Sample records for log koc values

  1. Estimation of Koc values for deuterated benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, and application to ground water contamination studies.

    PubMed

    Poulson, S R; Drever, J I; Colberg, P J

    1997-11-01

    Sorption partition coefficients between water and organic carbon (Koc) for deuterated benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene have been estimated by measuring values of the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and HPLC retention factors (k1), which correlate closely to values of Koc. Measured values of log Kow for non-deuterated and deuterated toluene are 2.77 (+/- 0.02) and 2.78 (+/- 0.04), respectively, indicating that within experimental error, log Koc for deuterated and non-deuterated toluene are the same. The HPLC method provides greater precision, and yields values of delta log Koc (= log Koc [deuterated]-log Koc [non-deuterated]) of -0.021 (+/- 0.001) for benzene, -0.028 (+/- 0.002) for toluene, and -0.035 (+/- 0.003) for ethylbenzene. The small values of delta log Koc demonstrates that deuterated compounds are excellent tracers for the hydrologic behavior of ground water contaminants. PMID:9375354

  2. Dissolved Concentrations of PAHs and PCBs Are Often Over-predicted Using Sediment Concentrations and Literature Koc Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing amount of chemical and biological evidence that using sediment concentrations and commonly applied Koc values frequently overpredicts interstitial water concentrations of HOCs, and thereby overestimates uptake and/or effects of those chemicals on exposed or...

  3. Classical Ciphers: Shift Cipher Cetin Kaya Koc

    E-print Network

    ambiguity) Frequency analysis: a paragraph of ciphertext (in order to get statistically reliable frequency¸c (http://cs.ucsb.edu/~koc) ucsb cs 178 intro to crypto winter 2014 1 / 1 #12;Shift Cipher Input encryption key k = 3 Ko¸c (http://cs.ucsb.edu/~koc) ucsb cs 178 intro to crypto winter 2014 2 / 1 #12;Shift

  4. Estimation of K oc values for deuterated benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, and application to ground water contamination studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon R. Poulson; James I. Drever; Patricia J. S. Colberg

    1997-01-01

    Sorption partition coefficients between water and organic carbon (Koc) for deuterated benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene have been estimated by measuring values of the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and HPLC retention factors (k?), which correlate closely to values of Koc. Measured values of log Kow for non-deuterated and deuterated toluene are 2.77 (±0.02) and 2.78 (±0.04), respectively, indicating that within experimental

  5. Perfect Secrecy Cetin Kaya Koc

    E-print Network

    ://cs.ucsb.edu/~koc) ucsb cs 178 intro to crypto winter 2014 1 / 1 #12;Claude Elwood Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (1916! Shannon established the concept of perfect secrecy in his 1948-paper "Communication Theory of Secrecy 178 intro to crypto winter 2014 2 / 1 #12;Shannon's Theory of Secrecy Consider the block cipher

  6. Elliptic Curve Cryptography Cetin Kaya Koc

    E-print Network

    Elliptic Curve Cryptography C¸etin Kaya Ko¸c http://cs.ucsb.edu/~koc/cs178 koc@cs.ucsb.edu Ko for which the DLP is difficult is the elliptic curve group over a finite field In fact, the Elliptic Curve There is no subexponential algorithm for the ECDLP as of yet Furthermore, the elliptic curve variants of the Diffie

  7. Fitting LogF Models Robustly, with an Application to the Analysis of Extreme Values

    E-print Network

    Dupuis, Debbie

    Fitting Log­F Models Robustly, with an Application to the Analysis of Extreme Values by D.J. Dupuis the log­normal, extreme­value, Weibull, log­logistic, reciprocal Weibull, and generalized gamma distri

  8. Elliptic Curve Cryptography Cetin Kaya Koc

    E-print Network

    Elliptic Curve Cryptography C¸etin Kaya Ko¸c http://cs.ucsb.edu/~koc koc@cs.ucsb.edu Ko¸c (http is the elliptic curve group over a finite field In fact, the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP for the ECDLP as of yet Furthermore, the elliptic curve variants of the Diffie-Hellman and the DSA require

  9. Professor Cetin Koc Network Security Expert

    E-print Network

    For Professor Cetin Koc Network Security Expert Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon By Errol Holcomb ECE 478 -Network Security Student June 3, 2002 #12;Introduction Today's ever-advancing computer networks (WAN), and Virtual Private networks (VPN). Section 2: The Building Blocks of a Secure Network

  10. High-Speed RSA Implementation Cetin Kaya Koc

    E-print Network

    High-Speed RSA Implementation Cetin Kaya Koc Koc@ece.orst.edu RSA Laboratories RSA Data Security, Inc. 100 Marine Parkway, Suite 500 Redwood City, CA 94065-1031 Copyright c RSA Laboratories Version 2.0 November 1994 #12;Contents Preface 1 1 The RSA Cryptosystem 3 1.1 The RSA Algorithm

  11. On the hydrophobicity of peptides: Comparing empirical predictions of peptide log P values.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sarah J; Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Holliday, John D; Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    Peptides are of great therapeutic potential as vaccines and drugs. Knowledge of physicochemical descriptors, including the partition coefficient logP, is useful for the development of predictive Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs). We have investigated the accuracy of available programs for the prediction of logP values for peptides with known experimental values obtained from the literature. Eight prediction programs were tested, of which seven programs were fragment-based methods: XLogP, LogKow, PLogP, ACDLogP, AlogP, Interactive Analysis's LogP and MlogP; and one program used a whole molecule approach: QikProp. The predictive accuracy of the programs was assessed using r(2) values, with ALogP being the most effective (r( 2) = 0.822) and MLogP the least (r(2) = 0.090). We also examined three distinct types of peptide structure: blocked, unblocked, and cyclic. For each study (all peptides, blocked, unblocked and cyclic peptides) the performance of programs rated from best to worse is as follows: all peptides - ALogP, QikProp, PLogP, XLogP, IALogP, LogKow, ACDLogP, and MlogP; blocked peptides - PLogP, XLogP, ACDLogP, IALogP, LogKow, QikProp, ALogP, and MLogP; unblocked peptides - QikProp, IALogP, ALogP, ACDLogP, MLogP, XLogP, LogKow and PLogP; cyclic peptides - LogKow, ALogP, XLogP, MLogP, QikProp, ACDLogP, IALogP. In summary, all programs gave better predictions for blocked peptides, while, in general, logP values for cyclic peptides were under-predicted and those of unblocked peptides were over-predicted. PMID:17597897

  12. Calculating inverse cv, skew and pwm functions for pearson3, log-normal, extreme-value and log-logistic distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Donaldson

    1996-01-01

    Equations are presented to calculate inverse CV, skew and PWM functions for the Pearson-3, log-normal, extreme-value and log-logistic distributions. Such inverse functions are used for moment and PWM estimates. Close numerical approximations are derived for the inverse functions that do not exist explicitly. This is intended to overcome the intractable nature of moment and PWM estimates.

  13. INCREASING THE ACCURACY OF COMPUTER CALCULATED LOG P (OCT/WATER) VALUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like many "expert systems," the CLOGP program incorporates a set of empirically derived rules which are supported by accepted theoretical concepts but which cannot be derived directly from these concepts. igher log P values are expected whenever a larger effective solute cavity i...

  14. Expected-value techniques for Monte Carlo modeling of well logging problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Scott W.; Mau?ec, Marko; Spanier, Jerome; Badruzzaman, Ahmed; Chedester, Clint; Evans, Michael

    2010-02-01

    This article describes research performed to develop an expected-value (EV) estimation capability for improving the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations of oil well logging problems. The basic idea underlying EV estimation is that event-level interaction and transport probabilities are known and can be averaged exactly to produce unbiased estimators that properly account for potential future events in the simulation. Conventional surface-crossing and track-length based estimators do not provide any information unless a particle history actually reaches a detector region. Expected-value estimators, however, can extract information from particles that merely travel along a direction intercepting the detector region. This paper describes two expected-value estimators that have been developed for oil well logging simulations. The first estimates the volume-averaged scalar flux or reaction rate in a detector. The second estimates a weighted surface-averaged incident current that can be enfolded with a detector response function to estimate pulse-height spectra. Though EV estimation reduces variance at the event level, it does not guarantee reduced variance at the history level. However, our oil well logging tests indicate that the EV approach generally improves information content, enhances the efficiency of the transport simulation, and provides an efficient technique to obtain the fluxes, reaction rates, and pulse-height spectra in detectors, especially when applied in conjunction with weight-window variance reduction techniques.

  15. The Value of Web Log Data in Use-based Design and Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Mary C.; Walther, Joseph B.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests Web-based logs contain useful empirical data with which World Wide Web designers and design theorists can assess usability and effectiveness of design choices. Enumerates identification of types of Web server logs, client logs, types and uses of log data, and issues associated with the validity of these data. Presents an approach to…

  16. ELOG Operational Logs and Knowledge Base Engine Effectiveness and Added Value of Systematic Operational Logging During Development and Integration of Complex Data Ground System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, G.

    During integration and launch preparation activity several and various are the testing activities performed at Operation Control Centres such as Software or System Acceptance testing, System Validation Test (SVTs), Ground Segment Interfaces Validation Test , Mission Readiness Tests (MRTs), Simulations Campaign etc. Huge amount of logs are produced during these demanding testing activities: problem reports, issues requiring actions or coordination, issues needed to be communicated / shared with other groups. This results in a heavy management overhead The article describes ELOG: a problem logging and a knowledge base diagnostic engine providing an integrated solution to assist Technical Project Leaders and members in logging, searching, sharing all knowledge built up during the entire software project lifecycle.

  17. Deriving Criteria-supporting Benchmark Values from Empirical Response Relationships: Comparison of Statistical Techniques and Effect of Log-transforming the Nutrient Variable

    EPA Science Inventory

    In analyses supporting the development of numeric nutrient criteria, multiple statistical techniques can be used to extract critical values from stressor response relationships. However there is little guidance for choosing among techniques, and the extent to which log-transfor...

  18. Validation and long-term assessment of an approach for the high throughput determination of lipophilicity (log POW) values using multiplexed, absorbance-based capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kit-Sum; Kenseth, Jeremy; Strasburg, Roy

    2004-04-01

    A critical evaluation of the use of 96-capillary multiplexed microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MMEEKC) for the indirect determination of octanol-water partition coefficients (log POW values) for a wide range of structurally different compounds is presented. The various components of the microemulsion solution were evaluated and optimized for use in a multiplexed capillary format. A six-component calibration mixture and 23 different solutes (n = 4 each) were analyzed simultaneously, providing a throughput of up to 46 samples/h, which translates to greater than a 20-fold improvement over existing indirect log POW methods. Agreement to within +/-0.5 log P units of literature values was obtained for 51 of the 54 tested neutral and basic (uncharged) solutes. A linear free energy relationship (LFER) analysis performed on the MMEEKC system supports its use as a viable and effective model of the classical shake-flask method for log POW determinations. Moreover, a standard deviation of 0.1 or less log P units was obtained for 35 of 36 solutes analyzed repeatedly over an 8-month time period, documenting the long-term effectiveness of the analysis format. Critical comparisons between the proposed MMEEKC method and existing separation methods for the indirect determination of log POW values are also made. Overall, the results indicate that 96-capillary MMEEKC can serve as a high throughput, cost effective and robust approach and as a valid model for log POW determinations. PMID:14999729

  19. Well Logs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kevin Brewer

    This activity provides students with three fundamental borehole geophysics experiences using real data -- correlating, mapping, and logging. Students are asked to correlate well logs and construct maps and cross-sections based on that information. Students are also asked to construct a "mud log" from actual drill cuttings and compare their interpretation to that from a borehole geophysics log. This activity as minimal/no quantitative component.

  20. IMPROVED V I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sneden, C. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cowan, J. J., E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu, E-mail: tfeigenson@wisc.edu, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ?(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (? = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ?(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (? = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  1. Realtime logging

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.; Kashuba, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) logging services have become an important new source of drilling and geological information on wildcats and some development wells. Sensors located within the bottomhole assembly, barely a few feet above the bit, make measurements on the formation, the borehole and the drill string itself. The MWD measurements are electronically processed and stored in the logging tool downhole. Simple MWD logging systems must wait until after tripping out of the hole for the MWD data to be downloaded from the logging tool to a surface computer in order for logs to be produced. This method is acceptable for some formation evaluation problems. But when well control, directional or completion decisions must be made, the benefit of MWD logging data is obtained only if the downhole measurements are available to the engineer in realtime.

  2. Transaction Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management…

  3. IMPROVED V II log(gf) VALUES, HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS, AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sneden, C. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cowan, J. J., E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ?(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = –2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  4. Improved log(gf) Values Of Selected Lines In Mn I And Mn II For Studies Of Non-equilibrium Effects In Stellar Photospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Lawler, J. E.; Sobeck, J.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.; Asplund, M.

    2010-01-01

    The work presents transition probabilities with very low uncertainties for a selected set of multiplets of Mn I and Mn II. Multiplets are chosen which are accessible to ground-based observation, are relatively unblended and unsaturated in stellar spectra and which are amenable to accurate branching fraction determination. These lab measurements provide a foundation for studies of non-LTE and 3-dimensional effects in stellar photospheres. We report on new radiative lifetime measurements for 22 levels of Mn I from the e8D, z6P, z6D, z4F, e8S and e6S multiplets and 3 levels of Mn II from the z5P multiplet using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam. New branching fractions for transitions from these levels, measured using a Fourier-transform spectrometer, are also reported. When combined, these measurements yield transition probabilities for 47 transitions of Mn I and 12 transitions of Mn II. Comparisons are made to data from the literature and to simple Russell-Saunders or LS theory. Final recommended values, which are weighted averages of all available modern measurements and in some cases LS theory, are given for the transition probabilities. These recommended log(gf) values are accurate to +/- 0.02 dex with high ( 2 sigma) confidence. The companion paper applies these new lab results to studies of departures from both LTE in Mn I and Saha equilibrium between Mn I and Mn II on a variety of stellar photospheres. This research is supported in part by NASA Grant NNX08AQ09G and NSF Grant AST-0907732.

  5. Log Ruler

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students construct Log Rulers, finely calibrated in base-10 exponents and numbers (logs and antilogs). They practice reading these scales as accurately as possible, listing all certain figures plus one uncertain figure.  This is activity D1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

  6. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography: a new simple tool for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends and for the rapid estimation of their logP values.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, Rossella; Bertaso, Anna; Pascali, Jennifer; Sorio, Daniela; Musile, Giacomo; Trapani, Elisa; Seri, Catia; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Tagliaro, Franco

    2012-12-01

    For the first time a capillary separation based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with diode array detection (DAD) was developed and validated for the rapid determination of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal blends. Separations were carried out on a 30 ?m(ID) × 40 cm uncoated fused silica capillaries. The optimized buffer electrolyte was composed of 25 mM sodium tetraborate pH 8.0, 30 mM SDS and n-propanol 20% (v/v). Separations were performed at 30 kV. Sample injection conditions were 0.5 psi, 10s. Diazepam and JWH-015 were used as internal standards. The determination of the analytes was based on the UV signal recorded at 220 nm, corresponding to the maximum wavelength of absorbance of the molecules, whereas peak identification and purity check were also performed on the basis of the acquisition of UV spectra between 200 and 400 nm wavelengths. Under the described conditions, the separation of the compounds was achieved in 25 min without any significant interference from the matrix. Linearity was assessed within a concentration range from 5 to 100 ?g/mL. The intra-day and inter-day imprecision values were below 2.45% for relative migration times and below 10.75% for relative peak areas. The present method was successfully applied to the direct determination of synthetic cannabinoids in 15 different herbal blend samples requiring only sample dilution. In addition, the developed MEKC separation was also applied to estimate the octanol/water partition coefficients (logP) of these new and poorly known molecules. PMID:23022243

  7. Photon log

    SciTech Connect

    Chudy, S.

    1981-01-01

    Gravel packing has been used in the Schoonebeek oil field of The Netherlands in recent years to allow sand- free production. With increased thermal activity in the field, i.e., steam injection, the success of gravel packing operations becomes more important. Well completion problems are exaggerated by high temperature and deviation. The field operator aims to gravel pack up to a minimum of 10 m inside the casing shoe with the top of the slotted liner or wire wrap screen also inside the casing. The Photon Log now is being used to indicate the quality of the gravel packing operation, particularly the gravel top, thus aiding decision-making on whether or not corrective action is needed. The objective is to obtain all the information from one logging trip into the hole after the gravel pack operation, without needing a base log run beforehand. This work discusses the theory of operation and calibration technique, results of logs with field examples, and plans for the future.

  8. Processing Value of Small-Diameter Sawtimber at Conventional Stud Sawmills and Modern High-Speed, Small-Log Sawmills in the Western United States-A Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis G. Wagner; Carl E. Fiedler; Charles E. Keegan

    Past selective logging of early successional species (e.g., ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)) and effective fire suppression have dramatically altered forest composition and health over millions of acres in the western United States. Implementation of ecological restoration treatments to address these conditions will produce large volumes of small-diameter sawtimber for processing. Since sawmills currently process a majority of sawtimber harvested in

  9. Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapel Hill City Schools, NC.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Values. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is intended to define the development of the valuing process and contains ideas for classroom teachers. It is not a conventional curriculum guide but is recommended for use with the guide on drug education (SP 007 318). It contains the following…

  10. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  11. Reliable QSAR for estimating Koc for persistent organic pollutants: correlation with molecular connectivity indices.

    PubMed

    Baker, J R; Mihelcic, J R; Sabljic, A

    2001-10-01

    Several recent studies have shown that n-octanol/water partition coefficients may not be a good predictor for estimating soil sorption coefficients of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), defined here as chemicals with log Kow greater than 5. Thus, an alternative QSAR model was developed that seems to provide reliable estimates for the soil sorption coefficients of persistent organic pollutants. This model is based on a set of calculated molecular connectivity indices and evaluated soil sorption data for 18 POPs. The chemical's size and shape, quantified by 1chi, 3chiC and 4chiC(v) indices, have a dominant effect on the soil sorption process of POPs. The developed QSAR model was rationalized in terms of potential hydrophobic interactions between persistent organic pollutants and soil organic matrix. Its high predictive power has been verified by an extensive internal and external validation procedure. PMID:11572613

  12. ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 #12;ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA | 2 Executive Summary Indonesia's rainforests are the third

  13. Economic impact of log grade on the production of plywood and lumber 

    E-print Network

    Ledford, Donald Wayne

    1986-01-01

    was determined for logs by diameter and grade, utilizing a simplified smooth/rough two grade system. Computer programs were written to aid in the assessment of the economic impact of log grade on the production of plywood and lumber. The results indicate... that logs segregated by the simplified grading system have distinctly different values. Rough logs produced a larger volume of lumber than smooth logs, but the value of the smooth log production generally exceeded that of the rough log production. Smooth...

  14. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  15. The Accuracy of Pulsed Neutron Capture Logs for Residual Oil Saturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip Schenewerk; Roy Knapp; Walter Fertl

    1982-01-01

    Pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logs have been used to determine residual oil saturations for many years. A previous study found that at low values of residual oil saturation (ROS) conventional PNC logging techniques did not have the accuracy necessary for enhanced oil recovery decision making requirements. Special log-inject-log techniques were developed in order to reduce the uncertainty in values of

  16. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  17. Well logging for physical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Hearst; P. H. Nelson

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of well logging techniques for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered include the wellbore environment, logging practice; temperature, electrical and magnetic methods; nuclear radiation logging; acoustic logging; borehole gravimetry; ethology; porosity; saturation; permeability; fluid movement; fractures; elemental analysis; cement; directional surveying; dipmeter logging, and some other interesting applications.

  18. No chiral truncation of quantum log gravity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomás Andrade; Donald Marolf

    2010-01-01

    At the classical level, chiral gravity may be constructed as a consistent truncation of a larger theory called log gravity\\u000a by requiring that left-moving charges vanish. In turn, log gravity is the limit of topologically massive gravity (TMG) at\\u000a a special value of the coupling (the chiral point). We study the situation at the level of linearized quantum fields, focussing

  19. Blood Glucose Log

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here ¢ cut here ¢ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  20. Engineered Log Jam

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Engineered Log Jam on the lower river opposite the new Lower Klallam Tribe Fish Hatchery. The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe project creates salmon habitat on the lower Elwha River in preparation for dam removal and habitat restoration....

  1. An O n log n log log n

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Schwarzt; Michiel Smidt

    1992-01-01

    Let V be a set of n points in k-dimensional space. It is shown how the closest pair in V can be maintained under insertions in O(log n log log n) amortized time, using O(n) amortized time, using O(n) space. Distances are measured in the Lt-metric, where 1 ? ? . This gives an O(n log n log log n0

  2. 6.EE Log Ride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A theme park has a log ride that can hold 12 people. They also have a weight limit of 1500 lbs per log for safety reason. If the average adult weighs 1...

  3. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  4. The Log of Gravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. C. Santos Silva; Silvana Tenreyro

    2006-01-01

    Although economists have long been aware of Jensen's inequality, many econometric applications have neglected an important implication of it: under heteroskedasticity, the parameters of log-linearized models estimated by OLS lead to biased estimates of the true elasticities. We explain why this problem arises and propose an appropriate estimator. Our criticism of conventional practices and the proposed solution extend to a

  5. ,"_' ",',-i_~ :FORESTRY AND LOGGING

    E-print Network

    ":~I> ", .' '. ,"_' ",',-i_~ . :FORESTRY AND LOGGING Hcscarch on Plantation Species A Positive in plantation forestry. par- ticularly in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. in the past 30 years plantation forestry. Indeed, one could list many exam- ples of such problems that have plagued exotic

  6. Borehole Geophysical Logging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

  7. Well logging for the nontechnical person

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Pile, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction to logging; Reading logs; Formation parameters; Mud logging; Resistivity measurements; Porosity measurements; Putting it all together; detailed interpretations; Computer-generated logs; Specialty logs.

  8. LogN-LogS Studies of EGRET Sources

    E-print Network

    O. Reimer; D. L. Bertsch

    2001-08-22

    A comprehensive investigation of logN-logS distributions of gamma-ray sources discovered by EGRET has been performed for subsequent use in population studies. Existing models explaining the spatial arrangement of unidentified sources do not compare against an observed logN-logS distribution. However, viable population models not only have to reproduce the logN-logS distribution for different source classes globally, they have to correspond to apparent differences among their spatial, spectral and variability characteristics. Furthermore, it needs to be understood in which way results from selections among the unidentified sources like "persistent" (Grenier 2000) or "steady" sources (Gehrels et al. 2000) are related to the overall picture regarding their logN-logS characteristics.

  9. Estimation of organic chemical sorption by soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstl, Zev

    1990-12-01

    Sorption data for > 400 compounds were collected and analyzed. Sorption coefficients on an organic carbon basis ( Koc) were found to be log-normally distributed. Correlations between log Koc and log aqueous solubility ( S), log Kow (octanol-water partition coefficient) and molecular connectivity (MC) indices were calculated and their predictive ability determined with a set of test data not included in the original data set. It was found that the equations (log Koc vs.either log S or log Kow) for individual chemical groups were preferred over the general equation for all chemicals but that a group correction term ( Fc) added to the total equation gave similar results. The use of MC indices alone were inadequate for predicting sorption values with the exception of a few homologous groups.

  10. Naïve Bayesian filters for log file analysis: Despam your logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russel W. Havens; Bary Lunt; Chia-Chi Teng

    2012-01-01

    System log files are critical for troubleshooting complex modern computer systems. Systems can easily produce more log file entries than a human can realistically use. However, there are a number of good filtering and clustering technologies that are used in various areas of data mining. This research focuses on using very easily accessible Bayesian spam filters for categorizing log entries.

  11. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n log log n) Update Time

    E-print Network

    Riko Jacob

    Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n #1; log log n) Update Time Gerth St fgerth,rjacobg@brics.dk Abstract. The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points(log n #1; log log n) time, and various queries about the convex hull in optimal O(log n) worst-case time

  12. Internet Data logging and Display 

    E-print Network

    Sweeney, J., Jr.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The current energy savings technology relies on conventional data logging systems, in which two major barriers exist. Formost is the fact that retrieving the energy data is not convenient, and the cost of the data logging equipment is high...

  13. Log data comparison and quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.; LaDelfe, C.

    1981-01-01

    Two geothermal wells were logged with similar wireline logs by several logging companies in a period of five years (1974 to 1979). The results of these equivalent logs are quantitatively different and in some cases qualitatively different. This difference also occurs between the same type of logs recorded at different time intervals by the same logging company. These various log data are related and qualified when logging equipment has not been properly calibrated. All depths referred to for either well are from their respective kelly bushing (KB). The first well (Mesa 31-1) is in the Imperial Valley of California and penetrates a sand, shale, and clay sedimentary lithology with a maximum temperature of 165/sup 0/C (330/sup 0/F) and a total depth of 1882 m (6175 ft). The second well (Phillips 9-1) is in the Roosevelt Hot Springs known geothermal resource areas (KGRA) of southwestern Utah and penetrates hydrothermally altered (low-grade metamorphic) and igneous lithology with a maximum temperature of 225/sup 0/C (440/sup 0/F) and a toatl depth of 2098.5 m (6885 ft). During that period (1974 to 1979) calibration of logging equipment in metamorphic and igneous lithologies could not be done. The logging data from this well is not qualitatively comparable in all cases and indicates the need for calibration. The open-hole log data acquired from Mesa 31-1 and Phillips 9-1 wells were compared to core data from these wells and comparison factors were calculated to better quantify the open-hole log data. Then open-hole log data were compared to the cased-hole log data from various companies and additional comparison factors were calculated for the cased-hole log data. These comparison factors allow for some quantification of these uncalibrated log data.

  14. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  15. October 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING

    E-print Network

    , and networking equipment, and the applications on the systems. Guide to Computer Security Log Management GuideOctober 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY Shirley Radack, Editor

  16. The Lincoln Log

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What exactly was Abraham Lincoln doing on June 11, 1850? As it turns out, he was writing a letter to one Nathaniel Hay, describing the details of a potential home-improvement project. If you're looking for more details on Lincoln's daily doings, click on over to The Lincoln Log. The information on the site was compiled by the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, and in 2003, the materials were redesigned by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Visitors to the site can find out what Lincoln was doing on a particular day by using the drop-down menus on the homepage, and they can also browse by year or click on the "Today's Date in Lincoln's Life" section. Also, visitors can use the "Browse New Entries" to look over newly added materials.

  17. Log interpretation of shaly sandstones

    E-print Network

    Baker, Joel Foster

    1987-01-01

    Log Interpretation of Shaly Sandstones. (August 1987) Joel Foster Baker, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert R. Berg The determination of water saturation from the resistivity logs to evaluate the potential... to the Union Oil Company of California and to the Society of Professional Nell Log Analysts for their grants to help fund the project. Special thanks go to Dr. Berg for his help, and more importantly, his availability and willingness to give help. Last...

  18. Estimating thermal conductivity from core and well log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G?sior, Irena; Przelaskowska, Anna

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the presented work was to introduce a method of estimating thermal conductivity using well log data. Many petrophysical properties of rocks can be determined both by laboratory measurements and well-logs. It is thus possible to apply geophysical data to empirical models based on relationships between laboratory measured parameters and derive continuous thermal conductivity values in well profiles. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 62 core samples of Meso-Paleozoic rocks from the Carpathian Foredeep. Mathematical models were derived using multiple regression and neural network methods. Geophysical data from a set of seven well logs: density, sonic, neutron, gamma ray, spectral gamma ray, caliper and resistivity were applied to the obtained models. Continuous thermal conductivity values were derived in three well profiles. Analysis of the obtained results shows good consistence between laboratory data and values predicted from well log data.

  19. NeuroLOG: neuroscience application workflows execution on the EGEE grid

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NeuroLOG: neuroscience application workflows execution on the EGEE grid Javier Rojas Balderrama1. In the context of the NeuroLOG project, tools and methods are deployed on top of gLite to ease the exploitation, secure storage, image analysis software deployment and grid workflows enactment. 2 Grid-added value NeuroLOG

  20. Log-Log Convexity of Type-Token Growth in Zipf's Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    It is traditionally assumed that Zipf's law implies the power-law growth of the number of different elements with the total number of elements in a system—the so-called Heaps' law. We show that a careful definition of Zipf's law leads to the violation of Heaps' law in random systems, with growth curves that have a convex shape in log-log scale. These curves fulfill universal data collapse that only depends on the value of Zipf's exponent. We observe that real books behave very much in the same way as random systems, despite the presence of burstiness in word occurrence. We advance an explanation for this unexpected correspondence.

  1. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerth Stølting Brodal; Riko Jacob

    The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points in the plane is one of the most important problems in computational\\u000a geometry. We present a data structure supporting point insertions in amortized O(log n · log log log n) time, point deletions in amortized O(log n · log log n) time, and various queries about the convex

  2. A regularity-based modeling of oil borehole logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima

    2013-04-01

    Multifractional Brownian motions (mBms) are successfully used to describe borehole logs behavior. These local fractal models allow to investigate the depth-evolution of regularity of the logs, quantified by the Hölder exponent (H). In this study, a regularity analysis is carried out on datasets recorded in Algerian oil boreholes located in different geological settings. The obtained regularity profiles show a clear correlation with lithology. Each lithological discontinuity corresponds to a jump in H value. Moreover, for a given borehole, all the regularity logs are significantly correlated and lead to similar lithological segmentations. Therefore, the Hölderian regularity is a robust property which can be used to characterize lithological heterogeneities. However, this study does not draw any relation between the recorded physical property and its estimated regularity degree for all the analyzed logs. Keywords: well logs, regularity, Hölder exponent, multifractional Brownian motion

  3. Degraded lands worth protecting: the biological importance of Southeast Asia's repeatedly logged forests

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David P.; Larsen, Trond H.; Docherty, Teegan D. S.; Ansell, Felicity A.; Hsu, Wayne W.; Derhé, Mia A.; Hamer, Keith C.; Wilcove, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot of imperilled biodiversity, owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture. The degraded forests that remain after multiple rounds of intensive logging are often assumed to be of little conservation value; consequently, there has been no concerted effort to prevent them from being converted to oil palm. However, no study has quantified the biodiversity of repeatedly logged forests. We compare the species richness and composition of birds and dung beetles within unlogged (primary), once-logged and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. Logging had little effect on the overall richness of birds. Dung beetle richness declined following once-logging but did not decline further after twice-logging. The species composition of bird and dung beetle communities was altered, particularly after the second logging rotation, but globally imperilled bird species (IUCN Red List) did not decline further after twice-logging. Remarkably, over 75 per cent of bird and dung beetle species found in unlogged forest persisted within twice-logged forest. Although twice-logged forests have less biological value than primary and once-logged forests, they clearly provide important habitat for numerous bird and dung beetle species. Preventing these degraded forests from being converted to oil palm should be a priority of policy-makers and conservationists. PMID:20685713

  4. Degraded lands worth protecting: the biological importance of Southeast Asia's repeatedly logged forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Larsen, Trond H; Docherty, Teegan D S; Ansell, Felicity A; Hsu, Wayne W; Derhé, Mia A; Hamer, Keith C; Wilcove, David S

    2011-01-01

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot of imperiled biodiversity, owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture. The degraded forests that remain after multiple rounds of intensive logging are often assumed to be of little conservation value; consequently, there has been no concerted effort to prevent them from being converted to oil palm. However, no study has quantified the biodiversity of repeatedly logged forests. We compare the species richness and composition of birds and dung beetles within unlogged (primary), once-logged and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. Logging had little effect on the overall richness of birds. Dung beetle richness declined following once-logging but did not decline further after twice-logging. The species composition of bird and dung beetle communities was altered, particularly after the second logging rotation, but globally imperiled bird species (IUCN Red List) did not decline further after twice-logging. Remarkably, over 75 per cent of bird and dung beetle species found in unlogged forest persisted within twice-logged forest. Although twice-logged forests have less biological value than primary and once-logged forests, they clearly provide important habitat for numerous bird and dung beetle species. Preventing these degraded forests from being converted to oil palm should be a priority of policy-makers and conservationists. PMID:20685713

  5. Extensible Log VISualization Christopher Humphries

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ELVIS Extensible Log VISualization Christopher Humphries Supélec/INRIA first.last@inria.fr Nicolas DGA-MI/Supélec first.last@supelec.fr ABSTRACT In this article, we propose ELVIS, a security through relevant represen- tations. When a log file is loaded into ELVIS, a summary view is displayed

  6. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  7. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  8. Lithology-independent, high-resolution porosity logs

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, A.; Head, E.; Gubelin, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    A unique attribute of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging is the ability to measure a lithology-independent porosity. New NMR tools have generated renewed interest in measurements related to producibility, such as permeability and definition of water production potential. Industry discussion of those parameters has sometimes overshadowed the value of a lithology-independent porosity measurement. Such a porosity log can be easily understood by and utilized by non-specialists as well as log interpretation experts. The log reflects true porosity even in a complex lithology that changes over the well interval, such as limestone to dolomite transitions with evaporate inclusions. Similarly, since the log reads near zero in compacted shale, the measurement closely approaches effective porosity in clastic environments. A new pad-type NMR logging tool produces such a porosity measurement with excellent vertical resolution. Investigation is focused within a volume whose vertical dimension is only 6 in. Examples from a number of wells illustrate excellent repeatability and resolution of thin reservoir components that are not visible with other NMR devices or conventional porosity logs. Logs are verified by core data and electrical images. The measurement is unaffected by borehole salinity, and the tool is combinable with other wireline tools.

  9. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  10. LOTUS template for calculating well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.J. (Schlumberger Well Services, Amarillo, TX (United States)); Taylor, S.J. (Taylor Energy Corp., Amarillo, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Calculating well logs is a time-consuming process. This template uses input parameters consisting of well name, location county, state, formation name, starting depth, repeat interval, resistivity of shale, and irreducible bulk volume water, which provides heading information for print outs. Required information from basic well logs are porosity, conductivity (optional), formation resistivity, resistivity of the formation water for the zone being calculated, resistivity of the mud filtrate, the porosity cutoff for pay in the zone being calculated, and the saltwater saturation cutoff for the pay zone. These parameters are used to calculate apparent water resistivity, saltwater saturation, bulk volume water, ratio of apparent water resistivity to input water resistivity, irreducible saltwater saturation, resistivity volume of shale, permeability, and a derived porosity value. A print out of the results is available through the lotus print function. Using this template allows maximum control of the input parameters and reduces hand calculation time.

  11. Monomorphisms in Categories of Log Schemes

    E-print Network

    . Theorem 4.6, (iv)], as well as for versions ``Sch log (-)'', ``SCH log (-)'' of the categories ``Sch logRIMS­1802 Monomorphisms in Categories of Log Schemes By Shinichi MOCHIZUKI April 2014 RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES KYOTO UNIVERSITY, Kyoto, Japan #12; Monomorphisms in Categories of Log

  12. Restoring Meaningful Episodes in a Proxy Log

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenwu Lou; Hongjun Lu; Guimei Liu; Qiang Yang

    Web logs collected at proxy servers, referred to as proxy logs, contain rich information about Web user activities. These logs are becoming critical data sources for various Web applications such as Web log mining. However, a raw proxy log treated as a at sequence of individual Web requests does not reliably represent correct information about Web user behavior, owing to

  13. The Methodology of Search Log Analysis

    E-print Network

    Jansen, James

    EVIEW OF LItErAtUrE What is a search Log? Not surprisingly, a search log is a file (i.e., log99 Chapter VI The Methodology of Search Log Analysis Bernard J. Jansen Pennsylvania State permission of IGI Global is prohibited. AbstrAct Exploiting the data stored in search logs of Web search

  14. Experimental investigation on the soil sorption properties and hydrophobicity of polymethoxylated, polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers and methoxylated-, hydroxylated-polychlorinated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuesheng; Zeng, Xiaolan; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Shi, Jiaqi; Wei, Zhongbo; Yang, Shaogui; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, twenty-six types of polymethoxylated diphenyl ethers (PMeODEs), twenty types of polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers (PHODEs), seven types of methoxylated-polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PCDEs) and seven types of hydroxylated-polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (HO-PCDEs) were synthesized. The logKow and logKoc values of all of the synthesized compounds were then determined using HPLC. The soil sorption properties of five types of selected substituted diphenyl ethers (DEs) were investigated. Sorption behavior studies suggested that rapid sorption played a primary role in the sorption process of the selected DEs and their sorption isotherms were fitted the Freundlich logarithmic model. For PMeODEs and PHODEs, with the increase in the number of substituents, both logKow and logKoc values exhibited linearly decreasing trends. Unlike PMeODEs and PHODEs, both logKow and logKoc values of MeO/HO-PCDEs were decreased linearly with the increasing number of chlorine atoms. The reason maybe that both methoxy and hydroxyl are hydrophilic groups, whereas the chlorine atom is hydrophobic group. Linear relationships were observed for the logKow and logKoc of all studied DEs. Moreover, the logKow of PMeODEs, PHODEs, MeO- and HO-PCDEs and their corresponding PCDEs showed good linearity. PMID:25917505

  15. Teff log g nHe Teff log g A

    E-print Network

    ; 10 #12; 8 #12; 6 -2 4 3 8 9 × 10 #12;#12;core env Teff log g nHe n STERNE F S F = 0 S(,)e- d. °A http://star.arm.ac.uk/csj/models/Grid.html Teff log g nHe #12;LTE ATLAS9 TLUSTY LTE LTE LTE LINES °A #12; °A STERNE °A SPECTRUM °A vt -1 LTE LINES LTE http://star.arm

  16. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  17. The Search for the Manila Galleon Log Books.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Wayne V.

    1990-11-01

    Spanish merchant ships, called Manila Galleons, made the round-trip between the Philippine Islands and the ports on the west coast of what is now Mexico, almost every year for the 250-yr period between 1565 and 1815. The log books of these galleons contained weather information which was thought to be of value in the study of the historical climatology of the tropical and mid-latitude areas of the Pacific Ocean. A search was made for the log books of the Manila Galleons to determine how many are still extant and the nature of the weather data that they contained. The search was made with the assistance of expert historians and paleographers who ware experienced in searching archives where the log books wore thought to be on file. The following archives were searched: the Museo Naval in Madrid, Spain; the Archivo General do Simancas in Simancas, Spain; Archiyo De lndias in Seville, Spain; Archivo General do la Nación in Mexico City, Mexico; and the National Archives in Manila, The Philippine Islands. Only sixteen log books were on file In the archives in Madrid and Seville. All of the logs that wore found ware from the period between 1766 and 1808. The inevitable conclusions that were reached were that log books for some of the earlier voyages may never have been written and that most of the log books that were written were either physically lost or were lost due to the ravages of time, moisture, insects or war.

  18. Release of ethylene from pruned olive logs: Influence on attack by bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, M; Peña, A; Sánchez Raya, A J

    1994-10-01

    In recently pruned olive logs, an increase in ethylene release has been observed between 48 and 72 hr after pruning. The values reached, as well as the duration of ethylene release, varied greatly from one log to another. PioneerPhloeotribus scarabaeoides females have shown a preference for logs in which ethylene emission was higher. In logs treated with ethrel, a significant increase in ethylene emission was observed, together with a greater period of release. Therefore, the use of logs treated with ethrel could be of great importance in the control of this pest of olive trees. PMID:24241828

  19. Polyparameter linear free energy relationships for estimating the equilibrium partition of organic compounds between water and the natural organic matter in soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh H; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Ball, William P

    2005-02-15

    Values of the organic-carbon-based partition coefficient (Koc) have often been estimated using one-parameter linear free energy relationships (op-LFERs), which include both correlations between log Koc and log Kow, where Kow is the octanol-water partition coefficient, and op-LFERs that are based on first-order molecular connectivity indices. For chemicals with tendencies toward strong hydrogen-bonding or other specific interactions with the organic phase, however,these methods are notsufficientlyaccurate. Polyparameter LFERs (pp-LFERs) address these shortcomings by explicitly considering contributions toward free energy change from multiple kinds of molecular interactions with both water and bulk organic phases. This paper reviews pp-LFER theory and presents the development of a new pp-LFER for organic chemical partitioning with soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) using a data set of 356 carefully selected experimental values of log Koc for 75 chemicals, including apolar, monopolar, and bipolar compounds. The paradigm of representing SOM by a single pp-LFER is qualitatively supported by our results, and the set of coefficients for the regression log Koc= (1.10+/-0.10)E - (0.72+/-0.14)S + (0.15+/-0.15)A - (1.98+/-0.14)B + (2.28+/-0.14)V + (0.14+/-0.10) represents a proposed set of water-SOM-specific properties for estimating log Koc. The developed correlation outperformed other currently recommended approaches with the given Koc data set and also compared favorably against the use of new multiple class-specific op-LFER regressions. Overall, the pp-LFER approach is recommended over other current methods for the purpose of Koc estimation and especially for polar chemicals. PMID:15773462

  20. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  1. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William (Downers Grove, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  2. Depth dependent multiple logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, A. P. S.; Angehrn, J. A.; Dienglewicz, A. M.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-12-03

    An improved well logging technique is provided for more accurately deriving and correlating a plurality of measurements made during a single traversal of a logging instrument through subsurface formations. In one exemplary embodiment, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving a more accurate and precise measurement of depth at which real-time logging measurements are made, and in particular for correcting anomalies occurring in the depth indication from cable stretch, yo-yo of the sonde in the borehole and the like. The more accurate and precise depth measurement is then utilized for generating well logging measurements on a depth-dependent basis, deriving at least some of such measurements in digital form and alternately transmitting to the surface digital and analog representations of such measurements. Furthermore, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving measurements of subsurface earth formation from a plurality of logging instruments combined in a single tool, wherein such measurements are made during a single pass through a borehole with the resultant measurement data correlatively merged, recorded and displayed.

  3. Investigation on log responses of bulk density and thermal neutrons in coalbed with different ranks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peiqiang; Mao, Zhiqiang; Jin, Ding; Zhao, Peihua; Sun, Baodian; Sun, Wei; Pang, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Density and neutron logs play an important role in the exploration of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. However, the study of these two log responses of coalbeds is deficient. Based on laboratory data in the published literature and field logs of CBM reservoirs from several coal basins in China, this paper focuses on acquiring and analyzing variations in bulk density and thermal neutrons of coal with different ranks. Two new methods are introduced to correct the effect of ash on field logs to obtain the log values of ash-free coal. The corrected coalbed density logs are in accordance with the density of coal samples in the laboratory. Then, hydrogen indices of coals with different ranks are simulated, and the corrected neutron logs are well verified by simulated values. After obtaining the variations of density and neutrons of coalbeds with different ranks, the behaviors of density and neutron logs are analyzed and discussed. Based on the laboratory data and the simulated and corrected field logs, the specific values of density and neutron porosity for ash-free coals with higher ranks are listed. Furthermore, a crossplot of density versus neutron logs is proposed to identify coal ranks, which has been successfully applied to various CBM fields of several basins in China.

  4. An innovative OSCE clinical log station: a quantitative study of its influence on Log use by medical students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A Clinical Log was introduced as part of a medical student learning portfolio, aiming to develop a habit of critical reflection while learning was taking place, and provide feedback to students and the institution on learning progress. It was designed as a longitudinal self-directed structured record of student learning events, with reflection on these for personal and professional development, and actions planned or taken for learning. As incentive was needed to encourage student engagement, an innovative Clinical Log station was introduced in the OSCE, an assessment format with established acceptance at the School. This study questions: How does an OSCE Clinical Log station influence Log use by students? Methods The Log station was introduced into the formative, and subsequent summative, OSCEs with careful attention to student and assessor training, marking rubrics and the standard setting procedure. The scoring process sought evidence of educational use of the log, and an ability to present and reflect on key learning issues in a concise and coherent manner. Results Analysis of the first cohort’s Log use over the four-year course (quantified as number of patient visits entered by all students) revealed limited initial use. Usage was stimulated after introduction of the Log station early in third year, with some improvement during the subsequent year-long integrated community-based clerkship. Student reflection, quantified by the mean number of characters in the ‘reflection’ fields per entry, peaked just prior to the final OSCE (mid-Year 4). Following this, very few students continued to enter and reflect on clinical experience using the Log. Conclusion While the current study suggested that we can’t assume students will self-reflect unless such an activity is included in an assessment, ongoing work has focused on building learner and faculty confidence in the value of self-reflection as part of being a competent physician. PMID:23140250

  5. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  6. G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue

    E-print Network

    aim · facilitate a high-level legislator dialogue that involves the private sector and civil society · deliver Dialogue outcomes to G8 Heads of State, EU, UN, World Bank, bilateral summits, national Secretariat & Com+ #12;G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue Dialogue focus ­ Working Groups Markets ­ public & private

  7. Log-Log Convexity of Type-Token Growth in Zipf's Systems.

    PubMed

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-06-12

    It is traditionally assumed that Zipf's law implies the power-law growth of the number of different elements with the total number of elements in a system-the so-called Heaps' law. We show that a careful definition of Zipf's law leads to the violation of Heaps' law in random systems, with growth curves that have a convex shape in log-log scale. These curves fulfill universal data collapse that only depends on the value of Zipf's exponent. We observe that real books behave very much in the same way as random systems, despite the presence of burstiness in word occurrence. We advance an explanation for this unexpected correspondence. PMID:26196834

  8. Discriminating Between the Log-Normal and Log-Logistic Distributions

    E-print Network

    Kundu, Debasis

    Discriminating Between the Log-Normal and Log-Logistic Distributions Arabin Kumar Dey & Debasis Kundu Abstract Log-normal and log-logistic distributions are often used to analyze lifetime data- verted bath-tub hazard function, whereas the hazard function of the log-logistic distribution is either

  9. Outdoor Education Student Log Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

    A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

  10. briefing paper Controlling Illegal Logging

    E-print Network

    placing illegally harvested timber and timber products on the European market. It adopts a broad Regulation Introduction How to exclude illegally logged timber and timber products from consumer markets has to control imports of illegal timber. The EU's Action Plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade

  11. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  12. Downhole memory-logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1992-01-01

    Logging technologies developed hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (i) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (ii) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions.'' Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about on year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400{degrees}C is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. 8 refs.

  13. Downhole Memory-Logging Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, Peter

    1992-03-24

    Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature onboard computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make ''decisions''. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about one year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400 C (752 F) is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information.

  14. Local regularity analysis of strata heterogeneities from sonic logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, S.; Zaourar, N.; Hamoudi, M.; Holschneider, M.

    2010-09-01

    Borehole logs provide geological information about the rocks crossed by the wells. Several properties of rocks can be interpreted in terms of lithology, type and quantity of the fluid filling the pores and fractures. Here, the logs are assumed to be nonhomogeneous Brownian motions (nhBms) which are generalized fractional Brownian motions (fBms) indexed by depth-dependent Hurst parameters H(z). Three techniques, the local wavelet approach (LWA), the average-local wavelet approach (ALWA), and Peltier Algorithm (PA), are suggested to estimate the Hurst functions (or the regularity profiles) from the logs. First, two synthetic sonic logs with different parameters, shaped by the successive random additions (SRA) algorithm, are used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods. The obtained Hurst functions are close to the theoretical Hurst functions. Besides, the transitions between the modeled layers are marked by Hurst values discontinuities. It is also shown that PA leads to the best Hurst value estimations. Second, we investigate the multifractional property of sonic logs data recorded at two scientific deep boreholes: the pilot hole VB and the ultra deep main hole HB, drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). All the regularity profiles independently obtained for the logs provide a clear correlation with lithology, and from each regularity profile, we derive a similar segmentation in terms of lithological units. The lithological discontinuities (strata' bounds and faults contacts) are located at the local extrema of the Hurst functions. Moreover, the regularity profiles are compared with the KTB estimated porosity logs, showing a significant relation between the local extrema of the Hurst functions and the fluid-filled fractures. The Hurst function may then constitute a tool to characterize underground heterogeneities.

  15. Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND–1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND–1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237–342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND–1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND–1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692–1018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

  16. sequence quality values Sanger sequencing

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    phred sequence quality values #12;Sanger sequencing · DNA is fragmented · Cloned to a plasmid concept of phred quality values #12;Phred Qualities )(log10 10 pq -= · p=error probability for the base · if p=0.01 (1% chance of error), then q=20 · Phred quality values are rounded to the nearest integer #12

  17. Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls by north sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booij, Kees; van der Meer, Jaap; Kwast, Diana; de Boer, Joost L.

    1997-05-01

    The sediment-water partition coefficients ( Kd) of 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and penta- and hexachloro benzene were determined for 37 spiked sediment samples from the southern North Sea, the German Bight and the Norwegian Channel. Organic-carbon contents for these sediments were in the range 0.02-2.4%. Log( Kd) values were in the range 1.4 to 5.3. The largest difference between the organic-carbon normalised partition coefficients ( Koc) for individual components amounted to a factor of 10. Koc values for coarse sediments were generally lower than values for fine sediments. The solids concentration effect was evaluated using the Non-Settling Particles model, the Solute Complexation model, the Implicit Adsorbate model, and the Particle Interaction model. The latter three models could be rejected on the basis of the experimental evidence. The validity of ordinary least-squares regression for estimating slope and intercept of log( Koc)-log( KKow) relations is discussed. Differences in sediment characteristics cause changes in the intercept of log( Koc)-log( Kow) relations, but not in the slope. KKoc values of PCB isomers are inversely related to the number of chlorine atoms in the ortho position relative to the inter-ring bond. The validity of the data for estimating field values of sorption coefficients is discussed.

  18. Log-Euclidean free-form deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modat, Marc; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Daga, Pankaj; Cardoso, M. J.; Hawkes, David J.; Ashburner, John; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2011-03-01

    The Free-Form Deformation (FFD) algorithm is a widely used method for non-rigid registration. Modifications have previously been proposed to ensure topology preservation and invertibility within this framework. However, in practice, none of these yield the inverse transformation itself, and one loses the parsimonious B-spline parametrisation. We present a novel log-Euclidean FFD approach in which a spline model of a stationary velocity field is exponentiated to yield a diffeomorphism, using an efficient scaling-and-squaring algorithm. The log-Euclidean framework allows easy computation of a consistent inverse transformation, and offers advantages in group-wise atlas building and statistical analysis. We optimise the Normalised Mutual Information plus a regularisation term based on the Jacobian determinant of the transformation, and we present a novel analytical gradient of the latter. The proposed method has been assessed against a fast FFD implementation (F3D) using simulated T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance brain images. The overlap measures between propagated grey matter tissue probability maps used in the simulations show similar results for both approaches; however, our new method obtains more reasonable Jacobian values, and yields inverse transformations.

  19. Keep a "SLOG" (Sleep Log)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this activity (1st on the page), learners keep a "SLOG" or Sleep Log to study their sleep patterns. Learners keep track of their sleep behavior and the dreams that they have each night on the "Dream Journal Worksheet" and "Sleep Journal Worksheet" included in this activity guide. This guide also includes twenty questions for learners to consider when recording and analyzing their dreams.

  20. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  1. Application of Fractal Dimension in Edge Detection of Log with Rotten Knot Image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawei Qi; Li Li; Jingwei Song; Hongbo Mu

    2007-01-01

    Defects connotative feature information in the X-ray image data of log with rotten knot was studied. Adopting box counting method detected log with rotten knot image edges effectively. Describe the irregular degree of image in quantity by using the value of fractal dimension to confirm the defects position. There were differences in fractal dimension between the normal regions and the

  2. Sugarcane Log Turning Ltd. Business Plan

    E-print Network

    Sugarcane Log Turning Ltd. Business Plan Prepared by: Jordan Barlow Sarah Saddler Kimberley LeDrew Morgan Kennah WOOD 465 April 14, 2004 #12;ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sugarcane Log Turning (SCLT) is a unique

  3. 29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

  4. 29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

  5. 29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

  6. 29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

  7. Web Search/Browse Log Mining: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jian

    ;Different Types of Log Data: Search Logs Query Click: Algo result Ads result Browse Search Logs · Collected by the search engine Search Log Search Results Collected by search engine server "Algo result" means algorithmic result #12;Different Types of Log Data: Browse Logs Query Click: Algo click Ads click Browse Browse Log

  8. Research and Methodological Foundations of Transaction Log

    E-print Network

    Jansen, James

    of data collection also involves a choice of methods. Transaction logs and transaction log analysis is one of transaction log analysis spe- cifically from the perspective of an unobtrusive method. Some of the ethical approach to data collection and a research method for both system performance and user behavior analysis

  9. RECOVERY FROM SIMULATED SAWN LOGS WITH SWEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT A. MONSERm; DEAN L. PARRY; CHRISTINE L. TODOROKI

    A sawing simulator, AUTOSAW, was used to examine the effect of increasing sweep on lumber recovery. Sample material consisted of 5 1 logs from 22 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. ) trees in western Oregon, United States. All knots on the4.9-m logs were measured, mapped, and converted into 3-dimensional digital formats. The digital logs were then increasingly bent, in

  10. Using Well Logs in the Petroleum Industry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walter Borowski

    This exercise shows how well logs are used in the petroleum industry. It is designed as a first exposure to well logs for undergraduate geology majors and introduces not only well logs and their interpretation as proxies for stratigraphic sections, but also investigates concepts of porosity and permeability, oil reservoirs, and structural traps.

  11. University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log Information below must be compared to the monthly statement provided by the cell phone service provider. It is required that this log be completed when of the last page of the usage log. Employee's Name:Business Device - Cell Phone Number: Printed Name

  12. Bivariate Log Birnbaum-Saunders Distribution

    E-print Network

    Kundu, Debasis

    Bivariate Log Birnbaum-Saunders Distribution Debasis Kundu1 Abstract Univariate Birnbaum-Saunders-linear model for the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution', Technometrics, 51-60) introduced a log Birnbaum- Saunders distribution. The main aim of this paper is to introduce bivariate log Birnbaum-Saunders distribution

  13. Discrete-Log-Based Signatures May Not Be Equivalent to Discrete Log

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be equivalent to the discrete log problem in the standard model. This contradicts in nature well-known proofsDiscrete-Log-Based Signatures May Not Be Equivalent to Discrete Log Pascal Paillier1 and Damien evidence that the unforgeability of several discrete-log based signatures like Schnorr signatures cannot

  14. The Impact of the Russian Log Export Tariff on the Global Market for Logs and Lumber

    E-print Network

    The Impact of the Russian Log Export Tariff on the Global Market for Logs and Lumber CINTRAFOR News is available on the web: http://www.cintrafor.org Russian Tariff continued on page 3 In This Issue: Director announced its plan to implement a series of log export tariffs designed to reduce the export of raw logs

  15. Integrating MDT, NMR log and conventional logs for one-well evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Tangyan; Ma Zaitian; Wang Junxiao; Lv Hongzhi

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a case study for one-well evaluation integrating MDT, NMR logs and conventional logs. MDT, NMR logs and conventional logs provide formation permeability in different ways though the parameter can be derived in the three kinds of data. Integrating the three kinds of data and comparing the change trends among the data, the heterogeneity of reservoir and tiger

  16. Time-Dilation, Log N - Log P, and Cosmology

    E-print Network

    R. J. Nemiroff; J. P. Norris; J. T. Bonnell; J. D. Scargle

    1996-02-01

    We investigate whether a simple cosmology can fit GRB results in both time dilation and Log N - Log P simultaneously. Simplifying assumptions include: all GRBs are spectrally identical to BATSE trigger 143, $\\Omega=1$ universe, and no luminosity and number density evolution. Observational data used includes: the BATSE 3B peak brightness distribution (64-ms time scale), the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) brightness distribution, and the Norris et al. time dilation results for peak aligned profiles presented at this meeting. We find acceptable cosmological fits to the brightness distributions when placing BATSE trigger 143 at a redshift of 0.15 $\\pm$ 0.10. This translates into a $(1 + z_{dim}) / (1 + z_{bright})$ factor of about 1.50 $\\pm$ 0.50 between selected brightness extremes of the Norris et al. sample. Norris et al. estimate, however, that $(1 + z_{dim}) / (1 + z_{bright})$ $\\approx$ 2.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 when considering duration tests. The difference is marginal and could be accounted for by evolution. We therefore find that evolution of GRBs is preferred but not demanded.

  17. Benchmark neutron porosity log calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.C.; Michael, M.; Verghese, K.; Gardner, R.P.

    1989-02-01

    Calculations have been made for a benchmark neutron porosity log problem with the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP and the specific purpose Monte Carlo code McDNL. For accuracy and timing comparison purposes the CRAY XMP and MicroVax II computers have been used with these codes. The CRAY has been used for an analog version of the MCNP code while the MicroVax II has been used for the optimized variance reduction versions of both codes. Results indicate that the two codes give the same results within calculated standard deviations. Comparisons are given and discussed for accuracy (precision) and computation times for the two codes.

  18. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  19. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  20. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  1. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  2. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  3. Practical approach to estimate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using Passey's algorithm without sonic log in horizontal well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun

    2013-04-01

    Shale gas evaluation process can be summarized as the selection of sweep spot intervals in the vertical borehole and determination of hydraulic fracturing zones in horizontal borehole. Brittleness index used in the selection of hydraulic fracturing interval is calculated from dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of wireline logging and MWD/LWD data. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated from the sonic and density log data, and therefore the MWD/LWD in the horizontal borehole should be included sonic log to estimate the dynamic elastic constants. This paper proposes a practical method to estimate the elastic moduli based on Passey's algorithm if we can't use the LWD sonic log in the horizontal borehole. To estimate the TOC (Total Organic Content) using the sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log using Passey's algorithm we use the relationship between Delta log R values and core derived-LOM (Level of Maturity) data. Dynamic elastic constants in the horizontal well, i.e. in case of sweet spot zones, can be estimated using the relationships between P-wave velocity and elastic constants in the vertical well, and similarity between the calculated Delta log R values from sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log, respectively. From two Passey's algorithms such as sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log relationships in the vertical well, we can derive the P-wave velocity equating the two Passey's algorithms based on the similarity. Then we can derive the dynamic elastic constants using the relationships between P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic constants. Finally we can estimate the brittleness index from the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We expect that this practical method can be effectively applied if we can't use the LWD sonic logging data of the horizontal borehole.

  4. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL] [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Maxwell, Don E [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL] [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  5. Sorption and ecotoxicity of pentachlorophenol polluted sediment amended with rice-straw derived biochar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liping Lou; Binbin Wu; Lina Wang; Ling Luo; Xinhua Xu; Jiaai Hou; Bei Xun; Baolan Hu; Yingxu Chen

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using biochar to control organic pollutants in sediments, we extracted biochar from rice-straw combustion residues (RBC) and studied its adsorption ability and effect on seed germination ecotoxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP). The results showed that the Freundlich and dual-mode models could describe all the sorption isotherm data well, and the log KOC values increased with increasing

  6. Analysis of Web Proxy Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

    Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

  7. Baler: deterministic, lossless log message clustering tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narate Taerat; Jim Brandt; Ann Gentile; Matthew Wong; Chokchai Leangsuksun

    2011-01-01

    The rate of failures in HPC systems continues to increase as the number of components comprising the systems increases. System\\u000a logs are one of the valuable information sources that can be used to analyze system failures and their root causes. However,\\u000a system log files are usually too large and complex to analyze manually. There are some existing log clustering tools

  8. Tractor-Logging Costs and Production

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Tractor-Logging Costs and Production in Old-Growth Redwood Kenneth N. Boe U . S . F O R E S T S E R. Tractor-logging costs and production in old-growth redwood forests. Berkeley, Calif., Pacific SW. Forest cuttings. 174.7 Sequoia sempervirens [-662.3 + 662.3 + 663.25] Boe, Kenneth N. 1963. Tractor-logging costs

  9. The velocity-deviation log: A tool to predict pore type and permeability trends in carbonate drill holes from sonic and porosity or density logs

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmetti, F.S.; Eberli, G.P. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Comparative Sedimentology Lab.

    1999-03-01

    The velocity-deviation log, which is calculated by combining the sonic log with the neutron-porosity or density log, provides a tool to obtain downhole information on the predominant pore type in carbonates. The log can be used to trace the downhole distribution of diagenetic processes and to estimate trends in permeability. Laboratory measurements on over 300 discrete carbonate samples reveal that sonic velocity is a function not only of total porosity, but also of the predominant pore type. In general, there is an inverse porosity-velocity correlation, but significant deviations occur from this relationship for certain pore types. Frame-forming pore types, such as moldic or intrafossil porosity, result in significantly higher velocity values at equal total porosities than do pore types that are not embedded in a rigid rock frame, such as interparticle porosity or microporosity. The results of the laboratory measurements can be applied to expand interpretations of standard wireline-log data, as shown in this study on two drill holes through Neogene carbonates from the Great Bahama Bank. The velocity-deviation log is calculated by first converting porosity-log data to a synthetic velocity log using a time-average equation. The difference between the real sonic log and the synthetic sonic log can then be plotted as a velocity-deviation log. Because deviations are the result of the variability of velocity at a certain porosity, the deviation log reflects the different rock-physical signatures of the different pore types. Positive velocity deviations mark zones where velocity is higher than expected from the porosity values, such as zones where frame-forming pore types dominate. Zero deviations show intervals where the rock lacks a rigid frame, such as in carbonates with high interparticle porosity or microporosity. Negative deviations mark zones in which sonic log velocities are unusually low, caused, for instance, by a cavernous bore-hole wall, fracturing, or possibly by a high content of free gas. By tracing the velocity deviations continuously downhole, one can identify diagenetic zones that are characterized by these different pore types. In addition, this method can be used to observe permeability trends because pore types influence the permeability of the rock.

  10. Partition characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soils and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Mcgroddy, S.E.; Kile, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) and water (i.e., K(oc) values) are relatively invariant either for the 'clean' (uncontaminated) soils or for the clean sediments; however, the mean K(oc) values on the sediments are about twice the values on the soils. This disparity is similar to the earlier observation for other nonpolar solutes and reflects the compositional differences between soil and sediment organic matters. No significant differences in K(oc) are observed between a clean coastal marine sediment and freshwater sediments. The coastal sediments that are significantly impacted by organic contaminants exhibit higher K(oc) values. At given K(ow) values (octanol-water), the PAHs exhibit much higher K(oc) values than other relatively nonpolar solutes (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons). This effect is shown to result from the enhanced partition of PAHs to SOM rather than from lower K(ow) values of PAHs at given supercooled liquid solute solubilities in water. The enhanced partition of PAHs over other nonpolar solutes in SOM provides an account of the markedly different correlations between log K(oc) and log K(ow) for PAHs and for other nonpolar solutes. The improved partition of PAHs in SOM stems apparently from the enhanced compatibility of their cohesive energy densities with those of the aromatic components in SOM. The approximate aromatic fraction in soil/sediment organic matter has been assessed by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy.The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) and water (i.e., Koc values) are relatively invariant either for the `clean' (uncontaminated) soils or for the clean sediments; however, the mean Koc values on the sediments are about twice the values on the soils. This disparity is similar to the earlier observation for other nonpolar solutes and reflects the compositional differences between soil and sediment organic matters. No significant differences in Koc are observed between a clean coastal marine sediment and freshwater sediments. The coastal sediments that are significantly impacted by organic contaminants exhibit higher Koc values. At given Kow values (octanol-water), the PAHs exhibit much higher Koc values than other relatively nonpolar solutes (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons). This effect is shown to result from the enhanced partition of PAHs to SOM rather than from lower Kow values of PAHs at given supercooled liquid solute solubilities in water. The enhanced partition of PAHs over other nonpolar solutes in SOM provides an account of the markedly different correlations between log Koc and log Kow for PAHs and for other nonpolar solutes. The improved partition of PAHs in SOM stems apparently from the enhanced compatibility of their cohesive energy densities with those of the aromatic components in SOM. The approximate aromatic fraction in soil/sediment organic matter has been assessed by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    We will present concepts for downhole instrumentation that could be used in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). We envision optical borehole-logging instruments that could monitor bacterial concentration, mineralogy, aromatic organics, temperature and oxygen concentration, allowing for the in situ monitoring of time-dependent microbial and short-scale geologic processes and provide valuable in situ data on stratigraphy to supplement core analyses, especially where instances of missing or damaged core sections make such studies difficult. Incorporated into these instruments will be a sampling/inoculation tool to allow for the recovery and/or manipulation of particularly interesting sections of the borehole wall for further study, enabling a series of microbiological studies. The borehole tools we will develop revolve around key emerging technologies and methods, some of which are briefly described below: 1) Autofluorescence Spectroscopy: Building on past instruments, we will develop a new borehole logger that searches for microbial life and organics using fluorescence spectroscopy. Many important organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) and biomolecules (e.g. aromatic amino acids, proteins, methanogenic coenzymes) fluoresce when excited with ultraviolet and visible light. Through the careful selection of excitation wavelength(s) and temporal gating parameters, a borehole logging instrument can detect and differentiate between these different compounds and the mineral matrix in which they exist. 2) Raman Spectroscopy: Though less sensitive than fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is more definitive: it can provide important mineral phase distribution/proportions and other chemical data enabling studies of mineralogy and microbe-mineral interactions (when combined with fluorescence). 3) Borehole Camera: Imaging of the borehole wall with extended information in the UV, visible, and NIR for a more informative view can provide a lot of insight to in situ processes. 4) Temperature and Oxygen Sensors: The ambient temperature will be recorded as well as the presence of oxygen. Oxygen presence can be measured using a fluorescence quenching fiber optic probe to avoid interference from other gases. We forsee that this technology will enable experiments including studies of gene transfer, microbial habitat, in situ stratigraphy and hydrological processes. In addition, though designed to scan borehole walls, GOLD could be used to scan core samples as they are recovered for rapid quantification and analysis in order to discover samples of particular interest that could then be prioritized for more in-depth, traditional analysis.

  12. Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging

    E-print Network

    Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal Organization (ITTO), shippers in Indonesia are threatening to stop transporting logs if the government insists harvesting affects 700,000-850,000 hectares of forest per year in Indonesia, but widespread illegal logging

  13. Logging roads rapidly expanding in Congo rainforest Logging roads rapidly expanding in Congo rainforest

    E-print Network

    Logging roads rapidly expanding in Congo rainforest Logging roads rapidly expanding in Congo rainforest mongabay.com June 7, 2007 Logging roads are rapidly expanding in the Congo rainforest, report satellite images of 4 million square miles of Central African rainforest acquired between 1976 and 2003

  14. log laws 9/13/2007 1 1.3 The log laws

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Peter

    (xy), log(xr ), etc. Well, let's use the big idea above: logx is the inverse of 10x . We have nice algebraic What log law can you extract from that? How should your thinking run? Well, you have to keep hold to use a and b as arguments for log(x) as well, and that will surely give them grief. The key

  15. ProcintLog: A GUI Academic Software For Open Hole Well-Logging Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Silva

    2005-01-01

    ProcintLog is a GUI academic software that runs under MATLAB and is useful for simplified conventional oil and gas well logs analysis. It works through two distinct modes: (1) direct petrophysical parameters inclusion from both field copies and digital files and (2) by reading and filling data from visual log zoning. The software load ASCII and LAS format files and

  16. 2011 Daily Fire Log Date & Time

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    /19/2011 0827 Welcome Ctr Parking Garage Unintentional-- Vehicle Fire Engine compartment of parked vehicle--Closed Comments: Engine compartment of parked vehicle was on fire; no injuries. Report #: 2011-00496 Reported: 102011 Daily Fire Log Fire Log Report # Date & Time Occurred General Location Nature of the Fire

  17. Acoustic Logging Based on Wellbore Resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Medlin; D. P. Schmitt

    1996-01-01

    Wellbore resonance phenomena are the basis for a new acoustic logging method, the Stimulated Mode Acoustic Log (SMAL). The SMAL method stimulates a particular mode of wellbore vibration by exciting a resonance for that mode. Specific resonances are excited by driving an acoustic transmitter with a short tone burst of appropriate frequency. SMAL benefits include signal enhancement under adverse conditions,

  18. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Carlos Martinez-Motta; Robin Walker; Thomas E Stewart; John Granton; Simon Abrahamson; Stephen E Lapinsky

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. METHODS: Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures.

  19. 26 MHz 1300 MHz Log periodic antenna

    E-print Network

    26 MHz ­ 1300 MHz Log periodic antenna 1000 MHz ­ 4000 MHz Log periodic antenna Pre Supply Control cable to computer USB port USB to GPIB Cable RF cables from antennas to pre-selector should be as short as possible. Pre-selector should be mounted near the antennas. Pre-selector control

  20. Causal relation of queries from temporal logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhou Sun; Kunqing Xie; Ning Liu; Shuicheng Yan; Benyu Zhang; Zheng Chen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study a new problem of mining causal relation of queries in search engine query logs. Causal relation between two queries means event on one query is the causation of some event on the other. We first detect events in query logs by efficient statistical frequency threshold. Then the causal relation of queries is mined by the

  1. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  2. Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Knapp, David E.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N.

    2005-10-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of ~0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  3. Simultaneous determination of LogD, LogP, and pK(a) of drugs by using a reverse phase HPLC coupled with a 96-well plate auto injector.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding

    2009-03-01

    For years, the physicochemical properties of drug candidates have been used to predict their in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviors. Several theories and empirical correlations have been established by various researchers with the overall goal of expediting the drug candidate selection process, with greater confidence and faster turnaround. This study describes a 96-well reverse phase HPLC method, simultaneously determining LogD, LogP, and pK(a) values of drugs in a throughput mode. The LogD and LogP values of each compound were determined, based on the octanol-aqueous partitioning behavior of the charged and non-charged species under different pH values. The pK(a) value was determined by using the Polynomial fit between LogP and LogD and the equation LogD (pK(a)) approximately LogP-0.301. The advantages of this method are: low sample consumption, suitability for low solubility compounds, less restriction on compound purity, potential for higher throughput, precise data, and multiple determinations in one assay. PMID:19275530

  4. A modification of the fusion model for log polar coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, N. C.; Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fusion mechanism for application in stereo analysis of range restricted the depth of field and therefore required a shift variant mechanism in the peripheral area to find disparity. Misregistration was prevented by restricting the disparity detection range to a neighborhood spanned by the directional edge detection filters. This transformation was essentially accomplished by a nonuniform resampling of the original image in a horizontal direction. While this is easily implemented for digital processing, the approach does not (in the peripheral vision area) model the log-conformal mapping which is known to occur in the human mechanism. This paper therefore modifies the original fusion concept in the peripheral area to include the polar exponential grid-to-log conformal tesselation. Examples of the fusion process resulting in accurate disparity values are given.

  5. Coal log pipeline pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Lenau, C.W.; Burkett, W.

    2000-07-01

    After 8 years of extensive R and D in the new technology of coal log pipeline (CLP), a pilot plant is being built to demonstrate and test a complete CLP system for coal transportation. The system consists of a coal log fabrication plant, a 3,000-ft-length, 6-inch-diameter underground pipeline loop to transport 5.4-inch diameter coal logs, a log injection/ejection system, a pump bypass, a reservoir that serves as both the intake and the outlet of the CLP systems, an instrumentation system that includes pressure transducers, coal log sensors, and flowmeters, and an automatic control system that includes PLCs and a central computer. The pilot plant is to be completed in May of Year 2000. Upon completion of construction, the pilot plant will be used for running various types of coal, testing the degradation rate of drag reduction in CLP using Polyox (polyethylene oxide), testing the reliability of a special coal log sensor invented at the University of Missouri, testing the reliability and the efficiency of the pump-bypass system for pumping coal log trains through the pipe, and testing various hardware components and software for operating the pilot plant. Data collected from the tests will be used for designing future commercial systems of CLP. The pilot plant experiments are to be completed in two years. Then, the technology of CLP will be ready for commercial use.

  6. Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Izotova, T.S. (Ukrainian State Geological Research Institute, Kiev (Ukraine))

    1993-09-01

    The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

  7. Conserving Forest Wildlife and Other Ecosystem Services: Opportunity Costs and The Valuation of Alternative Logging Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clement A. Tisdell

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems supply a wide variety of valued commodities, including ecological services. Valuing these commodities and determining the implications of their valuation for the optimal management of ecosystems is challenging. This paper considers the optimal spatial use of forest ecosystems given that they can be utilised for conserving wildlife species and for producing logs. It takes into account the alternatives of

  8. log(Tissue Stiffness) Development time

    E-print Network

    Discher, Dennis

    of proteins, namely collagen plus cardiac- specific excitation-contraction proteins. Rapid softening-Contraction and Collagen Proteins, whereas Brain Remains SoHeartBeat log(Tissue Stiffness) Development time Excitation-Contraction Collagen #12;Current

  9. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  10. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States). Control Software Group

    1997-12-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

  11. Formation mechanical properties and the sonic log

    SciTech Connect

    Elphick, R.Y.

    1988-11-01

    A program is presented that calculates the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks from sonic logs. The program was written in Microsoft BASIC and the source code for MS-DOS, Apple Macintosh, and Amiga personal computers is given.

  12. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S. (New York, NY); Myers, Gregory J. (Cornwall, NY)

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  13. Recover it yourself with user logging

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, D.

    1984-01-01

    IMAGE logging is a good product that has proved to be an effective and accurate way to save interactive transactions for recovery and audit purposes. There is one shortcoming with the product in that it only logs transactions within the IMAGE domain. Some applications require that KSAM and MPE files be updated in an on-line system. How can these files be recovered. One answer is to use a recoverable program structure that not only posts the interactive transactions, but recovers them as well. The user logging facility is used to store the successful transactions to either tape or disc. This paper will discuss the recoverable program structure and the user logging subsystem.

  14. D-dimensional log gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Fareghbal, Reza [School of physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    We study Einstein gravity in dimensions D{>=}4 modified by curvature squared at critical point where the theory contains only massless gravitons. We show that at the critical point a new mode appears leading to a logarithmic gravity in the theory. The corresponding logarithmic solution may provide a gravity description of logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT) in higher dimensions. We note also that for special values of the parameters of the theory, the model admits solutions with nonrelativistic isometries.

  15. Automatic well log correlation using neural networks 

    E-print Network

    Habiballah, Walid Abdulrahim

    1991-01-01

    AUTOMATIC WELL LOG CORRELATION USING NEURAL NETWORKS A Thesis by WALID ABDULHAHIM HABIBALLAH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1991 Major Subject; Petroleum Engineering AUTOMATIC WELL LOG CORRELATION USING NEURAL NETWORKS A Thesis by WALID ABDULRAHIM HABIBALLAH Approved as to style and content by: R. A. St tzman (Chair of Committee) S. W. Poston (Member) R. R...

  16. Lossless compression for large scale cluster logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raju Balakrishnan; Ramendra K. Sahoo

    2006-01-01

    The growing computational and storage needs of several scientific applications mandate the deployment of extreme-scale parallel machines, such as IBM's Blue Gene\\/L which can accommodate as many as 128K processors. One of the biggest challenges these systems face, is to manage generated system logs while deploying in production environments. Large amount of log data is created over extended period of

  17. Toxic species evolution from guayule fireplace logs 

    E-print Network

    Soderman, Kristi Lee

    1988-01-01

    of chromium, if present in the hexavalent state, no unusually toxic constituents were found in the smoke particulates, gaseous state or as condensible liquids for flaming and smoldering combustion of guayule fireplace logs. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), a.... The determination of particle size distribution. 3. The identification of gases. 4. The identification liquid and solid smoke particulates. Additionally, the heat of combustion of the fireplace log will be determined. 12 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Smoke...

  18. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemys?aw

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  19. WebLog Expert 3.1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Those persons looking for a new and helpful tool to analyze information about their website's traffic and visitors should look no further than this latest edition of WebLog Expert. This version will give information about accessed files, activity statistics, paths through the site, all offered in HTML reports that include both text information and charts. WebLog Expert 3.1 is compatible with all systems running Windows 95 and higher.

  20. CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frobose, R.H.

    1984-11-12

    CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is a dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.

  1. Clay and framework mineralogy, cation exchange capacity, matrix density, and porosity from geochemical well logging in Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, M.M.; Grau, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Elemental concentrations of several inorganic elements were determined in a continuous basis with depth using the Schlumberger gamma-ray spectrometry (GST) and natural gamma-ray spectrometry (NGS) logs in a Santa Fe Energy Company well in the Kern Front field in Bakersfield, California. Logs of Al, Si, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, and non-pore H were processed by a matrix multiplication procedure, used previously for a Venezuelan well, into estimated abundances of quartz, feldspar, calcite, ilmenite, and the clay minerals kaolinite, illite, and smectite. A total of 64 core-plug samples were analyzed for elemental content by x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis and for mineralogy by bulk and < 4 ..mu.. clay x-ray diffraction analyses. Log-derived elemental concentrations and mineral abundances show good agreement with the core values. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is estimated from the abundances of the clay minerals and typical values for these clays. The CEC log agrees well with CEC values determined on the core samples. The mineral abundance logs also permit an estimation of the average matrix density as a function of depth, derived from typical grain densities for each mineral phase. This matrix density log, combined with the bulk density log, yields a porosity log that compares well with over 200 measurements on core.

  2. An XML Log Standard and Tool for Digital Library Logging Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcos André Gonçalves; Ming Luo; Rao Shen; Mir Farooq Ali; Edward A. Fox

    2002-01-01

    Log analysis can be a primary source ofkno wledge about how digital library patrons actually use DL systems and services and\\u000a how systems behave while trying to support user information seeking activities. Log recording and analysis allow evaluation\\u000a assessment, and open opportunities to improvements and enhanced new services. In this paper, we propose an XML-based digital\\u000a library log format standard

  3. Anisotropic anomalous diffusion modulated by log-periodic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Padilla, L; Mártin, H O; Iguain, J L

    2012-07-01

    We introduce finite ramified self-affine substrates in two dimensions with a set of appropriate hopping rates between nearest-neighbor sites where the diffusion of a single random walk presents an anomalous anisotropic behavior modulated by log-periodic oscillations. The anisotropy is revealed by two different random-walk exponents ?(x) and ?(y) in the x and y directions, respectively. The values of these exponents as well as the periods of the oscillations are obtained analytically and confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:23005367

  4. Reduced-impact logging and biodiversity conservation: a case study from Borneo.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Larsen, Trond H; Hsu, Wayne W; Benedick, Suzan; Wilcove, David S

    2012-03-01

    A key driver of rain forest degradation is rampant commercial logging. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques dramatically reduce residual damage to vegetation and soils, and they enhance the long-term economic viability of timber operations when compared to conventionally managed logging enterprises. Consequently, the application of RIL is increasing across the tropics, yet our knowledge of the potential for RIL also to reduce the negative impacts of logging on biodiversity is minimal. We compare the impacts of RIL on birds, leaf-litter ants, and dung beetles during a second logging rotation in Sabah, Borneo, with the impacts of conventional logging (CL) as well as with primary (unlogged) forest. Our study took place 1-8 years after the cessation of logging. The species richness and composition of RIL vs. CL forests were very similar for each taxonomic group. Both RIL and CL differed significantly from unlogged forests in terms of bird and ant species composition (although both retained a large number of the species found in unlogged forests), whereas the composition of dung beetle communities did not differ significantly among forest types. Our results show little difference in biodiversity between RIL and CL over the short-term. However, biodiversity benefits from RIL may accrue over longer time periods after the cessation of logging. We highlight a severe lack of studies investigating this possibility. Moreover, if RIL increases the economic value of selectively logged forests (e.g., via REDD+, a United Nations program: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries), it could help prevent them from being converted to agricultural plantations, which results in a tremendous loss of biodiversity. PMID:22611854

  5. Performance evaluation of active wireline heave compensation systems in marine well logging environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tanzhuo; Iturrino, Gerardo; Goldberg, David; Meissner, Eric; Swain, Kerry; Furman, Clayton; Fitzgerald, Peter; Frisbee, Nathan; Chlimoun, Joe; Van Hyfte, John; Beyer, Ron

    2013-02-01

    The basic functionality and performance of a new Schlumberger active wireline heave compensation system on the JOIDES Resolution was evaluated during the sea trial and a 3-year period of the IODP Phase II operations. A suite of software programs was developed to enable real-time monitoring of the dynamics of logging tools, and assess the efficiency of wireline heave compensation during downhole operations. The evaluation of the system effectiveness was performed under normal logging conditions as well as during stationary tests. Logging data were analyzed for their overall quality and repeatability, and to assess the reliability of high-resolution data such as formation microscanner (FMS) electrical images. This revealed that the system reduces 65-80 % of displacement or 88-98 % variance of downhole tool motion in stationary mode under heave conditions of ±0.2-1.5 m and water depths of 300-4,500 m in open holes. Under similar water/heave conditions, the compensator system reduces tool displacement by 50-60 %, or 75-84 % variance in downhole tool motion during normal logging operations. Such compensation efficiency (CE) is comparable to previous compensation systems, but using advanced and upgradeable technologies, and provides 50-85 % heave motion and heave variance attenuation. Moreover, logging down/up at low speeds (300-600 m/h) reduces the system's CE values by 15-20 %, and logging down at higher speeds (1,000-1,200 m/h) eliminates CE values by 55-65 %. Considering the high quality of the logging data collected, it is concluded that the new system can provide an improved level of compensation over previous systems. Also, if practically feasible, future integration of downhole cable dynamics as an input feedback into the current system could further improve its compensation efficiency during logging operations.

  6. Downhole logs of natural gamma radiation and magnetic susceptibility and their use in interpreting lithostratigraphy in AND-1B, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T.; Morin, R. H.; Jarrard, R. D.; Jackolski, C. L.; Henrys, S. A.; Niessen, F.; Magens, D.; Kuhn, G.; Monien, D.; Powell, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    The ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 metres of sediment representing the last 14 million years of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 metres, and are complementary to data acquired from the core itself. We describe here the natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs, and their application to understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND-1B. Natural gamma radiation logs cover the whole interval from the sea floor to 1018 metres, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open-hole intervals between 692-1018 and 237-342 metres. NGR logs were stacked and corrected for signal attenuation through the drill pipe, and magnetic susceptibility logs were corrected for drift. In the upper part of AND-1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamict (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, and heavy minerals). In the lower open-hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamicts (relatively high in magnetite), while sandstones generally have high resistivity log values at AND-1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, three sets of facies can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692-1018m interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 7% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Similarly, the NGR log provides the best information on the lithology of the poorly recovered top 25m of AND-1B. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties, and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy (for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites).

  7. Combating Illegal LoggingCombating Illegal Logging in Russia:in Russia

    E-print Network

    Combating Illegal LoggingCombating Illegal Logging in Russia:in Russia: Case study ofCase study of PrimorskyPrimorsky RegionRegion AlexeyAlexey MorozovMorozov Greenpeace RussiaGreenpeace Russia #12;Primorsky #12;RUSSIA Official Responses 7 of July 2000 Head of Nature Resource Committee of the Primorsky

  8. Combating Illegal LoggingCombating Illegal Logging in Russia:in Russia

    E-print Network

    Combating Illegal LoggingCombating Illegal Logging in Russia:in Russia: Case study ofCase study of PrimorskyPrimorsky RegionRegion AlexeyAlexey MorozovMorozov Greenpeace RussiaGreenpeace Russia http://www region: 2000 #12;RUSSIA Official Responses 7 of July 2000 Head of Nature Resource Committee

  9. Co-analysis of RAS Log and Job Log on Blue Gene\\/P

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziming Zheng; Li Yu; Wei Tang; Zhiling Lan; Rinku Gupta; Narayan Desai; Susan Coghlan; Daniel Buettner

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of system size and complexity, reliability has become of paramount importance for petascale systems. Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability (RAS) logs have been commonly used for failure analysis. However, anal- ysis based on just the RAS logs has proved to be insufficient in understanding failures and system behaviors. To overcome the limitation of this existing methodologies, we analyze

  10. LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honerman, James

    1999-01-01

    Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time…

  11. Total organic carbon content determined from well logs using ?LogR and Neuro Fuzzy techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Reza Kamali; Ahad Allah Mirshady

    2004-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) content present in potential source rocks significantly affects the response of several types of well logs. Wireline logs can be used to identify source rocks and serve as an indicator for the source rock potential. Because the source rock intervals generally show a lower density, higher sonic transit time, higher porosity and higher resistivity than other

  12. Enhanced Max-Log-APP and Enhanced Log-APP Decoding for DVB-RCS

    E-print Network

    Kabal, Peter

    Enhanced Max-Log-APP and Enhanced Log-APP Decoding for DVB-RCS Youssouf Ould for Return Channel via Satellite (DVB- RCS) standard. The proposed techniques are re- ferred criterion are also presented. 1 Introduction DVB-RCS [1] has been standardized by the ETSI for digital video

  13. Using Web Server Logs in Evaluating Instructional Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Albert L.

    2000-01-01

    Web server logs contain a great deal of information about who uses a Web site and how they use it. This article discusses the analysis of Web logs for instructional Web sites; reviews the data stored in most Web server logs; demonstrates what further information can be gleaned from the logs; and discusses analyzing that information for the…

  14. TORIC SINGULARITIES: LOG-BLOW-UPS AND GLOBAL RESOLUTIONS

    E-print Network

    Niziol, Wieslawa

    TORIC SINGULARITIES: LOG-BLOW-UPS AND GLOBAL RESOLUTIONS WIESLAWA NIZIOL 1. Introduction It is well. In the language of log-geometry, Kato's toric singularities are called log-regular schemes. Since many of our results hold for more general log-schemes than that, we have chosen to work here in the setting of fine

  15. User activity recognition and logging in distributed Intelligent Gadgets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kugsang Jeong; Jongho Won; Changseok Bae

    2008-01-01

    We present userpsilas activity recognition and logging using Intelligent Gadget. Personal life logging is very useful for just diary and even memory augmentation and activity is one of key items for logging. Intelligent Gadget is a smart object for personal life logging, and has limited resources in processing and power. So we propose a simple architecture for activity recognition and

  16. Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doveton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

  17. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  18. Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems Cetin Kaya Koc

    E-print Network

    Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems C¸etin Kaya Ko¸c Oregon State University 1 #12;Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems Elliptic curves defined over GF(p) or GF(2k) are used in cryptography The arithmetic of GF differences Elliptic curves over GF(2k) are more popular due to the space and time-efficient algorithms

  19. Corrected logs indicate lithofacies around horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, G.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt)

    1996-03-04

    A Gulf of Suez well illustrates how to correct logs to model and identify the lithofacies characteristics and petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks crossed by a horizontal lateral. Based on data collected from modeling the formation and logging response, it was possible to draw a cross section of the formation surrounding the well bore. This type of cross section could not have been derived from data obtained in a vertical well. The cross section displays the formation petrophysical properties along with lateral changes in water saturation and lithology along the horizontal section.

  20. Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bessa, V.; Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE 60455-760 (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)] and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schroedinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m=m{sub 0}t/t{sub 0} and {omega}={omega}{sub 0}t{sub 0}/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and {omega} constant.

  1. Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

    1999-07-01

    A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

  2. NMR logging and core analysis -- simplified

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.P. [Shell E and P Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine various characteristics of oil and well stratigraphy and drill cores. NMR wireline logging tools, and benchtop spectrometer core and fluid analyzers can obtain information for formation evaluation decisions. All of this formation evaluation information cannot be obtained from NMR in every situation. Formation rock and fluid properties, and borehole environment affect accuracy and type of data that can be obtained. Information and performances is discussed on identifying: porosity, water saturation, permeability, fluid types, hydrocarbon types, oil saturation, and wettability information. The information is demonstrated in various graphs and a brief discussion of the types of logging tools are described.

  3. MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

  4. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of (235)U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously. PMID:25832251

  5. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of 235U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  6. Basic Summary The TraceMoment program calculates regressions from the log-log plots of the trace moments for

    E-print Network

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Outerscale Basic Summary The TraceMoment program calculates regressions from the log-log plots inputs of parameters derived from the TraceMoment analysis and outputs a graph of Log(M) vs. Log() by forcing fits through a fixed outer scale as well as a graph of K(q). Not only does it give more reliable

  7. Expected Value

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Siegrist, Kyle

    This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

  8. Effects of physical-chemical characteristics on the sorption of selected endocrine disruptors by dissolved organic matter surrogates.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Liljestrand, Howard M; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Morita, Masatoshi

    2003-06-15

    Sorption coefficients (K(oc) values) of selected endocrine disruptors for a wide variety of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured using fluorescence quenching and solubility enhancement. 17beta-Estradiol, estriol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, p-nonylphenol, p-tert-octylphenol, and dibutylphthalate were selected as endocrine disruptors. Aldrich humic acid, Suwannee River humic and fulvic acids, Nordic fulvic acid, alginic acid, dextran, and tannic acid were selected as DOM surrogates. The resulting sorption coefficients (log K(oc)) were independent of octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K(ow)) of the selected endocrine disruptors, indicating the hydrophobic interaction is not the predominant sorption mechanism. Moreover, the K(oc) values for the selected endocrine disruptors, especially the steroid estrogens, correlated much better with UV absorptivity at 272 nm (A272) and phenolic group concentration of the DOM than with either the H/O or the (O+N)/C atomic ratio of the DOM. This suggests that the sorption mechanism is closely related to the interaction between pi-electrons and the hydrogen bonds, i.e., the affinity between phenolic groups of the steroid estrogens and DOM is suggested to provide a relatively large contribution to the overall sorption and yield the K(oc) values of the steroid estrogens as high as those of the alkylphenols and dibutylphthalate, which are suggested to be dominated by nonspecific hydrophobic interaction. PMID:12854701

  9. Selective Logging Disturbance And Isotopic Composition Of Repired CO2 In Western Amazonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ometto, J. P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Berry, J.; Miller, S.; Goulden, M.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the controls of gas exchange in primary and disturbed forests within the Amazon Basin is central to understanding the global carbon cycle, since tropical forests account for 40% of the carbon stored globally in terrestrial biomass. Stable isotope ratio analyses (13C, 18O) of atmospheric CO2 provide useful information regarding the balance between photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss in rainforest ecosystems and of the stomatal constraints on photosynthetic gas exchange. One useful isotopic parameter we have measured is the carbon isotope ratio of all respiration emerging from the ecosystem (del13Cr). Our recent observations suggest a direct relationship between logging activities and del13Cr values in these forests. Logging activities at the LBA site in Santarem, Para, began with the removal of lianas before the dry season and afterward selective logging. This logging activity opened the forest and resulted in a 4per mil shift in del13CR. During the following wet season (2002/2003), eddy covariance measurements at the logged site reported increased ecosystem gas exchange. Coincident with this increase in net ecosystem exchange, we observed a decrease in del13CR consistent with a decreased stomatal limitation on photosynthetic gas exchange in the logged forest.

  10. Regional-scale Hydrostratigraphic Analysis of the Paskapoo Aquifer Using Normalized Gamma-ray Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, L. R.; Quartero, E.; Leier, A.; Bechtel, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Paskapoo Formation is the major groundwater aquifer system in western Alberta, Canada. The aquifer system covers approximately 65,000 km2, has over 69,000 groundwater wells completed in it, has a maximum thickness of 800 m and consists of a fluvial mudstone and sandstone complex. The formation is divided into the upper Dalehurst Member, the mud dominated Lacombe Member and the basal Haynes Member. In order to develop hydrostratigraphic models of the Paskapoo Fm., it is necessary to understand the distribution and connectivity of the sandstone remnants. Mapping these features is a particularly difficult problem given the size of the region and the complexity of fluvial systems. In 2006 the Government of Alberta mandated that all wire line log readings, including natural gamma-ray logs, must be collected to surface. Tens of thousands of new exploration and production wells have been drilled and logged since 2006. Since wire line logs are in the public domain, it has created a large source of new data for mapping shallow aquifer systems. However, much of the shallow data of interest is collected through casing. A gamma-ray normalization algorithm has been developed to approximately correct for the dampening effects of the casing so that the cased and uncased API log values are equivalent. The algorithm is based on estimating the second and ninety-fifth percentiles of the API values in uncased zones in wells with similar geology to the cased zones that are to be corrected. The API values of cased zones are then adjusted so that their second and ninety-fifth API percentiles are the same as the uncased values. Mudstone and sandstone zones in the logs can be discriminated and the continuity of sandstone units can be investigated. The Haynes member has been previously described as made up of set of stacked sandstone channels. Logs show that the Haynes member is a thick sandstone unit up to 100 m thick and extending over 100 km perpendicular to the Rocky Mountain's thrust front. Logs also show that the Haynes Member is absent in the northern Paskapoo Fm. The overlying Lacombe member is clearly distinguishable from the Haynes member and it consists of smaller channel sandstone remnants which cannot be correlated over large distances, consistent with its description of a mud dominated system. Areas of higher and lower sand fraction are evident in the records. Mapping sand fractions is extremely important as it exerts first order control on regional hydraulic conductivity, vertical conductivity and connectivity within the aquifer. The normalized gamma logs offer a powerful new tool for regional aquifer characterization in Alberta.

  11. Improved production log interpretation in horizontal wells using pulsed neutron logs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, J.L.; Kohring, J.J.; North, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Production log flow profiles provide a valuable tool to evaluate well and reservoir performance. Horizontal wellbores and their associated completion designs present several challenges to profile interpretation for conventional production logging sensors and techniques. A unique approach combining pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data with conventional production logging measurements is providing improved flow profile answers in slotted liner, horizontal well completions on the North Slope of Alaska. Identifying and eliminating undesirable gas production is one of the chief goals of production logging on the North Slope. This process becomes difficult in horizontal wellbores as fluid segregation affects the area investigated by the various logging sensors and also the velocities of the individual phases. Typical slotted liner completions further complicate analysis as fluids are able to flow in the liner/openhole annulus. Analysis of PNC log data provides two good qualitative indicators of formation permeability. The first technique is derived from the difference of the formation sigma response before and after injecting a high-capture cross-section borax solution. The second technique uses the difference of the formation sigma response and the formation porosity measured while injecting the formation with crude or seawater. Further analysis of PNC log runs show that the two techniques closely correlate with production flow profiles under solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) conditions. These two techniques in combination with conventional production logging measurements of temperature, capacitance, pressure, and spinner improve flow profile results. PNC results can be combined with temperature and pressure data in the absence of valid spinner data to provide an approximate flow profile. These techniques have been used to successfully determine profiles in both cemented and slotted liner completions with GORs in excess of 15,000 scf/bbl.

  12. High temperature spectral gamma well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, R.A.; Henfling, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A high temperature spectral gamma tool has been designed and built for use in small-diameter geothermal exploration wells. Several engineering judgments are discussed regarding operating parameters, well model selection, and signal processing. An actual well log at elevated temperatures is given with spectral gamma reading showing repeatability.

  13. log on education Paradigm-shifting landmark

    E-print Network

    Shneiderman, Ben

    log on education Paradigm-shifting landmark buildings are cherished by their occupants in Fallingwater (in western Pennsylva- nia) where the waterfall sounds and leafy sur- roundings offered a stress) that promoted new team-oriented management strategies. Current opportuni- ties for architectural paradigm shifts

  14. Exercise Log Date Distance Date Distance

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    Exercise Log Date Distance Date Distance College of Sports Medicine recommends that if you are undertaking an exercise program that you see your, or have not exercised regularly in the past year. If, at any time while exercising, you feel faint, dizzy

  15. Automatic Determination of Lithology From Well Logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Delfiner; Olivier Peyret; Oberto Serra

    1987-01-01

    A procedure combining modern wireline measurements with a lithofacies data base has been developed to produce an automatic lithologic description of the formations crossed by a well. The database lithofacies are defined from petrographic knowledge and translated in terms of log responses. The assignment of depth levels to a lithofacies is done with the data base and with a discriminating

  16. Applicability of GSO scintillators for well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Melcher; J. S. Schweitzer; R. S. Manente; C. A. Peterson

    1991-01-01

    Cerium-doped gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO:Ce) was developed as a scintillating material for application in positron emission tomography. The fundamental properties of this material were studied, with particular attention given to properties relevant to nuclear well logging applications and their temperature dependence. Initial evaluations indicated that this material had a number of properties which seemed to make it a favorable candidate for

  17. Constraint optimum well-log signal segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Moghaddamjoo

    1989-01-01

    A special classification algorithm is proposed that can be applied to a preprocessed (or the original noisy) well-log signal for segmentation. Knowledge of the number of segments or any other constraint, if existent, along with a criterion function can be used to complete the algorithm. The preprocessing routine consists of a running window change-detection algorithm which detects all the potential

  18. Discussion logs for h-childhood

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new moderated H-Net discussion list seeks to link international scholars studying the history of childhood and youth in all regions and time periods. Resources available at the site include discussion threads, message logs, a review project, and academic announcements.

  19. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  20. Gentle Logging System Evaluation (PARTICIPANTS' QUESTIONNAIRE REPORT)

    E-print Network

    Raymond O. Miller and William E. Cook 1 Abstract Five, new, cut-to-length harvesting systems wereGentle Logging System Evaluation (PARTICIPANTS' QUESTIONNAIRE REPORT) November 26, 2001 Raymond O. Miller William E. Cook Published by Michigan State University Upper Peninsula Tree Improvement Center

  1. Swept energy source acoustic logging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mailett

    1984-01-01

    An acoustic energy mode propagation speed or travel time measurement system for use in well logging is disclosed. A downhole sonde is provided with an acoustic transmitter and at least one acoustic receiver. The transmitter is repetitively driven with a unique or characteristic swept frequency signal. Propagated acoustic energy detected at the receiver is cross-correlated with the characteristic transmitter swept

  2. A First Look at Logging in Gabon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This newly released report [.pdf format] from Global Forest Watch (World Resources Institute) takes a first look at Gabon's forestry practices. The report describes how forests are rapidly being conceded to "a handful of logging companies" which export primarily one species of tree to a narrow range of countries.

  3. Design of high reliability nuclear logging probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingchun Xiao; Shihong Xiang; Zhengyu Zhao; Zuping Qian

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Logging Probe may measure the naturally occurring gamma ray radiation level and detect gamma rays from a radioactive source within a well bore. It is used for depth correlation, lithology, mixture density measurement, identification of radioactive scale. But because of the harsh working environment, high temperature above 100 °C, high pressure, shock, it is difficult to get accurate measurement result.

  4. BYU Astronomical Society Observation Log Book

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    System 1 Messier 4 NGC 40 Double Stars 54 Variable Stars 69 Misc. Objects 72 Blank Log Pages 76 Indexes, bright solar system, and select NGC objects. Many of the best double stars, variable stars, and other giveth his light by day, and the moon giveth her light by night, and the stars also give their light

  5. Testing Using Log File Analysis Jamie Andrews

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Jamie

    { Example: elevator system { Methodological issues { Case studies: { ACSE simulator { Steam boiler speci#12 they are right 2. Automatically compare result to correct result #15; Problems: { (1) is labour write log #12;les already { General automatic analysis, not tied to speci#12;c test case #15; Can

  6. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...corners and rounded structural parts to avoid sling damage. (b) Two or more binders... (c) Logs shall be hoisted by two slings or by other gear designed for safe hoisting...prevent spreading and to allow passage of slings beneath the load. When bunks or...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...corners and rounded structural parts to avoid sling damage. (b) Two or more binders... (c) Logs shall be hoisted by two slings or by other gear designed for safe hoisting...prevent spreading and to allow passage of slings beneath the load. When bunks or...

  8. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...corners and rounded structural parts to avoid sling damage. (b) Two or more binders... (c) Logs shall be hoisted by two slings or by other gear designed for safe hoisting...prevent spreading and to allow passage of slings beneath the load. When bunks or...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...corners and rounded structural parts to avoid sling damage. (b) Two or more binders... (c) Logs shall be hoisted by two slings or by other gear designed for safe hoisting...prevent spreading and to allow passage of slings beneath the load. When bunks or...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...corners and rounded structural parts to avoid sling damage. (b) Two or more binders... (c) Logs shall be hoisted by two slings or by other gear designed for safe hoisting...prevent spreading and to allow passage of slings beneath the load. When bunks or...

  11. Log-period dipole array optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    You Chung Chung; Randy Haupt

    2000-01-01

    The log periodic dipole array is a commonly used broadband antenna. Design equations exist for calculating the size and spacings of the wires that make up the antenna. These equations fail to take into account the electromagnetic interactions between the wires, though. The Numerical Electromagnetics Code is an excellent wire modeling code for analyzing the full electromagnetic interactions of a

  12. Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006.

  13. Determining Earthquake Recurrence Intervals from Trench Logs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patricia Cashman

    Trench logs of the San Andreas Fault at Pallett Creek, CA are the data base for a lab or homework assignment that teaches about relative dating, radiometric dating, fault recurrence intervals and the reasons for uncertainty in predicting geologic phenomena. Students are given a trench log that includes several fault strands and dated stratigraphic horizons. They estimate the times of faulting based on bracketing ages of faulted and unfaulted strata. They compile a table with the faulting events from the trench log and additional events recognized in nearby trenches, then calculate maximum, minimum and average earthquake recurrence intervals for the San Andreas Fault in this area. They conclude by making their own prediction for the timing of the next earthquake. While basically an exercise in determining relative ages of geologic horizons and events, this assignment includes radiometric dates, recurrence intervals, and an obvious societal significance that has been well received by students. With minor modifications, this exercise has been used successfully with elementary school students through university undergraduate geology majors. Less experienced students can work in groups, with each group determining the age of a single fault strand; combining the results from different groups and calculating recurrence intervals can then be done as a class activity. University students in an introductory geology course for non-majors can add their data from the trench log to an existing table with other faulting events already provided. The exercise can be made more challenging for advanced students by using logs from several different trenches, requiring students to design the table themselves, and giving students the uncertainties for the radiometric dates rather than simple ages for the strata. Most studentsâat all levelsâare initially frustrated by their inability to determine an exact date of faulting from the available data. They gain a new appreciation for the task of the geoscientist who attempts to relate geologic phenomena to the human, rather than geologic, time scale.

  14. Reconsidering Data Logging in Light of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bin-Hui; Takahashi, Kenichi; Hori, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Logs record the events that have happened within in a system so they are considered the history of system activities. They are one of the objects that digital forensic investigators would like to examine when a security incident happens. However, logs were initially created for trouble shooting, and are not purposefully designed for digital forensics. Thus, enormous and redundant log data make analysis tasks complicated and time-consuming to find valuable information, and make logging-related techniques difficult utilized in some systems such as embedded systems. In this paper, we reconsider a data logging mechanism in terms of forensics and consequently, we propose purpose-based forensic logging. In purpose-based forensic logging, we only collect the required logs according to a specific purpose, which could decrease the space that logs occupy and may mitigate the analysis tasks during forensic investigations.

  15. Seismic velocity estimation from well log data with genetic algorithms in comparison to neural networks and multilinear approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleardi, Mattia

    2015-06-01

    Predicting missing log data is a useful capability for geophysicists. Geophysical measurements in boreholes are frequently affected by gaps in the recording of one or more logs. In particular, sonic and shear sonic logs are often recorded over limited intervals along the well path, but the information these logs contain is crucial for many geophysical applications. Estimating missing log intervals from a set of recorded logs is therefore of great interest. In this work, I propose to estimate the data in missing parts of velocity logs using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimisation and I demonstrate that this method is capable of extracting linear or exponential relations that link the velocity to other available logs. The technique was tested on different sets of logs (gamma ray, resistivity, density, neutron, sonic and shear sonic) from three wells drilled in different geological settings and through different lithologies (sedimentary and intrusive rocks). The effectiveness of this methodology is demonstrated by a series of blind tests and by evaluating the correlation coefficients between the true versus predicted velocity values. The combination of GA optimisation with a Gibbs sampler (GS) and subsequent Monte Carlo simulations allows the uncertainties in the final predicted velocities to be reliably quantified. The GA method is also compared with the neural networks (NN) approach and classical multilinear regression. The comparisons show that the GA, NN and multilinear methods provide velocity estimates with the same predictive capability when the relation between the input logs and the seismic velocity is approximately linear. The GA and NN approaches are more robust when the relations are non-linear. However, in all cases, the main advantages of the GA optimisation procedure over the NN approach is that it directly provides an interpretable and simple equation that relates the input and predicted logs. Moreover, the GA method is not affected by the disadvantages that characterise gradient descent techniques such as the NN method.

  16. Geostatistical Procedures for Developing Three-Dimensional Aquifer Models from Drillers' Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohling, G.; Helm, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Hydrostratigraphic Drilling Record Assessment (HyDRA) project is developing procedures for employing the vast but highly qualitative hydrostratigraphic information contained in drillers' logs in the development of quantitative three-dimensional (3D) depictions of subsurface properties for use in flow and transport models to support groundwater management practices. One of the project's objectives is to develop protocols for 3D interpolation of lithological data from drillers' logs, properly accounting for the categorical nature of these data. This poster describes the geostatistical procedures developed to accomplish this objective. Using a translation table currently containing over 62,000 unique sediment descriptions encountered during the transcription of over 15,000 logs in the Kansas High Plains aquifer, the sediment descriptions are translated into 71 standardized terms, which are then mapped into a small number of categories associated with different representative property (e.g., hydraulic conductivity [K]) values. Each log is partitioned into regular intervals and the proportion of each K category within each interval is computed. To properly account for their compositional nature, a logratio transform is applied to the proportions. The transformed values are then kriged to the 3D model grid and backtransformed to determine the proportion of each category within each model cell. Various summary measures can then be computed from the proportions, including a proportion-weighted average K and an entropy measure representing the degree of mixing of categories within each cell. We also describe a related cross-validation procedure for assessing log quality.

  17. Annual Logging Symposium, June 16-20, 2012 IMPROVED ESTIMATION OF PORE CONNECTIVITY AND

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    .A. and The University of Texas at Austin Copyright 2012, held jointly by the Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log that NMR porosity is a good approximation of total rock porosity. Simulation of mud-filtrate invasion-size distributions, water saturation, and inter-connected porosity. Permeability values estimated from dynamic

  18. Analytic Solution on the Estimation of the Ångstrom Exponent in Log-Normal Aerosol Size Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang H. Jung; Yong P. Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the Ångstrom exponent of the polydispersed aerosol size distribution was theoretically studied. The Ångstrom exponent was represented using a harmonic mean type analytic approximation. A log-normal aerosol size distribution was assumed and a sensitive analysis of the Ångstrom exponent was performed. The change in the Ångstrom exponent was estimated for a range of values of the real

  19. Contribution of logging data to sedimentology and stratigraphy. [Electrofacies

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, O.; Abbott, H.T.

    1982-02-01

    A technique has been developed using multivariate analysis of logging data to give a high-resolution sedimentological description of any sequence of formations. The number of different logs and their range allow determination of many of the physical characteristics of the rock. The definition of a lithofacies has been extended by introducing the concept of an electrofacies, constructed on the basis of all the logging data at any depth interval. Each logging datum is considered a descriptor for purposes of establishing electrofacies in a logged interval. Once established, electrofacies then can be correlated with actual geologic facies, if the logged interval has been cored. 23 refs.

  20. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  1. Log polar image sensor in CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Danny; Dierickx, Bart; Pardo, Fernando; Vlummens, Jan; Meynants, Guy; Hermans, Lou

    1996-08-01

    We report on the design, design issues, fabrication and performance of a log-polar CMOS image sensor. The sensor is developed for the use in a videophone system for deaf and hearing impaired people, who are not capable of communicating through a 'normal' telephone. The system allows 15 detailed images per second to be transmitted over existing telephone lines. This framerate is sufficient for conversations by means of sign language or lip reading. The pixel array of the sensor consists of 76 concentric circles with (up to) 128 pixels per circle, in total 8013 pixels. The interior pixels have a pitch of 14 micrometers, up to 250 micrometers at the border. The 8013-pixels image is mapped (log-polar transformation) in a X-Y addressable 76 by 128 array.

  2. Quantifying logging residue - before the fact

    SciTech Connect

    Bones, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Tree biomass estimation, which is being integrated into the U.S. Forest Service Renewable Resources Evaluation Program, will give foresters the ability to estimate the amount of logging residues they might expect from harvested treetops and branches and residual rough, rotten, and small trees before the actual harvest. With planning, and increased demand for such timber products as pulpwood and fuelwood, product recovery could be increased by up to 43 percent in softwood stands and 99% in hardwoods. Recovery levels affect gross product receipts and site preparation costs. An example of product recovery and residue generation is presented for three harvesting options in Pennsylvania hardwood stands. Under the whole-tree harvesting option, 46% more product was recovered than in single product harvesting, and logging residue levels were reduced by 58%.

  3. Recording dowel pin position with plastic logs.

    PubMed

    Titus, H W; Draheim, R N

    1986-01-01

    Six readily available plastic materials were evaluated for use as a log for locating the ends of die dowel pins. Seven criteria were divided into two main categories of adherence qualities of the material and useability. Cost was the third category evaluated and compared. Color and availability were also considered. Forty-two sophomore dental students accomplished 84 evaluations. Plasticine and Weatherstrip Caulking Cord were found to meet all criteria best. PMID:3511239

  4. MCNP capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Forster; R. C. Little; J. F. Briesmeister; J. S. Hendricks

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. The general-purpose, continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo neutron photon), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational, predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well-suited

  5. Wigner distribution analysis of acoustic well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Boudreaux-Bartels; P. Wiseman

    1987-01-01

    We use the Wigner distribution(WD) mixed time-frequency representation(TFR) to design two heuristic algorithms that can be used to analyze and separate the compressional(P), shear(S), Pseudo-Rayleigh (PR), and Stoneley(ST) wave components of the multi-component time-varying borehole seismic signals recorded in well logging velocity surveys. The first algorithm uses auto WD analysis, modification, and synthesis techniques to successively isolate each of the

  6. Enrichment planting of dipterocarps in logged-over secondary forests: effect of width, direction and maintenance method of planting line on selected Shorea species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göran Ådjers; Sakti Hadengganan; Jussi Kuusipalo; Koerdi Nuryanto; Lauri Vesa

    1995-01-01

    Natural dipterocarp seedling stock is usually very scarce or totally absent from heavily logged dipterocarp forests which have been subjected to shifting cultivation. Instead, a dense cover of secondary forest of low commercial or ecological value prevails. These logged-over low-volume forests can either be converted into plantations or restocked by local, valuable timber. The aim of this study was to

  7. Automatic determination of lithology from well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Delfiner, P.C.; Peyret, O.; Serra, O.

    1987-09-01

    A procedure combining modern wireline measurements with a lithofacies data base has been developed to produce an automatic lithologic description of the formations crossed by a well. The database lithofacies are defined from petrographic knowledge and translated in terms of log responses. The assignment of depth levels to a lithofacies is done with the data base and with a discriminating function (Bayesian decision rule). External knowledge can be taken into account by use of artificial intelligence methods. A confidence factor is produced for each result. Logs currently in the data base are the density, neutron, sonic transit time, gamma ray, photoelectric cross section, and concentrations of thorium, potassium, and uranium. Major lithofacies groups represented in the data base include sandstones, limestones, dolomites, shales, coals, and evaporites. These are subdivided by introducing cement and special minerals and by considering porosity ranges. The construction of the data base is a critical step. It is largely empirical and requires careful calibration against intervals with well-known lithologies (e.g., from cores). The data base can be tuned to local conditions. The procedure has been tested in several environments and compared with cores and mud log descriptions. A detailed lithologic column can be produced at the wellsite and used in decision making. The results can also serve as input for further geologic studies of facies and sequences or for quantitative evaluation of formations.

  8. Improved environmental corrections for compensated neutron logs

    SciTech Connect

    Galford, J.E.; Flaum, C.; Gilchrist, W.A. Jr.; Soran, P.D.; Gardner, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The basic openhole responses and environmental correction algorithms for compensated neutron logging (CNL) tools have been updated. The improved processing is based on an extensive set of laboratory formation measurements to which mathematical modeling calculations have been added. In all, the new algorithms include basic responses for the three principal formation matrix types and corrections for seven environmental effects and formation-fluid salinity. A total of 467 laboratory formation measurements have been augmented with 245 data points generated through mathematical modeling. This data base has been used to define more accurately the effects on the tool response of variations in logging conditions from those considered standard in the laboratory. More accurate corrections for the effects of formation pressure, temperature, mudcake, natural or barite mud, and borehole salinity have been defined. Certain other effects depend on more than one parameters. For example, the effect of formation salinity is somewhat matrix-dependent; therefore, the corrections are handled differently for sandstone, limestone, and dolomite. The effect of tool standoff depends on the borehole size; consequently, the standoff correction is larger for larger boreholes. The porosity crossplots and environmental correction charts based on the new algorithms represent a significant evolutionary improvement over previous techniques. They should be an important aid to the use and interpretation of neutron logs.

  9. Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

  10. Logging residues: An economic energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeney, K.J.

    1980-12-01

    Full utilization of the forest resource has long been the goal of resource planners. The aim of this project was to identify and test methods of reaching this goal. Forest residues on two recently logged sites representing a range of residue concentration and type were inventoried and classified. Residues were collected into piles and were processed using two different types of mobile chippers. Samples of the processed material were analyzed to determine their physical and energy properties. A portion of the chipped material was transported to a hog fuel boiler for burning. Each phase of the work was monitored to determine productivity, cost and fuel consumption. Results show the cost per tonne for each phase of the operation and the ratio of energy consumed to energy produced. Results indicated that utilization of logging residues for energy is technically feasible. Future research and development is required to develop more cost efficient methods of retrieving, processing and transporting logging residues prior to implementation on a commercial scale.

  11. Derive capillary pressure from well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, A. (Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Desbrandes, R.; Bassiouni, Z. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

    1994-07-01

    A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical data where core data is absent or not representative of in-situ conditions. It is based on using log data to derive a water saturation vs. depth profile in the transition zone of the formation of interest. The log-derived water saturation distribution is then correlated to generalized capillary pressure curves typical of the formation studied. The capillary pressure type curves are generated from available core data and other petrophysical information. Relative permeability curves are then generated using correlations based on Purcell's model. The technique can be used in multi-layered and homogeneous reservoirs provided that one homogeneous layer is at least 20 ft thick.

  12. Chiral Gravity, Log Gravity and Extremal CFT

    E-print Network

    Alexander Maloney; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger

    2009-03-26

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS3 vacuum have positive energy. Non-chiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity-- the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions --has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic CFT. Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We normally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  13. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Alexander [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Song Wei [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  14. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. At present, lithology logs are produced at the well site by mud loggers. They provide basic description and relative amounts of lithologies. Major difficulties are encountered in relating the cuttings to their original formations due to mixing in the drilling mud while transporting to the surface, sloughing shales, flawed sampling, etc. This results in a poor control on the stratigraphic sequence and on the depth of formation boundaries. A composite log can be produced after drilling this additional inputs such as wireline, petrography, and paleontology. This process is labor intensive and expensive. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution to bed boundaries, (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input results in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries.

  15. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-02-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution of bed boundaries. (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input will result in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries. The log will serve the geologist as well as the driller, petrophysicist, and reservoir engineer. It will form the basis for more comprehensive formation evaluation while drilling by adding hydrocarbon and MWD log data.

  16. Effects of borehole stability on well log data

    E-print Network

    Grandi Karam, Samantha, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we analyze the effects of borehole irregularities on well logs and develop methods to obtain reliable formation properties from such logs. Data from a well in eastern Venezuela are analysed. Borehole ...

  17. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log or timber...

  18. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log or timber...

  19. Post-Wildfire Logging Hinders Regeneration and Increases Fire Risk

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Matthew

    logging proposal, the Biscuit Fire has become a national icon of postfire management issues. We used a spa- tially nested design of logged and unlogged plots replicated across the fire area and sam- pled before

  20. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  1. Tree Species Diversity in Commercially Logged Bornean Rainforest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. Cannon; David R. Peart; Mark Leighton

    1998-01-01

    The effects of commercial logging on tree diversity in tropical rainforest are largely unknown. In this study, selectively logged tropical rainforest in Indo- nesian Borneo is shown to contain high tree species richness, despite severe structural damage. Plots logged 8 years before sampling contained fewer spe- cies of trees greater than 20 centimeters in diameter than did similar-sized unlogged plots.

  2. K-THEORY OF LOG-SCHEMES I WIESLAWA NIZIOL

    E-print Network

    Niziol, Wieslawa

    -schemes come equipped with several natural topologies. The main two are the Kummer log-´etale topology, well ­ the Kummer log-syntomic topology) reasonably well-suited to study p-adic phenomena. These topologies that over a separably closed field Kummer log-´etale K-theory satisfies devissage, localization as well

  3. A heuristic search method for optimal zonation of well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Chuan Chen; J. H. Fang

    1986-01-01

    Optimal zonation of well-log data, that is, determining an optimal number of major segments such as waveforms in a log, may be achieved by employing a criterion of minimum variance (within a segment) and a heuristic search of potential boundary (link) points of digitized log data. This new method is based on an algorithm originally devised by D. M. Hawkins

  4. The response functions of electromagnetic wave logs and their applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanglong Xing; Shande Yang

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the electromagnetic wave logs is the logging response (phase difference and amplitude ratio) dependent on the both dielectric constant and conductivity in general. We derived the response functions (RF) of the electromagnetic wave logs and proposed their fast algorithm based on an integral equation of electromagnetic field and a weak scattering approximation. Using the fast algorithm

  5. NeuroLOG: a community-driven middleware design

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NeuroLOG: a community-driven middleware design Johan MONTAGNAT a,1, Alban GAIGNARD a, Diane laboratory, 930 route des Colles, 06903 Sophia Antipolis, France. Abstract. The NeuroLOG project designs the integration of heteroge- neous site data schemas and the definition of a site-centric policy. The NeuroLOG

  6. EFFECTS OF LOG HANDLING AND STORAGE ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological and chemical effects of three types of log storage on water quality were investigated. Three flow-through log ponds, two wet deck operations, and five log rafting areas were studied. Both biological and chemical aspects of stream quality can be adversely affected b...

  7. Logging into Kronos, Recording Timestamp and Signing Out

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Logging into Kronos, Recording Timestamp and Signing Out ­ Employee Navigation #12;2 Logging on Log. Sign out 4. Repeat to Steps 1 ­ 3 when you leave for lunch, return from lunch, and leave for the day 1 slide. #12;5 Signing out Remember - When you are done, be sure to Sign Out before closing your browser

  8. Please consider the environment before printing Amazon logging industry declines

    E-print Network

    Please consider the environment before printing Amazon logging industry declines mongabay.com June on the Amazon logging industry in Brazil, reports a major new assessment conducted by Imazon and the Brazilian Grosso (33 percent) and Rondonia (15 percent). 9/13/2010 Amazon logging industry declines - Print

  9. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  10. Place Values

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AAA Math

    2007-12-12

    This site has explanatory lessons, interactive practice, and challenge games all dealing with place value. Includes information, practice, and games on place value of two, three, six and seven digit numbers and expandend notation for two, three, six, and seven digit numbers. Problems are randomly selected and students receive immediate feedback with the correct response. The bottom of each lesson page contains timed exercises.

  11. Elektronische monitoring van luchtwassers op veehouderijbedrijven = Automated process monitoring and data logging of air scrubbers at animal houses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Melse; J. C. T. J. Franssen

    2010-01-01

    At 6 animal houses air scrubbers equipped with an automated process monitoring and data logging system were tested. The measured values were successfully stored but the measured values, especially the pH and EC of the recirculation water, appeared not to be correct at all times.

  12. In-home demonstration of the reduction of woodstove emissions from the use of densified logs

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, S.G.; Bighouse, R.D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  13. In-Home Demonstration of the Reduction of Woodstove Emissions from the Use of Densified Logs.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Stockton G.; Bidhouse, Roger D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  14. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging logs, openhole logs, and sidewall core analyses to evaluate shaly sands for water-free production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Taylor; J. K. Morganti; H. J. White; B. R. Noblett

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging using the new C Series Magnetic Resonance Imaging Log (MRIL) system is rapidly enhancing formation evaluation throughout the industry. By measuring irreducible water saturations, permeabilities, and effective porosities, MRIL data can help petrophysicists evaluate low-resistivity pays. In these environments, conventional openhole logs may not define all of the pay intervals. The MRIL system can also

  15. Spatial Domain Watermarking Scheme for Colored Images Based on Log-average Luminance

    E-print Network

    Hussein, Jamal A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a new watermarking scheme is presented based on log-average luminance. A colored-image is divided into blocks after converting the RGB colored image to YCbCr color space. A monochrome image of 1024 bytes is used as the watermark. To embed the watermark, 16 blocks of size 8X8 are selected and used to embed the watermark image into the original image. The selected blocks are chosen spirally (beginning form the center of the image) among the blocks that have log-average luminance higher than or equal the log-average luminance of the entire image. Each byte of the monochrome watermark is added by updating a luminance value of a pixel of the image. If the byte of the watermark image represented white color (255) a value is added to the image pixel luminance value, if it is black (0) the is subtracted from the luminance value. To extract the watermark, the selected blocks are chosen as the above, if the difference between the luminance value of the watermarked image pixel and the original image pixe...

  16. Obtaining permeability estimates from NMR logging data in an unconsolidated groundwater aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlubac, K.; Knight, R. J.; Song, Y.; Bachman, N.; Grau, B.; Cannia, J. C.; Williams, J.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing interest in the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging for aquifer characterization because it provides information about water-filled porosity and pore space geometry that can be used to estimate permeability (k). Hydrologists estimate hydraulic conductivity, from which k can be calculated, using wellbore flow (WBF) logging. WBF logging data distributes the total hydraulic conductivity, determined from aquifer testing, throughout the aquifer. However, this method is time consuming and has relatively low vertical resolution. If reliable estimates of k can be obtained from NMR logging data, this would provide hydrologists with an efficient alternate method for characterizing aquifer properties. The Schlumberger Doll Research (SDR) and Timur-Coates (T-C) equations are widely used in petroleum applications to obtain k from NMR logging measurements of the relaxation time T2. In this abstract, we focus on the SDR equation which takes the form kSDR=a? mT2MLn where a, m and n are empirical constants, T2ML is the mean log of the T2 distribution and ? is porosity. The constants have been empirically determined in consolidated materials and are typically assumed to have the following values: a=4, m=4 and n=2. The use of the SDR equation with these values has been found to yield reliable estimates of k in consolidated materials. However, this same equation underestimates k in unconsolidated materials. In this study, we collected NMR logging, aquifer-test, and WBF data from a 150-m deep well that penetrated the High Plains aquifer in central Nebraska. We then worked with a generalized form of the SDR equation: kSDR Generalized =a? mT2AVG2, where we allowed T2AVG to be calculated as the mean log and arithmetic mean (T2AM) of the T2 distribution. We elected to set the exponent n on the T2 term equal to 2, which results in a k estimate that has the appropriate units of length squared. We used a semi-constrained least squares inversion to optimize the fit between log WBF-k and log NMR-k. We constrained m to be positive, ranging from 0.5 and 8, increasing in value with an interval of 0.5; a was unconstrained. NMR logging measurements were made throughout the well every 0.45 m. WBF logging provided k estimates over nine 6-m intervals. Within these nine intervals, NMR-k estimates were upscaled to the resolution of the WBF as follows: kUpscaled=??i(a?mT2AVG2), where ?i was 0.45 m. In the form of the SDR equation used in petroleum applications, NMR-k was underestimated by an order of magnitude in 6 intervals and overestimated in one interval. We found that the following equation yielded the best agreement between NMR-k and WBF-k: kUnconsolidated =16? 6T2AM2. In 6 of the 9 intervals, NMR-k estimates were within a factor of 2 of WBF-k. However, in two intervals NMR-k disagrees with WBF-k by over a factor of 5.

  17. Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

  18. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-11-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today’s students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you’ll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they can be created and used to increase science literacy by engaging students in writing, problem solving, and collaboration. These tools will effectively prepare students to work in today’s social, interactive, online world.

  19. Automatic well log correlation using neural networks

    E-print Network

    Habiballah, Walid Abdulrahim

    1991-01-01

    Architecture 28 Figure 4: Zonation . Figure 5: Development of Training Examples 31 32 Figure 6: Windowing Mechanism 33 Figure 7: Well Location Map 36 Figure 8: Conductivity Log, Smith Unit II, Well 1 . . Figure 9: Error in Training Networks Figure 10...-Delta-Rule . The process of executing the algorithm is known as learning or training. The Neuzal Network literature contains references to a number of versions of this algorithm ' . These versions were developed in an attempt to improve on the speed of convergence...

  20. Identifying related journals through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

  1. Principle and geometric precision of photographic geological logging of tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Rong-Chun; Yang, Biao; Wu, Ming-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Considering the problem of engineering geological logging technique by means of sketching at the work site, this paper presents a photographic geological logging technique based on photogrammetry as well as engineering geology. The principles, methods, and working process have been discussed, and the photographic geological logging precision of a tunnel and its estimation method have been researched. The theoretical and experimental analysis shows that the precision of the digital unfolded image map of tunnel automatically generated by the photographic geological logging method is sufficient for serving as the logging base map. Besides, the measurement precision of unfolded images or stereopairs meets the requirements of geological attitude measurement. The new technique of photographic geological logging proposed in this paper is expected to replace the current sketch way of engineering geological logging on site, with the operation mode converted from manual operation to computer-aided operation and informatized management.

  2. Understanding MWD data acquisition can improve log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Fagin, R.A. (Atlas Wireline Services, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-02-14

    By understanding how measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tools acquire data and how the data are processed, engineers and geologists can better interpret MWD logs. Wire line and MWD log data sometimes do not precisely match. If a discrepancy occurs between MWD and wire line logs run across the same interval, many log interpreters will condemn the MWD data. Recognizing the differences and the correct data requires a better understanding of the MWD tool operational principles. Because MWD logs are becoming more widely accepted as quantitative replacements for equivalent wire line logs, the differences between logs should be analyzed logically. This paper discusses these differences by describing the following: time-based acquisition, filtering, depth control, environmental variables, and quality control.

  3. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were estimated, including volume of clay matrix, volume of matrix other than clay, density of matrix other than clay, density of matrix, intrinsic permeability, specific yield, and specific storage. Geophysical logs were used to (1) determine lithology, (2) correlate lithologic and permeable zones, (3) calibrate seismic reprocessing, (4) calibrate transient-electromagnetic surveys, and (5) calibrate uphole-survey interpretations. Logs were used at the drill site to (1) determine permeability zones, (2) determine dissolved-solids content, which is a function of water resistivity, and (3) design wells accordingly. Data and properties derived from logs were used to determine transmissivity and specific yield of aquifer materials.

  4. No-reference image quality assessment based on log-derivative statistics of natural scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Chandler, Damon M.

    2013-10-01

    We propose an efficient blind/no-reference image quality assessment algorithm using a log-derivative statistical model of natural scenes. Our method, called DErivative Statistics-based QUality Evaluator (DESIQUE), extracts image quality-related statistical features at two image scales in both the spatial and frequency domains. In the spatial domain, normalized pixel values of an image are modeled in two ways: pointwise-based statistics for single pixel values and pairwise-based log-derivative statistics for the relationship of pixel pairs. In the frequency domain, log-Gabor filters are used to extract the fine scales of the image, which are also modeled by the log-derivative statistics. All of these statistics can be fitted by a generalized Gaussian distribution model, and the estimated parameters are fed into combined frameworks to estimate image quality. We train our models on the LIVE database by using optimized support vector machine learning. Experiment results tested on other databases show that the proposed algorithm not only yields a substantial improvement in predictive performance as compared to other state-of-the-art no-reference image quality assessment methods, but also maintains a high computational efficiency.

  5. Automatic determination of lithology from well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Delfiner, P.C.; Peyret, O.; Serra, O.

    1984-09-01

    A procedure combining modern wireline measurements with a lithofacies database has been developed to produce an automatic lithological description of the formations crossed by a well. The database lithofacies are defined from petrographic knowledge and translated in terms of log responses. The assignment of depth levels to a lithofacies is done by reference to the database and a discriminant function (Bayesian decision rule). External knowledge can be taken into account using Artificial Intelligence methods. A confidence factor is produced for each result. Logs currently in the database are the density, neutron, sonic transit time, gamma ray, photoelectric cross-section, and thorium, potassium and uranium concentrations. Major lithofacies groups are represented in the database: sandstones, limestones, dolomites, shales, coal, evaporites, and miscellanea. They are subdivided by introducing cement and special minerals, and considering several porosity ranges. The construction of the database is a critical step. It is largely empirical and requires careful calibration against intervals whose lithology is well known (e.g. from cores). The database can be tuned to local conditions. The procedure has been tested in several environments and compared with cores and mudlogs descriptions. A detailed lithologic column can be produced at the wellsite and used as an aid to decision making. The results can also serve as input for further geological studies of facies and sequences or for quantitative evaluation of formations.

  6. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  7. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  8. AVO and anisotropy from logs and walkaways

    SciTech Connect

    Leaney, S.W.; Borland, W.E. (Schlumberger Geophysics Nusantara, Jakarta (Indonesia))

    1994-07-01

    AVO (amplitude versus offset) is the seismic technique used for mapping lithology, and modeling is an important step for successful AVO interpretations. Shear velocity measurements are essential, since AVO attempts to exploit the elastic (as opposed to acoustic) nature of seismic wave propagation. A property of seismic wave propagation not often considered is anisotropy. This is probably because the magnitude of the anisotropy has been difficult to measure, and its effect on AVO is not widely known. New technology is helping to improve AVO modeling. Dipole source shear logging tools can now measure very slow shear velocities, increasing the range of applicability of AVO, and new borehole seismic techniques can measure anisotropy. When integrated, these new measurements provide more detailed information about the elastic moduli that govern wave propagation, and bring the possibility for greater reliability in AVO interpretation. Two examples of ray-trace AVO synthetics are shown to illustrate typical AVO responses and the importance of shear velocity information. An overview of anisotropy is given and a new technique to estimate anisotropy from walkaway surveys (multi-offset VSPs) is described. The log and walkaway measurements are then integrated to study the impact of anisotropy on AVO. First, the effect of anisotropy on Ostrander's shale-sand model is investigated, and second, isotropic and anisotropic ray-trace synthetics are compared. The effect of anisotropy on AVO is found to be significant and may be lead to misinterpretations of AVO anomalies.

  9. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    SciTech Connect

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  10. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  11. LogOS: an Automatic Logging Framework for Service-Oriented Architectures

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    --As multi-source, component based platforms are becoming widespread both for constrained devices and cloud of responsibilities. Moreover, a user may be concerned in knowing what the applications (s)he is using on a device. and vertical calls. Our architecture also enforces the fact that component must be hosted and logged without

  12. Applications of TMD pulsed neutron logs in unusual downhole logging environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Buchanan; D. K. Clearman; L. J. Heidbrink; H. D. Jr. Smith

    1984-01-01

    The Welex Thermal Multigate Decay logging system utilizes a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator and two gamma ray detectors to obtain measurements of the capture cross sections of downhole formations. The composite decay curve from both formation and borehole capture ganna rays is detected, and is separated into the two individual components. The paper begins with a brief review of

  13. Crop Values

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While economic data on crop values are strictly commercial/ agricultural summaries, they can be useful as surrogate indices of land use/ cover change, or in estimating food subsidies (e.g. waste grain) for wildlife. Posted by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economics and Statistics System at Cornell University, the site contains the "annual marketing year average prices and value of production of principal crops". Principal crops include barley (all, feed, and malting), hay, oats, rye, wheat (all, winter, durum, and other spring), upland and American-pima cotton and cottonseed, corn, dry beans, flaxseed, peanuts, sorghum, soybeans, sunflowers, and rice. These data are provided by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA).

  14. Intelligent approaches for the synthesis of petrophysical logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, M. Reza; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Alizadeh, Pooya Mohammad

    2008-03-01

    Log data are of prime importance in acquiring petrophysical data from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Reliable log analysis in a hydrocarbon reservoir requires a complete set of logs. For many reasons, such as incomplete logging in old wells, destruction of logs due to inappropriate data storage and measurement errors due to problems with logging apparatus or hole conditions, log suites are either incomplete or unreliable. In this study, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were used as intelligent tools to synthesize petrophysical logs including neutron, density, sonic and deep resistivity. The petrophysical data from two wells were used for constructing intelligent models in the Fahlian limestone reservoir, Southern Iran. A third well from the field was used to evaluate the reliability of the models. The results showed that fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were successful in synthesizing wireline logs. The combination of the results obtained from fuzzy logic and neural networks in a simple averaging committee machine (CM) showed a significant improvement in the accuracy of the estimations. This committee machine performed better than fuzzy logic or the neural network model in the problem of estimating petrophysical properties from well logs.

  15. Preparation of specific-yield logs for clastic bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific yield is the principal aquifer characteristic needed to estimate the volume of recoverable ground water in storage in an aquifer. Determination of specific yield can be difficult and costly, particularly in deep, confined aquifers where core drilling and core analyses may be needed to define specific yield. A method has been developed for preparation of specific-yield geophysical logs that could greatly ease the determination of specific yields in such aquifers. Three geophysical logs that were investigated as potential indicators of specific yield were the free fluid index log, the effective-porosity log, and the apparent grain-density log. The free fluid index log did not accurately represent conditions at the test site in central Colorado and may not be suitable for application in other shallow and permeable aquifers. The effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs were each used in least-squares linear regressions to correlate log response to specific yield measured in core samples. The resulting regression equations have coefficients of correlation (R) of 0.84 and 0.90, and were used to successfully prepare specific-yield logs from the effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance logging in the Delaware formation

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D; Morriss, C.E.; Williams, R. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Delaware formation is a fine grained sandstone located ER Jn West Texas and Southeast New Mexico. Resistivity-1ased log interpretation in this formation has proved unreliable in many cases. In particular, deep invasion and ahigh irreducible water volumes result in calculated water saturations that rarely reflect future production. Because of this, pay zones are identified primarily from mud logs and sidewall cores. However, our studies have demonstrated that borehole nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements are useful for evaluating the Delaware formation. The general use of NMR measurements for the estimation of porosity, pore size, permeability, producible porosity and bound-fluid volume and for the identification of pay zones has been previously described. Often, the interpretation of borehole NMR data is enhanced by the results of lab NMR measurements on core samples. For this reason, NMR measurements were made on 20 water-saturated cores, a crude oil sample from the Delaware and a partially oil-saturated core sample. Water-saturated samples have narrow T2-distributions and maximum T2 values in the order of 200 ms. A typical distribution is shown in Figure la. The relatively short T2 ralues reflect the fine grains and small pore sizes typical of this formation. However, significant pore size variation between the samples results in a generally poor correlation between permeability and porosity. Permeability estimation is improved when an NMR parameter, such as logarithmic mean T2 or bound-fluid volume, is used together with porosity. Lastly, NMR free-fluid porosities were found to be in good agreement with the volume of water expelled from the core by centrifuging at 100-psi air-brine capillary pressure. The free-fluid porosities were computed from the T2-distributions using a 33-ms cutoff. T2-distributions for the crude oil and a core sample partially saturated with the crude oil are shown.

  17. Facies identification based on conventional core-log integration: Middle Ordovician St. Peter sandstone, Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wieczorek, L.M.; Barnes, D.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Lithofacies comprising the massive sand in the Michigan basin are very similar to the lithofacies of the St. Peter Sandstone in parts of the adjacent Midwestern basin and arches region. Lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlations justify application of the name St. Peter Sandstone to the gas-productive massive sand in the Michigan basin. Four lithofacies have been determined by core-log integration. The two lowermost lithofacies (1 and 2) were deposited in marginal-marine peritidal shoreface to sand-flat environments. Lithofacies 1A comprises cross-bedded, quartz-cemented quartzarenites. Lithofacies 1B comprises dolomitic, cross-bedded, subfeldspathic arenites. Lithofacies 1A is recognized in logs by low gamma-ray response (less than 20-25 API units) and photoelectric effect (Pe) of 1.8. Lithofacies 1B log characteristics include low gamma ray response (15-30 API units) and Pe of 2-2.5. Lithofacies 2 log signatures include moderate to high gamma-ray (30-120 API units) and Pe values that range from 2.5-3.5. The uppermost two lithofacies (3 and 4) were deposited in storm-dominated lower shoreface, to offshore, to distal marine shelf environments. Lithofacies 3 consists of burrowed, massive, wavy to planar stratified quartzarenites to subfeldspathic arenites. Log signature is generally low gamma-ray response (15-30 API units) and Pe that ranges from 1.8 to 2.5. Lithofacies 4 consists of massive, burrowed and bioturbated, dominantly authigenic clay and dolomite-cemented subfeldspathic arenite. Lithofacies 4 log response is moderate to high gamma-ray response (30-105 API units) and Pe ranging from 2.25 to 3.5.

  18. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  19. Valuing Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2005-01-01

    How well are adult and community learning providers doing when it comes to ensuring equality of opportunity (EO) and valuing diversity? Many are in transition from a defensive position of emphasising legal compliance towards making respect for diversity intrinsic to their strategic aims, plans and actions, according to the February edition of…

  20. Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

  1. Tolerance bounds for log gamma regression models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Scholz, F. W.; Ossiander, M.; Shorack, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present procedure for finding lower confidence bounds for the quantiles of Weibull populations, on the basis of the solution of a quadratic equation, is more accurate than current Monte Carlo tables and extends to any location-scale family. It is shown that this method is accurate for all members of the log gamma(K) family, where K = 1/2 to infinity, and works well for censored data, while also extending to regression data. An even more accurate procedure involving an approximation to the Lawless (1982) conditional procedure, with numerical integrations whose tables are independent of the data, is also presented. These methods are applied to the case of failure strengths of ceramic specimens from each of three billets of Si3N4, which have undergone flexural strength testing.

  2. Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

  3. Place Value

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Egan

    2008-09-11

    These activities will help you learn more about place value. You will get to play some fun games to sharpen your skills! First, let\\'s practice writing the word names of some numbers, and then practice writing numbers that go with the word names. Click the link below to play the game. The first time you play, choose \\"Method 1: Spell numbers, 0-100\\". Record your score on your paper. Then ...

  4. Place Value

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Lindley

    2005-10-24

    These activities will help you learn more about place value. You will get to play some fun games to sharpen your skills! First, let\\'s practice writing the word names of some numbers, and then practice writing numbers that go with the word names. Click the link below to play the game. The first time you play, choose \\"Method 1: Spell numbers, 0-100\\". Record your score on your paper. Then ...

  5. Outcrop gamma-ray logging applied to subsurface petroleum geology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Slatt; J. M. Borer; B. W. Horn

    1995-01-01

    Developing a gamma-ray log profile of an outcrop with a hand-held scintillometer has many applications to subsurface petroleum geology. The outcrop gamma-ray log provides a readily understandable bridge between what is observed in outcrop and what is to be interpreted on well logs and seismic records. Several examples are presented in this paper that demonstrate major applications. An outcrop from

  6. Reliability Test Plans for Exponentiated Log-Logistic Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rosaiah; R. R. L. Kantam; Santosh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    A generalization of the log-logistic distribution called exponentiated log-logistic distribution (in lines of exponentiated Weibull distribution suggested by Mudholkar and Sri- vastava (2)) is considered. In this paper the operating characteristic for a sampling plan is determined for the case that a lot of products is submitted for inspection with lifetimes spec- ified by an exponentiated log-logistic distribution (ELLD). The

  7. Log-Energy Dynamic Range Normalizaton for Robust Speech Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weizhong Zhu; Douglas O'Shaughnessy

    2005-01-01

    Cepstral Mean Normalization (CMN) has proved to be a simple noise robust feature processing technique. In its computation, the log-energy feature or C0 is treated in the same way as other cepstral coefficients. Mean normalization is not an effective way to remove effects of additive noise for the log-energy feature. We propose a log-energy dynamic range normalization (ERN) algorithm which

  8. Applying multiwell normalization in open hole log analysis 

    E-print Network

    Sinanan, Haydn Brent

    1997-01-01

    . . . . 30 13. Multiwell Density-Neutron Crossplot for Non-Normalized Data. . . . . , . . 32 14. Multiwell Density-Neutron Crossplot for Normalized Data. . . 15. Screen Used to Define the Curves to Be Digitized. . . . . . . . . . . . 16. Screen Used... the non-normalized log data. The data do nol. 1'all on the sandstone line. Therefore, either the density or the neutron log is in error. After adjusting the density and neutron with the histogram normalization process, the normalized logs...

  9. Knowledge-based stratigraphic well-log correlation 

    E-print Network

    Denton, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    inspirational support. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT nl DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES x1 LIST OF FIGURES xl1 CHAPTER I ? INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Well-Logs 1. 2 Stratigraphic Well-Log Correlation . 1. 3 Well-Log Correlation.... 3 LITHO Expert System 2. 5. 4 MUD Expert System 2. 5. 5 Expert Log Analysis System (ELAS) . . Chapter 2. 5. 6 WLAI Expert System 2. 5. 7 LOGIX Expert System 2. 5. 8 INTELLOG Expert System 2. 5. 9 Well Test Expert System Page CHAPTER III...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General...

  15. Effects of postfire salvage logging on deadwood-associated beetles.

    PubMed

    Cobb, T P; Morissette, J L; Jacobs, J M; Koivula, M J; Spence, J R; Langor, D W

    2011-02-01

    In Canada and the United States pressure to recoup financial costs of wildfire by harvesting burned timber is increasing, despite insufficient understanding of the ecological consequences of postfire salvage logging. We compared the species richness and composition of deadwood-associated beetle assemblages among undisturbed, recently burned, logged, and salvage-logged, boreal, mixed-wood stands. Species richness was lowest in salvage-logged stands, largely due to a negative effect of harvesting on the occurrence of wood- and bark-boring species. In comparison with undisturbed stands, the combination of wildfire and logging in salvage-logged stands had a greater effect on species composition than either disturbance alone. Strong differences in species composition among stand treatments were linked to differences in quantity and quality (e.g., decay stage) of coarse woody debris. We found that the effects of wildfire and logging on deadwood-associated beetles were synergistic, such that the effects of postfire salvage logging could not be predicted reliably on the basis of data on either disturbance alone. Thus, increases in salvage logging of burned forests may have serious negative consequences for deadwood-associated beetles and their ecological functions in early postfire successional forests. PMID:20735453

  16. P-Value Precision and Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Dennis D.; Stefanski, Leonard A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary P-values are useful statistical measures of evidence against a null hypothesis. In contrast to other statistical estimates, however, their sample-to-sample variability is usually not considered or estimated, and therefore not fully appreciated. Via a systematic study of log-scale p-value standard errors, bootstrap prediction bounds, and reproducibility probabilities for future replicate p-values, we show that p-values exhibit surprisingly large variability in typical data situations. In addition to providing context to discussions about the failure of statistical results to replicate, our findings shed light on the relative value of exact p-values vis-a-vis approximate p-values, and indicate that the use of *, **, and *** to denote levels .05, .01, and .001 of statistical significance in subject-matter journals is about the right level of precision for reporting p-values when judged by widely accepted rules for rounding statistical estimates. PMID:22690019

  17. Which is the better entropy expression for speech processing: -S log S or log S?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Johnson; J. Shore

    1984-01-01

    In maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA), one maximizes the integral oflogS(f), where S(f) is a power spectrum. The resulting spectral estimate, which is equivalent to that obtained by linear prediction and other methods, is popular in speech processing applications. An alternative expression,-S(f)logS(f), is used in optical processing and elsewhere. This paper considers whether the alternative expression leads to spectral estimates

  18. O (log log n )-time integer geometry on the CRCW PRAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Chlebus; K. Diks; M. Kowaluk

    1995-01-01

    We study problems in computational geometry on PRAMs under the assumption that input objects are specified by points withO(logn)-bit coordinates, or, equivalently, with polynomially bounded integer coordinates. We show that in this setting many geometric problems can be solved in time O(log logn). The following five specific problems are investigated:closest pair of points, intersection of convex polygons, intersection of manhattan

  19. Tracking the Inside Intruder Using Net Log on Debug Logging in Microsoft Windows Server Operating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, CS

    2004-01-20

    In today's well-connected environments of the Internet, intranets, and extranets, protecting the Microsoft Windows network can be a daunting task for the security engineer. Intrusion Detection Systems are a must-have for most companies, but few have either the financial resources or the people resources to implement and maintain full-scale intrusion detection systems for their networks and hosts. Many will at least invest in intrusion detection for their Internet presence, but others have not yet stepped up to the plate with regard to internal intrusion detection. Unfortunately, most attacks will come from within. Microsoft Windows server operating systems are widely used across both large and small enterprises. Unfortunately, there is no intrusion detection built-in to the Windows server operating system. The security logs are valuable but can be difficult to manage even in a small to medium sized environment. So the question arises, can one effectively detect and identify an in side intruder using the native tools that come with Microsoft Windows Server operating systems? One such method is to use Net Logon Service debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity. This paper discusses how to use Net Logon debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity both in real-time and for forensic analysis.

  20. Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  1. GInaFiT, a freeware tool to assess non-log-linear microbial survivor curves.

    PubMed

    Geeraerd, A H; Valdramidis, V P; Van Impe, J F

    2005-06-25

    This contribution focuses on the presentation of GInaFiT (Geeraerd and Van Impe Inactivation Model Fitting Tool), a freeware Add-in for Microsoft Excel aiming at bridging the gap between people developing predictive modelling approaches and end-users in the food industry not familiar with or not disposing over advanced non-linear regression analysis tools. More precisely, the tool is useful for testing nine different types of microbial survival models on user-specific experimental data relating the evolution of the microbial population with time. As such, the authors believe to cover all known survivor curve shapes for vegetative bacterial cells. The nine model types are: (i) classical log-linear curves, (ii) curves displaying a so-called shoulder before a log-linear decrease is apparent, (iii) curves displaying a so-called tail after a log-linear decrease, (iv) survival curves displaying both shoulder and tailing behaviour, (v) concave curves, (vi) convex curves, (vii) convex/concave curves followed by tailing, (viii) biphasic inactivation kinetics, and (ix) biphasic inactivation kinetics preceded by a shoulder. Next to the obtained parameter values, the following statistical measures are automatically reported: standard errors of the parameter values, the Sum of Squared Errors, the Mean Sum of Squared Errors and its Root, the R(2) and the adjusted R(2). The tool can help the end-user to communicate the performance of food preservation processes in terms of the number of log cycles of reduction rather than the classical D-value and is downloadable via the KULeuven/BioTeC-homepage at the topic "Downloads" (Version 1.4, Release date April 2005). PMID:15893399

  2. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  3. Discriminating Among the Log-Normal, Weibull and Generalized Exponential

    E-print Network

    Kundu, Debasis

    Discriminating Among the Log-Normal, Weibull and Generalized Exponential Distributions Arabin Kumar to analyze lifetime data in the reliability analysis. We study the probability of correct selection using. 91-512- 2597500, e-mail: kundu@iitk.ac.in. 1 #12;1 Introduction Log-normal, Weibull and generalized

  4. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs Andrei A. Bulatov1 , Martin Dyer2 clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which

  5. LOGML: Log Markup Language for Web Usage Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Punin; Mukkai S. Krishnamoorthy; Mohammed Javeed Zaki

    2001-01-01

    Web Usage Mining refers to the discovery of interesting in- formation from user navigational behavior as stored in web access logs. While extracting simple information from web logs is easy, mining complex structural information is very challenging. Data cleaning and preparation constitute a very signiÞcant eort before mining can even be applied. We propose two new XML applications, XGMML and

  6. Linear Discriminant Analysis and Discriminative Log-linear Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Keysers; Hermann Ney

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between the discriminative training of Gaussian models and the maximum entropy framework for log-linear models. Observing that linear transforms leave the distributions resulting from the log- linear model unchanged, we derive a discriminative linear feature reduction technique from the maximum entropy ap- proach and compare it to the well-known linear discrimi- nant analysis. From experiments on

  7. A RAPID METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LOG P FOR ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The logarithm of the retention time (log RT) of organic chemicals on a permanently bonded (C-18) reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography system is shown to be linearly related to the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P). A rapid, inexpensive te...

  8. Better Logging to Improve Interactive Data Analysis Tools S. Alspaugh

    E-print Network

    Hearst, Marti

    Better Logging to Improve Interactive Data Analysis Tools S. Alspaugh University of California@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract Interactive data analysis applications have become critical tools for making sense of our world logged from interactive data analysis systems. Such data is invaluable for improving our understanding

  9. Vine management for reduced-impact logging in eastern Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edson Vidal; Jennifer Johns; Jeffrey J. Gerwing; Paulo Barreto; Christopher Uhl

    1997-01-01

    The presence of vines interconnecting the canopies of tropical forest trees has been thought to increase the damage to neighboring trees when a tree is felled during selective logging, resulting in larger canopy gaps and possibly prejudicting future timber harvests. To ameliorate this problem, vine cutting prior to logging has been recommended as a forest management tool. However, at present,

  10. Lightweight Indexing of Observational Data in Log-Structured Storage

    E-print Network

    Ooi, Beng Chin

    Lightweight Indexing of Observational Data in Log-Structured Storage Sheng Wang #1, David Maier 2- tific research. As the capabilities of sensors keep improv- ing, the data produced are drastically expanding in pre- cision and quantity, making it a write-intensive domain. Log-structured storage is capable

  11. Tracking Observations: Using Handhelds and Computers for Classroom Observation Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hashi Bai; Greydon Buckley; Mark Howard; Edward Lank

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the synergistic use of handheld computers and desktop computers as tools for grade school teachers to record observational data from their classrooms. The system uses handheld devices to tersely log events in situ, and allows later reflection and elaboration through annotation of the logged events on desktop computer. The terse, ephemeral capture of events coupled with post-hoc

  12. An algorithm for the stratigraphic correlation of well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin Kemp

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for the semiautomatic shifting and stretching of one well log relative to another until a local maximum correlation coefficient between the two logs is found. The algorithm grew out of a graphical interpretation of the standard shift correlation procedure. The algorithm does not interpolate data and it is as computationally efficient as the standard correlation

  13. To What Degree Can Log Data Profile a Web Searcher?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard J. Jansen; Mimi Zhang; Danielle Booth; Ying Zhang; Ashish Kathuria; Pat Bonner

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report ongoing efforts in a large scale research project to develop methods for profiling individual Web search engine users by leveraging data recorded in the transaction logs of search engines. Our research aim is to investigate how completely one can profile a Web searcher using log data. Taking a broad brush approach, we present an array

  14. 22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  15. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  16. Preprocessing and Mining Web Log Data for Web Personalization

    E-print Network

    Ruggieri, Salvatore

    Preprocessing and Mining Web Log Data for Web Personalization M. Baglioni1 , U. Ferrara2 , A. Romei/26, 56017 S. Martino Ulmiano (PI) Italy ferrara@ksolutions.it Abstract. We describe the web usage mining behaviour of a web site users. The models are inferred from the access logs of a web server by means of data

  17. Session Viewer: Visual Exploratory Analysis of Web Session Logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Lam; Daniel M. Russell; Diane Tang; Tamara Munzner

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale session log analysis typically includes statistical meth- ods and detailed log examinations. While both methods have merits, statistical methods can miss previously unknown sub- populations in the data and detailed analyses may have selection biases. We therefore built Session Viewer, a visualization tool to facilitate and bridge between statistical and detailed analyses. Tak- ing a multiple-coordinated view approach, Session

  18. Camerawork Editor for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log

    E-print Network

    Thawonmas, Ruck

    Camerawork Editor for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log Ruck Thawonmas, Ko Oda, and Tomonori the camerawork of comic generated automatically from online-game play log by a system recently developed by us. The proposed module enables the user to readily edit the camerawork of a comic frame. We discuss results

  19. Comic Layout for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log

    E-print Network

    Thawonmas, Ruck

    Comic Layout for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log Ruck Thawonmas and Tomonori Shuda Abstract The paper presents our system for generating comics from game log. In particular, comic layout is focused. In order to achieve more comic-like expressivity, we extend an existing comic layout process

  20. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil\\/water contact,

  1. Review of nuclear magnetic resonance magnet for oil well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiming Zhang; Pingchou Xia; Yunjia Yu

    2000-01-01

    Compared with the magnet of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectrometer that of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Oil Well Logging is faced with some special difficulties. This paper begins with the explanation of these special difficulties, and then analyzes the main known borehole NMR logging apparatuses through strict calculations. Finally, this paper gives some useful clues to solve those problems existing in

  2. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation

  3. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation

  4. Chernoff’s density is log-concave

    PubMed Central

    BALABDAOUI, FADOUA; WELLNER, JON A.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the density of Z = argmax{W (t) ? t2}, sometimes known as Chernoff’s density, is log-concave. We conjecture that Chernoff’s density is strongly log-concave or “super-Gaussian”, and provide evidence in support of the conjecture. PMID:24761134

  5. A Method of Log File Analysis for Test Oracle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Tu; Rong Chen; Zhenjun Du; Yaqing Liu

    2009-01-01

    An oracle is a mechanism commonly used for determining whether a system has passed or failed a test, which is very important for software testing. A log file, used to record the history of software's behavior, provides a means for debugging and testing. Log file analysis (LFA) is a lately applied approach for test oracle, having shown its applicable prospect

  6. Real-Time System Log Monitoring/Analytics Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL] [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing system logs provides useful insights for identifying system/application anomalies and helps in better usage of system resources. Nevertheless, it is simply not practical to scan through the raw log messages on a regular basis for large-scale systems. First, the sheer volume of unstructured log messages affects the readability, and secondly correlating the log messages to system events is a daunting task. These factors limit large-scale system logs primarily for generating alerts on known system events, and post-mortem diagnosis for identifying previously unknown system events that impacted the systems performance. In this paper, we describe a log monitoring framework that enables prompt analysis of system events in real-time. Our web-based framework provides a summarized view of console, netwatch, consumer, and apsched logs in real- time. The logs are parsed and processed to generate views of applications, message types, individual/group of compute nodes, and in sections of the compute platform. Also from past application runs we build a statistical profile of user/application characteristics with respect to known system events, recoverable/non-recoverable error messages and resources utilized. The web-based tool is being developed for Jaguar XT5 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing facility.

  7. A Dual Actuator Logging Disk Architecture John A. Chandy

    E-print Network

    Chandy, John A.

    architectures. A hard disk drive is composed of one or many circular platters or disks coated with a magneticA Dual Actuator Logging Disk Architecture John A. Chandy Department of Electrical and Computer.chandy@uconn.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we present a dual actuator logging disk ar- chitecture to minimize write access

  8. Predictive value of phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (PIGFBP-1) (bedside test) in preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Ezz, Amro Elsayed; Askar, Alsaeed Elsayed A

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the predictive value of phosphorylated insulin like growth factor binding protein-1 in cervical secretion as bedside test for prediction of preterm labor in symptomatic women. A total of 57 patients with singleton pregnancy at 24-34 weeks gestation, with symptoms suggestive of preterm labor were included in this study. A rapid cervical sample for PIGFBP-1 determination (Actim partus test, Medix Biochemical, and Kaunianen, Finland) was taken by means of a polyester-tipped swab during a speculum examination of the cervix, and extracted with specimen- extraction solution. We analyzed the prevalence of preterm labor in these patients within seven days upon admission. And calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for PIGFBP-1. This study was done at Kuwait Oil Company hospital (KOC) and Taiba hospital (Kuwait) during the period between April 2011 and June 2012. The test was positive in 50.9% of patients and negative in 49.1%, among those tests was positive 64% delivered less than a week, and among those tests was negative 35.7 delivered less than one week, with 74.3% sensitivity, 61% spesivity, 76.3% PPV and 73.6% NPV. PMID:25597167

  9. Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

    2012-11-01

    Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

  10. Saving big bucks with your log sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Puskar, J.R. [CEC Consultants, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This article speaks to a common problem in a lot of industrial and institutional boilerhouses. Most boilerhouses do an excellent job at collecting information. Circular chart recorders churn out pressures, temperatures, and flows for everything from steam to natural gas to city water consumption. At most facilities, this stuff all gets chucked into a drawer or file cabinet daily. Have you ever wondered why you collect and record what you do? What were people thinking when the existing logs were set up? This article attempts to challenge the original thought process and hopes to evoke in the reader a renewed vision of what should be collected, how, and then what can be done with it. The goal of this article is not to define new and expensive data acquisition or control system projects. It is instead to show how to develop systems that only require paper, pencils, and people who are motivated and care. These people are probably already being paid to do most of this work. Experience is that if these people are treated with respect and given some simple tools they will do amazing things beyond what was thought possible. This is a low-tech humanistic approach that has a fabulous rate of return. It`s also something that can be immediately implemented.

  11. Interpretation of Core and Well Log Physical Property Data From Drill Hole UPH-3, Stephenson County, Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Daniels; Gary R. Olhoeft; James H. Scott

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory and well log physical property measurements show variations in the mineralogy with depth in UPH-3. Gamma ray values generally decrease with depth in the drill hole, corresponding to a decrease in the felsic mineral components of the granite. Correspondingly, an increase with depth in mafic minerals in the granite is indicated by the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray measurements.

  12. On partition log-supermodular matroids

    SciTech Connect

    Loebl, M. [Univ. of Waterloo (Canada); Onn, S.

    1994-12-31

    We study functions defined on the Boolean lattice and on the lattice of partitions ordered by domination, whose values are related t the number of bases of a fixed matroid, satisfying some constraints.

  13. Analysis of variance of communication latencies in anesthesia: comparing means of multiple log-normal distributions.

    PubMed

    Ledolter, Johannes; Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H

    2011-10-01

    Anesthesiologists rely on communication over periods of minutes. The analysis of latencies between when messages are sent and responses obtained is an essential component of practical and regulatory assessment of clinical and managerial decision-support systems. Latency data including times for anesthesia providers to respond to messages have moderate (> n = 20) sample sizes, large coefficients of variation (e.g., 0.60 to 2.50), and heterogeneous coefficients of variation among groups. Highly inaccurate results are obtained both by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the time scale or by performing it in the log scale and then taking the exponential of the result. To overcome these difficulties, one can perform calculation of P values and confidence intervals for mean latencies based on log-normal distributions using generalized pivotal methods. In addition, fixed-effects 2-way ANOVAs can be extended to the comparison of means of log-normal distributions. Pivotal inference does not assume that the coefficients of variation of the studied log-normal distributions are the same, and can be used to assess the proportional effects of 2 factors and their interaction. Latency data can also include a human behavioral component (e.g., complete other activity first), resulting in a bimodal distribution in the log-domain (i.e., a mixture of distributions). An ANOVA can be performed on a homogeneous segment of the data, followed by a single group analysis applied to all or portions of the data using a robust method, insensitive to the probability distribution. PMID:21862598

  14. Calibration of log and core saturation data: case history from San Ardo field

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    A major problem in reservoir evaluation is determining saturations and monitoring changes during production. Many companies in the San Joaquin Valley use extensive coring to solve this problem. Modern lithologic and well-log analyses offer a means of calibrating log-derived saturations to core saturations, thus reducing the need for expensive coring. Such a study was performed on a well in the San Ardo field, a heavy oil accumulation in the Salinas basin, Monterey County, California. DIL, FDC-CNL, and EPT logs were used in conjunction with conventional core analysis, grain-density determinations, and several XRD and thin-section studies to derive mineralogy. The log analysis was performed using the commercially available PETROS computer program. An excellent fit was achieved between core and resistivity log-derived water saturations. The Archie equation variables, a, m, and n, were determined by a few iterations since the curves could be matched so easily, but special core-analysis technique would have been used if needed to find values for these parameters. The lithologic data showed that the sand was virtually clay free, thus eliminating the need for shale corrections. The deep-reading resistivity-derived Sw and the core saturations matched so closely that, apparently, the core had not undergone much flushing, if any. The EPT, a flushed-zone device, showed about 17% higher water saturations through the main steamflood zone than did the core and Archie saturations, which was interpreted to mean that the heated oil had been moved within 1 in. or so of the borehole wall. In other unflooded zones, the EPT saturation closely matched the other curves.

  15. Rendering log aesthetic curves via Runge-Kutta method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobithaasan, R. U.; Meng, T. Y.; Piah, A. R. M.; Miura, K. T.

    2014-07-01

    Log Aesthetic Curves (LAC) are visually pleasing curves which has been developed using monotonic curvature profile. Hence, it can be easily implemented in product design environment, e.g, Rhino 3D CAD systems. LAC is generally represented in an integral form of its turning angle. Traditionally, Gaussian-Kronrod method has been used to render this curve which consumes less than one second for a given interval. Recently, Incomplete Gamma Function was proposed to represent LAC analytically which decreases the computation time up to 13 times. However, only certain value of shape parameters (denoted as ?) which dictates the types of curves generated for LAC, can be used to compute LAC. In this paper, the classical Runge-Kutta (RK4) method is proposed to evaluate LAC numerically to reduce the LAC computation time for arbitrary, ?. The preliminary result looks promising where the evaluation time is decreased tremendously. This paper also demonstrates the accuracy control of LAC by reducing the stepsize of RK4. The computation time and the accuracy for various ?, are also illustrated in the last section of this paper.

  16. Determination of Log K[subscript ow] Values for Four Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark F.; Logan, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Though many undergraduates are interested in medicine, relatively few experiments related to drug design and development are included in introductory chemistry laboratory courses. In this experiment, aqueous solutions of four different drugs (acetaminophen, caffeine, phenacetin, and sulfanilamide) are extracted using 1-octanol, a mimic of the…

  17. Characteristics of logging data for fracture zones in Hirabayashi NIED borehole drilling through Nojima fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, K.; Ikeda, R.; Iio, Y.; Arai, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Shimada, K.; Tanaka, H.; Hirano, S.; Matsuda, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (1995.1, MJMA=7.2) activated the Nojima fault in the northern part of Awaji Island, southwest Japan and a surface rupture appeared more than 10km long. After the earthquake, the Hirabayashi NIED borehole was drilled penetrating through the fault zone to a depth of 1838m from a point about 302m SE from the surface trace of the Nojima fault. In the borehole, physical well logging was done from 251m depth down to the bottom. At the same time, cores were collected from 1000m depth with an almost 100% recovery rate and remarkable fractured zones containing cataclastic rocks were confirmed at three depths, around 1140m, 1300m and 1800m. Gamma ray logging survey indicates that the intensity of natural gamma ray changes abruptly within the interval of intrusive rocks. Matching values of depths at the boundaries between intrusive rocks and host rocks, the calibration equation was obtained between "core depth" and "logging depth"; "core depth" is measured by adding up lengths of drilling pipes and "logging depth" is measured by the total length of the cable taken down a logging tool. Results of well logging show that, in the depth interval of host rocks, normal resistivity is from several hundreds to several thousands ohm m, micro resistivity is several tens ohm m, P wave velocity is 5 - 6km/sec, density is about 2.6g/cm3 and neutron porosity is several %. On the other hand, in the depth interval of the fracture zone, those properties decrease down to several tens ohm m, several ohm m, 2 - 4km/sec, 1.5 - 2.0g/cm3 and increase up to several tens %, respectively. Investigating correlations between physical properties measured by well logging in the Hirabayashi NIED borehole, three fracture zones are characterized. In fracture zones, neutron porosity is beyond 10%, P wave velocity is less than 5 km/sec. The decreasing rate of density is higher and the logarithm of normal resistivity increases more gently with the increase of neutron porosity than in the depth interval of host rocks. The correlation between neutron porosity and P wave velocity is not clear and normal resistivity does not obey the Archie's relation in the fracture zones. The fracture zone at a depth of 1800m indicates some different characters from other two fracture zones; P wave velocity, density and neutron porosity appear to change gently contrasting to a remarkable decrease of normal resistivity.

  18. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem sustainability could be decreased by better slash removal in the Angara region, removal of trees killed by fire in the Zabaikal region, and tree planting after fires in drier conditions where natural regeneration is hampered by soil overheating and grass proliferation.

  19. The Log-Lin Metric for Generic Responses in Logarithmic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdillon, Antony J.

    2015-03-01

    The generic Log-Lin metric joins experimental quasicrystal data with its ideal structure. How does a periodic probe, e . g . an X-ray or electron beam, interact with an `aperiodic' solid to produce sharp diffraction in geometric space? Based on the structure, and through its stretching factor in the hierarchic model, quasi-structure factors are expanded in geometric series. The Log-Lin metric is found to be a function of tau2 and pi. The solution is of special value in simulating not only icosahedral structures, but also defective logarithmic solids, and quasicrystals of lower symmetry. The metric, now analyzed and simulated, enables consistent measurement from the atomic scale to high order superclusters. It is essential in any wave interaction with logarithmic solids. The factor applies to physical clusters of extremely dense, binary, hard-sphere, icosahedral, unit cells.

  20. Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

    2009-05-26

    Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

  1. Evaluation of sewage sludge and slow pyrolyzed sewage sludge-derived biochar for adsorption of phenanthrene and pyrene.

    PubMed

    Zieli?ska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) by sewage sludges and sewage sludge-derived biochars. The organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient (logKOC for Cw=0.01 Sw) for the sewage sludges ranged from 5.62Lkg(-1) to 5.64Lkg(-1) for PHE and from 5.72Lkg(-1) to 5.75Lkg(-1) for PYR. The conversion of sewage sludges into biochar significantly increased their sorption capacity. The value of logKOC for the biochars ranged from 5.54Lkg(-1) to 6.23Lkg(-1) for PHE and from 5.95Lkg(-1) to 6.52Lkg(-1) for PYR depending on temperature of pyrolysis. The dominant process was monolayer adsorption in the micropores and/or multilayer surface adsorption (in the mesopores), which was indicated by the significant correlations between logKOC and surface properties of biochars. PYR was sorbed better on the tested materials than PHE. PMID:26093256

  2. Calibration of the radionuclide logging system germanium detector

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, R.R.

    1994-12-05

    High resolution passive gamma-ray logging, high resolution gamma-ray-emitting nuclides in areas surrounding underground waste disposal facilities on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Gamma-ray source concentrations are derived from log data by calculations that employ the calibration factors and correction functions described in this report. Calibration data were collected with a Radionuclide Logging System. Analyses of the calibration data established: (1) calibration factors for potassium, uranium, and thorium, and (2) a calibration function that permits assessments of cesium-137, cobalt-60, and other artificial nuclides not represented in the calibration models.

  3. Learning Logs in the Science Classroom - The Literacy Advantage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cheryl Steenson

    2006-04-01

    One of the most functional forms of writing to learn is two-column learning logs. Two-column learning logs are based on the premise that collecting information and processing information are two very different aspects of learning. Middle school students can record great quantities of material, but note taking does not translate into comprehension. Try using a Two-column learning log approach to allow students to connect the facts and theories of science to an understanding of their world while developing critical thinking skills in the process.

  4. Application of cased-hole logs to reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Olarunsola, A.O.; Ekpo, E.U.

    1984-04-01

    Cased-hole electric wireline logs can be useful for diagnosing well problems as well as assuring optimum application of clearly defined remedial work. These logs are carefully run directly opposite points of fluid entry into the borehole. When used appropriately, interpretation is facilitated, and their subsequent application to well problems often yield positive results. The data obtained offer more definitive and more complete understanding of the production trends and the reservoir behavior. This work illustrates the interpretation and the appropriate use of various logs for identifying gas and water production problems in oil reservoirs. Examples as encountered in the Niger Delta are discussed.

  5. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  6. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S. (comps.)

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  7. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG-INACTIVATION WITH OZONE USING EFFLUENT CT 10, GEOMETRIC MEAN CT 10 EXTENDED INTEGRATED CT 10 AND EXTENDED-CSTR CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ("LT2ESWTR") contains Cryptosporidium log-inactivation CT tables. Depending on the water temperature, the Cryptosporidium CT values that are listed are 15 to 25 times greater than CT values fo...

  8. Modelling the fate of micropollutants in the marine environment using passive sampling.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Michiel; De Laender, Frederik; Monteyne, Els; Roose, Patrick; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-07-15

    Polydimethylsiloxane sheets were used to determine freely dissolved concentrations (Cdiss) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Belgian coastal zone. Equilibrium models were used to predict the whole water concentrations (Cww) of these compounds as well as their concentrations in sediment, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and biota. In general, contaminant concentrations were predicted well for whole water and biota. Cww was increasingly underpredicted as Koc increased, possibly because of the presence of black carbon. Concentrations in biota were overestimated by the equilibrium approach when logKow exceeded 6.5, suggesting an increasing role of transformation processes. Concentrations of PAHs and PCBs in sediment and SPM were consistently underpredicted although a good correlation between measured and predicted values was observed. This was potentially due to the use of experimental Koc values which have been found to underestimate partitioning of hydrophobic substances to sediment in field studies. PMID:26002097

  9. Time Stamp Synchronization of Distributed Sensor Logs: Impossibility Results and Approximation Algorithms

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Time Stamp Synchronization of Distributed Sensor Logs: Impossibility Results and Approximation 2005 ii #12;Time Stamp Synchronization of Distributed Sensor Logs: Impossibility Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.1 Clocks and time stamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.2 Log

  10. A comprehensive approach to studies of porous media (rocks) using a laboratory spectrometer and logging tool with similar operating characteristics.

    PubMed

    Taicher, Z; Coates, G; Gitartz, Y; Berman, L

    1994-01-01

    The value of NMR spectrometry as a way to understand the porosity and permeability of rocks is well documented. Other more esoteric parameters, such as restrictive diffusion, grain size distribution, and fluid viscosities have received less notice but are also available from the NMR measurements as laboratory studies have shown. With the introduction of gradient field spin-echo NMR well logging, all of these parameters become available in a routine way. To accomplish the goal of having a well log that systematically provides this complete array of NMR answers requires consideration of the measurement principles that can be applied. Magnetic field strength and the relative merits of gradient versus homogeneous magnetic fields methods, as well as the limitations presented by the well bore and wireline systems are a few examples of the factors that must be considered. As important, to the end user, is being provided a definitive link between the well logging response and laboratory measurements on rock samples that prove the meaning of the log. This is ideally accomplished when the laboratory measurements are attained using an apparatus that has the same operating characteristics as the log. For most well logging systems this is seldom accomplished to the degree desired, but it is readily attainable with NMR technologies. The consideration of these factors and the features and benefits of having such a capability are the focus of this paper. The technical attributes of such a comprehensive system, the Numar Corporation's "MRIL" and "CoreSpec1000", plus actual examples of laboratory and well bore data are provided to show the value of such an approach. PMID:8170320

  11. Speeding up the discrete log computation on curves with automorphisms

    E-print Network

    Gaudry, Pierrick

    'Informatique de l' ' Ecole polytechnique (LIX) F­91128 Palaiseau CEDEX, France fgaudry, moraing@lix.polytechnique.fr http://www.lix.polytechnique.fr/ Abstract. We show how to speed up the discrete log computations

  12. Logging while drilling application in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Husband, F.J.; Palomo M., R.; Roca R., L.

    1994-12-31

    The commercial use of Logging While Drilling (LWD) technology in Latin America and the Caribbean has grown significantly in the last two years as national and international oil and gas companies implement more efficient systems to locate and extract hydrocarbons. This technology has been applied to optimize drilling projects as LWD measurements are now routinely used for improved log quality, geosteering into complex horizontal targets, insurance logging in difficult drilling environments, and where operating rig costs create a financial need. Case field applications are presented including drilling and logging depleted gas sands in high concentration LCM mud systems, 3-dimensional geosteering techniques, and time lapsed overlays for identification of moved fluids and wellbore stability. The examples and discussion that follow represent field experience utilizing Compensated Dual Resistivity (CDR) and Compensated Density Neutron (CDN) measurements to more efficiently find and produce oil and gas in Latin America.

  13. Optimized Hypergraph Clustering-based Network Security Log Mining*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jianhua; Lin, Weimin; Yu, Yong; Yao, Wei

    With network's growth and popularization, network security experts are facing bigger and bigger network security log. Network security log is a kind of valuable and important information recording various network behaviors, and has the features of large-scale and high dimension. Therefore, how to analyze these network security log to enhance the security of network becomes the focus of many researchers. In this paper, we first design a frequent attack sequencebased hypergraph clustering algorithm to mine the network security log, and then improve this algorithm with a synthetic measure of hyperedge weight and two optimization functions of clustering result. The experimental results show that the synthetic measure and optimization functions can promote significantly the coverage and precision of clustering result. The optimized hypergraph clustering algorithm provides a data analyzing method for intrusion detecting and active forewarning of network.

  14. 3. VIEW SHOWING CRIBBED LOG HOUSING FOR OUTLET GATE WHEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SHOWING CRIBBED LOG HOUSING FOR OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upaco Unit, Superior Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  15. 3. VIEW OF TUNNEL INTAKE, WITH LOG TRASH RACK, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF TUNNEL INTAKE, WITH LOG TRASH RACK, LOOKING SOUTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Farmers Lake Tunnel, Ashley National Forest, 5.7 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  16. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  17. Interaction differences in web search and browse logs Paul Thomas

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Paul

    Interaction differences in web search and browse logs Paul Thomas CSIRO Canberra, Australia paul.thomas@csiro CSIRO Sydney, Australia cecile.paris@csiro.au Abstract We use logfiles from two web servers (pub- lic

  18. Log-ratio circuit for beam position monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, F.D.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Shafer, R.E.; Shurter, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The logarithmic ratio of the signal amplitudes from beam-position probe-electrodes provides a normalized real-time analog signal that is more linear in beam displacement than other signal-processing techniques for circular cross-section, beam-position monitors. This paper describes work being done to develop a log-ratio circuit using an inexpensive, commercially available, logarithmic-response, integrated-circuit rf-amplifier. The circuit uses two amplifiers in a log (A) {minus} log (B) = log (A/B) configuration to provide the logarithmic ratio of the two rf input signals from the probe. The output is a real-time analog signal proportional to beam displacement. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  19. SHORE-BASED LOG PROCESSING Bottom felt: 4781 mbrf

    E-print Network

    ). Other factors, however, such as the length of the logged interval, the pres- ence of drill pipe with the borehole wall during most of the record- ing. Because of tool failure during the main pass, neutron

  20. 51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-18) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  1. 50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southwest (view similar to HALS no. LA-1-21) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  2. 2. LOG OUTBUILDINGS, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: BARN, STORE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOG OUTBUILDINGS, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: BARN, STORE HOUSE, WELL HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Walnut Grove, Outbuildings, Route 1, 1 mile East of intersection US 221 & I-26, Roebuck, Spartanburg County, SC

  3. Evaluation of Potash Grade with Gamma-ray Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2007-01-01

    Potassium is an emitter of gamma-ray radiation, consequently deposits of potash can be detected and evaluated using gamma-ray logs. A method originally designed to evaluate uranium deposits in boreholes can also be applied to potash deposits. The method equates the depth-integral of a gamma-ray log to the grade-thickness product of a potash-bearing bed or series of beds. The average grade of a bed is then determined by dividing by the overall bed thickness, which can also be obtained from the gamma-ray log. The method was tested using gamma-ray logs and potash assays from boreholes near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  4. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  5. 5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE (Features 9 and 10) AT FAR LEFT AND HOUSE (Feature 13) AT CENTER (n.d.) - Gold Dust Mine, Mill & Camp Complex, Wards Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

  6. An Experimental Study Of Seismoelectric Signals In Logging While Drilling

    E-print Network

    Zhan, Xin

    2005-01-01

    Acoustic logging while drilling (LWD) may be complicated because of contamination by waves propagating along the drill collar (the tool waves). In this paper we propose a new method for separating tool waves from the true ...

  7. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  8. Log-domain circuit models of chemical reactions

    E-print Network

    Mandal, Soumyajit

    We exploit the detailed similarities between electronics and chemistry to develop efficient, scalable bipolar or subthreshold log-domain circuits that are dynamically equivalent to networks of chemical reactions. Our ...

  9. 3. View of corner connecting log section to north section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of corner connecting log section to north section of building. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 12, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  10. Mining Activity Clusters From Low-level Event Logs

    E-print Network

    van der Aalst, Wil

    are most Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems (e.g. SAP R/3). Although some ERP systems include, ERP logs typically do not contain events referring to the execution of activities, rather they refer

  11. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  12. Log-Derived evaluation of shaly sandstone reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fertl

    1984-01-01

    Significant natural gas resources are known to exist in the United States in tight, low-permeability sandstones that cover a prospective area of 1,000,000 mi² (2,590,000 km²). Characterization and reliable estimation of their production potential based on well logs are important although difficult task. Proper evaluation of low permeability sands based on conventional log-interpretation techniques is frequently inadequate. Furthermore, while empirical

  13. An expert system advisor for well log quality control

    E-print Network

    Warnken, Dean Kennedy

    1988-01-01

    of the minerals into their chemical components. The inference trees for the dual induction, gamma ray, sonic, caliper and tension logs are included in Appetxlix D. Inference trees supply the logical framework for generating rules, the final phase developing..., in identical formats for quality control of the sonic, gamma ray and dual induction well logs. A ~ial system program shell served as the fork for building the ~ system. The system has been written as a prototype model. With minimal alterations...

  14. Total Organic Carbon Content Determined From Well Logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Fertl; George Chilingar

    1988-01-01

    Total organic-carbon (TOC) content present in potential source rocks significantly affects the response of various well logs. This paper discusses and illustrates well-log anomalies caused by TOC as observed on various wireline measurements, including resistivity (or conductivity), acoustic, nuclear (density and neutron), gamma ray, natural gamma ray spectra, and pulsed neutron (sigma and carbon\\/oxygen (C\\/O) ratio). Field examples of these

  15. Spectral shape analysis for contaminant logging at the Hanford site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Wilson; Carl J. Koizumi; James E. Meisner; David C. Stromswold

    1998-01-01

    A spectral shape factor log has been developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of gamma-ray-emitting contaminants detected by passive logging of boreholes that surround the buried high-level nuclear waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Many boreholes intersect plumes of contaminants that leaked from the tanks. Spectral shape analysis has been able

  16. Spectral shape analysis for contaminant logging at the Hanford site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Wilson; Carl J. Koizumi; James E. Meisner; David C. Stromswold

    1997-01-01

    A spectral shape factor log has been developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of gamma-ray-emitting contaminants detected by passive logging of boreholes that surround the buried high-level nuclear waste tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Many boreholes intersect plumes of contaminants that leaked from the tanks. Spectral shape analysis has been able

  17. Correlation of log response to production in the Austin Chalk

    E-print Network

    Behseresht, Cyrus Douglas

    1992-01-01

    CORRELATION OF LOG RESPONSE TO PRODUCTION IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by CYRUS DOUGLAS BEHSERESHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Geology CORRELATION OF LOG RESPONSE TO PRODUCTION IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by CYRUS DOUGLAS BEHSERESHT Approved as to style and content by: Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) Thomas T. Tieh (Member) Ronald...

  18. Interpretation of well log response in the Austin chalk

    E-print Network

    Hinds, Gregory Scott

    1990-01-01

    INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOG RESPONSE IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by GREGORY SCOTT HINDS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1990 Major Subject: Geology INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOG RESPONSE IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by GREGORY SCOTT HINDS Approved as to style and content by; Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) Wayne . Ahr (Member) I R. . Brimhall (Member) Joh...

  19. Correlation of log response to production in the Austin Chalk 

    E-print Network

    Behseresht, Cyrus Douglas

    1992-01-01

    CORRELATION OF LOG RESPONSE TO PRODUCTION IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by CYRUS DOUGLAS BEHSERESHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Geology CORRELATION OF LOG RESPONSE TO PRODUCTION IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by CYRUS DOUGLAS BEHSERESHT Approved as to style and content by: Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) Thomas T. Tieh (Member) Ronald...

  20. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  1. Fossil Big Bang Turbulence log k , 1/m

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    Fossil Big Bang Turbulence 35 log k , 1/m -15 3127-19-23 k2T +1/3 k2T 1/2 = l l+1 Cl +1/6 log k , 1 is irreversible, triggering formation of quantum- gravitational-turbulence and a Big Bang Universe. Entropy-Obukhov turbulent mixing theory the temperature spectrum should be T = -1/3k-5/3 between the Planck scale

  2. Log-magnitude modelling of auditory tuning curves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lin; E. Ambikairajah; W. H. Holmes

    2001-01-01

    We propose the novel application of a technique for filter design that can accurately fit measured tuning curves for the auditory fibres in the log-magnitude domain. This method provides pole-zero filters with guaranteed stability, and its log-magnitude domain criterion allows tuning curves with very steep slopes to be accurately modelled with an 8 th to 10th order pole-zero filter. Thus,

  3. New developments in carbon\\/oxygen (C\\/O) logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fertl

    1982-01-01

    Carbon\\/oxygen (C\\/O) logging applicable in cased well bores measures energy and intensity of inelastic and capture gamma rays resulting from pulsed neutron irradiation of subsurface formations. Continuous C\\/O logs define the relative abundance of elements, such as C, O, Si, Ca, H, etc., which in turn relates to lithology, porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation distribution in potential reservoir rocks independent of

  4. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  5. Applying multiwell normalization in open hole log analysis

    E-print Network

    Sinanan, Haydn Brent

    1997-01-01

    APPLYING MULTIWELL NORMALIZATION IN OPEN HOLE LOG ANALYSIS A Thesis by HAYDN BRENT SINANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1997 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering APPLYING MULTI WELL NORMALIZATION IN OPEN HOLE LOG ANALYSIS A Thesis by HAYDN BRENT SINANAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  6. Comparing Web and Touch Screen Transaction Log Files

    PubMed Central

    Huntington, Paul; Williams, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Background Digital health information is available on a wide variety of platforms including PC-access of the Internet, Wireless Application Protocol phones, CD-ROMs, and touch screen public kiosks. All these platforms record details of user sessions in transaction log files, and there is a growing body of research into the evaluation of this data. However, there is very little research that has examined the problems of comparing the transaction log files of kiosks and the Internet. Objectives To provide a first step towards examining the problems of comparing the transaction log files of kiosks and the Internet. Methods We studied two platforms: touch screen kiosks and a comparable Web site. For both of these platforms, we examined the menu structure (which affects transaction log file data), the log-file structure, and the metrics derived from log-file records. Results We found substantial differences between the generated metrics. Conclusions None of the metrics discussed can be regarded as an effective way of comparing the use of kiosks and Web sites. Two metrics stand out as potentially comparable and valuable: the number of user sessions per hour and user penetration of pages. PMID:11720960

  7. Use of electric logs to estimate water quality of pre-tertiary aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindner-Lunsford, J. B.; Bruce, Breton W.

    1995-01-01

    Electric logs provide a means of estimating ground-water quality in areas where water analyses are not available. Most of the methods for interpreting these logs have been developed for the petroleum industry and are most reliable in saline aquifers (concentration of dissolved solids as sodium chloride greater than about 500,000 mg/l). The resistivity-porosity and spontaneous-potential methods were evaluated to determine if they could be applied to identify zones of fresh water (concentration of dissolved solids as sodium chloride less than 1,000 mg/l) in three potential aquifers in central Wyoming. The potential aquifers have different lithologies - sandstone, clayey sandstone, and carbonate. The two methods generally were reliable predictors of water quality in the sandstone and carbonate potential aquifers. In the clayey sandstone potential aquifer, predictions of the dissolved-solids concentration using the two methods differed by more than an order of magnitude in several cases. When the resistivity values are corrected for the presence of clay and shale as identified on a natural gamma log, the agreement between the results of the two methods improved by an average of 58 percent.

  8. Model for water factor measurements with fission-neutron logging tools. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, C. J.

    1983-05-01

    During 1977 and 1978, a Fission Neutron Water Factor Model was designed and constructed by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the Grand Junction facility. This model features seven water-filled boreholes with different diameters. All of these boreholes penetrate, in order from the top of the model, a 5-foot-thick (1.52 m), uniform, concrete upper ''barren zone''; a 6-foot-thick (1.83 m), uniform, uranium-enriched, concrete ''ore zone''; and a 4-foot-thick (1.22 m), uniform, concrete lower ''barren zone''. The response of a fission neutron logging tool in a water-filled borehole is affected by variations in the borehole diameter. This diameter-dependent effect can be deduced from logs run in several different boreholes of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model. This report describes the construction of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model and also presents values for model parameters which are of interest in fission-neutron logging.

  9. Meta-Analysis of Mass Balances Examining Chemical Fate during Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Mass balances are an instructive means for investigating the fate of chemicals during wastewater treatment. In addition to the aqueous-phase removal efficiency (?), they can inform on chemical partitioning, transformation, and persistence, as well as on the chemical loading to streams and soils receiving, respectively, treated effluent and digested sewage sludge (biosolids). Release rates computed on a per-capita basis can serve to extrapolate findings to a larger scale. This review examines over a dozen mass balances conducted for various organic wastewater contaminants, including prescription drugs, estrogens, fragrances, antimicrobials, and surfactants of differing sorption potential (hydrophobicity), here expressed as the 1-octanol?water partition coefficient (KOW) and the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (KOC). Major challenges to mass balances are the collection of representative samples and accurate quantification of chemicals in sludge. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data identified sorption potential as the principal determinant governing chemical persistence in biosolids. Occurrence data for organic wastewater compounds detected in digested sludge followed a simple nonlinear model that required only KOW or KOC as the input and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.9 in both instances. The model predicted persistence in biosolids for the majority (>50%) of the input load of organic wastewater compounds featuring a log10KOW value of greater than 5.2 (log10KOC > 4.4). In contrast, hydrophobicity had no or only limited value for estimating, respectively, ? and the overall persistence of a chemical during conventional wastewater treatment. PMID:18800497

  10. A complete X-ray sample of the high latitude sky from HEAO-1 A-2: log N lo S and luminosity functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccinotti, G.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Marshall, F. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Shafer, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was performed in which a complete X-ray survey of the 8.2 steradians of the sky at galactic latitudes where the absolute value of b is 20 deg down to a limiting sensitivity of 3.1 x ten to the minus 11th power ergs/sq cm sec in the 2-10 keV band. Of the 85 detected sources 17 were identified with galactic objects, 61 were identified with extragalactic objects, and 7 remain unidentified. The log N - log S relation for the non-galactic objects is well fit by the Euclidean relationship. The X-ray spectra of these objects were used to construct log N - log S in physical units. The complete sample of identified sources was used to construct X-ray luminosity functions, using the absolute maximum likelihood method, for clusters galaxies and active galactic nuclei.

  11. Carbon emissions from tropical forest degradation caused by logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Timothy R. H.; Brown, Sandra; Casarim, Felipe M.

    2014-03-01

    The focus of land-use related efforts in developing countries to reduce carbon emissions has been on slowing deforestation, yet international agreements are to reduce emissions from both deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The second ‘D’ is poorly understood and accounted for a number of technical and policy reasons. Here we introduce a complete accounting method for estimating emission factors from selective timber harvesting, a substantial form of forest degradation in many tropical developing countries. The method accounts separately for emissions from the extracted log, from incidental damage to the surrounding forest, and from logging infrastructure, and emissions are expressed as units of carbon per cubic meter of timber extracted to allow for simple application to timber harvesting statistics. We applied the method in six tropical countries (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana, Indonesia, and Republic of Congo), resulting in total emission factors of 0.99-2.33 Mg C m-3. In all cases, emissions were dominated by damage to surrounding vegetation and the infrastructure rather than the logs themselves, and total emissions represented about 3-15% of the biomass carbon stocks of the associated unlogged forests. We then combined the emission factors with country level logging statistics for nine key timber producing countries represented by our study areas to gain an understanding of the order of magnitude of emissions from degradation compared to those recently reported for deforestation in the same countries. For the nine countries included, emissions from logging were on average equivalent to about 12% of those from deforestation. For those nine countries with relatively low emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to half or more of those from deforestation, whereas for those countries with the highest emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to <10% of those from deforestation. Understanding how to account emissions and the magnitude of each emissions source resulting from tropical timber harvesting practices helps identify where there are opportunities to reduce emissions from the second ‘D’ in REDD.

  12. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, David L A; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Sheil, Doug; Abram, Nicola K; Ancrenaz, Marc; Nasi, Robert; Quinones, Marcela; Wielaard, Niels; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The native forests of Borneo have been impacted by selective logging, fire, and conversion to plantations at unprecedented scales since industrial-scale extractive industries began in the early 1970s. There is no island-wide documentation of forest clearance or logging since the 1970s. This creates an information gap for conservation planning, especially with regard to selectively logged forests that maintain high conservation potential. Analysing LANDSAT images, we estimate that 75.7% (558,060 km2) of Borneo's area (737,188 km2) was forested around 1973. Based upon a forest cover map for 2010 derived using ALOS-PALSAR and visually reviewing LANDSAT images, we estimate that the 1973 forest area had declined by 168,493 km2 (30.2%) in 2010. The highest losses were recorded in Sabah and Kalimantan with 39.5% and 30.7% of their total forest area in 1973 becoming non-forest in 2010, and the lowest in Brunei and Sarawak (8.4%, and 23.1%). We estimate that the combined area planted in industrial oil palm and timber plantations in 2010 was 75,480 km2, representing 10% of Borneo. We mapped 271,819 km of primary logging roads that were created between 1973 and 2010. The greatest density of logging roads was found in Sarawak, at 0.89 km km-2, and the lowest density in Brunei, at 0.18 km km-2. Analyzing MODIS-based tree cover maps, we estimate that logging operated within 700 m of primary logging roads. Using this distance, we estimate that 266,257 km2 of 1973 forest cover has been logged. With 389,566 km2 (52.8%) of the island remaining forested, of which 209,649 km2 remains intact. There is still hope for biodiversity conservation in Borneo. Protecting logged forests from fire and conversion to plantations is an urgent priority for reducing rates of deforestation in Borneo. PMID:25029192

  13. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  14. Micrometeorology of a Tropical Rainforest Before and After Selective Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Goulden, M. L.; Menton, M. C.; Doughty, C.; da Rocha, H.; Freitas, H.; Figueira, M. A.; da Sousa, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    We are using long-term eddy covariance to directly measure the effects of selective logging on the energy and trace gas exchange of a tropical forest, as a component of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). We began measurements in June 2000 from a 65 m tall tower in a primary evergreen stand in the Tapajos National Forest (km 83), Para, Brazil, that was selectively logged during the fall of 2001. In addition to the core flux measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor, momentum, and heat, sensors have been installed to measure vertical profiles CO2, H2O, wind velocity, and temperature within and above the forest, to aid in understanding the complex micrometeorology that determines the transfer between the forest and the atmosphere. In addition, after the logging a second 65 m tall tower was installed in a large gap created by the logging, and similarly instrumented. Here, we address the micrometeorology of the forest, both before and after the logging.

  15. Application of the spread-spectrum technique in well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Dadakarides, Simos D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the novel concept of employing the noise insensitive spread-spectrum technique in well logging. The proposed design of a spread-spectrum device improves the performance of well logging tools, particularly within highly noisy environments. The heart of the device is a shift register which generates a pseudorandom binary code sequence. A coder is connected to the transmitter and codes the probing signal by utilizing the pseudorandom sequence. A decoder is connected to the receiver and correlates the return signal to the same sequence, which is used as a sliding reference. Shifts as small as a fraction of a bit are unambiguously resolvable, and distance resolution of the order of micrometers is achievable. Spread-spectrum well logging tools can operate even with coded signal-to-noise ratio below zero-dB. The spread-spectrum device can be interfaced with any available wave transmitting logging tool. However, tools employing acoustic waves are favorable because the acoustic wave propagation velocity is low and allows the use of inexpensive electronics. The problems associated with high temperatures which are commonly encountered In geothermal reservoirs are bypassed, since the spread-spectrum device can be located either inside the well logging tool or together with the supporting electronics on the surface.

  16. Technical evaluation of software for gamma-ray logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report contains results of a technical review of software, identified as LGCALC, that processes data collected by a high-resolution gamma-ray borehole logging system. The software presently operates within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Department of Geosciences, to process data collected by the Radionuclide Logging System. The software has been reviewed for its suitability for processing data to be collected by new high-resolution gamma-ray logging trucks scheduled to begin operational tests within Westinghouse Tank Waste Remediation Systems during 1994. Examination of the program code and hands-on operational tests have shown that this software is suitable for its intended use of processing high-resolution gamma-ray data obtained from borehole logging. Most of the code requires no changes, but in a few limited cases, suggestions have been made to correct errors or improve operation. Section 4 describes these changes. The technical review has confirmed the appropriateness, correctness, completeness, and coding accuracy of algorithms used to process spectral gamma-ray data, leading to a calculation of subsurface radionuclide contaminants. Running the program with test data from calibration models has confirmed that the program operates correctly. Comparisons with hand calculations have shown the correctness of the output from the program, based on known input data. Section 3 describes these tests. The recommended action is to make the near term programming changes suggested in Section 4.1 and then use the LGCALC analysis program with the new high-resolution logging systems once they have been properly calibrated.

  17. A rule-based system for well log correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Startzman, R.A.; Kuo, T.B.

    1987-09-01

    Computer-assisted approaches to well log correlation are of interest to engineers and geologists for two reasons. In large field studies, a computer can be used simply to reduce the time required to correlate zones of interest. It is also possible that computer-assisted correlations may suggest zonal matches of interest and originality that might not have been considered. This paper presents a new approach to the computer-assisted log correlation. Geologic horizons are correlated between wells by use of an artificial intelligence rule-based technique. Using the symbol-manipulation capabilities of a computer language called List Processing (LISP), the author developed a prototype rule-bases system that has symbolic representation of log data, recognizes log shapes from traces, identifies geologic zones from a sequence of shapes in a log, characterizes the zones, correlates zones from well to well with a set of ''if/then'' type of rules, and uses a forward-chaining inference scheme to execute the rule base. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of the LISP language and the methodology involved in the development of this system.

  18. Hyporheic exchange due to channel-spanning logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Bayani Cardenas, M.; Buttles, Jim

    2011-08-01

    The flow of river water around large woody debris (LWD) creates pressure gradients along the riverbed that drive a large zone of river-groundwater mixing, or hyporheic exchange. Flume experiments and numerical simulations show that river water downwells into the riverbed upstream of a channel-spanning log and upwells downstream. Exchange rates are greatest near the log and decay exponentially with distance upstream and downstream. We developed equations for bed pressure profiles and hyporheic exchange rates in the vicinity of a channel-spanning log that can be used to evaluate the impact of LWD removal or reintroduction on hyporheic mixing. The magnitude of pressure disturbance along the bed (and thus hyporheic exchange) increases with the fraction of channel depth blocked by the log and channel Froude number. Exchange rates are relatively insensitive to relative depth of the log (gap ratio). At natural densities, LWD in lowland streams drives reach-averaged hyporheic exchange rates similar to a ripple-covered bed. However, the length scales and residence times of hyporheic exchange due to LWD are greater. By removing LWD from streams, humans have altered patterns and rates of hyporheic exchange, which influence habitat distribution and quality for invertebrates and fish.

  19. Evaluation of estimation methods for organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, James R.; Mihelcic, James R.; Luehrs, Dean C.; Hickey, James P.

    1997-01-01

    A critically evaluated set of 94 soil water partition coefficients normalized to soil organic carbon content (Koc) is presented for 11 classes of organic chemicals. This data set is used to develop and evaluate Koc estimation methods using three different descriptors. The three types of descriptors used in predicting Koc were octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), molecular connectivity (mXt) and linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The best results were obtained estimating Koc from Kow, though a slight improvement in the correlation coefficient was obtained by using a two-parameter regression with Kow and the third order difference term from mXt. Molecular connectivity correlations seemed to be best suited for use with specific chemical classes. The LSER provided a better fit than mXt but not as good as the correlation with Koc. The correlation to predict Koc from Kow was developed for 72 chemicals; log Koc = 0.903* log Kow + 0.094. This correlation accounts for 91% of the variability in the data for chemicals with log Kow ranging from 1.7 to 7.0. The expression to determine the 95% confidence interval on the estimated Koc is provided along with an example for two chemicals of different hydrophobicity showing the confidence interval of the retardation factor determined from the estimated Koc. The data showed that Koc is not likely to be applicable for chemicals with log Kow Koc correlation developed using Kow as a descriptor was compared with three nonclass-specific correlations and two 'commonly used' class-specific correlations to determine which method(s) are most suitable.

  20. Law of Log Determinant of Sample Covariance Matrix and Optimal Estimation of Differential Entropy for

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Harrison Huibin

    Law of Log Determinant of Sample Covariance Matrix and Optimal Estimation of Differential Entropy Differential entropy and log determinant of the covariance matrix of a multivari- ate Gaussian distribution and the log-determinant of the covariance matrix. We first establish a central limit theorem for the log

  1. GUITESTER: A Log-Based Usability Testing Tool for Graphical User Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidehiko OKADA; Toshiyuki ASAHI

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY In this paper, we propose methods for testing the usability of graphical user interface (GUI) applications based on log files of user interactions. Log analysis by existing methods is not efficient because evaluators analyze a single log file or log files of the same user and then manually compare results. The methods proposed here solve this problem; the methods

  2. Reservoir parameters estimation from well log and core data: a case study from the North Sea

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Reservoir parameters estimation from well log and core data: a case study from the North Sea Jun approach to derive reservoir parameters from core and well-log data in clay­sand mixtures. This method of core and well-log data. First, well-log and core data are edited and corrected before they can be used

  3. Annual Logging Symposium, June 22-26, 2013 IMPROVED PETROPHYSICAL EVALUATION OF CONSOLIDATED

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    with the developed interpretation method honor all the available measurements including conventional well logs, NMR by the Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) and the submitting authors. This paper referred to as shoulder-bed effect on well logs. Due to shoulder-bed effects on well logs, horizontal

  4. Practical life log video indexing based on content and context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancharoen, Datchakorn; Yamasaki, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2006-01-01

    Today, multimedia information has gained an important role in daily life and people can use imaging devices to capture their visual experiences. In this paper, we present our personal Life Log system to record personal experiences in form of wearable video and environmental data; in addition, an efficient retrieval system is demonstrated to recall the desirable media. We summarize the practical video indexing techniques based on Life Log content and context to detect talking scenes by using audio/visual cues and semantic key frames from GPS data. Voice annotation is also demonstrated as a practical indexing method. Moreover, we apply body media sensors to record continuous life style and use body media data to index the semantic key frames. In the experiments, we demonstrated various video indexing results which provided their semantic contents and showed Life Log visualizations to examine personal life effectively.

  5. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues

    PubMed Central

    Alfredsen, Gry; Filbakk, Tore; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones. PMID:25870777

  6. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

    2012-08-01

    The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  7. Coal-log pipeline system development. [Contains bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    One of the four tasks of the contract awarded by the Energy-Related Inventions Program, US Department of Energy, is to test and demonstrate a small model of the injection system for coal logs. Because the injection system works in a coordinated manner with the pumping and ejection systems, it is difficult to separately demonstrate them. Consequently, it was decided to broaden the scope of this task to build and test an entire system of CLP (Coal Log Pipeline) including the injection system (intake), the pumping system and the ejection system. Such a demo unit will also allow us to test a complete system of CLP, a task that must be done sooner or later. Additional costs for constructing this demonstration CLP system are provided by the CLP Consortium which, at present, consists of nine companies. One purpose of this test program is to determine the optimal conditions necessary for the fabrication of binderless coal logs. An earlier literature review indicated that the moisture content, temperature, compaction pressure, and maximum coal particle size will have the greatest influence on the quality of compacted coal logs. Consequently, the test program described in last quarter's report was design to investigate these variables. In the coal log extrusion experiment, Powder River Basin coal dried and with 5 wt % asphalt was extruded from 1.6 in., 1.7 in. and 2 in. diameter dies continuously and at various speeds. The extrusion temperature was 300 {degrees}F. Coal log formation was still not satisfactory but extrusion improves as die diameter was decreased. This achievement now allows conditions of temperature, asphalt concentration, speed and die conditions to be explored in future experiments. The literature review in this progress report update focuses on reports published by the International Briquetting Association during 1953 to 1961. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Loren F; Izbicki, John A

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality-possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer. PMID:22607466

  9. An expert system advisor for well log quality control 

    E-print Network

    Warnken, Dean Kennedy

    1988-01-01

    , in identical formats for quality control of the sonic, gamma ray and dual induction well logs. A ~ial system program shell served as the fork for building the ~ system. The system has been written as a prototype model. With minimal alterations... PORTION OF THE WELL IOG QUALZIY CONTROL ~ SYSZEM ADVISOR APPENDIX C ? ~TION OF TAXONCMIES 59 59 62 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont. ) DUAL INDUCTION IOG Page 64 APPENDIX D ? ~CE TREES FOR THE GAK% RAY, DUAL INDUCTION AND SONIC IOGS 68 GAMMA RAY LOG...

  10. Development of a student nurse practitioner computerized clinical log.

    PubMed

    Longworth, J C; Lesh, D

    2000-04-01

    A computerized clinical log was developed and revised over a period of three semesters by the family nurse practitioner students at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio, Texas. Students entered data on a disk formatted in Microsoft Access, and results were analyzed by the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS). More than 4,000 patient encounters were documented during three semesters. The development and refinement of the computerized log are described. Results are presented and the implications of the database for educational, curricular and employment purposes are discussed. PMID:11930415

  11. Advanced fluid-typing methods for NMR logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranhong Xie; Lizhi Xiao

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been increasingly used for fluidtyping in well-logging because of the\\u000a improved generations of NMR logging tools. This paper first discusses the applicable conditions of two one-dimensional NMR\\u000a methods: the dual TW method and dual TE method. Then, the two-dimensional (T\\u000a 2, D) and (T\\u000a 2, T\\u000a 1) NMR methods are introduced. These

  12. Integrated NMR Core and Log Investigations With Respect to ODP LEG 204

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J.; Pechnig, R.; Clauser, C.; Anferova, S.; Blümich, B.

    2005-12-01

    NMR techniques are widely used in the oil industry and are one of the most suitable methods to evaluate in-situ formation porosity and permeability. Recently, efforts are directed towards adapting NMR methods also to the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the upcoming Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). We apply a newly developed light-weight, mobile NMR core scanner as a non-destructive instrument to determine routinely rock porosity and to estimate the pore size distribution. The NMR core scanner is used for transverse relaxation measurements on water-saturated core sections using a CPMG sequence with a short echo time. A regularized Laplace-transform analysis yields the distribution of transverse relaxation times T2. In homogeneous magnetic fields, T2 is proportional to the pore diameter of rocks. Hence, the T2 signal maps the pore-size distribution of the studied rock samples. For fully saturated samples the integral of the distribution curve and the CPMG echo amplitude extrapolated to zero echo time are proportional to porosity. Preliminary results show that the NMR core scanner is a suitable tool to determine rock porosity and to estimate pore size distribution of limestones and sandstones. Presently our investigations focus on Leg 204, where NMR Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) was performed for the first time in ODP. Leg 204 was drilled into Hydrate Ridge on the Cascadia accretionary margin, offshore Oregon. All drilling and logging operations were highly successful, providing excellent core, wireline, and LWD data from adjacent boreholes. Cores recovered during Leg 204 consist mainly of clay and claystone. As the NMR core scanner operates at frequencies higher than that of the well-logging sensor it has a shorter dead time. This advantage makes the NMR core scanner sensitive to signals with T2 values down to 0.1 ms as compared to 3 ms in NMR logging. Hence, we can study even rocks with small pores, such as the mudcores recovered during Leg 204. We present a comparison of data from core scanning and NMR logging. Future integration of conventional wireline data and electrical borehole wall images (RAB/FMS) will provide a detailed characterization of the sediments in terms of lithology, petrophysics and, fluid flow properties.

  13. Analyzing pumped-well impeller logs to ascertain vertical hydraulic conductivity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. H.; West, J.; Odling, N. E.; Bottrell, S. H.

    2007-12-01

    Horizontal variations in the hydraulic conductivity of aquifers are generally well characterized through simple pump test analyses. However, vertical variations are often poorly understood and misrepresented in the regional models used by regulatory bodies and water companies. Understanding these is key for predicting flow paths and hence the behavior of contaminants in the aquifer that might present a risk to public drinking water supplies. Traditionally, packer tests were used to characterize these variations, but they can be time consuming and costly to perform. However, other techniques have been developed which can quantify these variations, including impeller logging. This study aims to present new, more rigorous methods of analyzing impeller flow log data. Impeller logs were taken under pumped conditions in open wells in a chalk aquifer located in N. England. Theoretically, hydraulic conductivity can be obtained from the gradient in flow rate with depth. However, data are typically noisy due to turbulent flow and hole diameter variations with depth; so directly converting the flow rate gradient to hydraulic conductivity leads to rapid non-physical variation and negative hydraulic conductivity values. Correcting for hole diameter variations using caliper logs proved difficult due to phenomena such as jetting, whereby when the water enters a widening, it does not instantly slow down. In order to obtain more realistic hydraulic conductivity profiles, we firstly tried a data smoothing algorithm, but this approach distorted the data and still gave an unacceptable noise level. Instead, a layered modeling approach has been developed. A hydraulic conductivity profile consisting of a discrete number of uniform layers is constructed, and layer thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities are varied until a satisfactory fit to the observed flow log is achieved. Results from field sites on the confined Chalk aquifer of East Yorkshire in the United Kingdom showed good correlation to packer test analysis. The absence of significant ambient flows at this test site made the final analysis relatively simple. By testing boreholes across the aquifer a pattern of hydraulic conductivity variation with depth can be established, and compared to the proposed geological and climatic reasons for the variations' existence.

  14. Determination of Residual Oil Saturation from Geophysical Well Logs in Tertiary Recovery Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WALTER H. FERTL

    1979-01-01

    Residual oil saturation (ROS), a key factor in the planning of tertiary recovery projects, can be determined on the basis of reservoir engineering concepts, core data, single-well tracer tests, and specialized geophysical well-logging techniques. Uncertainty limits of conventional logging techniques are not too promising. However, several log-inject-log techniques using multiple repeat logging runs will determine residual oil saturation within the

  15. Reduction of lithologic-log data to numbers for use in the digital computer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, C.O.; McNellis, J.M.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a standardized system for conveniently coding lithologic-log data for use in the digital computer has long been needed. The technique suggested involves a reduction of the original written alphanumeric log to a numeric log by use of computer programs. This numeric log can then be retrieved as a written log, interrogated for pertinent information, or analyzed statistically. ?? 1971 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  16. A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Crowder, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not possible with the given data set. Additional statistical criteria such as the statistical significance of regressions are used to guide the subsequent calibration of geophysical data in terms of hydraulic variables in those situations where quantitative data inversion is considered appropriate.

  17. Contextualising impacts of logging on tropical rainforest catchment sediment dynamics using the stratigraphic record of in-channel bench deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Will; Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Annammala, Kogila

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognised that commercial logging and conversion of tropical rainforest to oil palm plantation leads to enhanced fluvial sediment flux to the coastal zone but the dynamics of delivery and mechanisms that act to retain sediment and nutrients within rainforest ecosystems, e.g. riparian zone and floodplain storage, are poorly understood and underexploited as a management tool. While accretion of lateral in-channel bench deposits in response to forest clearance has been demonstrated in temperate landscapes, their development and value as sedimentary archives of catchment response to human disturbance remains largely unexplored in tropical rainforest river systems. Working within the Segama River basin, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that (1) lateral bench development in tropical rainforest rivers systems is enhanced by upstream catchment disturbance and that (2) the sedimentary record of these deposits can be used to infer changes in sediment provenance and intensification of sediment flux associated with logging activities. Sediment cores were taken from in-channel bench deposits with upstream catchment contributing areas of 721 km2 and 2800 km2 respectively. Accretion rates were determined using fallout 210Pb and 137Cs and the timing of peak accumulation was shown to correspond exactly with the known temporal pattern of logging and associated fluvial sediment response over the period 1980 to present following low pre-logging rates. Major and minor element geochemistry of deposits was used to assess the degree of weathering that deposited sediment had experienced. This was linked to surface (heavily weathered) and subsurface (less weathered) sediment sources relating to initial disturbance by logging and post-logging landsliding responses respectively. A shift in the dominant source of deposited material from surface (i.e. topsoil) to subsurface (i.e. relatively unweathered subsoil close to bedrock) origin was observed to coincide with the increase in accretion rates following logging of steep headwater slopes. Coherence of sedimentary, monitoring and observational evidence demonstrates that in-channel bench deposits offer a previously unexplored sedimentary archive of catchment response to logging in tropical rainforest systems and a tool for evaluating the erosional responses of ungauged basins. In-channel bench development due to catchment disturbance may augment ecosystem services provided by the riparian corridors of larger rivers and process knowledge gained from sedimentary archives can be used to underpin future riparian and catchment forest management strategies.

  18. Determination of the lipophilicity (log P o/w) of organic compounds by microemulsion liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liyuan; Li, Liangxing; Huang, Jindian; Yu, Suna; Wang, Jing; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Four microemulsion liquid chromatography (MELC) systems and one micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) system have been evaluated as potential high-throughput screening platforms capable of modeling the partitioning behaviors of drug compounds in an n-octanol/water system and predicting their lipophilicity (i.e., log P values). The microemulsion mobile phases is consisted of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), butanol, octane, heptanes, octanol and water. A linear solvation energy relationship (LSER)-based method was used to compare the MELC and MLC systems, as well as several other biochemical systems, and to identify the optimal system by comparing their Euclidean distances with the LSER coefficients. The most effective MELC system had a mobile phase consisting of 3.0% (w/w) SDS, 6.0% (w/w) butanol, 0.8% (w/w) octanol, and 90.2% (w/w) water (pH 6.4). The results showed that it gave superior results to the other chromatographic systems in terms of its ability to predict the log P values of drug compounds. PMID:25459940

  19. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  20. Water solubility enhancement effects of some polychlorinated organic pollutants by dissolved organic carbon from a soil with a higher organic carbon content.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Masami; Tanabe, Yasuaki; Yabuta, Hikaru; Tanaka, Fumiko; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Tatsumi, Kenji; Watanabe, Akira

    2006-01-01

    To elucidate the role of a soil humic acid (HA) in the transport of polychlorinated organic pollutants (PCOPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and coplanar-polychlorinated biphenyls, their partition coefficients (Kdoc) into an HA were compared with their adsorption coefficients (KOC) for a soil with a higher organic carbon (OC) content. The soil sample (ando soil) used in the present study was collected in the same location as the HA. The log Kdoc values were positively correlated with logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficients (log KOW) of the PCOPs, indicating that the partitioning of PCOPs into the HA was mainly due to hydrophobic interactions. However, the correlation between log Kdoc and log KOC was negative. This can be attributed to the enhanced water solubility of the PCOPs as the result of the dissolved organic matter from the soil. That is, when the more hydrophobic PCOPs with higher log KOW values are partitioned into the HA, then the larger quantities of PCOPs that are partitioned into the HA are able to dissolve in the aqueous phase. These results suggest that, in a soil with a higher OC content, the HA can serve as more effective carrier of PCOPs from the soil to an aquatic environment. PMID:16835105

  1. Iterative Non-hierarchical Cluster Analysis (INCA): a novel approach to analysing downhole logging and petrophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inwood, J.; Tudge, J.; Harvey, P.

    2012-12-01

    Iterative Non-Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (INCA) is a multivariate statistical approach used to analyse data, suited to large datasets where a defined number of clusters can be hypothesised. Although the fundamentals of this methododology are well-known, its use for the analysis of downhole logging and petrophysical measurements is a novel approach for quantitatively interpreting these datasets. Cluster analysis works by starting with k random clusters then grouping the set of data such that values within a cluster are more similar to each other than to those in the other clusters i.e. to minimise variability within a cluster and maximise variability between clusters. INCA provides a valuable tool for understanding downhole logging and petrophysical datasets by interpreting the weightings attached to each cluster in terms of petrophysical characteristics. The INCA program has been successfully used on datasets from varied geological environments to characterise formations based on their petrophsyical properties alone. Here, we discuss details of the specific algorithms chosen, size constraints and departures from standard commercially available packages. We present examples of results that use a variety of different petrophysical parameters; from spectral gamma ray logs used to independently assess lithology, to resisitivity and sonic logs used to identify the position of major boundaries. Examples of the methodology applied to subduction zone accretionary prism sediments (IODP Expedition 314), oceanic crustal rocks (e.g. ODP Hole 735B) and from continental shelf siliciclastic sediments (IODP Expedition 313) are illustrated.

  2. Rapid method for estimating the octanol--water partition coefficient (log P ow) by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, S K; Durham, D; Kibbey, C

    2000-08-01

    Several surfactant systems were evaluated based on their system constants determined by the solvation parameter model for the design of a surrogate chromatographic model for the rapid estimation of octanol-water partition coefficient (log Pow) by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. The system constant ratios responsible for the log Pow partition system are (nearly) the same as those for the microemulsion system containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (1.4% w/v), butan-1-ol (8% v/v) and heptane (1.2% v/v). Neutral and basic compounds are analyzed using a fused-silica capillary column with a 50 mM sodium phosphate-sodium borate (3:2) buffer at pH 10. Weakly acid compounds require the use of sulfonated silica capillary column and a 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 3. For 29 varied neutral and weakly basic compounds the average error between log Pow estimated using MEEKC and literature values was +/-0.12 over a log Pow range from 0.3 to 5.8. PMID:10997707

  3. Near-Equipartition Jets with Log-Parabola Electron Energy Distribution and the Blazar Spectral-Index Diagrams

    E-print Network

    Dermer, Charles D; Zhang, Li; Finke, Justin D; Lott, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Fermi-LAT analyses show that the gamma-ray photon spectral indices Gamma_gamma of a large sample of blazars correlate with the vFv peak synchrotron frequency v_s according to the relation Gamma_gamma = d - k log v_s. The same function, with different constants d and k, also describes the relationship between Gamma_gamma and peak Compton frequency v_C. This behavior is derived analytically using an equipartition blazar model with a log-parabola description of the electron energy distribution (EED). In the Thomson regime, k = k_EC = 3b/4 for external Compton processes and k = k_SSC = 9b/16 for synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes, where b is the log-parabola width parameter of the EED. The BL Lac object Mrk 501 is fit with a synchrotron/SSC model given by the log-parabola EED, and is best fit away from equipartition. Departures from equipartition are limited by jet power and make small corrections to the spectral-index diagrams. Analytic expressions are compared with numerical values derived from self-Compt...

  4. Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lance Prothro, Sigmund Drellack, Margaret Townsend

    2009-03-25

    The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

  5. Traveling Salesman Problem Formulations with N log N Number of ...

    E-print Network

    2013-02-13

    time reducing the number of binary variables to O(N log2 N). The expense is ..... The converse must also be true, meaning that if properties A, B & C do not hold ..... these problems the coordinates are chosen using a random number generator.

  6. Passive-Logging Attacks Against Anonymous Communications Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew K. Wright; Micah Adler; Brian Neil Levine; Clay Shields

    2008-01-01

    Using analysis, simulation, and experimentation, we examine the threat against anonymous communications posed by passive logging attacks. In previous work, we analyzed the success of such attacks under various assumptions. Here, we evaluate the e!ect s of these assumptions more closely. First, we analyze the Onion Routing-based model used in prior work in which a fixed set of nodes remains

  7. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  8. Note on log-periodic description of 2008 financial crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonek-Lason, Katarzyna; Kosinski, Piotr

    2011-11-01

    We analyse the financial crash in 2008 for different financial markets from the point of view of log-periodic function model. In particular, we consider Dow Jones index, DAX index and Hang Seng index. We shortly discuss the possible relation of the theory of critical phenomena in physics to financial markets.

  9. Report Exec Administrator Clery Act Public Crime Log

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    by unknown person. Int. Ref. #: Incident Type: Location: Date/Time Reported: CRIMINAL POSSESSION : CRIMINAL that unattended cell phone in charging station was taken by unknown person. Int. Ref. #: Incident Type: LocationReport Exec Administrator Clery Act Public Crime Log From 10/1/2012 To 10/31/2012 Incident Type

  10. Report Exec Administrator Clery Act Public Crime Log

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    ; no injuries. Int. Ref. #: Incident Type: Location: Date/Time Reported: COMPLAINT RECEIVED : IRATE PERSON NKU-00165 Notes: Report received that there was an irate person in the area. Int. Ref. #: Incident Type: LocationReport Exec Administrator Clery Act Public Crime Log From 5/1/2013 To 5/31/2013 Incident Type

  11. Using the Web Server Logs to Study Public Opinion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yijun Gao

    With the help of Webometrics techniques, we could explore whether or not the Web surfer's online interest reflects the public opinion off-line. This paper investigates the Chinese Web user's interest regarding the United States and Japan, and demonstrates that Web server log data could be a good source for us to gauge the public opinion on specific domestic and international

  12. Landslides After Clearcut Logging in a Coast Redwood Forest1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    163 Landslides After Clearcut Logging in a Coast Redwood Forest1 Leslie M. Reid2 and Elizabeth T (for example, Wu et al. 1979). However, because second-growth coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens at the redwood science symposium: coast redwood forests in a changing California. 21-23 June 2011, Santa Cruz

  13. What to expect when logging the Cotton Valley trend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nangle; W. H. Fertl; E. Jr. Frost

    1982-01-01

    Exploration within the low-porosity, low-permeability sections of the Cotton Valley sands and limestones of E. Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas has proven economic only within the last 5 to 8 yr due to improved gas prices and advanced reservoir analyzation and stimulation techniques. This work details those logging suites necessary to properly assess these less than optimum reservoirs, and illustrates, through

  14. CLUEBOX: A Performance Log Analyzer for Automated Troubleshooting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ratna Sandeep; M. Swapna; Thirumale Niranjan; Sai Susarla; Siddhartha Nandi

    2008-01-01

    Performance problems in complex systems are often caused by under- provisioning, workload interference, incorrect expectat ions or bugs. Troubleshooting such systems is a difficult task faced by ser vice en- gineers. We have built CLUEBOX, a non-intrusive toolkit tha t aids rapid problem diagnosis. It employs machine learning techn iques on the available performance logs to characterize workloads,predict per- formance

  15. Thermal neutron decay time /SUP TM/ log applications in California

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, H.C.

    1983-02-01

    The Thermal Neutron Decay Time /SUP TM/ (TDT) log has had wide applications throughout the world for many years. Recent improvements in equipment design, combined with the effect of the presence of trace elements in the low-salinity formation waters of California, have extended the TDT's use to these reservoirs. Interpretation of TDT logs employs the dual water model concept. The dual water model concept is explained and an example of its use is shown in this paper. The TDT logs run in California are processed through the Schlumberger Computing Center using the Cased Reservoir Analysis /SUP TM/ (CRA) program. The CRA program uses the dual water model. An example is shown including pass 1 EDIT output, parameter selection, and CRA output. Example of California applications are presented, including selection of zones for recompletion, location of zones of high GOR, evaluation of diatomite, monitoring of reservoir performance and production, and logging of TDT through drillpipe. With the introduction of the Schlumberger Cyber Service Units /SUP TM/ (CSU's) to the field, the scope of wellsite Quicklook /SUP TM/ computations has increased greatly. Recently introduced to the field is Cyberscan, /SUP TM/ a Quicklook wellsite computation. The process is described, and an example is presented. Also shown is a comparison of the Cyberscan example and the CRA computed on the same well.

  16. An economic reliability test plan: Log-logistic distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. L. Kantam; G. Srinivasa Rao; B. Sriram

    2006-01-01

    Sampling plans in which items that are put to test, to collect the life of the items in order to decide upon accepting or rejecting a submitted lot, are called reliability test plans. The basic probability model of the life of the product is specified as the well-known log-logistic distribution with a known shape parameter. For a given producer's risk,

  17. EXPONENTIATED LOG-LOGISTIC DISTRIBUTION - AN ECONOMIC RELIABILITY TEST PLAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rosaiah; R. R. L. Kantam; Santosh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    The exponentiated log-logistic distribution introduced by Rosaiah et al (2006) is considered as a probability model for the life time of the product. Sampling plans in which items that are put to test, to collect the life of the items in order to decide upon accepting or rejecting a submitted lot, are called reliability test plans. A test plan to

  18. Fitting the log-logistic distribution by generalized moments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahim Ashkar; Smail Mahdi

    2006-01-01

    The method of generalized moments (GM) is investigated for parameter and quantile estimation in the 2-parameter log-logistic (LL2) model. Point estimators for the shape and scale parameters and quantiles are derived. Asymptotic variances and covariances for these estimators are presented, along with simulation results on the performance of the GM method versus the methods of generalized probability weighted moments (GPWM),

  19. 7. VIEW OF ROLLER FOR EARTH COMPACTING, WITH LOG TONGUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF ROLLER FOR EARTH COMPACTING, WITH LOG TONGUE FOR STOCK, BUILT ON-SITE AND USED TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 4. VIEW OF CRIBBED LOG STRUCTURE OVER TUNNEL AIR HOLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CRIBBED LOG STRUCTURE OVER TUNNEL AIR HOLE AND OUTLET VALVE, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Farmers Lake Tunnel, Ashley National Forest, 5.7 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. Estimating and testing the compensated double-log demand model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian M. Alston; James A. Chalfant; Nicholas E. Piggott

    2002-01-01

    In spite of the proliferation of flexible functional forms for consumer demand systems, the double-log demand model continues to be popular, especially in applied work calling for single-equation models. It is usually estimated in uncompensated form. It can also be estimated in compensated form, by deflating the income variable alone using Stone's price index. The compensated form has the same

  2. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...each ship in commission, and by such other ships and craft as may be designated by the Chief of Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An engineer's bell book shall be maintained as an adjunct to...

  3. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...each ship in commission, and by such other ships and craft as may be designated by the Chief of Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An engineer's bell book shall be maintained as an adjunct to...

  4. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...each ship in commission, and by such other ships and craft as may be designated by the Chief of Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An engineer's bell book shall be maintained as an adjunct to...

  5. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...each ship in commission, and by such other ships and craft as may be designated by the Chief of Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An engineer's bell book shall be maintained as an adjunct to...

  6. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...each ship in commission, and by such other ships and craft as may be designated by the Chief of Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An engineer's bell book shall be maintained as an adjunct to...

  7. Prediction accuracy and sloppiness of log-periodic functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Brée; Damien Challet; Pier Paolo Peirano

    2010-01-01

    We show that log-periodic power-law (LPPL) functions are intrinsically very hard to fit to time series. This comes from their sloppiness, the squared residuals depending very much on some combinations of parameters and very little on other ones. The time of singularity that is supposed to give an estimate of the day of the crash belongs to the latter category.

  8. Prediction accuracy and sloppiness of log-periodic functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Brée; Damien Challet; Pier Paolo Peirano

    2011-01-01

    We show that log-periodic power-law (LPPL) functions are intrinsically very hard to fit to time series. This comes from their sloppiness, the squared residuals depending very much on some combinations of parameters and very little on other ones. The time of singularity that is supposed to give an estimate of the day of the crash belongs to the latter category.

  9. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  10. Website Management: Improving Website Navigability using Web Log Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee-Post Anita; Basu Vedabrata

    2011-01-01

    Website management is crucial for successful sustenance in the realm of e-commerce. Web content and web design are two very important components of website management. This paper explores the utility of knowledge gathered from users’ navigation patterns to enhance the website design. Closing the gap between physical and logical web page linkages based on the result of web log analysis

  11. Audit Log Analysis Using the Visual Audit Browser Toolkit

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    #12;Abstract This paper describes the design and implementation of the Visual Audit Browser (VAB) Toolkit, which provides a visual interface for browsing Sun BSM audit logs. Applica- tions of the VAB between objects and events, the VAB Toolkit allows easier access to related data than textual browsing

  12. Audit Log Analysis Using the Visual Audit Browser Toolkit

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    #12; Abstract This paper describes the design and implementation of the Visual Audit Browser (VAB) Toolkit, which provides a visual interface for browsing Sun BSM audit logs. Applica­ tions of the VAB between objects and events, the VAB Toolkit allows easier access to related data than textual browsing

  13. Determination of Lithology From Well Logs by Statistical Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Busch; W. G. Fortney; L. N. Berry

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a method of predicting lithology by statistical analysis of wireline log measurements with calibration to a core lithology standard. Although an example of the technique applied to the Shublik formation of the Prudhoe Bay area, North Slope, AK, is developed and presented, the method can be applied to any field where some core has been taken. The

  14. Survival Analysis of Click Logs Si-Chi Chin

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    and position bias, making the knowledge of clicks more explicit. We expect that if a search engine returns of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 52242 nick-street@uiowa.edu ABSTRACT Click logs from search engines provide a rich. This paper applies the Kaplan- Meier estimator to study click patterns. The visualization of click curves

  15. 59 FR- Logging Operations; Final Rule DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-10-12

    ...will take the time to change gloves between each operation...Commenters from cold climate areas, such as Alaska...evaluated all suggested changes to the proposed rule...logged, the terrain, the climate or other factors, States...percentage. For example, a change of altitude of 20...

  16. 1. OVERVIEW OF AREA B OF SITE, SHOWING LOG BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW OF AREA B OF SITE, SHOWING LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE AT LEFT (Features 9 and 10), RUIN AND SHED IN CENTER (Features 11 and 12), AND HOUSE RUIN AT RIGHT (Feature 13), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Gold Dust Mine, Mill & Camp Complex, Wards Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

  17. Dataset Descriptions and Results Various StatLog partners

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Charles C.

    9 Dataset Descriptions and Results Various StatLog partners See Appendix C for a full list 1 9.1 INTRODUCTION We group the dataset results according to domain type, although this distinction is perhaps arbitrary at times. There are three credit datasets, of which two follow in the next section; the third

  18. Data-Logging and Supervisory Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya N. Das; Frank L. Lewis; Dan O. Popa

    2006-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are being increasingly used in a multitude of applications such as environmental and structural health monitoring, and condition-based maintenance. Even though the sensors collect a vast amount of data, only a tiny fraction of this data may be useful. This paper proposes a data-logging & supervisory control architecture to manage the information gathered by the WSN

  19. Note on log-periodic description of 2008 financial crash

    E-print Network

    Bolonek-Lason, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the financial crash in 2008 for different financial markets from the point of view of log-periodic function model. In particular, we consider Dow Jones index, DAX index and Hang Seng index. We shortly discuss the possible relation of the theory of critical phenomena in physics to financial markets.

  20. Frame Selection for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log

    E-print Network

    Thawonmas, Ruck

    Frame Selection for Automatic Comic Generation from Game Log Tomonori Shuda and Ruck Thawonmas a comic generating system that visualizes an online-game play. Our system was inspired by a former work of Shamir et al. However, comics generated in their work can have series of similar frames when multiple

  1. Study identifies Niger Delta log parameter, VSP trends

    SciTech Connect

    Ichara, M.J.; Auboubo, A.A.

    1985-03-04

    The general characteristics of various electrical log measurements vs depth in the Niger Delta were established and used to delineate the top of overpressured zones in the area. Measurements used in this study are resistivity, sonic, density, acoustic impedance, and Schlumberger's RFT. Charts which can be used to evaluate and control pore pressure in the area are presented.

  2. Snag longevity in relation to wildfire and postfire salvage logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin E. Russell; Victoria A. Saab; Jonathan G. Dudley; Jay J. Rotella

    2006-01-01

    Snags create nesting, foraging, and roosting habitat for a variety of wildlife species. Removal of snags through postfire salvage logging reduces the densities and size classes of snags remaining after wildfire. We determined important variables associated with annual persistence rates (the probability a snag remains standing from 1 year to the next) of large conifer snags (?23cm diameter breast height

  3. A transaction log analysis of a digital library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Jones; Sally Jo Cunningham; Rodger J. Mcnab; Stefan J. Boddie

    2000-01-01

    As experimental digital library testbeds gain wider acceptance and develop significant user bases, it becomes important to investigate the ways in which users interact with the systems in practice. Transaction logs are one source of usage information, and the information on user behaviour can be culled from them both automatically (through calculation of summary statistics) and manually (by examining query

  4. Observing the Night Sky --- Observing Logs and Guided Inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2000-10-01

    The University of Arizona has initiated a General Education program for all incoming freshmen. All non-science majors must take two introductory Natural Science courses. At the same time the decision was made to eliminate formal labs, but to require instructors to incorporate lab experiences into their Natural Science courses (which typically have 100 to 200 students). For this reason, we have made an Observing Log a major component of our Natural Science class. To make the Log more effective, and to use it as an assessment tool in class, we have incorporated an inquiry-based component. We felt that many observing experiences were ``cookbook'' in nature: make an observation and write down what you saw. Ridgeway and Padilla (The Science Teacher, November 1998) developed what they called Guided Thinking. They proposed ``using three-level thinking guides to promote inquiry in the classroom.'' We have incorporated their procedures into our Observing Log Term Project by having students make a series of guided observations that they can link together with what they have learned in the regular classroom setting. We also take advantage of the Teaching Teams program (peer classroom tutors) so that students can make their observations and discuss them in a small-group setting. A summary of the Observing Log Term Project and examples of student work will be presented.

  5. Development, Implementation and Assessment of a Progressive Reading Log System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Benson, Daniel

    Students in upper-level Engineering classes such as Fluid Mechanics often find themselves faced with over 60 pages of reading a week in addition to assigned problems and exam preparation. Since the reading of the textbook is often infrequently assessed, this aspect of course learning is often postponed or omitted. In addition, with this amount of reading, many students quickly find themselves so far behind in the reading that they can no longer catch up. A reading log system where content responsibility is progressively shifted from the instructors questions to student identification and reflection has been developed and implemented in junior-level Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics courses to address several of the issues associated with student use of the textbook. The goal of the reading log is to improve student use of resource material and to provide opportunities for students to develop skills in reading scientific material. Reflective questioning, guided identification of key concepts, probing questions and cyclic problems are some of the tools that are used to stimulate student use of the textbook. In addition, the progressive content of the reading logs is designed to transition the student from rote learning to self-reflection and synthesis of understanding. To evaluate the effectiveness of the resource, student surveys and responses to reading log questions have beenused to guide its development.

  6. A small-diameter NMR logging tool for groundwater investigations.

    PubMed

    Walsh, David; Turner, Peter; Grunewald, Elliot; Zhang, Hong; Butler, James J; Reboulet, Ed; Knobbe, Steve; Christy, Tom; Lane, John W; Johnson, Carole D; Munday, Tim; Fitzpatrick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A small-diameter nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool has been developed and field tested at various sites in the United States and Australia. A novel design approach has produced relatively inexpensive, small-diameter probes that can be run in open or PVC-cased boreholes as small as 2 inches in diameter. The complete system, including surface electronics and various downhole probes, has been successfully tested in small-diameter monitoring wells in a range of hydrogeological settings. A variant of the probe that can be deployed by a direct-push machine has also been developed and tested in the field. The new NMR logging tool provides reliable, direct, and high-resolution information that is of importance for groundwater studies. Specifically, the technology provides direct measurement of total water content (total porosity in the saturated zone or moisture content in the unsaturated zone), and estimates of relative pore-size distribution (bound vs. mobile water content) and hydraulic conductivity. The NMR measurements show good agreement with ancillary data from lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydrogeologic measurements, and provide valuable information for groundwater investigations. PMID:23425428

  7. Dual-cone double-helical downhole logging device

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Jiunn S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A broadband downhole logging device includes a double-helix coil wrapped over a dielectric support and surrounded by a dielectric shield. The device may also include a second coil longitudinally aligned with a first coil and enclosed within the same shield for measuring magnetic permeability of downhole formations and six additional coils for accurately determining downhole parameters.

  8. The Computer Scientist: Data Logging Analog and Event Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, William, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a simple electronic interface that can receive signals from up to four analog sensors and four event detectors and save the data on disk. Schematic diagrams, construction details, sample temperature plot and weather station logging programs, and a parts list are included. (KR)

  9. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty; K. Kishore

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between

  10. Lehman Review Recommendation dispositon log Date Ref Review

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Lehman Review Recommendation dispositon log Date Ref Review Ite m Concern October 2011 Lehman Review 2.1 Develop a plan for a set of diagnostics for measuring halo currents and vessel displacement to accommodate future installation by the DCPS final design review. Dudek

  11. Log filtering and interpretation for root cause analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamzeh Zawawy; Kostas Kontogiannis; John Mylopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Problem diagnosis in large software systems is a challenging and complex task. The sheer complexity and size of the logged data make it often difficult for human operators and administrators to perform problem diagnosis and root cause analysis. A challenge in this area is to provide the necessary means, tools, and techniques for the operators to focus their attention to

  12. Log In Jobs Contact Special Editions Advertise Classifieds Coupons

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Log In Jobs Contact Special Editions Advertise Classifieds Coupons TAGS Campus Planning, Harry department are looking to save even more. UT's Campus Planning & Facilities Management is looking to expand Hogue, program coordinator for irrigation and water conservation, said the Ransom Center saves 72

  13. Nuclear Cross Section Library for Oil Well Logging Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kodeli; S. Kitsos

    As part of the IRTMBA (Improved Radiation Transport Modelling for Borehole Applications) Project of the EU Community's 5th Programme a special purpose multigroup cross section library to be used in the deterministic (as well as Monte Carlo) oil well logging particle transport calculations was prepared. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at

  14. 20. DETAIL OF DOOR TO FIRST LOG PEN OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF DOOR TO FIRST LOG PEN OF NORTH WALL (north wall of north entry (right side), at the southeast corner of first of four pens which form the north wall of the barn). VIEW LOOKING WEST. Date: July 10, 1937; negative #10636 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  15. Disturbance, selective logging and bird diversity: a Neotropical forest study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN-MARC THIOLLAY

    1997-01-01

    The composition and structure of bird communities, and the damage to forest structure were sur- veyed in northern French Guiana (northeastern Amazonia) one year and ten years after selective logging and compared with the situation in a similar undisturbed primary forest. A point-count method was used in which 937 0.25 ha sample plots were censused for 20 minutes each, and

  16. MEMBER CENTER: Create Account | Log In Email Print Text Size

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    . He was one of the developers of the new monitoring system. Digestive System News Holiday Travel, BadMEMBER CENTER: Create Account | Log In Email Print Text Size Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux WEDNESDAY, June 20 (HealthDay News) -- A wireless monitoring system that uses electrical impulses

  17. Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Organic matter is added to a forest soil in a variety of ways. The most recog- nized method and new roots grew. Soil samples were collected from cutblocks of various ages in soil to a depth of 1 that the adverse impact on or- ganic matter of soil due to logging is minimal. STUDY SITES AND METHODS Two areas

  18. Vol. 44, No. 1 April 2000 Mariners Weather Log

    E-print Network

    Administration Dr. D. James Baker, Administrator National Weather Service John J. Kelly, Jr., Assistant Log (ISSN: 0025-3367) is published by the National Weather Service, Office of Meteorology, Integrated by the National Weather Service, and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service Navy

  19. 17. Integrating Engineered Log JamTechnology into River Rehabilitation

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, David R.

    17. Integrating Engineered Log JamTechnology into River Rehabilitation Tim Abbe, George Pess, David R. Montgomery, and Kevin L. Fetherston ABSTRACT Reach-scale river rehabilitation projects using and engineering practices. The ELJ demonstration projects were developed as part of river rehabilitation efforts

  20. Investigative Profiling with Computer Forensic Log Data and Association Rules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamas Abraham; Olivier Y. De Vel

    2002-01-01

    Investigative profiling is an important activity in computer forensics that can narrow the search for one or more computer perpetrators. Data mining is a technique that has produced good results in providing insight into large volumes of data. This paper describes how the association rule data mining technique may be employed to generate profiles from log data and the methodology

  1. Partnership Logging Accidents Cornelis de Hoop, LA Forest Products Lab

    E-print Network

    Agreement · 1998 & 1999 Accident Reports · 25 injuries reported · 185 loggers signed up · 8 deaths 1999 of Injury · Steps on machine or truck · Trees / limbs / logs #12;Nature of Injury Other Cuts Sprains / Strains Sprains / Strains: Includes torn ligaments, muscles, & tendons. Mostly knee. #12;Fatalities Limb

  2. Computer-aided lithostratigraphic correlation using E-logs

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.H.; Chen, H.C.; Shultz, A.W.; Mahmoud, W. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Various attempts have been made in recent years toward computer-assisted well-log correlation in hopes of removing subjectivity which is inherent in manual correlation. However, this application of computer technology has achieved only limited success and popularity among geologists, due partly to the use of nongeologic jargon describing machine correlation and partly due to the publication of these papers in journals seldom read by geologists. The authors have coded a computer program which performs machine correlation, allowing human intervention at several stages. First, the interval to be correlated is segmented (by machine or manually) into zones, then the four attributes (depth, thickness, log amplitude, and log shape) of each zone are used to perform matching. In essence, this is a pattern recognition approach, but not by comparing just one feature at a time, but by considering all attributes jointly and simultaneously in a 'gestalt' manner. The program starts by digitizing logs, smoothing log signatures, and carrying out zonation between marker beds. Preliminary marker beds are either predetermined by the geologist, or are the result of iterative matching. For each pair of zones in two different wells, a difference is computed by comparing strings of attributes. In this manner, each pair of wells produces a difference matrix with one cell for each combination of zones. Dynamic programming is then used to trace the path of minimum total difference, designated by a P-matrix. These P-matrices may reveal certain geologic structures which are helpful not just in correlation but also in structural interpretation.

  3. Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Griscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E

    2014-03-01

    Adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) methods could reduce CO2 emissions by 30-50% across at least 20% of remaining tropical forests. We developed two cost effective and robust indices for comparing the climate benefits (reduced CO2 emissions) due to RIL. The indices correct for variability in the volume of commercial timber among concessions. We determined that a correction for variability in terrain slope was not needed. We found that concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, N = 3), when compared with noncertified concessions (N = 6), did not have lower overall CO2 emissions from logging activity (felling, skidding, and hauling). On the other hand, FSC certified concessions did have lower emissions from one type of logging impact (skidding), and we found evidence of a range of improved practices using other field metrics. One explanation of these results may be that FSC criteria and indicators, and associated RIL practices, were not designed to achieve overall emissions reductions. Also, commonly used field metrics are not reliable proxies for overall logging emissions performance. Furthermore, the simple distinction between certified and noncertified concessions does not fully represent the complex history of investments in improved logging practices. To clarify the relationship between RIL and emissions reductions, we propose the more explicit term 'RIL-C' to refer to the subset of RIL practices that can be defined by quantified thresholds and that result in measurable emissions reductions. If tropical forest certification is to be linked with CO2 emissions reductions, certification standards need to explicitly require RIL-C practices. PMID:24022913

  4. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  5. Hydraulic Properties of Diatomaceous Structure on Physical Properties and Wire-line Logging - An example of off Sanriku, North Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, T.; Saito, S.

    2013-12-01

    During Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg. 186, two sites (Site 1150 and Site 1151) were drilled on the continental slope of the deep-sea forearc basin of northern Japan. Diatomaceous sediments were recovered Site 1150 (39° 10.9' N, 143° 19.9' E) and Site 1151 (38° 45.1' N, 143° 20.0' E), and the depth of each site is 1181.60 mbsf and 1113.60 mbsf, respectively. This area is under the influence of the Oyashio current and is one of the highly bio-productive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (Motoyama et al., 2004). The combination of high productivity and active tectonic deformation that often caused high rate accumulating of fossil and organic rich sediments. The onboard results of porosity measurements show high value (50-70 %) down to 1000 mbsf, and obviously higher than nearby subduction trench, Nankai Trough (Taylor and Fisher, 1993). There is a possibility that diatomaceous shell keep a frame structure from effective stress and load pressure. On another drilling site result, DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) Leg. 19 located 60 km to the north of ODP sites, was reported high value of porosity, but recognized only shallow range (>500 mbsf) (Shephard and Bryant, 1980). We focused on the relationships between physical property, microstructure, and logging data at deep range(~1000 mbsf). We picked 14 samples to observe microstructure using SEM and measure permeability using flow-ump approach (1.5-4.5 MPa). Logging data were collected using wireline logging (Sacks and Suyehiro, 2003). Based on these results, it is expected that microstructure and logging can be integrated into a general model of core-log correlation. We observed many pores in and around diatom fossils using SEM even in the sample from deeper than 1000 mbsf, and measured pore size distribution and permeability at each depth. Generally, porosity decreases by effective stress and load pressure, and permeability also decrease with down hole. In this site, we recognized down hole decreases of pore space and preservations of diatom shell by using SEM. However, measured permeability displayed subtle patterns in downhole. These results can be considered that intact diatom shells don't always contribute to permeability, while fractured fabrics play good correlation with consolidation. Furthermore, correlations between water content ratio, permeability, and ithostratigraphic variance can be considered as a good index for hydraulic sedimental conditions. In this presentation, We show results of data integration of lithostratigraphy, measurements values, logging data, and physical properties.

  6. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

  7. Specific models for estimation of locally oriented laboratory thermal conductivity of tertiary sediments in the Niger Delta using wire line logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Akpabio; Jimmy, George; Michael, Udofia

    2012-09-01

    In this study, specific development of empirical models for estimation of laboratory thermal conductivities from wire line log thermal conductivity within the ambience of locally oriented wells located in the Niger Delta have been established. The laboratory thermal conductivity is characterised with high fidelity compared to wire line log thermal conductivity whose values vary as the dependence of lithology of the subsurface geomaterials, well effects, as well as the effects of the limited bed thickness of the adjacent lithological units of the Niger Delta where the study was stationed. The generalised equation kleff = 0.709 kweff + 0.188 is an empirically estimated model based on site variables (porosity, permeability and temperature) and constants (cementation factor, formation factor and tortuosity) of the locally oriented wells in the Niger Delta. It can be used to set bounds on the unstable wire line log thermal conductivity values within the 1-2.5 km depths where the oil-rich geomaterials in the Niger Delta are usually found. Equations have been established which show inter-convertibility between laboratory and wire line log thermal conductivity. These equations are considered useful in converting the available wire line log thermal conductivity data of nearby wells in the area to the usually desired and stable laboratory thermal conductivity. Various diagrams in 2-D and 3-D have been established to show the distribution of the parameters considered, and this could help the operating companies in the zone to predict the density of oil.

  8. Specific models for estimation of locally oriented laboratory thermal conductivity of tertiary sediments in the Niger Delta using wire line logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Akpabio G.; Jimmy, George N.; Michael, Udofia K.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, specific development of empirical models for estimation of laboratory thermal conductivities from wire line log thermal conductivity within the ambience of locally oriented wells located in the Niger Delta have been established. The laboratory thermal conductivity is characterised with high fidelity compared to wire line log thermal conductivity whose values vary as the dependence of lithology of the subsurface geomaterials, well effects, as well as the effects of the limited bed thickness of the adjacent lithological units of the Niger Delta where the study was stationed. The generalised equation k leff = 0.709 k weff + 0.188 is an empirically estimated model based on site variables (porosity, permeability and temperature) and constants (cementation factor, formation factor and tortuosity) of the locally oriented wells in the Niger Delta. It can be used to set bounds on the unstable wire line log thermal conductivity values within the 1-2.5 km depths where the oil-rich geomaterials in the Niger Delta are usually found. Equations have been established which show inter-convertibility between laboratory and wire line log thermal conductivity. These equations are considered useful in converting the available wire line log thermal conductivity data of nearby wells in the area to the usually desired and stable laboratory thermal conductivity. Various diagrams in 2-D and 3-D have been established to show the distribution of the parameters considered, and this could help the operating companies in the zone to predict the density of oil.

  9. Prospects for Reduced Impact Logging in Central African logging concessions Driss Ezzine de Blas *, Manuel Ruiz Perez 1

    E-print Network

    , 28049 Madrid, Spain 1. Introduction West and Central Africa represents the second largest area, this paper reviews logging concession systems in Central Africa from the first records ­ based on early descriptions by French led research in West and Central Africa (CTFT, 1976) ­ to the most recent studies

  10. Multiple populations on the horizontal branch. I - Observations in the (log g, log T/eff/)-diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Deborah A.; Rood, Robert T.; O'Connell, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Log T(eff) and log g have been determined for blue horizontal branch (HB) stars in the globular clusters M15, M3, M5, M92, and NGC 288 as a first step in determining the physical origin of gaps or bimodal distributions in the blue horizontal branches of a number of globular clusters. The (log g, log T/eff/) diagram for the 'normal' HB cluster M5 matches the standard theory quite well. The stars blueward of the gap in NGC 288 and the blue extension of the M3 HB have significantly lower gravity than predicted by the standard theory. The cooler stars in M3 agree well with the standard theory while those of NGC 2988 lie at slightly lower gravity. In M92, the sequence of stars is broadened toward the low gravity side more than expected either from standard evolution or from observational error. The data for M15 are too scattered to support firm conclusions but seem consistent with NGC 288.

  11. Peru: Illegal Mahogany Logging Continues in Reserve for Uncontacted Tribes Widespread illegal mahogany logging continues inside Peru's Muruanahua Territorial Reserve

    E-print Network

    agreement with the U.S. Moreover, the logging violates the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), under which mahogany is listed. The investigation included river patrols and overflights in the headwaters of the Mapuya River near the border of the Alto Purús National Park (see Photo A). Originally

  12. Quantifying metal ions binding onto dissolved organic matter using log-transformed absorbance spectra.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Korshin, Gregory V; Benedetti, Marc F

    2013-05-01

    This study introduces the concept of consistent examination of changes of log-transformed absorbance spectra of dissolved organic matter (DOM) at incrementally increasing concentrations of heavy metal cations such as copper, cadmium, and aluminum at environmentally relevant concentrations. The approach is designed to highlight contributions of low-intensity absorbance features that appear to be especially sensitive to DOM reactions. In accord with this approach, log-transformed absorbance spectra of fractions of DOM from the Suwannee River were acquired at varying pHs and concentrations of copper, cadmium, and aluminum. These log-transformed spectra were processed using the differential approach and used to examine the nature of the observed changes of DOM absorbance and correlate them with the extent of Me-DOM complexation. Two alternative parameters, namely the change of the spectral slope in the range of wavelengths 325-375 nm (DSlope325-375) and differential logarithm of DOM absorbance at 350 nm (DLnA350) were introduced to quantify Cu(II), Cd(II), and Al(III) binding onto DOMs. DLnA350 and DSlope325-375 datasets were compared with the amount of DOM-bound Cu(II), Cd(II), and Al(III) estimated based on NICA-Donnan model calculations. This examination showed that the DLnA350 and DSlope325-375 acquired at various pH values, metal ions concentrations, and DOM types were strongly and unambiguously correlated with the concentration of DOM-bound metal ions. The obtained experimental results and their interpretation indicate that the introduced DSlope325-375 and DLnA35 parameters are predictive of and can be used to quantify in situ metal ions interactions with DOMs. The presented approach can be used to gain more information about DOM-metal interactions and for further optimization of existing formal models of metal-DOM complexation. PMID:23490103

  13. Resistance and resilience of the forest soil microbiome to logging-associated compaction

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Martin; Niklaus, Pascal A; Zimmermann, Stephan; Schmutz, Stefan; Kremer, Johann; Abarenkov, Kessy; Lüscher, Peter; Widmer, Franco; Frey, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Soil compaction is a major disturbance associated with logging, but we lack a fundamental understanding of how this affects the soil microbiome. We assessed the structural resistance and resilience of the microbiome using a high-throughput pyrosequencing approach in differently compacted soils at two forest sites and correlated these findings with changes in soil physical properties and functions. Alterations in soil porosity after compaction strongly limited the air and water conductivity. Compaction significantly reduced abundance, increased diversity, and persistently altered the structure of the microbiota. Fungi were less resistant and resilient than bacteria; clayey soils were less resistant and resilient than sandy soils. The strongest effects were observed in soils with unfavorable moisture conditions, where air and water conductivities dropped well below 10% of their initial value. Maximum impact was observed around 6–12 months after compaction, and microbial communities showed resilience in lightly but not in severely compacted soils 4 years post disturbance. Bacteria capable of anaerobic respiration, including sulfate, sulfur, and metal reducers of the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, were significantly associated with compacted soils. Compaction detrimentally affected ectomycorrhizal species, whereas saprobic and parasitic fungi proportionally increased in compacted soils. Structural shifts in the microbiota were accompanied by significant changes in soil processes, resulting in reduced carbon dioxide, and increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions from compacted soils. This study demonstrates that physical soil disturbance during logging induces profound and long-lasting changes in the soil microbiome and associated soil functions, raising awareness regarding sustainable management of economically driven logging operations. PMID:24030594

  14. SedMob: A mobile application for creating sedimentary logs in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolniewicz, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    SedMob is an open-source, mobile software package for creating sedimentary logs, targeted for use in tablets and smartphones. The user can create an unlimited number of logs, save data from each bed in the log as well as export and synchronize the data with a remote server. SedMob is designed as a mobile interface to SedLog: a free multiplatform package for drawing graphic logs that runs on PC computers. Data entered into SedMob are saved in the CSV file format, fully compatible with SedLog.

  15. Neural networks: Prediction of carbonate lithology and permeability from wireline logs in a miocene buildup, offshore Sarawak

    SciTech Connect

    Abbots, F.V. (Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands))

    1994-07-01

    A gas-bearing Miocene carbonate field is used as a case study to demonstrate the impact of neural network technology (nonlinear complex-pattern recognition) in carbonate reservoir modeling. In the Sarawak Miocene buildups, as in many carbonate reservoirs, most porosity is of diagenetic origin, and poroperm character is determined by dominant pore type (i.e., moldic, intergranular, intercrystalline). A fundamental prerequisite to modeling geometries of depositional/diagenetic bodies in 3-D is the ability to recognize these lithofacies (and their permeability values) from wireline logs in wells where core is unavailable; a task that has often proved elusive, as in this case, using conventional programming techniques. Neural networks appear to have solved these problems by their ability to [open quotes]learn[close quotes] the relationship between the core-defined lithofacies and permeability measurements from conventional petrophysical log suites. Neural networks can recognize nonlinear relationships, and they do not rely on predefined algorithms, thereby avoiding the limitation of fitting scattered data to linear trends. On this Miocene training set, lithofacies classifications were [open quotes]learnt[close quotes] to an accuracy of over 90%. The neural network solution for permeability prediction from logs halved the root-mean square error of the predictions obtained by conventional techniques. These results were obtained using standard log suites, making the technique especially suited to field reviews and regional studies. Application of the trained networks to log suites of noncored wells in the field gives geological control by providing lithology and permeability profiles. This allows detailed interwell correlation of diagenetic rock types and their lateral porosity-permeability trends, forming the basis for 3-D reservoir modeling.

  16. Effect of differential subsidence in growth-faulted regions on E-log patterns and preservation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.B.

    1985-02-01

    Detailed electric log correlation, supplemented by cores, in the Eocene Wilcox Group and the Oligocene Frio Formation of the Texas Gulf basin contradicts a commonly held notion that changes in log character across growth faults exclusively reflect changes in environment. An invariable consequence of growth faulting is thickening of a depositional unit in the downthrown block, reflecting a greater subsidence rate. The growth ratio (downthrown or upthrown) varies from just over 1:1 to as much as 10:1. Analysis and mapping of log character indicate that the basic unit of both deposition and physical correlation is regressive coarsening-upward sequences. In Wilcox deltas, prodelta shales pass up into delta-front sandstones while in Frio barrier-bar or standplains, shelf and lower-shoreface deposits pass up into upper-shoreface sandstones. Regressive packages grade downdip in environment from delta plain and bay or lagoon to offshore marine. Growth faults had no significant surface expression and did not separate contrasting environments. A marked change in log character (e.g., from smooth to serrated) across a growth fault in a regressive shoreface sequence appears to indicate that the subsidence rate of the downthrown block exceeded a threshold value, enabling preservation of low-energy muddy layers and possibly episodic waning-flow storm deposits that were largely destroyed by fair-weather wave reworking on the upthrown block. This concept has implications both to regional stratigraphy and reservoir properties. Correlative units can abruptly change log character across growth faults, impeding correlation. Sandstones in the downthrown block may contain shale barriers to vertical fluid flow if the threshold subsidence rate was exceeded.

  17. Bidirectional log-polar mapping for invariant object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehanian, Courosh; Rak, Steven J.

    1991-08-01

    The representation of visual information in human striate cortex is of significance to machine vision. Invariance to certain geometrical transformations in the field-of-view may be provided by the computational anatomy of the visual cortex. For example, there is evidence that the retino-cortical mapping is closely approximated by a log-polar transform. When combined with the foveation response, log-polar mapping can provide a basis for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant perception. There is also evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the spatial frequency content of its input. Although a Fourier transform is physiologically implausible, some authors have suggested its use for invariant object recognition because the magnitude of the Fourier transform is shift invariant. The Fourier transform magnitude operation followed by log-polar mapping can also provide a basis for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant perception. Both of these image-transform (feature mapping) algorithms give mathematical invariance to translation, rotation, and dilation. For an automatic recognition system, however, the feature mapping module has to be robust to discretization error, noise, and possible obscuration. Robustness considerations led to the development of the bi- directional log-polar mapping (BPM) algorithm. The BPM algorithm overcomes the pixel- dropout problems associated with conventional approaches to log-polar mapping. The authors evaluate several feature mapping models, both biologically and mathematically inspired, for their effect on recognition performance when embedded in a neural-network-based, object- recognition system. The modular recognition system, consisting of image restoration, detection, segmentation, feature extraction, invariant mapping, and classification, is being developed to classify objects in laser radar range imagery. Synthetic laser radar range images of four vehicles rotated in the field-of-view, scaled to various ranges, and corrupted by increasing levels of sensor noise are used for this evaluation. This study indicates that feature mapping based on the bi-directional log-polar map provides translation, rotation, and scale- invariant recognition capabilities as well as robustness to noise and discretization.

  18. Automated Variance Reduction Applied to Nuclear Well-Logging Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method enables detailed, explicit geometric, energy and angular representations, and hence is considered to be the most accurate method available for solving complex radiation transport problems. Because of its associated accuracy, the Monte Carlo method is widely used in the petroleum exploration industry to design, benchmark, and simulate nuclear well-logging tools. Nuclear well-logging tools, which contain neutron and/or gamma sources and two or more detectors, are placed in boreholes that contain water (and possibly other fluids) and that are typically surrounded by a formation (e.g., limestone, sandstone, calcites, or a combination). The response of the detectors to radiation returning from the surrounding formation is used to infer information about the material porosity, density, composition, and associated characteristics. Accurate computer simulation is a key aspect of this exploratory technique. However, because this technique involves calculating highly precise responses (at two or more detectors) based on radiation that has interacted with the surrounding formation, the transport simulations are computationally intensive, requiring significant use of variance reduction techniques, parallel computing, or both. Because of the challenging nature of these problems, nuclear well-logging problems have frequently been used to evaluate the effectiveness of variance reduction techniques (e.g., Refs. 1-4). The primary focus of these works has been on improving the computational efficiency associated with calculating the response at the most challenging detector location, which is typically the detector furthest from the source. Although the objective of nuclear well-logging simulations is to calculate the response at multiple detector locations, until recently none of the numerous variance reduction methods/techniques has been well-suited to simultaneous optimization of multiple detector (tally) regions. Therefore, a separate calculation is typically performed for each desired detector response. This paper summarizes recent work to apply and evaluate the effectiveness of deterministic-adjoint-based variance reduction methods, including a recently developed method for simultaneous optimization of multiple detectors, for two simple nuclear well-logging tool problems that have been widely used in the variance reduction literature. The computational effectiveness of the method for simultaneous optimization is also compared to the use of multiple, individually optimized simulations for these simple well-logging problems.

  19. Automated Variance Reduction Applied to Nuclear Well-Logging Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method enables detailed, explicit geometric, energy and angular representations, and hence is considered to be the most accurate method available for solving complex radiation transport problems. Because of its associated accuracy, the Monte Carlo method is widely used in the petroleum exploration industry to design, benchmark, and simulate nuclear well-logging tools. Nuclear well-logging tools, which contain neutron and/or gamma sources and two or more detectors, are placed in boreholes that contain water (and possibly other fluids) and that are typically surrounded by a formation (e.g., limestone, sandstone, calcites, or a combination). The response of the detectors to radiation returning from the surrounding formation is used to infer information about the material porosity, density, composition, and associated characteristics. Accurate computer simulation is a key aspect of this exploratory technique. However, because this technique involves calculating highly precise responses (at two or more detectors) based on radiation that has interacted with the surrounding formation, the transport simulations are computationally intensive, requiring significant use of variance reduction techniques, parallel computing, or both. Because of the challenging nature of these problems, nuclear well-logging problems have frequently been used to evaluate the effectiveness of variance reduction techniques (e.g., Refs. 1-4). The primary focus of these works has been on improving the computational efficiency associated with calculating the response at the most challenging detector location, which is typically the detector furthest from the source. Although the objective of nuclear well-logging simulations is to calculate the response at multiple detector locations, until recently none of the numerous variance reduction methods/techniques has been well-suited to simultaneous optimization of multiple detector (tally) regions. Therefore, a separate calculation is typically performed for each desired detector response. This paper summarizes recent work to apply and evaluate the effectiveness of deterministic-adjoint-based variance reduction methods, including a recently developed method for simultaneous optimization of multiple detectors, for two simple nuclear well-logging tool problems that have been widely used in the variance reduction literature. The computational effectiveness of the method for simultaneous optimization is also compared to the use of multiple, individually optimized simulations for these simple well-logging problems.

  20. Rolling Deck to Repository III: Shipboard Event Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Arko, R.; Miller, S. P.; Dorsk, A.; McCue, S.; Fisichella, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    Data gathered during NSF-supported scientific research cruises represent an important component of the overall oceanographic data collection. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) pilot project aims to improve access to basic shipboard data and ultimately reduce the work required to provide that access. Improved access will be achieved through identification of best practices for shipboard data management, identification of standard metadata and data products from research cruises, development of metadata schemas to describe a research cruise, and development of a prototype data discovery system that could be used by the entire NSF-supported academic research fleet. Shoreside data managers will work collaboratively with ship technicians and vessel operators to develop approaches that scale from smaller coastal vessels to larger open ocean research vessels. One of the coordinated subprojects within the R2R project will focus on development of a shipboard event logging system that would incorporate best practice guidelines, a metadata schema and new and existing applications to generate a scientific sampling event log in the form of a digital text file. A cruise event logging system enables researchers to record digitally all scientific sampling events and assign a unique event identifier to each entry. Decades of work conducted within large coordinated ocean research programs (JGOFS, GLOBEC, WOCE and RIDGE) have shown that creation of a shipboard sampling event log can facilitate greatly the subsequent integration of data sets from individual investigators. In addition to providing a quick way to determine what types of data might have been collected during a cruise, the sampling event log can be used to visualize the relationship, both temporally and geospatially, between the diverse types of sampling events conducted during a research cruise. Research questions in marine ecology or modeling projects are inherently multi-disciplinary and require access to a variety of data types. Improvements in cruise metadata reporting, including a sampling event log that could be contributed routinely to a centralized data repository, should improve access to research cruise data and facilitate accurate reuse of those data by colleagues.