDiff is much better than for LogRatios and Ratio). RelDiff values are identical to LogRatios and Return for small absolutes. The usage of RelDiff maps returns to a finite range. For most subsequent analyses this is a big advantage. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated on daily return rates of a large set of actual stocks. It is shown that returns can be modeled with a very simple mixture of distributions in great precision using Relative differences.

  9. Evaluation of the ?+-decay log ft value with inclusion of the neutron-proton pairing and particle-number projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrouchi, S.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutron-proton isovector pairing effect on the beta-plus decay log ft values is studied in typical mirror N?Z nuclei. The log ft values are calculated by including or not the isovector pairing before and after a particle-number projection using the Sharp-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (SBCS) method. It is shown that the values obtained after projection in the isovector pairing case are the closest ones to experimental data. The effect of the deformation of the mother and daughter nuclei on the log ft is also studied.

  10. Detection Method of the Remaining Files Based on Logs Regarding Changed Directory and Hash Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    There are a lot of information leakages because the files are copied from the removable storage medium and are left in the storage unit of personal computer without deleting. In order to prevent human mistakes, this paper proposes a method for detecting the remaining files copied from the removable storage medium. The proposed method records logs regarding changed information registering in a directory that is management list of files in storage unit and the hash values of file contents. The remaining files are detected when the removable storage medium removes from the personal computer, and they are displayed on the monitor. The detection processing works in five steps. First, copy operation toward file is detected by tracing the sequence of logs. Secondly, files copied from the removable storage medium are distinguished based on hash values. Thirdly, file operation and folder operation to copied files are distinguished. Fourthly, the deletion operation against the copied file is detected by using file name and path matching. Finally, file name and path using for tracing are changed according to folder operation. In case of the deletion operation is not found, it is judged that copied files are remaining. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the storage unit.

  11. VARIATION OF KOC IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM NARRAGANSETT BAY AND LONG ISLAND SOUND: ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF OTHER PARTICULATE CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the first part of this investigation, we examined whether differences in the Kocs of three nonpolar organic chemicals (Lindane, fluoranthene, tetrachlorinated biphenyl (PCB)) from five sites along the New England coast were statistically significant. Although no statistical di...

  12. Deriving Criteria-supporting Benchmark Values from Empirical Response Relationships: Comparison of Statistical Techniques and Effect of Log-transforming the Nutrient Variable

    EPA Science Inventory

    In analyses supporting the development of numeric nutrient criteria, multiple statistical techniques can be used to extract critical values from stressor response relationships. However there is little guidance for choosing among techniques, and the extent to which log-transfor...

  13. Modelling pathogen log10 reduction values achieved by activated sludge treatment using nave and semi nave Bayes network models.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guido; Roser, David J; Sisson, Scott A; Keegan, Alexandra; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-11-15

    Risk management for wastewater treatment and reuse have led to growing interest in understanding and optimising pathogen reduction during biological treatment processes. However, modelling pathogen reduction is often limited by poor characterization of the relationships between variables and incomplete knowledge of removal mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the applicability of Bayesian belief network models to represent associations between pathogen reduction, and operating conditions and monitoring parameters and predict AS performance. Nave Bayes and semi-nave Bayes networks were constructed from an activated sludge dataset including operating and monitoring parameters, and removal efficiencies for two pathogens (native Giardia lamblia and seeded Cryptosporidium parvum) and five native microbial indicators (F-RNA bacteriophage, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci). First we defined the Bayesian network structures for the two pathogen log10 reduction values (LRVs) class nodes discretized into two states (< and ? 1 LRV) using two different learning algorithms. Eight metrics, such as Prediction Accuracy (PA) and Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC), provided a comparison of model prediction performance, certainty and goodness of fit. This comparison was used to select the optimum models. The optimum Tree Augmented nave models predicted removal efficiency with high AUC when all system parameters were used simultaneously (AUCs for C. parvum and G. lamblia LRVs of 0.95 and 0.87 respectively). However, metrics for individual system parameters showed only the C. parvum model was reliable. By contrast individual parameters for G. lamblia LRV prediction typically obtained low AUC scores (AUC < 0.81). Useful predictors for C. parvum LRV included solids retention time, turbidity and total coliform LRV. The methodology developed appears applicable for predicting pathogen removal efficiency in water treatment systems generally. PMID:26342914

  14. Improved log(gf) Values for Lines of Ni I and New Nickel Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    New atomic transition probability measurements for 371 lines of Ni I in the UV through near IR are reported. These results are used to determine the Ni abundance of the Sun and a very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff dwarf star over a range of wavelength and E. P. values to search for non-LTE effects. For reasons only partially understood, strong lines of Ni I are unusually prone to optical depth errors in emission studies on laboratory sources. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine these new transition probabilities. The large echelle spectrometer provides essential UV sensitivity, spectral resolution, and especially freedom from multiplex noise that is needed to eliminate optical depth errors. There is quite good agreement with earlier, but less extensive, sets of measurements by Blackwell et al. (MNRAS 1989, 236, 235) and Wickliffe & Lawler (ApJS 1997 110, 1163). The new Ni I data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate nickel abundances. In the Sun we find log(eps(Ni I)) = 6.28 (sigma = 0.06, 75 lines) and in HD 84937 we find we find log(eps(Ni I)) = 3.89 (sigma = 0.09, 77 lines), yielding [Ni/Fe] = -0.08 from log(eps(Fe)) = 7.52 in the Sun and log(eps(Fe)) = 5.19 in HD 84937. The Saha balance of Ni in HD 84937 is confirmed using 8 lines of Ni II, although these UV ion lines are somewhat saturated. This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (JEL) and NSF grants AST-0908978 and AST-1211585 (CS).

  15. Transaction Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management

  16. Rare variant collapsing in conjunction with mean log p-value and gradient boosting approaches applied to Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In addition to methods that can identify common variants associated with susceptibility to common diseases, there has been increasing interest in approaches that can identify rare genetic variants. We use the simulated data provided to the participants of Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) to identify both rare and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms and pathways associated with disease status. We apply a rare variant collapsing approach and the usual association tests for common variants to identify candidates for further analysis using pathway-based and tree-based ensemble approaches. We use the mean log p-value approach to identify a top set of pathways and compare it to those used in simulation of GAW17 dataset. We conclude that the mean log p-value approach is able to identify those pathways in the top list and also related pathways. We also use the stochastic gradient boosting approach for the selected subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. When compared the result of this tree-based method with the list of single-nucleotide polymorphisms used in dataset simulation, in addition to correct SNPs we observe number of false positives. PMID:22373203

  17. Improved Co I log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 898 lines of the first spectrum of cobalt (Co i) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak, AZ and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. Published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements are combined with the branching fractions to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 898 lines. Hyperfine structure (hfs) constants for levels of neutral Co in the literature are surveyed and selected values are used to generate complete hfs component patterns for 195 transitions of Co i. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Co abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ?(Co) = 4.955 0.007 (? = 0.059) based on 82 Co i lines and log ?(Co) = 2.785 0.008 (? = 0.065) based on 66 Co i lines, respectively. A Saha or ionization balance test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is performed using 16 UV lines of Co ii, and good agreement is found with the Co i result in this metal-poor ([Fe i/H] = -2.32, [Fe ii/H] = -2.32) dwarf star. The resulting value of [Co/Fe] = +0.14 supports a rise of Co/Fe at low metallicity that has been suggested in other studies.

  18. IMPROVED V I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu E-mail: tfeigenson@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ε(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ε(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  19. Improved log(gf) Values for Lines of Ti II and New Titanium Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    New atomic transition probability measurements for 364 lines of Ti II in the UV through near IR are reported. These results are used to determine the Ti abundance of the Sun and a very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff dwarf star over a range of wavelength and E. P. values to search for non-LTE effects. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine these new transition probabilities. The new results are in generally good agreement with previously reported FTS measurements and the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The use of a new echelle spectrometer, new radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines allows for a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainties over previous measurements. This work represents the largest and most complete single source of Ti II transition probabilities to date in this wavelength range. The new Ti II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate titanium abundances. We use 36 lines from the solar photosphere to derive log(?(Ti))=4.98 (?=0.03), in good agreement with the recommended Ti abundance from previous solar abundance reviews and in very good agreement with our solar abundance derived using Ti I. For HD 84937, a preliminary analysis with a subset of available Ti II lines yields log(?(Ti))=3.12 (?=0.04, 19 lines), or [Ti/H]=-1.86, also in very good agreement with our abundance derived using Ti I. This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AN93G and NSF grant AST-1211055 (JEL) and NSF grants AST-0908978 and AST-1211585 (CS).

  20. IMPROVED V II log(gf) VALUES, HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS, AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2014-10-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ε(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = –2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  1. Thermal conditions of the central Sinai Microplate inferred from new surface heat-flow values and continuous borehole temperature logging in central and southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schtz, F.; Frster, H.-J.; Frster, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports ten new surface heat-flow density (qs) values for central and southern Israel (central Sinai Microplate), whose crystalline crust and lithosphere formed as part of the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield. Heat flow was calculated in Mesozoic sediments using the classical approach of heat-flow determination by implementing in the analysis high-precision continuous temperature logs obtained in air- and/or water-filled boreholes. Thermal conductivity (TC) measured for a large suite of rock samples of lithotypes making up the sequence was assigned to temperature gradients in intervals for which the lithology was known. The heat-flow values obtained for different depth intervals in a borehole as well as the average values for the individual borehole locations cover a narrow range, attesting heat-conduction conditions. A steady-state thermal model along an E-W crustal cross section through the area shows that the observed systematic spatial distribution of the qs values, which range between 50 and 62 mW m-2, can primarily be explained by variations in the thickness of the upper crust and in the ratio between sedimentary and crystalline rocks therein. Given the time lapse of thermal heat transfer through the lithosphere, the qs data monitor the crustal thermal conditions prior to rift- and plume-related lithospheric thermal perturbations that have started in the larger area ca. 30 Ma ago. Observed and modeled qs display the best fit for a pre-Oligocene lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 150 km, which would be at the upper end of LAB depths determined from stable areas of the Arabian Shield (150-120 km) not affected by the young, deep-seated thermal processes that have caused a further uprise of the LAB. Our data imply or predict that the surface heat flow of the Sinai Microplate generally tends to increase along N-S and W-E traverses, from 45-50 mW m-2 to 55-60 mW m-2. Surface heat flows on the order of 55-60 mW m-2 may be common in the northern Arabian Shield, where it exhibits typical lithosphere structure and composition and is unaffected by young heating processes, compared to values of ?45 mW m-2 recently determined in the southern Arabian Plate for the Arabian Platform.

  2. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography: a new simple tool for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends and for the rapid estimation of their logP values.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, Rossella; Bertaso, Anna; Pascali, Jennifer; Sorio, Daniela; Musile, Giacomo; Trapani, Elisa; Seri, Catia; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Tagliaro, Franco

    2012-12-01

    For the first time a capillary separation based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with diode array detection (DAD) was developed and validated for the rapid determination of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends. Separations were carried out on a 30 ?m(ID) 40 cm uncoated fused silica capillaries. The optimized buffer electrolyte was composed of 25 mM sodium tetraborate pH 8.0, 30 mM SDS and n-propanol 20% (v/v). Separations were performed at 30 kV. Sample injection conditions were 0.5 psi, 10s. Diazepam and JWH-015 were used as internal standards. The determination of the analytes was based on the UV signal recorded at 220 nm, corresponding to the maximum wavelength of absorbance of the molecules, whereas peak identification and purity check were also performed on the basis of the acquisition of UV spectra between 200 and 400 nm wavelengths. Under the described conditions, the separation of the compounds was achieved in 25 min without any significant interference from the matrix. Linearity was assessed within a concentration range from 5 to 100 ?g/mL. The intra-day and inter-day imprecision values were below 2.45% for relative migration times and below 10.75% for relative peak areas. The present method was successfully applied to the direct determination of synthetic cannabinoids in 15 different herbal blend samples requiring only sample dilution. In addition, the developed MEKC separation was also applied to estimate the octanol/water partition coefficients (logP) of these new and poorly known molecules. PMID:23022243

  3. Improved log(gf) Values for Lines of V I and V II, New Vanadium Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Feigenson, Thomas; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) and 203 lines of V II are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with new radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for 1039 lines of V I and V II. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for both spectra. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ?(V) = 3.96 (? = 0.04) based on 93 V I lines and log ?(V) = 1.89 (? = 0.07) based on nine V I lines respectively, and yielding log ?(V) = 3.95 (? = 0.05) based on 15 V II lines and log ?(V) = 1.87 (? = 0.07) based on 68 V II lines respectively1-3.1. Wood et al., ApJS 214:18 (2014), 2. Den Hartog et al. ApJS in press (2014), 3. Lawler et al. ApJS submitted (2014). This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (JEL), NSF AST-1211055 (EDH & JEL), and NSF AST-1211585 (CS).

  4. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  5. Log-Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the log file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.

  6. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  7. Public Report on Health: Development of a Nutritive Value Calculator for Indian Foods and Analysis of Food Logs and Nutrient Intake in six States

    PubMed Central

    Sathyamala, C; Kurian, NJ; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, KB; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Method: Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Results: Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. Discussion: The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that food security in the villages studied is far from achieved. It is hoped that the new Food Security Ordinance will make a dent in the situation. The calculator for computing nutrients of foods consumed which we developed based on the ICMR defined nutrient values for Indian foods has been made available as freeware on the internet. This is with the hope that more such studies can be carried out at the household level. PMID:24995224

  8. LogScope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  9. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  10. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  11. Discerning Data-Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    Offers some strategies for enabling science teachers to make better use of data-logging methods. These ideas are grounded in the belief that science teachers are expert lesson planners. Benefits gained for students using data-logging techniques are more likely to be secured through teachers re-interpreting their planning approaches in the new

  12. Log-Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the logmore » file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.« less

  13. Digital mineral logging system

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.B.

    1980-10-14

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both.

  14. Digital mineral logging system

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.B.

    1980-10-14

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquistion of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both.

  15. Blood Glucose Log

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Of ThiS page. If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  16. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  17. NMR logging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  18. Log smoldering after an amazonian deforestation fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabelo, E. R. C.; Veras, C. A. G.; Carvalho, J. A.; Alvarado, E. C.; Sandberg, D. V.; Santos, J. C.

    The characteristics of log smoldering after an Amazonian deforestation fire are described. The experiment was carried out in 2001 at the Caiabi farm, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, as part of a set of tests that have been performed in the same area since 1997. A 200200 m 2 test area was slashed in the beginning of June and burned on 20 August. The area contained 507 logs with diameter at breast height (DBH) higher than 10 cm, per hectare. In the day following the main burn 59 logs were found to remain smoldering, a number that corresponds to 2.9% of the total in the area. We chose 11 of the 59 logs to have their smoldering process monitored. Their diameter, moisture content and CHN dry biomass composition after the plot burn and before smoldering were determined. Other parameters such as temperature distribution while smoldering, porosity, density and mass volatilized during thermogravimetric test were also determined. Average smoldering speeds were in the range from 0.8 to 1.5 cm h -1 for logs that smoldered without transition to the flaming regime. The average speed increased to 2.1 cm h -1 for those logs that oscillated between smoldering and flaming. The speeds were lower overnight as compared to values determined during daytime for the same log. Higher log moisture contents were found to produce decreased speeds. Micro-porous biomass was not observed in the set of the 11 selected logs. Smoldering was observed to occur at substantial intensity in crossing of logs, with no longitudinal propagation.

  19. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  20. Modes of log gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Rosseel, Jan; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-05-15

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional 'critical gravity', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All 'log mode' solutions, which we categorize as 'spin-2' or 'Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin-2 log mode is itself a 'nongauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

  1. Logs Perl Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  2. Borehole Geophysical Logging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

  3. Engineered Log Jam

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Engineered Log Jam on the lower river opposite the new Lower Klallam Tribe Fish Hatchery. The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe project creates salmon habitat on the lower Elwha River in preparation for dam removal and habitat restoration....

  4. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science

  5. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,

  6. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  7. 2. Onroom log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), tworoom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. On-room log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), two-room log cabin (left), and post-and-beam garage (background). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. 12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in the main channel of the Hudson River. The log chute in the dam can be seen in the background. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  9. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  10. My Journey with Learning Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Learning logs, or reading response logs, have long been established as an effective reading strategy that helps students learn from text (Atwell, 1987; Blough & Berman, 1991; Calkins, 1986; Commander & Smith, 1996; Kuhrt & Farris, 1990; Reed, 1988; Sanders, 1985). In this paper, the author describes her experiences using learning logs as a

  11. Rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink B.; Yang, Shiping

    1997-07-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes current research regarding the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. An economic study conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and the thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction time necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has shown that durable coal logs can be made with a 30 second compaction time. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of faster compaction times on coal log performance and the effect of coal mixture moisture content on the performance of rapidly compacted coal logs.

  12. Log evaluation of oil-bearing igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Khatchikian, A.

    1983-12-01

    The evaluation of porosity, water saturation and clay content of oilbearing igneous rocks with well logs is difficult due to the mineralogical complexity of this type of rocks. The log responses to rhyolite and rhyolite tuff; andesite, dacite and zeolite tuff; diabase and basalt have been studied from examples in western Argentina and compared with values observed in other countries. Several field examples show how these log responses can be used in a complex lithology program to make a complete evaluation.

  13. Heavy-tailed log hydraulic conductivity distributions imply heavy-tailed log velocity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlbecker, Matthew V.; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2006-04-01

    Equations of contaminant transport describing non-Gaussian dispersion of solute in heterogeneous porous media have been developed by several authors (e.g., Berkowitz and Scher (1995, 1998), Benson (1998, 2001), Berkowitz et al. (2000), and Baeumer et al. (2005)). The equations assume that solute particle movement in time and/or space can be described by heavy-tailed probability distributions (e.g., Levy ? stable distributions). This assumption requires a mechanism for solute particles to move through heterogeneous porous media in a manner that can be approximated with heavy-tailed probability distributions. This work investigates whether a heavy-tailed Levy ? stable distribution of increments in log hydraulic conductivity results in a heavy-tailed distribution of increments in log velocity; a heavy-tailed distribution of increments in log velocity would be a mechanism for solute particle movement in time or space that can be described by a heavy-tailed probability distribution. A computer algorithm was written to generate realistic hydraulic conductivity fields. The algorithm modifies the spectral synthesis method for generating fractional Brownian motion (i.e., Saupe (1988) and Brewer and Wheatcraft (1994)) and produces self-similar hydraulic conductivity fields with a heavy-tailed Levy ? stable distribution of increments in log hydraulic conductivity. A Monte Carlo approach was adopted in which 100 hydraulic conductivity fields were generated for each of the following values of ?: 0.8, 1.1, 1.4, and 1.7. The USGS finite difference groundwater code MODFLOW was used to calculate the velocity fields, and the increments in longitudinal log hydraulic conductivity and log velocity from the fields were analyzed to determine whether they were consistent with a heavy-tailed Levy ? stable probability density function (PDF). After determining that the distributions of increments in log hydraulic conductivity and log velocity were consistent with a Levy ? stable PDF, the tail parameters describing each pair of hydraulic conductivity and velocity fields were estimated with the Nolan (1997) maximum likelihood estimator. The relationship between the two tail parameters was then determined. There are three conclusions of this research. First, Mandelbrot and PP plots confirm that Levy ? stable distributions of increments in log hydraulic conductivity give rise to Levy ? stable distributions of increments in log velocity. Second, the tail parameter ? for the increments in log velocity is typically smaller, indicating a heavier probability tail, than the corresponding tail parameter for the increments in log hydraulic conductivity. Third, there is a positive statistical relation between the two tail parameters.

  14. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  15. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  16. Terminology Extraction from Log Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

    The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

  17. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  19. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  20. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  1. Coal log abrasion in pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Cheng, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    Coal log pipeline (CLP) is an emerging technology for long-distance transportation of coal that has many potential advantages over conventional modes of coal transportation including truck, unit train, and slurry pipelines. For CLP to be technically and economically feasible, the coal logs must be water-resistant and wear-resistant. No more than 3% of weight loss due to wear can be tolerated during pipeline transport. This paper gives data that suggest that such logs can be produced by compaction in a mold. Various factors that affect coal-log wear resistance are described, and methods to produce high-quality logs are discussed. Both laboratory and field tests data are used.

  2. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, W.

    1998-07-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction time necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content (Gunnink and Yang, 1997). For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication. The authors hypothesize that an alternative to drying coal exists. If the coal logs are to be made at mix moisture contents that are above the optimum value, then coal log quality can be maintained if the compaction time is increased. In fact, the authors believe that if compaction time is increased such that the bulk density and moisture content of the compacted coal logs are the same, then the circulation performance of the coal logs will be the same. In this paper, some of the results of experiments designed to test this hypothesis are presented. Preliminary results indicate that the hypothesis is valid.

  3. Interpretation of geophysical well logs in permafrost. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.H.; Petersen, J.K.; Osterkamp, T.E.; Kawasaki, K.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a collection of information on the interpretation of well logs and borehole geophysical surveys in permafrost. The body of the report is preceded by an executive summary that gives the highlights of the report in condensed form. The introductory chapter contains background information that is fundamental to the understanding of well log applications in permafrost, including definitions and descriptions of well logs, permafrost, and related terms, and illustrations showing the extent of permafrost in Alaska. Chapter 2 presents information on physical properties of permafrost that relate to well log interpretation, including porosity and pore-filling media (water, ice and air), and their effects on thermal properties, electrical properties and acoustic properties. Chapters 3-8 describe the following types of well logs in detail, including measurement principles and methods, procedures for calibration and interpretation, and identification of special problems relatd to permafrost: thermal logs, electric logs, sonic logs, nuclear logs, magnetic logs, and miscellaneous (caliper and drilling) logs. Chapter 9 gives information on three types of borehole geophysical surveys, electrical resistivity, seismic velocity, and borehole gravity, with emphasis on the increased depth of investigation afforded by these surveys as compared with well logs. Chapter 10 describes a number of specific applications. A concluding chapter summariezes the information contained in the body of the report and includes a table that gives an overview of the relative value of various borehole geophysical measurements that can be used for delineating and characterizing permafrost. Conclusions of the report are that a number of standard borehole measurement techniques have been tried and proven in permafrost and can be used effectively to delineate and characterize earth material penetrated by the borehole. 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Enhanced carbon-oxygen log interpretations using supplemental log curves

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Jacobson, L.A.; Fox, P.

    1994-12-31

    Supplemental measurements from induced nuclear spectrometry tools are examined to demonstrate what additional information they provide about the well and reservoir conditions. Logs in shut-in wells from Indonesia provide examples of oxygen activation measurements showing cross-flow from one reservoir to another via open perforations. Leaking squeezed perforations were also observed. An example from Alaska shows radioactive scale build-up in the casing which spectral analysis identifies as a mixture of uranium and thorium salts. Another log, where the casing fluid was replaced with crude oil, demonstrates a technique for identifying cement channels. Logs from Nigeria comparing oil saturation estimates before and after a squeeze operation illustrate the effect of casing fluid flushing of the formation through open perforations. Understanding the diagnostic character of these curves leads to higher confidence in the overall log interpretation process.

  5. Log-Log Convexity of Type-Token Growth in Zipf's Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    It is traditionally assumed that Zipf's law implies the power-law growth of the number of different elements with the total number of elements in a system—the so-called Heaps' law. We show that a careful definition of Zipf's law leads to the violation of Heaps' law in random systems, with growth curves that have a convex shape in log-log scale. These curves fulfill universal data collapse that only depends on the value of Zipf's exponent. We observe that real books behave very much in the same way as random systems, despite the presence of burstiness in word occurrence. We advance an explanation for this unexpected correspondence.

  6. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  7. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  8. Animal Room Log.xls

    Cancer.gov

    ANIMAL ROOM LOG Room Number: __________ Cage Type Death Cause C = Auto Water EU = Euthanized NOTES: B = Water Bottle FD = Found Dead S = SMZ DR = Drowned M = Microisolator MI = Missing TO = Transfer Out DEATH CAUSE STRAIN CODE GROUP NAME # ? # ? COMMENTS

  9. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests. PMID:25092495

  10. Lithology-independent, high-resolution porosity logs

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, A.; Head, E.; Gubelin, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    A unique attribute of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging is the ability to measure a lithology-independent porosity. New NMR tools have generated renewed interest in measurements related to producibility, such as permeability and definition of water production potential. Industry discussion of those parameters has sometimes overshadowed the value of a lithology-independent porosity measurement. Such a porosity log can be easily understood by and utilized by non-specialists as well as log interpretation experts. The log reflects true porosity even in a complex lithology that changes over the well interval, such as limestone to dolomite transitions with evaporate inclusions. Similarly, since the log reads near zero in compacted shale, the measurement closely approaches effective porosity in clastic environments. A new pad-type NMR logging tool produces such a porosity measurement with excellent vertical resolution. Investigation is focused within a volume whose vertical dimension is only 6 in. Examples from a number of wells illustrate excellent repeatability and resolution of thin reservoir components that are not visible with other NMR devices or conventional porosity logs. Logs are verified by core data and electrical images. The measurement is unaffected by borehole salinity, and the tool is combinable with other wireline tools.

  11. Quantitative Generalizations for Catchment Sediment Yield Following Plantation Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathurst, James; Iroume, Andres

    2014-05-01

    While there is a reasonably clear qualitative understanding of the impact of forest plantations on sediment yield, there is a lack of quantitative generalizations. Such generalizations would be helpful for estimating the impacts of proposed forestry operations and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. This study therefore analyzed data from the literature to determine the extent to which quantitative statements can be established. The research was restricted to the impact of plantation logging on catchment sediment yield as a function of ground disturbance in the years immediately following logging, in temperate countries, and does not consider landslides consequent upon tree root decay. Twelve paired catchment studies incorporating pre- and post-logging measurements of sediment yield were identified, resulting in forty-three test catchments (including 14 control catchments). Analysis yielded the following principal conclusions: 1) Logging generally provokes maximum annual sediment yields of less than a few hundred t km-2 yr-1; best management practice can reduce this below 100 t km-2 yr-1. 2) At both the annual and event scales, the sediment yield excess of a logged catchment over a control catchment is within one order of magnitude, except with severe ground disturbance. 3) There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield impact and the proportion of catchment logged. The effect depends on which part of the catchment is altered and on its connectivity to the stream network. 4) The majority of catchments delivered their maximum sediment yield in the first two years after logging. The logging impacts were classified in terms of the absolute values of specific sediment yield, the values relative to those in the control catchments for the same period and the values relative both to the control catchment and the pre-logging period. Most studies have been for small catchments (< 10 km2) and temperate regions; the impact at large catchment scales and in tropical regions requires further research.

  12. APS logDaemon and client library

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.; Kowalkowski, J.

    1995-12-13

    This document serves as a User`s Manual and Reference for the logDaemon and client library. This package provides a general distributed message logging system. A logDaemon may be started anywhere on a subnet. A client which has linked in the client library is provided functions to open a connection to the logDaemon, log messages, and close the connection. The logDaemon maintains one or more log files (in simple ASCII or SDDS format) and an e-mail list based on specifications in a configuration file. Incoming messages are logged to the appropriate file and/or result in e-mail being sent.

  13. Degraded lands worth protecting: the biological importance of Southeast Asia's repeatedly logged forests

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David P.; Larsen, Trond H.; Docherty, Teegan D. S.; Ansell, Felicity A.; Hsu, Wayne W.; Derh, Mia A.; Hamer, Keith C.; Wilcove, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot of imperilled biodiversity, owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture. The degraded forests that remain after multiple rounds of intensive logging are often assumed to be of little conservation value; consequently, there has been no concerted effort to prevent them from being converted to oil palm. However, no study has quantified the biodiversity of repeatedly logged forests. We compare the species richness and composition of birds and dung beetles within unlogged (primary), once-logged and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. Logging had little effect on the overall richness of birds. Dung beetle richness declined following once-logging but did not decline further after twice-logging. The species composition of bird and dung beetle communities was altered, particularly after the second logging rotation, but globally imperilled bird species (IUCN Red List) did not decline further after twice-logging. Remarkably, over 75 per cent of bird and dung beetle species found in unlogged forest persisted within twice-logged forest. Although twice-logged forests have less biological value than primary and once-logged forests, they clearly provide important habitat for numerous bird and dung beetle species. Preventing these degraded forests from being converted to oil palm should be a priority of policy-makers and conservationists. PMID:20685713

  14. Degraded lands worth protecting: the biological importance of Southeast Asia's repeatedly logged forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Larsen, Trond H; Docherty, Teegan D S; Ansell, Felicity A; Hsu, Wayne W; Derh, Mia A; Hamer, Keith C; Wilcove, David S

    2011-01-01

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot of imperiled biodiversity, owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture. The degraded forests that remain after multiple rounds of intensive logging are often assumed to be of little conservation value; consequently, there has been no concerted effort to prevent them from being converted to oil palm. However, no study has quantified the biodiversity of repeatedly logged forests. We compare the species richness and composition of birds and dung beetles within unlogged (primary), once-logged and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. Logging had little effect on the overall richness of birds. Dung beetle richness declined following once-logging but did not decline further after twice-logging. The species composition of bird and dung beetle communities was altered, particularly after the second logging rotation, but globally imperiled bird species (IUCN Red List) did not decline further after twice-logging. Remarkably, over 75 per cent of bird and dung beetle species found in unlogged forest persisted within twice-logged forest. Although twice-logged forests have less biological value than primary and once-logged forests, they clearly provide important habitat for numerous bird and dung beetle species. Preventing these degraded forests from being converted to oil palm should be a priority of policy-makers and conservationists. PMID:20685713

  15. Some properties of the log-Laplace distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1980-01-01

    A random variable Y is said to have the Laplace distribution or the double exponential distribution whenever its probability density function is given by lambda exp(-lambda abs. value y), where -infinity < y < infinity and lambda > 0. The random variable X = exp(Y) is said to have the log-Laplace distribution. With the problem of extrapolation to low doses in dose response curves as motivation, an axiomatic characterization of the log-Laplace distribution is obtained. 1 figure.

  16. Some properties of the log-Laplace distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1980-08-01

    A random variable ..gamma.. is said to have the Laplace distribution or the double exponential distribution whenever its probability density function is given by lambda exp(-lambda absolute value (y)), where -infinity < y < infinity and lambda > 0. The random variable X = exp(..gamma..) is said to have the log-Laplace distribution. With the problem of extrapolation to low doses in dose response curves as a motivation, an axiomatic characterization of the log-Laplace distribution is obtained. 1 figure.

  17. Bayesian analysis of generalized log-Burr family with R.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Md Tanwir; Khan, Athar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Log-Burr distribution is a generalization of logistic and extreme value distributions, which are important reliability models. In this paper, Bayesian approach is used to model reliability data for log-Burr model using analytic and simulation tools. Laplace approximation is implemented for approximating posterior densities of the parameters. Moreover, parallel simulation tools are also implemented using 'LaplacesDemon' package of R. PMID:24839586

  18. Log Truck-Weighing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

  19. Quantitative Literacy: Working with Log Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, S.

    2013-04-01

    The need for working with and understanding different types of graphs is a common occurrence in everyday life. Examples include anything having to do investments, being an educated juror in a case that involves evidence presented graphically, and understanding many aspect of our current political discourse. Within a science class graphs play a crucial role in presenting and interpreting data. In astronomy, where the range of graphed values is many orders of magnitude, log-axes must be used and understood. Experience shows that students do not understand how to read and interpret log-axes or how they differ from linear. Alters (1996), in a study of college students in an algebra-based physics class, found little understanding of log plotting. The purpose of this poster is to show the method and progression I have developed for use in my ASTRO 101 class, with the goal being to help students better understand the H-R diagram, mass-luminosity relationship, and digital spectra.

  20. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  1. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  2. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  3. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North

  4. The Search for the Manila Galleon Log Books.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Wayne V.

    1990-11-01

    Spanish merchant ships, called Manila Galleons, made the round-trip between the Philippine Islands and the ports on the west coast of what is now Mexico, almost every year for the 250-yr period between 1565 and 1815. The log books of these galleons contained weather information which was thought to be of value in the study of the historical climatology of the tropical and mid-latitude areas of the Pacific Ocean. A search was made for the log books of the Manila Galleons to determine how many are still extant and the nature of the weather data that they contained. The search was made with the assistance of expert historians and paleographers who ware experienced in searching archives where the log books wore thought to be on file. The following archives were searched: the Museo Naval in Madrid, Spain; the Archivo General do Simancas in Simancas, Spain; Archiyo De lndias in Seville, Spain; Archivo General do la Nacin in Mexico City, Mexico; and the National Archives in Manila, The Philippine Islands. Only sixteen log books were on file In the archives in Madrid and Seville. All of the logs that wore found ware from the period between 1766 and 1808. The inevitable conclusions that were reached were that log books for some of the earlier voyages may never have been written and that most of the log books that were written were either physically lost or were lost due to the ravages of time, moisture, insects or war.

  5. Defect Detection in Wooden Logs Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Agrawal, Sachin; Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran; Grushecky, Shawn

    2007-03-01

    Presently there are no suitable non-invasive methods for precisely detecting the subsurface defects in logs in real time. Internal defects such as knots, decays, and embedded metals are of greatest concern for lumber production. Nondestructive scanning of logs using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to detect defects in logs prior to sawing can greatly increase the productivity and yield of high value lumber, and prevent damage to saw blade from embedded metals. In this research, the GPR scanned data has been analyzed to detect subsurface defects such as metals, decays, and knots. Also, GPR offers high speed scanning capability which is needed for future on-line implementation in saw mills. This paper explains the advantages of the GPR technique, experimental setup and parameters used, and data processing for detection of subsurface defects in logs. The results show that GPR can be a very promising technique for future on-line implementation in saw mills.

  6. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  7. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  8. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  9. Log-Log Convexity of Type-Token Growth in Zipf's Systems.

    PubMed

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-06-12

    It is traditionally assumed that Zipf's law implies the power-law growth of the number of different elements with the total number of elements in a system-the so-called Heaps' law. We show that a careful definition of Zipf's law leads to the violation of Heaps' law in random systems, with growth curves that have a convex shape in log-log scale. These curves fulfill universal data collapse that only depends on the value of Zipf's exponent. We observe that real books behave very much in the same way as random systems, despite the presence of burstiness in word occurrence. We advance an explanation for this unexpected correspondence. PMID:26196834

  10. An electronic encounter logs failure to scale

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Walton; Asaro, Phil

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a series of Electronic Student Encounter Log (ESEL) programs intended to introduce medical students to promising medical informatics concepts. We attempted to expand ESELs scope from ambulatory settings to all hospital venues and to track progress toward educational goals. Students were confused and frustrated by a previously fast interface and delayed feedback. Numerous scaling problems emerged. Our attempt to address these problems in an extensive revision, developed for the latest affordable hardware and operating system, failed due to new data-corrupting crashes. Risks of scaling up and other familiar software development lessons are reinforced. PMID:18998815

  11. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. PMID:25994673

  12. Tucker Wireline Open Hole Wireline Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, M.

    2002-05-23

    The Tucker Wireline unit ran a suite of open hole logs right behind the RMOTC logging contractor for comparison purposes. The tools included Dual Laterolog, Phased Induction, BHC Sonic, and Density-Porosity.

  13. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that... and railcars to secure logs during movement of the truck or car within the terminal. During...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that... and railcars to secure logs during movement of the truck or car within the terminal. During...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that... and railcars to secure logs during movement of the truck or car within the terminal. During...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that... and railcars to secure logs during movement of the truck or car within the terminal. During...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that... and railcars to secure logs during movement of the truck or car within the terminal. During...

  18. Investigation on log responses of bulk density and thermal neutrons in coalbed with different ranks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peiqiang; Mao, Zhiqiang; Jin, Ding; Zhao, Peihua; Sun, Baodian; Sun, Wei; Pang, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Density and neutron logs play an important role in the exploration of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. However, the study of these two log responses of coalbeds is deficient. Based on laboratory data in the published literature and field logs of CBM reservoirs from several coal basins in China, this paper focuses on acquiring and analyzing variations in bulk density and thermal neutrons of coal with different ranks. Two new methods are introduced to correct the effect of ash on field logs to obtain the log values of ash-free coal. The corrected coalbed density logs are in accordance with the density of coal samples in the laboratory. Then, hydrogen indices of coals with different ranks are simulated, and the corrected neutron logs are well verified by simulated values. After obtaining the variations of density and neutrons of coalbeds with different ranks, the behaviors of density and neutron logs are analyzed and discussed. Based on the laboratory data and the simulated and corrected field logs, the specific values of density and neutron porosity for ash-free coals with higher ranks are listed. Furthermore, a crossplot of density versus neutron logs is proposed to identify coal ranks, which has been successfully applied to various CBM fields of several basins in China.

  19. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  20. Probabilistic Inductive Querying Using ProbLog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Raedt, Luc; Kimmig, Angelika; Gutmann, Bernd; Kersting, Kristian; Costa, Vítor Santos; Toivonen, Hannu

    We study how probabilistic reasoning and inductive querying can be combined within ProbLog, a recent probabilistic extension of Prolog. ProbLog can be regarded as a database system that supports both probabilistic and inductive reasoning through a variety of querying mechanisms. After a short introduction to ProbLog, we provide a survey of the different types of inductive queries that ProbLog supports, and show how it can be applied to the mining of large biological networks.

  1. Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 6921018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

  2. Local regularity analysis of strata heterogeneities from sonic logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, S.; Zaourar, N.; Hamoudi, M.; Holschneider, M.

    2010-09-01

    Borehole logs provide geological information about the rocks crossed by the wells. Several properties of rocks can be interpreted in terms of lithology, type and quantity of the fluid filling the pores and fractures. Here, the logs are assumed to be nonhomogeneous Brownian motions (nhBms) which are generalized fractional Brownian motions (fBms) indexed by depth-dependent Hurst parameters H(z). Three techniques, the local wavelet approach (LWA), the average-local wavelet approach (ALWA), and Peltier Algorithm (PA), are suggested to estimate the Hurst functions (or the regularity profiles) from the logs. First, two synthetic sonic logs with different parameters, shaped by the successive random additions (SRA) algorithm, are used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods. The obtained Hurst functions are close to the theoretical Hurst functions. Besides, the transitions between the modeled layers are marked by Hurst values discontinuities. It is also shown that PA leads to the best Hurst value estimations. Second, we investigate the multifractional property of sonic logs data recorded at two scientific deep boreholes: the pilot hole VB and the ultra deep main hole HB, drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). All the regularity profiles independently obtained for the logs provide a clear correlation with lithology, and from each regularity profile, we derive a similar segmentation in terms of lithological units. The lithological discontinuities (strata' bounds and faults contacts) are located at the local extrema of the Hurst functions. Moreover, the regularity profiles are compared with the KTB estimated porosity logs, showing a significant relation between the local extrema of the Hurst functions and the fluid-filled fractures. The Hurst function may then constitute a tool to characterize underground heterogeneities.

  3. Case history on geothermal-well-log interpretation: Surprise Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, F.A.; Zebal, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    Well logs from a 1972 geothermal well drilled in California's Surprise Valley are discussed. The well is in an igneous formation, primarily basalt in the logged interval, and had a bottom-hole temperature of about 170/sup 0/C at a total depth exceeding 1400 m. It produced good flow rates from what is presumably a formation with predominately fracture-related permeability. The well has special interest because fractures could be located approximately by the appearance of well-defined secondary crystallization in the drill cuttings. The original use of the log data in evaluating the well when it was drilled is discussed. In addition, the log data are reviewed and valuable data are obtained on log response in basalts, the effects of secondary mineralization, fracture detection, and aspects of the resistivity logs. The Surprise Valley well gives a clear demonstration of the value of thorough logging in geothermal exploratory wells, especially in the identification and location of potential production zones.

  4. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the...

  7. Balloon logging with the inverted skyline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

  8. Estimate of standard deviation for a log-transformed variable using arithmetic means and standard deviations.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hui; Zhang, Ji

    2003-09-15

    Analyses of study variables are frequently based on log transformations. To calculate the power for detecting the between-treatment difference in the log scale, we need an estimate of the standard deviation of the log-transformed variable. However, in many situations a literature search only provides the arithmetic means and the corresponding standard deviations. Without individual log-transformed data to directly calculate the sample standard deviation, we need alternative methods to estimate it. This paper presents methods for estimating and constructing confidence intervals for the standard deviation of a log-transformed variable given the mean and standard deviation of the untransformed variable. It also presents methods for estimating the standard deviation of change from baseline in the log scale given the means and standard deviations of the untransformed baseline value, on-treatment value and change from baseline. Simulations and examples are provided to assess the performance of these estimates. PMID:12939782

  9. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, Jeffrey C. (Arlington, TX); Payne, John J. (Waterman, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  10. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  11. Leak checker data logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.J.; Gannon, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  12. Multi-rate flowing Wellbore electric conductivity logging method

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine

    2003-04-22

    The flowing wellbore electric conductivity logging method involves the replacement of wellbore water by de-ionized or constant-salinity water, followed by constant pumping with rate Q, during which a series of fluid electric conductivity logs are taken. The logs can be analyzed to identify depth locations of inflow, and evaluate the transmissivity and electric conductivity (salinity) of the fluid at each inflow point. The present paper proposes the use of the method with two or more pumping rates. In particular it is recommended that the method be applied three times with pumping rates Q, Q /2, and 2Q. Then a combined analysis of the multi-rate data allows an efficient means of determining transmissivity and salinity values of all inflow points along a well with a confidence measure, as well as their inherent or far-field pressure heads. The method is illustrated by a practical example.

  13. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  14. Selective logging and its relation to deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael; Lentini, Marco; Merry, Frank; Souza, Carlos, Jr.

    Selective logging is a major contributor to the social, economic, and ecological dynamics of Brazilian Amazonia. Logging activities have expanded from low-volume floodplain harvests in past centuries to high-volume operations today that take about 25 million m3 of wood from the forest each year. The most common highimpact conventional and often illegal logging practices result in major collateral forest damage, with cascading effects on ecosystem processes. Initial carbon losses and forest recovery rates following timber harvest are tightly linked to initial logging intensity, which drives changes in forest gap fraction, fragmentation, and the light environment. Other ecological processes affected by selective logging include nutrient cycling, hydrological function, and postharvest disturbance such as fire. This chapter synthesizes the ecological impacts of selective logging, in the context of the recent socioeconomic conditions throughout Brazilian Amazonia, as determined from field-based and remote sensing studies carried out during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia program.

  15. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  16. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  17. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall...

  18. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall...

  19. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall...

  20. Cracking the Code: Web Log Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Lievesley, Nat; Withey, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the benefits and problems of using Web log analysis to extract information about the global information customer. The Web logs examined were those of "The Times" and "Sunday Times." Highlights include the measures and metrics; the data and its meaning; and analyses with potential (AEF)

  1. 29 CFR 788.9 - Preparing * * * logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preparing * * * logs. 788.9 Section 788.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH...

  2. 29 CFR 788.9 - Preparing * * * logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparing * * * logs. 788.9 Section 788.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH...

  3. 29 CFR 788.9 - Preparing * * * logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing * * * logs. 788.9 Section 788.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH...

  4. 29 CFR 788.9 - Preparing * * * logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing * * * logs. 788.9 Section 788.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH...

  5. 29 CFR 788.9 - Preparing * * * logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preparing * * * logs. 788.9 Section 788.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH...

  6. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  7. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  8. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  9. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  10. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  11. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  12. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  13. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  14. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  15. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  16. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  17. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  18. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  19. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  20. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  1. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  2. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N

    2005-10-21

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging. PMID:16239474

  3. Radon: exploring the log-normal mystery.

    PubMed

    Bossew, P

    2010-10-01

    The term "log-normal mysticism" has been coined by Tóth et al. (2006) for the so far unexplained observation that indoor radon concentration data from geographical surveys very often appear to be quite accurately log-normally distributed. In this contribution, I try to verify the statement with the dataset of the Austrian indoor radon survey and data from the ongoing European indoor radon mapping project. It appears that, with some limitations, an approximate log-normality is present for a large scale of spatial ranges. Investigation of the frequency of outliers points to the systematic presence of a "fat tail" in Rn frequency distribution, i.e. of extremes which disturb log-normality. "Local log-normality", i.e. within a neighbourhood, possibly restricted to geological units, is an important assumption in certain radon mapping approaches. PMID:20627381

  4. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  5. An integrated digital well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Peressini, B.; Fertl, W.H.; Howells, A.P.S.

    1982-09-01

    Basics of the SLAM Digital Combination Logging System are discussed including an overview which describes each of its major components; the computerbased surface data acquisition system, wellsite analysis software package, and the individual and combination measurement systems used with SLAM. Combination logging runs that are possible with the SLAM system are presented to illustrate their application in a number of different geologic and borehole conditions. The advantages to performing combination logging runs are also discussed. Log presentations available are illustrated to demonstrate methods for displaying combination log data in usable formats. Diagnostic programs and troubleshooting aids are reviewed to demonstrate their ability to help predict when equipment is becoming marginal, and to minimize lost time due to equipment failure. Standard methods for performing instrument calibrations are described, including techniques to perform master calibrations at the shop or wellsite, as well as before and after wellsite checks performed with instruments suspended over the borehole, or on the catwalk.

  6. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal

  7. Coal log pipeline pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Lenau, C.W.; Burkett, W.

    2000-07-01

    After 8 years of extensive R and D in the new technology of coal log pipeline (CLP), a pilot plant is being built to demonstrate and test a complete CLP system for coal transportation. The system consists of a coal log fabrication plant, a 3,000-ft-length, 6-inch-diameter underground pipeline loop to transport 5.4-inch diameter coal logs, a log injection/ejection system, a pump bypass, a reservoir that serves as both the intake and the outlet of the CLP systems, an instrumentation system that includes pressure transducers, coal log sensors, and flowmeters, and an automatic control system that includes PLCs and a central computer. The pilot plant is to be completed in May of Year 2000. Upon completion of construction, the pilot plant will be used for running various types of coal, testing the degradation rate of drag reduction in CLP using Polyox (polyethylene oxide), testing the reliability of a special coal log sensor invented at the University of Missouri, testing the reliability and the efficiency of the pump-bypass system for pumping coal log trains through the pipe, and testing various hardware components and software for operating the pilot plant. Data collected from the tests will be used for designing future commercial systems of CLP. The pilot plant experiments are to be completed in two years. Then, the technology of CLP will be ready for commercial use.

  8. ProcintLog: A GUI Academic Software For Open Hole Well-Logging Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. C.

    2005-05-01

    ProcintLog is a GUI academic software that runs under MATLAB and is useful for simplified conventional oil and gas well logs analysis. It works through two distinct modes: (1) direct petrophysical parameters inclusion from both field copies and digital files and (2) by reading and filling data from visual log zoning. The software load ASCII and LAS format files and identifies the logs available, supplying both a header file with additional information about the well and a matrix that depicts the depth in the first column and the logs in the remain ones. The last can be loaded by ProcintLog and checked out for unusual highly noisy and spurious data, which allows a complete data control. Furthermore, each one of the proposed processing modes fits well to any chosen processing sequence, allowing the log interpreter to direct your own necessities into log analysis. To provide a little of perspective, fundamental well-logging principles are stressed by informative icons that can be searched at any time the interpreter need. Calculations such as invasion-corrected resistivity, shale volume, Archie and Simandoux methods for water saturation computations and three types of water resistivity computations are viable. One complete example is performed on both synthetic and real data and results are checked against visual analysis to show the usefulness, rapidness and accuracy of ProcintLog in performing accurate logs analysis.

  9. D-dimensional log gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Fareghbal, Reza

    2011-04-15

    We study Einstein gravity in dimensions D{>=}4 modified by curvature squared at critical point where the theory contains only massless gravitons. We show that at the critical point a new mode appears leading to a logarithmic gravity in the theory. The corresponding logarithmic solution may provide a gravity description of logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT) in higher dimensions. We note also that for special values of the parameters of the theory, the model admits solutions with nonrelativistic isometries.

  10. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  11. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water, walking sticks 11 (safety sticks) shall be provided as follows: 11 A walking stick is two logs... or caulked sandals, and shall ensure that each employee wears appropriate footwear to climb or...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water, walking sticks 11 (safety sticks) shall be provided as follows: 11 A walking stick is two logs... or caulked sandals, and shall ensure that each employee wears appropriate footwear to climb or...

  13. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... primary office or available to the Commission via secured access to the licensee's Internet web site. Logs... occurrences which may appear to be of importance to safety of life or property at sea, must be...

  14. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... primary office or available to the Commission via secured access to the licensee's Internet web site. Logs... occurrences which may appear to be of importance to safety of life or property at sea, must be...

  15. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... primary office or available to the Commission via secured access to the licensee's Internet web site. Logs... occurrences which may appear to be of importance to safety of life or property at sea, must be...

  16. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... primary office or available to the Commission via secured access to the licensee's Internet web site. Logs... occurrences which may appear to be of importance to safety of life or property at sea, must be...

  17. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  18. Sisyphus - An Event Log Analysis Toolset

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-09-01

    Event logs are a ubiquitous source of system feedback from computer systems, but have widely ranging format and can be extremely numerous, particularly from systems with many logging components. Inspection of these logs is fundamental to system debugging; increased capability to quickly extract meaningful information will impact MTTR (mean time to repair) and may impact MTBF (mean time between failure). Sisyphus is a machine-leanring analysis system whose goal is to enable content-novice analysts to efficieniiymore » understand evolving trends, identify anomalies, and investigate cause-effect hypotheses in large multiple-souce log sets. The toolkit is comprised a framework for utilizing third-party frequentitemset data mining tools Teiresias and SLCT. and software to cluster messages according to time statistics, and an interactive results viewer.« less

  19. Formation mechanical properties and the sonic log

    SciTech Connect

    Elphick, R.Y.

    1988-11-01

    A program is presented that calculates the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks from sonic logs. The program was written in Microsoft BASIC and the source code for MS-DOS, Apple Macintosh, and Amiga personal computers is given.

  20. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-12-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

  1. Geophysical logging in carbonate aquifers ( Williston, Montana).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCary, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes some of the log-analysis methods used to study carbonate aquifers in the Williston basin of Montana, and reviews some of the results obtained from these methods when they were applied to aquifers of regional extent. -from Author

  2. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  3. Preserving log-concavity and generalized triangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmita, Moussa; Belbachir, Hacène

    2010-07-01

    We introduce generalized triangles called s-triangles for s given positive integer, as a bi-indexed sequence of non negative numbers {as(n,k)}0≤k≤ns satisfying as(n,k) = 0 for k<0 or k>ns. A such s-triangle is LC-positive if for each r, the sequence of polynomials ∑k = rnsas(n,k)qk is q-log-concave. We extend some results of Wang and Yeh, Log-concavity and LC-positivity, J. Combin. Theory Ser. A (2007), and show that if as(n,k) is LC-positive then the log-concavity of the sequence {xn} implies the log-concavity of the sequence {zn} defined by zn = ∑k = 0nsas(n,k)xk. Applications related to ordinary multinomials are given.

  4. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  5. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  6. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  7. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemys?aw

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  8. Applying time series analysis to performance logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacki, Marcin; Sosnowski, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary computer systems provide mechanisms for monitoring various performance parameters (e.g. processor or memory usage, disc or network transfers), which are collected and stored in performance logs. An important issue is to derive characteristic features describing normal and abnormal behavior of the systems. For this purpose we use various schemes of analyzing time series. They have been adapted to the specificity of performance logs and verified using data collected from real systems. The presented approach is useful in evaluating system dependability.

  9. Limits of rapid log P determination methods for highly lipophilic and flexible compounds.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sophie; Begnaud, Frédéric; Schuler, William; Gillerat, Fabrice; Oberhauser, Nils; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2016-04-01

    Lipophilicity is of crucial importance in many fields including pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetic and food industries. Whereas different experimental strategies have been developed for rapid lipophilicity determination of new chemical entities, log P determination of highly lipophilic compounds is always challenging. In this study, three published chromatographic methods have been compared on a series of phenylalkanoic acids including the pro-perfume Haloscent(®)D (HD-C12). Different log P values were obtained depending on the chromatographic method used for log P estimation. Molecular modelling suggested that log P variations may be due to the chromatographic conditions applied (isocratic or gradient mode, ratio methanol/water in the mobile phase), responsible of specific conformations of the molecule in solution. Thus, for flexible compounds, published methods have to be used with caution and considered as a good tool to estimate a log P range, depending on the molecular conformational state. PMID:26995644

  10. CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frobose, R.H.

    1984-11-12

    CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is a dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.

  11. Signatures in flowing fluid electric conductivity logs

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2003-06-02

    Flowing fluid electric conductivity logging provides a meansto determine hydrologic properties of fractures, fracture zones, or otherpermeable layers intersecting a borehole in saturated rock. The methodinvolves analyzing the time-evolution of fluid electric conductivity(FEC) logs obtained while the well is being pumped and yields informationon the location, hydraulic transmissivity, and salinity of permeablelayers. The original analysis method was restricted to the case in whichflows from the permeable layers or fractures were directed into theborehole (inflow). Recently, the method was adapted to permit treatmentof both inflow and outflow, including analysis of natural regional flowin the permeable layer. A numerical model simulates flow and transport inthe wellbore during flowing FEC logging, and fracture properties aredetermined by optimizing the match between simulation results andobserved FEC logs. This can be a laborious trial-and-error procedure,especially when both inflow and outflow points are present. Improvedanalyses methods are needed. One possible tactic would be to develop anautomated inverse method, but this paper takes a more elementary approachand focuses on identifying the signatures that various inflow and outflowfeatures create in flowing FEC logs. The physical insight obtainedprovides a basis for more efficient analysis of these logs, both for thepresent trial and error approach and for a potential future automatedinverse approach. Inflow points produce distinctive signatures in the FEClogs themselves, enabling the determination of location, inflow rate, andion concentration. Identifying outflow locations and flow rates typicallyrequires a more complicated integral method, which is also presented inthis paper.

  12. NMR Logging to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity in Unconsolidated Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rosemary; Walsh, David O; Butler, James J; Grunewald, Elliot; Liu, Gaisheng; Parsekian, Andrew D; Reboulet, Edward C; Knobbe, Steve; Barrows, Mercer

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging provides a new means of estimating the hydraulic conductivity (K) of unconsolidated aquifers. The estimation of K from the measured NMR parameters can be performed using the Schlumberger-Doll Research (SDR) equation, which is based on the Kozeny-Carman equation and initially developed for obtaining permeability from NMR logging in petroleum reservoirs. The SDR equation includes empirically determined constants. Decades of research for petroleum applications have resulted in standard values for these constants that can provide accurate estimates of permeability in consolidated formations. The question we asked: Can standard values for the constants be defined for hydrogeologic applications that would yield accurate estimates of K in unconsolidated aquifers? Working at 10 locations at three field sites in Kansas and Washington, USA, we acquired NMR and K data using direct-push methods over a 10- to 20-m depth interval in the shallow subsurface. Analysis of pairs of NMR and K data revealed that we could dramatically improve K estimates by replacing the standard petroleum constants with new constants, optimal for estimating K in the unconsolidated materials at the field sites. Most significant was the finding that there was little change in the SDR constants between sites. This suggests that we can define a new set of constants that can be used to obtain high resolution, cost-effective estimates of K from NMR logging in unconsolidated aquifers. This significant result has the potential to change dramatically the approach to determining K for hydrogeologic applications. PMID:25810149

  13. LogCauchy, log-sech and lognormal distributions of species abundances in forest communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Z.-Y.; Peng, S.-L.; Ren, H.; Guo, Q.; Chen, Z.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Species-abundance (SA) pattern is one of the most fundamental aspects of biological community structure, providing important information regarding species richness, species-area relation and succession. To better describe the SA distribution (SAD) in a community, based on the widely used lognormal (LN) distribution model with exp(-x2) roll-off on Preston's octave scale, this study proposed two additional models, logCauchy (LC) and log-sech (LS), respectively with roll-offs of simple x-2 and e-x. The estimation of the theoretical total number of species in the whole community, S*, including very rare species not yet collected in sample, was derived from the left-truncation of each distribution. We fitted these three models by Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear regression and measured the model fit to the data using coefficient of determination of regression, parameters' t-test and distribution's Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. Examining the SA data from six forest communities (five in lower subtropics and one in tropics), we found that: (1) on a log scale, all three models that are bell-shaped and left-truncated statistically adequately fitted the observed SADs, and the LC and LS did better than the LN; (2) from each model and for each community the S* values estimated by the integral and summation methods were almost equal, allowing us to estimate S* using a simple integral formula and to estimate its asymptotic confidence internals by regression of a transformed model containing it; (3) following the order of LC, LS, and LN, the fitted distributions became lower in the peak, less concave in the side, and shorter in the tail, and overall the LC tended to overestimate, the LN tended to underestimate, while the LS was intermediate but slightly tended to underestimate, the observed SADs (particularly the number of common species in the right tail); (4) the six communities had some similar structural properties such as following similar distribution models, having a common modal octave and a similar proportion of common species. We suggested that what follows the LN distribution should follow (or better follow) the LC and LS, and that the LC, LS and LN distributions represent a "sequential distribution set" in which one can find a best fit to the observed SAD. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EMD Method Applied to Identification of Logging Sequence Strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ni; Li, Rui

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we compare Fourier transform, wavelet transform, and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and point out that EMD method decomposes complex signal into a series of component functions through curves of local mean value. Each of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs - component functions) contains all the information on the original signal. Therefore, it is more suitable for the interface identification of logging sequence strata. Well logging data reflect rich geological information and belong to non-linear and non-stationary signals and EMD method can deal with non-stationary and non-linear signals very well. By selecting sensitive parameters combination that reflects the regional geological structure and lithology, the combined parameter can be decomposed through EMD method to study the correlation and the physical meaning of each intrinsic mode function. Meanwhile, it identifies the stratigraphy and cycle sequence perfectly and provides an effective signal treatment method for sequence interface.

  15. Spotted owls and old growth logging in the pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Doak, D

    1989-12-01

    Northern Spotted Owls, Strix occidentalis caurina, require large tracts of old-growth conifer forest to survive and reproduce. Much of this forest has been or is being cut by commercial logging operations, with uncertain consequences for the owls. In this paper I present simulation models of owl population change over the next 100 years, as summing a variety of scenarios for habitat destruction and fragmentation. My analysis differs from previous models by incorporating patchy territory distribution and random environmental fluctuations. Fragmented and patchy habitat distributions are common problems for endangered organisms, but they have received little attention from modelers. My results indicate that yearly fluctuations in breeding success have little impact on owl populations, but that spatial structure is quite important and should be considered in planning forest preservation. The simulations suggest that for all reasonable parameter values the proposed US. Forest Service logging plans will lead to the demise of the owls. PMID:21129025

  16. Log-periodic optical antennas with broadband directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Radostin S.; Curto, Alberto G.; van Hulst, Niek F.

    2012-07-01

    Optical antennas offer unique possibilities for light manipulation on a sub-wavelength scale. Here, we study log-periodic antennas that exhibit broadband directivity as a result of the self-similar relation between the lengths, separations and widths of the elements. We show through numerical simulations that the log-periodic designs have a considerable potential for improvement of both directivity and operation bandwidth over classical Yagi-Uda designs. Moreover, the directivity is more robust against changes in the location of the source or detector at different antenna elements. We systematically study the influence of geometrical parameters on angular performance and local field enhancement to arrive at optimum values. Next, we demonstrate that introducing a gap in the dipole array architecture can provide at least a ten-fold enhancement of the emitted power. Finally we present an optical zigzag antenna capable of both broader spectral response and even higher directivity.

  17. 5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half dovetail notching on hand-hewn logs. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. 55. VIEW OF STEAMOPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW OF STEAM-OPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING LOGS INTO RALPH HULL LUMBER CO. LOG POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1942. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  19. Utilization of Electrical Impedance Tomography to Detect Internal Anomalies in Southern Pine Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Philip; Cooper, Jerome

    2006-03-01

    A large body of research has shown that knowledge of internal defect location in logs prior to sawing has the potential to significantly increase lumber value yield. This paper describes a relatively low-capital log scanning technique based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to image anomalies interior to sawlogs. Static testing results showed that knots, juvenile and compression wood internal to logs can be detected. Although resolution is lower than that of CT and NMR technologies, the low cost of this EIT application should render it competitive.

  20. Logjam: A scalable unified log file archiver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-08-01

    Log files are a necessary record of events on any system. However, as systems scale, so does the volume of data captured. To complicate matters, this data can be distributed across all nodes within the system. This creates challenges in ways to obtain these files as well as archiving them in a consistent manner. It has become commonplace to develop a custom written utility for each system that is tailored specifically to that system. Formore » computer centers that contain multiple systems, each system would have their own respective utility for gathering and archiving log files. Each time a new log file is produced, a modification to the utility is necessary. With each modification, risks of errors could be introduced as well as spending time to introduce that change. This is precisely the purpose of logjam. Once installed, the code only requires modification when new features are required. A configuration file is used to identify each log file as well as where to harvest it and how to archive it. Adding a new log file is as simple as defining it in a configuration file and testing can be performed in the production environment.« less

  1. Logjam: A scalable unified log file archiver

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    Log files are a necessary record of events on any system. However, as systems scale, so does the volume of data captured. To complicate matters, this data can be distributed across all nodes within the system. This creates challenges in ways to obtain these files as well as archiving them in a consistent manner. It has become commonplace to develop a custom written utility for each system that is tailored specifically to that system. For computer centers that contain multiple systems, each system would have their own respective utility for gathering and archiving log files. Each time a new log file is produced, a modification to the utility is necessary. With each modification, risks of errors could be introduced as well as spending time to introduce that change. This is precisely the purpose of logjam. Once installed, the code only requires modification when new features are required. A configuration file is used to identify each log file as well as where to harvest it and how to archive it. Adding a new log file is as simple as defining it in a configuration file and testing can be performed in the production environment.

  2. Comparison of petrophysical characteristics of selected carbonate rocks to their log response, Smackover Formation (Upper Jurassic)

    SciTech Connect

    Biehle, A.A.; Crocker, M.C.

    1987-09-01

    Recent advances in well-logging techniques have enabled geologists to increase their knowledge of petrophysical properties. Optimum use of porosity logs permits predictions of porosity parameters other than merely the porosity percent. Shallow-water carbonate rocks contain a wide variety of porosity types, and present a special problem to the geologist involved in subsurface work. The oolitic grainstone upper member of the Smackover Formation (Upper Jurassic) within the Gulf Coast region, contains numerous porosity types. Three major types (interparticle, intercrystalline, and oomoldic) were identified from petrographic analysis. With the use of computer generated crossplots of neutron-log values versus density-log values, it is possible to determine the amount of porosity types within a carbonate rock. The cementation exponent (m) from Archie's equation, as determined from Pickett Plots, is a reliable indicator of the tortuosity and permeability of carbonate units, whereas multivariate cluster analysis groups porosities solely by percent porosity and not by porosity type.

  3. Prediction of soil sorption coefficients using model molecular structures for organic matter and the quantum mechanical COSMO-SAC model.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kathy L; Di Toro, Dominic M; Sandler, Stanley I

    2011-02-01

    The soil sorption coefficient, K(OC), is an important property affecting the environmental fate of organic molecules. Difficulties associated with measuring K(OC) have led to many attempts to predict this property, but most rely on empirical descriptors for the soil phase determined from correlations with measured K(OC) data, and are thereby limited by the data quality and diversity. A new method is presented to predict K(OC) for nonionic organic compounds that requires only molecular structures. No calibration is performed. Using model humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) molecular structures from the literature, the soil organic matter is modeled as an organic solvent composed of HA or FA molecules. K(OC) is predicted as an organic solvent-water partition coefficient using the quantum mechanics-based model COSMO-SAC. The log K(OC) values for a set of 440 diverse, environmentally relevant chemicals are predicted with a root-mean-square error of 0.84-1.08, depending on which model HA or FA is used. PMID:21194217

  4. Field test results--a new logging tool for formation density and lithology measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Borai, A.M.; Muhsin, M.A.

    1983-03-01

    The formation porosity can be determined from borehole density measurements if the density of the rock is known. Generally, this is determined from the lithology. The Litho-Density Tool, LDT, provides an improved measurement of the formation density and a new measurement of lithology. Field tests of LDT proved that the tool could be run alone in a wide range of formations to provide porosity values comparable to those obtained by running a density log combined with a neutron log.

  5. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  6. Recent experience with wireline fracture detection logs

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, J.M.; Cisar, M.T.; Glass, S.W.; Romanowski, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the last year Shell has extensively cored the fractured Mississippian Madison Limestone formation in the Mondak field, extending from Richland County, Montana to McKenzie County, North Dakota. In three wells the authors have recovered over 1500 feet of core which have been analyzed for fractures. In an effort to delineate fractures using wireline logs. The Schlumberger Circumferential Microsonic Tool, the US Geological Survey (USGS) Borehole Acoustic Televiewer, and the Schlumberger Fracture Identification Log were run. The paper discusses the mechanism of fracture detection and interpretation for each of the logging tools and compares their response to the core described fractures. It is concluded that the currently available fracture detection tools do not adequately identify the fractures observed in the Mondak cores. 3 refs.

  7. LogDet Rank Minimization with Application to Subspace Clustering.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhao; Peng, Chong; Cheng, Jie; Cheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Low-rank matrix is desired in many machine learning and computer vision problems. Most of the recent studies use the nuclear norm as a convex surrogate of the rank operator. However, all singular values are simply added together by the nuclear norm, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practical problems. In this paper, we propose using a log-determinant (LogDet) function as a smooth and closer, though nonconvex, approximation to rank for obtaining a low-rank representation in subspace clustering. Augmented Lagrange multipliers strategy is applied to iteratively optimize the LogDet-based nonconvex objective function on potentially large-scale data. By making use of the angular information of principal directions of the resultant low-rank representation, an affinity graph matrix is constructed for spectral clustering. Experimental results on motion segmentation and face clustering data demonstrate that the proposed method often outperforms state-of-the-art subspace clustering algorithms. PMID:26229527

  8. LogDet Rank Minimization with Application to Subspace Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhao; Peng, Chong; Cheng, Jie; Cheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Low-rank matrix is desired in many machine learning and computer vision problems. Most of the recent studies use the nuclear norm as a convex surrogate of the rank operator. However, all singular values are simply added together by the nuclear norm, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practical problems. In this paper, we propose using a log-determinant (LogDet) function as a smooth and closer, though nonconvex, approximation to rank for obtaining a low-rank representation in subspace clustering. Augmented Lagrange multipliers strategy is applied to iteratively optimize the LogDet-based nonconvex objective function on potentially large-scale data. By making use of the angular information of principal directions of the resultant low-rank representation, an affinity graph matrix is constructed for spectral clustering. Experimental results on motion segmentation and face clustering data demonstrate that the proposed method often outperforms state-of-the-art subspace clustering algorithms. PMID:26229527

  9. Lithologic logs and geophysical logs from test drilling in Palm Beach County, Florida, since 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, Leo J.; McGovern, Michael C.; Fischer, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Test-hole data that may be used to determine the hydrogeology of the zone of high permeability in Palm Beach County, Fla., are presented. Lithologic logs from 46 test wells and geophysical logs from 40 test wells are contained in this report. (USGS)

  10. LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honerman, James

    1999-01-01

    Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time

  11. Flowing fluid electric conductivity logging for a deep artesian well in fractured rock with regional flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Kunimaru, Takanori

    2013-03-01

    SummaryThe flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method is a well-logging technique that may be used to estimate flow rate, salinity, transmissivity, and hydraulic head of individual fractures or high-permeability zones intersected by a wellbore. Wellbore fluid is first replaced with fluid of a contrasting electric conductivity, then repeated FEC logging is done while the well is pumped. Zones where fluid flows into the wellbore show peaks in the FEC logs, which may be analyzed to infer inflow rate and salinity of the individual fractures. Conducting the procedure with two or more pumping rates (multi-rate FFEC logging) enables individual fracture transmissivity and hydraulic head to be determined. Here we describe the first application of the multi-rate FFEC logging method to an artesian well, using a 500-m well in fractured rock at Horonobe, Japan. An additional new factor at the site is the presence of regional groundwater flow, which heretofore has only been studied with synthetic data. FFEC logging was conducted for two different pumping rates. Several analysis techniques had to be adapted to account for the artesian nature of the well. The results were subsequently compared with independent salinity measurements and transmissivity and hydraulic head values obtained from packer tests in the same well. Despite non-ideal operating conditions, multi-rate FFEC logging successfully determined flow rate, salinity, and transmissivity of 17 conducting fractures intercepted by the logged section of the borehole, including two fractures with regional groundwater flow. Predictions of hydraulic head were less accurate, a not unexpected result in light of operational problems and the form of the equation for hydraulic head, which involves the difference between two uncertain quantities. This study illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of the multi-rate FFEC logging method applied to artesian wells. In conjunction with previous studies, it demonstrates the usefulness of the method for a broad range of conditions encountered in subsurface fractured rock.

  12. Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

    1999-07-01

    A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

  13. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-15

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  14. MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

  15. Logging of subterranean wells using coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Pilla, J.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes an apparatus for production logging of a well utilizing artificial lift in a wellbore. It comprises: coiled tubing extending into the wellbore having wireline electrical cable passing through a central bore thereof and having a remote end within the wellbore which end is connected to gas injector means. The wireline cable passing through the gas injector means to a flexible electrically conductive support spacer having an end portion remote from the gas injector means and logging means connected to the end portion of the support spacer.

  16. Permeability extraction: A sonic log inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, N.; Kim, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors provide the missing important link between permeability and acoustic velocities by generating a permeability-dependent synthetic sonic log in a carbonate reservoir. The computations are based on Akbar`s theory that relates wave velocity to frequency, rock properties (e.g., lithology, permeability, and porosity), and fluid saturation and properties (viscosity, density, and compressibility). An inverted analytical expression of the theory is used to extract permeability from sonic velocity. The synthetic sonic and the computed permeability are compared with the observed sonic log and with plug permeability, respectively. The results demonstrate, as predicted by theory, that permeability can be related directly to acoustic velocities.

  17. Nearly optimal distributed edge colouring in O(log log n) rounds

    SciTech Connect

    Grable, D.A.; Panconesi, A.

    1997-06-01

    An extremely simple distributed randomized edge colouring algorithm is given which produces with high probability a proper edge colouring of a given graph G using (1 + {epsilon}){Delta} (G) colours, for any {epsilon} > 0. The algorithm is very fast. In particular, for graphs with sufficiently large vertex degrees (larger than polylog n, but smaller than any positive power of n), the algorithm requires only O(log log n) communication rounds. The algorithm is inherently distributed, but can be implemented on the PRAM, where it requires O(m{Delta}) processors and O(log {Delta} log log n) time, or in a sequential setting, where it requires O(m{Delta}) time.

  18. Accurate residual oil saturation measurement using a modified log-inject-log procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    The log-inject-log (LIL) test is a technique for determining residual oil saturation (S/sub or/) in a watered out reservoir. While this test is, in theory, quite straightforward, it is, in practice, very complex. Even under ideal conditions, accurate S/sub or/ measurements require extremely accurate porosity, brine analysis, and pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data. Additionally, a successful test requires a brine injection step which completely displaces the formation brine without displacing any of the oil in the near wellbore regions. A modification to the conventional LIL procedure allows measurements of, and corrections for, both displaced oil and incomplete brine displacement. The conventional LIL procedure involves logging the formation with a PNC tool, injecting a brine with a different capture cross section from that of the formation brine, and logging again.

  19. Evaluation of electric well logs from Appalachian basin with small microcomputer system

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, E.

    1987-09-01

    Several computer-based packages for interpreting electric well logs are available. These programs serve well for those whose primary duty is to interpret a great variety of logs. However, these are often not cost-effective for the independent geologist who is only occasionally required to interpret logs or for the academic researcher with little funding. A low-cost system to aid in the interpretation of the typical log suite taken in Appalachian basin wells consists of a set of basic programs run on a small personal computer provided with a digitizer and pen plotter. For the most common situation found in the basin - the air-drilled well - the only logs normally run will be gamma-ray, induction, neutron, and bulk-density. Varying quality of these logs may require some experimentation in the values used in the equations for reserve calculations. An additional problem that must be addressed in the evaluation system is that of shaly sand. Features were incorporated into the software to address these problems. Log data may be entered from strip charts of any scale through the digitizer, or values may be read and entered manually via the keyboard. Various equations and constants may be chosen from a set of menus, and all or part of the log data processed. Saving the raw data on disk allows recalculation using different parameter values. Results derived from the calculations include saturations of water, oil and gas, corrected porosity, shale to sandstone ratios, bulk water volume, and potential in-place reserves. Results may be printed or plotted in various formats.

  20. MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

  1. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL...; and (3) The plant or site where used and dates of use, including the dates removed and returned...

  2. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL...; and (3) The plant or site where used and dates of use, including the dates removed and returned...

  3. [Human development and log-periodic law].

    PubMed

    Cash, Roland; Chaline, Jean; Nottale, Laurent; Grou, Pierre

    2002-05-01

    We suggest applying the log-periodic law formerly used to describe various crisis phenomena, in biology (evolutionary leaps), inorganic systems (earthquakes), societies and economy (economic crisis, market crashes) to the various steps of human ontogeny. We find a statistically significant agreement between this model and the data. PMID:12187644

  4. The Design Log: A New Informational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The design log is a record of observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, and performance specifications for each space in a structure. It is a systematic approach to design that integrates information about user needs with traditional architectural programming and design. (Author/MLF)

  5. USGS Training on Borehole Geophysical Logging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A USGS hydrologist holds an electromagnetic induction borehole logging tool while the tool is calibrated. The hydrologist was participating in a USGS class on how to use electromagnetic induction geophysical methods for groundwater investigations, conducted by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch o...

  6. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox

  7. Method and apparatus for shear wave logging

    SciTech Connect

    Benzing, W. M.; Cadle, L. C.; Patterson, W.

    1985-09-17

    Apparatus for shear wave logging of formations adjacent a borehole wherein a tubular apparatus is specifically constructed for sympathetic movement with the borehole in response to low frequency horizontal shear waves. The apparatus consists of tubular frame structure with end members including housings for rigid seating of orthogonal pairs of horizontal wave detectors. Outer sleeve structure may be utilized for buoyancy adjustment.

  8. Discovering the Local Landscape: Pioneer Log Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Bob; And Others

    Building structures made from logs appeared in the eastern United States during the late 17th century, and immigrants from Sweden, Finland, and Germany are credited with their construction. There were two types of structures: the horizontal design introduced by the Scandinavians and the German or Pennsylvania Dutch model that was used by the…

  9. High temperature spectral gamma well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, R.A.; Henfling, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A high temperature spectral gamma tool has been designed and built for use in small-diameter geothermal exploration wells. Several engineering judgments are discussed regarding operating parameters, well model selection, and signal processing. An actual well log at elevated temperatures is given with spectral gamma reading showing repeatability.

  10. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

  11. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  13. Logging injuries in Louisiana: nature, trends, and rehabilitation considerations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott; De Hoop, Cornelis; Marx, Brian; Pine, John

    1999-01-01

    Logging is a dangerous occupation, as documented through reported injuries and fatalities. Accidents in the logging industry account for pain, suffering, employee turnover, and high insurance costs. Worker injuries and high insurance costs, in addition to other factors, may be minimized and reduced through safety education and improved logging practices. Furthermore, the injured logger, or logger with a disability may return to logging or other employment through development of viable medical and vocational rehabilitation planing. This article addresses the economic impact of logging, reviews logging injuries, describes a safety program designed to reduce logging injures, discusses rehabilitation considerations for specific injuries, and outlines particular reemployment prospects for loggers with disabilities. PMID:12441421

  14. Log-periodic route to fractal functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluzman, S.; Sornette, D.

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10-5. In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a ``technical'' explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the ``regular function'' g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+?-1F(?x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the ``Weierstrass-type'' solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes An of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel ``critical'' point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of An, giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of An are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with ``ferromagnetic''-type interactions at equibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of An giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables.

  15. Improved production log interpretation in horizontal wells using pulsed neutron logs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, J.L.; Kohring, J.J.; North, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Production log flow profiles provide a valuable tool to evaluate well and reservoir performance. Horizontal wellbores and their associated completion designs present several challenges to profile interpretation for conventional production logging sensors and techniques. A unique approach combining pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data with conventional production logging measurements is providing improved flow profile answers in slotted liner, horizontal well completions on the North Slope of Alaska. Identifying and eliminating undesirable gas production is one of the chief goals of production logging on the North Slope. This process becomes difficult in horizontal wellbores as fluid segregation affects the area investigated by the various logging sensors and also the velocities of the individual phases. Typical slotted liner completions further complicate analysis as fluids are able to flow in the liner/openhole annulus. Analysis of PNC log data provides two good qualitative indicators of formation permeability. The first technique is derived from the difference of the formation sigma response before and after injecting a high-capture cross-section borax solution. The second technique uses the difference of the formation sigma response and the formation porosity measured while injecting the formation with crude or seawater. Further analysis of PNC log runs show that the two techniques closely correlate with production flow profiles under solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) conditions. These two techniques in combination with conventional production logging measurements of temperature, capacitance, pressure, and spinner improve flow profile results. PNC results can be combined with temperature and pressure data in the absence of valid spinner data to provide an approximate flow profile. These techniques have been used to successfully determine profiles in both cemented and slotted liner completions with GORs in excess of 15,000 scf/bbl.

  16. Accurate residual oil saturation measurement using a modified log-inject-log procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    The log-inject-log (LIL) test is a technique for determining residual oil saturation (Sor) in a watered out reservoir. While this test is, in theory, quite straightforward, it is, in practice, very complex. Even under ideal conditions, accurate Sor measurements require extremely accurate porosity, brine analysis, and pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data. Additionally, a successful test requires a brine injection step which completely displaces the formation brine without displacing any of the oil in the near well-bore regions. A modification to the conventional LIL procedure is described which allows measurements of, and corrections for, both displaced oil and incomplete brine displacement. 11 references.

  17. Partition characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soils and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Mcgroddy, S.E.; Kile, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) and water (i.e., K(oc) values) are relatively invariant either for the 'clean' (uncontaminated) soils or for the clean sediments; however, the mean K(oc) values on the sediments are about twice the values on the soils. This disparity is similar to the earlier observation for other nonpolar solutes and reflects the compositional differences between soil and sediment organic matters. No significant differences in K(oc) are observed between a clean coastal marine sediment and freshwater sediments. The coastal sediments that are significantly impacted by organic contaminants exhibit higher K(oc) values. At given K(ow) values (octanol-water), the PAHs exhibit much higher K(oc) values than other relatively nonpolar solutes (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons). This effect is shown to result from the enhanced partition of PAHs to SOM rather than from lower K(ow) values of PAHs at given supercooled liquid solute solubilities in water. The enhanced partition of PAHs over other nonpolar solutes in SOM provides an account of the markedly different correlations between log K(oc) and log K(ow) for PAHs and for other nonpolar solutes. The improved partition of PAHs in SOM stems apparently from the enhanced compatibility of their cohesive energy densities with those of the aromatic components in SOM. The approximate aromatic fraction in soil/sediment organic matter has been assessed by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy.The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) and water (i.e., Koc values) are relatively invariant either for the `clean' (uncontaminated) soils or for the clean sediments; however, the mean Koc values on the sediments are about twice the values on the soils. This disparity is similar to the earlier observation for other nonpolar solutes and reflects the compositional differences between soil and sediment organic matters. No significant differences in Koc are observed between a clean coastal marine sediment and freshwater sediments. The coastal sediments that are significantly impacted by organic contaminants exhibit higher Koc values. At given Kow values (octanol-water), the PAHs exhibit much higher Koc values than other relatively nonpolar solutes (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons). This effect is shown to result from the enhanced partition of PAHs to SOM rather than from lower Kow values of PAHs at given supercooled liquid solute solubilities in water. The enhanced partition of PAHs over other nonpolar solutes in SOM provides an account of the markedly different correlations between log Koc and log Kow for PAHs and for other nonpolar solutes. The improved partition of PAHs in SOM stems apparently from the enhanced compatibility of their cohesive energy densities with those of the aromatic components in SOM. The approximate aromatic fraction in soil/sediment organic matter has been assessed by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Reduced-impact logging and biodiversity conservation: a case study from Borneo.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Larsen, Trond H; Hsu, Wayne W; Benedick, Suzan; Wilcove, David S

    2012-03-01

    A key driver of rain forest degradation is rampant commercial logging. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques dramatically reduce residual damage to vegetation and soils, and they enhance the long-term economic viability of timber operations when compared to conventionally managed logging enterprises. Consequently, the application of RIL is increasing across the tropics, yet our knowledge of the potential for RIL also to reduce the negative impacts of logging on biodiversity is minimal. We compare the impacts of RIL on birds, leaf-litter ants, and dung beetles during a second logging rotation in Sabah, Borneo, with the impacts of conventional logging (CL) as well as with primary (unlogged) forest. Our study took place 1-8 years after the cessation of logging. The species richness and composition of RIL vs. CL forests were very similar for each taxonomic group. Both RIL and CL differed significantly from unlogged forests in terms of bird and ant species composition (although both retained a large number of the species found in unlogged forests), whereas the composition of dung beetle communities did not differ significantly among forest types. Our results show little difference in biodiversity between RIL and CL over the short-term. However, biodiversity benefits from RIL may accrue over longer time periods after the cessation of logging. We highlight a severe lack of studies investigating this possibility. Moreover, if RIL increases the economic value of selectively logged forests (e.g., via REDD+, a United Nations program: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries), it could help prevent them from being converted to agricultural plantations, which results in a tremendous loss of biodiversity. PMID:22611854

  19. Lipophilicity Screening of Novel Drug-like Compounds and Comparison to cLogP

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dujuan; Chambers, Peter; Wipf, Peter; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Englert, Danielle; Weber, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We determined the distribution coefficients of solutes between a polymer film phase (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with 67% (w/w) dioctyl sebacate (DOS)) and an aqueous phase in a 96-well format. The parallel measurement approach is efficient and uses very little material. Polymer-water distribution coefficients (Dpw) at different pH values yield the pKa and polymer-water partition coefficient values (Ppw) of the solutes. Log Ppw of a prominent drug-like compound, 2H-1, 2, 6-thiadiazine, 3-methyl-5-phenyl-, 1, 1-dioxide, is in good agreement with cLogP, while the pKa value is substantially different from calculated values. This method has been also successfully applied to a library of novel drug-like compounds. Log Dpw values (at pH 4.0, 7.0, 10.0) of 24 novel drug-like compounds have been determined with good reproducibility with the 96-well plate approach. Differences between experimental values and a variety of available calculated values are significant. This emphasizes the need for laboratory separations-based measurements of logD. PMID:22939208

  20. Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation surveying. Nineteen (19) of the 44 wells without magnetic deviation data were selected for the planned gyroscopic logging based on their location relative to facilities, site boundaries, and contaminant transport concerns. In total, 44 aquifer wells (25 with magnetic deviation data and 19 without) are recommended for planned gyroscopic logging.

  1. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple

  2. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

    1997-05-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions.

  3. Quantifying logging residue - before the fact

    SciTech Connect

    Bones, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Tree biomass estimation, which is being integrated into the U.S. Forest Service Renewable Resources Evaluation Program, will give foresters the ability to estimate the amount of logging residues they might expect from harvested treetops and branches and residual rough, rotten, and small trees before the actual harvest. With planning, and increased demand for such timber products as pulpwood and fuelwood, product recovery could be increased by up to 43 percent in softwood stands and 99% in hardwoods. Recovery levels affect gross product receipts and site preparation costs. An example of product recovery and residue generation is presented for three harvesting options in Pennsylvania hardwood stands. Under the whole-tree harvesting option, 46% more product was recovered than in single product harvesting, and logging residue levels were reduced by 58%.

  4. The Nevada Test Site neutron log calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Hearst, J.R.

    1994-02-01

    A new calibrator for neutron logs in large-diameter holes has been built at the Nevada Test Site. It consists of two cylinders, each made of six wedge-shaped cells. The outside diameter of each cylinder is 4.8 m, and the inside diameter is 2.4 m; the height is 2.3 m. The cells were filled with mixtures of hydrated alumina, tabular alumina, sand, and water to achieve a large range of bulk density and hydrogen index. A new calibration algorithm, using three-dimensional interpolation in hydrogen index-gap-density space has been developed to determine hydrogen index from log data. There is evidence that the new algorithm is slightly more accurate than the previous algorithm.

  5. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  6. Ultrasonic techniques in oil well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Havira, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Oil well logging is used to provide the oil and gas industry with information essential to discovering and extracting hydrocarbons. This paper addresses two ultrasonic measurements that are presently used in oil well logging. The most widely used is an ultrasonic technique that evaluates the integrity of the cement seal after a steel casing has been lowered and cemented in place. This instrument is also capable of monitoring the effects of corrosion both on the inner and outer surfaces of the casing. The measurement is based on a pulsed resonant technique. Less widely used is the Borehole Televiewer, an ultrasonic scanning device based on a pulse-echo technique. It provides an acoustic image of geologic features such as rock layers and fractures.

  7. Reconsidering Data Logging in Light of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bin-Hui; Takahashi, Kenichi; Hori, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Logs record the events that have happened within in a system so they are considered the history of system activities. They are one of the objects that digital forensic investigators would like to examine when a security incident happens. However, logs were initially created for trouble shooting, and are not purposefully designed for digital forensics. Thus, enormous and redundant log data make analysis tasks complicated and time-consuming to find valuable information, and make logging-related techniques difficult utilized in some systems such as embedded systems. In this paper, we reconsider a data logging mechanism in terms of forensics and consequently, we propose purpose-based forensic logging. In purpose-based forensic logging, we only collect the required logs according to a specific purpose, which could decrease the space that logs occupy and may mitigate the analysis tasks during forensic investigations.

  8. Logging residues: An economic energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeney, K.J.

    1980-12-01

    Full utilization of the forest resource has long been the goal of resource planners. The aim of this project was to identify and test methods of reaching this goal. Forest residues on two recently logged sites representing a range of residue concentration and type were inventoried and classified. Residues were collected into piles and were processed using two different types of mobile chippers. Samples of the processed material were analyzed to determine their physical and energy properties. A portion of the chipped material was transported to a hog fuel boiler for burning. Each phase of the work was monitored to determine productivity, cost and fuel consumption. Results show the cost per tonne for each phase of the operation and the ratio of energy consumed to energy produced. Results indicated that utilization of logging residues for energy is technically feasible. Future research and development is required to develop more cost efficient methods of retrieving, processing and transporting logging residues prior to implementation on a commercial scale.

  9. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-03-15

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  10. Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

  11. [Value(s)].

    PubMed

    Vanbelle, G

    2006-01-01

    After a short explanation of the word value, the (cultural) value of teeth, the economic evaluation of dentistry and the payment criteria are being presented. The specific situation of health care as a service which deviates in quite a few aspects from the standard demand-supply model is being pointed out. Attention is drawn to key characteristics of the liberal professions such as the obligation to perform to the best of one's ability, not to a specific result. Function classification appears to offer possibilities for cataloguing the wide variation in practice settings. The well-known wage calculation of Professor De Lembre is being reviewed. Subsequently the analysis of cost variation and induced demand by extra services and profile shaping is being elaborated. Cost-benefit-analysis is the concluding item. PMID:17410932

  12. New Techniques: Muon Glaciology and Ultrasonic Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkin, D.; Allen, J.; Bay, R. C.; Bramall, N.; Price, P. B.

    2003-12-01

    The strain rate of cold glacial ice depends mainly on the stress tensor, temperature, grain size, and crystal habit. Lab measurements cannot be made at both the low stresses and low temperatures relevant to flow of cold glacial ice. Field studies with inclinometers measure only the horizontal components of flow. We have developed a new method for measuring the 3D strain-rate field at -40o to -15oC, using the AMANDA neutrino-detecting array frozen into deep ice at South Pole. Each strain detector consists of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) in its pressure vessel. AMANDA has 600 PMTs at depths 1500 to 2300 m in a 0.02 km3 volume. The coordinates of each PMT relative to a coordinate system moving down slope at 9 m yr-1 can be measured with s.d. <1 m in 1 day by mapping trajectories of down-going cosmic-ray muons that pass through the array. The PMTs record the arrival times of the Cherenkov light emitted along the muon trajectory. Use of maximum likelihood for 105 muon tracks allows PMT positions to be determined; their positions are then updated at six-month intervals. We will report results of strain-rate measurements in three dimensions, made in 2000, 2001, and 2002 at T ? -30oC. Applying the same technique to the future 1 km3 IceCube array, by averaging over subsets of the 5000 detectors, values of the strain-rate tensor as small as 3x 10-5 yr-1 can be measured as a function of temperature and lateral position. The vertical strain rate due to snow accumulation, estimated to be 3x 10-5 yr-1, can be measured and will serve as a check on the method. The second new method is designed to measure mean grain size in the ice surrounding a borehole. We will adapt an all-digital logging tool originally developed by Advanced Logic Technology (Luxembourg) for geophysics prospecting in rock boreholes. A 1.3 MHz transducer emits acoustic pulses horizontally into the ice in increments of 5o in azimuth and records the wave train back-scattered from grain boundaries. For fine-grained glacial ice, individual grains will not be resolved; instead, the amplitude of back-scattering as a function of time provides a measure of mean grain size. Data rate is 1 meter depth/minute. In addition, the logger can map borehole structure with 0.1 mm resolution. At depths down to 400 m, it measures air bubble concentrations, which can be related to local temperature at the time of firn close-off.

  13. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  14. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, Wei

    1998-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction the necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content. For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication.

  15. The effects of selective logging on the distribution of moths in a Bornean rainforest.

    PubMed

    Willott, S J

    1999-11-29

    The effects of selective logging on the diversity and species composition of moths were investigated by sampling from multiple sites in primary forest, both understorey and canopy, and logged forest at Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. The diversity of individual sites was similar, although rarefied species richness of logged forest was 17% lower than for primary forest (understorey and canopy combined). There was significant heterogeneity in faunal composition and measures of similarity (NESS index) among primary forest understorey sites which may be as great as those between primary understorey and logged forest. The lowest similarity values were between primary forest understorey and canopy, indicating a distinct canopy fauna. A number of species encountered in the logged forest were confined to, or more abundant in, the canopy of primary forest. Approximately 10% of species were confined to primary forest across a range of species' abundances, suggesting this is a minimum estimate for the number of species lost following logging. The importance of accounting for heterogeneity within primary forest and sampling in the canopy when measuring the effects of disturbance on tropical forest communities are emphasized. PMID:11605621

  16. Selective Logging Disturbance And Isotopic Composition Of Repired CO2 In Western Amazonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ometto, J. P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Berry, J.; Miller, S.; Goulden, M.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the controls of gas exchange in primary and disturbed forests within the Amazon Basin is central to understanding the global carbon cycle, since tropical forests account for 40% of the carbon stored globally in terrestrial biomass. Stable isotope ratio analyses (13C, 18O) of atmospheric CO2 provide useful information regarding the balance between photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss in rainforest ecosystems and of the stomatal constraints on photosynthetic gas exchange. One useful isotopic parameter we have measured is the carbon isotope ratio of all respiration emerging from the ecosystem (del13Cr). Our recent observations suggest a direct relationship between logging activities and del13Cr values in these forests. Logging activities at the LBA site in Santarem, Para, began with the removal of lianas before the dry season and afterward selective logging. This logging activity opened the forest and resulted in a 4per mil shift in del13CR. During the following wet season (2002/2003), eddy covariance measurements at the logged site reported increased ecosystem gas exchange. Coincident with this increase in net ecosystem exchange, we observed a decrease in del13CR consistent with a decreased stomatal limitation on photosynthetic gas exchange in the logged forest.

  17. Land-sharing versus land-sparing logging: reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Larsen, Trond H; Andrews, David J R; Derh, Mia A; Docherty, Teegan D S; Hsu, Wayne W; Mitchell, Simon L; Ota, Takahiro; Williams, Leah J; Laurance, William F; Hamer, Keith C; Wilcove, David S

    2014-01-01

    Selective logging is a major driver of rainforest degradation across the tropics. Two competing logging strategies are proposed to meet timber demands with the least impact on biodiversity: land sharing, which combines timber extraction with biodiversity protection across the concession; and land sparing, in which higher intensity logging is combined with the protection of intact primary forest reserves. We evaluate these strategies by comparing the abundances and species richness of birds, dung beetles and ants in Borneo, using a protocol that allows us to control for both timber yield and net profit across strategies. Within each taxonomic group, more species had higher abundances with land-sparing than land-sharing logging, and this translated into significantly higher species richness within land-sparing concessions. Our results are similar when focusing only on species found in primary forest and restricted in range to Sundaland, and they are independent of the scale of sampling. For each taxonomic group, land-sparing logging was the most promising strategy for maximizing the biological value of logging operations. PMID:23955803

  18. Determination of polymer log D distributions by micellar and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoyun; Leclercq, Laurent; Cottet, Herv

    2013-11-29

    The characterization of the hydrophobicity of polymer compounds in solution remains a challenging issue of importance, especially for biomedical or pharmaceutical applications. To our knowledge, there is no data of polymer hydrophobicity (log D) in the literature. In this work, for the first time, the log D distributions of cationic polymers were characterized using micellar or microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography at physiological pH. The log D distributions of the polymer samples were obtained from the electrophoretic/chromatographic retardation of the polymer derivatives in presence of neutral micelles (or neutral microemulsion), using small cationic molecules for calibration. Separating electrolytes were based on a TRISchloride buffer containing a neutral surfactant (polyoxyethyleneglycoldodecyl ether) for the formation of micelles (in water) or microemulsion (in water/n-pentanol mixture).The log D distributions obtained at pH 7.4 using this method were in good agreement with the chemical structures of cationic polypeptides: poly(lys, phe) 1:1 > poly(lys, tyr) 1:1 > poly(lys, trp) 4:1 > poly(lys, ser)3:1 > poly(l-lysine), where x:y represents the molar ratio of each amino acid in the copolymer. Weight average octanolwater log D values and the dispersion of the log D distribution were also defined and determined for each polymer sample. PMID:24209298

  19. Quality of the log-geometric distribution extrapolation for smaller undiscovered oil and gas pool size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chenglin, L.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey procedure for the estimation of the general form of the parent distribution requires that the parameters of the log-geometric distribution be calculated and analyzed for the sensitivity of these parameters to different conditions. In this study, we derive the shape factor of a log-geometric distribution from the ratio of frequencies between adjacent bins. The shape factor has a log straight-line relationship with the ratio of frequencies. Additionally, the calculation equations of a ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary are deduced. For a specific log-geometric distribution, we find that the ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary is the same. We apply our analysis to simulations based on oil and gas pool distributions from four petroleum systems of Alberta, Canada and four generated distributions. Each petroleum system in Alberta has a different shape factor. Generally, the shape factors in the four petroleum systems stabilize with the increase of discovered pool numbers. For a log-geometric distribution, the shape factor becomes stable when discovered pool numbers exceed 50 and the shape factor is influenced by the exploration efficiency when the exploration efficiency is less than 1. The simulation results show that calculated shape factors increase with those of the parent distributions, and undiscovered oil and gas resources estimated through the log-geometric distribution extrapolation are smaller than the actual values. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  20. Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006.

  1. Regional-scale Hydrostratigraphic Analysis of the Paskapoo Aquifer Using Normalized Gamma-ray Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, L. R.; Quartero, E.; Leier, A.; Bechtel, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Paskapoo Formation is the major groundwater aquifer system in western Alberta, Canada. The aquifer system covers approximately 65,000 km2, has over 69,000 groundwater wells completed in it, has a maximum thickness of 800 m and consists of a fluvial mudstone and sandstone complex. The formation is divided into the upper Dalehurst Member, the mud dominated Lacombe Member and the basal Haynes Member. In order to develop hydrostratigraphic models of the Paskapoo Fm., it is necessary to understand the distribution and connectivity of the sandstone remnants. Mapping these features is a particularly difficult problem given the size of the region and the complexity of fluvial systems. In 2006 the Government of Alberta mandated that all wire line log readings, including natural gamma-ray logs, must be collected to surface. Tens of thousands of new exploration and production wells have been drilled and logged since 2006. Since wire line logs are in the public domain, it has created a large source of new data for mapping shallow aquifer systems. However, much of the shallow data of interest is collected through casing. A gamma-ray normalization algorithm has been developed to approximately correct for the dampening effects of the casing so that the cased and uncased API log values are equivalent. The algorithm is based on estimating the second and ninety-fifth percentiles of the API values in uncased zones in wells with similar geology to the cased zones that are to be corrected. The API values of cased zones are then adjusted so that their second and ninety-fifth API percentiles are the same as the uncased values. Mudstone and sandstone zones in the logs can be discriminated and the continuity of sandstone units can be investigated. The Haynes member has been previously described as made up of set of stacked sandstone channels. Logs show that the Haynes member is a thick sandstone unit up to 100 m thick and extending over 100 km perpendicular to the Rocky Mountain's thrust front. Logs also show that the Haynes Member is absent in the northern Paskapoo Fm. The overlying Lacombe member is clearly distinguishable from the Haynes member and it consists of smaller channel sandstone remnants which cannot be correlated over large distances, consistent with its description of a mud dominated system. Areas of higher and lower sand fraction are evident in the records. Mapping sand fractions is extremely important as it exerts first order control on regional hydraulic conductivity, vertical conductivity and connectivity within the aquifer. The normalized gamma logs offer a powerful new tool for regional aquifer characterization in Alberta.

  2. 8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, detail of log construction - Wilkins Farm, Barn, South side of Dove Hollow Road, 6000 feet east of State Route 259, Lost City, Hardy County, WV

  3. 35. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF EAST CHIMNEY BASE SHOWING CONTINUOUS LOG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF EAST CHIMNEY BASE SHOWING CONTINUOUS LOG FOUNDATION OVER VAULT AND THE WEST CRIBBING LOG WITH STONE FILL ON THE EAST. - Penacook House, Daniel Webster Highway (U.S. Route 3), Boscawen, Merrimack County, NH

  4. 5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing Dutch door and square notching at wall corner. View to east. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Draft Horse Barn, 290 feet southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. 6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION AND CHIMNEY STACK - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  6. 4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on later extension. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  7. 3. MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING HEWN LOGS WITH HALFDOVETAIL JOINTS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING HEWN LOGS WITH HALF-DOVETAIL JOINTS; LATHE AND PLASTER ADDITION; AND CLAPBOARD SIDING - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  8. 2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS FROM POND TO JACK LADDER--AN ENDLESS CHAIN CONVEYOR THAT MOVES LOGS INTO MILL - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  9. Well logging and its applications in cased holes

    SciTech Connect

    Fertl, W.H.

    1984-02-01

    Workovers and recompletions of old wells, evaluation and monitoring of reservoir behavior during primary, secondary, and tertiary recovery, and exploration for bypassed oil in cased wells make the proper selection of cased-hole logs and/or optimal logging suites a necessity. Required information includes the integrity of the cement bond between casing and the formation, lithology identification, porosity, type and distribution of reservoir fluids, formation permeability, and anticipated watercut estimates. These data can be obtained from various log responses, which include natural total and/or spectral gamma ray radioactivity measurements, radiation-type logs (density, neutron), pulsed neutron logs, acoustic measurements, etc. In addition, special time-lapse logging techniques monitor reservoir behavior and state of hydrocarbon depletion, whereas log-inject-log (LIL) techniques enhance the accuracy of residual oil saturation (ROS) estimates.

  10. 8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED JACKSLIP USED FOR HAULING LOGS UP TO SAWMILL. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  11. Studies on phase and group velocities from acoustic logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, De-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Lan; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; He, Xiao; Wang, Xiu-Ming

    2012-03-01

    It is still argued whether we measure phase or group velocities using acoustic logging tools. In this paper, three kinds of models are used to investigate this problem by theoretical analyses and numerical simulations. First, we use the plane-wave superposition model containing two plane waves with different velocities and able to change the values of phase velocity and group velocity. The numerical results show that whether phase velocity is higher or lower than group velocity, using the slowness-time coherence (STC) method we can only get phase velocities. Second, according to the results of the dispersion analysis and branch-cut integration, in a rigid boundary borehole model the results of dispersion curves and the waveforms of the first-order mode show that the velocities obtained by the STC method are phase velocities while group velocities obtained by arrival time picking. Finally, dipole logging in a slow formation model is investigated using dispersion analysis and real-axis integration. The results of dispersion curves and full wave trains show similar conclusions as the borehole model with rigid boundary conditions.

  12. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  13. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  14. Apparatus for focused electrode induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1986-04-15

    An induced polarization logging tool is described for measuring parameters of a formation surrounding a borehole. The logging tool consists of: a non-conductive logging sonde; a plurality of electrodes disposed on the sonde, the electrodes including at least a survey current electrode and guard electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the survey current electrode, a non-polarizing voltage measuring electrode, a non-polarizing voltage reference electrode and a current return electrode, both the voltage reference and current return electrodes being located a greater distance from the survey current electrode than the guard electrodes; means connected to the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes for generating a signal representative of the potential difference in the formation between the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes; first control means directly coupled to the survey current electrode, the first control means controlling the current flow to the survey current electrode in response to the potential difference signal; a second control means directly coupled to the guard electrodes to control the current flow to the guard electrodes in response to the potential difference signal; a source of alternating current located at the surface, one end of the source being coupled to the two control means and the other to the current return electrode, the source supplying alternating current at various discrete frequencies between substantially 0.01 and 100 Hz; measurement means directly coupled to the voltage measurement and survey current electrodes to measure the amplitude and phase of the voltage induced in the formation and the amplitude and phase of the current flow to the survey electrode; and transmission means for transmitting the measurements to the surface.

  15. An electronic encounter log's failure to scale.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Walton; Asaro, Phil; Asaro, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a series of Electronic Student Encounter Log (ESEL) programs intended to introduce medical students to promising medical informatics concepts. We attempted to expand ESELs scope from ambulatory settings to all hospital venues and to track progress toward educational goals. Students were confused and frustrated by a previously fast interface and delayed feedback. Numerous scaling problems emerged. Our attempt to address these problems in an extensive revision, developed for the latest affordable hardware and operating system, failed due to new data-corrupting crashes. Risks of scaling up and other familiar software development lessons are reinforced. PMID:18998815

  16. Consider options when selecting log amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas; Gertel, Eitan; Kopski, Robert; Kumar, Mahesh

    1990-03-01

    A number of available types of logarithmic amplifiers, including logarithmic video amplifiers, detector log video amplifiers, logarithmic intermediate frequency (IF) amplifiers, and true logarithmic amplifiers, are described, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are considered. It is noted, for example, that true logarithmic amplifiers are used when a received signal has a large dynamic range. Such amplifiers provide the advantage of preserving both input amplitude and phase information; however, since the outputs are RF signals, they may prove difficult to process. It is concluded that system requirements often determine the amplifier design that works best for receivers currently in use.

  17. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  18. VAFLE: visual analytics of firewall log events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Mohammad; Shurkhovetskyy, Georgiy; Bahey, Ahmed; Otjacques, Benot.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present VAFLE, an interactive network security visualization prototype for the analysis of firewall log events. Keeping it simple yet effective for analysts, we provide multiple coordinated interactive visualizations augmented with clustering capabilities customized to support anomaly detection and cyber situation awareness. We evaluate the usefulness of the prototype in a use case with network traffic datasets from previous VAST Challenges, illustrating its effectiveness at promoting fast and well-informed decisions. We explain how a security analyst may spot suspicious traffic using VAFLE. We further assess its usefulness through a qualitative evaluation involving network security experts, whose feedback is reported and discussed.

  19. Identifying related journals through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

  20. Nonlinear filters with log-homotopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2007-09-01

    We derive and test a new nonlinear filter that implements Bayes' rule using an ODE rather than with a pointwise multiplication of two functions. This avoids one of the fundamental and well known problems in particle filters, namely "particle collapse" as a result of Bayes' rule. We use a log-homotopy to construct this ODE. Our new algorithm is vastly superior to the classic particle filter, and we do not use any proposal density supplied by an EKF or UKF or other outside source. This paper was written for normal engineers, who do not have homotopy for breakfast.

  1. Outcrop gamma-ray logging applied to subsurface petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Slatt, R.M.; Borer, J.M.; Horn, B.W.

    1995-10-01

    Developing a gamma-ray log profile of an outcrop with a hand-held scintillometer has many applications to subsurface petroleum geology. The outcrop gamma-ray log provides a readily understandable bridge between what is observed in outcrop and what is to be interpreted on well logs and seismic records. Several examples are presented in this paper that demonstrate major applications. An outcrop from the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in Colorado provides an excellent example of the use of outcrop gamma-ray logs to better visualize spatial variability of depositional settings for improved well log correlations. Out crops from the Cretaceous Almond Formation, Niobrara Formation, and Graneros Shale in Colorado serve as examples of outcrop gamma-ray logging used to correlate outcrops with their subsurface equivalents for improved lithologic and stratigraphic interpretation of well logs. Outcrops of the Cretaceous Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale in Colorado and the Eocene Green River Formation in Wyoming provide examples of the application of outcrop-gamma ray logging to identify and characterize organic-rich shales in outcrops and on well logs. Outcrops of the Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation in Arkansas demonstrate the use of outcrop logging to yield improved interpretation of reservoir quality on well logs and for one- and two-dimensional seismic modeling. An outcrop of Precambrian and Cambro-Ordovician rocks from Algeria provides an example of outcrop logging to recognize unconformities and other major surfaces on well logs. An outcrop of the Niobrara Formation in Colorado is used as an example for improved understanding of horizontal gamma-ray log response. The example logs presented are all drived with a hand-held scintillometer. This technique is simple, quick, and relatively inexpensive, so is recommended for any outcrop work that is intended to be applied t;o subsurface well logs or seismic interpretation.

  2. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Cara A.; Guariguata, Manuel R.; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world’s most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1–2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù. PMID:26271042

  3. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Cara A; Guariguata, Manuel R; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Quenta Hancco, Roger; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world's most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1-2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù. PMID:26271042

  4. Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

  5. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log or timber product means any product classifiable in Chapter 44 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  6. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log or timber product means any product classifiable in Chapter 44 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  7. Geochemical logging of a middle east carbonate reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, S.L.; Dove, R.E. ); Petricola, M. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on geochemical logs which when run through a complex carbonate formation yield accurate elemental concentration logs. These are instrumental to the computation of detailed formation mineralogy and derivative properties, such as matrix density and sigma. The quantitative mineralogy logs also are used to estimate permeability empirically with a correlation observed from core data.

  8. The Learning Log as an Integrated Instructional Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topaz, Beverley

    1997-01-01

    Use of student learning logs is recommended as a means for both students and teacher to assess second-language learning. The approach encourages learners to analyze their learning difficulties and plan for overcoming them. Incorporated into portfolios, logs can be used to analyze progress. Sample log sheet and chart used as a framework for…

  9. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific licenses for well logging. 39.13 Section 39.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve...

  10. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific licenses for well logging. 39.13 Section 39.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve...

  11. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific licenses for well logging. 39.13 Section 39.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve...

  12. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific licenses for well logging. 39.13 Section 39.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve...

  13. EFFECTS OF LOG HANDLING AND STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological and chemical effects of three types of log storage on water quality were investigated. Three flow-through log ponds, two wet deck operations, and five log rafting areas were studied. Both biological and chemical aspects of stream quality can be adversely affected b...

  14. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the season of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice,...

  15. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be maintained by each ship in commission, and by such other ships and craft as may be designated by the Chief...

  16. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be maintained by each ship in commission, and by such other ships and craft as may be designated by the Chief...

  17. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be maintained by each ship in commission, and by such other ships and craft as may be designated by the Chief...

  18. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  19. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  20. The Log-Ratio Beam Position Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, A.

    2002-12-01

    Bergoz Instrumentation has designed a new Log-Ratio Beam Position Monitor (LRBPM). It can be used to measure position of a single short bunch, a bunch train, successive and repetitive (circulating) bunches/trains. The monitor has four parallel channels with band pass filters and logarithmic demodulating high dynamic range amplifiers. The amplifiers detect the envelopes of the RF-bursts brought about by the pickup signals in the filters. Log-ratio processing and conversion of the pickup axes to X,Y is done using a broadband analog technique. The monitor can be used either in a continuous mode, or Sample&Hold or Track&Hold modes. In the last two modes, the LRBPM can be triggered by the beam signal itself. The accuracy limits coming from an inherent demodulator noise, logarithmic nonlinearity, speed of response, etc. of the amplifiers (Analog Devices) are discussed. An accessory developed to determine the LRBPM center offset and resolution with the present beam signals is described.

  1. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    SciTech Connect

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  2. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  3. Seismic velocity estimation from well log data with genetic algorithms in comparison to neural networks and multilinear approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleardi, Mattia

    2015-06-01

    Predicting missing log data is a useful capability for geophysicists. Geophysical measurements in boreholes are frequently affected by gaps in the recording of one or more logs. In particular, sonic and shear sonic logs are often recorded over limited intervals along the well path, but the information these logs contain is crucial for many geophysical applications. Estimating missing log intervals from a set of recorded logs is therefore of great interest. In this work, I propose to estimate the data in missing parts of velocity logs using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimisation and I demonstrate that this method is capable of extracting linear or exponential relations that link the velocity to other available logs. The technique was tested on different sets of logs (gamma ray, resistivity, density, neutron, sonic and shear sonic) from three wells drilled in different geological settings and through different lithologies (sedimentary and intrusive rocks). The effectiveness of this methodology is demonstrated by a series of blind tests and by evaluating the correlation coefficients between the true versus predicted velocity values. The combination of GA optimisation with a Gibbs sampler (GS) and subsequent Monte Carlo simulations allows the uncertainties in the final predicted velocities to be reliably quantified. The GA method is also compared with the neural networks (NN) approach and classical multilinear regression. The comparisons show that the GA, NN and multilinear methods provide velocity estimates with the same predictive capability when the relation between the input logs and the seismic velocity is approximately linear. The GA and NN approaches are more robust when the relations are non-linear. However, in all cases, the main advantages of the GA optimisation procedure over the NN approach is that it directly provides an interpretable and simple equation that relates the input and predicted logs. Moreover, the GA method is not affected by the disadvantages that characterise gradient descent techniques such as the NN method.

  4. Linear-log counting-rate meter uses transconductance characteristics of a silicon planar transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichholz, J. J.

    1969-01-01

    Counting rate meter compresses a wide range of data values, or decades of current. Silicon planar transistor, operating in the zero collector-base voltage mode, is used as a feedback element in an operational amplifier to obtain the log response.

  5. Accurate Lipophilicity (log?P) Measurements Inform on Subtle Stereoelectronic Effects in Fluorine Chemistry.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, David; Young, Robert J

    2016-03-14

    Polar exploration: Recently, Linclau and co-workers disclosed a straightforward (19) F-NMR method for determining the log?P values of fluorocarbons. The method is particularly useful for most polar compounds and provides a quantitative way to rationalize the more subtle stereoelectronic consequences of fluorine introduction. PMID:26894548

  6. Rapidly compacted coal logs for pipelines: Binder and pressure effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, W.

    1999-07-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress regarding the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport; particularly, it examines the effect of binder concentration and compaction pressure on the performance of rapidly compacted coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5-second compaction time. Gunnink and Li (1998) and Gunnink and Yang (1997) observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs an optimal moisture content exists. This optimal moisture content being the moisture content at which the coal log bulk density is maximum. Coal log circulation performance is best at moisture contents at or below this optimum. Also, if coal logs are compacted at or below this optimum the logs' circulation performances are independent of compaction time. This study examines the interrelated effects of binder concentration, compaction pressure, and compaction time on the circulation performance of coal logs. Test results show that circulation performance is largely independent of binder concentration for binder concentrations ranging from 1% to 3%. Test results also show that the effect of compaction pressure is a function of compaction time; there is a positive effect associated with increased compaction pressure for short compaction times, but there is little effect for longer compaction times. Finally, it was demonstrated that if the dry bulk densities of compacted coal logs were the same, then the circulation performance of the coal logs would be the same.

  7. Tree species diversity in commercially logged bornean rainforest

    PubMed

    Cannon; Peart; Leighton

    1998-08-28

    The effects of commercial logging on tree diversity in tropical rainforest are largely unknown. In this study, selectively logged tropical rainforest in Indonesian Borneo is shown to contain high tree species richness, despite severe structural damage. Plots logged 8 years before sampling contained fewer species of trees greater than 20 centimeters in diameter than did similar-sized unlogged plots. However, in samples of the same numbers of trees (requiring a 50 percent larger area), logged forest contained as many tree species as unlogged forest. These findings warrant reassessment of the conservation potential of large tracts of commercially logged tropical rainforest. PMID:9721105

  8. Impact of selective logging on inbreeding and gene dispersal in an Amazonian tree population of Carapa guianensis Aubl.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, D; Kanashiro, M; Ciampi, A Y; Schoen, D J

    2007-02-01

    Selective logging may impact patterns of genetic diversity within populations of harvested forest tree species by increasing distances separating conspecific trees, and modifying physical and biotic features of the forest habitat. We measured levels of gene diversity, inbreeding, pollen dispersal and spatial genetic structure (SGS) of an Amazonian insect-pollinated Carapa guianensis population before and after commercial selective logging. Similar levels of gene diversity and allelic richness were found before and after logging in both the adult and the seed generations. Pre- and post-harvest outcrossing rates were high, and not significantly different from one another. We found no significant levels of biparental inbreeding either before or after logging. Low levels of pollen pool differentiation were found, and the pre- vs. post-harvest difference was not significant. Pollen dispersal distance estimates averaged between 75 m and 265 m before logging, and between 76 m and 268 m after logging, depending on the value of tree density and the dispersal model used. There were weak and similar levels of differentiation of allele frequencies in the adults and in the pollen pool, before and after logging occurred, as well as weak and similar pre- and post-harvest levels of SGS among adult trees. The large neighbourhood sizes estimated suggest high historical levels of gene flow. Overall our results indicate that there is no clear short-term genetic impact of selective logging on this population of C. guianensis. PMID:17284212

  9. Prediction of thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks from well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The calculation of heat-flow density in boreholes requires reliable values for the change of temperature and rock thermal conductivity with depth. As rock samples for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity (TC) are usually rare geophysical well logs are used alternatively to determine TC. A common procedure in the latter approach is the use of empirical relations between TC and different petrophysical properties. Although numerous prediction equations were developed in the past five decades, none of these seem to be universally applicable for all major types of sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evaporites). In addition, these relations mostly are suitable only for regions and lithotypes for which they were originally developed. A new set of predictive equations is presented which overcomes these limitations and which allows the prediction of the rock matrix TC based on different combinations of standard geophysical well-logs. In combination with a feasible mixing-model (i.e. geometric mean model) bulk TC is computed along borehole profiles. The underlying approach was proposed by Fuchs & Förster (2014) and rests upon the detailed analysis of the interrelations between major physical parameters (i.e. thermal conductivity, density, hydrogen index, sonic interval transit time, gamma-ray response, photoelectric factor) of artificial mineral assemblages consisting 15 rock-forming minerals that are used in different combinations to typify sedimentary rocks. The predictive capacity of the new equations is evaluated on subsurface data from four boreholes drilled into the Mesozoic sequence of the North German Basin, including more than 1700 laboratory-measured thermal-conductivity values. Results are compared with those from other approaches published in the past. The new approach predicts TC with a mean error between 10 and 15 % compared to earlier approaches of much higher error of 15-35 % (and sometimes higher).

  10. Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

    2013-08-01

    The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

  11. Principle and geometric precision of photographic geological logging of tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Rong-Chun; Yang, Biao; Wu, Ming-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Considering the problem of engineering geological logging technique by means of sketching at the work site, this paper presents a photographic geological logging technique based on photogrammetry as well as engineering geology. The principles, methods, and working process have been discussed, and the photographic geological logging precision of a tunnel and its estimation method have been researched. The theoretical and experimental analysis shows that the precision of the digital unfolded image map of tunnel automatically generated by the photographic geological logging method is sufficient for serving as the logging base map. Besides, the measurement precision of unfolded images or stereopairs meets the requirements of geological attitude measurement. The new technique of photographic geological logging proposed in this paper is expected to replace the current sketch way of engineering geological logging on site, with the operation mode converted from manual operation to computer-aided operation and informatized management.

  12. Automated lithology prediction from PGNAA and other geophysical logs.

    PubMed

    Borsaru, M; Zhou, B; Aizawa, T; Karashima, H; Hashimoto, T

    2006-02-01

    Different methods of lithology predictions from geophysical data have been developed in the last 15 years. The geophysical logs used for predicting lithology are the conventional logs: sonic, neutron-neutron, gamma (total natural-gamma) and density (backscattered gamma-gamma). The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is another established geophysical logging technique for in situ element analysis of rocks in boreholes. The work described in this paper was carried out to investigate the application of PGNAA to the lithology interpretation. The data interpretation was conducted using the automatic interpretation program LogTrans based on statistical analysis. Limited test suggests that PGNAA logging data can be used to predict the lithology. A success rate of 73% for lithology prediction was achieved from PGNAA logging data only. It can also be used in conjunction with the conventional geophysical logs to enhance the lithology prediction. PMID:16140021

  13. Capacitive Resistivity Logging to Characterize Hydrostratigraphy: Field Tests at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwenifumbo, J.; Knoll, M. D.

    2004-05-01

    A new borehole probe was recently developed for measuring the resistivity of geological formations. The probe uses capacitive electrodes, instead of galvanic electrodes or inductive coils, to measure resistivity. Unlike the galvanic resistivity method, the capacitive method works in plastic-cased or air-filled holes, and unlike the inductive method, the capacitive method works well in highly resistive conditions (>1000 ohm-m). With these advantages, the capacitive resistivity method should prove useful for many near-surface hydrogeological and environmental applications. In order to further the development and testing of this method, we conducted a series of logging experiments at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) located in Boise, ID. The BHRS is a research wellfield located in a shallow, unconfined, coarse alluvial aquifer. Capacitive resistivity data were collected in 14 wells at this site and the resulting logs were used to identify the stratigraphy at each well. The resistivity stratigraphy was also compared to the porosity stratigraphy derived from neutron logging. The zonations determined from resistivity and porosity compare favourably. This is because conduction through the sediments is primarily ionic; the deposits are comprised predominantly of cobble and sand, with very little clay. The capacitive resistivity logs are a little more expressive and variable than the neutron porosity logs. This may be because the capacitive resistivity logs are more sensitive to subtle changes in sediment properties, or because the two logs are sensing different things. The capacitive resistivity data are also compared to induction log (EM39) data and the correlation between these two datasets is poor. Where resistivities are high, the induction log shows very little sensitivity to changes in material properties. At the BHRS, the capacitive resistivity method provides more accurate and reliable data than the induction method. Results from the field tests suggest that capacitive resistivity logs can be used to refine the working hydrostratigraphic model for the site. In addition, correlation of capacitive resistivity values between wells leads to a better understanding of the three-dimensional architecture of the aquifer.

  14. Armored instrumentation cable for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Johnson, J.; Todd, B.

    1981-01-01

    Multiconductor armored well-logging cable is used extensively by the oil and natural gas industry to lower various instruments used to measure the geological and geophysical parameters into deep wellbores. Advanced technology in oil-well drilling makes it possible to achieve borehole depths of 9 km (30,000 ft). The higher temperatures in these deeper boreholes demand advancements in the design and manufacturing of wireline cable and in the electrical insulating and armoring materials used as integral components. If geothermal energy is proved an abundant economic resource, drilling temperatures approaching and exceeding 300/sup 0/C will become commonplace. The adaptation of teflons as electrical insulating material permitted use of armored cable in geothermal wellbores where temperatures are slightly in excess of 200/sup 0/C, and where the concentrations of corrosive minerals and gases are high. Teflon materials presently used in wireline cables, however, are not capable of continuous operation at the anticipated higher temperatures.

  15. Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

  16. Certified and Uncertified Logging Concessions Compared in Gabon: Changes in Stand Structure, Tree Species, and Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medjibe, V. P.; Putz, Francis E.; Romero, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Forest management certification is assumed to promote sustainable forest management, but there is little field-based evidence to support this claim. To help fill this gap, we compared a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)-certified with an adjacent uncertified, conventionally logged concession (CL) in Gabon on the basis of logging damage, above-ground biomass (AGB), and tree species diversity and composition. Before logging, we marked, mapped, and measured all trees >10 cm dbh in 20 and twelve 1-ha permanent plots in the FSC and CL areas, respectively. Soil and tree damage due to felling, skidding, and road-related activities was then assessed 2-3 months after the 508 ha FSC study area and the 200 ha CL study area were selectively logged at respective intensities of 5.7 m3/ha (0.39 trees/ha) and 11.4 m3/ha (0.76 trees/ha). For each tree felled, averages of 9.1 and 20.9 other trees were damaged in the FSC and CL plots, respectively; when expressed as the impacts per timber volume extracted, the values did not differ between the two treatments. Skid trails covered 2.9 % more of the CL surface, but skid trail length per unit timber volume extracted was not greater. Logging roads were wider in the CL than FSC site and disturbed 4.7 % more of the surface. Overall, logging caused declines in AGB of 7.1 and 13.4 % at the FSC and CL sites, respectively. Changes in tree species composition were small but greater for the CL site. Based on these findings and in light of the pseudoreplicated study design with less-than perfect counterfactual, we cautiously conclude that certification yields environmental benefits even after accounting for differences in logging intensities.

  17. Certified and uncertified logging concessions compared in Gabon: changes in stand structure, tree species, and biomass.

    PubMed

    Medjibe, V P; Putz, Francis E; Romero, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Forest management certification is assumed to promote sustainable forest management, but there is little field-based evidence to support this claim. To help fill this gap, we compared a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)-certified with an adjacent uncertified, conventionally logged concession (CL) in Gabon on the basis of logging damage, above-ground biomass (AGB), and tree species diversity and composition. Before logging, we marked, mapped, and measured all trees >10cm dbh in 20 and twelve 1-ha permanent plots in the FSC and CL areas, respectively. Soil and tree damage due to felling, skidding, and road-related activities was then assessed 2-3months after the 508ha FSC study area and the 200ha CL study area were selectively logged at respective intensities of 5.7m(3)/ha (0.39 trees/ha) and 11.4m(3)/ha (0.76 trees/ha). For each tree felled, averages of 9.1 and 20.9 other trees were damaged in the FSC and CL plots, respectively; when expressed as the impacts per timber volume extracted, the values did not differ between the two treatments. Skid trails covered 2.9% more of the CL surface, but skid trail length per unit timber volume extracted was not greater. Logging roads were wider in the CL than FSC site and disturbed 4.7% more of the surface. Overall, logging caused declines in AGB of 7.1 and 13.4% at the FSC and CL sites, respectively. Changes in tree species composition were small but greater for the CL site. Based on these findings and in light of the pseudoreplicated study design with less-than perfect counterfactual, we cautiously conclude that certification yields environmental benefits even after accounting for differences in logging intensities. PMID:23277438

  18. Quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) approach in predicting flotation efficiency of chelating agents as mineral collectors.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, R; Nirdosh, I; Venuvanalingam, P; Ramalingam, M

    2002-07-01

    The QPPR approach has been used to model cupferrons as mineral collectors. Separation efficiencies (Es) of these chelating agents have been correlated with property parameters namely, log P, log Koc, substituent-constant sigma, Mullikan and ESP derived charges using multiple regression analysis. Es of substituted-cupferrons in the flotation of a uranium ore could be predicted within experimental error either by log P or log Koc and an electronic parameter. However, when a halo, methoxy or phenyl substituent was in para to the chelating group, experimental Es was greater than the predicted values. Inclusion of a Boolean type indicative parameter improved significantly the predictability power. This approach has been extended to 2-aminothiophenols that were used to float a zinc ore and the correlations were found to be reasonably good. PMID:12442767

  19. Nonuniversality of the Archie exponent due to multifractality of resistivity well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashtian, Hassan; Yang, Yafan; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    Archie's law expresses a relation between the formation factor F of porous media and their porosity ϕ, F∝ϕ-m, where m is the Archie or the cementation exponent. Despite widespread use of Archie's law, the value of m and whether it is universal and independent of the type of reservoir have remained controversial. We analyze various porosity and resistivity logs along 36 wells in six Iranian oil and gas reservoirs using wavelet transform coherence and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. m is estimated for two sets of data: one set contains the resistivity data that include those segments of the well that contain significant clay content and one without. The analysis indicates that the well logs are multifractal and that due to the multifractality the exponent m is nonuniversal. Thus, analysis of the resistivity of laboratory or outcrop samples that are not multifractal yields estimates of m that are not applicable to well logs in oil or gas reservoirs.

  20. Calibration of a neutron log in partially saturated media. Part II. Error analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hearst, J.R.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Dreiling, L.A.

    1981-03-20

    Four sources or error (uncertainty) are studied in water content obtained from neutron logs calibrated in partially saturated media for holes up to 3 m. For this calibration a special facility was built and an algorithm for a commercial epithermal neutron log was developed that obtains water content from count rate, bulk density, and gap between the neutron sonde and the borehole wall. The algorithm contained errors due to the calibration and lack of fit, while the field measurements included uncertainties in the count rate (caused by statistics and a short time constant), gap, and density. There can be inhomogeneity in the material surrounding the borehole. Under normal field conditions the hole-size-corrected water content obtained from such neutron logs can have an uncertainty as large as 15% of its value.

  1. Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, F A; Edwards, D P; Larsen, T H; Hsu, W W; Benedick, S; Chung, A; Vun Khen, C; Wilcove, D S; Hamer, K C

    2014-01-01

    Forests in Southeast Asia are rapidly being logged and converted to oil palm. These changes in land-use are known to affect species diversity but consequences for the functional diversity of species assemblages are poorly understood. Environmental filtering of species with similar traits could lead to disproportionate reductions in trait diversity in degraded habitats. Here, we focus on dung beetles, which play a key role in ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling and seed dispersal. We use morphological and behavioural traits to calculate a variety of functional diversity measures across a gradient of disturbance from primary forest through intensively logged forest to oil palm. Logging caused significant shifts in community composition but had very little effect on functional diversity, even after a repeated timber harvest. These data provide evidence for functional redundancy of dung beetles within primary forest and emphasize the high value of logged forests as refugia for biodiversity. In contrast, conversion of forest to oil palm greatly reduced taxonomic and functional diversity, with a marked decrease in the abundance of nocturnal foragers, a higher proportion of species with small body sizes and the complete loss of telecoprid species (dung-rollers), all indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of dung beetles within plantations. These changes also highlight the vulnerability of community functioning within logged forests in the event of further environmental degradation. PMID:25821399

  2. In-home demonstration of the reduction of woodstove emissions from the use of densified logs

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, S.G.; Bighouse, R.D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  3. In-Home Demonstration of the Reduction of Woodstove Emissions from the Use of Densified Logs.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Stockton G.; Bidhouse, Roger D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  4. Challenges in lin-log modelling of glycolysis in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    del Rosario, R C H; Mendoza, E; Voit, E O

    2008-05-01

    The performance of the lin-log method for modelling the glycolytic pathway in Lactococcus lactis using in vivo time-series data is investigated. The network structure of this pathway has been studied in previous reports and the authors concentrate here on the challenge of fitting the lin-log model parameters to experimental data. To calibrate the estimation methods, the performance of the lin-log method on a simpler model of a small gene regulatory system was first investigated, which has become a benchmark in the field. Two families of optimisation algorithms were employed. One computes the objective function by solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), whereas the other discretises the ODEs and incorporates them as nonlinear equality constraints in the optimisation problem. Gradient-based, simplex-based and stochastic search algorithms were used to solve the former, whereas only a gradient-based algorithm was used to solve the latter. Although the estimation methods succeeded in determining the parameter values for the small gene network model, they did not yield a satisfactory lin-log model for the glycolytic pathway. The main reasons are apparently that several system variables approach low, and ultimately zero concentrations, which are intrinsically problematic for lin-log models, and that this pathway does not offer a natural non-zero reference state. [Includes supplementary material.]. PMID:18537454

  5. Preparation of specific-yield logs for clastic bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific yield is the principal aquifer characteristic needed to estimate the volume of recoverable ground water in storage in an aquifer. Determination of specific yield can be difficult and costly, particularly in deep, confined aquifers where core drilling and core analyses may be needed to define specific yield. A method has been developed for preparation of specific-yield geophysical logs that could greatly ease the determination of specific yields in such aquifers. Three geophysical logs that were investigated as potential indicators of specific yield were the free fluid index log, the effective-porosity log, and the apparent grain-density log. The free fluid index log did not accurately represent conditions at the test site in central Colorado and may not be suitable for application in other shallow and permeable aquifers. The effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs were each used in least-squares linear regressions to correlate log response to specific yield measured in core samples. The resulting regression equations have coefficients of correlation (R) of 0.84 and 0.90, and were used to successfully prepare specific-yield logs from the effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs.

  6. Slurry suspension of coal logs -- an exploration study

    SciTech Connect

    Seaba, J.; Liu, H.; Xu, G.

    1993-12-31

    This is an experimental investigation studying the effects of a coal slurry medium on the transportation of coal logs through a pipeline. The higher-specific-gravity slurry as compared to water, will create a near neutrally buoyant environment for coal log transport. This will enable the transportation of the logs at lower velocities. The equations for predicting incipient velocity, lift-off velocity, headloss (energy loss), will be determined for the slurry and compared to previous data using a water medium. A two inch pipeline system is used to test the coal logs in a slurry medium. The test facility will be capable of testing coal logs at velocities ranging from 0 to 10 ft/sec. These velocity ranges are required to characterize the transport regimes of coal logs, i.e. incipient velocity to lift-off velocity. The slurry is characterized by its particle size distribution (PSD), the viscosity, and the yield stress. The slurry used in this investigation is from the Black Mesa pipeline. Using coal slurry for coal log transport in pipeline has two major advantages over water. First, the slurry will reduce the amount of water (50% by weight) required to transport the coal logs and increase the coal throughout. Secondly, the velocity of the log will be reduced, thereby reducing the operational velocity of the pipeline. In addition to these two advantages, current research into the manufacturing of coal logs indicates a trend toward high density (specific gravity = 1.3), high compressive strength logs, for resistance against abrasion. Transporting high density logs makes the coal slurry investigation an interesting aspect of the coal log pipeline program.

  7. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercioğlu, Cağan Hakkı; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-08-18

    Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25088557

  8. Assessment of geotechnical features of Miocene volcaniclastics using integrated logging

    SciTech Connect

    Toshiyuki, Kurahashi; Tomio, Inazaki; Yasuo, Nakamura

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes that integrated logging evaluates geotechnical conditions of fractures in Miocene volcaniclastics, where the damsites are for proposed. The purpose of this study was to detect fractures for seepage contols along borehole wall and characterize its geotechnical features by integrated logging. It is First step to evaluate the continuity and permeability of fractures. Integrated logging comprises of caliper, acoustic borehole televiewer, full-wave sonic, temperature, borehole video logging, natural gamma spectrum, and magnetic loggings. Natural gamma spectrum and magnetic logs would characterize litholofacies. Caliper, acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole video loggings would identify the depth, the dip and the azimuth of fractures. Besides temperature logging would determine the groudwater flow and suggest the permeable fracture. Integrated loggings were performed at damsites for proposed in northern Kanto district, middle part of Japan, where Miocene volcaniclastics are widely exposed. In Yunishigawa site, thermal jump was remarkably observed at 84 meters in depth from temperature logging. Its thermal gradient, differentiation of temperature, was 30 {degrees}C/m. The fracture causing it was recognized by the borehole enlargements from caliper logging, and had low slowness of full-wave sonic logging. Integrated logging enabled us to identify the fractures in the order of a dozen centimeters along a borehole wall. The identification would be useful for the geotechnical evaluation. Especially Differentiation of temperature revealed the fracture for seepage controls and classified the fractures into three types, which are (1) the permeable fracture circulating the runoff, (2) the permeable one controlling the groundwater from the deep, (3) the non-permeable fracture. As the first and the second are fractures for the seepage controls, they would involve the geotechnical problems.

  9. Obtaining permeability estimates from NMR logging data in an unconsolidated groundwater aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlubac, K.; Knight, R. J.; Song, Y.; Bachman, N.; Grau, B.; Cannia, J. C.; Williams, J.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing interest in the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging for aquifer characterization because it provides information about water-filled porosity and pore space geometry that can be used to estimate permeability (k). Hydrologists estimate hydraulic conductivity, from which k can be calculated, using wellbore flow (WBF) logging. WBF logging data distributes the total hydraulic conductivity, determined from aquifer testing, throughout the aquifer. However, this method is time consuming and has relatively low vertical resolution. If reliable estimates of k can be obtained from NMR logging data, this would provide hydrologists with an efficient alternate method for characterizing aquifer properties. The Schlumberger Doll Research (SDR) and Timur-Coates (T-C) equations are widely used in petroleum applications to obtain k from NMR logging measurements of the relaxation time T2. In this abstract, we focus on the SDR equation which takes the form kSDR=a? mT2MLn where a, m and n are empirical constants, T2ML is the mean log of the T2 distribution and ? is porosity. The constants have been empirically determined in consolidated materials and are typically assumed to have the following values: a=4, m=4 and n=2. The use of the SDR equation with these values has been found to yield reliable estimates of k in consolidated materials. However, this same equation underestimates k in unconsolidated materials. In this study, we collected NMR logging, aquifer-test, and WBF data from a 150-m deep well that penetrated the High Plains aquifer in central Nebraska. We then worked with a generalized form of the SDR equation: kSDR Generalized =a? mT2AVG2, where we allowed T2AVG to be calculated as the mean log and arithmetic mean (T2AM) of the T2 distribution. We elected to set the exponent n on the T2 term equal to 2, which results in a k estimate that has the appropriate units of length squared. We used a semi-constrained least squares inversion to optimize the fit between log WBF-k and log NMR-k. We constrained m to be positive, ranging from 0.5 and 8, increasing in value with an interval of 0.5; a was unconstrained. NMR logging measurements were made throughout the well every 0.45 m. WBF logging provided k estimates over nine 6-m intervals. Within these nine intervals, NMR-k estimates were upscaled to the resolution of the WBF as follows: kUpscaled=??i(a?mT2AVG2), where ?i was 0.45 m. In the form of the SDR equation used in petroleum applications, NMR-k was underestimated by an order of magnitude in 6 intervals and overestimated in one interval. We found that the following equation yielded the best agreement between NMR-k and WBF-k: kUnconsolidated =16? 6T2AM2. In 6 of the 9 intervals, NMR-k estimates were within a factor of 2 of WBF-k. However, in two intervals NMR-k disagrees with WBF-k by over a factor of 5.

  10. The logN-logS relationship of normal X-ray emitting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter A.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    We have selected a flux limited serendipitous sample of galaxies from the cross-correlation of the BMW (Brera Multiscale Wavelet) ROSAT HRI and the LEDA (Lyon - Meudon Extragalactic Database) Catalogues. This sample is used to study the X-ray properties of normal galaxies in the local universe. We also find that the logN-logS distribution we derived for a serendipitous subsample, optically and X-ray flux limited, is consistent with the euclidean slope in the flux range FX(0.5 - 2) 1.1 - 110 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We further show that the same law is valid over 4 decades, from the bright sample derived from the RASS data to the very faint detections in deep XMM-Newton fields.

  11. Impact of fluid displacement effects on log-inject-log tests

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of long-inject-long (LIL) tests for oil deposits, analyzes the fluid-displacement behavior around the wellbore, discusses the transient behavior of pulsed-neutron-capture (PNC) logs before steady state is reached, and establishes the conditions under which LIL tests work best. This paper shows that both completion and reservoir properties affect the accuracy of LIL tests.

  12. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich; Nelson, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available.

  13. Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

  14. Geophysical well logging operations and log analysis in Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, D.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1 was logged by Dresser Atlas during April/May 1979 to a total depth of 2939 m (9642 ft). A temperature of 209/sup 0/C (408/sup 0/F) was observed on the maximum thermometer run with one of the logging tools. Borehole tools rated to a maximum temperature of 204.4/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) were utilized for logging except for the Densilog tool, which was from the other set of borehole instruments, rated to a still higher temperature, i.e., 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). The quality of the logs recorded and the environmental effects on the log response have been considered. The log response in the unusual lithologies of igneous and metamorphic formations encountered in this well could be correlated with the drill cutting data. An empirical, statistical log interpretation approach has made it possible to obtain meaningful information on the rocks penetrated. Various crossplots/histograms of the corrected log data have been generated on the computer. These are found to provide good resolution between the lithological units in the rock sequence. The crossplotting techniques and the statistical approach were combined with the drill cutting descriptions in order to arrive at the lithological characteristics. The results of log analysis and recommendations for logging of future wells have been included.

  15. Tracking the Inside Intruder Using Net Log on Debug Logging in Microsoft Windows Server Operating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, CS

    2004-01-20

    In today's well-connected environments of the Internet, intranets, and extranets, protecting the Microsoft Windows network can be a daunting task for the security engineer. Intrusion Detection Systems are a must-have for most companies, but few have either the financial resources or the people resources to implement and maintain full-scale intrusion detection systems for their networks and hosts. Many will at least invest in intrusion detection for their Internet presence, but others have not yet stepped up to the plate with regard to internal intrusion detection. Unfortunately, most attacks will come from within. Microsoft Windows server operating systems are widely used across both large and small enterprises. Unfortunately, there is no intrusion detection built-in to the Windows server operating system. The security logs are valuable but can be difficult to manage even in a small to medium sized environment. So the question arises, can one effectively detect and identify an in side intruder using the native tools that come with Microsoft Windows Server operating systems? One such method is to use Net Logon Service debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity. This paper discusses how to use Net Logon debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity both in real-time and for forensic analysis.

  16. An evaluation of the use of drillers' logs in lithologic studies of the Ogallala Formation of the southern high plains of Texas, progress report, 1970-71

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.A.; Smith, Joe T.; Thompson, G.L.; Sandeen, W.M.

    1972-01-01

    Logs made by water-well drillers were analyzed in conjunction with test-hole drilling and geophysical logging to evaluate usefulness of the driller's log in delineating areas that would be suitable for artificial recharge of the Ogallala Formation. This preliminary study indicates that lack of detailed and accurate information in many drillers' logs prevents their use as a reliable source of lithologic information. For many applications, such as evaluation of potential areas for artificial recharge, the value of more complete and more accurate information will be readily apparent as these applications become more widespread. More effort will be required in collecting lithologic information as part of the drilling operations.

  17. Static dictionaries on AC{sup 0} RAMs: Query time {Theta} ({radical}log n/log log n) is necessary and sufficient

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, A.; Miltersen, P.B.; Riis, S.; Thorup, M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we consider solutions to the static dictionary problem on AC{sup 0} RAMs, i.e. random access machines where the only restriction on the finite instruction set is that all computational instructions are in AC{sup 0}. Our main result is a tight upper and lower bound of {Theta}({radical}log n/ log log n) on the time for answering membership queries in a set of size n when reasonable space is used for the data structure storing the set; the upper bound can be obtained using O(n) space, and the lower bound holds even if we allow space 2{sup polylog n}. Several variations of this result are also obtained Among others, we show a tradeoff between time and circuit depth under the unit-cost assumption: any RAM instruction set which permits a linear space, constant query time solution to the static dictionary problem must have an instruction of depth {Omega}(log w/ log log w), where w is the word size of the machine (and log the size of the universe). This matches the depth of multiplication and integer division, used in the perfect hashing scheme by Fredman, Komlos and Szemeredi.

  18. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  19. Well logging instrument including shock isolation system

    SciTech Connect

    Small, T.M.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a downhole logging tool having an external pressure housing which may be subjected to shock or vibration, and which encloses and supports electronic components carried interiorly on a support wafer. A system is included for mounting electronic components in the housing which system comprises and electronic support wafer having a edge thereon of finite width and a circumferential retaining groove therein. The edge is adapted to be spaced from and at approximately right angles to the inside surface of the pressure housing, and a spring member is positioned therebetween with the axis of the spring member extending parallel to the edge of the support wafer. The spring member is received against the edge of the wafer wherein the spring member is made of repetitive turns and the turns thereof, in cross-section transverse to the axis of the spring member are oval turns, and wherein the spring member has a bias tending to position one side of the spring member toward the housing and the opposite side toward the support wafer.

  20. Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

    2012-11-01

    Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

  1. MCNP capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, R.A.; Little, R.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Hendricks, J.S. . Applied Theoretical Physics Div.)

    1990-06-01

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. This paper discusses how the general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP ({und M}onte {und C}arlo {und n}eutron {und p}hoton), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well suited for borehole-tool models. SABRINA, another component of the LARTCS, is a graphics code that can be used to interactively create a complex MCNP geometry. Users can define many source and tally characteristics with standard MCNP features. The time-dependent capability of the code is essential when modeling pulsed sources. Problems with neutrons, photons, and electrons as either single particle or coupled particles can be calculated with MCNP. The physics of neutron and photon transport and interactions is modeled in detail using the latest available cross-section data.

  2. Saving big bucks with your log sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Puskar, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    This article speaks to a common problem in a lot of industrial and institutional boilerhouses. Most boilerhouses do an excellent job at collecting information. Circular chart recorders churn out pressures, temperatures, and flows for everything from steam to natural gas to city water consumption. At most facilities, this stuff all gets chucked into a drawer or file cabinet daily. Have you ever wondered why you collect and record what you do? What were people thinking when the existing logs were set up? This article attempts to challenge the original thought process and hopes to evoke in the reader a renewed vision of what should be collected, how, and then what can be done with it. The goal of this article is not to define new and expensive data acquisition or control system projects. It is instead to show how to develop systems that only require paper, pencils, and people who are motivated and care. These people are probably already being paid to do most of this work. Experience is that if these people are treated with respect and given some simple tools they will do amazing things beyond what was thought possible. This is a low-tech humanistic approach that has a fabulous rate of return. It`s also something that can be immediately implemented.

  3. log(MPl/m3/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martin, Johannes; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ratz, Michael

    2005-12-02

    Flux compactifications of string theory seem to require the presence of a fine-tuned constant in the superpotential. We discuss a scheme where this constant is replaced by a dynamical quantity which we argue to be a 'continuous Chern-Simons term'. In such a scheme, the gaugino condensate generates the hierarchically small scale of supersymmetry breakdown rather than adjusting its size to a constant. A crucial ingredient is the appearance of the hierarchically small quantity exp(-) which corresponds to the scale of gaugino condensation. Under rather general circumstances, this leads to a scenario of moduli stabilization, which is endowed with a hierarchy between the mass of the lightest modulus, the gravitino mass and the scale of the soft terms, mmodulus {approx} m3/2 {approx} 2 msoft. The 'little hierarchy' is given by the logarithm of the ratio of the Planck scale and the gravitino mass, {approx} log(MPl/m3/2) {approx} 4{pi}2. This exhibits a new mediation scheme of supersymmetry breakdown, called mirage mediation. We highlight the special properties of the scheme, and their consequences for phenomenology and cosmology.

  4. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  5. Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

  6. Comparison of P- and S-wave velocities and Q's from VSP and sonic log data

    SciTech Connect

    De, G.S.; Winterstein, D.F.; Meadows, M.A. )

    1994-10-01

    The authors compared P- and S-wave velocities and quality factors (Q's) from vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and sonic log measurements in five wells, three from the southwest San Joaquin Basin of California, one from near Laredo, Texas, and one from northern Alberta. Their purpose was to investigate the bias between sonic log and VSP velocities and to examine to what degree this bias might be a consequence of dispersion. VSPs and sonic logs were recorded in the same well in every case. Subsurface formations were predominantly clastic. The bias found was that VSP transit times were greater than sonic log times, consistent with normal dispersion. For the San Joaquin wells, differences in S-wave transit times averaged 1--2 percent, while differences in P-wave transit times averaged 6--7 percent. For the Alberta well, the situation was reversed, with differences in S-wave transit times being about 6 percent, while those for P-waves were 2.5 percent. For the Texas well, the differences averaged about 4 percent for both P- and S-waves. The authors calculated (Q's) from a velocity dispersion formula and from spectral ratios. When the two Q's agreed, they concluded that velocity dispersion resulted solely from absorption. These Q estimation methods were reliable only for Q values smaller than 20. They found that, even with data of generally outstanding quality, Q values determined by standard methods can have large uncertainties, and negative Q's may be common.

  7. No-reference image quality assessment based on log-derivative statistics of natural scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Chandler, Damon M.

    2013-10-01

    We propose an efficient blind/no-reference image quality assessment algorithm using a log-derivative statistical model of natural scenes. Our method, called DErivative Statistics-based QUality Evaluator (DESIQUE), extracts image quality-related statistical features at two image scales in both the spatial and frequency domains. In the spatial domain, normalized pixel values of an image are modeled in two ways: pointwise-based statistics for single pixel values and pairwise-based log-derivative statistics for the relationship of pixel pairs. In the frequency domain, log-Gabor filters are used to extract the fine scales of the image, which are also modeled by the log-derivative statistics. All of these statistics can be fitted by a generalized Gaussian distribution model, and the estimated parameters are fed into combined frameworks to estimate image quality. We train our models on the LIVE database by using optimized support vector machine learning. Experiment results tested on other databases show that the proposed algorithm not only yields a substantial improvement in predictive performance as compared to other state-of-the-art no-reference image quality assessment methods, but also maintains a high computational efficiency.

  8. Algorithm for detecting defects in wooden logs using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaru, Dayakar; Halabe, Udaya B.; Gopalakrishnan, B.; Agrawal, Sachin; Grushecky, Shawn

    2005-11-01

    Presently there are no suitable non-invasive methods for precisely detecting the subsurface defects in logs in real time. Internal defects such as knots, decays, and embedded metals are of greatest concern for lumber production. While defects such as knots and decays (rots) are of major concern related to productivity and yield of high value wood products, embedded metals can damage the saw blade and significantly increase the down time and maintenance costs of saw mills. Currently, a large number of logs end up being discarded by saw mills, or result in low value wood products since they include defects. Nondestructive scanning of logs using techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) prior to sawing can greatly increase the productivity and yield of high value lumber. In this research, the GPR scanned data has been analyzed to differentiate the defective part of the wooden log from the good part. The location and size of the defect has been found in the GPR scanned data using the MATLAB algorithm. The output of this algorithm can be used as an input for generating operating instructions for a CNC sawing machine. This paper explains the advantages of the GPR technique, experimental setup and parameters used, data processing using RADAN software for detection of subsurface defects in logs, GPR data processing and analysis using MATLAB algorithm for automated defect detection, and comparison of results between the two processing methods. The results show that GPR in conjunction with the proposed algorithm provides a very promising technique for future on-line implementation in saw mills.

  9. Scientific LogAnalyzer: a web-based tool for analyses of server log files in psychological research.

    PubMed

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Stieger, Stefan

    2004-05-01

    Scientific LogAnalyzer is a platform-independent interactive Web service for the analysis of log files. Scientific LogAnalyzer offers several features not available in other log file analysis tools--for example, organizational criteria and computational algorithms suited to aid behavioral and social scientists. Scientific LogAnalyzer is highly flexible on the input side (unlimited types of log file formats), while strictly keeping a scientific output format. Features include (1) free definition of log file format, (2) searching and marking dependent on any combination of strings (necessary for identifying conditions in experiment data), (3) computation of response times, (4) detection of multiple sessions, (5) speedy analysis of large log files, (6) output in HTML and/or tab-delimited form, suitable for import into statistics software, and (7) a module for analyzing and visualizing drop-out. Several methodological features specifically needed in the analysis of data collected in Internet-based experiments have been implemented in the Web-based tool and are described in this article. A regression analysis with data from 44 log file analyses shows that the size of the log file and the domain name lookup are the two main factors determining the duration of an analysis. It is less than a minute for a standard experimental study with a 2 x 2 design, a dozen Web pages, and 48 participants (ca. 800 lines, including data from drop-outs). The current version of Scientific LogAnalyzer is freely available for small log files. Its Web address is http://genpsylab-logcrunsh.unizh.ch/. PMID:15354696

  10. Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  11. Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  12. Inflow and outflow signatures in flowing wellbore electrical conductivity logs

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2002-08-28

    Flowing wellbore electrical-conductivity logging provides a means to determine hydrologic properties of fractures, fracture zones, or other permeable layers intersecting a borehole in saturated rock. The method involves analyzing the time-evolution of fluid electrical-conductivity logs obtained while the well is being pumped and yields information on the location, hydraulic transmissivity, and salinity of permeable layers, as well as their initial (or ambient) pressure head. Earlier analysis methods were restricted to the case in which flows from the permeable layers or fractures were directed into the borehole. More recently, a numerical model for simulating flowing-conductivity logging was adapted to permit treatment of both inflow and outflow, including analysis of natural regional flow in the permeable layer. However, determining the fracture properties with the numerical model by optimizing the match to the conductivity logs is a laborious trial-and-error procedure. In this paper, we identify the signatures of various inflow and outflow features in the conductivity logs to expedite this procedure and to provide physical insight for the analysis of these logs. Generally, inflow points are found to produce a distinctive signature on the conductivity logs themselves, enabling the determination of location, inflow rate, and ion concentration in a straightforward manner. Identifying outflow locations and flow rates, on the other hand, can be done with a more complicated integral method. Running a set of several conductivity logs with different pumping rates (e.g., half and double the original pumping rate) provides further information on the nature of the feed points. In addition to enabling the estimation of flow parameters from conductivity logs, an understanding of the conductivity log signatures can aid in the design of follow-up logging activities.

  13. Interactive geological subsurface interpretation using well logs on a geophysical workstation - A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.L.; Mallon, K. )

    1990-05-01

    This project involves loading well log data from a major oil and gas field into a geosphysical workstation, interpreting the data, and generating geological displays using procedures similar to those used when interpreting the two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic. The well data includes four log traces per well from 261, as well as the depths of geological tops for each well. The well log curves were received in ASCII file format and loaded into the system along pseudoseismic lines created to fit the location information. The data consists of latitude and longitude information, reference elevations for well logs, gamma ray, acoustic, calculated porosity, and calculated permeability curves, as well as 13 tops for each of the 261 wells. The relationship of one well to another is shown realistically. The interpretation process started once location information was converted to x and ys and appropriately disguised. The operating procedure involved converting well locations to theoretical shot point locations on a 330-ft grid and loading log curves as seismic traces, forming a sparsely sampled three-dimensional grid. Lines of section were created, and well-to-well correlations were drawn on the sections. Strike and dip cross sections were constructed on the workstation screen. Formation and zone correlations were edited interactively. A series of color schemes were used for various log curve values, lithology, and porosity heterogeneity. The Vairfill feature caused correlative zones to be highlighted dramatically. Structural and isopach maps, with triangulated contours, were computed from input tops. These triangulated surfaces were written into a grid and smoothed by the geologist to provide structural contour maps on each of the 13 horizons. Inputting gas-oil contact depths for the field permitted calculation of closure for several formations with an easily drawn gas thickness isopach map.

  14. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were estimated, including volume of clay matrix, volume of matrix other than clay, density of matrix other than clay, density of matrix, intrinsic permeability, specific yield, and specific storage. Geophysical logs were used to (1) determine lithology, (2) correlate lithologic and permeable zones, (3) calibrate seismic reprocessing, (4) calibrate transient-electromagnetic surveys, and (5) calibrate uphole-survey interpretations. Logs were used at the drill site to (1) determine permeability zones, (2) determine dissolved-solids content, which is a function of water resistivity, and (3) design wells accordingly. Data and properties derived from logs were used to determine transmissivity and specific yield of aquifer materials.

  15. Evaluation of QSAR models for predicting the partition coefficient (log P) of chemicals under the REACH regulation.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Claudia Ileana; Benfenati, Emilio; Cester, Josep

    2015-11-01

    The partition coefficient (log P) is a physicochemical parameter widely used in environmental and health sciences and is important in REACH and CLP regulations. In this regulatory context, the number of existing experimental data on log P is negligible compared to the number of chemicals for which it is necessary. There are many models to predict log P and we have selected a number of free programs to examine how they predict the log P of chemicals registered for REACH and to evaluate wheter they can be used in place of experimental data. Some results are good, especially if the information on the applicability domain of the models is considered, with R(2) values from 0.7 to 0.8 and root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.8 to 1.5. PMID:26432472

  16. Organic-matter content of Appalachian Devonian shales determined by use of wire-line logs: summary of work done 1976-1980. [Formation-density wire logs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoker, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The organic-matter content of the Devonian shale of the Appalachian basin is an important characteristic for assessing the natural-gas resources of this shale, and patterns of organic-matter distribution convey information on sedimentary processes and depositional environments. In most of the western part of the Appalachian basin, the organic-matter content of the Devonian shale can be estimated from formation-density wire-line logs (density-log method) and from gamma-ray wire-line logs (gamma-ray method) by evaluation of equations which are presented in this report. The distribution of organic matter in the organic-matter-rich facies of the Devonian shale is characterized in the western part of the Appalachian basin by use of data derived from density logs. The thickness of organic-matter-rich facies ranges from less than 300 ft. (91 m) in east-central Kentucky to 1000 ft (305 m) along the Kentucky-West Virginia border. The average organic-matter content of the organic-matter-rich facies increases from 5% by volume in the central part of the Appalachian basin to 16% in east-central Kentucky. The histogram of organic-matter-content values within the organic-matter-rich facies is closely approximated by the exponential curve y = 1.1e/sup -0.288x/ in New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, but in Ohio, Kentucky, and Virginia, the histogram shifts towards hhgher values of organic-matter content and is not well represented by an exponential function. The net thickness of the blanket of organic matter contained in the organic-matter-rich facies ranges from about 20 to 80 ft (6.1 to 24.4 m) within the mapped area, and local depositional maxima are centered in Martin County, Kentucky, eastern Pike County, Ohio, and northern Ashland County, Ohio. 24 figures.

  17. Design and Use of the Stratigraphic Strip Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichter, Lynn Stanton

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of a strip log as a diagrammatic representation of the information available in a sequence of sedimentary rocks. Describes the design of the strip log (both symbolically and by visual/spatial patterns) and some of the possible interpretations that can be made using them. (TW)

  18. Web Log Analysis: A Study of Instructor Evaluations Done Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Kenneth J.; Smith, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing a relatively simple method for analyzing web-logs. It also explores the challenges and benefits of web-log analysis. The study of student behavior on this site provides insights into website design and the effectiveness of this site in particular. Another benefit realized from the paper is the ease with which these

  19. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, Jos N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained. PMID:16901980

  20. A RAPID METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LOG P FOR ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The logarithm of the retention time (log RT) of organic chemicals on a permanently bonded (C-18) reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography system is shown to be linearly related to the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P). A rapid, inexpensive te...

  1. Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The

  2. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,

  3. Log-Multiplicative Association Models as Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn J.; Yu, Hsiu-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Log-multiplicative association (LMA) models, which are special cases of log-linear models, have interpretations in terms of latent continuous variables. Two theoretical derivations of LMA models based on item response theory (IRT) arguments are presented. First, we show that Anderson and colleagues (Anderson & Vermunt, 2000; Anderson & Bockenholt,

  4. Coal log wear in a dilute slurry flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Yu Lin; Tao, Bainin

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine experimentally the effect of coal slurry concentration on the wear (abrasion) of coal logs. The tests were carried out in a 2-inch-diameter (55mm I.D.) steel pipe in the laboratory using coal logs of 1.91 inch (48.5mm) diameter. The pipeline is a recirculating closed loop through which the coal logs can be recirculated indefinitely. The flow was driven by a special jet pump that had no intruding parts to block the passage of coal logs. The logs were taken out of the pipe periodically for weighing in order to determine the weight loss caused by wear. The wear result is expressed by plotting the coal log weight loss (in percent) versus the distance traveled through the pipe, or preferably, versus the number of cycles through the pipe loop. The tests were conducted at different coal slurry concentrations ranging from 0% to 8%. From these tests, it was found that there is more coal log wear in slurry fluid than in clean water, and the wear increases with increased slurry concentration. At the maximum of 8% slurry, coal log wear is approximately double that in clean water under the same conditions. However, since wear rates were found to be only slightly higher at 8% than at 5% slurry concentrations, it is anticipated that maximum wear rate is reached at about 10% slurry concentration.

  5. 6. View to north along dirt lane. Log shed (HABS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View to north along dirt lane. Log shed (HABS No. VA-1290-N) at left, log dogtrot tenant house (HABS No. VA-1290-Q) in distance at end of lane. - Edgewood Farm, West side of State Route 600, .8 mile north of State Route 778, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  6. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  7. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  8. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries....

  9. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries....

  10. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries....

  11. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries....

  12. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of 73.1800 (c) and (d), (...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of 73.1800 (c) and (d), (...

  14. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of 73.1800 (c) and (d), (...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of 73.1800 (c) and (d), (...

  16. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  17. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  18. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  19. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  20. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... sequence. In cases where dedicated equipment is employed, the records of cleaning, maintenance, and...

  1. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  2. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  3. 22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  4. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  5. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  6. Data-Logging in Practical Science: Research and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Leonard R.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys some of the benefits claimed for data-logging methods identified through research. Discusses findings from research that sought to explore the translation of these benefits into the real-world of science classrooms and identify the range of influences on science teachers adopting and developing data-logging methods. (SAH)

  7. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  8. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  9. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  10. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  11. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  12. Commercial logging and HIV epidemic, rural Equatorial Africa.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Christian; Bourgeois, Anke; Mpoudi, Mirelle; Butel, Christelle; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngol, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric

    2004-11-01

    We found a high seroprevalence of HIV among young women in a commercial logging area in Cameroon. The vulnerability of these young women could be related to commercial logging and the social and economic networks it induces. The environmental changes related to this industry in Equatorial Africa may facilitate HIV dissemination. PMID:15550206

  13. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of 73.1800 (c) and (d), ( 73.1800, General requirements relating to logs). (ii) After converting to a data-storage system, by separately... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage...

  14. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports 121.701 Maintenance log: Aircraft. (a) Each person who takes action in the case of a reported or observed failure or malfunction...

  15. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports 121.701 Maintenance log: Aircraft. (a) Each person who takes action in the case of a reported or observed failure or malfunction...

  16. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports 121.701 Maintenance log: Aircraft. (a) Each person who takes action in the case of a reported or observed failure or malfunction...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  2. Real-Time System Log Monitoring/Analytics Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp; Dillow, David A; Park, Byung H; Shipman, Galen M; Geist, Al; Gunasekaran, Raghul

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing system logs provides useful insights for identifying system/application anomalies and helps in better usage of system resources. Nevertheless, it is simply not practical to scan through the raw log messages on a regular basis for large-scale systems. First, the sheer volume of unstructured log messages affects the readability, and secondly correlating the log messages to system events is a daunting task. These factors limit large-scale system logs primarily for generating alerts on known system events, and post-mortem diagnosis for identifying previously unknown system events that impacted the systems performance. In this paper, we describe a log monitoring framework that enables prompt analysis of system events in real-time. Our web-based framework provides a summarized view of console, netwatch, consumer, and apsched logs in real- time. The logs are parsed and processed to generate views of applications, message types, individual/group of compute nodes, and in sections of the compute platform. Also from past application runs we build a statistical profile of user/application characteristics with respect to known system events, recoverable/non-recoverable error messages and resources utilized. The web-based tool is being developed for Jaguar XT5 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing facility.

  3. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  4. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  5. Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…

  6. A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, E.L.

    1985-03-01

    The Cement Bond Log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal in order to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than twenty years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation, ostensibly, with Cement Bond Logs. Cement Bond Logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed upon the log measurements is needed in order to properly evaluate the log. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of Cement Bond Logs which fall into this category are presented.

  7. A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, E.L.

    1985-07-01

    The cement bond log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than 20 years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation with cement bond logs. Cement bond logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed on the log measurements is needed to evaluate the log properly. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of cement bond logs that fall into this category are be presented.

  8. Navjot's nightmare revisited: logging, agriculture, and biodiversity in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilcove, David S; Giam, Xingli; Edwards, David P; Fisher, Brendan; Koh, Lian Pin

    2013-09-01

    In 2004, Navjot Sodhi and colleagues warned that logging and agricultural conversion of Southeast Asia's forests were leading to a biodiversity disaster. We evaluate this prediction against subsequent research and conclude that most of the fauna of the region can persist in logged forests. Conversely, conversion of primary or logged forests to plantation crops, such as oil palm, causes tremendous biodiversity loss. This loss is exacerbated by increased fire frequency. Therefore, we conclude that preventing agricultural conversion of logged forests is essential to conserving the biodiversity of this region. Our analysis also suggests that, because Southeast Asian forests are tightly tied to global commodity markets, conservation payments commensurate with combined returns from logging and subsequent agricultural production may be required to secure long-term forest protection. PMID:23764258

  9. Raster images offer low-cost well log preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Cisco, S.L.

    1996-12-16

    Well log data saved as depth-calibrated raster images provide an economic alternative to digital formats for preserving this valuable information into the future. Although often thrown away after vectorization, raster imaged well logs may be the key for a global computer-readable format for legacy hardcopy data. Over the past several decades, oil and gas companies have acquired an enormous volume of well logs, maps, and seismic and core data. Preservation of, and access to, valuable data such as well logs is critical to the petroleum industry. These legacy data are stored on multiple media and contain information for a variety of applications in addition to resource exploration and development, such as environmental protection, water management, global change studies, and basic and applied research. The paper discusses well logs, acquisition cost, storage requirements, ease of use, costs and benefits.

  10. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  11. Heimdal monitoring. 1: Establishing feasibility from cores and logs

    SciTech Connect

    Jizba, D.L.; Marion, D.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a method that uses core and log measurements to quantify the influence of saturation changes on elastic properties at core, log, and seismic scales in order to investigate the feasibility of using seismic measurements to monitor gas production on the Heimdal North Sea field. In the first part, laboratory measurements of P- and S-wave velocities, porosity, density, and mineralogy are used to determined the influence of partial saturation on elastic parameters. These measurement are compared with theoretical predictions using Gassmann`s model. Second, the authors invert from logs, the rock parameters that are necessary to simulate the impact of water rise on elastic properties at log scale. Third, the well logs are modelled at seismic scales of resolution and are used to identify the effect of fluid movement on the seismic response. Finally, the results are compared to repetitive seismic measurements.

  12. An {Omega}({radical}log log n) lower bound for routing in optical networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; MacKenzie, P.D.

    1993-11-06

    Optical communication is likely to significantly speed up parallel computation because the vast bandwidth of the optical medium can be divided to produce communication networks of very high degree. However, the problem of contention in high-degree networks makes the routing problem in these networks theoretically (and practically) difficult. In this paper we examine Valiant`s h-relation routing problem, which is a fundamental problem in the theory of parallel computing. The h-relation routing problem arises both in the direct implementation of specific parallel algorithms on distributed-memory machines and in the general simulation of shared memory models such as the PRAM on distributed-memory machines. In an h-relation routing problem each processor has up to h messages that it wishes to send to other processors and each processor is the destination of at most h messages. We present a lower bound for routing an h-relation (for any h > 1) on a complete optical network of size -n. Our lower bound applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task. Specifically, we show that the expected number of communication steps required to route an arbitrary h-relation is {Omega}(h + {radical}log log n). This is the first known lower bound for this problem which does not restrict the class of algorithms under consideration.

  13. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem sustainability could be decreased by better slash removal in the Angara region, removal of trees killed by fire in the Zabaikal region, and tree planting after fires in drier conditions where natural regeneration is hampered by soil overheating and grass proliferation.

  14. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... recording accuracy; (4) In the event of failure or malfunctioning of the automatic equipment, the person... transmitting apparatus, or by automatic devices meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... the equipment. Where adjustments are made to restore parameters to their proper operating values,...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... recording accuracy; (4) In the event of failure or malfunctioning of the automatic equipment, the person... transmitting apparatus, or by automatic devices meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... the equipment. Where adjustments are made to restore parameters to their proper operating values,...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... recording accuracy; (4) In the event of failure or malfunctioning of the automatic equipment, the person... transmitting apparatus, or by automatic devices meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... the equipment. Where adjustments are made to restore parameters to their proper operating values,...

  17. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recording accuracy; (4) In the event of failure or malfunctioning of the automatic equipment, the person... transmitting apparatus, or by automatic devices meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... the equipment. Where adjustments are made to restore parameters to their proper operating values,...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recording accuracy; (4) In the event of failure or malfunctioning of the automatic equipment, the person... transmitting apparatus, or by automatic devices meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... the equipment. Where adjustments are made to restore parameters to their proper operating values,...

  19. Rendering log aesthetic curves via Runge-Kutta method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobithaasan, R. U.; Meng, T. Y.; Piah, A. R. M.; Miura, K. T.

    2014-07-01

    Log Aesthetic Curves (LAC) are visually pleasing curves which has been developed using monotonic curvature profile. Hence, it can be easily implemented in product design environment, e.g, Rhino 3D CAD systems. LAC is generally represented in an integral form of its turning angle. Traditionally, Gaussian-Kronrod method has been used to render this curve which consumes less than one second for a given interval. Recently, Incomplete Gamma Function was proposed to represent LAC analytically which decreases the computation time up to 13 times. However, only certain value of shape parameters (denoted as ?) which dictates the types of curves generated for LAC, can be used to compute LAC. In this paper, the classical Runge-Kutta (RK4) method is proposed to evaluate LAC numerically to reduce the LAC computation time for arbitrary, ?. The preliminary result looks promising where the evaluation time is decreased tremendously. This paper also demonstrates the accuracy control of LAC by reducing the stepsize of RK4. The computation time and the accuracy for various ?, are also illustrated in the last section of this paper.

  20. Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

    2009-05-26

    Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

  1. Determination of Log K[subscript ow] Values for Four Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark F.; Logan, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Though many undergraduates are interested in medicine, relatively few experiments related to drug design and development are included in introductory chemistry laboratory courses. In this experiment, aqueous solutions of four different drugs (acetaminophen, caffeine, phenacetin, and sulfanilamide) are extracted using 1-octanol, a mimic of the…

  2. Determination of Log K[subscript ow] Values for Four Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark F.; Logan, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Though many undergraduates are interested in medicine, relatively few experiments related to drug design and development are included in introductory chemistry laboratory courses. In this experiment, aqueous solutions of four different drugs (acetaminophen, caffeine, phenacetin, and sulfanilamide) are extracted using 1-octanol, a mimic of the

  3. Proceedings of the second PFN uranium logging seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) uranium logging system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy is described in some detail in papers by the staff that was involved in the final phase of the development project, and by others associated with the project as users of the logging probe or builders of some of the probe hardware. Descriptions are provided of the probe's electronic circuits, the uphole instrumentation, the log interpretation technique, field experience, neutron detection hardware, neutron generator design, life-test results, and observations by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation personnel regarding the use of the probe and its results.

  4. Project to transcribe old ship logs provides important weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-11-01

    Kathy Wendolkowski is a citizen scientist. It's a term that Wendolkowski considers far too lofty for what she claims is simply a happy addiction that she and others have for transcribing old logs from naval ship and other vessels. They perform this task to glean the regularly recorded weather data from those logs for the benefit of science. For Wendolkowski, though, greater satisfaction comes from reading what the logs also reveal about the daily lives of the sailors as well as any accompanying historical drama.

  5. Calibration of the radionuclide logging system germanium detector

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, R.R.

    1994-12-05

    High resolution passive gamma-ray logging, high resolution gamma-ray-emitting nuclides in areas surrounding underground waste disposal facilities on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Gamma-ray source concentrations are derived from log data by calculations that employ the calibration factors and correction functions described in this report. Calibration data were collected with a Radionuclide Logging System. Analyses of the calibration data established: (1) calibration factors for potassium, uranium, and thorium, and (2) a calibration function that permits assessments of cesium-137, cobalt-60, and other artificial nuclides not represented in the calibration models.

  6. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  7. Application of cased-hole logs to reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Olarunsola, A.O.; Ekpo, E.U.

    1984-04-01

    Cased-hole electric wireline logs can be useful for diagnosing well problems as well as assuring optimum application of clearly defined remedial work. These logs are carefully run directly opposite points of fluid entry into the borehole. When used appropriately, interpretation is facilitated, and their subsequent application to well problems often yield positive results. The data obtained offer more definitive and more complete understanding of the production trends and the reservoir behavior. This work illustrates the interpretation and the appropriate use of various logs for identifying gas and water production problems in oil reservoirs. Examples as encountered in the Niger Delta are discussed.

  8. Dual-burst thermal decay time logging principles

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.K.; Adolph, R.A.; Mahdavl, M.; Preeg, W.E.

    1988-06-01

    The dual-burst thermal-neutron-decay-time (TDT) tool brings two enhancements to pulsed-neutron capture logging. The first is a realistic physical model of pulsed neutron decay curves that accounts explicitly for the effects of neutron diffusion and decay in both the wellbore and the formation. The second is the dual-burst system itself, which permits excellent statistical precision with minimal dead-time losses. This paper discusses the physics of the model, operation of the tool, important mathematical considerations for optimum use of the tool, and a demonstration of the tool performance in a laboratory simulation of a log-inject-log (LIL) operation.

  9. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  10. Downhole Log Assessment of Gas Hydrate and Free-Gas Concentrations on Hydrate Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Goldberg, D. S.; Janik, A.; Guerin, G.

    2003-12-01

    The downhole-logging program on ODP Leg 204 was designed to assess the occurrence and concentration of gas hydrates on Hydrate Ridge. Logging while drilling (LWD) tools were deployed at eight (Site 1244-1150) of the nine sites drilled on southern Hydrate Ridge. LWD tools measure in-situ formation properties with instruments located in the drill collars immediately above the drill bit. The LWD tools used during Leg 204 included the resistivity-at-the-bit (RAB-GVR) tool, the magnetic resonance while drilling (MRWD) tool, and the azimuthal density-neutron (VDN) tool. The downhole log inferred distribution of gas hydrate beneath Hydrate Ridge and the adjacent slope basin is heterogeneous, with downhole RAB images showing gas hydrate occupying fractures and occurring as a disseminated pore-filling material within flat lying stratigraphic units with thicknesses varying from several centimeters to as much as 10 m. It has been shown that it is possible to obtain gas-hydrate saturations (percent of pore space occupied by gas hydrate) by using the Archie relation to analyze the electrical resistivity of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. In this study, the Archie relation was used with resistivity data from the GVR tool and porosity data from the VDN density tool to calculate water saturations at all eight LWD log sites on Hydrate Ridge. The Archie relation yielded water saturations ranging from low values near the crest of the ridge, of about 10% in Hole 1249A, to a more common value of about 90% along the flanks of the ridge. It is generally accepted that with the zone of gas hydrate stability, gas hydrate saturations (Sh) are the mathematical complement of Archie derived water saturations (Sw), with Sh=1-Sw. Thus, the Archie derived gas hydrate saturations at the crest of the ridge exceed 90%. It should be noted that the Archie relation cannot distinguish between the occurrence of free-gas and gas hydrate. But, density, neutron, and NMR log derived porosity data can be used to differentiate gas-hydrate from free-gas-bearing sediments. At Site 1249, the density and neutron log-derived porosities are generally higher than the core-derived porosities. However, the NMR porosities are lower than the core-derived porosities. The apparent increase in density and neutron log derived porosities can be attributed to the occurrence of gas hydrate, as can the apparent decrease in NMR porosities. The affect of gas hydrate on density and neutron-derived porosities is relatively small. But NMR porosities are more significantly affected by the presence of gas hydrate. Neutron porosity logs are also affected by the presence of free-gas (yielding apparent low porosity measurements), but the downhole neutron porosity logs did not reveal the presence of any free-gas above the depth of the BSR on Hydrate Ridge. However, the combined Archie and porosity log analysis did reveal the occurrence of free-gas below the BSR on Hydrate Ridge, with free-gas saturations exceeding 50% in the "Horizon A" turbidite sequence.

  11. Valuing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Ian; Quinn, Sherrey

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a selective review of recent publications, focused on the economic value of public and special libraries which are treated separately, since context and organisational objectives differ widely for different types of libraries. Those who wish to further explore this topic will find many studies into the social value of libraries which

  12. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  13. Prediction of the impact of logging activities on forest cover: a case-study in the east province of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mertens, B; Forni, E; Lambin, E F

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to test the value of the concept of the net commercial value of standing timber in predicting the impact of logging activities on forest-cover modifications. A study area was selected in the East province of Cameroon which contains major primary forests and which contributes strongly to national timber production. A Geographic Information System containing ecological and economic variables was used in combination with remote sensing data to define the net commercial value of standing timber in the East province. Taking account of the potential commercial value of standing timber improves our understanding of the spatial determinants of logging activities and of the resulting forest-cover modifications. The occurrence of logging-induced forest-cover modifications increases with the value of forest rent. In one of the study sites, half of the very high rent areas have already been logged. In that site, therefore, it is mostly the low rent or marginal forest areas that remain unlogged. This was not the case, however, throughout the study area as shown by the observations at another site. PMID:11400462

  14. Experimental correlation between the p Ka value of sulfonphthaleins with the nature of the substituents groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Barrera-Diaz, Carlos; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

    2008-04-01

    This work presents the results obtained from a spectrophotometry study performed on some indicators of the sulfonphtaleins like phenol red (PR), thymol blue (TB), bromothymol blue (BTB), xylenol orange (XO) and methylthymol blue (MTB). During the first stage the acidity constants of some of the indicators were determined using the data from spectrophotometry, potentiometry and with the use of the software SQUAD. These were as follows: for the equilibrium 2H + BTB ↔ H 2BTB, log β2 = 15.069 ± 0.046 and for H + BTB ↔ HBTB, log β1 = 8.311 ± 0.044. For the XO and the MTB five values were calculated for each, namely, for MTB: log β5 = 42.035, log β4 = 38.567 ± 0.058, log β3 = 32.257 ± 0.057, log β2 = 23.785 ± 0.057, and log β1 = 12.974 ± 0.045 while for XO: log β5 = 40.120 ± 0.102, log β4 = 35.158 ± 0.062, log β3 = 29.102 ± 0.053, log β2 = 21.237 ± 0.044, and log β1 = 11.682 ± 0.044. During the second stage, a study was conducted on the effect of the substituents present in the indicators to determine the effect of different functional groups on the p Ka value corresponding to the last indicator's dissociation.

  15. Recovery of forest structure and spectral properties after selective logging in lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Eben N; Zarin, Daniel J; Asner, Gregory P; Pea-Claros, Marielos; Cooper, Amanda; Littell, Ramon

    2006-06-01

    Effective monitoring of selective logging from remotely sensed data requires an understanding of the spatial and temporal thresholds that constrain the utility of those data, as well as the structural and ecological characteristics of forest disturbances that are responsible for those constraints. Here we assess those thresholds and characteristics within the context of selective logging in the Bolivian Amazon. Our study combined field measurements of the spatial and temporal dynamics of felling gaps and skid trails ranging from <1 to 19 months following reduced-impact logging in a forest in lowland Bolivia with remote-sensing measurements from simultaneous monthly ASTER satellite overpasses. A probabilistic spectral mixture model (AutoMCU) was used to derive per-pixel fractional cover estimates of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), and soil. Results were compared with the normalized difference in vegetation index (NDVI). The forest studied had considerably lower basal area and harvest volumes than logged sites in the Brazilian Amazon where similar remote-sensing analyses have been performed. Nonetheless, individual felling-gap area was positively correlated with canopy openness, percentage liana coverage, rates of vegetation regrowth, and height of remnant NPV. Both liana growth and NPV occurred primarily in the crown zone of the felling gap, whereas exposed soil was limited to the trunk zone of the gap. In felling gaps >400 m2, NDVI, and the PV and NPV fractions, were distinguishable from unlogged forest values for up to six months after logging; felling gaps <400 m2 were distinguishable for up to three months after harvest, but we were entirely unable to distinguish skid trails from our analysis of the spectral data. PMID:16827009

  16. 50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southwest (view similar to HALS no. LA-1-21) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  17. 51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-18) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  18. Evaluation of Potash Grade with Gamma-ray Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2007-01-01

    Potassium is an emitter of gamma-ray radiation, consequently deposits of potash can be detected and evaluated using gamma-ray logs. A method originally designed to evaluate uranium deposits in boreholes can also be applied to potash deposits. The method equates the depth-integral of a gamma-ray log to the grade-thickness product of a potash-bearing bed or series of beds. The average grade of a bed is then determined by dividing by the overall bed thickness, which can also be obtained from the gamma-ray log. The method was tested using gamma-ray logs and potash assays from boreholes near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  19. Solar-A reformatted data files and observing log

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. D.; Lemen, J. R.; Acton, L. W.; Bentley, R. D.; Kosugi, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Ogawara, Y.; Watanabe, T.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Solar-A telemetry data files which are to be created and the format and organization which the files are to use. The organization chosen is to be efficient in space, to facilitate access to the data, and to allow the data to be transportable to different machines. An observing log file is to be created automatically, using the reformatted data files as the input. It will be possible to perform searches with the observing log to list cases where instruments are in certain modes and/or seeing certain signal levels. A user will be able to search the observing log and obtain a list of all cases where a given set of conditions are satisfied. An event log will be created listing the times when the instrument or spacecraft modes change.

  20. 5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE (Features 9 and 10) AT FAR LEFT AND HOUSE (Feature 13) AT CENTER (n.d.) - Gold Dust Mine, Mill & Camp Complex, Wards Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

  1. Well logging and completion technology for horizontal wellbores

    SciTech Connect

    Fertl, W.H. )

    1990-09-01

    In highly deviated and, particularly, horizontal wellbores, special hardware systems guide, push, and/or pump the logging instrument assembly toward the bottom, i.e., the end of the wellbore, and to log the interval of interest. The present paper discusses basic pipe-conveyed logging (PCL) systems and the coiled-tubing-conveyed (CTC) system for completion and perforating applications in horizontal well bores, which already have proven successful in Europe, the US, and Canada. Open- and cased-hole field applications, with special emphasis on the Cretaceous Austin Chalk in Texas and the Bakken Shale in Wyoming, will illustrate today's technology and review advantages and possible constraints of these well logging and completion techniques.

  2. 14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  3. 13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  4. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  5. Logging while fishing technique results in substantial savings

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefsen, E.; Everett, M.

    1996-12-01

    During wireline logging operations, tools occasionally become stuck in the borehole and require fishing. A typical fishing job can take anywhere from 1{1/2}--4 days. In the Gulf of Mexico, a fishing job can easily cost between $100,000 and $500,000. These costs result from nonproductive time during the fishing trip, associated wiper trip and relogging the well. Logging while fishing (LWF) technology is a patented system capable of retrieving a stuck fish and completing the logging run during the same pipe descent. Completing logging operations using LWF method saves time and money. The technique also provides well information where data may not otherwise have been obtained. Other benefits include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety.

  6. Efficiently log and perforate 60 + wells with coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Fertl, W.H.; Hotz, R.F.

    1987-07-01

    In today's petroleum industry, more and more emphasis is being placed on logging and completion techniques for highly deviated (extended-reach) and horizontal boreholes. This is the result of cost-effective development of oil and gas via: a minimum number of production platforms on large structures, incremental but marginal reserves in outlying and/or small fault blocks, shallow reservoirs in deep offshore waters, and significant hydrocarbon accumulations in environmentally sensitive and/or restrictive areas, e.g., perma-frost, urban areas, etc. The major challenge in logging such high-angle, extended-reach, and also horizontal boreholes is guiding the logging tool string to the bottom of the wellbore. In the horizontal portion of a borehole, the use of coiled tubing has proven successful in ''pushing'' the logging instrumentation toward the bottom (end) of the borehole.

  7. 11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near the Minnesota end of the bridge - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  8. 3. View of corner connecting log section to north section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of corner connecting log section to north section of building. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 12, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  9. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  10. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  11. 16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG UNIDENTIFIED SECTION OF GOAT TRAIL MINING ROAD - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  12. Identification of Competencies for Forest Production and Logging Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, James S.

    1977-01-01

    The author presents the research methodology and a summary of the findings from a study to investigate the competencies required for entrance into the occupations of forestry aide, logging skidder operator, and wood producer. (MF)

  13. 3. VIEW OF TUNNEL INTAKE, WITH LOG TRASH RACK, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF TUNNEL INTAKE, WITH LOG TRASH RACK, LOOKING SOUTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Farmers Lake Tunnel, Ashley National Forest, 5.7 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  14. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... annual inspections of the job performance of each logging supervisor to ensure that the Commission's... training; (2) On-the-job training; (3) Annual safety reviews provided by the licensee; (4) Means...

  15. 13. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department Log ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department - Log of test borings - Lost Bridge, Spanning Little Missouri River, twenty-three miles north of Killdeer, ND, on State Highway No. 22, Killdeer, Dunn County, ND

  16. Effects of Post-Fire Salvage Logging on Erosion Rates at Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brown, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest managers sometimes harvest burned trees after wildfires to realize economic value, reduce fuel loads, or achieve other operational goals. This logging can be controversial because some ecosystem effects are negative, yet the potential impacts on erosion rates have not been clearly identified. Our objectives were to quantify hillslope-scale erosion rates and compare the hillslope erosion rates to rates from larger (swale) and smaller (rill) scales. Soil characteristics, vegetative regrowth, and erosion rates were measured in logged areas and unlogged controls at seven severely burned sites in the western US. One site had replicated measurements at all three scales, five sites had only hillslope or swale scale measurements, and one site had only rill measurements. Erosion rates from hillslopes (70-170 m2) and swales (0.1-2.6 ha) were measured with sediment fences. Rill erosion rates were measured with rill experiments, where water was applied to a hillslope at five flow rates for 12 min each; water samples were collected at a point 9 m downslope. At the hillslope scale the passage of heavy logging equipment reduced soil water repellency, compacted the soil, reduced vegetative regrowth rates, and generally increased erosion rates by one or two orders of magnitude relative to the controls. The rill experiments also showed greater rates of rill incision and erosion from the areas disturbed by heavy logging equipment relative to the controls. At the swale scale erosion rates were higher in the logged areas than the controls when measurements were replicated and simultaneous but there was no detectable change in the other study areas. Overall, the absolute erosion rates from both logged and unlogged areas tended to decline over time while the relative difference in erosion tended to increase due to the slower vegetative recovery in the more heavily disturbed areas. The potential adverse effects of salvage logging can be minimized by reducing compaction and increasing cover on the most heavily disturbed areas, and minimizing the convergence and connectivity between these areas and the stream network.

  17. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  18. Maximum entropy inversion of induction-log data

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, R. ); Minerbo, G.N. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the development and application of some new algorithms based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) for inverting (i.e., deconvolving) induction-log data. The MEM has earned a reputation in many physical science fields as a technique that provides robust and accurate reconstructions of instrumentally blurred data. Dyos recently applied a MEM algorithm to the inversion of synthetic deep-induction-log data. This paper develops some new MEM algorithms overcome some of the limitations of previous inversion methods and inverse-deconvolution-filter techniques. This paper examines two different MEM algorithms. The first algorithm is based on a functional used to study MEM inversions of synthetic data with a Doll approximation forward model. A second, more efficient MEM algorithm, based on a new Lagrangian functional, is used with an exact forward model to study the inversion of a field log and some model formations. Use of an exact forward model is essential in obtaining accurate and high-resolution MEM inversions in the presence of skin and shoulder effects. The MEM inversions of model data and field logs exhibit vertical resolution, accuracy, and stability that exceed those obtainable with state-of-the-art linear inverse filters. An example of the MEM inversion of a field log in a formation with numerous high-contrast thin beds is discussed and compared with the spherically focused log (SFL{sup SM}) and the deep enhanced-resolution Phasor-(IDER{sup SM}) processed log. The MEM inversion exhibits resolution comparable to that of the SFL. It is shown that, as a byproduct, the MEM provides synthetic logs that serve as a self-consistency check on both the quality of entered data and the validity of the R{sub 1} profile obtained from inversion.

  19. The application of path integral for log return probability calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palupi, D. S.; Hermanto, A.; Tenderlilin, E.; Rosyid, M. F.

    2014-10-01

    Log return probability has been calculated using path integral method. The stock price is assumed obeying the stochastic differential equation of a geometric Brownian motion and the volatility is assumed following Ornstein Uhlenbeck process. The stochastic differential equation of stock price and volatility lead to Fokker-Plank equation. The Fokker-Plank equation is solved using path integral method. Distribution of log return can be used to take the valuation ln return stock.

  20. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  1. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  2. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii... 393.100 through 393.114. (3) Firewood, stumps, log debris and other such short logs must be...: (i) There is no space between the two stacks of logs; (ii) The outside of each stack is raised...

  3. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii... 393.100 through 393.114. (3) Firewood, stumps, log debris and other such short logs must be...: (i) There is no space between the two stacks of logs; (ii) The outside of each stack is raised...

  4. Interactive, Collaborative, Electronic Learning Logs in the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, Chris

    2006-12-01

    I describe my experiences using Hickman's Interactive Collaborative Electronic Learning Logs teaching HS Physics. ICE Learning Logs are written in student groups to answer questions posed by the instructor, who then in turn responds to each groups entry before the next class. These logs were used with non-physics majors in both algebra and calculus-based introductory physics courses, and also at the high school level. I found ICE Learning Logs were found to be a clear improvement over traditional student journals. Excerpts from group entries will be presented to demonstrate the group identities that formed as well as the utility of the journals to probe for conceptual understanding. In addition, the ICE Learning Logs served as an excellent resource for students to review before exams and also to examine for critical moments to reflect on in formal essays. Hickman, P. (2000). Assessing student understanding with interactive-electronic-collaborative learning logs. ENC Focus, 7(2), 24-27. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation DUE0302097 and SUNY-Buffalo State Physics

  5. Estimating organic maturity from well logs, Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk, Texas Gulf coast

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, G.A.; Berg, R.R. )

    1990-09-01

    The Austin Chalk is both a source rock for oil and a fractured reservoir, and the evaluation of its organic maturity from well logs could be an aid to exploration and production. Geochemical measurements have shown three zones of organic maturity for source materials: (1) an immature zone to depths of 6,000 ft, (2) a peak-generation and accumulation zone from 6,000 to 6,500 ft, and (3) a mature, expulsion and migration zone below 6,500 ft. The response of common well logs identifies these zones. True resistivity (R{sub t}) is low in the immature zone, increases to a maximum in the peak-generation zone, and decreases to intermediate values in the expulsion zone. Density and neutron porosities are different in the immature zone but are nearly equal in the peak generation and expulsion zones. Correlations with conventional core analyses indicate that R{sub t} values between 9 and 40 ohm-m in the expulsion zone reflect a moveable oil saturation of 10 to 20% in the rock matrix. The moveable saturation provides oil from the matrix to fractures and is essential for sustained oil production. Therefore, the evaluation of moveable oil from well logs could be important in exploration.

  6. Detection and monitoring of chlorinated solvent contamination by thermal neutron logging

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, A.L.; Greenhouse, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    Thermal neutron logging is used to determine water content by measuring the elastic scattering due to hydrogen present in rocks and soils. The response of a thermal neutron device is also affected by the radiative capture of thermal neutrons by all elements. Chlorine has a large capture cross section in comparison to other elements usually found in aquifers; therefore, theory predicts that thermal neutron devices should respond to the presence of chlorinated solvents. Thermal neutron logging performed during a controlled release of perchloroethylene (PCE) confirmed that these methods can be used successfully to detect and monitor chlorinated solvents in the subsurface. To quantify the field results, a series of laboratory tests assessed the response of a neutron moisture probe used in the field experiments. These tests show that this device is very sensitive to the presence of chlorine and provide a basis for converting its response into an apparent PCE saturation. These saturation values compare favorably with PCE saturations obtained from core samples.

  7. The Log-Lin Metric for Generic Responses in Logarithmic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdillon, Antony J.

    2015-03-01

    The generic Log-Lin metric joins experimental quasicrystal data with its ideal structure. How does a periodic probe, e . g . an X-ray or electron beam, interact with an `aperiodic' solid to produce sharp diffraction in geometric space? Based on the structure, and through its stretching factor in the hierarchic model, quasi-structure factors are expanded in geometric series. The Log-Lin metric is found to be a function of tau2 and pi. The solution is of special value in simulating not only icosahedral structures, but also defective logarithmic solids, and quasicrystals of lower symmetry. The metric, now analyzed and simulated, enables consistent measurement from the atomic scale to high order superclusters. It is essential in any wave interaction with logarithmic solids. The factor applies to physical clusters of extremely dense, binary, hard-sphere, icosahedral, unit cells.

  8. The existence of inflection points for generalized log-aesthetic curves satisfying G1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpagavalli, R.; Gobithaasan, R. U.; Miura, K. T.; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2015-12-01

    Log-Aesthetic (LA) curves have been implemented in a CAD/CAM system for various design feats. LA curves possess linear Logarithmic Curvature Graph (LCG) with gradient (shape parameter) denoted as ?. In 2009, a generalized form of LA curves called Generalized Log-Aesthetic Curves (GLAC) has been proposed which has an extra shape parameter as ? compared to LA curves. Recently, G1 continuous GLAC algorithm has been proposed which utilizes the extra shape parameter using four control points. This paper discusses on the existence of inflection points in a GLAC segment satisfying G1 Hermite data and the effect of inflection point on convex hull property. It is found that the existence of inflection point can be avoided by manipulating the value of ?. Numerical experiments show that the increase of ? may remove the inflection point (if any) in a GLAC segment.

  9. Calibration of NMR well logs from carbonate reservoirs with laboratory NMR measurements and ?XRCT

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Harris E.; Smith, Megan M.; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-12-31

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well log data has the potential to provide in-situ porosity, pore size distributions, and permeability of target carbonate CO? storage reservoirs. However, these methods which have been successfully applied to sandstones have yet to be completely validated for carbonate reservoirs. Here, we have taken an approach to validate NMR measurements of carbonate rock cores with independent measurements of permeability and pore surface area to volume (S/V) distributions using differential pressure measurements and micro X-ray computed tomography (?XRCT) imaging methods, respectively. We observe that using standard methods for determining permeability from NMR data incorrectly predicts these values by orders of magnitude. However, we do observe promise that NMR measurements provide reasonable estimates of pore S/V distributions, and with further independent measurements of the carbonate rock properties that universally applicable relationships between NMR measured properties may be developed for in-situ well logging applications of carbonate reservoirs.

  10. Interpretation of well logs in a carbonate aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCary, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the log analysis of the Randolph and Sabial core holes in the Edwards aquifer in Texas, with particular attention to the principles that can be applied generally to any carbonate system. The geologic and hydrologic data were obtained during the drilling of the two holes, from extensive laboratory analysis of the cores, and from numerous geophysical logs run in the two holes. Some logging methods are inherently superiors to others for the analysis of limestone and dolomite aquifers. Three such systems are the dentistry, neutron, and acoustic-velocity (sonic) logs. Most of the log analysis described here is based on the interpretation of suites of logs from these three systems. In certain instances, deeply focused resistivity logs can be used to good advantage in carbonate rock studies; this technique is used to computer the water resistivity in the Randolph core hole. The rocks penetrated by the Randolph core hole are typical of those carbonates that have undergone very little solution by recent ground-water circulation. There are few large solutional openings; the water is saline; and the rocks are dark, dolomitic, have pore space that is interparticle or intercrystalline, and contain unoxidized organic material. The total porosity of rocks in the saline zone is higher than that of rocks in the fresh-water aquifer; however, the intrinsic permeability is much less in the saline zone because there are fewer large solutional openings. The Sabinal core hole penetrates a carbonate environment that has experienced much solution by ground water during recent geologic time. The rocks have high secondary porosities controlled by sedimentary structures within the rock; the water is fresh; and the dominant rock composition is limestone. The relative percentages of limestone and dolomite, the average matrix (grain) densities of the rock mixtures , and the porosity of the rock mass can be calculated from density, neutron, and acoustic logs. With supporting data from resistivity logs, the formation water quality can be estimated, as well as the relative cementation or tortuosity of the rock. Many of these properties calculated from logs can be verified by analysis of the core available from test holes drilled in the saline and fresh water zones.

  11. Lithological control on gas hydrate saturation as revealed by signal classification of NMR logging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Klaus; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Henninges, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) downhole logging data are analyzed with a new strategy to study gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada). In NMR logging, transverse relaxation time (T2) distribution curves are usually used to determine single-valued parameters such as apparent total porosity or hydrocarbon saturation. Our approach analyzes the entire T2 distribution curves as quasi-continuous signals to characterize the rock formation. We apply self-organizing maps, a neural network clustering technique, to subdivide the data set of NMR curves into classes with a similar and distinctive signal shape. The method includes (1) preparation of data vectors, (2) unsupervised learning, (3) cluster definition, and (4) classification and depth mapping of all NMR signals. Each signal class thus represents a specific pore size distribution which can be interpreted in terms of distinct lithologies and reservoir types. A key step in the interpretation strategy is to reconcile the NMR classes with other log data not considered in the clustering analysis, such as gamma ray, hydrate saturation, and other logs. Our results defined six main lithologies within the target zone. Gas hydrate layers were recognized by their low signal amplitudes for all relaxation times. Most importantly, two subtypes of hydrate-bearing shaly sands were identified. They show distinct NMR signals and differ in hydrate saturation and gamma ray values. An inverse linear relationship between hydrate saturation and clay content was concluded. Finally, we infer that the gas hydrate is not grain coating, but rather, pore filling with matrix support is the preferred growth habit model for the studied formation.

  12. Selective logging in tropical forests decreases the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks to the loss of host tree species.

    PubMed

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Senior, Rebecca A; Rogers, Andrew; Nurdin, Deddy; Benedick, Suzan; Laurance, William F; Santamaria, Luis; Edwards, David P

    2016-03-16

    Selective logging is one of the major drivers of tropical forest degradation, causing important shifts in species composition. Whether such changes modify interactions between species and the networks in which they are embedded remain fundamental questions to assess the 'health' and ecosystem functionality of logged forests. We focus on interactions between lianas and their tree hosts within primary and selectively logged forests in the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo. We found that lianas were more abundant, had higher species richness, and different species compositions in logged than in primary forests. Logged forests showed heavier liana loads disparately affecting slow-growing tree species, which could exacerbate the loss of timber value and carbon storage already associated with logging. Moreover, simulation scenarios of host tree local species loss indicated that logging might decrease the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks if heavily infested trees (i.e. the most connected ones) were more likely to disappear. This effect is partially mitigated in the short term by the colonization of host trees by a greater diversity of liana species within logged forests, yet this might not compensate for the loss of preferred tree hosts in the long term. As a consequence, species interaction networks may show a lagged response to disturbance, which may trigger sudden collapses in species richness and ecosystem function in response to additional disturbances, representing a new type of 'extinction debt'. PMID:26936241

  13. Methane hydrate pore saturation evaluation from geophysical logging and pressure core analysis, at the first offshore production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    On March 2013, the first offshore production test form methane hydrate (MH) concentrated zone (MHCZ) was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21) at the AT1 site located in the north-western slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. Before the production test, extensive geophysical logging and pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System were conducted in 2012 at monitoring well (AT1-MC) and coring well (AT1-C), in order to obtain basic information for the MH reservoir characterization. MH pore saturation (Sh) is one of the important basic parameters not only for reservoir characterization, but also the resource assessment. However, precise evaluation of Sh from geophysical logging is still challenging technical issue. The MHCZ confirmed by the geophysical logging at AT1-MC has a turbidite assemblage (from several tens of centimeters to a few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness; it is composed of lobe/sheet type sequences in the upper part, and relatively thick channel sand sequences in the lower part. In this study, the Sh evaluated from geophysical logging data were compared with those evaluated from pressure core analysis. Resistivity logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log were used for the Sh evaluation by geophysical logging. Standard Archie equation was applied for Sh evaluation from resistivity log, while density magnetic resonance (DMR) method was used for Sh evaluation from NMR log. The Sh from pressure core samples were evaluated using the amount of dissociated gas volume, together with core sample bulk volume, measured porosity, net sand intervals, and assumed methane solubility in pore water. In the upper part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from resistivity log showed distinct difference in value between sand and mud layers, compared to Sh from NMR log. Resistivity log has higher vertical resolution than NMR log, so it is favorable for these kinds of thin bed evaluation. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which showed fairly good agreement with core derived Sh. On the other hand, lower part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from both resistivity and NMR log showed higher background value and relatively smoother curve than upper part. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which was also showed good agreement with core derived Sh. This study was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21).

  14. Carbon emissions from tropical forest degradation caused by logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Timothy R. H.; Brown, Sandra; Casarim, Felipe M.

    2014-03-01

    The focus of land-use related efforts in developing countries to reduce carbon emissions has been on slowing deforestation, yet international agreements are to reduce emissions from both deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The second D is poorly understood and accounted for a number of technical and policy reasons. Here we introduce a complete accounting method for estimating emission factors from selective timber harvesting, a substantial form of forest degradation in many tropical developing countries. The method accounts separately for emissions from the extracted log, from incidental damage to the surrounding forest, and from logging infrastructure, and emissions are expressed as units of carbon per cubic meter of timber extracted to allow for simple application to timber harvesting statistics. We applied the method in six tropical countries (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana, Indonesia, and Republic of Congo), resulting in total emission factors of 0.99-2.33 Mg C m-3. In all cases, emissions were dominated by damage to surrounding vegetation and the infrastructure rather than the logs themselves, and total emissions represented about 3-15% of the biomass carbon stocks of the associated unlogged forests. We then combined the emission factors with country level logging statistics for nine key timber producing countries represented by our study areas to gain an understanding of the order of magnitude of emissions from degradation compared to those recently reported for deforestation in the same countries. For the nine countries included, emissions from logging were on average equivalent to about 12% of those from deforestation. For those nine countries with relatively low emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to half or more of those from deforestation, whereas for those countries with the highest emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to <10% of those from deforestation. Understanding how to account emissions and the magnitude of each emissions source resulting from tropical timber harvesting practices helps identify where there are opportunities to reduce emissions from the second D in REDD.

  15. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  16. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school

  17. Valuing Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2004-01-01

    School leaders have a habit of minimizing disagreements among faculty and staff by capitalizing on the goals and values that everyone shares. When conflict rears its head at a meeting, it can be lessened by simply reminding colleagues of common purpose and finding issues on which all can agree. What started as an argument about curricular

  18. Redeeming Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitwell, Stuart C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an essay on organizational transformation and the way successful marketing transformations redeem a sense of value. Focuses on challenges faced by not-for-profit institutions, current changes in the library profession, and implications of the American Library Association's Goal 2000. A sidebar summarizes an interview with the director of

  19. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  20. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  1. Valuing Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2005-01-01

    How well are adult and community learning providers doing when it comes to ensuring equality of opportunity (EO) and valuing diversity? Many are in transition from a defensive position of emphasising legal compliance towards making respect for diversity intrinsic to their strategic aims, plans and actions, according to the February edition of

  2. Use of Wireline Logs to Estimate Strength of Cap Rock Lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    The characterization of rock strength for cap rock, low-permeability and high capillary entry pressure, lithologies is important for modeling their response to increased fluid pressures in CO2 sequestration schemes and other geo-engineering operations such as waste disposal and recovery of fluids from plays with insufficient permeability. We investigate Mesozoic fine-grained sequences to evaluate the nature of sedimentological and structural processes that may control the nature of brittle deformation observed in these sequences. To characterize these fine-grained sequences we use a combination of data obtained from outcrop, including fracture orientation and density, lithologic stacking patterns, grain-size distributions and mineralogy to predict the potential for fluid bypass. In addition we also use publically available wireline log data to estimate the rock strength of these units in the subsurface. Outcrop observations of the mixed silisiclastic carbonate sequence of the Carmel Formation shows vertically continuous fractures crossing lithologic boundaries and analysis of scan-line and fracture orientation data indicate three discontinuity sets. Sets one and two are a conjugate pair of non-mineralized discontinuities which include faults and fractures, with a mean orientations of 323°/78° and 100°/76° respectively and discontinuity spacing ranging between 0.2-0.4 per meter. Set three is a near vertical, mineralized fracture set which is cross-cut by fractures of set one and two, with a mean orientation 31°/80 and a fracture spacing of 0.2 fractures per meter. Use of publically available wireline log data allows us to estimate rock strength over larger scales than those provided by the local outcrops. The wells selected for analysis are located within a 15-km radius from the outcrop location. Gamma ray, sonic, and density logs from 7 wells were digitized from scanned originals. The inverse of the sonic log data was taken to obtain a velocity value (Vp), no dipole sonic logs are available therefore shear velocity was calculated using empirical relationships established by other workers. Having both compression and shear velocity as well as bulk density values we are able to empirically determine Poisson’s Ratio and Young’s Modulus. Poisson’s Ratio values for these wells ranges between 0.18-0.48, and Young’s Modulus results range from 7GPa-50 GPa. Most of the results obtained by this data analysis fall within the published ranges for these rock types, but the data show variability which must be further evaluated to understand if these are related to geology or artifacts associated with the wireline data. In future the use of these empirical estimates will provide a lower estimate for subsurface rock strength.

  3. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, David L A; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Sheil, Doug; Abram, Nicola K; Ancrenaz, Marc; Nasi, Robert; Quinones, Marcela; Wielaard, Niels; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2) of Borneo's area (737,188 km2) was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2%) in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%). We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km-2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km-2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8%) of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo. PMID:25029192

  4. Four Decades of Forest Persistence, Clearance and Logging on Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Sheil, Doug; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Nasi, Robert; Quinones, Marcela; Wielaard, Niels; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2) of Borneo's area (737,188 km2) was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2%) in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%). We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km−2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km−2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8%) of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo. PMID:25029192

  5. Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in Table 1 are shown in red on the trench logs. All radiocarbon ages are calibrated and given with 2 standard deviation age ranges. Our studies suggest that the Central Range Fault is a Holocene fault capable of producing damaging earthquakes in Trinidad

  6. Revisiting hydrostratigraphy in Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin: A well-logs re-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarwan, B.; Irawan, D. E.; Puradimaja, D. J.; Notosiswoyo, S.; Sadisun, I. A.; Setiawan, T.; Anugrah, R. M.

    2015-09-01

    An attempt to revisit the hydro-stratigraphy of Bandung-Soreang Groundwater Basin (BSGB) has been done based on 111 well-logging training dataset. Transformation of resistivity values from well-log data to relative porosity and permeability used Chillingarian approach and Baker-Hughes Atlas of log responses. Then boundary marker was drawn to separated different aquifer layers. Simple linear regression equations were derived from the transformation: (a) tuf layers: θ = -0.0023ρ + 2.5619, μ = -63.514θ + 167.38, σ = 22.912 μ + 238.78; (b) clay layers: θ = -0.0181 ρ + 2.6281, μ = -61.842 θ + 163.91, σ = 5.1202 μ - 11.503; (c) sand layers: θ = -0.0078 ρ + 2.5992, μ = -60.75 θ + 161.02, σ = 394.35 μ - 2156.8. Based on the new aquifer taxonomy, three hydro-stratigraphic units (HSU) and six sub HSU have been defined. UHs 1 is the top layer of the BSGB, located at elevation above 650 masl. It has three sub HSU that consists of tuf and sand. The permeability (K) values of this unit range from 0,0014 to 0.1 m per day. HSU-2 with two sub HSU consists of tuf and sand, located at elevation from 625 to 650 masl. This unit has K values from 0.1 to 6 m per day. HSU-3, which is located at elevation from 500 to 625 masl, has only one sub HSU. This unit consists of tuf, sand, and volcanic breccias, with K values from 0.3 to 7.1 m per day. This models, however, are still needed more test to new dataset.

  7. New Insights into the Consequences of Post-Windthrow Salvage Logging Revealed by Functional Structure of Saproxylic Beetles Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Simon; Bässler, Claus; Gottschalk, Thomas; Hothorn, Torsten; Bussler, Heinz; Raffa, Kenneth; Müller, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models) as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green-tree retention approach to windthrown trees will preserve natural succession and associated communities of disturbed spruce forests. PMID:25050914

  8. New insights into the consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging revealed by functional structure of saproxylic beetles assemblages.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Simon; Bässler, Claus; Gottschalk, Thomas; Hothorn, Torsten; Bussler, Heinz; Raffa, Kenneth; Müller, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models) as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green-tree retention approach to windthrown trees will preserve natural succession and associated communities of disturbed spruce forests. PMID:25050914

  9. Improved seismic stratigraphic interpretation with VSPs and well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Poster, C.K.

    1987-05-01

    The addition of Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSPs) and well logs to coinciding surface seismic data improves resolution and interpretation away from the well, of formations encountered at the well. The positioning of further delineation wells, the interpretation of stratigraphy between wells, and the interpretation of stratigraphic changes near a well, benefit from the rigorous use of these data. The VSP, when parallel-processed with the surface seismic data, accurately indicates the location in time of the well on the seismic section, both laterally and vertically. The VSP also permits the time-scaling of the log data to match the seismic data. Thorough interpretation of these logs produces formational models, which include in situ lithology, porosity, hydrocarbon distribution, and the zoned reflectivity corresponding to formation boundaries. This reflectivity is used to estimate a wavelet filter from the seismic data, which, combined with the log's reflectivity and the measured relationship of acoustic impedance to porosity, permits accurate modeling of stratigraphic changes away from the well. The wavelet can also be used to compute zero-phase filters for improving the resolution of seismic reflections near the well. The use and interpretation of a complex trace attributes, envelope and instantaneous phase, is seen to be improved after zero-phasing. Examples from major reservoirs in the Middle East, including the Mishrif reefs and other carbonate formations, illustrate the reconciliation of log and seismic data and improved stratigraphic interpretation between wells.

  10. A rule-based system for well log correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Startzman, R.A.; Kuo, T.B.

    1987-09-01

    Computer-assisted approaches to well log correlation are of interest to engineers and geologists for two reasons. In large field studies, a computer can be used simply to reduce the time required to correlate zones of interest. It is also possible that computer-assisted correlations may suggest zonal matches of interest and originality that might not have been considered. This paper presents a new approach to the computer-assisted log correlation. Geologic horizons are correlated between wells by use of an artificial intelligence rule-based technique. Using the symbol-manipulation capabilities of a computer language called List Processing (LISP), the author developed a prototype rule-bases system that has symbolic representation of log data, recognizes log shapes from traces, identifies geologic zones from a sequence of shapes in a log, characterizes the zones, correlates zones from well to well with a set of ''if/then'' type of rules, and uses a forward-chaining inference scheme to execute the rule base. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of the LISP language and the methodology involved in the development of this system.

  11. Log-Gabor Weber descriptor for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Sang, Nong; Gao, Changxin

    2015-09-01

    The Log-Gabor transform, which is suitable for analyzing gradually changing data such as in iris and face images, has been widely used in image processing, pattern recognition, and computer vision. In most cases, only the magnitude or phase information of the Log-Gabor transform is considered. However, the complementary effect taken by combining magnitude and phase information simultaneously for an image-feature extraction problem has not been systematically explored in the existing works. We propose a local image descriptor for face recognition, called Log-Gabor Weber descriptor (LGWD). The novelty of our LGWD is twofold: (1) to fully utilize the information from the magnitude or phase feature of multiscale and orientation Log-Gabor transform, we apply the Weber local binary pattern operator to each transform response. (2) The encoded Log-Gabor magnitude and phase information are fused at the feature level by utilizing kernel canonical correlation analysis strategy, considering that feature level information fusion is effective when the modalities are correlated. Experimental results on the AR, Extended Yale B, and UMIST face databases, compared with those available from recent experiments reported in the literature, show that our descriptor yields a better performance than state-of-the art methods.

  12. Early identification of adverse drug reactions from search log data.

    PubMed

    White, Ryen W; Wang, Sheng; Pant, Apurv; Harpaz, Rave; Shukla, Pushpraj; Sun, Walter; DuMouchel, William; Horvitz, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The timely and accurate identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following drug approval is a persistent and serious public health challenge. Aggregated data drawn from anonymized logs of Web searchers has been shown to be a useful source of evidence for detecting ADRs. However, prior studies have been based on the analysis of established ADRs, the existence of which may already be known publically. Awareness of these ADRs can inject existing knowledge about the known ADRs into online content and online behavior, and thus raise questions about the ability of the behavioral log-based methods to detect new ADRs. In contrast to previous studies, we investigate the use of search logs for the early detection of known ADRs. We use a large set of recently labeled ADRs and negative controls to evaluate the ability of search logs to accurately detect ADRs in advance of their publication. We leverage the Internet Archive to estimate when evidence of an ADR first appeared in the public domain and adjust the index date in a backdated analysis. Our results demonstrate how search logs can be used to detect new ADRs, the central challenge in pharmacovigilance. PMID:26610385

  13. Technical evaluation of software for gamma-ray logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report contains results of a technical review of software, identified as LGCALC, that processes data collected by a high-resolution gamma-ray borehole logging system. The software presently operates within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Department of Geosciences, to process data collected by the Radionuclide Logging System. The software has been reviewed for its suitability for processing data to be collected by new high-resolution gamma-ray logging trucks scheduled to begin operational tests within Westinghouse Tank Waste Remediation Systems during 1994. Examination of the program code and hands-on operational tests have shown that this software is suitable for its intended use of processing high-resolution gamma-ray data obtained from borehole logging. Most of the code requires no changes, but in a few limited cases, suggestions have been made to correct errors or improve operation. Section 4 describes these changes. The technical review has confirmed the appropriateness, correctness, completeness, and coding accuracy of algorithms used to process spectral gamma-ray data, leading to a calculation of subsurface radionuclide contaminants. Running the program with test data from calibration models has confirmed that the program operates correctly. Comparisons with hand calculations have shown the correctness of the output from the program, based on known input data. Section 3 describes these tests. The recommended action is to make the near term programming changes suggested in Section 4.1 and then use the LGCALC analysis program with the new high-resolution logging systems once they have been properly calibrated.

  14. Logging with coiled tubing less effective than with drill pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Bosch, R. )

    1994-01-31

    Coiled tubing offered neither economic nor operational advantages over drill pipe for conveying logging tools in open hole shallow horizontal wells in Germany. In the past 2 years, Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GMbH (MEEG) participated in completing eight shallow horizontal wells. These were medium-to-short radius wells at measured depths of between 850 and 2,000 m. The average horizontal section was 350 m. The logging tools were conveyed by coiled tubing or drill pipe. MEEG attempted to log five wells with coiled tubing-conveyed tools, four with 1 1/2-in. tubing. Total depth was reached reliably in only one well, the shallowest and with the shortest horizontal section. Simulation programs were unreliable for calculating the downhole forces of the coil/tool combination or predicting possible helical lockups. In wells with drill pipe-conveyed logs, the tool combination could always be pushed to total depth, and the operations were generally faster and cost less than logging with coiled tubing. Also, drill pipe allowed longer and heavier tool strings. For reliable operations, coiled tubing needs to be more rigid, rig-up/rig-down times need to be improved, and the simulation programs must be more reliable for predicting downhole lock-up.

  15. User's manual for geophysical well-logging software programs

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G.M.; Gibson, D.; Blair, S.C.

    1983-02-01

    Since 1958 the Ground-Water Surveillance Program for the Hanford Site has made geophysical logging measurements in most of the 800 wells and deep boreholes that have been drilled on the Hanford Site. In 1980 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which conducts the Ground-Water Surveillance Program, began forming a computerized data base for storing and retrieving geophysical well log data and developing software for quantitative analysis of the well log data. This report, designed to serve as a user's guide, documents the data base system that handles the well log data. Two programs, DIGLOG1 and LOGIT, are used to manipulate the data. The program DIGLOG1 translates analog paper strip charts into digital format; the program LOGIT is a general utility program that edits, displays, checks, stores, writes, and deletes sets of well log data. These two programs do not provide sophisticated display and analytical capabilities; rather, they provide programs that give the user easy access to powerful standard analytical software.

  16. Application of the spread-spectrum technique in well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Dadakarides, Simos D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the novel concept of employing the noise insensitive spread-spectrum technique in well logging. The proposed design of a spread-spectrum device improves the performance of well logging tools, particularly within highly noisy environments. The heart of the device is a shift register which generates a pseudorandom binary code sequence. A coder is connected to the transmitter and codes the probing signal by utilizing the pseudorandom sequence. A decoder is connected to the receiver and correlates the return signal to the same sequence, which is used as a sliding reference. Shifts as small as a fraction of a bit are unambiguously resolvable, and distance resolution of the order of micrometers is achievable. Spread-spectrum well logging tools can operate even with coded signal-to-noise ratio below zero-dB. The spread-spectrum device can be interfaced with any available wave transmitting logging tool. However, tools employing acoustic waves are favorable because the acoustic wave propagation velocity is low and allows the use of inexpensive electronics. The problems associated with high temperatures which are commonly encountered In geothermal reservoirs are bypassed, since the spread-spectrum device can be located either inside the well logging tool or together with the supporting electronics on the surface.

  17. Estimating monthly streamflow values by cokriging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solow, A.R.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Cokriging is applied to estimation of missing monthly streamflow values in three records from gaging stations in west central Virginia. Missing values are estimated from optimal consideration of the pattern of auto- and cross-correlation among standardized residual log-flow records. Investigation of the sensitivity of estimation to data configuration showed that when observations are available within two months of a missing value, estimation is improved by accounting for correlation. Concurrent and lag-one observations tend to screen the influence of other available observations. Three models of covariance structure in residual log-flow records are compared using cross-validation. Models differ in how much monthly variation they allow in covariance. Precision of estimation, reflected in mean squared error (MSE), proved to be insensitive to this choice. Cross-validation is suggested as a tool for choosing an inverse transformation when an initial nonlinear transformation is applied to flow values. ?? 1986 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  18. Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change.

    PubMed

    Walsh, R P D; Bidin, K; Blake, W H; Chappell, N A; Clarke, M A; Douglas, I; Ghazali, R; Sayer, A M; Suhaimi, J; Tych, W; Annammala, K V

    2011-11-27

    Long-term (21-30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km(2) Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990-2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994-1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5-15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km(-2) a(-1) 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout (210)Pb and (137)Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km(2) Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7-13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992-1993 and 1999-2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale. PMID:22006973

  19. Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, R. P. D.; Bidin, K.; Blake, W. H.; Chappell, N. A.; Clarke, M. A.; Douglas, I.; Ghazali, R.; Sayer, A. M.; Suhaimi, J.; Tych, W.; Annammala, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term (21–30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km2 Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990–2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994–1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5–15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km−2 a−1 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout 210Pb and 137Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km2 Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7–13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992–1993 and 1999–2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale. PMID:22006973

  20. Low-cost log analysis using a graphics-based microcomputer and off-the-shelf software

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A. )

    1988-05-01

    While the introduction of the microcomputer has been hailed as bringing a desktop revolution, the field of log analysis has not yet gained its full benefit from this revolution. Even so-called entry level log analysis workstations based upon PC-compatibles can demand many thousands of dollars of peripheral hardware - graphic cards, high-resolution monitors, etc. Software lease and maintenance costs may exceed hardware costs in a single year. Recently, however, a new generation of lower cost hardware and software products have become available which place sophisticated color graphics tools in the hands of the computer user. Although not specifically designed for this purpose the tools can be customized to the job with a minimum of effort or programming skill. This two-part series provides an introduction to the use of these new tools using a development of a simple mud log evaluation technique as an example. This subject is a somewhat apt one, i.e. a low-cost application for a low-cost data source. It is also, incidentally, one commonly overlooked by the high-end log analysis workstations and therefore may make the article of value to even those who might otherwise have no interest in low-end systems. Part 1 describes the makeup of a spreadsheet template to compute, from mud and cutting analysis, parameters to predicts reservoir fluid type and productivity which can be used quantitatively in support of a conventional wireline log analysis.

  1. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues

    PubMed Central

    Alfredsen, Gry; Filbakk, Tore; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones. PMID:25870777

  2. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

    2012-08-01

    The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  3. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues.

    PubMed

    Brja, Isabella; Alfredsen, Gry; Filbakk, Tore; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones. PMID:25870777

  4. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  5. Model for water factor measurements with fission-neutron logging tools. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, C. J.

    1983-05-01

    During 1977 and 1978, a Fission Neutron Water Factor Model was designed and constructed by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the Grand Junction facility. This model features seven water-filled boreholes with different diameters. All of these boreholes penetrate, in order from the top of the model, a 5-foot-thick (1.52 m), uniform, concrete upper ''barren zone''; a 6-foot-thick (1.83 m), uniform, uranium-enriched, concrete ''ore zone''; and a 4-foot-thick (1.22 m), uniform, concrete lower ''barren zone''. The response of a fission neutron logging tool in a water-filled borehole is affected by variations in the borehole diameter. This diameter-dependent effect can be deduced from logs run in several different boreholes of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model. This report describes the construction of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model and also presents values for model parameters which are of interest in fission-neutron logging.

  6. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

  7. Resolution enhancement of well log and seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Michette, A.G.; Darling, A.M.; Fiddy, M.A.; Ward, W.A.; Franklin, E.

    1984-08-01

    A new method with general applications for seismic data is presented for spectral extrapolation. The method gives a restored image that is optimum in the sense of minimum norm and can be adapted to incorporate any constraints on the reconstruction. As an illustration of the technique it is first applied to a synthesized (noise-free) image. Then it is shown that enhancement of a density log (run in a hole drilled entirely in Coal Measures rocks) is possible using constraints taken from the geologist's log. A synthetic trace with significantly improved event arrival times and general character is obtained. 10 references.

  8. NADIR: Monitoring, Error Handling, and Logging with Tango

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.

    2014-05-01

    The ingest and transport of a large amount of astronomical data, in geographically distributed archives, imply some challenging issues, like remote control and configuration, monitoring and logging anomalous conditions, fault tolerance and error handling. Based on this considerations and on our experience in data management, we started development of a New Archiving Distributed InfrastructuRe (NADIR), using Tango (Team 2013; S. Gara 2012), a well known distributed control system (DCSs) within scientific environments, taking advantage of its key features, like reliability, scalability, logging and alarm system, consolidated pattern and template, to solve this complexity. In this paper we discuss about design choices and technical aspects around this project.

  9. Perfluorinated compounds in Haihe River and Dagu Drainage Canal in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fasong; Sun, Hongwen; Hao, Zhineng; He, Na; Zhao, Lijie; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Tiehang

    2011-06-01

    In this study, nine perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in water and sediment of Haihe River (HR) and Dagu Drainage Canal (DDC), Tianjin, China. The total PFCs in water samples from DDC (40-174 ngL(-1)) was much greater than those from HR (12-74 ngL(-1)). PFC contamination was severe at lower reaches of HR due to industry activities, while high PFCs were found in the middle of DDC due to the effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the predominant PFCs in aqueous phase. The total PFCs in sediments from DDC (1.6-7.7 ngg(-1) dry weight) were lower as compared to HR (7.1-16 ngg(-1)), maybe due to the dredging of sediment in DDC conducted recently. PFOS was the major PFC in HR sediments followed by PFOA; while PFHxA was the major PFC in DDC sediments. Organic carbon calibrated sediment-water distribution coefficients (K(OC)) were calculated for HR. The Log K(OC) ranged from 3.3 to 4.4 for C7-C11 perfluorinated carboxylic acids, increasing by 0.1-0.6 log units with each additional CF(2) moiety. The log K(OC) for 8:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated acid was reported for the first time with a mean value of 4.0. The log Koc of PFOS was higher than perfluoronanoic acid by 0.8 log units. PMID:21524781

  10. Assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) with downhole electrical resistivity logs on Hydrate Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T.; Goldberg, D.; Guerin, G.; Barr, S.; Leg 204 Shipboard Scientific Party, I.

    2003-04-01

    The downhole logging program on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204 was designed to obtain the data needed to assess the occurrence and concentration of gas hydrates beneath Hydrate Ridge off the northwest coast of the United States. During Leg 204, logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools were deployed at eight of the nine sites cored on Hydrate Ridge. The LWD tools used during Leg 204 were provided by Schlumberger, they included the resistivity-at-the-bit (RAB-GVR) tool, the magnetic resonance while drilling (MRWD) tool, and the azimuthal density-neutron (VDN) tool. It has been shown that it is possible to obtain gas-hydrate saturations (percent of pore space occupied by gas hydrate) by using the Archie relation to analyze the electrical resistivity of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. In this study, the Archie relation was used with resistivity data from the GVR tool and porosity data from the VDN density tool to calculate water saturations at all eight LWD log sites on Hydrate Ridge. The downhole log inferred distribution of gas hydrate beneath Hydrate Ridge and the adjacent slope basin is heterogeneous, with downhole RAB images showing gas hydrate occupying fractures and occurring as a disseminated pore-filling material within flat lying stratigraphic units with thicknesses varying from several centimeters to as much as 10 m. The Archie relation yielded water saturations ranging from low values near the crest of the ridge, of about 10% in Hole 1249A, to a more common value of about 90% along the flanks of the ridge. It is generally accepted that with the zone of gas hydrate stability, gas hydrate saturations (S_h) are the mathematical complement of Archie derived water saturations (S_w), with S_h=1-S_w. Thus, the Archie derived gas hydrate saturations at the crest of the ridge exceed 90%. It should be noted that the Archie relation cannot distinguish between the occurrence of free-gas and gas hydrate. But, neutron porosity logs from the VDN tool, which are sensitive to the occurrence of free gas, did not reveal the presence of any significant free-gas occurrence above the depth of the BSR on Hydrate Ridge.

  11. WSULOG, microcomputer-based well-log evaluation for carbonate reservoirs in Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linehan, John M.; Sutterlin, P. G.

    Increasing use of microcomputers in the petroleum industry has created a demand for programs that aid the geologist in the evaluation of well logs. Most programs currently available are based on the Archie equation for sandstones in calculation of the formation saturation characteristics. A need is evident for such evaluation programs to handle the varieties of sandstones and carbonates. WSULOG is a program that will evaluate log parameters based on ten different lithologies. WSULOG was developed with the small independent Kansas petroleum operator in mind. The program is menu driven, runs in a query—response mode, checks input values for validity, and produces output in an easy to read format. Written in FORTRAN 77, the program could be adapted easily to BASIC or Pascal for different machines. Calculations within the program are based on standard equations used throughout the industry, as well as the most recent developments in evaluating carbonate reservoirs. One such development for carbonate reservoirs, is the Productivity Ratio Index (PRI), which is a calculated value of the relationship of sonic-derived water saturation to the neutron-density porosity. The PRI is a "flag" value indicating the production potential of a formation, whether oil, water, or both.

  12. Environmental effects and characterization of the Egyptian radioactive well logging calibration pad facility.

    PubMed

    Al Alfy, Ibrahim Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    A set of ten radioactive well-logging calibration pads were constructed in one of the premises of the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA), Egypt, at 6th October city. These pads were built for calibrating geophysical well-logging instruments. This calibration facility was conducted through technical assistance and practical support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and (ARCN). There are five uranium pads with three different uranium concentrations and borehole diameters. The other five calibration pads include one from each of the following: blank, potassium, thorium, multi layers and mixed. More than 22 t of various selected Egyptian raw materials were gathered for pad construction from different locations in Egypt. Pad's site and the surrounding area were spectrometrically surveyed before excavation for the construction process of pad-basin floor. They yielded negligible radiation values which are very near to the detected general background. After pad's construction, spectrometric measurements were carried out again in the same locations when the exposed bore holes of the pads were closed. No radioactivity leakage was noticed from the pads. Meanwhile, dose rate values were found to range from 0.12 to 1.26 mS/y. They were measured during the opening of bore holes of the pads. These values depend mainly upon the type and concentration of the pads as well as their borehole diameters. The results of radiospectrometric survey illustrate that the specification of top layers of the pads were constructed according to international standards. PMID:24140880

  13. Reconstruction of Sedimentary Sequence in Kumano Forearc Basin of southwest Japan by IODP Core-Log Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, N.; Ashi, J.; Saito, S.

    2010-12-01

    Downhole logging data combined with core data are useful to determine physical properties and lithology of the formation. However, layer-by-layer analyses were not routinely conducted especially for marine siliciclastic sediments due to poor core recovery. We aim to investigate detailed analysis of sedimentary sequence developed in Kumano Basin using core-log integration method. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 314/315, Site C0002 was drilled, logged, and cored down to 1400 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Stratified structures are clearly imaged by a seismic reflection profile in the southern edge of Kumano Basin including Site C0002 area. A 935m-thick basin fill and accretionary prism were drilled and logged with logging-while-drilling (LWD) at Hole C0002A and high quality data were continuously acquired. Coring operations were conducted at the intervals 0-204 and 475-1057 mbsf in Hole C0002B. Although the two holes are tens of meters away, they are close enough to correlate. We compared lithology of the recovered cores and log data, mainly resistivity and natural gamma ray, in the two cored intervals. As the core recovery was good throughout the upper interval, clear correlations are recognized between the lithological variations and log responses. Most of the sand layers are characterized by low gamma ray and low resistivity values. In the lower interval, where cores were recovered by the RCB system, the core recovery was poor and the dominant lithology is mudstone. However, the log responses suggest that the formation in the lower interval are composed of alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone. The thickness of LWD-based mudstone coincides with the thickness of recovered sediments (=mudstone), suggesting that the recovered cores represent highly biased lithology due to no recovery of sandstone. Based on the core-log integration studies, the LWD-derived lithology can be applied for the entire section of the hole including non-cored and poorly recovered intervals. We reconstructed the history of sand supply into the Kumano Basin based on the detailed analysis of the thickness and frequency of sand layers at Site C0002.

  14. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine womens reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  15. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  16. Physical-scale models of engineered log jams in rivers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stream restoration and river engineering projects are employing engineered log jams increasingly for stabilization and in-stream improvements. To further advance the design of these structures and their morphodynamic effects on corridors, the basis for physical-scale models of rivers with engineere...

  17. Logged On for Learning. An "Education Week" Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Peter

    1995-01-01

    This document and accompanying disk contain all of the articles from an "Education Week" special report examining the complex phenomenon commonly known as the "information highway" and how it affects the nation's schools. The articles, all by Peter West, include: (1) "Logged On for Learning," an overview of the report; (2) "Wired for the Future,"

  18. DARK ENERGY FROM THE LOG-TRANSFORMED CONVERGENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Sato, Masanori; Takada, Masahiro; Dodelson, Scott

    2012-03-20

    A logarithmic transform of the convergence field improves 'the information content', i.e., the overall precision associated with the measurement of the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum, by improving the covariance matrix properties. The translation of this improvement in the information content to that in cosmological parameters, such as those associated with dark energy, requires knowing the sensitivity of the log-transformed field to those cosmological parameters. In this paper, we use N-body simulations with ray tracing to generate convergence fields at multiple source redshifts as a function of cosmology. The gain in information associated with the log-transformed field does lead to tighter constraints on dark energy parameters, but only if shape noise is neglected. The presence of shape noise quickly diminishes the advantage of the log-mapping, more quickly than we would expect based on the information content. With or without shape noise, using a larger pixel size allows for a more efficient log-transformation.

  19. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  20. Note on log-periodic description of 2008 financial crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonek-Lason, Katarzyna; Kosinski, Piotr

    2011-11-01

    We analyse the financial crash in 2008 for different financial markets from the point of view of log-periodic function model. In particular, we consider Dow Jones index, DAX index and Hang Seng index. We shortly discuss the possible relation of the theory of critical phenomena in physics to financial markets.