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Sample records for logic control based

  1. Fuzzy logic based robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.

    1994-01-01

    Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.

  2. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  3. Fuzzy logic controller optimization

    DOEpatents

    Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael

    2004-03-23

    A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.

  4. Design and performance comparison of fuzzy logic based tracking controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    Several camera tracking controllers based on fuzzy logic principles have been designed and tested in software simulation in the software technology branch at the Johnson Space Center. The fuzzy logic based controllers utilize range measurement and pixel positions from the image as input parameters and provide pan and tilt gimble rate commands as output. Two designs of the rulebase and tuning process applied to the membership functions are discussed in light of optimizing performance. Seven test cases have been designed to test the performance of the controllers for proximity operations where approaches like v-bar, fly-around and station keeping are performed. The controllers are compared in terms of responsiveness, and ability to maintain the object in the field-of-view of the camera. Advantages of the fuzzy logic approach with respect to the conventional approach have been discussed in terms of simplicity and robustness.

  5. Intelligent control based on fuzzy logic and neural net theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    In the conception and design of intelligent systems, one promising direction involves the use of fuzzy logic and neural network theory to enhance such systems' capability to learn from experience and adapt to changes in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. Here, an intelligent control scheme is explored by integrating these multidisciplinary techniques. A self-learning system is proposed as an intelligent controller for dynamical processes, employing a control policy which evolves and improves automatically. One key component of the intelligent system is a fuzzy logic-based system which emulates human decision making behavior. It is shown that the system can solve a fairly difficult control learning problem. Simulation results demonstrate that improved learning performance can be achieved in relation to previously described systems employing bang-bang control. The proposed system is relatively insensitive to variations in the parameters of the system environment.

  6. Unit testing-based approach for reconfigurable logic controllers verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek; Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Gratkowski, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents unit testing-based approach to FPGA design in-circuit verification. Presented methodology is dedicated to modular reconfigurable logic controllers, but other ip-cores and systems can be verified as well. The speed and reproducibility of tests is key for rapid system prototyping, where the quality and reliability of the system is significance. Typically FPGA are programmed by means single (full) bitstream. Specific devices are able to be reconfigured partially. Usually the partial reconfiguration is a part of the design functionality. It enables the minimization of used resources or provides specific functionality like system adaptation. The paper presents the use of the partial reconfiguration as a toll for the designer. The unit testing approach well know form software engineering was adopted to modular logic controllers development. The simulation process results waveform files, the waveform can be used for synthesizable test bench generation.

  7. A reinforcement learning-based architecture for fuzzy logic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for learning to refine a rule-based fuzzy logic controller. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multilayer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The approximate reasoning based intelligent control (ARIC) architecture proposed here learns by updating its prediction of the physical system's behavior and fine tunes a control knowledge base. Its theory is related to Sutton's temporal difference (TD) method. Because ARIC has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine tuning it through the process of learning, it learns faster than systems that train networks from scratch. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  8. Motion Control of the Soccer Robot Based on Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Daniela; Ionescu, Adela

    2009-08-01

    Robot soccer is a challenging platform for multi-agent research, involving topics such as real-time image processing and control, robot path planning, obstacle avoidance and machine learning. The conventional robot control consists of methods for path generation and path following. When a robot moves away the estimated path, it must return immediately, and while doing so, the obstacle avoidance behavior and the effectiveness of such a path are not guaranteed. So, motion control is a difficult task, especially in real time and high speed control. This paper describes the use of fuzzy logic control for the low level motion of a soccer robot. Firstly, the modelling of the soccer robot is presented. The soccer robot based on MiroSoT Small Size league is a differential-drive mobile robot with non-slipping and pure-rolling. Then, the design of fuzzy controller is describes. Finally, the computer simulations in MATLAB Simulink show that proposed fuzzy logic controller works well.

  9. Fuzzy logic controllers: A knowledge-based system perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonissone, Piero P.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last few years we have seen an increasing number of applications of Fuzzy Logic Controllers. These applications range from the development of auto-focus cameras, to the control of subway trains, cranes, automobile subsystems (automatic transmissions), domestic appliances, and various consumer electronic products. In summary, we consider a Fuzzy Logic Controller to be a high level language with its local semantics, interpreter, and compiler, which enables us to quickly synthesize non-linear controllers for dynamic systems.

  10. Wastewater neutralization control based in fuzzy logic: Simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Garrido, R.; Adroer, M.; Poch, M.

    1997-05-01

    Neutralization is a technique widely used as a part of wastewater treatment processes. Due to the importance of this technique, extensive study has been devoted to its control. However, industrial wastewater neutralization control is a procedure with a lot of problems--nonlinearity of the titration curve, variable buffering, changes in loading--and despite the efforts devoted to this subject, the problem has not been totally solved. in this paper, the authors present the development of a controller based in fuzzy logic (FLC). In order to study its effectiveness, it has been compared, by simulation, with other advanced controllers (using identification techniques and adaptive control algorithms using reference models) when faced with various types of wastewater with different buffer capacity or when changes in the concentration of the acid present in the wastewater take place. Results obtained show that FLC could be considered as a powerful alternative for wastewater neutralization processes.

  11. Fuzzy logic control synthesis without any rule base.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, B M

    1999-01-01

    A new analytic fuzzy logic control (FLC) system synthesis without any rule base is proposed. For this purpose the following objectives are preferred and reached: 1) an introduction of a new adaptive shape of fuzzy sets and a new adaptive distribution of input fuzzy sets, 2) a determination of an analytic activation function for activation of output fuzzy sets, instead of using of min-max operators, and 3) a definition of a new analytic function that determines the positions of centers of output fuzzy sets in each mapping process, instead of definition of the rule base. A real capability of the proposed FLC synthesis procedures is presented by synthesis of FLC of robot of RRTR-structure. PMID:18252321

  12. Wastewater neutralization control based on fuzzy logic: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Adroer, M.; Alsina, A.; Aumatell, J.; Poch, M.

    1999-07-01

    Many industrial wastes contain acidic or alkaline materials that require neutralization of previous discharge into receiving waters or to chemical and biological treatment plants. The control of the wastewater neutralization process is subjected to several difficulties, such as the highly nonlinear titration curve (with special sensitivity around neutrality), the unknown water composition, the variable buffering capacity of the system, and the changes in input loading. To deal with these problems, this study proposes a fixed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) structure coupled with a tuning factor. The versatility and robustness of this controller has been proved when faced with solutions of variable buffering capacity, with acids that cover a wide pK range and with switches between acids throughout the course of a test. Laboratory experiments and simulation runs using the proposed controller were successful in a wide operational range.

  13. The cognitive bases for the design of a new class of fuzzy logic controllers: The clearness transformation fuzzy logic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultan, Labib; Janabi, Talib

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyses the internal operation of fuzzy logic controllers as referenced to the human cognitive tasks of control and decision making. Two goals are targeted. The first goal focuses on the cognitive interpretation of the mechanisms employed in the current design of fuzzy logic controllers. This analysis helps to create a ground to explore the potential of enhancing the functional intelligence of fuzzy controllers. The second goal is to outline the features of a new class of fuzzy controllers, the Clearness Transformation Fuzzy Logic Controller (CT-FLC), whereby some new concepts are advanced to qualify fuzzy controllers as 'cognitive devices' rather than 'expert system devices'. The operation of the CT-FLC, as a fuzzy pattern processing controller, is explored, simulated, and evaluated.

  14. Silicon-based current-controlled reconfigurable magnetoresistance logic combined with non-volatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaozhong; Luo, Zhaochu

    2015-03-01

    Silicon-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors have achieved great success. However, the traditional development pathway is approaching its fundamental limits. Magnetoelectronics logic, especially magnetic-field-based logic, shows promise for surpassing the development limits of CMOS logic. Existing proposals of magnetic-field-based logic are based on exotic semiconductors and difficult for further technological implementation. We proposed a kind of diode-assisted geometry-enhanced low-magnetic-field magnetoresistance (MR) mechanism. It couples p-n junction's nonlinear transport characteristic and Lorentz force by geometry, and shows extremely large low-magnetic-field MR (>120% at 0.15 T) Further, it is applied to experimentally demonstrate current-controlled reconfigurable MR logic on the silicon platform at room temperature. This logic device could perform Boolean logic AND, OR, NAND and NOR in one device. Combined with non-volatile magnetic memory, this logic architecture has the advantages of current-controlled reconfiguration, zero refresh consumption, instant-on performance and would bridge the processor-memory gap.

  15. Fuzzy-logic-based active vibration control of beams using piezoelectric patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manu; Singh, S. P.; Sachdeva, B. L.

    2003-10-01

    The present work presents a fuzzy logic based controller with a compact rule base, for active vibration control of beams. The controller was implemented experimentally on a test beam and the results were found satisfactory. The test system consists of a cantilevered beam with two piezoelectric patches mounted near its root in collocated fashion. This piezo-beam system was modelled using Finite Element Method. To derive the equations of motion, Hamilton's principle was used. Electro-mechanical interaction of the piezoelectric patch with the beam was modelled using linear constitutive equations for piezoceramics, which relate strain and electric displacement to stress and electric field. The fuzzy logic controller is based on modal velocity of the beam. The basis for generating the fuzzy logic rule base of this controller is obtained from negative velocity feedback control. Modal velocity of the beam acts as an input to the fuzzy controller and actuation force is the output from the inference engine. Linear decay of vibratory amplitude is observed in case of fuzzy logic controller as opposed to logarithmic decay in case of negative velocity feedback control Present controller has just three rules. This is an important achievement because bulky fuzzy logic controllers for active vibration control require fast processors for real time implementation (Kwak and Sciulli and Mayhan and Washington).

  16. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  17. A fuzzy logic based approach to direct load control

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, K.; Crow, M.L.

    1996-05-01

    Demand side management programs are strategies designed to alter the shape of the load curve. In order to successfully implement such a strategy, customer acceptance of the program is vital. It is thus desirable to design a model for direct load control which may accommodate customer preferences. This paper presents a methodology for optimizing both customer satisfaction and utility unit commitment savings, based on a fuzzy load model for the direct load control of appliances.

  18. Programmable logic controller implementation of an auto-tuned predictive control based on minimal plant information.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Palomo, G; Rossiter, J A

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes two key contributions. First, it tackles the issue of the availability of constrained predictive control for low-level control loops. Hence, it describes how the constrained control algorithm is embedded in an industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) using the IEC 61131-3 programming standard. Second, there is a definition and implementation of a novel auto-tuned predictive controller; the key novelty is that the modelling is based on relatively crude but pragmatic plant information. Laboratory experiment tests were carried out in two bench-scale laboratory systems to prove the effectiveness of the combined algorithm and hardware solution. For completeness, the results are compared with a commercial proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller (also embedded in the PLC) using the most up to date auto-tuning rules. PMID:21056412

  19. PID self tuning control based on Mamdani fuzzy logic control for quadrotor stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyambodo, Tri Kuntoro; Dharmawan, Andi; Putra, Agfianto Eko

    2016-02-01

    Quadrotor as one type of UAV have the ability to perform Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL). It allows the Quadrotor to be stationary hovering in the air. PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control system is one of the control methods that are commonly used. It is usually used to optimize the Quadrotor stabilization at least based on the three Eulerian angles (roll, pitch, and yaw) as input parameters for the control system. The three constants of PID can be obtained in various methods. The simplest method is tuning manually. This method has several weaknesses. For example if the three constants are not exact, the resulting response will deviate from the desired result. By combining the methods of PID with fuzzy logic systems where human expertise is implemented into the machine language is expected to further optimize the control system.

  20. Fine-Grained Power Gating Based on the Controlling Value of Logic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Horiyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yuichi; Kimura, Shinji

    Leakage power consumption of logic elements has become a serious problem, especially in the sub-100-nanometer process. In this paper, a novel power gating approach by using the controlling value of logic elements is proposed. In the proposed method, sleep signals of the power-gated blocks are extracted completely from the original circuits without any extra logic element. A basic algorithm and a probability-based heuristic algorithm have been developed to implement the basic idea. The steady maximum delay constraint has also been introduced to handle the delay issues. Experiments on the ISCAS'85 benchmarks show that averagely 15-36% of logic elements could be power gated at a time for random input patterns, and 3-31% of elements could be stopped under the steady maximum delay constraints. We also show a power optimization method for AND/OR tree circuits, in which more than 80% of gates can be power-gated.

  1. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  2. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takahiro Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-07-06

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  3. Defeasible Deontic Robot Control Based on Extended Vector Annotated Logic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi; Abe, Jair Minoro; Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    2002-09-01

    We have already proposed an annotated logic program called an EVALPSN (Extended Vector Annotated Logic Program with Strong Negation) to deal with defeasible deontic reasoning. In this paper, we propose a defeasible deontic action control system for a virtual robot based on EVALPSN. We suppose a beetle robot who is traveling a maze with three kinds of obstacles and has some different kinds of sensors to detect the obstacles. If some sensor values are input to the robot control, the next action that the robot should do is computed by the EVALPSN programming system.

  4. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen Chien

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and applications of fuzzy-logic controllers (FLCs) are examined in an analytical review. The fundamental principles of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are recalled; the basic FLC components (fuzzification and defuzzification interfaces, knowledge base, and decision-making logic) are described; and the advantages of FLCs for incorporating expert knowledge into a control system are indicated. Particular attention is given to fuzzy implication functions, the interpretation of sentence connectives (and, also), compositional operators, and inference mechanisms. Applications discussed include the FLC-guided automobile developed by Sugeno and Nishida (1985), FLC hardware systems, FLCs for subway trains and ship-loading cranes, fuzzy-logic chips, and fuzzy computers.

  5. FUZZY-LOGIC-BASED CONTROLLERS FOR EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATION OF INVERTER-FED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of induction motor/drives operating at various load (torque) and speed conditions. Improvement of induction motor efficiency is important not only from the considerations of energy sav...

  6. A fuzzy logic based spacecraft controller for six degree of freedom control and performance results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Hoblit, Jeffrey; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    The development philosophy of the fuzzy logic controller is explained, details of the rules and membership functions used are given, and the early results of testing of the control system for a representative range of scenarios are reported. The fuzzy attitude controller was found capable of performing all rotational maneuvers, including rate hold and rate maneuvers. It handles all orbital perturbations very efficiently and is very responsive in correcting errors.

  7. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  8. Fuzzy-logic-based LLRF control for the RFT-30 cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Young-Bae; Lee, Eun-Je; Hur, Min-Goo; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Yong-Dae; Yang, Seung-Dae; Jung, In-Su; Park, Yeun-Soo

    2015-10-01

    A RFT-30 cyclotron can be used for various applications such as radioisotope production and fundamental research. A low level radio frequency (LLRF) system adjusts the parameters for stable operation of the radio frequency (RF) system. It is important for the LLRF system to maintain a stable resonance condition during its operation. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy-based LLRF control for the RFT-30 cyclotron. The proposed approach stabilizes the resonance condition by moving the fine tuner based on a fuzzy logic controller (FLC). Performance results show that the FLC approach maintains a stable resonance condition for the RF system.

  9. Universal Approximation of Mamdani Fuzzy Controllers and Fuzzy Logical Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Bo; Klir, George J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we first distinguish two types of fuzzy controllers, Mamdani fuzzy controllers and fuzzy logical controllers. Mamdani fuzzy controllers are based on the idea of interpolation while fuzzy logical controllers are based on fuzzy logic in its narrow sense, i.e., fuzzy propositional logic. The two types of fuzzy controllers treat IF-THEN rules differently. In Mamdani fuzzy controllers, rules are treated disjunctively. In fuzzy logic controllers, rules are treated conjunctively. Finally, we provide a unified proof of the property of universal approximation for both types of fuzzy controllers.

  10. Chaotic queue-based genetic algorithm for design of a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Sanju; Saini, J. S.

    2012-11-01

    This paper employs a chaotic queue-based method using logistic equation in a non-canonical genetic algorithm for optimizing the performance of a self-tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller, used for controlling a nonlinear double-coupled system. A comparison has been made with a standard canonical genetic algorithm implemented on the same plant. It has been shown that chaotic queue-method brings an improvement in the performance of the FLC for wide range of set point changes by a more profound initial population spread in the search space.

  11. Controlled Logic Gates-Switch Gate and Fredkin Gate Based on Enzyme-Biocatalyzed Reactions Realized in Flow Cells.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Brian E; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Controlled logic gates, where the logic operations on the Data inputs are performed in the way determined by the Control signal, were designed in a chemical fashion. Specifically, the systems where the Data output signals directed to various output channels depending on the logic value of the Control input signal have been designed based on enzyme biocatalyzed reactions performed in a multi-cell flow system. In the Switch gate one Data signal was directed to one of two possible output channels depending on the logic value of the Control input signal. In the reversible Fredkin gate the routing of two Data signals between two output channels is controlled by the third Control signal. The flow devices were created using a network of flow cells, each modified with one enzyme that biocatalyzed one chemical reaction. The enzymatic cascade was realized by moving the solution from one reacting cell to another which were organized in a specific network. The modular design of the enzyme-based systems realized in the flow device allowed easy reconfiguration of the logic system, thus allowing simple extension of the logic operation from the 2-input/3-output channels in the Switch gate to the 3-input/3-output channels in the Fredkin gate. Further increase of the system complexity for realization of various logic processes is feasible with the use of the flow cell modular design. PMID:26748763

  12. Fuzzy logic based feedback control system for laser beam pointing stabilization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjeet; Patel, Kiran; Govindarajan, J; Kumar, Ajai

    2010-09-20

    This paper reports a fuzzy logic based feedback control system for beam pointing stabilization of a high-power nanosecond Nd:YAG laser operating at 30 Hz. This is achieved by generating the correcting signal for each consequent pulse from the error in the pointing position of the previous laser pulse. We have successfully achieved a reduction of beam position fluctuation from ±60 to ±5.0 μrad without the focusing optics and ±0.9 μrad with focusing optics. PMID:20856289

  13. Smart greenhouse fuzzy logic based control system enhanced with wireless data monitoring.

    PubMed

    Azaza, M; Tanougast, C; Fabrizio, E; Mami, A

    2016-03-01

    Greenhouse climate control is complicated procedure since the number of variables involved on it and which are dependent on each other. This paper presents a contribution to integrate greenhouse inside climate key's parameters, leading to promote a comfortable micro-climate for the plants growth while saving energy and water resources. A smart fuzzy logic based control system was introduced and improved through specific measure to the temperature and humidity correlation. As well, the system control was enhanced with wireless data monitoring platform for data routing and logging, which provides real time data access. The proposed control system was experimentally validated. The efficiency of the system was evaluated showing important energy and water saving. PMID:26749556

  14. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  15. Improvement of photovoltaic pumping systems based on standard frequency converters by means of programmable logic controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ramos, Jose; Narvarte-Fernandez, Luis; Poza-Saura, Fernando

    2010-01-15

    Photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) based on standard frequency converters (SFCs) are currently experiencing a growing interest in pumping programmes implemented in remote areas because of their high performance in terms of component reliability, low cost, high power range and good availability of components virtually anywhere in the world. However, in practical applications there have appeared a number of problems related to the adaptation of the SFCs to the requirements of the photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS). Another disadvantage of dedicated PVPS is the difficulty in implementing maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper shows that these problems can be solved through the addition of a basic industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) to the system. This PLC does not increase the cost and complexity of the system, but improves the adaptation of the SFC to the photovoltaic pumping system, and increases the overall performance of the system. (author)

  16. Fuzzy logic based intelligent control of a variable speed cage machine wind generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, M.G.; Bose, B.K.; Spiegel, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a variable speed wind generation system where fuzzy logic principles are used for efficiency optimization and performance enhancement control. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided pulse width modulated converter system which pumps power to a utility grid or can supply to an autonomous system. The generation system has fuzzy logic control with vector control in the inner loops. A fuzzy controller tracks the generator speed with the wind velocity to extract the maximum power. A second fuzzy controller programs the machine flux for light load efficiency improvement, and a third fuzzy controller gives robust speed control against wind gust and turbine oscillatory torque. The complete control system has been developed, analyzed, and validated by simulation study. Performances have then been evaluated in detail.

  17. A Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for the Automated Alignment of a Laser-beam-smoothing Spatial Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, M. J.; Dickens, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    A fuzzy logic based controller for a laser-beam-smoothing spatial filter is described. It is demonstrated that a human operator's alignment actions can easily be described by a system of fuzzy rules of inference. The final configuration uses inexpensive, off-the-shelf hardware and allows for a compact, readily implemented embedded control system.

  18. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Ahmed M.; El-arini, Mahdi M. M.; Ghitas, Ahmed; Fathy, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  19. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a variable-speed wind generation system where fuzzy logic principles are used to optimize efficiency and enhance performance control. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided pulse width modulated converter system which either pump...

  20. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a demonstration of the successful application of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance and control of a variable-speed wind generation system. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to either a double-sided pulse-width modulation converte...

  1. SVR learning-based spatiotemporal fuzzy logic controller for nonlinear spatially distributed dynamic systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Xia; Jiang, Ye; Li, Han-Xiong; Li, Shao-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    A data-driven 3-D fuzzy-logic controller (3-D FLC) design methodology based on support vector regression (SVR) learning is developed for nonlinear spatially distributed dynamic systems. Initially, the spatial information expression and processing as well as the fuzzy linguistic expression and rule inference of a 3-D FLC are integrated into spatial fuzzy basis functions (SFBFs), and then the 3-D FLC can be depicted by a three-layer network structure. By relating SFBFs of the 3-D FLC directly to spatial kernel functions of an SVR, an equivalence relationship of the 3-D FLC and the SVR is established, which means that the 3-D FLC can be designed with the help of the SVR learning. Subsequently, for an easy implementation, a systematic SVR learning-based 3-D FLC design scheme is formulated. In addition, the universal approximation capability of the proposed 3-D FLC is presented. Finally, the control of a nonlinear catalytic packed-bed reactor is considered as an application to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed 3-D FLC. PMID:24808600

  2. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kalyan; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Amit

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant integrated in a multimachine power system. The utilization factor of a fuel stack maintains steady state by tuning the fuel valve in the fuel processor at a rate proportional to a current drawn from the fuel stack. A suitable fuzzy logic control is used for the overall system, its objective being controlling the current drawn by the power conditioning unit and meet a desirable output power demand. The proposed control scheme is verified through computer simulations. PMID:25053926

  3. Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-01-01

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588

  4. A controller based on Optimal Type-2 Fuzzy Logic: systematic design, optimization and real-time implementation.

    PubMed

    Fayek, H M; Elamvazuthi, I; Perumal, N; Venkatesh, B

    2014-09-01

    A computationally-efficient systematic procedure to design an Optimal Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (OT2FLC) is proposed. The main scheme is to optimize the gains of the controller using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), then optimize only two parameters per type-2 membership function using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed OT2FLC was implemented in real-time to control the position of a DC servomotor, which is part of a robotic arm. The performance judgments were carried out based on the Integral Absolute Error (IAE), as well as the computational cost. Various type-2 defuzzification methods were investigated in real-time. A comparative analysis with an Optimal Type-1 Fuzzy Logic Controller (OT1FLC) and a PI controller, demonstrated OT2FLC׳s superiority; which is evident in handling uncertainty and imprecision induced in the system by means of noise and disturbances. PMID:24962934

  5. A rule-based fuzzy logic controller for a PWM inverter in a stand alone wind energy conversion scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Hilloowala, R.M.; Sharaf, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a rule-based fuzzy logic controller to control the output power of a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter used in a stand alone wind energy conversion scheme (SAWECS). The self-excited induction generator used in SAWECS has the inherent problem of fluctuations in the magnitude and frequency of its terminal voltage with changes in wind velocity and load. To overcome this drawback the variable magnitude, variable frequency voltage at the generator terminals is rectified and the dc power is transferred to the load through a PWM inverter. The objective is to track and extract maximum power from the wind energy system (WES) and transfer this power to the local isolated load. This is achieved by using the fuzzy logic controller which regulates the modulation index of the PWM inverter based on the input signals: the power error e = (P{sub ref} {minus} P{sub o}) and its rate of change {dot e}. These input signals are fuzzified, that is defined by a set of linguistic labels characterized by their membership functions predefined for each class. Using a set of 49 rules which relate the fuzzified input signals (e, {dot e}) to the fuzzy controller output U, fuzzy set theory and associated fuzzy logic operations, the fuzzy controller`s output (in terms of linguistic labels) is defuzzified to obtain the actual analog (numerical) output signal which is then used to control the PWM inverter and ensure complete utilization of the available wind energy. The proposed rule-based fuzzy logic controller is simulated and the results are experimentally verified on a scaled down laboratory prototype of the SAWECS.

  6. Realization of optimized quantum controlled-logic gate based on the orbital angular momentum of light.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Li, Tao; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-18

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimized setup to implement quantum controlled-NOT operation using polarization and orbital angular momentum qubits. This device is more adaptive to inputs with various polarizations, and can work both in classical and quantum single-photon regime. The logic operations performed by such a setup not only possess high stability and polarization-free character, they can also be easily extended to deal with multi-qubit input states. As an example, the experimental implementation of generalized three-qubit Toffoli gate has been presented. PMID:27137257

  7. Synchronous universal droplet logic and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsikis, Georgios; Cybulski, James S.; Prakash, Manu

    2015-07-01

    Droplets are versatile digital materials; they can be produced at high throughput, perform chemical reactions as miniature beakers and carry biological entities. Droplets have been manipulated with electric, optical, acoustic and magnetic forces, but all these methods use serial controls to address individual droplets. An alternative is algorithmic manipulation based on logic operations that automatically compute where droplets are stored or directed, thereby enabling parallel control. However, logic previously implemented in low-Reynolds-number droplet hydrodynamics is asynchronous and thus prone to errors that prevent scaling up the complexity of logic operations. Here we present a platform for error-free physical computation via synchronous universal logic. Our platform uses a rotating magnetic field that enables parallel manipulation of arbitrary numbers of ferrofluid droplets on permalloy tracks. Through the coupling of magnetic and hydrodynamic interaction forces between droplets, we developed AND, OR, XOR, NOT and NAND logic gates, fanouts, a full adder, a flip-flop and a finite-state machine. Our platform enables large-scale integration of droplet logic, analogous to the scaling seen in digital electronics, and opens new avenues in mesoscale material processing.

  8. Refining fuzzy logic controllers with machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the GARIC (Generalized Approximate Reasoning-Based Intelligent Control) architecture, which learns from its past performance and modifies the labels in the fuzzy rules to improve performance. It uses fuzzy reinforcement learning which is a hybrid method of fuzzy logic and reinforcement learning. This technology can simplify and automate the application of fuzzy logic control to a variety of systems. GARIC has been applied in simulation studies of the Space Shuttle rendezvous and docking experiments. It has the potential of being applied in other aerospace systems as well as in consumer products such as appliances, cameras, and cars.

  9. Motor imaginary-based brain-machine interface design using programmable logic controllers for the disabled.

    PubMed

    Jeyabalan, Vickneswaran; Samraj, Andrews; Loo, Chu Kiong

    2010-10-01

    Aiming at the implementation of brain-machine interfaces (BMI) for the aid of disabled people, this paper presents a system design for real-time communication between the BMI and programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to control an electrical actuator that could be used in devices to help the disabled. Motor imaginary signals extracted from the brain’s motor cortex using an electroencephalogram (EEG) were used as a control signal. The EEG signals were pre-processed by means of adaptive recursive band-pass filtrations (ARBF) and classified using simplified fuzzy adaptive resonance theory mapping (ARTMAP) in which the classified signals are then translated into control signals used for machine control via the PLC. A real-time test system was designed using MATLAB for signal processing, KEP-Ware V4 OLE for process control (OPC), a wireless local area network router, an Omron Sysmac CPM1 PLC and a 5 V/0.3A motor. This paper explains the signal processing techniques, the PLC's hardware configuration, OPC configuration and real-time data exchange between MATLAB and PLC using the MATLAB OPC toolbox. The test results indicate that the function of exchanging real-time data can be attained between the BMI and PLC through OPC server and proves that it is an effective and feasible method to be applied to devices such as wheelchairs or electronic equipment. PMID:20336561

  10. Fuzzy logic controllers: From development to deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bonissone, P.P.; Chiang, K.H.

    1994-12-31

    We view fuzzy logic control technology as a high level language in which we can efficiently define and synthesize non-linear controllers for a given process. We contrast fuzzy Proportional Integral (PI) controllers with conventional PI and two dimensional sliding mode controllers. Then we compare the development of Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC) with that of Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. We decompose the comparison into reasoning tasks (representation, inference, and control) and application tasks (acquisition, development, validation, compilation, and deployment). After reviewing the reasoning tasks, we focus on the compilation of fuzzy rule bases into fast access lookup tables. These tables can be used by a simplified run-time engine to determine the TLC`s crisp output for a given input.

  11. Programmable logic controller performance enhancement by field programmable gate array based design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhruv; Bhatt, Jignesh; Trivedi, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    PLC, the core element of modern automation systems, due to serial execution, exhibits limitations like slow speed and poor scan time. Improved PLC design using FPGA has been proposed based on parallel execution mechanism for enhancement of performance and flexibility. Modelsim as simulation platform and VHDL used to translate, integrate and implement the logic circuit in FPGA. Xilinx's Spartan kit for implementation-testing and VB has been used for GUI development. Salient merits of the design include cost-effectiveness, miniaturization, user-friendliness, simplicity, along with lower power consumption, smaller scan time and higher speed. Various functionalities and applications like typical PLC and industrial alarm annunciator have been developed and successfully tested. Results of simulation, design and implementation have been reported. PMID:25441219

  12. Achieving high dependability and safety in sluice automation by using a fuzzy-logic-based control system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes how sluice automation was realized, achieving the customer requirements of dependability and safety. The analysis of both the managerial and technical problems has lead ENEL-PIN to develop an innovative sluice barrage control system, whose control algorithm is fuzzy-logic-based, that can be easily configured for each plant belonging to the identified sluice barrage class. APOS 1 achieves the automation requirements of dependability and safety by using a strong and continuous H/W and S/W self-testing and plant diagnosis, implementing particular techniques in order to realize a valid protection against electromagnetic interferences and climatic influences, and implementing suited command strategies to apply safety measures in case of hazardous situations. Its main tasks are to operate up to seven sluice-gates, suited for regulation, for controlling the river level near the sluices, and to perform a broadly diagnostic activity over the whole plant and on itself, to be used both on-line and for plant maintenance. APOS application software was designed in a general way for a class of plants, so that it may be configured by the plant expert personnel by means of a simple setting of some numeric parameters, during the plant installation. The core of the control system is a fuzzy-logic-based algorithm, that proved to be fast, reliable, and easily configurable to operate on different plants, because of the natural way in which the operation personnel's knowledge can be expressed. 1 APOS - Programmable Sluice Control System.

  13. A high-speed multiplexer-based fine-grain pipelined architecture for digital fuzzy logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Bahram; Masoud Sayedi, Sayed

    2015-12-01

    Design and implementation of a high-speed multiplexer-based fine-grain pipelined architecture for a general digital fuzzy logic controller has been presented. All the operators have been designed at gate level. For the multiplication, a multiplexer-based modified Wallace tree multiplier has been designed, and for the division and addition multiplexer-based non-restoring parallel divider and multiplexer-based Manchester adder have been used, respectively. To further increase the processing speed, fine-grain pipelining technique has been employed. By using this technique, the critical path of the circuit is broken into finer pieces. Based on the proposed architecture, and by using Quartus II 9.1, a sample two-input, one-output digital fuzzy logic controller with eight rules has been successfully synthesised and implemented on Stratix II field programmable gate array. Simulations were carried out using DSP Builder in the MATLAB/Simulink tool at a maximum clock rate of 301.84 MHz.

  14. Reprogrammable Logic Gate and Logic Circuit Based on Multistimuli-Responsive Raspberry-like Micromotors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mei; Dong, Bin

    2016-06-22

    In this paper, we report a polymer-based raspberry-like micromotor. Interestingly, the resulting micromotor exhibits multistimuli-responsive motion behavior. Its on-off-on motion can be regulated by the application of stimuli such as H2O2, near-infrared light, NH3, or their combinations. Because of the versatility in motion control, the current micromotor has great potential in the application field of logic gate and logic circuit. With use of different stimuli as the inputs and the micromotor motion as the output, reprogrammable OR and INHIBIT logic gates or logic circuit consisting of OR, NOT, and AND logic gates can be achieved. PMID:27237969

  15. Performance Analysis of Extracted Rule-Base Multivariable Type-2 Self-Organizing Fuzzy Logic Controller Applied to Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shou-Zen; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2014-01-01

    We compare type-1 and type-2 self-organizing fuzzy logic controller (SOFLC) using expert initialized and pretrained extracted rule-bases applied to automatic control of anaesthesia during surgery. We perform experimental simulations using a nonfixed patient model and signal noise to account for environmental and patient drug interaction uncertainties. The simulations evaluate the performance of the SOFLCs in their ability to control anesthetic delivery rates for maintaining desired physiological set points for muscle relaxation and blood pressure during a multistage surgical procedure. The performances of the SOFLCs are evaluated by measuring the steady state errors and control stabilities which indicate the accuracy and precision of control task. Two sets of comparisons based on using expert derived and extracted rule-bases are implemented as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results indicate that type-2 SOFLCs outperform type-1 SOFLC while handling the various sources of uncertainties. SOFLCs using the extracted rules are also shown to outperform those using expert derived rules in terms of improved control stability. PMID:25587533

  16. Fuzzy logic control of an AGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, Nikhal; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of a modular autonomous mobile robot controller. The controller incorporates a fuzzy logic approach for steering and speed control, a neuro-fuzzy approach for ultrasound sensing (not discussed in this paper) and an overall expert system. The advantages of a modular system are related to portability and transportability, i.e. any vehicle can become autonomous with minimal modifications. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. This cart has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and obstacle avoidance using ultrasonic sensors. The speed and steering fuzzy logic controller is supervised by a 486 computer through a multi-axis motion controller. The obstacle avoidance system is based on a micro-controller interfaced with six ultrasonic transducers. This micro- controller independently handles all timing and distance calculations and sends a steering angle correction back to the computer via the serial line. This design yields a portable independent system in which high speed computer communication is not necessary. Vision guidance is accomplished with a CCD camera with a zoom lens. The data is collected by a vision tracking device that transmits the X, Y coordinates of the lane marker to the control computer. Simulation and testing of these systems yielded promising results. This design, in its modularity, creates a portable autonomous fuzzy logic controller applicable to any mobile vehicle with only minor adaptations.

  17. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  18. Type-1 and Type-2 Fuzzy Logic and Sliding-Mode Based Speed Control of Direct Torque and Flux Control Induction Motor Drives - A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Panda, A. K.; Kumar, S. Shiva

    2013-08-01

    In this research study, the performance of direct torque and flux control induction motor drive (IMD) is presented using five different speed control techniques. The performance of IMD mainly depends on the design of speed controller. The PI speed controller requires precise mathematical model, continuous and appropriate gain values. Therefore, adaptive control based speed controller is desirable to achieve high-performance drive. The sliding-mode speed controller (SMSC) is developed to achieve continuous control of motor speed and torque. Furthermore, the type-1 fuzzy logic speed controller (T1FLSC), type-1 fuzzy SMSC and a new type-2 fuzzy logic speed controller are designed to obtain high performance, dynamic tracking behaviour, speed accuracy and also robustness to parameter variations. The performance of each control technique has been tested for its robustness to parameter uncertainties and load disturbances. The detailed comparison of different control schemes are carried out in a MATALB/Simulink environment at different speed operating conditions, such as, forward and reversal motoring under no-load, load and sudden change in speed.

  19. Modal control of a plate using a fuzzy logic controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manu; Singh, S. P.; Sachdeva, B. L.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents fuzzy logic based independent modal space control (IMSC) and fuzzy logic based modified independent modal space control (MIMSC) of vibration. The rule base of the controller consists of nine rules, which have been derived based upon simple human reasoning. Input to the controller consists of the first two modal displacements and velocities of the structure and the output of the controller is the modal force to be applied by the actuator. Fuzzy logic is used in such a way that the actuator is never called to apply effort which is beyond safe limits and also the operator is saved from calculating control gains. The proposed fuzzy controller is experimentally tested for active vibration control of a cantilevered plate. A piezoelectric patch is used as a sensor to sense vibrations of the plate and another piezoelectric patch is used as an actuator to control vibrations of the plate. For analytical formulation, a finite element method based upon Hamilton's principle is used to model the plate. For experimentation, the first two modes of the plate are observed using a Kalman observer. Real-time experiments are performed to control the first mode, the second mode and both modes simultaneously. Experiments are also performed to control the first mode by IMSC, the second mode by IMSC and both modes simultaneously by MIMSC. It is found that for the same decibel reduction in the first mode, the voltage applied by the fuzzy logic based controller is less than that applied by IMSC. While controlling the second mode by IMSC, a considerable amount of spillover is observed in the first mode and region just after the second mode, whereas while controlling the second mode by fuzzy logic, spillover effects are much smaller. While controlling two modes simultaneously, with a single sensor/actuator pair, appreciable resonance control is observed both with fuzzy logic based MIMSC as well as with direct MIMSC, but there is a considerable amount of spillover in the off

  20. Threshold voltage control in dinaphthothienothiophene-based organic transistors by plasma treatment: Toward their application to logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitani, Asahi; Kimura, Yoshinari; Kitamura, Masatoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-03-01

    The threshold voltage in p-channel organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) having dinaphthothienothiophene as a channel material has been investigated toward their applicability to logic circuits. Oxygen plasma treatment of the gate dielectric surface was carried out to control the threshold voltage. The threshold voltage changed in the range from -6.4 to 9.4 V, depending on plasma treatment time and the thickness of the gate dielectric. The surface charge after plasma treatment was estimated from the dependence of the threshold voltage. Operation of logic inverters consisting of TFTs with different threshold voltages was demonstrated as an application of TFTs with controlled threshold voltage.

  1. Project W-058 monitor and control system logic

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERTS, J.B.

    1999-05-12

    This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console.

  2. Some logical functions of joint control.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenkron, B

    1998-01-01

    Constructing a behavioral account of the language-related performances that characterize responding to logical and symbolic relations between stimuli is commonly viewed as a problem for the area of stimulus control. In response to this problem, the notion of joint control is presented here, and its ability to provide an interpretative account of these kinds of performances is explored. Joint control occurs when the currently rehearsed topography of a verbal operant, as evoked by one stimulus, is simultaneously evoked by another stimulus. This event, the onset of joint stimulus control by two stimuli over a common response topography, then sets the occasion for a response appropriate to this special relation between the stimuli. Although the mechanism described is simple, it seems to have broad explanatory properties. In what follows, these properties are applied to provide a behavioral interpretation of two sorts of fundamental, putatively cognitive, performances: those based on logical relations and those based on semantic relations. The first includes responding to generalized conceptual relations such as identity, order, relative size, distance, and orientation. The second includes responding to relations usually ascribed to word meaning. These include relations between words and objects, the specification of objects by words, name-object bidirectionality, and the recognition of objects from their description. Finally, as a preview of some further possibilities, the role of joint control in goal-oriented behavior is considered briefly. PMID:9599452

  3. Type-2 fuzzy logic control based MRAS speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control of an induction motor drive.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Kumar Panda, Anup; Shiva Kumar, S

    2015-07-01

    In this research study, a model reference adaptive system (MRAS) speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of an induction motor drive (IMD) using two adaptation mechanism schemes are proposed to replace the conventional proportional integral controller (PIC). The first adaptation mechanism scheme is based on Type-1 fuzzy logic controller (T1FLC), which is used to achieve high performance sensorless drive in both transient as well as steady state conditions. However, the Type-1 fuzzy sets are certain and unable to work effectively when higher degree of uncertainties presents in the system which can be caused by sudden change in speed or different load disturbances, process noise etc. Therefore, a new Type-2 fuzzy logic controller (T2FLC) based adaptation mechanism scheme is proposed to better handle the higher degree of uncertainties and improves the performance and also robust to various load torque and sudden change in speed conditions, respectively. The detailed performances of various adaptation mechanism schemes are carried out in a MATLAB/Simulink environment with a speed sensor and speed sensorless modes of operation when an IMD is operating under different operating conditions, such as, no-load, load and sudden change in speed, respectively. To validate the different control approaches, the system also implemented on real-time system and adequate results are reported for its validation. PMID:25887841

  4. A fuzzy-logic based dual-purpose adaptive circuit for vibration control and energy harvesting using piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe Peng; Li, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Due to their two-way electromechanical coupling effect, piezoelectric transducers can be used to synthesize passive vibration control schemes, e.g., RLC circuit with the integration of inductance and resistance elements that is conceptually similar to damped vibration absorber. Meanwhile, the wide usage of wireless sensors has led to the recent enthusiasm of developing piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices that can convert ambient vibratory energy into useful electrical energy. It can be shown that the integration of circuitry elements such as resistance and inductance can benefit the energy harvesting capability. Here we explore a dual-purpose circuit that can facilitate simultaneous vibration suppression and energy harvesting. It is worth noting that the goal of vibration suppression and the goal of energy harvesting may not always complement each other. That is, the maximization of vibration suppression doesn't necessarily lead to the maximization of energy harvesting, and vice versa. In this research, we develop a fuzzy-logic based algorithm to decide the proper selection of circuitry elements to balance between the two goals. As the circuitry elements can be online tuned, this research yields an adaptive circuitry concept for the effective manipulation of system energy and vibration suppression. Comprehensive analyses are carried out to demonstrate the concept and operation.

  5. Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok

    1992-01-01

    Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.

  6. Non-linear control logics for vibrations suppression: a comparison between model-based and non-model-based techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Orsini, Lorenzo; Resta, Ferruccio

    2015-04-01

    Non-linear behavior is present in many mechanical system operating conditions. In these cases, a common engineering practice is to linearize the equation of motion around a particular operating point, and to design a linear controller. The main disadvantage is that the stability properties and validity of the controller are local. In order to improve the controller performance, non-linear control techniques represent a very attractive solution for many smart structures. The aim of this paper is to compare non-linear model-based and non-model-based control techniques. In particular the model-based sliding-mode-control (SMC) technique is considered because of its easy implementation and the strong robustness of the controller even under heavy model uncertainties. Among the non-model-based control techniques, the fuzzy control (FC), allowing designing the controller according to if-then rules, has been considered. It defines the controller without a system reference model, offering many advantages such as an intrinsic robustness. These techniques have been tested on the pendulum nonlinear system.

  7. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy logic analysis based on myoelectric signals for multifunction prosthesis control.

    PubMed

    Favieiro, Gabriela W; Balbinot, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The myoelectric signal is a sign of control of the human body that contains the information of the user's intent to contract a muscle and, therefore, make a move. Studies shows that the Amputees are able to generate standardized myoelectric signals repeatedly before of the intention to perform a certain movement. This paper presents a study that investigates the use of forearm surface electromyography (sEMG) signals for classification of five distinguish movements of the arm using just three pairs of surface electrodes located in strategic places. The classification is done by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to process signal features to recognize performed movements. The average accuracy reached for the classification of five motion classes was 86-98% for three subjects. PMID:22256169

  8. Robust fuzzy logic control of mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn-Rich, Sylvia

    An approach for the design of robust fuzzy control laws for a large class of mechanical systems was developed. The approach applies Lyapunov's Stability Theory to ensure closed loop stability in the presence of plant perturbations and bounded disturbances. It uses inherent properties of an important class of mechanical and aerospace systems, such as robotic manipulators and large spacecraft, to derive closed-loop stability conditions. Based on these conditions, a methodology for the design of robust fuzzy control systems with guaranteed closed-loop stability was developed. Two classes of control laws for mechanical systems were considered. First, a methodology for point-to-point control was formulated. It combines an energy-type approach with Lyapunov's Stability Theory and its extensions, to obtain robust stability conditions for the closed-loop system. A procedure for control system development based on the above conditions is presented. Finally, a procedure for the implementation of the fuzzy control system with guaranteed performance and closed-loop stability characteristics is formulated. In the second part of the dissertation, the problem of robust tracking for mechanical systems was considered. Based on Lyapunov's Stability Theory and its extensions due to Leitmann and Corless, conditions were developed to prove robust stability and performance in the presence of plant uncertainties, bounded disturbances and control saturation. These conditions involve a large number of parameters and functional dependencies that can be chosen by the designer, therefore are well suited for Fuzzy Logic Control implementation. Three different fuzzy implementation methods for the proposed controls system were analyzed and their relative advantages were discussed. An extensive simulation study of the proposed approach was conducted. It demonstrated the excellent performance of the proposed control systems. The proposed method showed superior performance compared to other robust

  9. Logical Access Control Mechanisms in Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, David K.

    The subject of access control mechanisms in computer systems is concerned with effective means to protect the anonymity of private information on the one hand, and to regulate the access to shareable information on the other hand. Effective means for access control may be considered on three levels: memory, process and logical. This report is a…

  10. Convection automated logic oven control

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, M.A.; Eke, K.I.

    1998-03-01

    For the past few years, there has been a greater push to bring more automation to the cooling process. There have been attempts at automated cooking using a wide range of sensors and procedures, but with limited success. The authors have the answer to the automated cooking process; this patented technology is called Convection AutoLogic (CAL). The beauty of the technology is that it requires no extra hardware for the existing oven system. They use the existing temperature probe, whether it is an RTD, thermocouple, or thermistor. This means that the manufacturer does not have to be burdened with extra costs associated with automated cooking in comparison to standard ovens. The only change to the oven is the program in the central processing unit (CPU) on the board. As for its operation, when the user places the food into the oven, he or she is required to select a category (e.g., beef, poultry, or casseroles) and then simply press the start button. The CAL program then begins its cooking program. It first looks at the ambient oven temperature to see if it is a cold, warm, or hot start. CAL stores this data and then begins to look at the food`s thermal footprint. After CAL has properly detected this thermal footprint, it can calculate the time and temperature at which the food needs to be cooked. CAL then sets up these factors for the cooking stage of the program and, when the food has finished cooking, the oven is turned off automatically. The total time for this entire process is the same as the standard cooking time the user would normally set. The CAL program can also compensate for varying line voltages and detect when the oven door is opened. With all of these varying factors being monitored, CAL can produce a perfectly cooked item with minimal user input.

  11. Fuzzy logic control of the building structure with CLEMR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Cheng; Xu, Zhao-Dong; Huang, Xing-Huai; Zhu, Jun-Tao

    2013-04-01

    The semi-active control technology has been paid more attention in the field of structural vibration control due to its high controllability, excellent control effect and low power requirement. When semi-active control device are used for vibration control, some challenges must be taken into account, such as the reliability and the control strategy of the device. This study presents a new large tonnage compound lead extrusion magnetorheological (CLEMR) damper, whose mathematical model is introduced to describe the variation of damping force with current and velocity. Then a current controller based on the fuzzy logic control strategy is designed to determine control currents of the CLEMR dampers rapidly. A ten-floor frame structure with CLEMR dampers using the fuzzy logic control strategy is built and calculated by using MATLAB. Calculation results show that CLEMR dampers can reduce the seismic responses of structures effectively. Calculation results of the fuzzy logic control strategy are compared with those of the semi-active limit Hrovat control structure, the passive-off control structure, and the uncontrolled structure. Comparison results show that the fuzzy logic control strategy can determine control currents of CLEMR dampers quickly and can reduce seismic responses of the structures more effectively than the passive-off control strategy and the uncontrolled structure.

  12. Optically controlled polarizer using a ladder transition for high speed Stokesmetric Imaging and Quantum Zeno Effect based optical logic.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Subramanian; Wang, Y; Tu, Y; Tseng, S; Shahriar, M S

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate an optically controlled polarizer at ~1323 nm using a ladder transition in a Rb vapor cell. The lower leg of the 5S(1/2),F = 1->5P(1/2),F = 1,2->6S(1/2),F = 1,2 transitions is excited by a Ti:Sapphire laser locked to a saturated absorption signal, representing the control beam. A tunable fiber laser at ~1323 nm is used to excite the upper leg of the transitions, representing the signal beam. When the control beam is linearly polarized, it produces an excitation of the intermediate level with a particular orientation of the angular momentum. Under ideal conditions, this orientation is transparent to the signal beam if it has the same polarization as the control beam and is absorbed when it is polarized orthogonally. We also present numerical simulations of the system using a comprehensive model which incorporates all the relevant Zeeman sub-levels in the system, and identify means to improve the performance of the polarizer. A novel algorithm to compute the evolution of large scale quantum system enabled us to perform this computation, which may have been considered too cumbersome to carry out previously. We describe how such a polarizer may serve as a key component for high-speed Stokesmetric imaging. We also show how such a polarizer, combined with an optically controlled waveplate, recently demonstrated by us, can be used to realize a high speed optical logic gate by making use of the Quantum Zeno Effect. Finally, we describe how such a logic gate can be realized at an ultra-low power level using a tapered nanofiber embedded in a vapor cell. PMID:24150297

  13. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF AC INDUCTION MOTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the fuzzy logic control (FLC) of electric motors, being investigated under the sponsorship of the U.S. EPA to reduce energy consumption when motors are operated at less than rated speeds and loads. lectric motors use 60% of the electrical energy generated in t...

  14. Multiplexed logic controls solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Four inexpensive thermocouples monitor temperatures at key points. On command from logic circuitry, dampers open and close to direct airflow, and fan and auxiliary heater shut on or off. Controlling complex arranges heating system in any one of four operating configurations.

  15. Statistical approach to linewidth control in a logic fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitter, Michael; Doleschel, Bernhard; Eibl, Ludwig; Steinkirchner, Erwin; Grassmann, Andreas

    1999-04-01

    We designed an adaptive line width controller specially tailored to the needs of a highly diversified logic fab. Simulations of different controller types fed with historic CD data show advantages of an SPC based controller over a Run by Run controller. This result confirms the SPC assumption that as long as a process is in statistical control, changing the process parameters will only increase the variability of the output.

  16. Magnetic tunnel junction based spintronic logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Andrew Paul

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based technologies will hit their last generation on or near the 16 nm node, which we expect to reach by the year 2025. Thus future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by 'outside the box' designs and new physics, including molecular or DNA based computation, organics, magnonics, or spintronic. This dissertation investigates magnetic logic devices for post-CMOS computation. Three different architectures were studied, each relying on a different magnetic mechanism to compute logic functions. Each design has it benefits and challenges that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on pushing each design from the drawing board to a realistic logic technology. The first logic architecture is based on electrically connected magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) that allow direct communication between elements without intermediate sensing amplifiers. Two and three input logic gates, which consist of two and three MTJs connected in parallel, respectively were fabricated and are compared. The direct communication is realized by electrically connecting the output in series with the input and applying voltage across the series connections. The logic gates rely on the fact that a change in resistance at the input modulates the voltage that is needed to supply the critical current for spin transfer torque switching the output. The change in resistance at the input resulted in a voltage margin of 50--200 mV and 250--300 mV for the closest input states for the three and two input designs, respectively. The two input logic gate realizes the AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic functions. The three input logic function realizes the Majority, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic operations. The second logic architecture utilizes magnetostatically coupled nanomagnets to compute logic functions, which is the basis of

  17. Adaptive control design for a class of nonlinear systems based on fuzzy logic systems with scalers and saturators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-He; Luo, Liang; Fan, Yong-Qing; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Si-Ying

    2014-03-01

    Many practical engineering applications require various types of fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) to design adaptive controllers for nonlinear systems with uncertainties. In this article, we will consider a fundamental theoretical question: is it possible to find a unified adaptive control design method suited to various types of FLSs? In order to solve this problem, we will introduce scalers and saturators at the input and output terminals of FLSs to form the extended FLSs (EFLS). The scalers and saturators have adjustable parameters. By designing the updated laws of these parameters and the estimate values of the fuzzy approximate accuracies, stable adaptive fuzzy controllers can be realised for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown homogeneous drift functions and gains. The proposed design method is only dependent on the outputs of EFLS and the above updated laws, thus increasing its adaptability. The fuzzy control scheme introduced in this article is suitable for all fuzzy systems with or without fuzzy rules. Simulations will also be used to show the validity of the method proposed in this article.

  18. An Argumentation Framework based on Paraconsistent Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Takehisa; Sawamura, Hajime

    Argumentation is the most representative of intelligent activities of humans. Therefore, it is natural to think that it could have many implications for artificial intelligence and computer science as well. Specifically, argumentation may be considered a most primitive capability for interaction among computational agents. In this paper we present an argumentation framework based on the four-valued paraconsistent logic. Tolerance and acceptance of inconsistency that this logic has as its logical feature allow for arguments on inconsistent knowledge bases with which we are often confronted. We introduce various concepts for argumentation, such as arguments, attack relations, argument justification, preferential criteria of arguments based on social norms, and so on, in a way proper to the four-valued paraconsistent logic. Then, we provide the fixpoint semantics and dialectical proof theory for our argumentation framework. We also give the proofs of the soundness and completeness.

  19. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Longitudinal Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control difference airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control throttle position and another to control elevator position. These two controllers were used to control flight path angle and airspeed for both a piston powered single engine airplane simulation and a business jet simulation. Overspeed protection and stall protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic longitudinal controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very difference characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes including configuration changes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle lever travel, etc.). The controllers also handled configuration changes without mode switching or knowledge of the current configuration. This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  20. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  1. 103. LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770): LOGIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770): LOGIC CONTROL AND MONITOR UNIT FOR BOOSTER AND FUEL SYSTEMS, INCLUDING MISSILE GROUND POWER, HYDRAULICS, PURGE, AND COMMIT - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOEpatents

    You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  3. Fuzzy logic controller to improve powerline communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrito, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    The Power Line Communications (PLC) technology allows the use of the power grid in order to ensure the exchange of data information among devices. This work proposes an approach, based on Fuzzy Logic, that dynamically manages the amplitude of the signal, with which each node transmits, by processing the master-slave link quality measured and the master-slave distance. The main objective of this is to reduce both the impact of communication interferences induced and power consumption.

  4. Applications of fuzzy logic to control and decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    Long range space missions will require high operational efficiency as well as autonomy to enhance the effectivity of performance. Fuzzy logic technology has been shown to be powerful and robust in interpreting imprecise measurements and generating appropriate control decisions for many space operations. Several applications are underway, studying the fuzzy logic approach to solving control and decision making problems. Fuzzy logic algorithms for relative motion and attitude control have been developed and demonstrated for proximity operations. Based on this experience, motion control algorithms that include obstacle avoidance were developed for a Mars Rover prototype for maneuvering during the sample collection process. A concept of an intelligent sensor system that can identify objects and track them continuously and learn from its environment is under development to support traffic management and proximity operations around the Space Station Freedom. For safe and reliable operation of Lunar/Mars based crew quarters, high speed controllers with ability to combine imprecise measurements from several sensors is required. A fuzzy logic approach that uses high speed fuzzy hardware chips is being studied.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John. F.; Ditto, William L.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two. PMID:26029096

  6. Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits.

    PubMed

    Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two. PMID:26029096

  7. Fuzzy logic applications to expert systems and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    A considerable amount of work on the development of fuzzy logic algorithms and application to space related control problems has been done at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) over the past few years. Particularly, guidance control systems for space vehicles during proximity operations, learning systems utilizing neural networks, control of data processing during rendezvous navigation, collision avoidance algorithms, camera tracking controllers, and tether controllers have been developed utilizing fuzzy logic technology. Several other areas in which fuzzy sets and related concepts are being considered at JSC are diagnostic systems, control of robot arms, pattern recognition, and image processing. It has become evident, based on the commercial applications of fuzzy technology in Japan and China during the last few years, that this technology should be exploited by the government as well as private industry for energy savings.

  8. Adaptive control of redundant multilink robot using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, X.; Mitra, Sunanda

    1993-12-01

    A new approach to fuzzy distance and restriction measures is used to obtain the appropriate orientations of the links for avoiding obstacles in the robot trajectories. This approach eliminates the classical task of solving highly coupled, nonlinear equations describing the ill- posed inverse problems of multilink robot motion at a much less demanding computational time. Such clear advantage of fuzzy logic based adaptive controller are illustrated by simulation results of guidance of a multilink robot in target positioning and trajectories tracking. The simulation results involve a three-link robot arm with capability of moving from one position to any desired position and tracking a defined trajectories accurately. A modified fuzzy rule based distance measure allows the robot to follow trajectories within hitting the obstacles in the path. The simulation results indicate the advantage of fuzzy logic based adaptive controllers in multiple criteria decision-making tasks.

  9. Hybrid Programmable Logic Controller for Load Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Farooq, Hashim; Abbar, Sofia; Yousaf, Mushtaq; Hafeez, Kamran; Hanif, M.

    The purpose of this study is to design a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to command 8-relays to control and automate ac loads via PC parallel port. In this project, the PLC is connected to the Personal Computer called hybrid PLC and this PC controls all the field ac loads via parallel printer port. Eight signals of different sequences are sent on parallel port via computer keyboard, which activate the microcontroller as inputs. Microcontroller responds according to these inputs and its user programming, which then commands 8-relays to control (on/off) different electronic appliances. Microcontroller memory makes easier to store its programming permanently. This hybrid PLC is applicable for controlling and monitoring industrial processes particularly of small to medium scale manufacturing processes and may be used for home automation as well. Parallel port is accessed by a program written in C++ language and microcontroller is programmed in assembly language. Ac load of any kind, whether resistive or inductive can be controlled with the help of this project.

  10. Control Law for Automatic Landing Using Fuzzy-Logic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Inagaki, Yoshiki

    The effectiveness of a fuzzy-logic control law for automatically landing an aircraft that handles both the control to lead an aircraft from horizontal flight at an altitude of 500 meters to flight along the glide-path course near the runway, as well as the control to direct the aircraft to land smoothly on a runway, was investigated. The control law for the automatic landing was designed to match the design goals of directing an aircraft from horizontal flight to flight along a glide-path course quickly and smoothly, and for landing smoothly on a runway. The design of the control law and evaluation of the control performance were performed considering the ground effect at landing. As a result, it was confirmed that the design goals were achieved. Even if the characteristics of the aircraft change greatly, the proposed control law is able to maintain the control performance. Moreover, it was confirmed to be able to land an aircraft safely during air turbulence. The present paper indicates that fuzzy-logic control is an effective and flexible method when applied to the control law for automatic landing, and the design method of the control law using fuzzy-logic control was obtained.

  11. Control Law for Automatic Landing Using Fuzzy Logic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Inagaki, Yoshiki

    The effectiveness of fuzzy logic control law for automatic landing of aircraft, which cover both of control to lead aircraft from level flight at an altitude of 500m to the flight on the glide-path course near the runway and control for the aircraft to land smoothly on a runway, was studied. The control law of the automatic landing was designed to match the design goals of leading from the horizontal flight to the flight on the glide-path course quickly and smoothly and of landing smoothly on a runway. Because there is the ground effect at landing, design of control law and evaluation of control performance were done in consideration of the ground effect. As a result, it was confirmed that the design objective was achieved. Even if the characteristics of the plant changes greatly, this control law was able to maintain the control performance. Moreover, it was confirmed to be able to land safely when there was air turbulence. This paper shows that fuzzy logic control is an effective and flexible method when applied to control law for automatic landing and the design method of control law using fuzzy logic control was obtained.

  12. Deep Space Network Antenna Logic Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow; Morgan, Scott; Hames, Peter; Strain, Martha; Owen, Christopher; Shimizu, Kenneth; Wilson, Karen; Shaller, David; Doktomomtaz, Said; Leung, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The Antenna Logic Controller (ALC) software controls and monitors the motion control equipment of the 4,000-metric-ton structure of the Deep Space Network 70-meter antenna. This program coordinates the control of 42 hydraulic pumps, while monitoring several interlocks for personnel and equipment safety. Remote operation of the ALC runs via the Antenna Monitor & Control (AMC) computer, which orchestrates the tracking functions of the entire antenna. This software provides a graphical user interface for local control, monitoring, and identification of faults as well as, at a high level, providing for the digital control of the axis brakes so that the servo of the AMC may control the motion of the antenna. Specific functions of the ALC also include routines for startup in cold weather, controlled shutdown for both normal and fault situations, and pump switching on failure. The increased monitoring, the ability to trend key performance characteristics, the improved fault detection and recovery, the centralization of all control at a single panel, and the simplification of the user interface have all reduced the required workforce to run 70-meter antennas. The ALC also increases the antenna availability by reducing the time required to start up the antenna, to diagnose faults, and by providing additional insight into the performance of key parameters that aid in preventive maintenance to avoid key element failure. The ALC User Display (AUD) is a graphical user interface with hierarchical display structure, which provides high-level status information to the operation of the ALC, as well as detailed information for virtually all aspects of the ALC via drill-down displays. The operational status of an item, be it a function or assembly, is shown in the higher-level display. By pressing the item on the display screen, a new screen opens to show more detail of the function/assembly. Navigation tools and the map button allow immediate access to all screens.

  13. Full-order Luenberger observer based on fuzzy-logic control for sensorless field-oriented control of a single-sided linear induction motor.

    PubMed

    Holakooie, Mohammad Hosein; Ojaghi, Mansour; Taheri, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates sensorless indirect field oriented control (IFOC) of SLIM with full-order Luenberger observer. The dynamic equations of SLIM are first elaborated to draw full-order Luenberger observer with some simplifying assumption. The observer gain matrix is derived from conventional procedure so that observer poles are proportional to SLIM poles to ensure the stability of system for wide range of linear speed. The operation of observer is significantly impressed by adaptive scheme. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) is proposed as adaptive scheme to estimate linear speed using speed tuning signal. The parameters of FLC are tuned using an off-line method through chaotic optimization algorithm (COA). The performance of the proposed observer is verified by both numerical simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) implementation. Moreover, a detailed comparative study among proposed and other speed observers is obtained under different operation conditions. PMID:26653579

  14. Application of fuzzy logic-neural network based reinforcement learning to proximity and docking operations: Translational controller results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    The reinforcement learning techniques developed at Ames Research Center are being applied to proximity and docking operations using the Shuttle and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite simulation. In utilizing these fuzzy learning techniques, we also use the Approximate Reasoning based Intelligent Control (ARIC) architecture, and so we use two terms interchangeable to imply the same. This activity is carried out in the Software Technology Laboratory utilizing the Orbital Operations Simulator (OOS). This report is the deliverable D3 in our project activity and provides the test results of the fuzzy learning translational controller. This report is organized in six sections. Based on our experience and analysis with the attitude controller, we have modified the basic configuration of the reinforcement learning algorithm in ARIC as described in section 2. The shuttle translational controller and its implementation in fuzzy learning architecture is described in section 3. Two test cases that we have performed are described in section 4. Our results and conclusions are discussed in section 5, and section 6 provides future plans and summary for the project.

  15. An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with a Fuzzy Logic Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamdani, E. H.; Assilian, S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment on the "linguistic" synthesis of a controller for a model industrial plant (a steam engine). Fuzzy logic is used to convert heuristic control rules stated by a human operator into an automatic control strategy. (Author)

  16. Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu; Wu, Kung C.

    1996-12-31

    A zeroth level introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single- degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.

  17. Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.

    1995-07-01

    An introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single-degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.

  18. Fuzzy Logic Controller for Low Temperature Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Gonzalez, A.; Barmatz, M.

    1996-01-01

    The most common temperature controller used in low temperature experiments is the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller due to its simplicity and robustness. However, the performance of temperature regulation using the PID controller depends on initial parameter setup, which often requires operator's expert knowledge on the system. In this paper, we present a computer-assisted temperature controller based on the well known.

  19. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  20. Adaptive Process Control with Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision-making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  1. Learning and tuning fuzzy logic controllers through reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for learning and tuning a fuzzy logic controller based on reinforcements from a dynamic system. In particular, our generalized approximate reasoning-based intelligent control (GARIC) architecture (1) learns and tunes a fuzzy logic controller even when only weak reinforcement, such as a binary failure signal, is available; (2) introduces a new conjunction operator in computing the rule strengths of fuzzy control rules; (3) introduces a new localized mean of maximum (LMOM) method in combining the conclusions of several firing control rules; and (4) learns to produce real-valued control actions. Learning is achieved by integrating fuzzy inference into a feedforward neural network, which can then adaptively improve performance by using gradient descent methods. We extend the AHC algorithm of Barto et al. (1983) to include the prior control knowledge of human operators. The GARIC architecture is applied to a cart-pole balancing system and demonstrates significant improvements in terms of the speed of learning and robustness to changes in the dynamic system's parameters over previous schemes for cart-pole balancing.

  2. Learning and tuning fuzzy logic controllers through reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap

    1992-01-01

    A new method for learning and tuning a fuzzy logic controller based on reinforcements from a dynamic system is presented. In particular, our Generalized Approximate Reasoning-based Intelligent Control (GARIC) architecture: (1) learns and tunes a fuzzy logic controller even when only weak reinforcements, such as a binary failure signal, is available; (2) introduces a new conjunction operator in computing the rule strengths of fuzzy control rules; (3) introduces a new localized mean of maximum (LMOM) method in combining the conclusions of several firing control rules; and (4) learns to produce real-valued control actions. Learning is achieved by integrating fuzzy inference into a feedforward network, which can then adaptively improve performance by using gradient descent methods. We extend the AHC algorithm of Barto, Sutton, and Anderson to include the prior control knowledge of human operators. The GARIC architecture is applied to a cart-pole balancing system and has demonstrated significant improvements in terms of the speed of learning and robustness to changes in the dynamic system's parameters over previous schemes for cart-pole balancing.

  3. Efficient G(sup 4)FET-Based Logic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 81 optimal logic circuits based on four-gate field-effect transistors (G(sup 4)4FETs) have been designed to implement all Boolean functions of up to three variables. The purpose of this development was to lend credence to the expectation that logic circuits based on G(sup 4)FETs could be more efficient (in the sense that they could contain fewer transistors), relative to functionally equivalent logic circuits based on conventional transistors. A G(sup 4)FET a combination of a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) superimposed in a single silicon island and can therefore be regarded as two transistors sharing the same body. A G(sup 4)FET can also be regarded as a single device having four gates: two side junction-based gates, a top MOS gate, and a back gate activated by biasing of a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Each of these gates can be used to control the conduction characteristics of the transistor; this possibility creates new options for designing analog, radio-frequency, mixed-signal, and digital circuitry. One such option is to design a G(sup 4)FET to function as a three-input NOT-majority gate, which has been shown to be a universal and programmable logic gate. Optimal NOT-majority-gate, G(sup 4)FET-based logic-circuit designs were obtained in a comparative study that also included formulation of functionally equivalent logic circuits based on NOR and NAND gates implemented by use of conventional transistors. In the study, the problem of finding the optimal design for each logic function and each transistor type was solved as an integer-programming optimization problem. Considering all 81 non-equivalent Boolean functions included in the study, it was found that in 63% of the cases, fewer logic gates (and, hence, fewer transistors) would be needed in the G(sup 4)FET-based implementations.

  4. Intelligent behavior generator for autonomous mobile robots using planning-based AI decision making and supervisory control logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hitesh K.; Bahl, Vikas; Martin, Jason; Flann, Nicholas S.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2002-07-01

    In earlier research the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) have been funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). One among the several out growths of this work has been the development of a grammar-based approach to intelligent behavior generation for commanding autonomous robotic vehicles. In this paper we describe the use of this grammar for enabling autonomous behaviors. A supervisory task controller (STC) sequences high-level action commands (taken from the grammar) to be executed by the robot. It takes as input a set of goals and a partial (static) map of the environment and produces, from the grammar, a flexible script (or sequence) of the high-level commands that are to be executed by the robot. The sequence is derived by a planning function that uses a graph-based heuristic search (A* -algorithm). Each action command has specific exit conditions that are evaluated by the STC following each task completion or interruption (in the case of disturbances or new operator requests). Depending on the system's state at task completion or interruption (including updated environmental and robot sensor information), the STC invokes a reactive response. This can include sequencing the pending tasks or initiating a re-planning event, if necessary. Though applicable to a wide variety of autonomous robots, an application of this approach is demonstrated via simulations of ODIS, an omni-directional inspection system developed for security applications.

  5. Quantum logic gates based on ballistic transport in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents various configurations for the implementation of graphene-based Hadamard, C-phase, controlled-NOT, and Toffoli gates working at room temperature. These logic gates, essential for any quantum computing algorithm, involve ballistic graphene devices for qubit generation and processing and can be fabricated using existing nanolithographical techniques. All quantum gate configurations are based on the very large mean-free-paths of carriers in graphene at room temperature.

  6. Control of a fluidized bed combustor using fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Koffman, S.J.; Brown, R.C.; Fullmer, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fuzzy logic--an artificial intelligence technique--can be employed to exploit the wealth of information human experts have learned about complex systems while attempting to control them. This information is usually of a qualitative nature that is unusable by rigid conventional control techniques. Fuzzy logic, uses as a control method, manipulates linguistically expressed, heuristic knowledge from a human expert to derive control actions for a described system. As an alternative approach to classical controls, fuzzy logic is examined for start-up control and normal regulation of a bubbling fluidized bed combustor. To validate the fuzzy logic approach, the fuzzy controller is compared to a classical proportional and integral (PI) controller, commonly used in industrial applications, designed by Ziegler-Nichols tuning.

  7. Fuzzy logic control and optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Lou, Xinsheng

    2012-04-17

    A control system (300) for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input signal (369) and an output for outputting an output signal (367), and a hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) operably connected to the chemical loop. The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) includes a plurality of fuzzy controllers (330). The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) receives the output signal (367), optimizes the input signal (369) based on the received output signal (367), and outputs an optimized input signal (369) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  8. Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.

  9. Design and implementation of fuzzy logic controllers. Thesis Final Report, 27 Jul. 1992 - 1 Jan. 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abihana, Osama A.; Gonzalez, Oscar R.

    1993-01-01

    The main objectives of our research are to present a self-contained overview of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, develop a methodology for control system design using fuzzy logic controllers, and to design and implement a fuzzy logic controller for a real system. We first present the fundamental concepts of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. Fuzzy sets and basic fuzzy operations are defined. In addition, for control systems, it is important to understand the concepts of linguistic values, term sets, fuzzy rule base, inference methods, and defuzzification methods. Second, we introduce a four-step fuzzy logic control system design procedure. The design procedure is illustrated via four examples, showing the capabilities and robustness of fuzzy logic control systems. This is followed by a tuning procedure that we developed from our design experience. Third, we present two Lyapunov based techniques for stability analysis. Finally, we present our design and implementation of a fuzzy logic controller for a linear actuator to be used to control the direction of the Free Flight Rotorcraft Research Vehicle at LaRC.

  10. Terminology and concepts of control and Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Jack; Lea, Robert; Jani, Yashvant; Weiss, Jonathan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on terminology and concepts of control and fuzzy logic are presented. Topics covered include: control systems; issues in the design of a control system; state space control for inverted pendulum; proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller; fuzzy controller; and fuzzy rule processing.

  11. Application of fuzzy logic-neural network based reinforcement learning to proximity and docking operations: Attitude control results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    As part of the RICIS activity, the reinforcement learning techniques developed at Ames Research Center are being applied to proximity and docking operations using the Shuttle and Solar Max satellite simulation. This activity is carried out in the software technology laboratory utilizing the Orbital Operations Simulator (OOS). This report is deliverable D2 Altitude Control Results and provides the status of the project after four months of activities and outlines the future plans. In section 2 we describe the Fuzzy-Learner system for the attitude control functions. In section 3, we provide the description of test cases and results in a chronological order. In section 4, we have summarized our results and conclusions. Our future plans and recommendations are provided in section 5.

  12. On-line fuzzy logic control of tube bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieh, Junghsen; Li, Wei Jie

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the simulation and on-line fuzzy logic control of tube bending. By combining elasticity and plasticity theories, a conventional model was developed. The results from simulation were compared with those obtained from testing. The experimental data reveal that there exists certain level of uncertainty and nonlinearity in tube bending, and its variation could be significant. To overcome this, a on-line fuzzy logic controller with self-tuning capabilities was designed. The advantages of this on-line system are (1) its computational requirement is simple in comparison with more algorithmic-based controllers, and (2) the system does not need prior knowledge of material characteristics. The device includes an AC motor, a servo controller, a forming mechanism, a 3D optical sensor, and a microprocessor. This automated bending machine adopts primary and secondary errors between the actual response and desired output to conduct on-line rule reasoning. Results from testing show that the spring back angle can be effectively compensated by the self- tuning fuzzy system in a real-time fashion.

  13. Fuzzy logic feedback control for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chao; Voltan, Diego S; Keshwani, Deepak R; Meyer, George E; Kuhar, Pankaj S

    2016-06-01

    A fuzzy logic feedback control system was developed for process monitoring and feeding control in fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Digested glucose from hydrolysis reaction was assigned as input while doser feeding time and speed of pretreated biomass were responses from fuzzy logic control system. Membership functions for these three variables and rule-base were created based on batch hydrolysis data. The system response was first tested in LabVIEW environment then the performance was evaluated through real-time hydrolysis reaction. The feeding operations were determined timely by fuzzy logic control system and efficient responses were shown to plateau phases during hydrolysis. Feeding of proper amount of cellulose and maintaining solids content was well balanced. Fuzzy logic proved to be a robust and effective online feeding control tool for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:26915095

  14. Logic-controlled occlusive cuff system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.; Hoffler, G. W. (Inventor); Hursta, W. N.

    1981-01-01

    An occlusive cuff system comprises a pressure cuff and a source of regulated compressed gas feeding the cuff through an electrically operated fill valve. An electrically operated vent valve vents the cuff to the ambient pressure. The fill valve is normally closed and the vent valve is normally open. In response to an external start signal, a logic network opens the fill valve and closes the vent valve, thereby starting the pressurization cycle and a timer. A pressure transducer continuously monitors the pressure in the cuff. When the transducer's output equals a selected reference voltage, a comparator causes the logic network to close the fill valve. The timer, after a selected time delay, opens the vent valve to the ambient pressure, thereby ending the pressurization cycle.

  15. Electro-opto-mechanical cantilever-based logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehder, G.; Alayo, M. I.; Medina, H. B.; Carreño, M. N. P.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we describe the fabrication and characterization of micro-opto-electro-mechanical AND, OR and XOR logic gates based in a combination of optical and micro-electro-mechanical devices. These structures consist of silicon oxynitride-based optical waveguides, through which a light beam of 633-nm can be conducted, and mobile thermo-electro actuated cantilevers, which form part of the waveguide and can work as ON-OFF switches for the laser. These switches are combined to form AND, OR and XOR gates, allowing the laser light to pass or blocking the laser light when activated electrically. The cantilevers are fabricated by freeing regions of the waveguide, which is done by front side micromachining the silicon wafer used as substrate. Also, they are actuated electrically through the heating of a metallic resistance positioned in the device, where the applied current heats the cantilevers and, due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent materials, it is possible to produce a controlled motion proportional to the heating current. Therefore, the switches can be electrically polarized in on/off cycles allowing or blocking the light through the waveguide, similar to logic "1's" and "0's". These switches are adequately arranged to produce an output that is similar to the conventional digital logic gates through electric control (input) of cantilever-based ON-OFF switches.

  16. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. Control of electrochemical signals from quantum dots conjugated to organic materials by using DNA structure in an analog logic gate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Yoo, Si-Youl; Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Ji-Young; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-10-01

    Various bio-logic gates have been studied intensively to overcome the rigidity of single-function silicon-based logic devices arising from combinations of various gates. Here, a simple control tool using electrochemical signals from quantum dots (QDs) was constructed using DNA and organic materials for multiple logic functions. The electrochemical redox current generated from QDs was controlled by the DNA structure. DNA structure, in turn, was dependent on the components (organic materials) and the input signal (pH). Independent electrochemical signals from two different logic units containing QDs were merged into a single analog-type logic gate, which was controlled by two inputs. We applied this electrochemical biodevice to a simple logic system and achieved various logic functions from the controlled pH input sets. This could be further improved by choosing QDs, ionic conditions, or DNA sequences. This research provides a feasible method for fabricating an artificial intelligence system. PMID:27116705

  18. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  19. An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream.

    PubMed

    Yusupbekov, N R; Marakhimov, A R; Igamberdiev, H Z; Umarov, Sh X

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. PMID:27517081

  20. An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream

    PubMed Central

    Marakhimov, A. R.; Igamberdiev, H. Z.; Umarov, Sh. X.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. PMID:27517081

  1. Compact modeling of perpendicular nanomagnetic logic based on threshold gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitkreutz, Stephan; Eichwald, Irina; Kiermaier, Josef; Csaba, Gyorgy; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris; Becherer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we show that physical-based compact modeling of perpendicular Nanomagnetic Logic is crucial for the design and simulation of complex circuitry. A compact model for field-coupled nanomagnets based on an Arrhenius switching model and finite element calculations is introduced. As physical parameters have an enormous influence on the behavior of the circuit, their modeling is of great importance. Exemplarily, a 1-bit full adder based on threshold logic gates is analyzed due to its reliability. The obtained findings are used to design a pure magnetic arithmetic logic unit, which can be used for basic Boolean and logic operations.

  2. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA's) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing functions. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM- based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) device or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using DSP devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment encountered on spacemap. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive-control algorithm

  3. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Monenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM-based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSP) devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment

  4. Construction of a fuzzy and Boolean logic gates based on DNA.

    PubMed

    Zadegan, Reza M; Jepsen, Mette D E; Hildebrandt, Lasse L; Birkedal, Victoria; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-04-17

    Logic gates are devices that can perform logical operations by transforming a set of inputs into a predictable single detectable output. The hybridization properties, structure, and function of nucleic acids can be used to make DNA-based logic gates. These devices are important modules in molecular computing and biosensing. The ideal logic gate system should provide a wide selection of logical operations, and be integrable in multiple copies into more complex structures. Here we show the successful construction of a small DNA-based logic gate complex that produces fluorescent outputs corresponding to the operation of the six Boolean logic gates AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR. The logic gate complex is shown to work also when implemented in a three-dimensional DNA origami box structure, where it controlled the position of the lid in a closed or open position. Implementation of multiple microRNA sensitive DNA locks on one DNA origami box structure enabled fuzzy logical operation that allows biosensing of complex molecular signals. Integrating logic gates with DNA origami systems opens a vast avenue to applications in the fields of nanomedicine for diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25565140

  5. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  6. Improving immunization of programmable logic controllers using weighted median filters.

    PubMed

    Paredes, José L; Díaz, Dhionel

    2005-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of improving immunization of programmable logic controllers (PLC's) to electromagnetic interference with impulsive characteristics. A filtering structure, based on weighted median filters, that does not require additional hardware and can be implemented in legacy PLC's is proposed. The filtering operation is implemented in the binary domain and removes the impulsive noise presented in the discrete input adding thus robustness to PLC's. By modifying the sampling clock structure, two variants of the filter are obtained. Both structures exploit the cyclic nature of the PLC to form an N-sample observation window of the discrete input, hence a status change on it is determined by the filter output taking into account all the N samples avoiding thus that a single impulse affects the PLC functionality. A comparative study, based on a statistical analysis, of the different filters' performances is presented. PMID:15868861

  7. Toward spin-based Magneto Logic Gate in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hua; Dery, Hanan; Amamou, Walid; Zhu, Tiancong; Lin, Zhisheng; Shi, Jing; Zutic, Igor; Krivorotov, Ilya; Sham, Lu; Kawakami, Roland

    Graphene has emerged as a leading candidate for spintronic applications due to its long spin diffusion length at room temperature. A universal magnetologic gate (MLG) based on spin transport in graphene has been recently proposed as the building block of a logic circuit which could replace the current CMOS technology. This MLG has five ferromagnetic electrodes contacting a graphene channel and can be considered as two three-terminal XOR logic gates. Here we demonstrate this XOR logic gate operation in such a device. This was achieved by systematically tuning the injection current bias to balance the spin polarization efficiency of the two inputs, and offset voltage in the detection circuit to obtain binary outputs. The output is a current which corresponds to different logic states: zero current is logic `0', and nonzero current is logic `1'. We find improved performance could be achieved by reducing device size and optimizing the contacts.

  8. Directional passability and quadratic steering logic for pyramid-type single gimbal control moment gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Katsuhiko; Jikuya, Ichiro

    2014-09-01

    Singularity analysis and the steering logic of pyramid-type single gimbal control moment gyros are studied. First, a new concept of directional passability in a specified direction is introduced to investigate the structure of an elliptic singular surface. The differences between passability and directional passability are discussed in detail and are visualized for 0H, 2H, and 4H singular surfaces. Second, quadratic steering logic (QSL), a new steering logic for passing the singular surface, is investigated. The algorithm is based on the quadratic constrained quadratic optimization problem and is reduced to the Newton method by using Gröbner bases. The proposed steering logic is demonstrated through numerical simulations for both constant torque maneuvering examples and attitude control examples.

  9. A Genetic Algorithm Optimised Fuzzy Logic Controller for Automatic Generation Control for Single Area System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, J. S.; Jain, V.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA)-based design and optimization of fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for automatic generation control (AGC) for a single area. FLCs are characterized by a set of parameters, which are optimized using GA to improve their performance. The design of input and output membership functions (mfs) of an FLC is carried out by automatically tuning (off-line) the parameters of the membership functions. Tuning is based on maximization of a comprehensive fitness function constructed as inverse of a weighted average of three performance indices, i.e., integral square deviation (ISD), the integral of square of the frequency deviation and peak overshoot (Mp), and settling time (ts). The GA-optimized FLC (GAFLC) shows better performance as compared to a conventional proportional integral (PI) and a hand-designed fuzzy logic controller not only for a standard system (displaying frequency deviations) but also under parametric and load disturbances.

  10. Control of a flexible beam using fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, Claire L.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project, funded under the NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship program, was to evaluate control methods utilizing fuzzy logic for applicability to control of flexible structures. This was done by applying these methods to control of the Control Structures Interaction Suitcase Demonstrator developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The CSI Suitcase Demonstrator is a flexible beam, mounted at one end with springs and bearing, and with a single actuator capable of rotating the beam about a pin at the fixed end. The control objective is to return the tip of the free end to a zero error position (from a nonzero initial condition). It is neither completely controllable nor completely observable. Fuzzy logic control was demonstrated to successfully control the system and to exhibit desirable robustness properties compared to conventional control.

  11. A fuzzy logic sliding mode controlled electronic differential for a direct wheel drive EV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkop, Emre; Altas, Ismail H.; Okumus, H. Ibrahim; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a direct wheel drive electric vehicle based on an electronic differential system with a fuzzy logic sliding mode controller (FLSMC) is studied. The conventional sliding surface is modified using a fuzzy rule base to obtain fuzzy dynamic sliding surfaces by changing its slopes using the global error and its derivative in a fuzzy logic inference system. The controller is compared with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and sliding mode controllers (SMCs), which are usually preferred to be used in industry. The proposed controller provides robustness and flexibility to direct wheel drive electric vehicles. The fuzzy logic sliding mode controller, electronic differential system and the overall electrical vehicle mechanism are modelled and digitally simulated by using the Matlab software. Simulation results show that the system with FLSMC has better efficiency and performance compared to those of PID and SMCs.

  12. Magnetic tunnel junction based spintronic logic and memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaofeng

    2011-12-01

    The development of semiconductor devices is limited by the high power consumption and further physical dimension reduction. Spintronic devices, especially the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) based devices, have advantages of non-volatility, reconfigurable capability, fast-switching speed, small-dimension, and compatibility to semiconductor devices, which is a promising candidate for future logic and memory devices. However, the previously proposed MTJ logic devices have been operated independently and therefore are limited to only basic logic operations. Consequently, the MTJ device has only been used as ancillary device in the circuit, rather than the main computation component. In this thesis, study has been done on both spintronic logic and memory devices. In the first part, systematic study has been performed on MTJ based logic devices in order to expand the functionalities and properties of MTJ devices. Basic logic cell with three-input has been designed and simulated. Nano-magnetic-channel has been proposed, which is the first design to realize the communication between the MTJ logic cells. With basic logic unit as a building block, a spintronic logic circuit has been designed with MTJ as the dominant component. HSPICE simulation has been done for this spintronic logic circuit, which acts as an Arithmetic Logic Unit. In the spintronic memory device part, study has been focused on the fundamental study on the current induced switching in MTJ devices with hybrid free layer. With hybrid free layer, magnetic non-uniformity is introduced along the current direction, which induces extra spin torque component. Unique current-induced switching has been observed and studied in the hybrid free layer MTJ. Adiabatic spin torque, which is introduced by spatial non-uniform magnetization in the hybrid free layer, plays an important role for the unique switching. By tuning the bias field, single-polar current switching was achieved in this hybrid MTJ device, which gives the

  13. DNAzyme-Based Logic Gate-Mediated DNA Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Shuoxing; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-13

    Controlling DNA self-assembly processes using rationally designed logic gates is a major goal of DNA-based nanotechnology and programming. Such controls could facilitate the hierarchical engineering of complex nanopatterns responding to various molecular triggers or inputs. Here, we demonstrate the use of a series of DNAzyme-based logic gates to control DNA tile self-assembly onto a prescribed DNA origami frame. Logic systems such as "YES," "OR," "AND," and "logic switch" are implemented based on DNAzyme-mediated tile recognition with the DNA origami frame. DNAzyme is designed to play two roles: (1) as an intermediate messenger to motivate downstream reactions and (2) as a final trigger to report fluorescent signals, enabling information relay between the DNA origami-framed tile assembly and fluorescent signaling. The results of this study demonstrate the plausibility of DNAzyme-mediated hierarchical self-assembly and provide new tools for generating dynamic and responsive self-assembly systems. PMID:26647640

  14. A fuzzy logic controller for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Pfluger, Nathan

    1993-01-01

    The ability of a mobile robot system to plan and move intelligently in a dynamic system is needed if robots are to be useful in areas other than controlled environments. An example of a use for this system is to control an autonomous mobile robot in a space station, or other isolated area where it is hard or impossible for human life to exist for long periods of time (e.g., Mars). The system would allow the robot to be programmed to carry out the duties normally accomplished by a human being. Some of the duties that could be accomplished include operating instruments, transporting objects, and maintenance of the environment. The main focus of our early work has been on developing a fuzzy controller that takes a path and adapts it to a given environment. The robot only uses information gathered from the sensors, but retains the ability to avoid dynamically placed obstacles near and along the path. Our fuzzy logic controller is based on the following algorithm: (1) determine the desired direction of travel; (2) determine the allowed direction of travel; and (3) combine the desired and allowed directions in order to determine a direciton that is both desired and allowed. The desired direction of travel is determined by projecting ahead to a point along the path that is closer to the goal. This gives a local direction of travel for the robot and helps to avoid obstacles.

  15. A new adaptive configuration of PID type fuzzy logic controller.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Alireza; Masoum, Mohammad A S; Moghbel, Moayed

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an adaptive configuration for PID type fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is proposed to improve the performances of both conventional PID (C-PID) controller and conventional PID type FLC (C-PID-FLC). The proposed configuration is called adaptive because its output scaling factors (SFs) are dynamically tuned while the controller is functioning. The initial values of SFs are calculated based on its well-tuned counterpart while the proceeding values are generated using a proposed stochastic hybrid bacterial foraging particle swarm optimization (h-BF-PSO) algorithm. The performance of the proposed configuration is evaluated through extensive simulations for different operating conditions (changes in reference, load disturbance and noise signals). The results reveal that the proposed scheme performs significantly better over the C-PID controller and the C-PID-FLC in terms of several performance indices (integral absolute error (IAE), integral-of-time-multiplied absolute error (ITAE) and integral-of-time-multiplied squared error (ITSE)), overshoot and settling time for plants with and without dead time. PMID:25530256

  16. Error Correction, Control Systems and Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Earl B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will be a discussion on dealing with errors. While error correction and communication is important when dealing with spacecraft vehicles, the issue of control system design is also important. There will be certain commands that one wants a motion device to execute. An adequate control system will be necessary to make sure that the instruments and devices will receive the necessary commands. As it will be discussed later, the actual value will not always be equal to the intended or desired value. Hence, an adequate controller will be necessary so that the gap between the two values will be closed.

  17. Controlling High Power Devices with Computers or TTL Logic Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Computers are routinely used to control experiments in modern science laboratories. This should be reflected in laboratories in an educational setting. There is a mismatch between the power that can be delivered by a computer interfacing card or a TTL logic circuit and that required by many practical pieces of laboratory equipment. One common way…

  18. Fuzzy logic controls pressure in Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, V.P.; Farabee, L.M.

    1994-12-31

    A fuzzy logic pressure control system has been designed and implemented to deal with the demanding requirements of the Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF), a test bed that simulates downhole conditions for investigating fluid behavior during fracturing stimulation. Pressure control in the fracture simulator was difficult because of the wide range of fluid types and pumping conditions used and by the compliant structure of the simulator, which uses servo-controlled actuators to maintain a constant gap width under varying pressure conditions. The FFCF pressure control system must handle fluids that vary from water to high-viscosity gel slurries at flow rates ranging from 1/2 to 3 bbl/min. Conventional control approaches were successful only under very limited conditions. To solve this problem, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was developed to be a user function in the FFCF supervisory control and data acquisition system. Using several fuzzy logic rules, the FLC generates a position set point for a slurry throttling valve. An electro-hydraulic directional control valve uses the set point supplied by the FLC to position the active control element of the slurry throttling valve.

  19. Design of synthetic biological logic circuits based on evolutionary algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chang, Yen-Chang; Jennawasin, Tanagorn; Chen, Po-Kuei

    2013-08-01

    The construction of an artificial biological logic circuit using systematic strategy is recognised as one of the most important topics for the development of synthetic biology. In this study, a real-structured genetic algorithm (RSGA), which combines general advantages of the traditional real genetic algorithm with those of the structured genetic algorithm, is proposed to deal with the biological logic circuit design problem. A general model with the cis-regulatory input function and appropriate promoter activity functions is proposed to synthesise a wide variety of fundamental logic gates such as NOT, Buffer, AND, OR, NAND, NOR and XOR. The results obtained can be extended to synthesise advanced combinational and sequential logic circuits by topologically distinct connections. The resulting optimal design of these logic gates and circuits are established via the RSGA. The in silico computer-based modelling technology has been verified showing its great advantages in the purpose. PMID:23919952

  20. Autonomous vehicle motion control, approximate maps, and fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruspini, Enrique H.

    1993-01-01

    Progress on research on the control of actions of autonomous mobile agents using fuzzy logic is presented. The innovations described encompass theoretical and applied developments. At the theoretical level, results of research leading to the combined utilization of conventional artificial planning techniques with fuzzy logic approaches for the control of local motion and perception actions are presented. Also formulations of dynamic programming approaches to optimal control in the context of the analysis of approximate models of the real world are examined. Also a new approach to goal conflict resolution that does not require specification of numerical values representing relative goal importance is reviewed. Applied developments include the introduction of the notion of approximate map. A fuzzy relational database structure for the representation of vague and imprecise information about the robot's environment is proposed. Also the central notions of control point and control structure are discussed.

  1. Fuzzy logic switching of thyristor controlled braking resistor considering coordination with SVC

    SciTech Connect

    Hiyama, T.; Mishiro, M.; Kihara, H.; Ortmeyer, T.H.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a new switching control scheme for braking resistors using a fuzzy logic to enhance overall stability of electric power systems. In addition, the coordination with an SVC is also considered to achieve a wider stable region. The braking resistor is set on one of the generator busbars, where the real power output from the generator is measured to determine the firing-angle of the thyristor switch. The switching control scheme is simple so as not to require heavy computation on the micro-computer based switching controller. An SVC is set on one of the busbars in the transmission system. The switching of the SVC is performed by using a similar fuzzy logic control scheme to the one for the BR. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy logic switching control scheme.

  2. Reconfigurable nanoelectronics using graphene based spintronic logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dery, Hanan; Wu, Hui; Ciftcioglu, Berkehan; Huang, Michael; Song, Yang; Kawakami, Roland K.; Shi, Jing; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; Telesca, Donald A.; Žutić, Igor; Sham, Lu J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a novel design concept for spintronic nanoelectronics that emphasizes a seamless integration of spin-based memory and logic circuits. The building blocks are magneto-logic gates based on a hybrid graphene/ferromagnet material system. We use network search engines as a technology demonstration vehicle and present a spin-based circuit design with smaller area, faster speed, and lower energy consumption than the state-of-the-art CMOS counterparts. This design can also be applied in applications such as data compression, coding and image recognition. In the proposed scheme, over 100 spin-based logic operations are carried out before any need for a spin-charge conversion. Consequently, supporting CMOS electronics requires little power consumption. The spintronic-CMOS integrated system can be implemented on a single 3-D chip. These nonvolatile logic circuits hold potential for a paradigm shift in computing applications.

  3. Fuzzy logic based ELF magnetic field estimation in substations.

    PubMed

    Kosalay, Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines estimation of the extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MF) in the power substation. First, the results of the previous relevant research studies and the MF measurements in a sample power substation are presented. Then, a fuzzy logic model based on the geometric definitions in order to estimate the MF distribution is explained. Visual software, which has a three-dimensional screening unit, based on the fuzzy logic technique, has been developed. PMID:18440967

  4. A robust fuzzy logic controller for robot manipulators with uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Yi, S Y; Chung, M J

    1997-01-01

    Owing to load variation and unmodeled dynamics, a robot manipulator can be classified as a nonlinear dynamic system with structured and unstructured uncertainties. In this paper, the stability and robustness of a class of the fuzzy logic control (FLC) is investigated and a robust FLC is proposed for a robot manipulator with uncertainties. In order to show the performance of the proposed control algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on a simple two-link robot manipulator. PMID:18255910

  5. Colorimetric logic response based on aptamer functionalized colloidal crystal hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Baofen; Wang, Huan; Ding, Haibo; Zhao, Yuanjin; Pu, Yuepu; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-04-01

    A novel colorimetric logic system based on the aptamer-cross-linked colloidal crystal hydrogel (CCH) was developed. With the input stimuli of Hg2+ and Ag+, the CCH displayed shrinking response and colour change corresponding to the logical ``OR'' and ``AND'' gate. The visualization of the logic output signals is realized.A novel colorimetric logic system based on the aptamer-cross-linked colloidal crystal hydrogel (CCH) was developed. With the input stimuli of Hg2+ and Ag+, the CCH displayed shrinking response and colour change corresponding to the logical ``OR'' and ``AND'' gate. The visualization of the logic output signals is realized. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: I. Experimental section. II. Photograph of the aptamer functionalized CCH in the presence of different targets. III. The specificity of the aptamer functionalized CCH. IV. Relationship between the input ion concentration and the reflection wavelength blue shift. V. The logic swelling kinetics of CCH. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00586h

  6. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  7. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1994-10-25

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 123 figs.

  8. A fuzzy logic controller based approach to model the switching mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic pathway in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Abhijit; Paul, Debjyoti; De, Rajat K

    2016-07-19

    Dynamics of large nonlinear complex systems, like metabolic networks, depend on several parameters. A metabolic pathway may switch to another pathway in accordance with the current state of parameters in both normal and cancer cells. Here, most of the parameter values are unknown to us. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) has been developed here for the purpose of modeling metabolic networks by approximating the reasons for the behaviour of a system and applying expert knowledge to track switching between metabolic pathways. The simulation results can track the switching between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, as well as glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways (PPP) in normal cells. Unlike normal cells, pyruvate kinase (M2 isoform) (PKM2) switches alternatively between its two oligomeric forms, i.e. an active tetramer and a relatively low activity dimer, in cancer cells. Besides, there is a coordination among PKM2 switching and enzymes catalyzing PPP. These phenomena help cancer cells to maintain their high energy demand and macromolecular synthesis. However, the reduction of initial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a very low concentration, decreasing initial glucose uptake, destroying coordination between glycolysis and PPP, and replacement of PKM2 by its relatively inactive oligomeric form (dimer) or inhibition of the translation of PKM2 may destabilize the mutated control mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic (CCM) pathway in cancer cells. The performance of the model is compared appropriately with some existing ones. PMID:27225801

  9. A Numerical Optimization Approach for Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Garg, Devendra P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a method to tune fuzzy controllers using numerical optimization. The main attribute of this approach is that it allows fuzzy logic controllers to be tuned to achieve global performance requirements. Furthermore, this approach allows design constraints to be implemented during the tuning process. The method tunes the controller by parameterizing the membership functions for error, change-in-error and control output. The resulting parameters form a design vector which is iteratively changed to minimize an objective function. The minimal objective function results in an optimal performance of the system. A spacecraft mounted science instrument line-of-sight pointing control is used to demonstrate results.

  10. An application of fuzzy logic to power generation control

    SciTech Connect

    Tarabishy, M.N.; Grudzinski, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The high demand for more energy at lower prices, coupled with tighter safety and environmental regulations made it necessary for utility companies to provide reliable power more efficiently, and for that purpose new control methods are being utilized to meet those challenges. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) technology produces controllers that are more robust at lower development cost and time. These qualities give FLC advantage over conventional control technologies particularly in dealing with increasingly complex nonlinear systems. In this paper the authors examine some of the main applications of FLC in power systems and demonstrate it`s usefulness in the control of a gas turbine.

  11. A defeasible deontic reasoning system based on annotated logic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi; Abe, Jair Minoro; Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, we provide a theoretical framework for a defeasible deontic reasoning system based on annotated logic programming, we propose an annotated logic program called an EVALPSN (Extended Vector Annotated Logic Program with Strong Negation) to formulate a defeasible deontic reasoning proposed by D. Nute. We also propose a translation rule from defeasible deontic theory into EVALPSN and show that the derivability of defeasible deontic theory can be translated into the satisfiability of EVALPSN stable model. The combination of a translation system from defeasible deontic theories into EVALPSNs and a computing system of EVALPSN stable models can easily provide a theoretical framework for an automated defeasible deontic reasoning system.

  12. Dynamic Event Tree advancements and control logic improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Mandelli, Diego; Sen, Ramazan Sonat; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    The RAVEN code has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory since 2012. Its main goal is to create a multi-purpose platform for the deploying of all the capabilities needed for Probabilistic Risk Assessment, uncertainty quantification, data mining analysis and optimization studies. RAVEN is currently equipped with three different sampling categories: Forward samplers (Monte Carlo, Latin Hyper Cube, Stratified, Grid Sampler, Factorials, etc.), Adaptive Samplers (Limit Surface search, Adaptive Polynomial Chaos, etc.) and Dynamic Event Tree (DET) samplers (Deterministic and Adaptive Dynamic Event Trees). The main subject of this document is to report the activities that have been done in order to: start the migration of the RAVEN/RELAP-7 control logic system into MOOSE, and develop advanced dynamic sampling capabilities based on the Dynamic Event Tree approach. In order to provide to all MOOSE-based applications a control logic capability, in this Fiscal Year an initial migration activity has been initiated, moving the control logic system, designed for RELAP-7 by the RAVEN team, into the MOOSE framework. In this document, a brief explanation of what has been done is going to be reported. The second and most important subject of this report is about the development of a Dynamic Event Tree (DET) sampler named “Hybrid Dynamic Event Tree” (HDET) and its Adaptive variant “Adaptive Hybrid Dynamic Event Tree” (AHDET). As other authors have already reported, among the different types of uncertainties, it is possible to discern two principle types: aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. The classical Dynamic Event Tree is in charge of treating the first class (aleatory) uncertainties; the dependence of the probabilistic risk assessment and analysis on the epistemic uncertainties are treated by an initial Monte Carlo sampling (MCDET). From each Monte Carlo sample, a DET analysis is run (in total, N trees). The Monte Carlo employs a pre-sampling of the

  13. Optimized Reactive Power Compensation Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, S.; Mini, K. N.; Supriya, K.

    2015-03-01

    Reactive power flow in a long transmission line plays a vital role in power transfer capability and voltage stability in power system. Traditionally, shunt connected compensators are used to control reactive power in long transmission line. Thyristor controlled reactor is used to control reactive power under lightly loaded condition. By controlling firing angle of thyristor, it is possible to control reactive power in the transmission lines. However, thyristor controlled reactor will inject harmonic current into the system. An attempt to reduce reactive power injection will increase harmonic distortion in the line current and vice versa. Thus, there is a trade-off between reactive power injection and harmonics in current. By optimally controlling the reactive power injection, harmonics in current can be brought within the specified limit. In this paper, a Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented to obtain optimal control of reactive power of the compensator to maintain voltage and harmonic in current within the limits. An algorithm which optimizes the firing angle in each fuzzy subset by calculating the rank of feasible firing angles is proposed for the construction of rules in Fuzzy Logic Controller. The novelty of the algorithm is that it uses a simple error formula for the calculation of the rank of the feasible firing angles in each fuzzy subset.

  14. Reconfigurable logic via gate controlled domain wall trajectory in magnetic network structure

    PubMed Central

    Murapaka, C.; Sethi, P.; Goolaup, S.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    An all-magnetic logic scheme has the advantages of being non-volatile and energy efficient over the conventional transistor based logic devices. In this work, we present a reconfigurable magnetic logic device which is capable of performing all basic logic operations in a single device. The device exploits the deterministic trajectory of domain wall (DW) in ferromagnetic asymmetric branch structure for obtaining different output combinations. The programmability of the device is achieved by using a current-controlled magnetic gate, which generates a local Oersted field. The field generated at the magnetic gate influences the trajectory of the DW within the structure by exploiting its inherent transverse charge distribution. DW transformation from vortex to transverse configuration close to the output branch plays a pivotal role in governing the DW chirality and hence the output. By simply switching the current direction through the magnetic gate, two universal logic gate functionalities can be obtained in this device. Using magnetic force microscopy imaging and magnetoresistance measurements, all basic logic functionalities are demonstrated. PMID:26839036

  15. Reconfigurable logic via gate controlled domain wall trajectory in magnetic network structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murapaka, C.; Sethi, P.; Goolaup, S.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-02-01

    An all-magnetic logic scheme has the advantages of being non-volatile and energy efficient over the conventional transistor based logic devices. In this work, we present a reconfigurable magnetic logic device which is capable of performing all basic logic operations in a single device. The device exploits the deterministic trajectory of domain wall (DW) in ferromagnetic asymmetric branch structure for obtaining different output combinations. The programmability of the device is achieved by using a current-controlled magnetic gate, which generates a local Oersted field. The field generated at the magnetic gate influences the trajectory of the DW within the structure by exploiting its inherent transverse charge distribution. DW transformation from vortex to transverse configuration close to the output branch plays a pivotal role in governing the DW chirality and hence the output. By simply switching the current direction through the magnetic gate, two universal logic gate functionalities can be obtained in this device. Using magnetic force microscopy imaging and magnetoresistance measurements, all basic logic functionalities are demonstrated.

  16. Fuzzy logic controllers for electric motors and wind turbines. Report for October 1996-April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses a precision laboratory test facility that has been assempbled to test the performance of two fuzzy-logic based controllers for electric motors and wind turbines. Commercial induction motors up to 10 hp (7.46 kWe) in motors and equipped with adjustable-speed drives (ASDs) were used to test the motor optimizers.

  17. Bioelectronic Interface Connecting Reversible Logic Gates Based on Enzyme and DNA Reactions.

    PubMed

    Guz, Nataliia; Fedotova, Tatiana A; Fratto, Brian E; Schlesinger, Orr; Alfonta, Lital; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-07-18

    It is believed that connecting biomolecular computation elements in complex networks of communicating molecules may eventually lead to a biocomputer that can be used for diagnostics and/or the cure of physiological and genetic disorders. Here, a bioelectronic interface based on biomolecule-modified electrodes has been designed to bridge reversible enzymatic logic gates with reversible DNA-based logic gates. The enzyme-based Fredkin gate with three input and three output signals was connected to the DNA-based Feynman gate with two input and two output signals-both representing logically reversible computing elements. In the reversible Fredkin gate, the routing of two data signals between two output channels was controlled by the control signal (third channel). The two data output signals generated by the Fredkin gate were directed toward two electrochemical flow cells, responding to the output signals by releasing DNA molecules that serve as the input signals for the next Feynman logic gate based on the DNA reacting cascade, producing, in turn, two final output signals. The Feynman gate operated as the controlled NOT gate (CNOT), where one of the input channels controlled a NOT operation on another channel. Both logic gates represented a highly sophisticated combination of input-controlled signal-routing logic operations, resulting in redirecting chemical signals in different channels and performing orchestrated computing processes. The biomolecular reaction cascade responsible for the signal processing was realized by moving the solution from one reacting cell to another, including the reacting flow cells and electrochemical flow cells, which were organized in a specific network mimicking electronic computing circuitries. The designed system represents the first example of high complexity biocomputing processes integrating enzyme and DNA reactions and performing logically reversible signal processing. PMID:27145731

  18. Design and Implementation of Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Logic Controller for Shunt Compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Alka; Badoni, Manoj

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the application of Takagi-Sugeno (TS) type fuzzy logic controller to a three-phase shunt compensator in power distribution system. The shunt compensator is used for power quality improvement and has the ability to provide reactive power compensation, reduce the level of harmonics in supply currents, power factor correction and load balancing. Additionally, it can also be used to regulate voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC). The paper discusses the design of TS fuzzy logic controller and its implementation based on only four rules. The smaller number of rules makes it suitable for experimental verification as compared to Mamdani fuzzy controller. A small laboratory prototype of the system is developed and the control algorithm is verified experimentally. The TS fuzzy controller is compared with the proportional integral based industrial controller and their performance is compared under a wide variation of dynamic load changes.

  19. pH-, sugar-, and temperature-sensitive electrochemical switch amplified by enzymatic reaction and controlled by logic gates based on semi-interpenetrating polymer networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Hongyun; Hu, Naifei

    2012-02-01

    Phenylboronic acid (PBA) moieties are grafted onto the backbone of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), forming the PAA-PBA polyelectrolyte. The semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) films composed of PAA-PBA and poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (PDEA) were then synthesized on electrode surface with entrapped horseradish peroxidase (HRP), designated as PDEA-(PAA-PBA)-HRP. The films demonstrated reversible pH-, fructose-, and thermo-responsive on-off behavior toward electroactive probe K(3)Fe(CN)(6) in its cyclic voltammetric (CV) response. This multiswitchable CV behavior of the system could be further employed to control and modulate the electrochemical reduction of H(2)O(2) catalyzed by HRP immobilized in the films with K(3)Fe(CN)(6) as the mediator in solution. The responsive mechanism of the system was also explored and discussed. The pH-sensitive property was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the PAA component of the films and the probe at different pH; the thermo-responsive behavior originated from the structure change of PDEA hydrogel component of the films with temperature; the fructose-sensitive property was ascribed to the structure change of the films induced by the complexation between the PBA constituent and the sugar. This smart system could be used as a 3-input logic network composed of enabled OR (EnOR) gates in chemical or biomolecular computing by combining the multiresponsive property of the films and the amplification effect of bioelectrocatalysis and demonstrated the potential perspective for fabricating novel multiswitchable electrochemical biosensors and bioelectronic devices. PMID:22239642

  20. Automatic control of pressure support mechanical ventilation using fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, T; Hatzakis, G E; Thorpe, C W; Olivenstein, R; Dial, S; Bates, J H

    1999-08-01

    There is currently no universally accepted approach to weaning patients from mechanical ventilation, but there is clearly a feeling within the medical community that it may be possible to formulate the weaning process algorithmically in some manner. Fuzzy logic seems suited this task because of the way it so naturally represents the subjective human notions employed in much of medical decision-making. The purpose of the present study was to develop a fuzzy logic algorithm for controlling pressure support ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit, utilizing measurements of heart rate, tidal volume, breathing frequency, and arterial oxygen saturation. In this report we describe the fuzzy logic algorithm, and demonstrate its use retrospectively in 13 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, by comparing the decisions made by the algorithm with what actually transpired. The fuzzy logic recommendations agreed with the status quo to within 2 cm H(2)O an average of 76% of the time, and to within 4 cm H(2)O an average of 88% of the time (although in most of these instances no medical decisions were taken as to whether or not to change the level of ventilatory support). We also compared the predictions of our algorithm with those cases in which changes in pressure support level were actually made by an attending physician, and found that the physicians tended to reduce the support level somewhat more aggressively than the algorithm did. We conclude that our fuzzy algorithm has the potential to control the level of pressure support ventilation from ongoing measurements of a patient's vital signs. PMID:10430727

  1. Application of Fuzzy-Logic Controller and Neural Networks Controller in Gas Turbine Speed Control and Overheating Control and Surge Control on Transient Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torghabeh, A. A.; Tousi, A. M.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks approach to Gas Turbine Fuel schedules. Modeling of non-linear system using feed forward artificial Neural Networks using data generated by a simulated gas turbine program is introduced. Two artificial Neural Networks are used , depicting the non-linear relationship between gas generator speed and fuel flow, and turbine inlet temperature and fuel flow respectively . Off-line fast simulations are used for engine controller design for turbojet engine based on repeated simulation. The Mamdani and Sugeno models are used to expression the Fuzzy system . The linguistic Fuzzy rules and membership functions are presents and a Fuzzy controller will be proposed to provide an Open-Loop control for the gas turbine engine during acceleration and deceleration . MATLAB Simulink was used to apply the Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks analysis. Both systems were able to approximate functions characterizing the acceleration and deceleration schedules . Surge and Flame-out avoidance during acceleration and deceleration phases are then checked . Turbine Inlet Temperature also checked and controls by Neural Networks controller. This Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Controllers output results are validated and evaluated by GSP software . The validation results are used to evaluate the generalization ability of these artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic controllers.

  2. Coordinated signal control for arterial intersections using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermanian, Davood; Zare, Assef; Balochian, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    Every day growth of the vehicles has become one of the biggest problems of urbanism especially in major cities. This can waste people's time, increase the fuel consumption, air pollution, and increase the density of cars and vehicles. Fuzzy controllers have been widely used in many consumer products and industrial applications with success over the past two decades. This article proposes a comprehensive model of urban traffic network using state space equations and then using Fuzzy Logic Tool Box and SIMULINK Program MATLAB a fuzzy controller in order to optimize and coordinate signal control at two intersections at an arterial road. The fuzzy controller decides to extend, early cut or terminate a signal phase and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time and length of queue. Results show that the performance of the proposed traffic controller at novel fuzzy model is better that of conventional controllers under normal and abnormal traffic conditions.

  3. Approach to Synchronization Control of Magnetic Bearings Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Li-Farn

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy-logic approach to the synthesis of synchronization control for magnetically suspended rotor system. The synchronization control enables a whirling rotor to undergo synchronous motion along the magnetic bearing axes; thereby avoiding the gyroscopic effect that degrade the stability of rotor systems when spinning at high speed. The control system features a fuzzy controller acting on the magnetic bearing device, in which the fuzzy inference system trained through fuzzy rules to minimize the differential errors between four bearing axes so that an error along one bearing axis can affect the overall control loop for the motion synchronization. Numerical simulations of synchronization control for the magnetically suspended rotor system are presented to show the effectiveness of the present approach.

  4. Fuzzy logic sliding mode control for command guidance law design.

    PubMed

    Elhalwagy, Y Z; Tarbouchi, M

    2004-04-01

    Recently, the combination of sliding mode and fuzzy logic techniques has emerged as a promising methodology for dealing with nonlinear, uncertain, dynamical systems. In this paper, a sliding mode control algorithm combined with a fuzzy control scheme is developed for the trajectory control of a command guidance system. The acceleration command input is mathematically derived. The proposed controller is used to compensate for the influence of unmodeled dynamics and to alleviate chattering. Simulation results show that the proposed controller gives good system performance in the face of system parameters variation and external disturbances. In addition, they show the effectiveness of the proposed missile guidance law against different engagement scenarios where the results demonstrate better performance over the conventional sliding mode control. PMID:15098583

  5. Combustion control of municipal incinerators by fuzzy neural network logic

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, N.B.; Chang, Y.H.

    1996-12-31

    The successful operation of mass burn waterwall incinerators involves many uncertain factors. Not only the physical composition and chemical properties of the refuse but also the complexity of combustion mechanism would significantly influence the performance of waste treatment. Due to the rising concerns of dioxin/furan emissions from municipal incinerators, improved combustion control algorithms, such as fuzzy and its fusion control technologies, have gradually received attention in the scientific community. This paper describes a fuzzy and neural network control logic for the refuse combustion process in a mass burn waterwall incinerator. It is anticipated that this system can also be easily applied to several other types of municipal incinerators, such as modular, rotary kiln, RDF and fluidized bed incinerators, by slightly modified steps. Partial performance of this designed controller is tested by computer simulation using identified process model in this analysis. Process control could be sensitive especially for the control of toxic substance emissions, such as dioxin and furans.

  6. Slime mould logic gates based on frequency changes of electrical potential oscillation.

    PubMed

    Whiting, James G H; de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Physarum polycephalum is a large single amoeba cell, which in its plasmodial phase, forages and connects nearby food sources with protoplasmic tubes. The organism forages for food by growing these tubes towards detected foodstuff, this foraging behaviour is governed by simple rules of photoavoidance and chemotaxis. The electrical activity of the tubes oscillates, creating a peristaltic like action within the tubes, forcing cytoplasm along the lumen; the frequency of this oscillation controls the speed and direction of growth. External stimuli such as light and food cause changes in the oscillation frequency. We demonstrate that using these stimuli as logical inputs we can approximate logic gates using these tubes and derive combinational logic circuits by cascading the gates, with software analysis providing the output of each gate and determining the input of the following gate. Basic gates OR, AND and NOT were correct 90%, 77.8% and 91.7% of the time respectively. Derived logic circuits XOR, half adder and full adder were 70.8%, 65% and 58.8% accurate respectively. Accuracy of the combinational logic decreases as the number of gates is increased, however they are at least as accurate as previous logic approximations using spatial growth of P. polycephalum and up to 30 times as fast at computing the logical output. The results shown here demonstrate a significant advancement in organism-based computing, providing a solid basis for hybrid computers of the future. PMID:25102081

  7. FUZZY LOGIC MOTOR CONTROL FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA program investigating fuzzy logic motor control for improved pollution prevention and energy efficiency. nitial computer simulation and laboratory results have demonstrated that fuzzy logic energy optimizers can consistently improve motor operational ef...

  8. Fuzzy logic control for an automated guided vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ming; Hall, Ernest L.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the use of fuzzy logic control for the high level control systems of a mobile robot. The advantages of the fuzzy logic system are that multiple types of input such as that from vision and sonar sensors as well as stored map information can be used to guide the robot. Sensor fusion can be accomplished between real time sensed information and stored information in a manner similar to a human decision maker. Vision guidance is accomplished with a CCD camera with a zoom lens. The data is collected through a commercial tracking device, communicating to the computer the X,Y coordinates of a lane marker. Testing of these systems yielded positive results by showing that at five miles per hour, the vehicle can follow a line and avoid obstacles. The obstacle detection uses information from Polaroid sonar detection system. The motor control system uses a programmable Galil motion control system. This design, in its modularity, creates a portable autonomous controller that could be used for any mobile vehicle with only minor adaptations.

  9. Table-top mirror based parallel programmable optical logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2014-12-01

    Light rays can easily be reflected to different path by mechanical movement of mirrors. Using this basic operational principle we can design parallel programmable optical logic device (PPOLD) by arranging mirrors on a table. The ‘table-top mirror' models of this proposed circuit have been shown here. We can program it to design all the two input 16-Boolean logical expressions from a single design. The design is based on only plane mirrors. No active optical material is used in this design. Not only that the proposed circuit is optically reversible in nature. Moreover this design is very simple in sense. It can be fabricated in MEMS based optical switches.

  10. An architecture for designing fuzzy logic controllers using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1991-01-01

    Described here is an architecture for designing fuzzy controllers through a hierarchical process of control rule acquisition and by using special classes of neural network learning techniques. A new method for learning to refine a fuzzy logic controller is introduced. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multi-layer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The model learns by updating its prediction of the plant's behavior and is related to the Sutton's Temporal Difference (TD) method. The method proposed here has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine-tuning it through the process of learning. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  11. N channel JFET based digital logic gate structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A circuit topography is presented which is used to create usable digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) and load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the direct current (DC) parametric distributions of those JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state of the art in high temperature, for example 300.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and higher, silicon carbide (SiC) device production. The ability to produce inverting and combinatorial logic enables the production of pulse and edge triggered latches. This scale of logic synthesis would bring digital logic and state machine capabilities to devices operating in extremely hot environments, such as the surface of Venus, near hydrothermal vents, within nuclear reactors (SiC is inherently radiation hardened), and within internal combustion engines. The basic logic gate can be configured as a driver for oscillator circuits allowing for time bases and simple digitizers for resistive or reactive sensors. The basic structure of this innovation, the inverter, can be reconfigured into various analog circuit topographies through the use of feedback structures.

  12. Investigation of the Flutter Suppression by Fuzzy Logic Control for Hypersonic Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongxu; Luo, Qing; Xu, Rui

    This paper presents a fundamental study of flutter characteristics and control performance of an aeroelastic system based on a two-dimensional double wedge wing in the hypersonic regime. Dynamic equations were established based on the modified third order nonlinear piston theory and some nonlinear structural effects are also included. A set of important parameters are observed. And then aeroelastic control law is designed to suppress the amplitude of the LCOs for the system in the sub/supercritical speed range by applying fuzzy logic control on the input of the deflection of the flap. The overall effects of the parameters on the aeroelastic system were outlined. Nonlinear aeroelastic responses in the open- and closed-loop system are obtained through numerical methods. The simulations show fuzzy logic control methods are effective in suppressing flutter and provide a smart approach for this complicated system.

  13. Layered mode selection logic control for border security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, T.; Ferrer, G.; Wright, A. M.; Wright, A. B.

    2007-04-01

    Challenges in border security may be resolved through a team of autonomous mobile robots configured as a flexible sensor array. The robots will have a prearranged formation along a section of a border, and each robot will attempt to maintain a uniform distance with its nearest neighbors. The robots will carry sensor packages which can detect a signature that is representative of a human (for instance, a thermal signature). When a robot detects an intruder, it will move away such that it attempts to maintain a constant distance from the intruder and move away from the border (i.e. into its home territory). As the robot moves away from the border, its neighbors will move away from the border to maintain a uniform distance with the moving robot and with their fixed neighbors. The pattern of motion in the team of robots can be identified, either algorithmically by a computer or by a human monitor of a display. Unique patterns are indicative of animal movement, human movement, and mass human movement. To realize such a scheme, a new control architecture must be developed. This architecture must be fault tolerant to sensor and manipulator failures, scalable in number of agents, and adaptable to different robotic base platforms (for instance, a UGV may be appropriate at the southern border and a UAV may be appropriate at the northern border). The Central Arkansas Robotics Consortium has developed an architecture, called Layered Mode Selection Logic (LMSL), which addresses all of these concerns. The overall LMSL scheme as applied to a multi-agent flexible sensor array is described in this paper.

  14. Optical interferometric logic gates based on metal slot waveguide network realizing whole fundamental logic operations.

    PubMed

    Pan, Deng; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing

    2013-04-22

    Optical interferometric logic gates in metal slot waveguide network are designed and investigated by electromagnetic simulations. The designed logic gates can realize all fundamental logic operations. A single Y-shaped junction can work as logic gate for four logic functions: AND, NOT, OR and XOR. By cascading two Y-shaped junctions, NAND, NOR and XNOR can be realized. The working principle is analyzed in detail. In the simulations, these gates show large intensity contrast for the Boolean logic states of the output. These results can be useful for future integrated optical computing. PMID:23609666

  15. Applying programmable logic controllers to safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (NSP) recently installed programmable logic controllers (PLCs) in two safety-related systems at its Prairie Island nuclear generating plant. The lessons learned during these applications at the 19-yr old two-unit plant may benefit similar projects. Prairie Island responded to the station black out (SBO) issue by upgrading its electrical distribution system. This included installing additional safeguard diesel generators (DGs), new 4160-V buses, and new 480-V buses. As part of this upgrade, PLCs were commercially dedicated for use in two safety-related applications: (1) bus load sequencer project, (2) 480-V voltage regulator project.

  16. NSLS-II Digital RF Controller Logic and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Holub, B.; Gao, F.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Oliva, J.; Rose, J.; Towne, N.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) accelerator consists of the Storage Ring, the Booster Ring and Linac along with their associated cavities. Given the number, types and variety of functions of these cavities, we sought to limit the logic development effort by reuse of parameterized code on one hardware platform. Currently there are six controllers installed in the NSLS-II system. There are two in the Storage ring, two in the Booster ring, one in the Linac and one in the Master Oscillator Distribution system.

  17. An OR logic gate based on two molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Yang, Renqiang

    2012-03-01

    Design of elementary molecular logic gates is the key and the fundamental of performing complicated Boolean calculations. Herein, we report a strategy for constructing a DNA-based OR gate by using the mechanism of sequence recognition and the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In this system, the gate is entirely composed of a single strand of DNA (A, B and C) and the inputs are the molecular beacon probes (MB1 and MB2). Changes in fluorescence intensity confirm the realization of the OR logic operation and electrophoresis experiments verify these results. Our successful application of DNA to perform the binary operation represents that DNA can serve as an efficient biomaterial for designing molecular logic gates and devices. PMID:22278176

  18. Three-Function Logic Gate Controlled by Analog Voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo; Stoica, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The figure is a schematic diagram of a complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) electronic circuit that performs one of three different logic functions, depending on the level of an externally applied control voltage, V(sub sel). Specifically, the circuit acts as A NAND gate at V(sub sel) = 0.0 V, A wire (the output equals one of the inputs) at V(sub sel) = 1.0 V, or An AND gate at V(sub sel) = -1.8 V. [The nominal power-supply potential (VDD) and logic "1" potential of this circuit is 1.8 V.] Like other multifunctional circuits described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, this circuit was synthesized following an automated evolutionary approach that is so named because it is modeled partly after the repetitive trial-and-error process of biological evolution. An evolved circuit can be tested by computational simulation and/or tested in real hardware, and the results of the test can provide guidance for refining the design through further iteration. The evolutionary synthesis of electronic circuits can now be implemented by means of a software package Genetic Algorithms for Circuit Synthesis (GACS) that was developed specifically for this purpose. GACS was used to synthesize the present trifunctional circuit. As in the cases of other multifunctional circuits described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the multiple functionality of this circuit, the use of a single control voltage to select the function, and the automated evolutionary approach to synthesis all contribute synergistically to a combination of features that are potentially advantageous for the further development of robust, multiple-function logic circuits, including, especially, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These advantages include the following: This circuit contains only 9 transistors about half the number of transistors that would be needed to obtain equivalent NAND/wire/AND functionality by use of components from a standard digital design library. If

  19. Professional Learning: A Fuzzy Logic-Based Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, M. N.; Hadjileontiadou, S. J.; Nikolaidou, G. N.; Hadjileontiadis, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have suggested that professional learning is influenced by two key parameters, i.e., climate and planning, and their associated variables (mutual respect, collaboration, mutual trust, supportiveness, openness). In this paper, we applied analysis of the relationships between the proposed quantitative, fuzzy logic-based model and a series of…

  20. Logic-controlled solid state switchgear for 270 volts dc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.; Waddington, D.; Buchanan, E. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study to design and demonstrate solid state switchgear in the form of circuit breakers and a power transfer switch is described. The switchgear operates on a nominal 270 V dc circuit and controls power to a load of up to 15 amperes. One circuit breaker may be interconnected to a second breaker to form a power transfer switch. On-off and transfer functions of the breakers or the transfer switch are remotely controlled. A number of reclosures with variable time delay between tripout and reclosure are programmed and controlled by integrated analog and COSMOS logic circuits. A unique commutation circuit, that generates only minimal transient disturbance to either source or load, was developed to interrupt current flow through the main SCR switching element. Laboratory tests demonstrated performance of the solid state circuit breakers over specified voltage and temperature ranges.

  1. 21 CFR 1311.130 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Institutional practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access... Prescriptions § 1311.130 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Institutional practitioner. (a... practitioner that enters permissions for logical access controls into the application. The...

  2. 21 CFR 1311.130 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Institutional practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access...) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.130 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Institutional... practitioner that enters permissions for logical access controls into the application. The...

  3. An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benenson, Yaakov; Gil, Binyamin; Ben-Dor, Uri; Adar, Rivka; Shapiro, Ehud

    2004-05-01

    Early biomolecular computer research focused on laboratory-scale, human-operated computers for complex computational problems. Recently, simple molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers were demonstrated allowing both input and output information to be in molecular form. Such computers, using biological molecules as input data and biologically active molecules as outputs, could produce a system for `logical' control of biological processes. Here we describe an autonomous biomolecular computer that, at least in vitro, logically analyses the levels of messenger RNA species, and in response produces a molecule capable of affecting levels of gene expression. The computer operates at a concentration of close to a trillion computers per microlitre and consists of three programmable modules: a computation module, that is, a stochastic molecular automaton; an input module, by which specific mRNA levels or point mutations regulate software molecule concentrations, and hence automaton transition probabilities; and an output module, capable of controlled release of a short single-stranded DNA molecule. This approach might be applied in vivo to biochemical sensing, genetic engineering and even medical diagnosis and treatment. As a proof of principle we programmed the computer to identify and analyse mRNA of disease-related genes associated with models of small-cell lung cancer and prostate cancer, and to produce a single-stranded DNA molecule modelled after an anticancer drug.

  4. Design and performance evaluation of a fuzzy-logic-based variable-speed wind generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, M.G.; Bose, B.K.; Spiegel, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural network, and genetic algorithm, are recently showing a lot of promise in the application of power electronic systems. The paper describes the control strategy development, design, and experimental performance evaluation of a fuzzy-logic-based variable-speed wind generation system that uses a cage-type induction generator and double-sided pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) converters. The system can feed a utility grid maintaining unity power factor at all conditions or can supply an autonomous load. The fuzzy-logic-based control of the system helps to optimize efficiency and enhance performance. A complete 3.5-kW generation system has been developed, designed, and thoroughly evaluated by laboratory tests, in order to validate the predicted performance improvements. The system gives excellent performance and can easily be translated to a larger size in the field.

  5. A spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, Andrey A.; Ustinov, Alexey B.; Semenov, Alexander A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Chumak, Andrii V.; Serga, Alexander A.; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Lähderanta, Erkki

    2015-03-09

    An electric current controlled spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal is realized. The device utilizes a spin-wave waveguide fabricated from a single-crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet film and two conducting wires attached to the film surface. Application of electric currents to the wires provides a means for dynamic control of the effective geometry of waveguide and results in a suppression of the magnonic band gap. The performance of the magnonic crystal as an AND logic gate is demonstrated.

  6. Power control of SAFE reactor using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Claude

    2002-01-01

    Controlling the 100 kW SAFE (Safe Affordable Fission Engine) reactor consists of design and implementation of a fuzzy logic process control system to regulate dynamic variables related to nuclear system power. The first phase of development concentrates primarily on system power startup and regulation, maintaining core temperature equilibrium, and power profile matching. This paper discusses the experimental work performed in those areas. Nuclear core power from the fuel elements is simulated using resistive heating elements while heat rejection is processed by a series of heat pipes. Both axial and radial nuclear power distributions are determined from neuronic modeling codes. The axial temperature profile of the simulated core is matched to the nuclear power profile by varying the resistance of the heating elements. The SAFE model establishes radial temperature profile equivalence by establishing 32 control zones as the nodal coordinates. Control features also allow for slow warm up, since complete shutoff can occur in the heat pipes if heat-source temperatures drop/rise below a certain minimum value, depending on the specific fluid and gas combination in the heat pipe. The entire system is expected to be self-adaptive, i.e., capable of responding to long-range changes in the space environment. Particular attention in the development of the fuzzy logic algorithm shall ensure that the system process remains at set point, virtually eliminating overshoot on start-up and during in-process disturbances. The controller design will withstand harsh environments and applications where it might come in contact with water, corrosive chemicals, radiation fields, etc. .

  7. Intelligent control of a multi-degree-of freedom reaction compensating platform system using fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Charles; Lin, Yueh-Jaw

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a general-purpose fuzzy logic (FL) control methodology for isolating the external vibratory disturbances of space-based devices. According to the desired performance specifications, a full investigation regarding the development of an FL controller was done using different scenarios, such as variances of passive reaction-compensating components and external disturbance load. It was shown that the proposed FL controller is robust in that the FL-controlled system closely follows the prespecified ideal reference model. The comparative study also reveals that the FL-controlled system achieves significant improvement in reducing vibrations over passive systems.

  8. Controlling of grid connected photovoltaic lighting system with fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Saglam, Safak; Ekren, Nazmi; Erdal, Hasan

    2010-02-15

    In this study, DC electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels is converted to AC electrical energy and an indoor area is illuminated using this energy. System is controlled by fuzzy logic algorithm controller designed with 16 rules. Energy is supplied from accumulator which is charged by photovoltaic panels if its energy would be sufficient otherwise it is supplied from grid. During the 1-week usage period at the semester time, 1.968 kWh energy is used from grid but designed system used 0.542 kWh energy from photovoltaic panels at the experiments. Energy saving is determined by calculations and measurements for one education year period (9 months) 70.848 kWh. (author)

  9. Synthesis of nonlinear control strategies from fuzzy logic control algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langari, Reza

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy control has been recognized as an alternative to conventional control techniques in situations where the plant model is not sufficiently well known to warrant the application of conventional control techniques. Precisely what fuzzy control does and how it does what it does is not quite clear, however. This important issue is discussed and in particular it is shown how a given fuzzy control scheme can resolve into a nonlinear control law and that in those situations the success of fuzzy control hinges on its ability to compensate for nonlinearities in plant dynamics.

  10. Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Parallel Parking System with Kalman Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panomruttanarug, Benjamas; Higuchi, Kohji

    This paper presents an emulation of fuzzy logic control schemes for an autonomous parallel parking system in a backward maneuver. There are four infrared sensors sending the distance data to a microcontroller for generating an obstacle-free parking path. Two of them mounted on the front and rear wheels on the parking side are used as the inputs to the fuzzy rules to calculate a proper steering angle while backing. The other two attached to the front and rear ends serve for avoiding collision with other cars along the parking space. At the end of parking processes, the vehicle will be in line with other parked cars and positioned in the middle of the free space. Fuzzy rules are designed based upon a wall following process. Performance of the infrared sensors is improved using Kalman filtering. The design method needs extra information from ultrasonic sensors. Starting from modeling the ultrasonic sensor in 1-D state space forms, one makes use of the infrared sensor as a measurement to update the predicted values. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of sensor improvement.

  11. Implementation of motor speed control using PID control in programmable logic controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samin, R. E.; Azmi, N. A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Ghazali, M. R.; Zawawi, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of motor speed control using Proportional Integral Derrivative (PID) controller using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Proportional Integral Derrivative (PID) controller is the technique used to actively control the speed of the motor. An AC motor is used in the research together with the PLC, encoder and Proface touch screen. The model of the PLC that has been used in this project is OMRON CJIG-CPU42P where this PLC has a build in loop control that can be made the ladder diagram quite simple using function block in CX-process tools. A complete experimental analysis of the technique in terms of system response is presented. Comparative assessment of the impact of Proportional, Integral and Derivative in the controller on the system performance is presented and discussed.

  12. The programmable (logic) controller: Adapting in an environment of change

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Reports of the imminent death of the PLC (programmable logic controller) were greatly exaggerated, to paraphrase Mark Twain. In fact, the PLC is not only alive and working worldwide in thousands of applications, but it is also integrating well with related technologies. Long-term survival is a larger question - probably unanswerable given the pace of technological change. However, a few questions arise about the PLC today and in the immediate future: (1) What`s happening with programming languages? (2) Will there continue to be a {open_quotes}blurring of the lines{close_quotes} between the PLC and other technologies, and what role will software play in this integration? (3) How will the PLC`s cost and size affect the market?

  13. Research on spatio-temporal ontology based on description logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongqi; Ding, Zhimin; Zhao, Zhui; Ouyang, Fucheng

    2008-10-01

    DL, short for Description Logic, is aimed at getting a balance between describing ability and reasoning complexity. Users can adopt DL to write clear and formalized concept description for domain model, which makes ontology description possess well-defined syntax and semantics and helps to resolve the problem of spatio-temporal reasoning based on ontology. This paper studies on basic theory of DL and relationship between DL and OWL at first. By analyzing spatio-temporal concepts and relationship of spatio-temporal GIS, the purpose of this paper is adopting ontology language based on DL to express spatio-temporal ontology, and employing suitable ontology-building tool to build spatio-temporal ontology. With regard to existing spatio-temporal ontology based on first-order predicate logic, we need to transform it into spatio-temporal ontology based on DL so as to make the best of existing research fruits. This paper also makes a research on translating relationships between DL and first-order predicate logic.

  14. An Innovative Fuzzy-Logic-Based Methodology for Trend Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xin; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.; Wei, Thomas Y.C.; Reifman, Jaques

    2001-07-15

    A new fuzzy-logic-based methodology for on-line signal trend identification is introduced. The methodology may be used for detecting the onset of nuclear power plant (NPP) transients at the earliest possible time and could be of great benefit to diagnostic, maintenance, and performance-monitoring programs. Although signal trend identification is complicated by the presence of noise, fuzzy methods can help capture important features of on-line signals, integrate the information included in these features, and classify incoming NPP signals into increasing, decreasing, and steady-state trend categories. A computer program named PROTREN is developed and tested for the purpose of verifying this methodology using NPP and simulation data. The results indicate that the new fuzzy-logic-based methodology is capable of detecting transients accurately, it identifies trends reliably and does not misinterpret a steady-state signal as a transient one.

  15. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    PubMed

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  16. Fuzzy Temporal Logic Based Railway Passenger Flow Forecast Model

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  17. Fuzzy-logic-based safety verification framework for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Achint; Gabbar, Hossam A

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a practical implementation of a safety verification framework for nuclear power plants (NPPs) based on fuzzy logic where hazard scenarios are identified in view of safety and control limits in different plant process values. Risk is estimated quantitatively and compared with safety limits in real time so that safety verification can be achieved. Fuzzy logic is used to define safety rules that map hazard condition with required safety protection in view of risk estimate. Case studies are analyzed from NPP to realize the proposed real-time safety verification framework. An automated system is developed to demonstrate the safety limit for different hazard scenarios. PMID:23020592

  18. Autonomous Control of a Quadrotor UAV Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, Vijaykumar

    UAVs are being increasingly used today than ever before in both military and civil applications. They are heavily preferred in "dull, dirty or dangerous" mission scenarios. Increasingly, UAVs of all kinds are being used in policing, fire-fighting, inspection of structures, pipelines etc. Recently, the FAA gave its permission for UAVs to be used on film sets for motion capture and high definition video recording. The rapid development in MEMS and actuator technology has made possible a plethora of UAVs that are suited for commercial applications in an increasingly cost effective manner. An emerging popular rotary wing UAV platform is the Quadrotor A Quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors, that make it more stable; but more complex to model and control. Characteristics that provide a clear advantage over other fixed wing UAVs are VTOL and hovering capabilities as well as a greater maneuverability. It is also simple in construction and design compared to a scaled single rotorcraft. Flying such UAVs using a traditional radio Transmitter-Receiver setup can be a daunting task especially in high stress situations. In order to make such platforms widely applicable, a certain level of autonomy is imperative to the future of such UAVs. This thesis paper presents a methodology for the autonomous control of a Quadrotor UAV using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic control has been chosen over conventional control methods as it can deal effectively with highly nonlinear systems, allows for imprecise data and is extremely modular. Modularity and adaptability are the key cornerstones of FLC. The objective of this thesis is to present the steps of designing, building and simulating an intelligent flight control module for a Quadrotor UAV. In the course of this research effort, a Quadrotor UAV is indigenously developed utilizing the resources of an online open source project called Aeroquad. System design is comprehensively dealt with. A math model for the Quadrotor is developed and a

  19. Methodological development of fuzzy-logic controllers from multivariable linear control.

    PubMed

    Tso, S K; Fung, Y H

    1997-01-01

    It is the function of the design of a fuzzy-logic controller to determine the universes of discourse of the antecedents and the consequents, number of membership labels, distribution and shape of membership functions, rule formulation, etc. Much of the information is usually extracted from expert knowledge, operator experience, or heuristic thinking. It is hence difficult to mechanize the first-stage design of fuzzy-logic controllers using linguistic labels whose performance is no worse than that of conventional multivariable linear controllers such as state-feedback controllers, PID controllers, etc. In this paper, an original systematic seven-step linear-to-fuzzy (LIN2FUZ) algorithm is proposed for generating the labels, universes of discourse of the antecedents and the consequents, and fuzzy rules of ;basically linear' fuzzy-logic controllers, given the reference design of available conventional multivariable linear controllers. The functionally equivalent fuzzy-logic controllers can thus provide the sound basis for the further development to achieve performance beyond the capability or the conventional controllers. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed LIN2FUZ algorithm are demonstrated by a four-input one-output inverted pendulum system. PMID:18255897

  20. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  1. Programmable logic controller optical fibre sensor interface module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwood, Gary; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2011-12-01

    Most automated industrial processes use Distributed Control Systems (DCSs) or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for automated control. PLCs tend to be more common as they have much of the functionality of DCSs, although they are generally cheaper to install and maintain. PLCs in conjunction with a human machine interface form the basis of Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, combined with communication infrastructure and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). RTU's basically convert different sensor measurands in to digital data that is sent back to the PLC or supervisory system. Optical fibre sensors are becoming more common in industrial processes because of their many advantageous properties. Being small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and immune to electromagnetic interference, means they are an ideal solution for a variety of diverse sensing applications. Here, we have developed a PLC Optical Fibre Sensor Interface Module (OFSIM), in which an optical fibre is connected directly to the OFSIM located next to the PLC. The embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors, are highly sensitive and can detect a number of different measurands such as temperature, pressure and strain without the need for a power supply.

  2. Fuzzy knowledge base construction through belief networks based on Lukasiewicz logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lara-Rosano, Felipe

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a procedure is proposed to build a fuzzy knowledge base founded on fuzzy belief networks and Lukasiewicz logic. Fuzzy procedures are developed to do the following: to assess the belief values of a consequent, in terms of the belief values of its logical antecedents and the belief value of the corresponding logical function; and to update belief values when new evidence is available.

  3. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  4. A genetic algorithms approach for altering the membership functions in fuzzy logic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shehadeh, Hana; Lea, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Through previous work, a fuzzy control system was developed to perform translational and rotational control of a space vehicle. This problem was then re-examined to determine the effectiveness of genetic algorithms on fine tuning the controller. This paper explains the problems associated with the design of this fuzzy controller and offers a technique for tuning fuzzy logic controllers. A fuzzy logic controller is a rule-based system that uses fuzzy linguistic variables to model human rule-of-thumb approaches to control actions within a given system. This 'fuzzy expert system' features rules that direct the decision process and membership functions that convert the linguistic variables into the precise numeric values used for system control. Defining the fuzzy membership functions is the most time consuming aspect of the controller design. One single change in the membership functions could significantly alter the performance of the controller. This membership function definition can be accomplished by using a trial and error technique to alter the membership functions creating a highly tuned controller. This approach can be time consuming and requires a great deal of knowledge from human experts. In order to shorten development time, an iterative procedure for altering the membership functions to create a tuned set that used a minimal amount of fuel for velocity vector approach and station-keep maneuvers was developed. Genetic algorithms, search techniques used for optimization, were utilized to solve this problem.

  5. Mitigating crack propagation in a highly maneuverable flight vehicle using life extending control logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshabasy, Mohamed Mostafa Yousef Bassyouny

    In this research, life extending control logic is proposed to reduce the cost of treating the aging problem of military aircraft structures and to avoid catastrophic failures and fatal accidents due to undetected cracks in the airframe components. The life extending control logic is based on load tailoring to facilitate a desired stress sequence that prolongs the structural life of the cracked airframe components by exploiting certain nonlinear crack retardation phenomena. The load is tailored to include infrequent injections of a single-cycle overload or a single-cycle overload and underload. These irregular loadings have an anti-intuitive but beneficial effect, which has been experimentally validated, on the extension of the operational structural life of the aircraft. A rigid six-degree-of freedom dynamic model of a highly maneuverable air vehicle coupled with an elastic dynamic wing model is used to generate the stress history at the lower skin of the wing. A three-dimensional equivalent plate finite element model is used to calculate the stress in the cracked skin. The plate is chosen to be of uniform chord-wise and span-wise thickness where the mechanical properties are assigned using an ad-hoc approach to mimic the full scale wing model. An in-extensional 3-node triangular element is used as the gridding finite element while the aerodynamic load is calculated using the vortex-lattice method where each lattice is laid upon two triangular finite elements with common hypotenuse. The aerodynamic loads, along with the base-excitation which is due to the motion of the rigid aircraft model, are the driving forces acting on the wing finite element model. An aerodynamic control surface is modulated based on the proposed life extending control logic within an existing flight control system without requiring major modification. One of the main goals of life extending control logic is to enhance the aircraft's service life, without incurring significant loss of vehicle

  6. Vector control and fuzzy logic control of doubly fed variable speed drives with DSP implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.; Xu, L.

    1995-12-01

    Field orientation control and fuzzy logic control are designed for variable speed drive systems with a doubly fed machine in slip power recovery configuration. Laboratory implementation with a general purpose DSP (digital signal processing) system is described and experimental results are given. High performance potential of a slip power recovery system is realized with these advanced controls, while flexible reactive power control becomes possible, and compared to the ordinary variable speed drives with singly fed induction machine, power converter rating is reduced.

  7. Rule based fuzzy logic approach for classification of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Evren; Yildiz, Sedat; Albayrak, Yalcin; Koklukaya, Etem

    2016-06-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic muscle and skeletal system disease observed generally in women, manifesting itself with a widespread pain and impairing the individual's quality of life. FMS diagnosis is made based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. However, recently the employability and sufficiency of ACR criteria are under debate. In this context, several evaluation methods, including clinical evaluation methods were proposed by researchers. Accordingly, ACR had to update their criteria announced back in 1990, 2010 and 2011. Proposed rule based fuzzy logic method aims to evaluate FMS at a different angle as well. This method contains a rule base derived from the 1990 ACR criteria and the individual experiences of specialists. The study was conducted using the data collected from 60 inpatient and 30 healthy volunteers. Several tests and physical examination were administered to the participants. The fuzzy logic rule base was structured using the parameters of tender point count, chronic widespread pain period, pain severity, fatigue severity and sleep disturbance level, which were deemed important in FMS diagnosis. It has been observed that generally fuzzy predictor was 95.56 % consistent with at least of the specialists, who are not a creator of the fuzzy rule base. Thus, in diagnosis classification where the severity of FMS was classified as well, consistent findings were obtained from the comparison of interpretations and experiences of specialists and the fuzzy logic approach. The study proposes a rule base, which could eliminate the shortcomings of 1990 ACR criteria during the FMS evaluation process. Furthermore, the proposed method presents a classification on the severity of the disease, which was not available with the ACR criteria. The study was not limited to only disease classification but at the same time the probability of occurrence and severity was classified. In addition, those who were not suffering from FMS were

  8. Compact transformable acoustic logic gates for broadband complex Boolean operations based on density-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Bao-Guo; Guo, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The extraordinary transmission in density-near-zero (DNZ) acoustic metamaterials (AMs) provides possibilities to manipulate acoustic signals with extremely large effective phase velocity and wavelength. Here, we report compact transformable acoustic logic gates with a subwavelength size as small as 0.82λ based on DNZ AMs. The basic acoustic logic gates, composed of a tri-port structure filled with space-coiling DNZ AMs, enable precise direct linear interference of input signals with considerably small phase lag and wavefront distortion. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally the basic Boolean logic operations such as OR, AND, XOR, and NOT with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability, by adjusting the phase difference between two input signals. More complex logic calculus, such as "I1 + I2 × I3," are also realized by cascading of the basic logic gates. Our proposal provides diverse routes to construct devices for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.

  9. Virtual reality simulation of fuzzy-logic control during underwater dynamic positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thekkedan, Midhin Das; Chin, Cheng Siong; Woo, Wai Lok

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, graphical-user-interface (GUI) software for simulation and fuzzy-logic control of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) using MATLAB™ GUI Designing Environment is proposed. The proposed ROV's GUI platform allows the controller such as fuzzy-logic control systems design to be compared with other controllers such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and sliding-mode controller (SMC) systematically and interactively. External disturbance such as sea current can be added to improve the modelling in actual underwater environment. The simulated results showed the position responses of the fuzzy-logic control exhibit reasonable performance under the sea current disturbance.

  10. Verification and Planning Based on Coinductive Logic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Ajay; Min, Richard; Simon, Luke; Mallya, Ajay; Gupta, Gopal

    2008-01-01

    Coinduction is a powerful technique for reasoning about unfounded sets, unbounded structures, infinite automata, and interactive computations [6]. Where induction corresponds to least fixed point's semantics, coinduction corresponds to greatest fixed point semantics. Recently coinduction has been incorporated into logic programming and an elegant operational semantics developed for it [11, 12]. This operational semantics is the greatest fix point counterpart of SLD resolution (SLD resolution imparts operational semantics to least fix point based computations) and is termed co- SLD resolution. In co-SLD resolution, a predicate goal p( t) succeeds if it unifies with one of its ancestor calls. In addition, rational infinite terms are allowed as arguments of predicates. Infinite terms are represented as solutions to unification equations and the occurs check is omitted during the unification process. Coinductive Logic Programming (Co-LP) and Co-SLD resolution can be used to elegantly perform model checking and planning. A combined SLD and Co-SLD resolution based LP system forms the common basis for planning, scheduling, verification, model checking, and constraint solving [9, 4]. This is achieved by amalgamating SLD resolution, co-SLD resolution, and constraint logic programming [13] in a single logic programming system. Given that parallelism in logic programs can be implicitly exploited [8], complex, compute-intensive applications (planning, scheduling, model checking, etc.) can be executed in parallel on multi-core machines. Parallel execution can result in speed-ups as well as in larger instances of the problems being solved. In the remainder we elaborate on (i) how planning can be elegantly and efficiently performed under real-time constraints, (ii) how real-time systems can be elegantly and efficiently model- checked, as well as (iii) how hybrid systems can be verified in a combined system with both co-SLD and SLD resolution. Implementations of co-SLD resolution

  11. Complete all-optical processing polarization-based binary logic gates and optical processors.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Y A; Zaghloul, A R M

    2006-10-16

    We present a complete all-optical-processing polarization-based binary-logic system, by which any logic gate or processor can be implemented. Following the new polarization-based logic presented in [Opt. Express 14, 7253 (2006)], we develop a new parallel processing technique that allows for the creation of all-optical-processing gates that produce a unique output either logic 1 or 0 only once in a truth table, and those that do not. This representation allows for the implementation of simple unforced OR, AND, XOR, XNOR, inverter, and more importantly NAND and NOR gates that can be used independently to represent any Boolean expression or function. In addition, the concept of a generalized gate is presented which opens the door for reconfigurable optical processors and programmable optical logic gates. Furthermore, the new design is completely compatible with the old one presented in [Opt. Express 14, 7253 (2006)], and with current semiconductor based devices. The gates can be cascaded, where the information is always on the laser beam. The polarization of the beam, and not its intensity, carries the information. The new methodology allows for the creation of multiple-input-multiple-output processors that implement, by itself, any Boolean function, such as specialized or non-specialized microprocessors. Three all-optical architectures are presented: orthoparallel optical logic architecture for all known and unknown binary gates, singlebranch architecture for only XOR and XNOR gates, and the railroad (RR) architecture for polarization optical processors (POP). All the control inputs are applied simultaneously leading to a single time lag which leads to a very-fast and glitch-immune POP. A simple and easy-to-follow step-by-step algorithm is provided for the POP, and design reduction methodologies are briefly discussed. The algorithm lends itself systematically to software programming and computer-assisted design. As examples, designs of all binary gates, multiple

  12. Bus-controlled power driver circuits for high voltages, using linear compatible I2L logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauss, H.; Kuebler, M.

    1986-04-01

    A technology for monolithic integration of bipolar transistors, having breakdown voltages greater than or = to 60 V, and I2L-logic was developed. Bipolar transistors with high breakdown voltages must have thick, low doped epitaxial layers and low dc current gain, but I2L-logic with high packing density and short gate delay demands thin epitaxial layers and high dc current gain. A process with two epitaxial layers with buried layer and different intrinsic base doping for the two types of npn-transistor was developed. Bus-controlled power driver circuits for inductive loads in industrial systems were realized. Devices have 60 V maximum supply voltage and, electronically limited, 260 mA max output current.

  13. Non-Linear Fuzzy Logic Control for Forced Large Motions of Spinning Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEI, SHULIANG; PALAZZOLO, ALAN; NA, UHNJOO; KASCAK, ALBERT

    2000-08-01

    A unique control approach is developed for prescribed large motion control using magnetic bearings in a proposed active stall control test rig. A finite element based, flexible shaft is modeled in a closed loop system with PD controllers that generate the control signals to support and to shake the rotor shaft. A linearized force model of the stall rig with 16 magnetic poles (4 opposing C-cores) yields stability and frequency responses. The non-linear model retains the non-linearities in Ampere's law, Faraday's law and the Maxwell stress tensor. A fuzzy logic control system is then designed to show the advantages over the conventional controllers with the fully non-linear model.

  14. A Sliding Mode Controller Using Nonlinear Sliding Surface Improved With Fuzzy Logic: Application to the Coupled Tanks System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubakir, A.; Boudjema, F.; Boubakir, C.

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach of hybrid control that is based on the concept of combining fuzzy logic and the methodology of sliding mode control (SMC). In the present works, a first-order nonlinear sliding surface is presented, on which the developed control law is based. Mathematical proof for the stability and convergence of the system is presented. In order to reduce the chattering in sliding mode control, a fixed boundary layer around the switch surface is used. Within the boundary layer, since the fuzzy logic control is applied, the chattering phenomenon, which is inherent in a sliding mode control, is avoided by smoothing the switch signal. Outside the boundary, the sliding mode control is applied to driving the system states into the boundary layer. Experimental studies carried out on a coupled Tanks system indicate that the proposed fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) is a good candidate for control applications.

  15. Application of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) In Implementing of New CMOS Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminifar, S.; Yosefi, Gh.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present away of using Anfis architecture to implement a new fuzzy logic controller chip. Anfis which tunes the fuzzy inference system with a backpropagation algorithm based on collection of input-output data makes fuzzy system to learn. This training is given from a standard response of the system and membership functions are suitably modified. For adaptive Anfis based fuzzy controller and its circuit design, we propose new circuits for implementing each controller block, and illustrate the test results and control surface of Anfis controller along with CMOS fuzzy logic controller using Matlab and Hspice software respectively. For implementing controller according to the Anfis training, we proposed new and improved integrated circuits which consist of Fuzzifier, Min operator and Multiplier/Divider. The control surfaces of controller are obtained by using Anfis training and simulation results of integrated circuits in less than 0.075 mm2 area in 0.35 μm CMOS standard technology.

  16. Hybrid intelligent control scheme for air heating system using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Thyagarajan, T.; Shanmugam, J.; Ponnavaikko, M.; Panda, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Fuzzy logic provides a means for converting a linguistic control strategy, based on expert knowledge, into an automatic control strategy. Its performance depends on membership function and rule sets. In the traditional Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) approach, the optimal membership is formed by trial-and-error method. In this paper, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to generate the optimal membership function of FLC. The membership function thus obtained is utilized in the design of the Hybrid Intelligent Control (HIC) scheme. The investigation is carried out for an Air Heat System (AHS), an important component of drying process. The knowledge of the optimum PID controller designed, is used to develop the traditional FLC scheme. The computational difficulties in finding optimal membership function of traditional FLC is alleviated using GA In the design of HIC scheme. The qualitative performance indices are evaluated for the three control strategies, namely, PID, FLC and HIC. The comparison reveals that the HIC scheme designed based on the hybridization of FLC with GA performs better. Moreover, GA is found to be an effective tool for designing the FLC, eliminating the human interface required to generate the membership functions.

  17. Compact all-optical interferometric logic gates based on one-dimensional metal-insulator-metal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yusheng; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-02-01

    The whole set of fundamental all-optical logic gates is realized theoretically using a multi-channel configuration based on one-dimensional (1D) metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures by leveraging the linear interference between surface plasmon polariton modes. The working principle and conditions for different logic functions are analyzed and demonstrated numerically by means of the finite element method. In contrast to most of the previous studies that require more than one type of configuration to achieve different logic functions, a single geometry with fixed physical dimensions can realize all fundamental functions in our case studies. It is shown that by switching the optical signals to different input channels, the presented device can realize simple logic functions such as OR, AND and XOR. By adding signal in the control channel, more functions including NOT, XNOR, NAND and NOR can be implemented. For these considered logic functions, high intensity contrast ratios between Boolean logic states "1" and "0" can be achieved at the telecom wavelength. The presented all-optical logic device is simple, compact and efficient. Moreover, the proposed scheme can be applied to many other nano-photonic logic devices as well, thereby potentially offering useful guidelines for their designs and further applications in on-chip optical computing and optical interconnection networks.

  18. On the stability of interval type-2 TSK fuzzy logic control systems.

    PubMed

    Biglarbegian, Mohammad; Melek, William W; Mendel, Jerry M

    2010-06-01

    Type-2 fuzzy logic systems have recently been utilized in many control processes due to their ability to model uncertainties. This paper proposes a novel inference mechanism for an interval type-2 Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy logic control system (IT2 TSK FLCS) when antecedents are type-2 fuzzy sets and consequents are crisp numbers (A2-C0). The proposed inference mechanism has a closed form which makes it more feasible to analyze the stability of this FLCS. This paper focuses on control applications for the following cases: 1) Both plant and controller use A2-C0 TSK models, and 2) the plant uses type-1 Takagi-Sugeno (TS) and the controller uses IT2 TS models. In both cases, sufficient stability conditions for the stability of the closed-loop system are derived. Furthermore, novel linear-matrix-inequality-based algorithms are developed for satisfying the stability conditions. Numerical analyses are included which validate the effectiveness of the new inference methods. Case studies reveal that an IT2 TS FLCS using the proposed inference engine clearly outperforms its type-1 TSK counterpart. Moreover, due to the simple nature of the proposed inference engine, it is easy to implement in real-time control systems. The methods presented in this paper lay the mathematical foundations for analyzing the stability and facilitating the design of stabilizing controllers of IT2 TSK FLCSs and IT2 TS FLCSs with significantly improved performance over type-1 approaches. PMID:19884090

  19. Fuzzy logic autopilot synthesis for a nonlinearly behaved thruster-controlled missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Wayne Kevin

    A methodology to design a fuzzy logic based autopilot control system that works with vehicle nonlinearities (not merely accommodating them) is defined. The application is a forward propulsive controlled, nonlinearly behaved missile. The three distinct types of nonlinearities studied are nonlinear aerodynamics, impulsive thruster control, and aerodynamic and propulsive jet interaction. To permit sufficient fidelity of simulation models, an empirical approach to defining the jet interaction characteristics is developed and applied to the study missile configuration. The non-minimum phase trait of jet interaction coupled with the transient effects of impulsive control pose the greatest challenge to the autopilot design. The key innovation for controlling the coupled and destabilizing nonlinear missile behavior is to incorporate dynamic compensation into the inherently static fuzzy logic control structure. The autopilot structure is defined and an efficient path for finding a controller solution is identified. Acceleration step responses which respond more rapidly than the linearized airframe approximations with minimal airframe oscillation validate the achievement of the research goal.

  20. Application of fuzzy logic to the control of wind tunnel settling chamber temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Humphreys, Gregory L.

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC's) to the control of nonlinear processes, typically controlled by a human operator, is a topic of much study. Recent application of a microprocessor-based FLC to the control of temperature processes in several wind tunnels has proven to be very successful. The control of temperature processes in the wind tunnels requires the ability to monitor temperature feedback from several points and to accommodate varying operating conditions in the wind tunnels. The FLC has an intuitive and easily configurable structure which incorporates the flexibility required to have such an ability. The design and implementation of the FLC is presented along with process data from the wind tunnels under automatic control.

  1. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in the 2005 Toyota Camry Electronic Throttle Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Part of the US DOT investigation of Toyota SUA involved analysis of the throttle control software. JPL LaRS applied several techniques, including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software. A handful of logic models were built. Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found. The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  2. Flight test results of the fuzzy logic adaptive controller-helicopter (FLAC-H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Robert L.; Walker, Gregory W.

    1996-05-01

    The fuzzy logic adaptive controller for helicopters (FLAC-H) demonstration is a cooperative effort between the US Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM), the US Army Aviation and Troop Command, and the US Army Missile Command to demonstrate a low-cost drone control system for both full-scale and sub-scale helicopters. FLAC-H was demonstrated on one of STRICOM's fleet of full-scale rotary-winged target drones. FLAC-H exploits fuzzy logic in its flight control system to provide a robust solution to the control of the helicopter's dynamic, nonlinear system. Straight forward, common sense fuzzy rules governing helicopter flight are processed instead of complex mathematical models. This has resulted in a simplified solution to the complexities of helicopter flight. Incorporation of fuzzy logic reduced the cost of development and should also reduce the cost of maintenance of the system. An adaptive algorithm allows the FLAC-H to 'learn' how to fly the helicopter, enabling the control system to adjust to varying helicopter configurations. The adaptive algorithm, based on genetic algorithms, alters the fuzzy rules and their related sets to improve the performance characteristics of the system. This learning allows FLAC-H to automatically be integrated into a new airframe, reducing the development costs associated with altering a control system for a new or heavily modified aircraft. Successful flight tests of the FLAC-H on a UH-1H target drone were completed in September 1994 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This paper discuses the objective of the system, its design, and performance.

  3. Cascade DNA logic device programmed ratiometric DNA analysis and logic devices based on a fluorescent dual-signal probe of a G-quadruplex DNAzyme.

    PubMed

    Fan, Daoqing; Zhu, Jinbo; Zhai, Qingfeng; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-03-01

    Herein, two fluorescence sensitive substrates of G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme with inverse responses (Scopoletin and Amplex Red) were simultaneously used in one homogeneous system to construct a cascade advanced DNA logic device for the first time (a functional logic device (a three input based DNA calliper) cascade with an advanced non-arithmetic logic gate (1 to 2 decoder)). This cascade logic device was applied to label-free ratiometric target DNA detection and length measurement. PMID:26882417

  4. Evaluation of Model-Based Training for Vertical Guidance Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; Palmer, Everett; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Alkin, Marty; McCrobie, Dan; Kelley, Jerry; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper will summarize the results of a study which introduces a structured, model based approach to learning how the automated vertical guidance system works on a modern commercial air transport. The study proposes a framework to provide accurate and complete information in an attempt to eliminate confusion about 'what the system is doing'. This study will examine a structured methodology for organizing the ideas on which the system was designed, communicating this information through the training material, and displaying it in the airplane. Previous research on model-based, computer aided instructional technology has shown reductions in the amount of time to a specified level of competence. The lessons learned from the development of these technologies are well suited for use with the design methodology which was used to develop the vertical guidance logic for a large commercial air transport. The design methodology presents the model from which to derive the training material, and the content of information to be displayed to the operator. The study consists of a 2 X 2 factorial experiment which will compare a new method of training vertical guidance logic and a new type of display. The format of the material used to derive both the training and the display will be provided by the Operational Procedure Methodology. The training condition will compare current training material to the new structured format. The display condition will involve a change of the content of the information displayed into pieces that agree with the concepts with which the system was designed.

  5. A new design procedure for all-optical photonic crystal logic gates and functions based on threshold logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Hojjat; Hamidi, Seyyedeh Mehri; Navi, Keivan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a general method is proposed to design all-optical photonic crystal logic gates and functions based on threshold logic concept that have regular pattern in inputs. In our proposed structure, a photonic crystal junction is cascaded by a threshold power level detector. Additionally, a novel mechanism is introduced to shift the threshold power level for designing different logic gates and functions. The finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods are used to evaluate the proposed structures. The proposed gates and functions occupy an area less than 150 μm2 and also, the maximum power required for the switching mechanism is 15 μW. The inputs and output in the mentioned gates and functions are homogeneous and they can operate with a bit rate of about 500 Gbits/s.

  6. Using fuzzy logic to integrate neural networks and knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John

    1991-01-01

    Outlined here is a novel hybrid architecture that uses fuzzy logic to integrate neural networks and knowledge-based systems. The author's approach offers important synergistic benefits to neural nets, approximate reasoning, and symbolic processing. Fuzzy inference rules extend symbolic systems with approximate reasoning capabilities, which are used for integrating and interpreting the outputs of neural networks. The symbolic system captures meta-level information about neural networks and defines its interaction with neural networks through a set of control tasks. Fuzzy action rules provide a robust mechanism for recognizing the situations in which neural networks require certain control actions. The neural nets, on the other hand, offer flexible classification and adaptive learning capabilities, which are crucial for dynamic and noisy environments. By combining neural nets and symbolic systems at their system levels through the use of fuzzy logic, the author's approach alleviates current difficulties in reconciling differences between low-level data processing mechanisms of neural nets and artificial intelligence systems.

  7. Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua

    2010-11-01

    The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.

  8. Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua

    2009-09-01

    The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.

  9. Fuzzy Logic Based Rotor Health Index of Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Rajul; Pahuja, G. L.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on detection and diagnosis of broken rotor bars in Squirrel Cage Induction Motor (SQIM). The proposed scheme is based on Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) which uses amplitude difference of supply frequency to upper and lower side bands. Initially traditional MCSA has been used for rotor fault detection. It provides rotor health index on full load conditions. However in real practice if a fault occurs motor can not run at full load. To overcome the issue of reduced load condition a Fuzzy Logic based MCSA has been designed, implemented, tested and compared with traditional MCSA. A simulation result shows that proposed scheme is not only capable of detecting the severity of rotor fault but also provides remarkable performance at reduced load conditions.

  10. Identifying Network Public Opinion Leaders Based on Markov Logic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weizhe; Li, Xiaoqiang; He, Hui; Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Public opinion emergencies have important effect on social activities. Recognition of special communities like opinion leaders can contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the development trend of public opinion. In this paper, a network opinion leader recognition method based on relational data was put forward, and an opinion leader recognition system integrating public opinion data acquisition module, data characteristic selection, and fusion module as well as opinion leader discovery module based on Markov Logic Networks was designed. The designed opinion leader recognition system not only can overcome the incomplete data acquisition and isolated task of traditional methods, but also can recognize opinion leaders comprehensively with considerations to multiple problems by using the relational model. Experimental results demonstrated that, compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method can provide a more accurate opinion leader recognition and has good noise immunity. PMID:24977188

  11. An improved intrusion detection model based on paraconsistent logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Zhang, Huanguo; Wang, Lina; Yang, Min

    2005-02-01

    A major difficulty of current intrusion detection model is the attack set cannot be separated from normal set thoroughly. On the basis of paraconsistent logic, an improved intrusion detection model is proposed to solve this problem. We give a proof that the detection model is trivial and discuss the reason of false alerts. A parallel paraconsistent detection algorithm is presented to develop the detection technology based on our model. An experiment using network connection data, which is usually used to evaluate the intrusion detection methods, is given to illustrate the performance of this model. We use one-class supported vector machine (SVM) to train our profiles and use supported vector-clustering (SVC) algorithm to update our detection profiles. Results of the experiment indicate that the detection system based on our model can deal with the uncertain events and reduce the false alerts.

  12. Fuzzy-Logic Subsumption Controller for Home Energy Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Nathan; Johnson, Brian; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-10-06

    Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) are controllers that manage and coordinate the generation, storage, and loads in a home. These controllers are increasingly necessary to ensure that increasing penetrations of distributed energy resources are used effectively and do not disrupt the operation of the grid. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to HEMS design based on behavioral control methods, which do not require accurate models or predictions and are very responsive to changing conditions. We develop a proof-of-concept behavioral HEMS controller and show by simulation on an example home energy system that it capable of making context-dependent tradeoffs between goals under challenging conditions.

  13. Application of programmable logic controllers to space simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sushon, Janet

    1992-01-01

    Incorporating a state-of-the-art process control and instrumentation system into a complex system for thermal vacuum testing is discussed. The challenge was to connect several independent control systems provided by various vendors to a supervisory computer. This combination will sequentially control and monitor the process, collect the data, and transmit it to color a graphic system for subsequent manipulation. The vacuum system upgrade included: replacement of seventeen diffusion pumps with eight cryogenic pumps and one turbomolecular pump, replacing a relay based control system, replacing vacuum instrumentation, and upgrading the data acquisition system.

  14. Interlocked DNA nanostructures controlled by a reversible logic circuit.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Lohmann, Finn; Famulok, Michael

    2014-01-01

    DNA nanostructures constitute attractive devices for logic computing and nanomechanics. An emerging interest is to integrate these two fields and devise intelligent DNA nanorobots. Here we report a reversible logic circuit built on the programmable assembly of a double-stranded (ds) DNA [3]pseudocatenane that serves as a rigid scaffold to position two separate branched-out head-motifs, a bimolecular i-motif and a G-quadruplex. The G-quadruplex only forms when preceded by the assembly of the i-motif. The formation of the latter, in turn, requires acidic pH and unhindered mobility of the head-motif containing dsDNA nanorings with respect to the central ring to which they are interlocked, triggered by release oligodeoxynucleotides. We employ these features to convert the structural changes into Boolean operations with fluorescence labelling. The nanostructure behaves as a reversible logic circuit consisting of tandem YES and AND gates. Such reversible logic circuits integrated into functional nanodevices may guide future intelligent DNA nanorobots to manipulate cascade reactions in biological systems. PMID:25229207

  15. Actively phase-controlled coupling between plasmonic waveguides via in-between gain-assisted nanoresonator: nanoscale optical logic gates.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kum-Song; Han, Yong-Ha; Ri, Chol-Song; Im, Song-Jin

    2016-08-15

    The development of nanoscale optical logic gates has attracted immense attention due to increasing demand for ultrahigh-speed and energy-efficient optical computing and data processing, however, suffers from the difficulty in precise control of phase difference of the two optical signals. We propose a novel conception of nanoscale optical logic gates based on actively phase-controlled coupling between two plasmonic waveguides via an in-between gain-assisted nanoresonator. Precise control of phase difference between the two plasmonic signals can be performed by manipulating pumping rate at an appropriate frequency detuning, enabling a high contrast between the output logic states "1" and "0." Without modification of the structural parameters, different logic functions can be provided. This active nanoscale optical logic device is expected to be quite energy-efficient with ideally low energy consumption on the order of 0.1 fJ/bit. Analytical calculations and numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of the proposed concept. PMID:27519077

  16. Aptazyme-based riboswitches and logic gates in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yoko; Yokobayashi, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes a screening strategy to engineer synthetic riboswitches that can chemically regulate gene expression in mammalian cells. Riboswitch libraries are constructed by randomizing the key nucleotides that couple the molecular recognition function of an aptamer with the self-cleavage activity of a ribozyme. The allosteric ribozyme (aptazyme) candidates are cloned in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of a reporter gene mRNA. The plasmid-encoded riboswitch candidates are transfected into a mammalian cell line to screen for the desired riboswitch function. Furthermore, multiple aptazymes can be cloned into the 3' UTR of a desired gene to obtain a logic gate response to multiple chemical signals. This screening strategy complements other methods to engineer robust mammalian riboswitches to control gene expression. PMID:25967059

  17. A biomimetic colorimetric logic gate system based on multi-functional peptide-mediated gold nanoparticle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Li, Wang; He, Kai-Yu; Li, Pei; Huang, Yan; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shou-Zhuo

    2016-04-01

    In natural biological systems, proteins exploit various functional peptide motifs to exert target response and activity switch, providing a functional and logic basis for complex cellular activities. Building biomimetic peptide-based bio-logic systems is highly intriguing but remains relatively unexplored due to limited logic recognition elements and complex signal outputs. In this proof-of-principle work, we attempted to address these problems by utilizing multi-functional peptide probes and the peptide-mediated nanoparticle assembly system. Here, the rationally designed peptide probes function as the dual-target responsive element specifically responsive to metal ions and enzymes as well as the mediator regulating the assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Taking advantage of Zn2+ ions and chymotrypsin as the model inputs of metal ions and enzymes, respectively, we constructed the peptide logic system computed by the multi-functional peptide probes and outputted by the readable colour change of AuNPs. In this way, the representative binary basic logic gates (AND, OR, INHIBIT, NAND, IMPLICATION) have been achieved by delicately coding the peptide sequence, demonstrating the versatility of our logic system. Additionally, we demonstrated that the three-input combinational logic gate (INHIBIT-OR) could also be successfully integrated and applied as a multi-tasking biosensor for colorimetric detection of dual targets. This nanoparticle-based peptide logic system presents a valid strategy to illustrate peptide information processing and provides a practical platform for executing peptide computing or peptide-related multiplexing sensing, implying that the controllable nanomaterial assembly is a promising and potent methodology for the advancement of biomimetic bio-logic computation.In natural biological systems, proteins exploit various functional peptide motifs to exert target response and activity switch, providing a functional and logic basis for complex cellular

  18. Decision Making Method Based on Paraconsistent Annotated Logic and Statistical Method: a Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Fábio Romeu; Brunstein, Israel; Abe, Jair Minoro

    2008-10-01

    Presently, there are new kinds of logic capable of handling uncertain and contradictory data without becoming trivial. Decision making theories based on these logics have shown to be powerful in many aspects regarding more traditional methods based on Statistics. In this paper we intend to outline a first study for a decision making theory based on Paraconsistent Annotated Evidential Logic Eτ (Paraconsistent Decision Method (PDM)) and classical Statistical Decision Method (SDM). Some discussion is presented below.

  19. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Ormsby, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing (DSP) functions. Such capability also makes and FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM- based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance in a compact form-factor. Other researchers have presented the notion that a second order digital filter with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control functionality can be implemented in an FPGA. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSF) devices. Our goal is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. Meeting our goals requires alternative compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment encountered on spacecraft. Radiation tolerant FPGA's are a feasible option for reaching these goals.

  20. A biomimetic colorimetric logic gate system based on multi-functional peptide-mediated gold nanoparticle assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Li, Wang; He, Kai-Yu; Li, Pei; Huang, Yan; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shou-Zhuo

    2016-04-28

    In natural biological systems, proteins exploit various functional peptide motifs to exert target response and activity switch, providing a functional and logic basis for complex cellular activities. Building biomimetic peptide-based bio-logic systems is highly intriguing but remains relatively unexplored due to limited logic recognition elements and complex signal outputs. In this proof-of-principle work, we attempted to address these problems by utilizing multi-functional peptide probes and the peptide-mediated nanoparticle assembly system. Here, the rationally designed peptide probes function as the dual-target responsive element specifically responsive to metal ions and enzymes as well as the mediator regulating the assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Taking advantage of Zn(2+) ions and chymotrypsin as the model inputs of metal ions and enzymes, respectively, we constructed the peptide logic system computed by the multi-functional peptide probes and outputted by the readable colour change of AuNPs. In this way, the representative binary basic logic gates (AND, OR, INHIBIT, NAND, IMPLICATION) have been achieved by delicately coding the peptide sequence, demonstrating the versatility of our logic system. Additionally, we demonstrated that the three-input combinational logic gate (INHIBIT-OR) could also be successfully integrated and applied as a multi-tasking biosensor for colorimetric detection of dual targets. This nanoparticle-based peptide logic system presents a valid strategy to illustrate peptide information processing and provides a practical platform for executing peptide computing or peptide-related multiplexing sensing, implying that the controllable nanomaterial assembly is a promising and potent methodology for the advancement of biomimetic bio-logic computation. PMID:27049641

  1. MOSFET-like CNFET based logic gate library for low-power application: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowri Sankar, P. A.; Udhayakumar, K.

    2014-07-01

    The next generation of logic gate devices are expected to depend upon radically new technologies mainly due to the increasing difficulties and limitations of existing CMOS technology. MOSFET like CNFETs should ideally be the best devices to work with for high-performance VLSI. This paper presents results of a comprehensive comparative study of MOSFET-like carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) technology based logic gate library for high-speed, low-power operation than conventional bulk CMOS libraries. It focuses on comparing four promising logic families namely: complementary-CMOS (C-CMOS), transmission gate (TG), complementary pass logic (CPL) and Domino logic (DL) styles are presented. Based on these logic styles, the proposed library of static and dynamic NAND-NOR logic gates, XOR, multiplexer and full adder functions are implemented efficiently and carefully analyzed with a test bench to measure propagation delay and power dissipation as a function of supply voltage. This analysis provides the right choice of logic style for low-power, high-speed applications. Proposed logic gates libraries are simulated using Synopsys HSPICE based on the standard 32 nm CNFET model. The simulation results demonstrate that, it is best to use C-CMOS logic style gates that are implemented in CNFET technology which are superior in performance compared to other logic styles, because of their low average power-delay-product (PDP). The analysis also demonstrates how the optimum supply voltage varies with logic styles in ultra-low power systems. The robustness of the proposed logic gate library is also compared with conventional and state-art of CMOS logic gate libraries.

  2. Photonic-crystal-based all-optical NOT logic gate.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahm Raj; Rawal, Swati

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, we have utilized the concept of photonic crystals for the implementation of an optical NOT gate inverter. The designed structure has a hexagonal arrangement of silicon rods in air substrate. The logic function is based on the phenomenon of the existence of the photonic bandgap and resulting guided modes in defect photonic crystal waveguides. We have plotted the transmission, extinction ratio, and tolerance analysis graphs for the structure, and it has been observed that the maximum output is obtained for a telecom wavelength of 1.554 μm. Dispersion curves are obtained using the plane wave expansion method, and the transmission is simulated using the finite element method. The proposed structure is applicable for photonic integrated circuits due to its simple structure and clear operating principle. PMID:26831380

  3. Design and verification of distributed logic controllers with application of Petri nets

    SciTech Connect

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał; Wiśniewska, Monika

    2015-12-31

    The paper deals with the designing and verification of distributed logic controllers. The control system is initially modelled with Petri nets and formally verified against structural and behavioral properties with the application of the temporal logic and model checking technique. After that it is decomposed into separate sequential automata that are working concurrently. Each of them is re-verified and if the validation is successful, the system can be finally implemented.

  4. The Programmable Logic Controller and its application in nuclear reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Palomar, J.; Wyman, R.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to guide reviewers in the application of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCS) to the control, monitoring and protection of nuclear reactors. The first topics addressed are system-level design issues, specifically including safety. The document then discusses concerns about the PLC manufacturing organization and the protection system engineering organization. Supplementing this document are two appendices. Appendix A summarizes PLC characteristics. Specifically addressed are those characteristics that make the PLC more suitable for emergency shutdown systems than other electrical/electronic-based systems, as well as characteristics that improve reliability of a system. Also covered are PLC characteristics that may create an unsafe operating environment. Appendix B provides an overview of the use of programmable logic controllers in emergency shutdown systems. The intent is to familiarize the reader with the design, development, test, and maintenance phases of applying a PLC to an ESD system. Each phase is described in detail and information pertinent to the application of a PLC is pointed out.

  5. A novel logic-based approach for quantitative toxicology prediction.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ata; Muggleton, Stephen H; Lodhi, Huma; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2007-01-01

    There is a pressing need for accurate in silico methods to predict the toxicity of molecules that are being introduced into the environment or are being developed into new pharmaceuticals. Predictive toxicology is in the realm of structure activity relationships (SAR), and many approaches have been used to derive such SAR. Previous work has shown that inductive logic programming (ILP) is a powerful approach that circumvents several major difficulties, such as molecular superposition, faced by some other SAR methods. The ILP approach reasons with chemical substructures within a relational framework and yields chemically understandable rules. Here, we report a general new approach, support vector inductive logic programming (SVILP), which extends the essentially qualitative ILP-based SAR to quantitative modeling. First, ILP is used to learn rules, the predictions of which are then used within a novel kernel to derive a support-vector generalization model. For a highly heterogeneous dataset of 576 molecules with known fathead minnow fish toxicity, the cross-validated correlation coefficients (R2CV) from a chemical descriptor method (CHEM) and SVILP are 0.52 and 0.66, respectively. The ILP, CHEM, and SVILP approaches correctly predict 55, 58, and 73%, respectively, of toxic molecules. In a set of 165 unseen molecules, the R2 values from the commercial software TOPKAT and SVILP are 0.26 and 0.57, respectively. In all calculations, SVILP showed significant improvements in comparison with the other methods. The SVILP approach has a major advantage in that it uses ILP automatically and consistently to derive rules, mostly novel, describing fragments that are toxicity alerts. The SVILP is a general machine-learning approach and has the potential of tackling many problems relevant to chemoinformatics including in silico drug design. PMID:17451225

  6. Development of a fuzzy logic based intelligent system for autonomous guidance of post-stroke rehabilitation exercise.

    PubMed

    Huq, Rajibul; Wang, Rosalie; Lu, Elaine; Hebert, Debbie; Lacheray, Hervé; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary studies in developing a fuzzy logic based intelligent system for autonomous post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation exercise. The intelligent system autonomously varies control parameters to generate different haptic effects on the robotic device. The robotic device is able to apply both resistive and assistive forces for guiding the patient during the exercise. The fuzzy logic based decision-making system estimates muscle fatigue of the patient using exercise performance and generates a combination of resistive and assistive forces so that the stroke survivor can exercise for longer durations with increasing control. The fuzzy logic based system is initially developed using a study with healthy subjects and preliminary results are also presented to validate the developed system with healthy subjects. The next stage of this work will collect data from stroke survivors for further development of the system. PMID:24187289

  7. High-speed integrated optical logic based on the protein bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Mathesz, Anna; Fábián, László; Valkai, Sándor; Alexandre, Daniel; Marques, Paulo V S; Ormos, Pál; Wolff, Elmar K; Dér, András

    2013-08-15

    The principle of all-optical logical operations utilizing the unique nonlinear optical properties of a protein was demonstrated by a logic gate constructed from an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer as a passive structure, covered by a bacteriorhodopsin (bR) adlayer as the active element. Logical operations were based on a reversible change of the refractive index of the bR adlayer over one or both arms of the interferometer. Depending on the operating point of the interferometer, we demonstrated binary and ternary logical modes of operation. Using an ultrafast transition of the bR photocycle (BR-K), we achieved high-speed (nanosecond) logical switching. This is the fastest operation of a protein-based integrated optical logic gate that has been demonstrated so far. The results are expected to have important implications for finding novel, alternative solutions in all-optical data processing research. PMID:23500476

  8. Fuzzy logic control of stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalouni, S.; Rekioua, D.; Rekioua, T.; Matagne, E.

    Photovoltaic energy has nowadays an increased importance in electrical power applications, since it is considered as an essentially inexhaustible and broadly available energy resource. However, the output power provided via the photovoltaic conversion process depends on solar irradiation and temperature. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic energy system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array. The present paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) method, based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), applied to a stand-alone photovoltaic system. It uses a sampling measure of the PV array power and voltage then determines an optimal increment required to have the optimal operating voltage which permits maximum power tracking. This method carries high accuracy around the optimum point when compared to the conventional one. The stand-alone photovoltaic system used in this paper includes two bi-directional DC/DC converters and a lead-acid battery bank to overcome the scare periods. One converter works as an MPP tracker, while the other regulates the batteries state of charge and compensates the power deficit to provide a continuous delivery of energy to the load. The Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy logic controller.

  9. Fuzzy-logic-based resource allocation for isolated and multiple platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-08-01

    Modern naval battle forces generally include many different platforms each with its own sensors, radar, ESM, and communications. The sharing of information measured by local sensors via communication links across the battle group should allow for optimal or near optimal decision. The survival of the battle group or members of the group depends on the automatic real-time allocation of various resources. A fuzzy logic algorithm has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack resources in real- time. The particular approach to fuzzy logic that is used is the fuzzy decision tree, a generalization of the standard artificial intelligence technique of decision trees. The controller must be able to make decisions based on rules provided by experts. The fuzzy logic approach allows the direct incorporation of expertise forming a fuzzy linguistic description, i.e. a formal representation of the system in terms of fuzzy if-then rules. Genetic algorithm based optimization is conducted to determine the form of the membership functions for the fuzzy root concepts. The isolated platform and multi platform resource manager models are discussed as well as the underlying multi-platform communication model. The resource manager is shown to exhibit excellent performance under many demanding scenarios.

  10. Fuzzy logic control of water level in advanced boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chaung; Lee, Chi-Szu; Raghavan, R.; Fahrner, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    The feedwater control system in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is more challenging to design compared to other control systems in the plant, due to the possible change in level from void collapses and swells during transient events. A basic fuzzy logic controller is developed using a simplified ABWR mathematical model to demonstrate and compare the performance of this controller with a simplified conventional controller. To reduce the design effort, methods are developed to automatically tune the scaling factors and control rules. As a first step in developing the fuzzy controller, a fuzzy controller with a limited number of rules is developed to respond to normal plant transients such as setpoint changes of plant parameters and load demand changes. Various simulations for setpoint and load demand changes of plant performances were conducted to evaluate the modeled fuzzy logic design against the simplified ABWR model control system. The simulation results show that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is comparable to that of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, However, the fuzzy logic controller produced shorter settling time for step setpoint changes compared to the simplified conventional controller.

  11. Topological computation based on direct magnetic logic communication

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shilei; Baker, Alexander A.; Komineas, Stavros; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniform magnetic domains with non-trivial topology, such as vortices and skyrmions, are proposed as superior state variables for nonvolatile information storage. So far, the possibility of logic operations using topological objects has not been considered. Here, we demonstrate numerically that the topology of the system plays a significant role for its dynamics, using the example of vortex-antivortex pairs in a planar ferromagnetic film. Utilising the dynamical properties and geometrical confinement, direct logic communication between the topological memory carriers is realised. This way, no additional magnetic-to-electrical conversion is required. More importantly, the information carriers can spontaneously travel up to ~300 nm, for which no spin-polarised current is required. The derived logic scheme enables topological spintronics, which can be integrated into large-scale memory and logic networks capable of complex computations. PMID:26508375

  12. Recent Trends in Spintronics-Based Nanomagnetic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Jayita; Alam, Syed M.; Bhanja, Sanjukta

    2014-09-01

    With the growing concerns of standby power in sub-100-nm CMOS technologies, alternative computing techniques and memory technologies are explored. Spin transfer torque magnetoresistive RAM (STT-MRAM) is one such nonvolatile memory relying on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) to store information. It uses spin transfer torque to write information and magnetoresistance to read information. In 2012, Everspin Technologies, Inc. commercialized the first 64Mbit Spin Torque MRAM. On the computing end, nanomagnetic logic (NML) is a promising technique with zero leakage and high data retention. In 2000, Cowburn and Welland first demonstrated its potential in logic and information propagation through magnetostatic interaction in a chain of single domain circular nanomagnetic dots of Supermalloy (Ni80Fe14Mo5X1, X is other metals). In 2006, Imre et al. demonstrated wires and majority gates followed by coplanar cross wire systems demonstration in 2010 by Pulecio et al. Since 2004 researchers have also investigated the potential of MTJs in logic. More recently with dipolar coupling between MTJs demonstrated in 2012, logic-in-memory architecture with STT-MRAM have been investigated. The architecture borrows the computing concept from NML and read and write style from MRAM. The architecture can switch its operation between logic and memory modes with clock as classifier. Further through logic partitioning between MTJ and CMOS plane, a significant performance boost has been observed in basic computing blocks within the architecture. In this work, we have explored the developments in NML, in MTJs and more recent developments in hybrid MTJ/CMOS logic-in-memory architecture and its unique logic partitioning capability.

  13. Innovative Bimolecular-Based Advanced Logic Operations: A Prime Discriminator and An Odd Parity Checker.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-08-17

    Herein, a novel logic operation of prime discriminator is first performed for the function of identifying the prime numbers from natural numbers less than 10. The prime discriminator logic operation is developed by DNA hybridizations and the conjugation of graphene oxide and single-stranded DNA as a reacting platform. On the basis of the similar reaction principle, an odd parity checker is also developed. The odd parity checker logic operation can identify the even numbers and odd numbers from natural numbers less than 10. Such advanced logic operations with digital recognition ability can provide a new field of vision toward prototypical DNA-based logic operations and promote the development of advanced logic circuits. PMID:27459592

  14. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor.

  15. A comparison of fuzzy logic-PID control strategies for PWR pressurizer control

    SciTech Connect

    Kavaklioglu, K.; Ikonomopoulos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained from a comparison performed between classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic (FL) controlling the pressure in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The two methodologies have been tested under various transient scenarios, and their performances are evaluated with respect to robustness and on-time response to external stimuli. One of the main concerns in the safe operation of PWR is the pressure control in the primary side of the system. In order to maintain the pressure in a PWR at the desired level, the pressurizer component equipped with sprayers, heaters, and safety relief valves is used. The control strategy in a Westinghouse PWR is implemented with a PID controller that initiates either the electric heaters or the sprayers, depending on the direction of the coolant pressure deviation from the setpoint.

  16. A Logic-Based Approach to Relation Extraction from Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Tamás; Paass, Gerhard; Reichartz, Frank; Wrobel, Stefan

    In recent years, text mining has moved far beyond the classical problem of text classification with an increased interest in more sophisticated processing of large text corpora, such as, for example, evaluations of complex queries. This and several other tasks are based on the essential step of relation extraction. This problem becomes a typical application of learning logic programs by considering the dependency trees of sentences as relational structures and examples of the target relation as ground atoms of a target predicate. In this way, each example is represented by a definite first-order Horn-clause. We show that an adaptation of Plotkin's least general generalization (LGG) operator can effectively be applied to such clauses and propose a simple and effective divide-and-conquer algorithm for listing a certain set of LGGs. We use these LGGs to generate binary features and compute the hypothesis by applying SVM to the feature vectors obtained. Empirical results on the ACE-2003 benchmark dataset indicate that the performance of our approach is comparable to state-of-the-art kernel methods.

  17. Protein secondary structure prediction using logic-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Muggleton, S; King, R D; Sternberg, M J

    1992-10-01

    Many attempts have been made to solve the problem of predicting protein secondary structure from the primary sequence but the best performance results are still disappointing. In this paper, the use of a machine learning algorithm which allows relational descriptions is shown to lead to improved performance. The Inductive Logic Programming computer program, Golem, was applied to learning secondary structure prediction rules for alpha/alpha domain type proteins. The input to the program consisted of 12 non-homologous proteins (1612 residues) of known structure, together with a background knowledge describing the chemical and physical properties of the residues. Golem learned a small set of rules that predict which residues are part of the alpha-helices--based on their positional relationships and chemical and physical properties. The rules were tested on four independent non-homologous proteins (416 residues) giving an accuracy of 81% (+/- 2%). This is an improvement, on identical data, over the previously reported result of 73% by King and Sternberg (1990, J. Mol. Biol., 216, 441-457) using the machine learning program PROMIS, and of 72% using the standard Garnier-Osguthorpe-Robson method. The best previously reported result in the literature for the alpha/alpha domain type is 76%, achieved using a neural net approach. Machine learning also has the advantage over neural network and statistical methods in producing more understandable results. PMID:1480619

  18. a New Architecture for Intelligent Systems with Logic Based Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, K. K.; Saini, Sanju

    2008-10-01

    People communicate with each other in sentences that incorporate two kinds of information: propositions about some subject, and metalevel speech acts that specify how the propositional information is used—as an assertion, a command, a question, or a promise. By means of speech acts, a group of people who have different areas of expertise can cooperate and dynamically reconfigure their social interactions to perform tasks and solve problems that would be difficult or impossible for any single individual. This paper proposes a framework for intelligent systems that consist of a variety of specialized components together with logic-based languages that can express propositions and speech acts about those propositions. The result is a system with a dynamically changing architecture that can be reconfigured in various ways: by a human knowledge engineer who specifies a script of speech acts that determine how the components interact; by a planning component that generates the speech acts to redirect the other components; or by a committee of components, which might include human assistants, whose speech acts serve to redirect one another. The components communicate by sending messages to a Linda-like blackboard, in which components accept messages that are either directed to them or that they consider themselves competent to handle.

  19. Fuzzy logic controller for the electric motor driving the astronomical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Hussein F.; Attia, Abdel-Fattah A.; Badr, Mohammed A.; Osman, Anas M.; Gamaleldin, Abdul A.

    1998-05-01

    The paper presents an application of fuzzy logic controller to regulate the DC motor driver system of astronomical telescope. The mathematical model of such a telescope is highly nonlinear coupled equations. However, the accuracy requirement in telescope system exceed those of other industrial plants. Fuzzy logic controller provides means to deal with nonlinear functions. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was designed to enhance the performance of a two-link model of astronomical telescope. The proposed FLC utilizes the position deviation for the desired value, and its rate of change to regulate the armature voltage of the DC motor drive of each link. The final action of FLC is equivalent to PD controller with a variable gain by using an expert look- up table. This work presents the derivation of the mathematical model of 14 inch Celestron telescope and computer simulation of its motion. The FLC contains two groups of fuzzy sets.

  20. Phase-shift-controlled logic gates in Y-shaped nonlinearly coupled chains.

    PubMed

    Assunção, T F; Nascimento, E M; Sombra, A S B; Lyra, M L

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a model system composed of two input discrete chains nonlinearly coupled to a single output chain which mimics the geometry of Y-shaped carbon nanotubes, photonic crystal wave guides, and DNA junctions. We explore the capability of the proposed system to perform logic gate operations based on the transmission of phase-shifted harmonic incoming waves. Within a tight-binding approach, we determine the exact transmission spectrum which exhibits a nonlinear induced bistability. Using a digitalization scheme of the output signal based on amplitude modulation, we show that AND, OR, and XOR logic operations can be achieved. Nonlinearity strongly favors the realization of logic operations in the regime of large wavelengths, while phase shifting is required for the OR logic gate to be realizable. A detailed analysis of the contrast ratio shows that optimal operation of the AND and OR logic gates takes place when the nonlinear response is the predominant physical property distinguishing the coupling and regular sites. These results point towards the possibility of Y-branched junctions to perform logic operations based on the transmission of traveling waves. PMID:26986342

  1. Force control of a tri-layer conducting polymer actuator using optimized fuzzy logic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itik, Mehmet; Sabetghadam, Mohammadreza; Alici, Gursel

    2014-12-01

    Conducting polymers actuators (CPAs) are potential candidates for replacing conventional actuators in various fields, such as robotics and biomedical engineering, due to their advantageous properties, which includes their low cost, light weight, low actuation voltage and biocompatibility. As these actuators are very suitable for use in micro-nano manipulation and in injection devices in which the magnitude of the force applied to the target is of crucial importance, the force generated by CPAs needs to be accurately controlled. In this paper, a fuzzy logic (FL) controller with a Mamdani inference system is designed to control the blocking force of a trilayer CPA with polypyrrole electrodes, which operates in air. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is employed to optimize the controller’s membership function parameters and therefore enhance the performance of the FL controller. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model, which can capture the nonlinear dynamics of the actuator, is utilized in the optimization process. The optimized Mamdani FL controller is then implemented on the CPA experimentally, and its performance is compared with a non-optimized fuzzy controller as well as with those obtained from a conventional PID controller. The results presented indicate that the blocking force at the tip of the CPA can be effectively controlled by the optimized FL controller, which shows excellent transient and steady state characteristics but increases the control voltage compared to the non-optimized fuzzy controllers.

  2. D-Zero Cryogenic System VLPC & Solenoid Vacuum System Instrumentation, Control, and Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1998-01-16

    The DZERO VLPC Cryostat and the Superconducting Solenoid both require an insulating Vacuum of 10{sup -5} Torr or less. There is a vacuum system on the Detector Platform consisting of 2 Turbomolecular vacuum pumps and their associated piping, valves, instrumentation that are dedicated to this task. This vacuum equipment requires an operator interface and control logic in order to function properly. The operator interface allows an operator to monitor, control and configure the proper pumping setup required at any given time. The control logic is needed to protect the Vacumm vessels and Vacuum equipment from catastrophic events that may harm them. This is typically done with interlock chains or strings.

  3. A Chiroptical Logic Circuit Based on Self-Assembled Soft Materials Containing Amphiphilic Spiropyran.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changxia; Yang, Dong; Jin, Qingxian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2016-02-01

    A chiral logic circuit is proposed based on the multiple chiroptical responsiveness of a supramolecular gel material. The gel is fabricated by mixing a chiral gelator and a spiropyran derivative. Chiral responsiveness including the chiral switch and the logic gate is realized through the combined chirality transfer, photochromism, and acidichromism of the system. PMID:26677055

  4. Evaluation for Community-Based Programs: The Integration of Logic Models and Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helitzer, Deborah; Hollis, Christine; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Sanders, Margaret; Roybal, Suzanne; Van Deusen, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the utility of and value of the use of logic models for program evaluation of community-based programs and more specifically, the integration of logic models and factor analysis to develop and revise a survey as part of an effective evaluation plan. Principal results: Diverse stakeholders with varying outlooks used a logic…

  5. Glutathione-facilitated design and fabrication of gold nanoparticle-based logic gates and keypad lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Haonan; Yang, Wensheng

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we describe how we developed a simple design and fabrication method for logic gates and a device by using a commercially available tripeptide, namely glutathione (GSH), together with metal ions and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) to control the dispersion and aggregation of gold nanoparticles (NPs). With the fast adsorption of GSH on gold NPs and the strong coordination of GSH with metal ions, the addition of GSH and Pb2+ ions immediately resulted in the aggregation of gold NPs, giving rise to an AND function. Either Pb2+ or Ba2+ ions induced the aggregation of gold NPs in the presence of GSH, supporting an OR gate. Based on the fact that EDTA has a strong capacity to bind metal ions, thus preventing the aggregation of gold NPs, an INHIBIT gate was also fabricated. More interestingly, we found that the addition sequence of GSH and Hg2+ ions influenced the aggregation of gold NPs in a controlled manner, which was used to design a sequential logic gate and a three-input keypad lock for potential use in information security. The GSH strategy addresses concerns of low cost, simple fabrication, versatile design and easy operation, and offers a promising platform for the development of functional logic systems.In this paper, we describe how we developed a simple design and fabrication method for logic gates and a device by using a commercially available tripeptide, namely glutathione (GSH), together with metal ions and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) to control the dispersion and aggregation of gold nanoparticles (NPs). With the fast adsorption of GSH on gold NPs and the strong coordination of GSH with metal ions, the addition of GSH and Pb2+ ions immediately resulted in the aggregation of gold NPs, giving rise to an AND function. Either Pb2+ or Ba2+ ions induced the aggregation of gold NPs in the presence of GSH, supporting an OR gate. Based on the fact that EDTA has a strong capacity to bind metal ions, thus preventing the

  6. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Rohini, G; Jamuna, V

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results. PMID:27294189

  7. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rohini, G.; Jamuna, V.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results. PMID:27294189

  8. RSFQ: Ultrafast Logic Based on Magnetic Flux Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likharev, Konstantin

    2000-03-01

    I will review the progress and prospects of Rapid Single-Flux-Quantum (RSFQ) logic family, the newest generation of ultrafast superconductor digital circuits. Elementary cells of this family, based on overdamped Josephson junctions, store and process digital bits in the form of single quanta of magnetic flux, while intercell signaling is provided by picosecond pulses transferred along superconductor microstrip lines, with a speed approaching speed of light. RSFQ integrated circuits may provide the highest speed available in superconductor digital electronics: simple devices like digital frequency dividers have been demonstrated to operate at frequencies up to 770 GHz. Simultaneously, power consumption of RSFQ devices is extremely low (at helium temperatures, about 10-18 Joule per bit), allowing very compact chip packaging, and hence dramatic cuts in the interchip communication latency. Finally, the technology of fabrication of the niobium-based RSFQ circuits is considerably simpler than the standard silicon CMOS process. As a result of the recent work at Stony Brook, HYPRES and elsewhere, relatively complex RSFQ circuits (with thousands of Josephson junctions), including notably the world's fastest analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters and digital autocorrelators, have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. The main problem with the practical introduction of RSFQ circuits is the necessity of their deep refrigeration. Helium-range closed-cycle refrigerators are still costly and bulky, while HTS RSFQ circuits run into fabrication yield and layout problems. However, for several important applications (including A/D and D/A conversion, digital SQUIDs, RF voltage standards and calibrators, digital correlators, and possibly high-performance computing), the unparalleled performance of LTS RSFQ devices may overweigh the inconvenience of their helium cooling. I will describe the recent advances in these directions, with a special emphasis on the

  9. Trade-offs between fuel economy and NOx emissions using fuzzy logic control.

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, Aymeric; Saglini, Sylvain; Jakov, Michael; Gray, Donald; Hardy, Keith

    2002-08-19

    The Center for Transportation Research at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) supports the DOE by evaluating advanced automotive technologies in a systems context. ANL has developed a unique set of compatible simulation tools and test equipment to perform an integrated systems analysis project from modeling through hardware testing and validation. This project utilized these capabilities to demonstrate the trade-off in fuel economy and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions in a so-called ''pre-transmission'' parallel hybrid powertrain. The powertrain configuration (in simulation and on the dynamometer) consists of a Compression Ignition Direct Ignition (CIDI) engine, a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) and an electric drive motor coupled to the CVT input shaft. The trade-off is studied in a simulated environment using PSAT{copyright} with different controllers (fuzzy logic and rule based) and engine models (neural network and steady state models developed from ANL data).

  10. Dispositional logic

    SciTech Connect

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived. 7 references.

  11. Dispositional logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  12. Analog-digital simulation of transient-induced logic errors and upset susceptibility of an advanced control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Choi, G.; Iyer, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation study is described which predicts the susceptibility of an advanced control system to electrical transients resulting in logic errors, latched errors, error propagation, and digital upset. The system is based on a custom-designed microprocessor and it incorporates fault-tolerant techniques. The system under test and the method to perform the transient injection experiment are described. Results for 2100 transient injections are analyzed and classified according to charge level, type of error, and location of injection.

  13. Convergent method of and apparatus for distributed control of robotic systems using fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John T.; Driessen, Brian J.; Kwok, Kwan S.

    2002-01-01

    A decentralized fuzzy logic control system for one vehicle or for multiple robotic vehicles provides a way to control each vehicle to converge on a goal without collisions between vehicles or collisions with other obstacles, in the presence of noisy input measurements and a limited amount of compute-power and memory on board each robotic vehicle. The fuzzy controller demonstrates improved robustness to noise relative to an exact controller.

  14. Clock Controller For Ac Self-Timing Analysis Of Logic System

    DOEpatents

    Lo, Tinchee; Flanagan, John D.

    2004-05-18

    A clock controller and clock generating method are provided for AC self-test timing analysis of a logic system. The controller includes latch circuitry which receives a DC input signal at a data input, and a pair of continuous out-of-phase clock signals at capture and launch clock inputs thereof. The latch circuitry outputs two overlapping pulses responsive to the DC input signal going high. The two overlapping pulses are provided to waveform shaper circuitry which produces therefrom two non-overlapping pulses at clock speed of the logic system to be tested. The two non-overlapping pulses are a single pair of clock pulses which facilitate AC self-test timing analysis of the logic system.

  15. A self-organizing and self-tuning fuzzy logic controller for field oriented control of induction motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Ashrafzadeh, F.; Nowicki, E.P.; Salmon, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper proposes a design approach for a self-organizing self-tuning fuzzy logic controller, and is applied to the design of a field oriented drive system. The basic structure of a fuzzy logic controller is outlined and the design problems associated with the conventional trial-and-error schemes are addressed. The suitability of the genetic algorithm optimization technique as a means to determine and optimize the fuzzy logic controller design is discussed. In the proposed approach normalization factors and/or membership function parameters and/or the controller policy, are translated into bit-strings. These bit-strings are processed by the genetic algorithm and if the selection process as well as the objective function are chosen properly, a near-optimal solution can be found. To examine the efficiency of the proposed approach, a self-tuning and self-organizing fuzzy logic controller for an indirect field oriented induction motor drive is designed in both a sequential and a concurrent manner. A particular objective function (i.e., a performance index) is chosen to achieve a high dynamic performance. The simulation results demonstrate a significant enhancement in shortening the development time, and improving system performance over a manually tuned fuzzy logic controller.

  16. Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ting; Xu, Jian-yi; Cheng, Ying Liu, Xiao-jun; Guo, Jian-zhong

    2015-03-16

    The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.

  17. Integrated all-optical logic discriminators based on plasmonic bandgap engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cuicui; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    Optical computing uses photons as information carriers, opening up the possibility for ultrahigh-speed and ultrawide-band information processing. Integrated all-optical logic devices are indispensible core components of optical computing systems. However, up to now, little experimental progress has been made in nanoscale all-optical logic discriminators, which have the function of discriminating and encoding incident light signals according to wavelength. Here, we report a strategy to realize a nanoscale all-optical logic discriminator based on plasmonic bandgap engineering in a planar plasmonic microstructure. Light signals falling within different operating wavelength ranges are differentiated and endowed with different logic state encodings. Compared with values previously reported, the operating bandwidth is enlarged by one order of magnitude. Also the SPP light source is integrated with the logic device while retaining its ultracompact size. This opens up a way to construct on-chip all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems. PMID:24071647

  18. Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Cheng, Ying; Guo, Jian-zhong; Xu, Jian-yi; Liu, Xiao-jun

    2015-03-01

    The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.

  19. All-optical logic gates based on cross phase modulation effect in a phase-shifted grating.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiliang; Song, Junfeng; Chen, Xin; Bi, Meihua; Hu, Miao; Li, Shuqin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we perform a theoretical study of the all-optical logic gates based on the techniques of cross phase modulation (XPM) in a phase-shifted grating. Here the pumps are used to control the switching of a weak continuous wave (cw). In order to understand the transferring process of the information from the pump light to the cw light, we first study the switching characteristic of the device. Then, by changing the combination between two pumps, in a fiber grating with zero phase shift we have realized NOT, AND, and NAND gates, and in a phase-shifted grating with the phase shift π, the other various logic operations can be realized such as NAND gates and OR gates; when selecting Δφ=3/2π, we can realize XOR gates and XNOR gates. Thus the change of the phase shift of the phase-shifted grating will yield various logic gates. PMID:27607262

  20. Fuzzy Logic Based Anomaly Detection for Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jason Wright; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Resiliency and security in critical infrastructure control systems in the modern world of cyber terrorism constitute a relevant concern. Developing a network security system specifically tailored to the requirements of such critical assets is of a primary importance. This paper proposes a novel learning algorithm for anomaly based network security cyber sensor together with its hardware implementation. The presented learning algorithm constructs a fuzzy logic rule based model of normal network behavior. Individual fuzzy rules are extracted directly from the stream of incoming packets using an online clustering algorithm. This learning algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental test-bed mimicking the environment of a critical infrastructure control system.

  1. A novel design-based global CDU metrology for 1X nm node logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young-Keun; Chung, Dong H.; Kim, Min-Ho; Seo, Jung-Uk; Kim, Byung-Gook; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Hur, JiUk; Cho, Wonil; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2013-09-01

    As dimension of device shrinks to 1X nm node, an extreme control of critical dimension uniformity (CDU) of masks becomes one of key techniques for mask and wafer fabrication. For memory devices, a large number of optical techniques have been studied and applied to mask production so far. The advantages of these methods are to eliminate the sampling dependency due to their high throughput, to minimize the local CD errors due to their large field of view (FOV) and to improve the correlation with wafer infield uniformity if they have scanner-like optics. For logic devices, however, CD-SEM has been a single solution to characterize CD performance of logic masks for a long time and simple monitoring patterns, instead of the cell patterns, have been measured to monitor the CD quality of masks. Therefore a global CDU of the mask tends to show its ambiguity because of the limited number of measurement sites and large local CD errors. An application of optical metrology for logic mask is a challenging task because patterns are more complex and random in shape and because there is no guarantee of finding patterns for CDU everywhere on the mask. CDU map still consists of the results from the indirect measurements and the traditional definition of uniformity, a statistical deviation of a typical pattern, seems to be unsuitable for logic CDU. A new definition of CDU is required in order to maximize the coverage area on a mask. In this study, we have focused of the possibility of measuring cell patterns and of using an inspection tool with data base handling capability, KLA Teron617, to find the areas and positions where the repeating patterns exist and the patterns which satisfy a certain set of condition and we have devised a new definition of CDU, which can handle multiple target CDs. Then we have checked the feasibility and validity of our new methodology through evaluation its fundamental performance such as accuracy, repeatability, and correlation with other CD metrology

  2. A binary-decision-diagram-based two-bit arithmetic logic unit on a GaAs-based regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Quan; Kasai, Seiya; Shiratori, Yuta; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2009-06-17

    A two-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU) was successfully fabricated on a GaAs-based regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology. This fundamental building block of central processing units can be implemented on a regular nanowire network structure with simple circuit architecture based on graphical representation of logic functions using a binary decision diagram and topology control of the graph. The four-instruction ALU was designed by integrating subgraphs representing each instruction, and the circuitry was implemented by transferring the logical graph structure to a GaAs-based nanowire network formed by electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching. A path switching function was implemented in nodes by Schottky wrap gate control of nanowires. The fabricated circuit integrating 32 node devices exhibits the correct output waveforms at room temperature allowing for threshold voltage variation. PMID:19468164

  3. A scene-based nonuniformity correction algorithm based on fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Ma, Yong; Fan, Fan; Mei, Xiaoguang; Liu, Zhe

    2015-08-01

    Scene-based nonuniformity correction algorithms based on the LMS adaptive filter are quite efficient to reduce the fixed pattern noise in infrared images. They are famous for their low cost of computation and storage recourses. Unfortunately, ghosting artifacts can be easily introduced in edge areas when the inter-frame motion slows. In this paper, a gated scene-based nonuniformity correction algorithm is proposed. A novel low-pass filter based on the fuzzy logic is proposed to estimate the true scene radiation as the desired signal in the LMS adaptive filter. The fuzzy logic can also evaluate the probability that a pixel and its locals belong to edge areas. Then the update of the correction parameters for the pixels in edge areas can be gated. The experiment results show that our method is reliable and the ghosting artifacts are reduced.

  4. Relay Protection and Automation Systems Based on Programmable Logic Integrated Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Lashin, A. V. Kozyrev, A. V.

    2015-09-15

    One of the most promising forms of developing the apparatus part of relay protection and automation devices is considered. The advantages of choosing programmable logic integrated circuits to obtain adaptive technological algorithms in power system protection and control systems are pointed out. The technical difficulties in the problems which today stand in the way of using relay protection and automation systems are indicated and a new technology for solving these problems is presented. Particular attention is devoted to the possibility of reconfiguring the logic of these devices, using programmable logic integrated circuits.

  5. Characteristics Of Ferroelectric Logic Gates Using a Spice-Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2005-01-01

    A SPICE-based model of an n-channel ferroelectric field effect transistor has been developed based on both theoretical and empirical data. This model was used to generate the I-V characteristic of several logic gates. The use of ferroelectric field effect transistors in memory circuits is being developed by several organizations. The use of FFETs in other circuits, both analog and digital needs to be better understood. The ability of FFETs to have different characteristics depending on the initial polarization can be used to create logic gates. These gates can have properties not available to standard CMOS logic gates, such as memory, reconfigurability and memory. This paper investigates basic properties of FFET logic gates. It models FFET inverter, NAND gate and multi-input NAND gate. The I-V characteristics of the gates are presented as well as transfer characteristics and timing. The model used is a SPICE-based model developed from empirical data from actual Ferroelectric transistors. It simulates all major characteristics of the ferroelectric transistor, including polarization, hysteresis and decay. Contrasts are made of the differences between FFET logic gates and CMOS logic gates. FFET parameters are varied to show the effect on the overall gate. A recodigurable gate is investigated which is not possible with CMOS circuits. The paper concludes that FFETs can be used in logic gates and have several advantages over standard CMOS gates.

  6. R-189 (C-620) air compressor control logic software documentation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.E.

    1995-06-08

    This relates to FFTF plant air compressors. Purpose of this document is to provide an updated Computer Software Description for the software to be used on R-189 (C-620-C) air compressor programmable controllers. Logic software design changes were required to allow automatic starting of a compressor that had not been previously started.

  7. An Introduction to Logic Control Systems for the Behavioral Scientist, Part I, Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Lawrence A.

    This programed instruction course gives a basic introduction to solid state programing equipment. Course objectives include giving the student (1) a working knowledge of the various types of units used in building digital logic control systems and (2) an idea of how they interconnect to perform different functions. The course has no prerequisites…

  8. Simulation of the Predictive Control Algorithm for Container Crane Operation using Matlab Fuzzy Logic Tool Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Albert O.

    1997-01-01

    This research has investigated the use of fuzzy logic, via the Matlab Fuzzy Logic Tool Box, to design optimized controller systems. The engineering system for which the controller was designed and simulate was the container crane. The fuzzy logic algorithm that was investigated was the 'predictive control' algorithm. The plant dynamics of the container crane is representative of many important systems including robotic arm movements. The container crane that was investigated had a trolley motor and hoist motor. Total distance to be traveled by the trolley was 15 meters. The obstruction height was 5 meters. Crane height was 17.8 meters. Trolley mass was 7500 kilograms. Load mass was 6450 kilograms. Maximum trolley and rope velocities were 1.25 meters per sec. and 0.3 meters per sec., respectively. The fuzzy logic approach allowed the inclusion, in the controller model, of performance indices that are more effectively defined in linguistic terms. These include 'safety' and 'cargo swaying'. Two fuzzy inference systems were implemented using the Matlab simulation package, namely the Mamdani system (which relates fuzzy input variables to fuzzy output variables), and the Sugeno system (which relates fuzzy input variables to crisp output variable). It is found that the Sugeno FIS is better suited to including aspects of those plant dynamics whose mathematical relationships can be determined.

  9. The Logic and Implications of School-Based Teacher Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Bernsteinian concepts to identify how forms of power and control within teacher professional formation are exercised. Drawing on previous comparative work into collaborative models of teacher education and contemporary examples from school-based programmes, it is argued that current developments in England raise substantive…

  10. WeaselBoard : zero-day exploit detection for programmable logic controllers.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, John C.; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Berg, Michael J.; Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Urrea, Jorge Mario; King, Michael Aaron; Clements, Abraham Anthony; Jacob, Joshua A.

    2013-10-01

    Critical infrastructures, such as electrical power plants and oil refineries, rely on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to control essential processes. State of the art security cannot detect attacks on PLCs at the hardware or firmware level. This renders critical infrastructure control systems vulnerable to costly and dangerous attacks. WeaselBoard is a PLC backplane analysis system that connects directly to the PLC backplane to capture backplane communications between modules. WeaselBoard forwards inter-module traffic to an external analysis system that detects changes to process control settings, sensor values, module configuration information, firmware updates, and process control program (logic) updates. WeaselBoard provides zero-day exploit detection for PLCs by detecting changes in the PLC and the process. This approach to PLC monitoring is protected under U.S. Patent Application 13/947,887.

  11. Magnon-based logic in a multi-terminal YIG/Pt nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzhorn, Kathrin; Klingler, Stefan; Wimmer, Tobias; Geprägs, Stephan; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.

    2016-07-01

    Boolean logic is the foundation of modern digital information processing. Recently, there has been a growing interest in phenomena based on pure spin currents, which allows to move from charge to spin based logic gates. We study a proof-of-principle logic device based on the ferrimagnetic insulator Yttrium Iron Garnet, with Pt strips acting as injectors and detectors for non-equilibrium magnons. We experimentally observe incoherent superposition of magnons generated by different injectors. This allows to implement a fully functional majority gate, enabling multiple logic operations (AND and OR) in one and the same device. Clocking frequencies of the order of several GHz and straightforward down-scaling make our device promising for applications.

  12. Proposal for a graphene-based all-spin logic gate

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Li; Zhao, Weisheng; Zhang, Yue; Querlioz, Damien; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Dollfus, Philippe; Bournel, Arnaud; Zhang, Youguang

    2015-02-16

    In this work, we present a graphene-based all-spin logic gate (G-ASLG) that integrates the functionalities of perpendicular anisotropy magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with spin transport in graphene-channel. It provides an ideal integration of logic and memory. The input and output states are defined as the relative magnetization between free layer and fixed layer of p-MTJs. They can be probed by the tunnel magnetoresistance and controlled by spin transfer torque effect. Using lateral non-local spin valve, the spin information is transmitted by the spin-current interaction through graphene channels. By using a physics-based spin current compact model, the operation of G-ASLG is demonstrated and its performance is analyzed. It allows us to evaluate the influence of parameters, such as spin injection efficiency, spin diffusion length, contact area, the device length, and their interdependence, and to optimize the energy and dynamic performance. Compared to other beyond-CMOS solutions, longer spin information transport length (∼μm), higher data throughput, faster computing speed (∼ns), and lower power consumption (∼μA) can be expected from the G-ASLG.

  13. Proposal for a graphene-based all-spin logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Li; Zhao, Weisheng; Zhang, Yue; Querlioz, Damien; Zhang, Youguang; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Dollfus, Philippe; Bournel, Arnaud

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we present a graphene-based all-spin logic gate (G-ASLG) that integrates the functionalities of perpendicular anisotropy magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with spin transport in graphene-channel. It provides an ideal integration of logic and memory. The input and output states are defined as the relative magnetization between free layer and fixed layer of p-MTJs. They can be probed by the tunnel magnetoresistance and controlled by spin transfer torque effect. Using lateral non-local spin valve, the spin information is transmitted by the spin-current interaction through graphene channels. By using a physics-based spin current compact model, the operation of G-ASLG is demonstrated and its performance is analyzed. It allows us to evaluate the influence of parameters, such as spin injection efficiency, spin diffusion length, contact area, the device length, and their interdependence, and to optimize the energy and dynamic performance. Compared to other beyond-CMOS solutions, longer spin information transport length (˜μm), higher data throughput, faster computing speed (˜ns), and lower power consumption (˜μA) can be expected from the G-ASLG.

  14. Individual software plan for the programmable logic controller

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R

    1997-07-28

    This document defines the software quality assurance plan (SQAP) as it shall be applied to the development of the monitor and control system for the Integrated Corrosion Facility (ICF). The purpose of this SQA plan is to provide guidance to the development team in software quality and associated documentation.

  15. Performance Analysis of a Semiactive Suspension System with Particle Swarm Optimization and Fuzzy Logic Control

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Abroon Jamal; de Silva, Clarence W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control. PMID:24574868

  16. Performance analysis of a semiactive suspension system with particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic control.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Abroon Jamal; de Silva, Clarence W; Khan, Afzal; Khan, Muhammad Tahir

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control. PMID:24574868

  17. Polarization-based all-optical logic operations in volume holographic photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengmingyue; Cao, Liangcai; Li, Jingming; Wang, Zheng; Jin, Guofan

    2014-11-01

    Polarization-based all-optical logic operations were realized with dual-channel polarization holographic recording system. The polarization property of 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone-doped poly-methyl methacrylate (PQ/PMMA) photopolymer is investigated experimentally. To accurately represent the optical operations, the diffraction efficiency of parallel and orthogonal polarization recording in PQ/PMMA with the thickness of 1 mm are characterized for holographic recording and reconstruction process. A dual-channel polarization holographic recording system is set up for simultaneously recording two input pages. By changing the polarization state of the diffraction beam, all-optical logic OR and NAND operations are realized in the volume holograms. The polarization-based all-optical logic operations in the volume holographic photopolymer may pave a way for practical all-optical logic devices with high speed and large information capacity.

  18. A theory-based logic model for innovation policy and evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Gretchen B.

    2010-04-01

    Current policy and program rationale, objectives, and evaluation use a fragmented picture of the innovation process. This presents a challenge since in the United States officials in both the executive and legislative branches of government see innovation, whether that be new products or processes or business models, as the solution to many of the problems the country faces. The logic model is a popular tool for developing and describing the rationale for a policy or program and its context. This article sets out to describe generic logic models of both the R&D process and the diffusion process, building on existing theory-based frameworks. Then a combined, theory-based logic model for the innovation process is presented. Examples of the elements of the logic, each a possible leverage point or intervention, are provided, along with a discussion of how this comprehensive but simple model might be useful for both evaluation and policy development.

  19. Comparative study on the energy efficiency of logic gates based on single-electron transistor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Changmin; Lee, Jieun; Park, Sungwook; Chung, In-Young; Kim, Chang-Joon; Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2009-06-01

    The performance and the power consumption of single-electron transistor (SET) technology-based ultra-energy-efficient signal processing circuits are compared based on the SPICE model including non-ideal effects of the experimental data for the first time. In terms of ultra-energy-efficient logic circuits, the binary decision diagram (BDD) logic circuit is the most promising with a dissipated power of 0.29 nW at Vdd = 0.1 V and fin = 50 MHz among the static complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-like SET logic, the dynamic SET/CMOS hybrid logic, cellular nonlinear network (CNN) and BDD. This result means that the transition of a paradigm substituting the current for the voltage as a state variable of a signal processing is strongly required in post-CMOS signal processing and ultra-energy-efficient applications.

  20. Fuzzy logic based on-line fault detection and classification in transmission line.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Shuma; Sinha, Nidul; Dorendrajit, Thingam

    2016-01-01

    This study presents fuzzy logic based online fault detection and classification of transmission line using Programmable Automation and Control technology based National Instrument Compact Reconfigurable i/o (CRIO) devices. The LabVIEW software combined with CRIO can perform real time data acquisition of transmission line. When fault occurs in the system current waveforms are distorted due to transients and their pattern changes according to the type of fault in the system. The three phase alternating current, zero sequence and positive sequence current data generated by LabVIEW through CRIO-9067 are processed directly for relaying. The result shows that proposed technique is capable of right tripping action and classification of type of fault at high speed therefore can be employed in practical application. PMID:27398278

  1. Control logic to track the outputs of a command generator or randomly forced target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trankle, T. L.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure is presented for synthesizing time-invariant control logic to cause the outputs of a linear plant to track the outputs of an unforced (or randomly forced) linear dynamic system. The control logic uses feed-forward of the reference system state variables and feedback of the plant state variables. The feed-forward gains are obtained from the solution of a linear algebraic matrix equation of the Liapunov type. The feedback gains are the usual regulator gains, determined to stabilize (or augment the stability of) the plant, possibly including integral control. The method is applied here to the design of control logic for a second-order servomechanism to follow a linearly increasing (ramp) signal, an unstable third-order system with two controls to track two separate ramp signals, and a sixth-order system with two controls to track a constant signal and an exponentially decreasing signal (aircraft landing-flare or glide-slope-capture with constant velocity).

  2. Controlling AIDS in Cuba. The logic of quarantine.

    PubMed

    Bayer, R; Healton, C

    1989-04-13

    Cuba has initiated a program to control Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that is designed to limit the spread of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by implementing compulsory elements of the public health tradition. Widespread screening for HIV infection began 3 years ago, and persons identified as infected have been sent to a sanatorium located in a Havana suburb. The program also reflects concern over the marked increase in prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Educational effects in Cuba stress that AIDS is not a disease exclusively of homosexuals and can affect any individual. Condoms are recommended for protection. In contrast to virtually every other nation, Cuba has not made education the key focus of its anti-AIDS strategy. Education is relegated to a marginal role. Key to the policy is identifying infected individuals and bringing them under medical control. Cuba's HIV surveillance program has been carried out with use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot assay, and antigen tests that have been developed domestically. The director of the Cuban AIDS Investigations Laboratory reports that nearly 3 million Cubans have been tested. It is estimated that among the 7 low-infection groups tested in Cuba, between 21 and 53 persons may have been inaccurately considered positive as a result of testing. Cuban authorities have expressed much interest in obtaining commercially available HIV screening kits -- both ELISA and Western blot assays -- as a standard against which to measure their own test. Despite the inevitability of continued viral transmission, Cuba's policy of a modified quarantine certainly will limit the toll of HIV infection markedly yet comes at a great price. For other nations, the imperatives of prevention, however important, are not the only values to be considered in the battle against AIDS. PMID:2927477

  3. A complex programmable logic device-based high-precision electrical capacitance tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haili; Xu, Lijun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, XiaoLei; Liu, Shi

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a high-precision measurement system for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is presented. A low-cost complex programmable logic device (CPLD) is employed to accomplish logic control, signal generation, data acquisition, digital demodulation and communication with the aid of external components. By adopting a simple digital demodulator recently developed by the authors, the demodulation to ac signals becomes rather simple and resource-saving. A double-T-switches configuration is developed to improve the precision and lower the limit of multi-channel capacitance measurement. A capacitance network is constructed for system calibration. A square ECT sensor with 16 electrodes is constructed to test the practical performance of the measurement system. With a data acquisition rate of 185 frame s-1, the signal-to-noise ratio and standard deviation of capacitance measurement can reach up to 70 dB and 0.09 fF, respectively. Image reconstruction experiment has validated the CPLD-based ECT system.

  4. A novel circuit design for complementary resistive switch-based stateful logic operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Ping, Wang; Lin, Chen; Yi, Shen; Bo-Wen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that memristors can be utilized as logic operations and memory elements. In this paper, we present a novel circuit design for complementary resistive switch (CRS)-based stateful logic operations. The proposed circuit can automatically write the destructive CRS cells back to the original states. In addition, the circuit can be used in massive passive crossbar arrays which can reduce sneak path current greatly. Moreover, the steps for CRS logic operations using our proposed circuit are reduced compared with previous circuit designs. We validate the effectiveness of our scheme through Hspice simulations on the logic circuits. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374150 and 11271146), the State Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61134012), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20130142130012), and the Science and Technology Program of Shenzhen City, China (Grant No. JCYJ20140509162710496).

  5. FPGA-based gating and logic for multichannel single photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Pooser, Raphael C; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Evans, Philip G; Williams, Brian P; Schaake, Jason; Humble, Travis S

    2012-01-01

    We present results characterizing multichannel InGaAs single photon detectors utilizing gated passive quenching circuits (GPQC), self-differencing techniques, and field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based logic for both diode gating and coincidence counting. Utilizing FPGAs for the diode gating frontend and the logic counting backend has the advantage of low cost compared to custom built logic circuits and current off-the-shelf detector technology. Further, FPGA logic counters have been shown to work well in quantum key distribution (QKD) test beds. Our setup combines multiple independent detector channels in a reconfigurable manner via an FPGA backend and post processing in order to perform coincidence measurements between any two or more detector channels simultaneously. Using this method, states from a multi-photon polarization entangled source are detected and characterized via coincidence counting on the FPGA. Photons detection events are also processed by the quantum information toolkit for application testing (QITKAT)

  6. Modular multi-level circuits from immobilized DNA-based logic gates.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Brian M; Cockroft, Scott L; Ghadiri, M Reza

    2007-12-01

    One of the fundamental goals of molecular computing is to reproduce the tenets of digital logic, such as component modularity and hierarchical circuit design. An important step toward this goal is the creation of molecular logic gates that can be rationally wired into multi-level circuits. Here we report the design and functional characterization of a complete set of modular DNA-based Boolean logic gates (AND, OR, and AND-NOT) and further demonstrate their wiring into a three-level circuit that exhibits Boolean XOR (exclusive OR) function. The approach is based on solid-supported DNA logic gates that are designed to operate with single-stranded DNA inputs and outputs. Since the solution-phase serves as the communication medium between gates, circuit wiring can be achieved by designating the DNA output of one gate as the input to another. Solid-supported logic gates provide enhanced gate modularity versus solution-phase systems by significantly simplifying the task of choosing appropriate DNA input and output sequences used in the construction of multi-level circuits. The molecular logic gates and circuits reported here were characterized by coupling DNA outputs to a single-input REPORT gate and monitoring the resulting fluorescent output signals. PMID:17994734

  7. All-optical logic gates based on cross-phase modulation in an asymmetric coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiliang; Yuan, Hongliang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we propose an operation of an all-optical logical gate based on an asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler operating with the cross-phase modulation. Two-input OR and XOR gates and a new logical operation based on an asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler, which can be applied to transmission and processing of signals in all-optical systems, are examined. Initially, we evaluate the effect of the pump power on switching. We import a pulse into the nonlinear directional coupler, meanwhile adding a pump light via wavelength division multiplex in order to take advantage of Kerr effect and produce the cross-phase modulation. In this situation, we analyze two possible situations for the two-input logical gate, and draw a switching characteristic curve via Matlab. Finally, we define the truth table and it is clear that OR and XOR logic gates and a new logical operation can be realized by changing the pump power. Next the investigation also indicates that to change the input pulse's phase switching can be realized. In the same way, we define the truth table and it can be observed that different logic gates are realized.

  8. A fuzzy-logic-based tracker for a homing guided missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad, Ahmed S.; Farooq, Mohammad

    2003-08-01

    The research conducted in the last decade in missile design has mainly focused in the area of guidance and control. Many researchers have designed interceptors with high performance; namely: ranging from the classical control to the knowledge based techniques. The homing guided missile flight simulation testbed has been developed and tested against different control systems. The missile aerodynamic model has been simulated based on NASA reports and the output aerodynamic coefficients have been compared and justified by the wind tunnel tests as well. The other missile modules have been simulated and compared to the real missile modules in terms of input/output experimental results. The guidance and control system has yield excellent performance against incoming and outgoing maneuvering targets falling within the missile's destruction zone. However, all the test scenarios assumed that the target information from the missile seeker (tracker) is exact and obtained from the observations without any major difficulty. In the case of high density clutter and false alarms as well as the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) which may be due to the existence of flair, decoy or any other counter measure, the tracker accuracy plays an important role in the over all engagement scenario. In this paper, a fuzzy logic-based technique has been employed to improve the performance of the missile seeker at high density clutter and low SNR. The Interacting Multiple Model Fuzzy Data Association (IMM-FDA) has been employed to improve the missile-target intercept accuracy.

  9. Description Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, Franz

    Description Logics (DLs) are a well-investigated family of logic-based knowledge representation formalisms, which can be used to represent the conceptual knowledge of an application domain in a structured and formally well-understood way. They are employed in various application domains, such as natural language processing, configuration, and databases, but their most notable success so far is the adoption of the DL-based language OWL as standard ontology language for the semantic web.

  10. Development of a fuzzy logic controller for dc/dc converters: Design, computer simulation, and experimental evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    So, W.C.; Tse, C.K.; Lee, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    The design of a fuzzy logic controller for dc/dc converters is described in this paper. A brief review of fuzzy logic and its application to control is first given. Then, the derivation of a fuzzy control algorithm for regulating dc/dc converters is described in detail. The proposed fuzzy control is evaluated by computer simulations as well as experimental measurements of the closed-loop performance of simple dc/dc converters in respect of load regulation and line regulation.

  11. Intelligent Paging Based Mobile User Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sajal; Dutta, Raju; Debnath, Soumen; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.

    2010-11-01

    In general, a mobile user travels in a predefined path that depends mostly on the user's characteristics. Thus, tracking the locations of a mobile user is one of the challenges for location management. In this paper, we introduce a movement pattern learning strategy system to track the user's movements using adaptive fuzzy logic. Our fuzzy inference system extracts patterns from the historical data record of the cell numbers along with the date and time stamp of the users occupying the cell. Implementation of this strategy has been evaluated with the real time user data which proves the efficiency and accuracy of the model. This mechanism not only reduces user location tracking costs, but also significantly decreases the call-loss rates and average paging delays.

  12. Fuzzy logic enhanced speed control of an indirect field-oriented induction machine drive

    SciTech Connect

    Heber, B.; Xu, L.; Tang, Y.

    1997-09-01

    Field orientation control (FOC) of induction machines has permitted fast transient response by decoupled torque and flux control. However, field orientation detuning caused by parameter variations is a major difficulty for indirect FOC methods. Traditional probability density function (PID) controllers have trouble meeting a wide range of speed tracking performance even when proper field orientation is achieved. PID controller performance is severely degraded when detuning occurs. This paper presents a fuzzy logic design approach that can meet the speed tracking requirements even when detuning occurs. Computer simulations and experimental results obtained via a general-purpose digital signal processor (DSP) system are presented.

  13. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  14. A dithienosilole-based fluorescent chemosensor for multiple logic operations at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Sun, Caixia; Lu, Yahong; Wang, Junxing; He, Xingxing; Lu, Junting; Yin, Shouchun; Qiu, Huayu

    2015-11-01

    A chemosensor consisting of two terpyridines covalently linked to a dithienosilole unit (1) has been synthesized, and its optical and metal sensing properties have been investigated. Due to the metal-organic coordination function, 1 can bind with many transition metal ions and display different fluorescence responses that cause it to function as a "turn-off" fluorescent chemosensor. A significant bathochromic shift in the fluorescence spectra is observed in the presence of Zn(2+). Meanwhile, the emission of 1 is weakened upon exposure to Ag(+) and Fe(2+) and completely quenched by Ni(2+), Co(2+), and Cu(2+). Based on the observed results, several logic gates, such as XNOR, INHIBIT, and IMPLICATION, have been achieved by controlling the chemical inputs. PMID:26099823

  15. Logic synthesis strategy based on BDD decomposition and PAL-oriented optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opara, Adam; Kania, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    A new strategy of logic synthesis for PAL-based CPLDs is presented in the paper. This approach consists of an original method of two-stage BDD-based decomposition and a two-level PAL-oriented optimization. The aim of the proposed approach is oriented towards balanced (speed/area) optimization. The first element of the strategy is original PAL-oriented decomposition. This decomposition consists in the sequential search for an input partition providing the feasibility for implementation of the free block in one PAL-based logic block containing a predefined number of product terms. The presented non-standard decomposition provides a means to minimize the area of the implemented circuit and to reduce of the necessary logic blocks in the programmable structure. The second element of the proposed logic synthesis strategy is oriented towards speed optimization. This optimization is based on utilizing tri-state buffers. Results of experiments prove that the presented synthesis strategy is especially effective for CPLD structures, which consist of PAL-based logic blocks containing a low number of product terms.

  16. A fuzzy logic controller for hormone administration using an implantable pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, L. Stephen; Wells, George H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements for a Fuzzy Logic Controller for the physiologic administration of hormones by means of a FDA-approved surgically implantable infusion pump. Results of a LabVIEW computer simulation for the administration of insulin for diabetic adult patients as well as human growth hormone for pediatric patients are presented. A VHS video tape of the simulation in action has been prepared and is available for viewing.

  17. An efficient current-based logic cell model for crosstalk delay analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarian, Shahin; Das, Debasish

    2013-04-01

    Logic cell modelling is an important component in the analysis and design of CMOS integrated circuits, mostly due to nonlinear behaviour of CMOS cells with respect to the voltage signal at their input and output pins. A current-based model for CMOS logic cells is presented, which can be used for effective crosstalk noise and delta delay analysis in CMOS VLSI circuits. Existing current source models are expensive and need a new set of Spice-based characterisation, which is not compatible with typical EDA tools. In this article we present Imodel, a simple nonlinear logic cell model that can be derived from the typical cell libraries such as NLDM, with accuracy much higher than NLDM-based cell delay models. In fact, our experiments show an average error of 3% compared to Spice. This level of accuracy comes with a maximum runtime penalty of 19% compared to NLDM-based cell delay models on medium-sized industrial designs.

  18. Fuzzy logic control system to provide autonomous collision avoidance for Mars rover vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently involved with planning unmanned missions to Mars to investigate the terrain and process soil samples in advance of a manned mission. A key issue involved in unmanned surface exploration on Mars is that of supporting autonomous maneuvering since radio communication involves lengthy delays. It is anticipated that specific target locations will be designated for sample gathering. In maneuvering autonomously from a starting position to a target position, the rover will need to avoid a variety of obstacles such as boulders or troughs that may block the shortest path to the target. The physical integrity of the rover needs to be maintained while minimizing the time and distance required to attain the target position. Fuzzy logic lends itself well to building reliable control systems that function in the presence of uncertainty or ambiguity. The following major issues are discussed: (1) the nature of fuzzy logic control systems and software tools to implement them; (2) collision avoidance in the presence of fuzzy parameters; and (3) techniques for adaptation in fuzzy logic control systems.

  19. Coordinated fuzzy logic control for series capacitor modules and PSS to enhance stability of power system

    SciTech Connect

    Hiyama, T.; Mishiro, M.; Kihara, H.; Ortmeyer, T.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an application of a fuzzy logic control scheme for switched of electric power systems. Through the signal conditioning of the measured real power flow at the location of the series capacitor modules, the phase/speed state of the electric power system is obtained to determine the number of capacitors energized at the state. The switching rules are quite simple so as not to give heavy computation to the micro-computer utilized for the real time switching control of the series capacitor modules. A multimachine system is used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed switching control scheme, and coordination with power system stabilizers is considered.

  20. An active control logic to improve the fatigue strength of smart flexible structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, Pasquale; Braghin, Francesco; Resta, Ferruccio; Ripamonti, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    In general active vibration control intrinsically implies a fatigue damage reduction. Anyway, this assumption is not always verified. In these cases it is possible to deeper investigate the fatigue phenomena on smart flexible structures and their reduction from a control point of view. In this article, to identify the problem main parameters, a simplified interpretation of fatigue damage is given using the frequency analysis framework. Then, the active control logic is defined as an optimization problem with a quadratic functional taking into account the previously cited parameters. Finally, because of non-linearity of fatigue phenomenon, an adaptive approach is applied and a numerical/experimental validation is carried out.

  1. Graphene-based non-Boolean logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanxiong; Ahsan, Sonia; Khitun, Alexander G.; Lake, Roger K.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2013-10-01

    Graphene revealed a number of unique properties beneficial for electronics. However, graphene does not have an energy band-gap, which presents a serious hurdle for its applications in digital logic gates. The efforts to induce a band-gap in graphene via quantum confinement or surface functionalization have not resulted in a breakthrough. Here we show that the negative differential resistance experimentally observed in graphene field-effect transistors of "conventional" design allows for construction of viable non-Boolean computational architectures with the gapless graphene. The negative differential resistance—observed under certain biasing schemes—is an intrinsic property of graphene, resulting from its symmetric band structure. Our atomistic modeling shows that the negative differential resistance appears not only in the drift-diffusion regime but also in the ballistic regime at the nanometer-scale—although the physics changes. The obtained results present a conceptual change in graphene research and indicate an alternative route for graphene's applications in information processing.

  2. Temporal logic and operation relations based knowledge representation for land cover change web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Wu, Hao; Li, Songnian; Liao, Anping; He, Chaoying; Peng, Shu

    2013-09-01

    Providing land cover spatio-temporal information and geo-computing through web service is a new challenge for supporting global change research, earth system simulation and many other societal benefit areas. This requires an integrated knowledge representation and web implementation of static land cover and change information, as well as the related operations for geo-computing. The temporal logic relations among land cover snapshots and increments were examined with a matrix-based three-step analysis. Twelve temporal logic relations were identified and five basic spatial operations were formalized with set operators, which were all used to develop algorithms for deriving implicit change information. A knowledge representation for land cover change information was then developed based on these temporal logic and operation relations. A prototype web-service system was further implemented based on OWL-DL. Both online access and conversion of land cover spatio-temporal information can be facilitated with such a web service system.

  3. Biophotonic logic devices based on quantum dots and temporally-staggered Förster energy transfer relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Jonathan C.; Algar, W. Russ; Hildebrandt, Niko; Susumu, Kimihiro; Ancona, Mario G.; Medintz, Igor L.

    2013-11-01

    Integrating photonic inputs/outputs into unimolecular logic devices can provide significantly increased functional complexity and the ability to expand the repertoire of available operations. Here, we build upon a system previously utilized for biosensing to assemble and prototype several increasingly sophisticated biophotonic logic devices that function based upon multistep Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) relays. The core system combines a central semiconductor quantum dot (QD) nanoplatform with a long-lifetime Tb complex FRET donor and a near-IR organic fluorophore acceptor; the latter acts as two unique inputs for the QD-based device. The Tb complex allows for a form of temporal memory by providing unique access to a time-delayed modality as an alternate output which significantly increases the inherent computing options. Altering the device by controlling the configuration parameters with biologically based self-assembly provides input control while monitoring changes in emission output of all participants, in both a spectral and temporal-dependent manner, gives rise to two input, single output Boolean Logic operations including OR, AND, INHIBIT, XOR, NOR, NAND, along with the possibility of gate transitions. Incorporation of an enzymatic cleavage step provides for a set-reset function that can be implemented repeatedly with the same building blocks and is demonstrated with single input, single output YES and NOT gates. Potential applications for these devices are discussed in the context of their constituent parts and the richness of available signal.

  4. Modification of the logic and control system for the 80-ounce injection molding machine

    SciTech Connect

    Domer, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The modification of the hydraulic logic and control system for the 80-ounce injection molding machine in the Molding and Machining, Plastics, department was required to allow production of near net size thick-walled parts and machining stock from high-shrinkage materials while retaining the original logic for standard product. The control system that was developed allows the new capability of open clamp injection. This capability will replace the present method of purchasing machining stock from an outside source. The control system was implemented with a Giddings Lewis Programmable Industrial Computer 409 (G L PiC 409). Hydraulic modifications included adding Vickers servo valves, an Inductosyn position transducer, and MOOG pressure transducers to perform force and position control. The control system provides two capabilities, NORMAL and SERVO. The NORMAL mode is defined as operating the machine according to original design specifications. The SERVO mode is defined as operating the machine according to a recipe in open loop position control then in closed loop force control. The G L PiC 409 controls the tasks of both modes. A selector switch determines the mode of operation (NORMAL or SERVO). The NORMAL mode uses the original hydraulic circuits, and the SERVO mode diverts fluid into the modified hydraulic circuits. 11 figs.

  5. Fuzzy logic and a risk-based graded approach for developing S/RIDs: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    A Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is the set of expressed performance expectations, or standards, for a facility. Critical to the development of an integrated standards-based management is the identification of a set of necessary and sufficient standards from a selected set of standards/requirements. There is a need for a formal, rigorous selection process for the S/RIDs. This is the first of three reports that develop a fuzzy logic selection process. In this report the fundamentals of fuzzy logic are discussed as they apply to a risk-based graded approach.

  6. Spin wave based parallel logic operations for binary data coded with domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Urazuka, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Chen, H.; Peng, B.; Otsuki, H.; Tanaka, T. Matsuyama, K.

    2014-05-07

    We numerically investigate the feasibility of spin wave (SW) based parallel logic operations, where the phase of SW packet (SWP) is exploited as a state variable and the phase shift caused by the interaction with domain wall (DW) is utilized as a logic inversion functionality. A designed functional element consists of parallel ferromagnetic nanowires (6 nm-thick, 36 nm-width, 5120 nm-length, and 200 nm separation) with the perpendicular magnetization and sub-μm scale overlaid conductors. The logic outputs for binary data, coded with the existence (“1”) or absence (“0”) of the DW, are inductively read out from interferometric aspect of the superposed SWPs, one of them propagating through the stored data area. A practical exclusive-or operation, based on 2π periodicity in the phase logic, is demonstrated for the individual nanowire with an order of different output voltage V{sub out}, depending on the logic output for the stored data. The inductive output from the two nanowires exhibits well defined three different signal levels, corresponding to the information distance (Hamming distance) between 2-bit data stored in the multiple nanowires.

  7. Analysis of photonic logic gates based on single hexagonal-lattice photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Junzhen; Qiang, Zexuan; Xu, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiyao

    2011-01-01

    We devised a new configuration of optical logic gates based on a single hexagonal-lattice photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) composed of two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical silicon rods in air. The modal behavior of the proposed logic gates was comprehensively analyzed with a topology optimization technique based on the principle of beam interference and perturbation theory. It was then numerically verified by using a 2D finite-difference time-domain technique. The predictions have a very good agreement with the numerical results. This new single PCRR can really function as NOT and NOR gates. And the logic ``0'' and ``1'' of the hexagonal ring can be defined as less than 8% and greater than 86%, respectively, much better than earlier reported square-lattice results.

  8. Logic control of enzyme-like gold nanoparticles for selective detection of lead and mercury ions.

    PubMed

    Lien, Chia-Wen; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2014-02-18

    Functional logic gates based on lead ions (Pb(2+)) and mercury ions (Hg(2+)) that induce peroxidase-like activities in gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in the presence of platinum (Pt(4+)) and bismuth ions (Bi(3+)) are presented. The "AND" logic gate is constructed using Pt(4+)/Pb(2+) as the input and the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output; this logic gate is denoted as "Pt(4+)/Pb(2+)(AND)-Au NPPOX". When Pt(4+) and Pb(2+) coexist, strong metallophilic interactions (between Pt and Pb atoms/ions) and aurophilic interactions (between Au and Pb/Pt atoms/ions) result in significant increases in the deposition of Pt and Pb atoms/ions onto the Au NPs, leading to enhanced peroxidase-like activity. The "INHIBIT" logic gate is fabricated by using Bi(3+) and Hg(2+) as the input and the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output; this logic gate is denoted as "Bi(3+)/Hg(2+)(INHIBIT)-Au NPPOX". High peroxidase-like activity of Au NPs in the presence of Bi(3+) is a result of the various valence (oxidation) states of Bi(3+) and Au (Au(+)/Au(0)) atoms on the nanoparticle's surface. When Bi(3+) and Hg(2+) coexist, strong Hg-Au amalgamation results in a large decrease in the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs. These two probes (Pt(4+)/Pb(2+)(AND)-Au NPPOX and Bi(3+)/Hg(2+)(INHIBIT)-Au NPPOX) allow selective detection of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) down to nanomolar quantities. The practicality of these two probes has been validated by analysis of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) in environmental water samples (tap water, river water, and lake water). In addition, an integrated logic circuit based on the color change (formation of reddish resorufin product) and generation of O2 bubbles from these two probes has been constructed, allowing visual detection of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) in aqueous solution. PMID:24451013

  9. Effect of control logic modifications on airstart performance of F100 engine model derivative engines in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. B.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A series of airstarts were conducted in an F-15 airplane with two prototype Pratt and Whitney F100 Engine Model Derivative engines equipped with Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) systems. The airstart envelope and the time required for airstarts were defined. Comparisons were made between the original airstart logic, and modified logic which was designed to improve the airstart capability. Spooldown airstarts with the modified logic were more successful at lower altitudes than were those with the original logic. Spooldown airstart times ranged from 33 seconds at 250 knots to 83 seconds at 175 knots. The modified logic improved the airstart time from 31% to 53%, with the most improved times at slower airspeeds. Jet fuel starter (JFS)-assisted airstarts were conducted at 7000 m and airstart times were significantly faster than unassisted airstarts. The effect of altitude on airstart times was small.

  10. Remote Control Laboratory Using EJS Applets and TwinCAT Programmable Logic Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besada-Portas, E.; Lopez-Orozco, J. A.; de la Torre, L.; de la Cruz, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology to develop remote laboratories for systems engineering and automation control courses, based on the combined use of TwinCAT, a laboratory Java server application, and Easy Java Simulations (EJS). The TwinCAT system is used to close the control loop for the selected plants by means of programmable logic…

  11. Control of Turing patterns and their usage as sensors, memory arrays, and logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzika, František; Schreiber, Igor

    2013-10-01

    We study a model system of three diffusively coupled reaction cells arranged in a linear array that display Turing patterns with special focus on the case of equal coupling strength for all components. As a suitable model reaction we consider a two-variable core model of glycolysis. Using numerical continuation and bifurcation techniques we analyze the dependence of the system's steady states on varying rate coefficient of the recycling step while the coupling coefficients of the inhibitor and activator are fixed and set at the ratios 100:1, 1:1, and 4:5. We show that stable Turing patterns occur at all three ratios but, as expected, spontaneous transition from the spatially uniform steady state to the spatially nonuniform Turing patterns occurs only in the first case. The other two cases possess multiple Turing patterns, which are stabilized by secondary bifurcations and coexist with stable uniform periodic oscillations. For the 1:1 ratio we examine modular spatiotemporal perturbations, which allow for controllable switching between the uniform oscillations and various Turing patterns. Such modular perturbations are then used to construct chemical computing devices utilizing the multiple Turing patterns. By classifying various responses we propose: (a) a single-input resettable sensor capable of reading certain value of concentration, (b) two-input and three-input memory arrays capable of storing logic information, (c) three-input, three-output logic gates performing combinations of logical functions OR, XOR, AND, and NAND.

  12. Integrated circuits and logic operations based on single-layer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Radisavljevic, Branimir; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Kis, Andras

    2011-12-27

    Logic circuits and the ability to amplify electrical signals form the functional backbone of electronics along with the possibility to integrate multiple elements on the same chip. The miniaturization of electronic circuits is expected to reach fundamental limits in the near future. Two-dimensional materials such as single-layer MoS(2) represent the ultimate limit of miniaturization in the vertical dimension, are interesting as building blocks of low-power nanoelectronic devices, and are suitable for integration due to their planar geometry. Because they are less than 1 nm thin, 2D materials in transistors could also lead to reduced short channel effects and result in fabrication of smaller and more power-efficient transistors. Here, we report on the first integrated circuit based on a two-dimensional semiconductor MoS(2). Our integrated circuits are capable of operating as inverters, converting logical "1" into logical "0", with room-temperature voltage gain higher than 1, making them suitable for incorporation into digital circuits. We also show that electrical circuits composed of single-layer MoS(2) transistors are capable of performing the NOR logic operation, the basis from which all logical operations and full digital functionality can be deduced. PMID:22073905

  13. The Teaching of Biochemistry: An Innovative Course Sequence Based on the Logic of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Henry V.; Owen, Whyte G.

    1998-06-01

    An innovative course sequence for the teaching of biochemistry is offered, which more truly reflects the common philosophy found in biochemistry texts: that the foundation of biological phenomena can best be understood through the logic of chemistry. Topic order is chosen to develop an emerging understanding that is based on chemical principles. Preeminent biological questions serve as a framework for the course. Lipid and lipid-aggregate structures are introduced first, since it is more logical to discuss the intermolecular association of simple amphiphiles to form micelle and bilayer formations than to discuss the complexities of protein structure/folding. Protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structures are studied next. Binding, a noncovalent process and the simplest expression of macromolecular function, follows. The physical (noncovalent) transport of solute molecules across a biological membrane is studied next, followed by the chemical transformation of substrates by enzymes. These are logical extensions of the expression of molecular function, first involving a simpler (physical transport) and second, a more complex (covalent transformation) process. The final sequence involves energy and signal transduction. This unique course sequence emerges naturally when chemical logic is used as an organizing paradigm for structuring a biochemistry course. Traditional order, which seems to reflect historic trends in research, or even an order derived from the central dogma of biology can not provide this logical framework.

  14. CPT Test with (anti)proton Magnetic Moments Based on Quantum Logic Cooling and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, M.; Paschke, A.-G.; Dubielzig, T.; Ulmer, S.; Ospelkaus, C.

    2014-01-01

    Dehmelt and VanDyck's famous 1987 measurement of the electron and positron g-factor is still the most precise g-factor comparison in the lepton sector, and a sensitive test of possible CPT violation. A complementary g-factor comparison between the proton and the antiproton is highly desirable to test CPT symmetry in the baryon sector. Current experiments, based on Dehmelt's continuous Stern-Gerlach effect and the double Penning-trap technique, are making rapid progress. They are, however, extremely difficult to carry out because ground state cooling using cryogenic techniques is virtually impossible for heavy baryons, and because the continous Stern-Gerlach effect scales as μ/m, where m is the mass of the particle and μ its magnetic moment. Both difficulties will ultimately limit the accuracy. We discuss experimental prospects of realizing an alternative approach to a g-factor comparison with single (anti)protons, based on quantum logic techniques proposed by Heinzen and Wineland and by Wineland et al. The basic idea is to cool, control and measure single (anti)protons through interaction with a well-controlled atomic ion.

  15. Towards Metalogical Systematisation of Deontic Action Logics Based on Boolean Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trypuz, Robert; Kulicki, Piotr

    The aim of the present paper is to provide a metalogical systematisation in the area of deontic action logic based on Boolean algebra. Differences among the systems in question lie in two aspects: the level of closedness of a deontic action logic and the possibility of performing no action at all. It is also shown that the existing definitions of obligation in those systems are not acceptable due to their unintuitive interpretation or paradoxical consequences. As a solution we propose an axiomatic characterisation of obligation with an adequate class of models.

  16. A logic based expert system (LBES) for fault diagnosis of power system

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.M.; Kim, G.W.; Sohn, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper proposes an expert system for fault diagnosis of power system using a new inference method. Expertise is, in this paper, represented by logical implications and converted into a Boolean function. Unlike conventional rule-based expert systems, the expertise is converted into Prime Implicants (PIs) which are logically complete and sound. Therefore, off-line inference is possible by off-line identification of PIs, which reduces the on-line inference time considerably and makes it possible to utilize the proposed expert system in real-time environment. This paper also presents alarm verification and correction method for relay and circuit breaker (CB) using pre-identified PIs.

  17. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  18. Implementing a Knowledge-Based Library Information System with Typed Horn Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ait-Kaci, Hassan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a prototype library expert system called BABEL which uses a new programing language, LOGIN, that combines the idea of attribute inheritance with logic programing. Use of hierarchical classification of library objects to build a knowledge base for a library information system is explained, and further research is suggested. (11…

  19. The Teaching of Biochemistry: An Innovative Course Sequence Based on the Logic of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski, Henry V.; Owen, Whyte G.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the history of the organization of chemical principles in chemistry textbooks. Describes a higher-order organizing principle, based in chemical logic and understanding, from which topics and order of presentation are derived. Provides an example of a biochemistry curriculum developed using this organizing principle. (DDR)

  20. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature ‘prototype’ PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits. PMID:27491391

  1. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature ‘prototype’ PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits.

  2. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature 'prototype' PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits. PMID:27491391

  3. Design and Construction of Intelligent Traffic Light Control System Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Htin; Aye, Khin Muyar; Tun, Hla Myo; Theingi, Naing, Zaw Min

    2008-10-01

    Vehicular travel is increasing throughout the world, particularly in large urban areas. Therefore the need arises for simulation and optimizing traffic control algorithms to better accommodate this increasing demand. This paper presents a microcontroller simulation of intelligent traffic light controller using fuzzy logic that is used to change the traffic signal cycles adaptively at a two-way intersection. This paper is an attempt to design an intelligent traffic light control systems using microcontrollers such as PIC 16F84A and PIC 16F877A. And then traffic signal can be controlled depending upon the densities of cars behind green and red lights of the two-way intersection by using sensors and detectors circuits.

  4. Summary report: A preliminary investigation into the use of fuzzy logic for the control of redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, John B., Jr.; Magee, Kevin N.

    1991-01-01

    The Rice University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences' Robotics Group designed and built an eight degree of freedom redundant manipulator. Fuzzy logic was proposed as a control scheme for tasks not directly controlled by a human operator. In preliminary work, fuzzy logic control was implemented for a camera tracking system and a six degree of freedom manipulator. Both preliminary systems use real time vision data as input to fuzzy controllers. Related projects include integration of tactile sensing and fuzzy control of a redundant snake-like arm that is under construction.

  5. Controlled reversal of Co/Pt Dots for nanomagnetic logic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Breitkreutz, Stephan; Kiermaier, Josef; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris; Becherer, Markus; Vijay Karthik, Sankar; Csaba, Gyorgy

    2012-04-01

    Domain reversal in perpendicular multilayer films is governed by an intrinsic distribution of anisotropy. However, control of the switching field distribution (SFD) of field-coupled, single domain Co/Pt dots is the key to building large integrated systems for nanomagnetic logic applications. In this work, partial Ga{sup +} focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation of single-domain Co/Pt dots is employed which locally reduces the anisotropy and renders the film-inherent SFD ineffective. Controlled reduction in the switching field compared to non-irradiated dots is achieved, depending on size and dose of irradiation. TEM images of an as-grown and irradiated Co/Pt stack show a change in morphology from distinct Co/Pt interfaces to intermixed and randomly oriented grains due to the Ga{sup +} ion impact. The presented method is highly suitable to control the switching behavior in field-coupled logic devices. Experimental results are used to demonstrate a nanomagnetic fanout operation.

  6. The logic of tax-based financing for health care.

    PubMed

    Bodenheimer, T; Sullivan, K

    1997-01-01

    Employment-based health insurance faces serious problems. For the first time, the number of Americans covered by such health insurance is falling. Employers strongly oppose the employer mandate approach to extending health insurance. Employment-based financing is regressive and complex. Serious debate is needed on an alternative solution to financing health care for all Americans. Taxation represents a clear alternative to employment-based health care financing. The major criterion for choosing a tax is equity, with simplicity a second criterion. An earmarked, progressive individual income tax is a fair and potentially simple tax with which to finance health care. The political feasibility of such a tax is greater than that of employer mandate legislation. PMID:9285274

  7. The design and testing of a first-order logic-based stochastic modeling language.

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, Daniel J.; Rammohan, Roshan; Chakrabarti, Chayan; Luger, George F.

    2005-06-01

    We have created a logic-based, Turing-complete language for stochastic modeling. Since the inference scheme for this language is based on a variant of Pearl's loopy belief propagation algorithm, we call it Loopy Logic. Traditional Bayesian networks have limited expressive power, basically constrained to finite domains as in the propositional calculus. Our language contains variables that can capture general classes of situations, events and relationships. A first-order language is also able to reason about potentially infinite classes and situations using constructs such as hidden Markov models(HMMs). Our language uses an Expectation-Maximization (EM) type learning of parameters. This has a natural fit with the Loopy Belief Propagation used for inference since both can be viewed as iterative message passing algorithms. We present the syntax and theoretical foundations for our Loopy Logic language. We then demonstrate three examples of stochastic modeling and diagnosis that explore the representational power of the language. A mechanical fault detection example displays how Loopy Logic can model time-series processes using an HMM variant. A digital circuit example exhibits the probabilistic modeling capabilities, and finally, a parameter fitting example demonstrates the power for learning unknown stochastic values.

  8. Graphene nanoribbon based negative resistance device for ultra-low voltage digital logic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatami, Yasin; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav

    2013-01-01

    Negative resistance devices offer opportunities in design of compact and fast analog and digital circuits. However, their implementation in logic applications has been limited due to their small ON current to OFF current ratios (peak to valley ratio). In this paper, a design for a 2-port negative resistance device based on arm-chair graphene nanoribbon is presented. The proposed structure takes advantage of electrostatic doping, and offers high ON current (˜700 μA/μm) as well as ON current to OFF current ratio of more than 105. The effects of several design parameters such as doping profile, gate workfunction, bandgap, and hetero-interface characteristics are investigated to improve the performance of the proposed devices. The proposed device offers high flexibility in terms of the design and optimization, and is suitable for digital logic applications. A complementary logic is developed based on the proposed device, which can be operated down to 200 mV of supply voltage. The complementary logic is used in design of an ultra-compact bi-stable switching static memory cell. Due to its compactness and high drive current, the proposed memory cell can outperform the conventional static random access memory cells in terms of switching speed and power consumption.

  9. Design of Multiple Logic Gates Based on Chemically Triggered Fluorescence Switching of Functionalized Polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Shi, Yupeng; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Junying; Hou, Mengfei; Chen, Zhanpeng; Li, Cheuk-Wing; Yi, Changqing

    2016-04-13

    In this study, two new functionalized polyethylenimine (PEI), PEIR and PEIQ, have been synthesized by covalently conjugating rhodamine 6G (R6G) or 8-chloroacetyl-aminoquinoline (CAAQ) and have been investigated for their sensing capabilities toward metal ions and anions basing on fluorescence on-off and off-on mechanisms. When triggered by protons, metal ions, or anions, functionalized PEIs can behave as a fluorescence switch, leading to a multiaddressable system. Inspired by these results, functionalized PEI-based logic systems capable of performing elementary logic operations (YES, NOT, NOR, and INHIBIT) and integrative logic operations (OR + INHIBIT) have been constructed by observing the change in the fluorescence with varying the chemical inputs such as protons, metal ions, and anions. Due to its characteristics, such as high sensitivity and fast response, developing functionalized PEI as a new material to perform logic operations may pave a new avenue to construct the next generation of molecular devices with better applicability for biomedical research. PMID:27007856

  10. Gene function hypotheses for the Campylobacter jejuni glycome generated by a logic-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Michael J E; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza; Lesk, Victor I; Kay, Emily; Hitchen, Paul G; Cootes, Adrian; van Alphen, Lieke B; Lamoureux, Marc P; Jarrell, Harold C; Rawlings, Christopher J; Soo, Evelyn C; Szymanski, Christine M; Dell, Anne; Wren, Brendan W; Muggleton, Stephen H

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, experimental data on biological systems are obtained from several sources and computational approaches are required to integrate this information and derive models for the function of the system. Here, we demonstrate the power of a logic-based machine learning approach to propose hypotheses for gene function integrating information from two diverse experimental approaches. Specifically, we use inductive logic programming that automatically proposes hypotheses explaining the empirical data with respect to logically encoded background knowledge. We study the capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway of the major human gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. We consider several key steps in the formation of capsular polysaccharide consisting of 15 genes of which 8 have assigned function, and we explore the extent to which functions can be hypothesised for the remaining 7. Two sources of experimental data provide the information for learning-the results of knockout experiments on the genes involved in capsule formation and the absence/presence of capsule genes in a multitude of strains of different serotypes. The machine learning uses the pathway structure as background knowledge. We propose assignments of specific genes to five previously unassigned reaction steps. For four of these steps, there was an unambiguous optimal assignment of gene to reaction, and to the fifth, there were three candidate genes. Several of these assignments were consistent with additional experimental results. We therefore show that the logic-based methodology provides a robust strategy to integrate results from different experimental approaches and propose hypotheses for the behaviour of a biological system. PMID:23103756

  11. Fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.

  12. Integrated Models of School-Based Prevention: Logic and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Embry, Dennis; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs can positively impact a range of social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Yet the current climate of accountability pressures schools to restrict activities that are not perceived as part of the core curriculum. Building on models from public health and prevention science, we describe an integrated approach to…

  13. Diagnosable structured logic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  14. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer,a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  15. Controlling chaos in a defined trajectory using adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Maryam; Menhaj, Bagher

    2012-09-01

    Chaos is a nonlinear behavior of chaotic system with the extreme sensitivity to the initial conditions. Chaos control is so complicated that solutions never converge to a specific numbers and vary chaotically from one amount to the other next. A tiny perturbation in a chaotic system may result in chaotic, periodic, or stationary behavior. Modern controllers are introduced for controlling the chaotic behavior. In this research an adaptive Fuzzy Logic Controller (AFLC) is proposed to control the chaotic system with two equilibrium points. This method is introduced as an adaptive progressed fashion with the full ability to control the nonlinear systems even in the undertrained conditions. Using AFLC designers are released to determine the precise mathematical model of system and satisfy the vast adaption that is needed for a rapid variation which may be caused in the dynamic of nonlinear system. Rules and system parameters are generated through the AFLC and expert knowledge is downright only in the initialization stage. So if the knowledge was not assuring the dynamic of system it could be changed through the adaption procedure of parameters values. AFLC methodology is an advanced control fashion in control yielding to both robustness and smooth motion in nonlinear system control.

  16. Logic-Based Retrieval: Technology for Content-Oriented and Analytical Querying of Patent Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klampanos, Iraklis Angelos; Wu, Hengzhi; Roelleke, Thomas; Azzam, Hany

    Patent searching is a complex retrieval task. An initial document search is only the starting point of a chain of searches and decisions that need to be made by patent searchers. Keyword-based retrieval is adequate for document searching, but it is not suitable for modelling comprehensive retrieval strategies. DB-like and logical approaches are the state-of-the-art techniques to model strategies, reasoning and decision making. In this paper we present the application of logical retrieval to patent searching. The two grand challenges are expressiveness and scalability, where high degree of expressiveness usually means a loss in scalability. In this paper we report how to maintain scalability while offering the expressiveness of logical retrieval required for solving patent search tasks. We present logical retrieval background, and how to model data-source selection and results' fusion. Moreover, we demonstrate the modelling of a retrieval strategy, a technique by which patent professionals are able to express, store and exchange their strategies and rationales when searching patents or when making decisions. An overview of the architecture and technical details complement the paper, while the evaluation reports preliminary results on how query processing times can be guaranteed, and how quality is affected by trading off responsiveness.

  17. Reconfigurable OR and XOR logic gates based on dual responsive on-off-on micromotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yonggang; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we report a hemisphere-like micromotor. Intriguingly, the micromotor exhibits controllable on-off-on motion, which can be actuated by two different external stimuli (UV and NH3). Moreover, the moving direction of the micromotor can be manipulated by the direction in which UV and NH3 are applied. As a result, the motion accelerates when both stimuli are applied in the same direction and decelerates when the application directions are opposite to each other. More interestingly, the dual stimuli responsive micromotor can be utilized as a reconfigurable logic gate with UV and NH3 as the inputs and the motion of the micromotor as the output. By controlling the direction of the external stimuli, OR and XOR dual logic functions can be realized.In this study, we report a hemisphere-like micromotor. Intriguingly, the micromotor exhibits controllable on-off-on motion, which can be actuated by two different external stimuli (UV and NH3). Moreover, the moving direction of the micromotor can be manipulated by the direction in which UV and NH3 are applied. As a result, the motion accelerates when both stimuli are applied in the same direction and decelerates when the application directions are opposite to each other. More interestingly, the dual stimuli responsive micromotor can be utilized as a reconfigurable logic gate with UV and NH3 as the inputs and the motion of the micromotor as the output. By controlling the direction of the external stimuli, OR and XOR dual logic functions can be realized. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6 and Videos S1-S5. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00752j

  18. An enzyme-based reversible CNOT logic gate realized in a flow system.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Fiona; Halámek, Jan; Kramer, Friederike; Poghossian, Arshak; Schöning, Michael J; Katz, Evgeny

    2014-04-21

    An enzyme system organized in a flow device was used to mimic a reversible Controlled NOT (CNOT) gate with two input and two output signals. Reversible conversion of NAD(+) and NADH cofactors was used to perform a XOR logic operation, while biocatalytic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate resulted in an Identity operation working in parallel. The first biomolecular realization of a CNOT gate is promising for integration into complex biomolecular networks and future biosensor/biomedical applications. PMID:24603754

  19. Performance evaluation of cost-based vs. fuzzy-logic-based prediction approaches in PRIDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kootbally, Z.; Schlenoff, C.; Madhavan, R.; Foufou, S.

    2008-04-01

    PRIDE (PRediction In Dynamic Environments) is a hierarchical multi-resolutional framework for moving object prediction. PRIDE incorporates multiple prediction algorithms into a single, unifying framework. To date, we have applied this framework to predict the future location of autonomous vehicles during on-road driving. In this paper, we describe two different approaches to compute long-term predictions (on the order of seconds into the future) within PRIDE. The first is a cost-based approach that uses a discretized set of vehicle motions and costs associated with states and actions to compute probabilities of vehicle motion. The cost-based approach is the first prediction approach we have been using within PRIDE. The second is a fuzzy-logic-based approach that deals with the pervasive presence of uncertainty in the environment to negotiate complex traffic situations. Using the high-fidelity physics-based framework for the Unified System for Automation and Robot Simulation (USARSim), we will compare the performance of the two approaches in different driving situations at traffic intersections. Consequently, we will show how the two approaches complement each other and how their combination performs better than the cost-based approach only.

  20. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%. PMID:26737144

  1. Enzyme-based logic gates switchable between OR, NXOR and NAND Boolean operations realized in a flow system.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Brian E; Roby, Lucas J; Guz, Nataliia; Katz, Evgeny

    2014-10-18

    The enzyme-based system performing a biocatalytic cascade reaction was realized in a flow device and was used to mimic Boolean logic operations. Chemical inputs applied to the system resulted in the activation of additional reaction steps, allowing the reversible switch of the logic operations between OR, NXOR and NAND gates for processing of two other biomolecular inputs. PMID:25174490

  2. Vertical Navigation Control Laws and Logic for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Khong, Thuan H.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical navigation (VNAV) outer-loop control system was developed to capture and track the vertical path segments of energy-efficient trajectories that are being developed for high-density operations in the evolving Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The VNAV control system has a speed-on-elevator control mode to pitch the aircraft for tracking a calibrated airspeed (CAS) or Mach number profile and a path control mode for tracking the VNAV altitude profile. Mode control logic was developed for engagement of either the speed or path control modes. The control system will level the aircraft to prevent it from flying through a constraint altitude. A stability analysis was performed that showed that the gain and phase margins of the VNAV control system significantly exceeded the design gain and phase margins. The system performance was assessed using a six-deg-of-freedom non-linear transport aircraft simulation and the performance is illustrated with time-history plots of recorded simulation data.

  3. Causal diagrams and the logic of matched case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

    2012-01-01

    It is tempting to assume that confounding bias is eliminated by choosing controls that are identical to the cases on the matched confounder(s). We used causal diagrams to explain why such matching not only fails to remove confounding bias, but also adds colliding bias, and why both types of bias are removed by conditioning on the matched confounder(s). As in some publications, we trace the logic of matching to a possible tradeoff between effort and variance, not between effort and bias. Lastly, we explain why the analysis of a matched case-control study – regardless of the method of matching – is not conceptually different from that of an unmatched study. PMID:22701093

  4. Identification of sensor fault for the performance and stability of centralized control logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzulani, Gabriele; Cinquemani, Simone; Ronchi, Marco; Ripamonti, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the effect of sensor fault when large sensor arrays (for example Fiber Bragg Grating arrays) are considered. Indeed, sensor arrays provide a distributed measurement of the structure vibrations, allowing the design of optimized control logics. Anyway, due to the large number of sensors, the reliability is lower and the malfunctioning of one or more sensors can occur. For this reason, an online identification of faults is important, so that the information can be taken into account in the definition of control law. The effect of sensor fault on the measurement of structure vibrations will be investigated and a method for the identification of sensor faults is proposed. Numerical tests on a beam equipped with an array of FBG sensors will be reported.

  5. Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, K.A.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309, Rev. 1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  6. Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-11-16

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell PIC Skids as required by LMH-PRO-309, Rev. 0, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.6, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell PIC Skid PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  7. Low-photon-number optical switch and AND/OR logic gates based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing. PMID:26750557

  8. Low-photon-number optical switch and AND/OR logic gates based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing. PMID:26750557

  9. Minimal sensor count approach to fuzzy logic rotary blood pump flow control.

    PubMed

    Casas, Fernando; Ahmed, Nisar; Reeves, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    A rotary blood pump fuzzy logic flow controller without flow sensors was developed and tested in vitro. The controller, implemented in LabView, was set to maintain a flow set point in the presence of external pressure disturbances. Flow was estimated as a function of measured pump's delta P and speed, using a steady-state, nonlinear approximation. The fuzzy controller used the pump's flow estimate and delta P as feedback variables. The defuzzified control output manipulated the pump speed. Membership functions included flow error, delta P, and pump speed. Experimental runs in a mock loop (water/glycerin 3.5 cPs, 37 degrees C), using the estimated flow, were compared with those using a Transonic flow meter for nine conditions of flow and delta P (4 to 6 L/min, 150 to 350 mm Hg). Pressure disturbances generated by a servo pinch valve ranged from +/-23 to +/-47 mm Hg. Results indicated that the fuzzy controller ably regulated the flow set point to within +/-10% of the baseline even under large swings in pressure. There was no difference in controller performance between the ultrasonic flow measurement and the estimated flow calculation scenarios. These tests demonstrated that the fuzzy controller is capable of rejecting disturbances and regulating flow to acceptable limits while using a flow estimate. PMID:17413551

  10. Programmable and Multiparameter DNA-Based Logic Platform For Cancer Recognition and Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The specific inventory of molecules on diseased cell surfaces (e.g., cancer cells) provides clinicians an opportunity for accurate diagnosis and intervention. With the discovery of panels of cancer markers, carrying out analyses of multiple cell-surface markers is conceivable. As a trial to accomplish this, we have recently designed a DNA-based device that is capable of performing autonomous logic-based analysis of two or three cancer cell-surface markers. Combining the specific target-recognition properties of DNA aptamers with toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions, multicellular marker-based cancer analysis can be realized based on modular AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic gates. Specifically, we report here a general approach for assembling these modular logic gates to execute programmable and higher-order profiling of multiple coexisting cell-surface markers, including several found on cancer cells, with the capacity to report a diagnostic signal and/or deliver targeted photodynamic therapy. The success of this strategy demonstrates the potential of DNA nanotechnology in facilitating targeted disease diagnosis and effective therapy. PMID:25361164

  11. Programmable and multiparameter DNA-based logic platform for cancer recognition and targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    You, Mingxu; Zhu, Guizhi; Chen, Tao; Donovan, Michael J; Tan, Weihong

    2015-01-21

    The specific inventory of molecules on diseased cell surfaces (e.g., cancer cells) provides clinicians an opportunity for accurate diagnosis and intervention. With the discovery of panels of cancer markers, carrying out analyses of multiple cell-surface markers is conceivable. As a trial to accomplish this, we have recently designed a DNA-based device that is capable of performing autonomous logic-based analysis of two or three cancer cell-surface markers. Combining the specific target-recognition properties of DNA aptamers with toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions, multicellular marker-based cancer analysis can be realized based on modular AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic gates. Specifically, we report here a general approach for assembling these modular logic gates to execute programmable and higher-order profiling of multiple coexisting cell-surface markers, including several found on cancer cells, with the capacity to report a diagnostic signal and/or deliver targeted photodynamic therapy. The success of this strategy demonstrates the potential of DNA nanotechnology in facilitating targeted disease diagnosis and effective therapy. PMID:25361164

  12. Sleep apnea detection using an adaptive fuzzy logic based screening system.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ahmed A; Al-Ashmouny, Khaled M

    2005-01-01

    We report an adaptive diagnostic system for the classification of breathing events for the purpose of detecting sleep apnea syndromes. The system employs two classification engines used in series. The first engine is fuzzy logic-based and generates one of three outcomes for each breathing event: normal, abnormal, and not-sure. The second classification engine is based on a center of gravity engine which is trained using the normal and abnormal events, generated by the first engine, and is specifically designed for sorting out the not-sure events. The fuzzy logic engine can be tuned very conservatively to reduce or eliminate the chance of error at the first stage. Since the second engine is trained adaptively using normal and abnormal data of the same patient, its accuracy is generally better than relying on multi-patient training approaches. The two-step, adaptive nature of the system allows for high accuracy and lends itself well for practical implementation. PMID:17281661

  13. Arrays of high quality SAM-based junctions and their application in molecular diode based logic.

    PubMed

    Wan, Albert; Suchand Sangeeth, C S; Wang, Lejia; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Li; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2015-12-14

    This paper describes a method to fabricate a microfluidic top-electrode that can be utilized to generate arrays of self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions. The top-electrodes consist of a liquid-metal of GaOx/EGaIn mechanically stabilized in microchannels and through-holes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); these top-electrodes form molecular junctions by directly placing them onto the SAM supported by template-stripped (TS) Ag or Au bottom-electrodes. Unlike conventional techniques to form multiple junctions, our method does not require lithography to pattern the bottom-electrode and is compatible with TS bottom-electrodes, which are ultra-flat with large grains, free from potential contamination of photoresist residues, and do not have electrode-edges where the molecules are unable to pack well. We formed tunneling junctions with n-alkanethiolate SAMs in yields of ∼80%, with good reproducibility and electrical stability. Temperature dependent J(V) measurements indicated that the mechanism of charge transport across the junction is coherent tunneling. To demonstrate the usefulness of these junctions, we formed molecular diodes based on SAMs with Fc head groups. These junctions rectify currents with a rectification ratio R of 45. These molecular diodes were incorporated in simple electronic circuitry to demonstrate molecular diode-based Boolean logic. PMID:26537895

  14. Fuzzy logic control algorithms for MagneShock semiactive vehicle shock absorbers: design and experimental evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Michael J.; Buckner, Gregory D.; Anderson, Richard D.

    2003-07-01

    Automotive ride quality and handling performance remain challenging design tradeoffs for modern, passive automobile suspension systems. Despite extensive published research outlining the benefits of active vehicle suspensions in addressing this tradeoff, the cost and complexity of these systems frequently prohibit commercial adoption. Semi-active suspensions can provide performance benefits over passive suspensions without the cost and complexity associated with fully active systems. This paper outlines the development and experimental evaluation of a fuzzy logic control algorithm for a commercial semi-active suspension component, Carrera's MagneShockTM shock absorber. The MagneShockTM utilizes an electromagnet to change the viscosity of magnetorheological (MR) fluid, which changes the damping characteristics of the shock. Damping for each shock is controlled by manipulating the coil current using real-time algorithms. The performance capabilities of fuzzy logic control (FLC) algorithms are demonstrated through experimental evaluations on a passenger vehicle. Results show reductions of 25% or more in sprung mass absorbed power (U.S. Army 6 Watt Absorbed Power Criterion) as compared to typical passive shock absorbers over urban terrains in both simulation and experimentation. Average sprung-mass RMS accelerations were also reduced by as much as 9%, but usually with an increase in total suspension travel over the passive systems. Additionally, a negligible decrease in RMS tire normal force was documented through computer simulations. And although the FLC absorbed power was comparable to that of the fixed-current MagneShockTM the FLC revealed reduced average RMS sprung-mass accelerations over the fixed-current MagneShocks by 2-9%. Possible means for improvement of this system include reducing the suspension spring stiffness and increasing the dynamic damping range of the MagneShockTM.

  15. [Research on the Application of Fuzzy Logic to Systems Analysis and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Research conducted with the support of NASA Grant NCC2-275 has been focused in the main on the development of fuzzy logic and soft computing methodologies and their applications to systems analysis and control. with emphasis 011 problem areas which are of relevance to NASA's missions. One of the principal results of our research has been the development of a new methodology called Computing with Words (CW). Basically, in CW words drawn from a natural language are employed in place of numbers for computing and reasoning. There are two major imperatives for computing with words. First, computing with words is a necessity when the available information is too imprecise to justify the use of numbers, and second, when there is a tolerance for imprecision which can be exploited to achieve tractability, robustness, low solution cost, and better rapport with reality. Exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision is an issue of central importance in CW.

  16. Installing logic gates in permeability controllable polyelectrolyte-carbon nitride films for detecting proteases and nucleases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lichan; Zeng, Xiaoting; Dandapat, Anirban; Chi, Yuwu; Kim, Donghwan

    2015-09-01

    Proteases and nucleases are enzymes heavily involved in many important biological processes, such as cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis; hence, they are indicative of potential diagnostic biomarkers. Here, we demonstrate a new label free and sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensing strategy for protease and nuclease assays that utilize target-triggered desorption of programmable polyelectrolyte films assembled on graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) film to regulate the diffusion flux of a coreactant. Furthermore, we have built Boolean logic gates OR and AND into the polyelectrolyte films, capable of simultaneously sensing proteases and nucleases in a complicated system by breaking it into simple functions. The developed intelligent permeability controlled enzyme sensor may prove valuable in future medical diagnostics. PMID:26228179

  17. Fuzzy logic and optical correlation-based face recognition method for patient monitoring application in home video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbouz, Marwa; Alfalou, Ayman; Brosseau, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Home automation is being implemented into more and more domiciles of the elderly and disabled in order to maintain their independence and safety. For that purpose, we propose and validate a surveillance video system, which detects various posture-based events. One of the novel points of this system is to use adapted Vander-Lugt correlator (VLC) and joint-transfer correlator (JTC) techniques to make decisions on the identity of a patient and his three-dimensional (3-D) positions in order to overcome the problem of crowd environment. We propose a fuzzy logic technique to get decisions on the subject's behavior. Our system is focused on the goals of accuracy, convenience, and cost, which in addition does not require any devices attached to the subject. The system permits one to study and model subject responses to behavioral change intervention because several levels of alarm can be incorporated according different situations considered. Our algorithm performs a fast 3-D recovery of the subject's head position by locating eyes within the face image and involves a model-based prediction and optical correlation techniques to guide the tracking procedure. The object detection is based on (hue, saturation, value) color space. The system also involves an adapted fuzzy logic control algorithm to make a decision based on information given to the system. Furthermore, the principles described here are applicable to a very wide range of situations and robust enough to be implementable in ongoing experiments.

  18. Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S.

    2013-12-21

    Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices.

  19. High-speed all-optical logic inverter based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Sen, Mrinal; Das, Mukul K

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new device architecture for an all-optical logic inverter (NOT gate), which is cascadable with a similar device. The inverter is based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal waveguides, which are embedded in a silicon photonic crystal structure. The Raman response function of silicon nanocrystal is evaluated to explore the transfer characteristic of the inverter. A maximum product criterion for the noise margin is taken to analyze the cascadability of the inverter. The time domain response of the inverter, which explores successful inversion operation at 100 Gb/s, is analyzed. Propagation delay of the inverter is on the order of 5 ps, which is less than the delay in most of the electronic logic families as of today. Overall dimension of the device is around 755  μm ×15  μm, which ensures integration compatibility with the matured silicon industry. PMID:26560565

  20. Data-Mining-Based Coronary Heart Disease Risk Prediction Model Using Fuzzy Logic and Decision Tree

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaekwon; Lee, Jongsik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The importance of the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been recognized in Korea; however, few studies have been conducted in this area. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for the prediction and classification of CHD in Koreans. Methods A model for CHD prediction must be designed according to rule-based guidelines. In this study, a fuzzy logic and decision tree (classification and regression tree [CART])-driven CHD prediction model was developed for Koreans. Datasets derived from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (KNHANES-VI) were utilized to generate the proposed model. Results The rules were generated using a decision tree technique, and fuzzy logic was applied to overcome problems associated with uncertainty in CHD prediction. Conclusions The accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values of the propose systems were 69.51% and 0.594, proving that the proposed methods were more efficient than other models. PMID:26279953

  1. VANET Broadcast Protocol Based on Fuzzy Logic and Lightweight Retransmission Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Celimuge; Ohzahata, Satoshi; Kato, Toshihiko

    Vehicular ad hoc networks have been attracting the interest of both academic and industrial communities on account of their potential role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). However, due to vehicle movement and fading in wireless communications, providing a reliable and efficient multi-hop broadcast service in vehicular ad hoc networks is still an open research topic. In this paper, we propose FUZZBR (FUZZy BRoadcast), a fuzzy logic based multi-hop broadcast protocol for information dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks. FUZZBR has low message overhead since it uses only a subset of neighbor nodes to relay data messages. In the relay node selection, FUZZBR jointly considers multiple metrics of inter-vehicle distance, node mobility and signal strength by employing the fuzzy logic. FUZZBR also uses a lightweight retransmission mechanism to retransmit a packet when a relay fails. We use computer simulations to evaluate the performance of FUZZBR.

  2. Interference based square lattice photonic crystal logic gates working with different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new configuration of interference based OR, XOR, NOT and AND optical logic gates on a two dimensional square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) platform. The working of these devices was analyzed by the FDTD method and the operating frequency range was explored using the plane wave expansion method. The XOR and NOT gates have high contrast ratio which is more than 35 dB between high and low logic states, for a particular wavelength. All these devices are operating with multiple wavelengths. The impact of structural parameter like radius on the operating wavelength and Contrast Ratio (CR) was analyzed. It is found that the optimization of structural parameters makes it possible to obtain the operating wavelength allowed by band structure. These proposed devices were made up of linear waveguides and square ring resonator waveguides, without using nonlinear materials, optical amplifiers and external phase shifters.

  3. Another expert system rule inference based on DNA molecule logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WÄ siewicz, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    With the help of silicon industry microfluidic processors were invented utilizing nano membrane valves, pumps and microreactors. These so called lab-on-a-chips combined together with molecular computing create molecular-systems-ona- chips. This work presents a new approach to implementation of molecular inference systems. It requires the unique representation of signals by DNA molecules. The main part of this work includes the concept of logic gates based on typical genetic engineering reactions. The presented method allows for constructing logic gates with many inputs and for executing them at the same quantity of elementary operations, regardless of a number of input signals. Every microreactor of the lab-on-a-chip performs one unique operation on input molecules and can be connected by dataflow output-input connections to other ones.

  4. Medical equipment classification: method and decision-making support based on paraconsistent annotated logic.

    PubMed

    Oshiyama, Natália F; Bassani, Rosana A; D'Ottaviano, Itala M L; Bassani, José W M

    2012-04-01

    As technology evolves, the role of medical equipment in the healthcare system, as well as technology management, becomes more important. Although the existence of large databases containing management information is currently common, extracting useful information from them is still difficult. A useful tool for identification of frequently failing equipment, which increases maintenance cost and downtime, would be the classification according to the corrective maintenance data. Nevertheless, establishment of classes may create inconsistencies, since an item may be close to two classes by the same extent. Paraconsistent logic might help solve this problem, as it allows the existence of inconsistent (contradictory) information without trivialization. In this paper, a methodology for medical equipment classification based on the ABC analysis of corrective maintenance data is presented, and complemented with a paraconsistent annotated logic analysis, which may enable the decision maker to take into consideration alerts created by the identification of inconsistencies and indeterminacies in the classification. PMID:22407498

  5. A knowledge-based approach to ECG interpretation using fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Kundu, M; Nasipuri, M; Basu, D K

    1998-01-01

    A rule-based expert system which uses generalized modus ponens (GMP) from fuzzy logic as a rule of inference is described here for classification of abnormalities related to rhythm disorder in the human heart, through interpretation of the patient's electrocardiographic (EGG) patterns. Application of GMP makes diagnosis of a wide range of variations in the input ECG patterns possible even if they differ from the patterns defined in the preconditions of the rules of the rulebase. The work shows how fuzzy logic with suitably drawn possibility distributions of variables of cardiological domain plays a significant role in making the expert system sensitive to finer variations of input ECG patterns, which are very common in bioelectric signals, without enhancing the size of the rulebase. PMID:18255941

  6. Fuzzy Logic based Handoff Latency Reduction Mechanism in Layer 2 of Heterogeneous Mobile IPv6 Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Farhat; Masud, Mosharrof H.; Latif, Suhaimi A.

    2013-12-01

    Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) is one of the pioneer standards that support mobility in IPv6 environment. It has been designed to support different types of technologies for providing seamless communications in next generation network. However, MIPv6 and subsequent standards have some limitations due to its handoff latency. In this paper, a fuzzy logic based mechanism is proposed to reduce the handoff latency of MIPv6 for Layer 2 (L2) by scanning the Access Points (APs) while the Mobile Node (MN) is moving among different APs. Handoff latency occurs when the MN switches from one AP to another in L2. Heterogeneous network is considered in this research in order to reduce the delays in L2. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and velocity of the MN are considered as the input of fuzzy logic technique. This technique helps the MN to measure optimum signal quality from APs for the speedy mobile node based on fuzzy logic input rules and makes a list of interfaces. A suitable interface from the list of available interfaces can be selected like WiFi, WiMAX or GSM. Simulation results show 55% handoff latency reduction and 50% packet loss improvement in L2 compared to standard to MIPv6.

  7. Micro-ring resonator based all-optical reconfigurable logic operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Jayanta Kumar; Roy, Jitendra Nath

    2014-06-01

    An all-optical reconfigurable logic operation essentially constitutes a key technology for performing various processing tasks with ultrafast signal-processing technologies. We present designs and simulations for highly cascadable all-optical reconfigurable logic operations using GaAs-AlGaAs micro-ring resonator based optical switches and multiplexers. The switching action of the ring resonator is achieved through variation in the refractive index of the ring resonator produced by the two-photon absorption (TPA) effect through the application of optical pump pulse. The proposed circuit can perform any of the four digital logic operations (NOT, NOR, XOR, AND) by using the appropriate optical pump signal at the selection port of the multiplexer. We have tried to exploit the advantages of micro-ring resonator based all optical switch to design an all-optical circuit. The reconfigurable nature of the circuit offers maximum flexibility for the end user since the entire application can be changed simply by adjusting the multiplexer select line signals. Numerical simulation confirming described methods is given in this paper.

  8. Fuzzy Logic-Based Guaranteed Lifetime Protocol for Real-Time Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Babar; Iqbal, Farkhund; Abbas, Ali; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Few techniques for guaranteeing a network lifetime have been proposed despite its great impact on network management. Moreover, since the existing schemes are mostly dependent on the combination of disparate parameters, they do not provide additional services, such as real-time communications and balanced energy consumption among sensor nodes; thus, the adaptability problems remain unresolved among nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). To solve these problems, we propose a novel fuzzy logic model to provide real-time communication in a guaranteed WSN lifetime. The proposed fuzzy logic controller accepts the input descriptors energy, time and velocity to determine each node’s role for the next duration and the next hop relay node for real-time packets. Through the simulation results, we verified that both the guaranteed network’s lifetime and real-time delivery are efficiently ensured by the new fuzzy logic model. In more detail, the above-mentioned two performance metrics are improved up to 8%, as compared to our previous work, and 14% compared to existing schemes, respectively. PMID:26295238

  9. Fuzzy Logic-Based Guaranteed Lifetime Protocol for Real-Time Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Shah, Babar; Iqbal, Farkhund; Abbas, Ali; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Few techniques for guaranteeing a network lifetime have been proposed despite its great impact on network management. Moreover, since the existing schemes are mostly dependent on the combination of disparate parameters, they do not provide additional services, such as real-time communications and balanced energy consumption among sensor nodes; thus, the adaptability problems remain unresolved among nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). To solve these problems, we propose a novel fuzzy logic model to provide real-time communication in a guaranteed WSN lifetime. The proposed fuzzy logic controller accepts the input descriptors energy, time and velocity to determine each node's role for the next duration and the next hop relay node for real-time packets. Through the simulation results, we verified that both the guaranteed network's lifetime and real-time delivery are efficiently ensured by the new fuzzy logic model. In more detail, the above-mentioned two performance metrics are improved up to 8%, as compared to our previous work, and 14% compared to existing schemes, respectively. PMID:26295238

  10. Fuzzy logic inference-based Pavement Friction Management and real-time slippery warning systems: A proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Shahriar; Flintsch, Gerardo W; Khaleghian, Seyedmeysam

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing roadway crashes and fatalities is one of the primary objectives of highway engineers, and can be achieved in part through appropriate maintenance practices. Maintaining an appropriate level of friction is a crucial maintenance practice, due to the effect it has on roadway safety. This paper presents a fuzzy logic inference system that predicts the rate of vehicle crashes based on traffic level, speed limit, and surface friction. Mamdani and Sugeno fuzzy controllers were used to develop the model. The application of the proposed fuzzy control system in a real-time slippery road warning system is demonstrated as a proof of concept. The results of this study provide a decision support model for highway agencies to monitor their network's friction and make appropriate judgments to correct deficiencies based on crash risk. Furthermore, this model can be implemented in the connected vehicle environment to warn drivers of potentially slippery locations. PMID:26914521

  11. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  12. Combinational logic for generating gate drive signals for phase control rectifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C. R.; Trimble, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Control signals for phase-delay rectifiers, which require a variable firing angle that ranges from 0 deg to 180 deg, are derived from line-to-line 3-phase signals and both positive and negative firing angle control signals which are generated by comparing current command and actual current. Line-to-line phases are transformed into line-to-neutral phases and integrated to produce 90 deg phase delayed signals that are inverted to produce three cosine signals, such that for each its maximum occurs at the intersection of positive half cycles of the other two phases which are inputs to other inverters. At the same time, both positive and negative (inverted) phase sync signals are generated for each phase by comparing each with the next and producing a square wave when it is greater. Ramp, sync and firing angle controls signals are than used in combinational logic to generate the gate firing control signals SCR gate drives which fire SCR devices in a bridge circuit.

  13. Arrays of high quality SAM-based junctions and their application in molecular diode based logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Albert; Suchand Sangeeth, C. S.; Wang, Lejia; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Li; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes a method to fabricate a microfluidic top-electrode that can be utilized to generate arrays of self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions. The top-electrodes consist of a liquid-metal of GaOx/EGaIn mechanically stabilized in microchannels and through-holes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); these top-electrodes form molecular junctions by directly placing them onto the SAM supported by template-stripped (TS) Ag or Au bottom-electrodes. Unlike conventional techniques to form multiple junctions, our method does not require lithography to pattern the bottom-electrode and is compatible with TS bottom-electrodes, which are ultra-flat with large grains, free from potential contamination of photoresist residues, and do not have electrode-edges where the molecules are unable to pack well. We formed tunneling junctions with n-alkanethiolate SAMs in yields of ~80%, with good reproducibility and electrical stability. Temperature dependent J(V) measurements indicated that the mechanism of charge transport across the junction is coherent tunneling. To demonstrate the usefulness of these junctions, we formed molecular diodes based on SAMs with Fc head groups. These junctions rectify currents with a rectification ratio R of 45. These molecular diodes were incorporated in simple electronic circuitry to demonstrate molecular diode-based Boolean logic.This paper describes a method to fabricate a microfluidic top-electrode that can be utilized to generate arrays of self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions. The top-electrodes consist of a liquid-metal of GaOx/EGaIn mechanically stabilized in microchannels and through-holes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); these top-electrodes form molecular junctions by directly placing them onto the SAM supported by template-stripped (TS) Ag or Au bottom-electrodes. Unlike conventional techniques to form multiple junctions, our method does not require lithography to pattern the bottom-electrode and is compatible with TS

  14. Spin-based logic in semiconductors for reconfigurable large-scale circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dery, H.; Dalal, P.; Cywiński, Ł.; Sham, L. J.

    2007-05-01

    Research in semiconductor spintronics aims to extend the scope of conventional electronics by using the spin degree of freedom of an electron in addition to its charge. Significant scientific advances in this area have been reported, such as the development of diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors, spin injection into semiconductors from ferromagnetic metals and discoveries of new physical phenomena involving electron spin. Yet no viable means of developing spintronics in semiconductors has been presented. Here we report a theoretical design that is a conceptual step forward-spin accumulation is used as the basis of a semiconductor computer circuit. Although the giant magnetoresistance effect in metals has already been commercially exploited, it does not extend to semiconductor/ferromagnet systems, because the effect is too weak for logic operations. We overcome this obstacle by using spin accumulation rather than spin flow. The basic element in our design is a logic gate that consists of a semiconductor structure with multiple magnetic contacts; this serves to perform fast and reprogrammable logic operations in a noisy, room-temperature environment. We then introduce a method to interconnect a large number of these gates to form a `spin computer'. As the shrinking of conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors reaches its intrinsic limit, greater computational capability will mean an increase in both circuit area and power dissipation. Our spin-based approach may provide wide margins for further scaling and also greater computational capability per gate.

  15. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  16. All-optical cross-bar network architecture using TOAD based interferometric switch and designing of reconfigurable logic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-12-01

    The design of all-optical 2 × 2 Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch is proposed and described in this manuscript. Numerical simulation has been done to achieve the performance of the switch. Using this 2 × 2 TOAD based switch, cross-bar network architecture is designed. A reconfigurable logic unit is also proposed in this manuscript, which can perform 16-Boolean logical operations.

  17. D0 General Support: The Use of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCS) at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Hance, R.; /Fermilab

    2000-05-05

    With the exception of control of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ventilation fans, and their shutdown in the case of smoke in the ducts, all implementations of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) in Dzero have been made within the fundamental premise that no uncertified PLC apparatus shall be entrusted with the safety of equipment or personnel. Thus although PLCs are used to control and monitor all manner of intricate equipment, simple hardware interlocks and relief devices provide basic protection against component failure, control failure, or inappropriate control operation. Nevertheless, this report includes two observations as follows: (1) It may be prudent to reconfigure the link between the Pyrotronics system and the HVAC system such that the Pyrotronics system provides interlocks to the ventilation fans instead of control inputs to the uncertified HVAC PLCs. Although the Pyrotronics system is certified and maintained to life safety standards, the HVAC system is not. A hardware or software failure of the HVAC system probably should not be allowed to result in the situation where the ventilation fans in a smoke filled duct continue to operate. Dan Markley is investigating this matter. (2) It may also be prudent to examine the network security of those systems connected to the Fermilab WAN (HVAC, Cryo, and Solenoid Controls). Even though the impact of a successful hack might only be to operations, it might nevertheless be disruptive and could be expensive. The risks should perhaps be analyzed. One of the most attractive features of these systems, from a user's viewpoint, is their unlimited networking. The unlimited networking that makes the systems so convenient to legitimate access also makes them vulnerable to illegitimate access.

  18. A Results-Based Logic Model for Primary Healthcare: A Conceptual Foundation for Population-Based Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Diane E.; Broemeling, Anne-Marie; Wong, Sabrina T.

    2009-01-01

    A conceptual framework for population-based information systems is needed if these data are to be created and used to generate information to support healthcare policy, management and practice communities that seek to improve quality and account for progress in primary healthcare (PHC) renewal. This paper describes work conducted in British Columbia since 2003 to (1) create a Results-Based Logic Model for PHC using the approach of the Treasury Board of Canada in designing management and accountability frameworks, together with a literature review, policy analysis and broad consultation with approximately 650 people, (2) identify priorities for information within that logic model, (3) use the logic model and priorities within it to implement performance measurement and research and (4) identify how information systems need to be structured to assess the impact of variation or change in PHC inputs, activities and outputs on patient, population and healthcare system outcomes. The resulting logic model distinguishes among outcomes for which the PHC sector should be held more or less accountable. PMID:21037902

  19. Logical operations with single x-ray photons via dynamically-controlled nuclear resonances

    PubMed Central

    Gunst, Jonas; Keitel, Christoph H.; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Photonic qubits lie at the heart of quantum information technology, often encoding information in their polarization state. So far, only low-frequency optical and infrared photons have been employed as flying qubits, as the resources that are at present easiest to control. With their essentially different way of interacting with matter, x-ray qubits would bear however relevant advantages: they are extremely robust, penetrate deep through materials, and can be focused down to few-nm waveguides, allowing unprecedented miniaturization. Also, x-rays are resonant to nuclear transitions, which are very well isolated from the environment and present long coherence times. Here, we show theoretically that x-ray polarization qubits can be dynamically controlled by nuclear Mössbauer resonances. The control knob is played by nuclear hyperfine magnetic fields, that allow via fast rotations precise processing of single x-ray quanta polarization. With such rotations, single-qubit and binary logical operations such as a destructive C-NOT gate can be implemented. PMID:27118340

  20. Electrical Maxwell demon and Szilard engine utilizing Johnson noise, measurement, logic and control.

    PubMed

    Kish, Laszlo Bela; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a purely electrical version of Maxwell's demon which does not involve mechanically moving parts such as trapdoors, etc. It consists of a capacitor, resistors, amplifiers, logic circuitry and electronically controlled switches and uses thermal noise in resistors (Johnson noise) to pump heat. The only types of energy of importance in this demon are electrical energy and heat. We also demonstrate an entirely electrical version of Szilard's engine, i.e., an information-controlled device that can produce work by employing thermal fluctuations. The only moving part is a piston that executes work, and the engine has purely electronic controls and it is free of the major weakness of the original Szilard engine in not requiring removal and repositioning the piston at the end of the cycle. For both devices, the energy dissipation in the memory and other binary informatics components are insignificant compared to the exponentially large energy dissipation in the analog part responsible for creating new information by measurement and decision. This result contradicts the view that the energy dissipation in the memory during erasure is the most essential dissipation process in a demon. Nevertheless the dissipation in the memory and information processing parts is sufficient to secure the Second Law of Thermodynamics. PMID:23077525

  1. Logical operations with single x-ray photons via dynamically-controlled nuclear resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunst, Jonas; Keitel, Christoph H.; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-04-01

    Photonic qubits lie at the heart of quantum information technology, often encoding information in their polarization state. So far, only low-frequency optical and infrared photons have been employed as flying qubits, as the resources that are at present easiest to control. With their essentially different way of interacting with matter, x-ray qubits would bear however relevant advantages: they are extremely robust, penetrate deep through materials, and can be focused down to few-nm waveguides, allowing unprecedented miniaturization. Also, x-rays are resonant to nuclear transitions, which are very well isolated from the environment and present long coherence times. Here, we show theoretically that x-ray polarization qubits can be dynamically controlled by nuclear Mössbauer resonances. The control knob is played by nuclear hyperfine magnetic fields, that allow via fast rotations precise processing of single x-ray quanta polarization. With such rotations, single-qubit and binary logical operations such as a destructive C-NOT gate can be implemented.

  2. Logical operations with single x-ray photons via dynamically-controlled nuclear resonances.

    PubMed

    Gunst, Jonas; Keitel, Christoph H; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Photonic qubits lie at the heart of quantum information technology, often encoding information in their polarization state. So far, only low-frequency optical and infrared photons have been employed as flying qubits, as the resources that are at present easiest to control. With their essentially different way of interacting with matter, x-ray qubits would bear however relevant advantages: they are extremely robust, penetrate deep through materials, and can be focused down to few-nm waveguides, allowing unprecedented miniaturization. Also, x-rays are resonant to nuclear transitions, which are very well isolated from the environment and present long coherence times. Here, we show theoretically that x-ray polarization qubits can be dynamically controlled by nuclear Mössbauer resonances. The control knob is played by nuclear hyperfine magnetic fields, that allow via fast rotations precise processing of single x-ray quanta polarization. With such rotations, single-qubit and binary logical operations such as a destructive C-NOT gate can be implemented. PMID:27118340

  3. R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor control logic, computer software description. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.E.

    1995-06-08

    This document provides an updated computer software description for the software used on the FFTF R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor programmable controllers. Logic software design changes were required to allow automatic starting of a compressor that had not been previously started.

  4. FPGA based control system for space instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Cerulli Irelli, Pasquale; Nuzzolo, Francesco; Orfei, Renato; Spinoglio, Luigi; Liu, Giovanni S.; Saraceno, Paolo

    2008-07-01

    The prototype for a general purpose FPGA based control system for space instrumentation is presented, with particular attention to the instrument control application software. The system HW is based on the LEON3FT processor, which gives the flexibility to configure the chip with only the necessary HW functionalities, from simple logic up to small dedicated processors. The instrument control SW is developed in ANSI C and for time critical (<10μs) commanding sequences implements an internal instructions sequencer, triggered via an interrupt service routine based on a HW high priority interrupt.

  5. Fuzzy logic motor control for pollution prevention and improved energy efficiency. Report for October 1992-August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Chappell, P.J.; Maxwell, M.A.; Cleland, J.G.; Bose, B.K.

    1993-10-01

    The paper discusses an EPA program investigating fuzzy logic motor control for improved pollution prevention and energy efficiency. Initial computer simulation and laboratory results have demonstrated that fuzzy logic energy optimizers can consistently improve motor operational efficiency over conventional adjustable-speed drive (ASD) operation. This is significant in terms of both potential U.S. pollution prevention and energy savings possibilities. The addition of a fuzzy logic energy optimizer microchip to an ASD is minimal in terms of cost because low-power microchips are very cheap when manufactured in volume. Thus, the energy savings and enhanced motor operation and lifespan should be regarded as almost free because cost payback is potentially so short.

  6. Probabilistic Constraint Logic Programming. Formal Foundations of Quantitative and Statistical Inference in Constraint-Based Natural Language Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riezler, Stefan

    2000-08-01

    In this thesis, we present two approaches to a rigorous mathematical and algorithmic foundation of quantitative and statistical inference in constraint-based natural language processing. The first approach, called quantitative constraint logic programming, is conceptualized in a clear logical framework, and presents a sound and complete system of quantitative inference for definite clauses annotated with subjective weights. This approach combines a rigorous formal semantics for quantitative inference based on subjective weights with efficient weight-based pruning for constraint-based systems. The second approach, called probabilistic constraint logic programming, introduces a log-linear probability distribution on the proof trees of a constraint logic program and an algorithm for statistical inference of the parameters and properties of such probability models from incomplete, i.e., unparsed data. The possibility of defining arbitrary properties of proof trees as properties of the log-linear probability model and efficiently estimating appropriate parameter values for them permits the probabilistic modeling of arbitrary context-dependencies in constraint logic programs. The usefulness of these ideas is evaluated empirically in a small-scale experiment on finding the correct parses of a constraint-based grammar. In addition, we address the problem of computational intractability of the calculation of expectations in the inference task and present various techniques to approximately solve this task. Moreover, we present an approximate heuristic technique for searching for the most probable analysis in probabilistic constraint logic programs.

  7. Advanced PID type fuzzy logic power system stabilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Hiyama, Takashi; Kugimiya, Masahiko; Satoh, Hironori . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1994-09-01

    An advanced fuzzy logic control scheme has been proposed for a micro-computer based power system stabilizer to enhance the overall stability of power systems. The proposed control scheme utilizes the PID information of the generator speed. The input signal to the stabilizer is the real power output of a study unit. Simulations show the effectiveness of the advanced fuzzy logic control scheme.

  8. Fiber-optic control and thermometry of single-cell thermosensation logic.

    PubMed

    Fedotov, I V; Safronov, N A; Ermakova, Yu G; Matlashov, M E; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Fedotov, A B; Belousov, V V; Zheltikov, A M

    2015-01-01

    Thermal activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels is one of the most striking examples of temperature-controlled processes in cell biology. As the evidence indicating the fundamental role of such processes in thermosensation builds at a fast pace, adequately accurate tools that would allow heat receptor logic behind thermosensation to be examined on a single-cell level are in great demand. Here, we demonstrate a specifically designed fiber-optic probe that enables thermal activation with simultaneous online thermometry of individual cells expressing genetically encoded TRP channels. This probe integrates a fiber-optic tract for the delivery of laser light with a two-wire microwave transmission line. A diamond microcrystal fixed on the fiber tip is heated by laser radiation transmitted through the fiber, providing a local heating of a cell culture, enabling a well-controlled TRP-assisted thermal activation of cells. Online local temperature measurements are performed by using the temperature-dependent frequency shift of optically detected magnetic resonance, induced by coupling the microwave field, delivered by the microwave transmission line, to nitrogen--vacancy centers in the diamond microcrystal. Activation of TRP channels is verified by using genetically encoded fluorescence indicators, visualizing an increase in the calcium flow through activated TRP channels. PMID:26563494

  9. Fiber-optic control and thermometry of single-cell thermosensation logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, I. V.; Safronov, N. A.; Ermakova, Yu. G.; Matlashov, M. E.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Belousov, V. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels is one of the most striking examples of temperature-controlled processes in cell biology. As the evidence indicating the fundamental role of such processes in thermosensation builds at a fast pace, adequately accurate tools that would allow heat receptor logic behind thermosensation to be examined on a single-cell level are in great demand. Here, we demonstrate a specifically designed fiber-optic probe that enables thermal activation with simultaneous online thermometry of individual cells expressing genetically encoded TRP channels. This probe integrates a fiber-optic tract for the delivery of laser light with a two-wire microwave transmission line. A diamond microcrystal fixed on the fiber tip is heated by laser radiation transmitted through the fiber, providing a local heating of a cell culture, enabling a well-controlled TRP-assisted thermal activation of cells. Online local temperature measurements are performed by using the temperature-dependent frequency shift of optically detected magnetic resonance, induced by coupling the microwave field, delivered by the microwave transmission line, to nitrogen—vacancy centers in the diamond microcrystal. Activation of TRP channels is verified by using genetically encoded fluorescence indicators, visualizing an increase in the calcium flow through activated TRP channels.

  10. Fiber-optic control and thermometry of single-cell thermosensation logic

    PubMed Central

    Fedotov, I.V.; Safronov, N.A.; Ermakova, Yu.G.; Matlashov, M.E.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D.A.; Fedotov, A.B.; Belousov, V.V.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels is one of the most striking examples of temperature-controlled processes in cell biology. As the evidence indicating the fundamental role of such processes in thermosensation builds at a fast pace, adequately accurate tools that would allow heat receptor logic behind thermosensation to be examined on a single-cell level are in great demand. Here, we demonstrate a specifically designed fiber-optic probe that enables thermal activation with simultaneous online thermometry of individual cells expressing genetically encoded TRP channels. This probe integrates a fiber-optic tract for the delivery of laser light with a two-wire microwave transmission line. A diamond microcrystal fixed on the fiber tip is heated by laser radiation transmitted through the fiber, providing a local heating of a cell culture, enabling a well-controlled TRP-assisted thermal activation of cells. Online local temperature measurements are performed by using the temperature-dependent frequency shift of optically detected magnetic resonance, induced by coupling the microwave field, delivered by the microwave transmission line, to nitrogen—vacancy centers in the diamond microcrystal. Activation of TRP channels is verified by using genetically encoded fluorescence indicators, visualizing an increase in the calcium flow through activated TRP channels. PMID:26563494

  11. Segmentation method of eye region based on fuzzy logic system for classifying open and closed eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Wan; Lee, Won Oh; Kim, Yeong Gon; Hong, Hyung Gil; Lee, Eui Chul; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-03-01

    The classification of eye openness and closure has been researched in various fields, e.g., driver drowsiness detection, physiological status analysis, and eye fatigue measurement. For a classification with high accuracy, accurate segmentation of the eye region is required. Most previous research used the segmentation method by image binarization on the basis that the eyeball is darker than skin, but the performance of this approach is frequently affected by thick eyelashes or shadows around the eye. Thus, we propose a fuzzy-based method for classifying eye openness and closure. First, the proposed method uses I and K color information from the HSI and CMYK color spaces, respectively, for eye segmentation. Second, the eye region is binarized using the fuzzy logic system based on I and K inputs, which is less affected by eyelashes and shadows around the eye. The combined image of I and K pixels is obtained through the fuzzy logic system. Third, in order to reflect the effect by all the inference values on calculating the output score of the fuzzy system, we use the revised weighted average method, where all the rectangular regions by all the inference values are considered for calculating the output score. Fourth, the classification of eye openness or closure is successfully made by the proposed fuzzy-based method with eye images of low resolution which are captured in the environment of people watching TV at a distance. By using the fuzzy logic system, our method does not require the additional procedure of training irrespective of the chosen database. Experimental results with two databases of eye images show that our method is superior to previous approaches.

  12. Compact design of all-optical logic gates based on self-collimation phenomenon in two-dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christina Xavier, Susan; Arunachalam, Kabilan

    2012-04-01

    Optical logic gates are a basic and fundamental component for optical networks and optical computing. The authors propose a structure for AND, NAND, XNOR, and NOR logic gates in two-dimensional photonic crystal, which utilizes dispersion-based self-collimation effect. The self-collimated beam is split by the line defect and interferes with other self-collimated beams. This interference may be constructive or destructive based on its phase difference. This phenomenon is employed to realize all optical logic gates. The gates are demonstrated numerically by computing electromagnetic field distribution using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The results ensure that this design could function as AND, NAND, XNOR, and NOR logic gates. The size of the structure is about 10 µm × 10 µm, which, in turn, results in increasing the speed, and all the gates are realized in the same configuration. On-off contrast ratios of the gates are about 6 dB.

  13. A Survey of Advancements in Nucleic Acid-based Logic Gates and Computing for Applications in Biotechnology and biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuichen; Wan, Shuo; Hou, Weijia; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Jiehua; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Hu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based logic devices were first introduced in 1994. Since then, science has seen the emergence of new logic systems for mimicking mathematical functions, diagnosing disease and even imitating biological systems. The unique features of nucleic acids, such as facile and high-throughput synthesis, Watson-Crick complementary base pairing, and predictable structures, together with the aid of programming design, have led to the widespread applications of nucleic acids (NA) for logic gating and computing in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this feature article, the development of in vitro NA logic systems will be discussed, as well as the expansion of such systems using various input molecules for potential cellular, or even in vivo, applications. PMID:25597946

  14. Quantum dot ternary-valued full-adder: Logic synthesis by a multiobjective design optimization based on a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F.

    2014-10-28

    A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.

  15. Fuzzy logic based sensor performance evaluation of vehicle mounted metal detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeynayake, Canicious; Tran, Minh D.

    2015-05-01

    Vehicle Mounted Metal Detector (VMMD) systems are widely used for detection of threat objects in humanitarian demining and military route clearance scenarios. Due to the diverse nature of such operational conditions, operational use of VMMD without a proper understanding of its capability boundaries may lead to heavy causalities. Multi-criteria fitness evaluations are crucial for determining capability boundaries of any sensor-based demining equipment. Evaluation of sensor based military equipment is a multi-disciplinary topic combining the efforts of researchers, operators, managers and commanders having different professional backgrounds and knowledge profiles. Information acquired through field tests usually involves uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision due to variations in test and evaluation conditions during a single test or series of tests. This report presents a fuzzy logic based methodology for experimental data analysis and performance evaluation of VMMD. This data evaluation methodology has been developed to evaluate sensor performance by consolidating expert knowledge with experimental data. A case study is presented by implementing the proposed data analysis framework in a VMMD evaluation scenario. The results of this analysis confirm accuracy, practicability and reliability of the fuzzy logic based sensor performance evaluation framework.

  16. Novel Approach To Synthesis of Logic Circuits Based on Multifunctional Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crha, Adam; Růžička, Richard; Šimek, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional logic continuously becomes an important way how to implement compact and cheap circuits with intrinsic reconfiguration features. Polymorphic electronics concept with its substantial technological independency opens a way to fulfil this objective through the adoption of emerging semiconductor technologies and advanced synthesis methods. The paper comes with a proposal of a novel synthesis method oriented on the exploitation of polymorphic electronics principles. Key part of it is based on Boolean divisor identification and function kernelling technique. The proposed method is evaluated with several test circuits.

  17. Spin-wave logic devices based on isotropic forward volume magnetostatic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, S. Pirro, P.; Brächer, T.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V.

    2015-05-25

    We propose the utilization of isotropic forward volume magnetostatic spin waves in modern wave-based logic devices and suggest a concrete design for a spin-wave majority gate operating with these waves. We demonstrate by numerical simulations that the proposed out-of-plane magnetized majority gate overcomes the limitations of anisotropic in-plane magnetized majority gates due to the high spin-wave transmission through the gate, which enables a reduced energy consumption of these devices. Moreover, the functionality of the out-of-plane majority gate is increased due to the lack of parasitic generation of short-wavelength exchange spin waves.

  18. The Design of Fault Tolerant Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, C. Duane; Humphreys, William M.; Fijany, Amir

    2002-01-01

    As transistor geometries are reduced, quantum effects begin to dominate device performance. At some point, transistors cease to have the properties that make them useful computational components. New computing elements must be developed in order to keep pace with Moore s Law. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) represent an alternative paradigm to transistor-based logic. QCA architectures that are robust to manufacturing tolerances and defects must be developed. We are developing software that allows the exploration of fault tolerant QCA gate architectures by automating the specification, simulation, analysis and documentation processes.

  19. Area-efficient nonvolatile carry chain based on pass-transistor/atom-switch hybrid logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xu; Tsuji, Yukihide; Sakamoto, Toshitsugu; Morioka, Ayuka; Miyamura, Makoto; Tada, Munehiro; Banno, Naoki; Okamoto, Koichiro; Iguchi, Noriyuki; Hada, Hiromitsu

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, an area-efficient nonvolatile carry chain combining look-up tables and a pass-transistor-logic-based adder is newly developed using complementary atom switches without additional CMOS circuits. A proposed tristate switch composed of three pairs of complementary atom switches selects one of “0”, “1”, and the “carry_in” signal as the input of a common multiplexer for both a look-up table and an adder. The developed nonvolatile carry chain achieves the reductions of 20% area, 17% delay, and 17% power consumption, respectively, in comparison with a conventional nonvolatile carry chain using dedicated CMOS gates.

  20. An experimental evidence-based computational paradigm for new logic-gates in neuronal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardi, R.; Guberman, S.; Goldental, A.; Kanter, I.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a new experimentally corroborated paradigm in which the functionality of the brain's logic-gates depends on the history of their activity, e.g. an OR-gate that turns into a XOR-gate over time. Our results are based on an experimental procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in vitro. The underlying biological mechanism is the unavoidable increase of neuronal response latency to ongoing stimulations, which imposes a non-uniform gradual stretching of network delays.

  1. Reconfigurable and resettable arithmetic logic units based on magnetic beads and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siqi; Wang, Kun; Huang, Congcong; Sun, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Based on the characteristics of magnetic beads and DNA, a simple and universal platform was developed for the integration of multiple logic gates to achieve resettable half adder and half subtractor functions. The signal reporter was composed of a split G-quadruplex DNAzyme and AuNP-surface immobilized molecular beacon molecule. The novel feature of the designed system is that the inputs (split G-quadruplexes) can interact with hairpin-modified Au NPs linked to magnetic particles. Another novel feature is that the logic operations can be reset by heating the output system and by using the magnetic separation of the computing modules. Moreover, the developed half adder and half subtractor are realized on a simple DNA/magnetic bead platform in an enzyme-free system and share a constant threshold setpoint. Due to the diversity and design flexibility of DNA, these investigations may provide a new method for the development of resettable DNA-based arithmetic operations.Based on the characteristics of magnetic beads and DNA, a simple and universal platform was developed for the integration of multiple logic gates to achieve resettable half adder and half subtractor functions. The signal reporter was composed of a split G-quadruplex DNAzyme and AuNP-surface immobilized molecular beacon molecule. The novel feature of the designed system is that the inputs (split G-quadruplexes) can interact with hairpin-modified Au NPs linked to magnetic particles. Another novel feature is that the logic operations can be reset by heating the output system and by using the magnetic separation of the computing modules. Moreover, the developed half adder and half subtractor are realized on a simple DNA/magnetic bead platform in an enzyme-free system and share a constant threshold setpoint. Due to the diversity and design flexibility of DNA, these investigations may provide a new method for the development of resettable DNA-based arithmetic operations. Electronic supplementary information

  2. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  3. Memristor-based programmable logic array (PLA) and analysis as Memristive networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan-Hee; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Seok-Man; Cho, Kyoungrok

    2013-05-01

    A Memristor theorized by Chua in 1971 has the potential to dramatically influence the way electronic circuits are designed. It is a two terminal device whose resistance state is based on the history of charge flow brought about as the result of the voltage being applied across its terminals and hence can be thought of as a special case of a reconfigurable resistor. Nanoscale devices using dense and regular fabrics such as Memristor cross-bar is promising new architecture for System-on-Chip (SoC) implementations in terms of not only the integration density that the technology can offer but also both improved performance and reduced power dissipation. Memristor has the capacity to switch between high and low resistance states in a cross-bar circuit configuration. The cross-bars are formed from an array of vertical conductive nano-wires cross a second array of horizontal conductive wires. Memristors are realized at the intersection of the two wires in the array through appropriate processing technology such that any particular wire in the vertical array can be connected to a wire in the horizontal array by switching the resistance of a particular intersection to a low state while other cross-points remain in a high resistance state. However the approach introduces a number of challenges. The lack of voltage gain prevents logic being cascaded and voltage level degradation affects robustness of the operation. Moreover the cross-bars introduce sneak current paths when two or more cross points are connected through the switched Memristor. In this paper, we propose Memristor-based programmable logic array (PLA) architecture and develop an analytical model to analyze the logic level on the memristive networks. The proposed PLA architecture has 12 inputs maximum and can be cascaded for more input variables with R(off)/R(on) ratio in the range from 55 to 160 of Memristors. PMID:23858841

  4. Helical logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Ralph C.; Drexler, K. Eric

    1996-12-01

    Helical logic is a theoretical proposal for a future computing technology using the presence or absence of individual electrons (or holes) to encode 1s and 0s. The electrons are constrained to move along helical paths, driven by a rotating electric field in which the entire circuit is immersed. The electric field remains roughly orthogonal to the major axis of the helix and confines each charge carrier to a fraction of a turn of a single helical loop, moving it like water in an Archimedean screw. Each loop could in principle hold an independent carrier, permitting high information density. One computationally universal logic operation involves two helices, one of which splits into two `descendant' helices. At the point of divergence, differences in the electrostatic potential resulting from the presence or absence of a carrier in the adjacent helix controls the direction taken by a carrier in the splitting helix. The reverse of this sequence can be used to merge two initially distinct helical paths into a single outgoing helical path without forcing a dissipative transition. Because these operations are both logically and thermodynamically reversible, energy dissipation can be reduced to extremely low levels. This is the first proposal known to the authors that combines thermodynamic reversibility with the use of single charge carriers. It is important to note that this proposal permits a single electron to switch another single electron, and does not require that many electrons be used to switch one electron. The energy dissipated per logic operation can very likely be reduced to less than 0957-4484/7/4/004/img5 at a temperature of 1 K and a speed of 10 GHz, though further analysis is required to confirm this. Irreversible operations, when required, can be easily implemented and should have a dissipation approaching the fundamental limit of 0957-4484/7/4/004/img6.

  5. Applications of fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Zargham, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Recently, fuzzy logic has been applied to many areas, such as process control, image understanding, robots, expert systems, and decision support systems. This paper will explain the basic concepts of fuzzy logic and its application in different fields. The steps to design a control system will be explained in detail. Fuzzy control is the first successful industrial application of fuzzy logic. A fuzzy controller is able to control systems which previously could only be controlled by skilled operators. In recent years Japan has achieved significant progress in this area and has applied it to variety of products such as cruise control for cars, video cameras, rice cookers, washing machines, etc.

  6. Fuzzy logic-based assessment for mapping potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds.

    PubMed

    Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Massone, Héctor Enrique; Martínez, Daniel Emilio

    2016-07-01

    This paper gives an account of the design a logic-based approach for identifying potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds based on remote sensing data. This methodological framework is applied in a sector of the Pampa Plain, Argentina, which has high level of agricultural activities and large demands for groundwater supplies. Potential infiltration sites are assessed as a function of two primary topics: hydrologic and soil conditions. This model shows the state of each evaluated subwatershed respecting to its potential contribution to infiltration mainly based on easily measurable and commonly used parameters: drainage density, geomorphologic units, soil media, land-cover, slope and aspect (slope orientation). Mapped outputs from the logic model displayed 42% very low-low, 16% moderate, 41% high-very high contribution to potential infiltration in the whole watershed. Subwatersheds in the upper and lower section were identified as areas with high to very high potential infiltration according to the following media features: low drainage density (<1.5 km/km(2)), arable land and pastures as the main land-cover categories, sandy clay loam to loam - clay loam soils and with the geomorphological units named poorly drained plain, channelized drainage plain and, dunes and beaches. PMID:27042973

  7. Fuzzy-logic based strategy for validation of multiplex methods: example with qualitative GMO assays.

    PubMed

    Bellocchi, Gianni; Bertholet, Vincent; Hamels, Sandrine; Moens, W; Remacle, José; Van den Eede, Guy

    2010-02-01

    This paper illustrates the advantages that a fuzzy-based aggregation method could bring into the validation of a multiplex method for GMO detection (DualChip GMO kit, Eppendorf). Guidelines for validation of chemical, bio-chemical, pharmaceutical and genetic methods have been developed and ad hoc validation statistics are available and routinely used, for in-house and inter-laboratory testing, and decision-making. Fuzzy logic allows summarising the information obtained by independent validation statistics into one synthetic indicator of overall method performance. The microarray technology, introduced for simultaneous identification of multiple GMOs, poses specific validation issues (patterns of performance for a variety of GMOs at different concentrations). A fuzzy-based indicator for overall evaluation is illustrated in this paper, and applied to validation data for different genetically modified elements. Remarks were drawn on the analytical results. The fuzzy-logic based rules were shown to be applicable to improve interpretation of results and facilitate overall evaluation of the multiplex method. PMID:19533405

  8. Implementation of all-optical reversible logic gate based on holographic laser induced grating using azo-dye doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsati, Rana; Valipour Ebrahimi, Sara; Navi, Keivan; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jashnsaz, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Increasing demand for power reduction in computer systems has led to new trends in computations and computer design including reversible computing. Its main aim is to eliminate power dissipation in logical elements but can have some other advantages such as data security and error prevention. Because of interesting properties of reversible computing, implementing computing devices with reversible manner is the only way to make the reversible computing a reality. In recent years, reversible logic has turned out to be a promising computing paradigm having application in CMOS, nanotechnology, quantum computing and optical computing. In this paper, we propose and realize a novel implementation of Toffoli gate in all-optical domain. We have explained its principle of operations and described an actual experimental implementation. The all-optical reversible gate presented in this paper will be useful in different applications such as arithmetic and logical operations in the domain of reversible logic-based computing.

  9. Fuzzy logic controller approach in quality and productivity improvement program (PPKP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruza, Nadiah; Mustafa, Zainol; Rika Fatimah, P. L.; Hussain, Saiful Izzuan

    2013-04-01

    The education sector plays a major role in building the stability and strength of a country and also the main channel in shaping the quality of nation. Each generation have different educational level. Therefore, improvements should be made on an on-going basis to ensure that quality of education is at high level all the time. In general, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the education system for Quality and Productivity Improvement Program (PPKP), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) from the perspective of alumni as well as their satisfaction and importance level on how PPKP be able to meet the needs of their students. This study discusses the application of Fuzzy Logic Control analysis, which is flexible and adjustable. This analysis also identifies the program's quality of education system through alumni point of view. Overall, it was found that 93.4 percent of respondents felt that all four dimensions of students' needs have high level of importance. The rest felt that the importance level of all four dimensions is modest. Next, in term of satisfaction level with PPKP, only one percent was very satisfied with PPKP's role in meeting the needs of students and the rest felt that their needs are met only at moderate level. Results of this study could be used to improve the quality of education system for PPKP.

  10. A water pumping control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless modules for industrial plants--an experimental setup.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Ramazan; Cetinceviz, Yucel

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a water pumping control system that is designed for production plants and implemented in an experimental setup in a laboratory. These plants contain harsh environments in which chemicals, vibrations or moving parts exist that could potentially damage the cabling or wires that are part of the control system. Furthermore, the data has to be transferred over paths that are accessible to the public. The control systems that it uses are a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless local area network (IWLAN) technologies. It is implemented by a PLC, an communication processor (CP), two IWLAN modules, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the water pump and sensors. Our system communication is based on an Industrial Ethernet and uses the standard Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol for parameterisation, configuration and diagnostics. The main function of the PLC is to send a digital signal to the water pump to turn it on or off, based on the tank level, using a pressure transmitter and inputs from limit switches that indicate the level of the water in the tank. This paper aims to provide a convenient solution in process plants where cabling is not possible. It also has lower installation and maintenance cost, provides reliable operation, and robust and flexible construction, suitable for industrial applications. PMID:21126739

  11. Plasmonic-multimode-interference-based logic circuit with simple phase adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Masashi; Sumimura, Asahi; Fukuhara, Masashi; Ishii, Yuya; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    All-optical logic circuits using surface plasmon polaritons have a potential for high-speed information processing with high-density integration beyond the diffraction limit of propagating light. However, a number of logic gates that can be cascaded is limited by complicated signal phase adjustment. In this study, we demonstrate a half-adder operation with simple phase adjustment using plasmonic multimode interference (MMI) devices, composed of dielectric stripes on a metal film, which can be fabricated by a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS)-compatible process. Also, simultaneous operations of XOR and AND gates are substantiated experimentally by combining 1 × 1 MMI based phase adjusters and 2 × 2 MMI based intensity modulators. An experimental on-off ratio of at least 4.3 dB is confirmed using scanning near-field optical microscopy. The proposed structure will contribute to high-density plasmonic circuits, fabricated by complementary MOS-compatible process or printing techniques. PMID:27086694

  12. Plasmonic-multimode-interference-based logic circuit with simple phase adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ota, Masashi; Sumimura, Asahi; Fukuhara, Masashi; Ishii, Yuya; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    All-optical logic circuits using surface plasmon polaritons have a potential for high-speed information processing with high-density integration beyond the diffraction limit of propagating light. However, a number of logic gates that can be cascaded is limited by complicated signal phase adjustment. In this study, we demonstrate a half-adder operation with simple phase adjustment using plasmonic multimode interference (MMI) devices, composed of dielectric stripes on a metal film, which can be fabricated by a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS)-compatible process. Also, simultaneous operations of XOR and AND gates are substantiated experimentally by combining 1 × 1 MMI based phase adjusters and 2 × 2 MMI based intensity modulators. An experimental on-off ratio of at least 4.3 dB is confirmed using scanning near-field optical microscopy. The proposed structure will contribute to high-density plasmonic circuits, fabricated by complementary MOS-compatible process or printing techniques. PMID:27086694

  13. Plasmonic-multimode-interference-based logic circuit with simple phase adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Masashi; Sumimura, Asahi; Fukuhara, Masashi; Ishii, Yuya; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2016-04-01

    All-optical logic circuits using surface plasmon polaritons have a potential for high-speed information processing with high-density integration beyond the diffraction limit of propagating light. However, a number of logic gates that can be cascaded is limited by complicated signal phase adjustment. In this study, we demonstrate a half-adder operation with simple phase adjustment using plasmonic multimode interference (MMI) devices, composed of dielectric stripes on a metal film, which can be fabricated by a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS)-compatible process. Also, simultaneous operations of XOR and AND gates are substantiated experimentally by combining 1 × 1 MMI based phase adjusters and 2 × 2 MMI based intensity modulators. An experimental on-off ratio of at least 4.3 dB is confirmed using scanning near-field optical microscopy. The proposed structure will contribute to high-density plasmonic circuits, fabricated by complementary MOS-compatible process or printing techniques.

  14. Fast, all-optical logic gates and transistor functionalities using a room-temperature atomic controlled Kerr gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. B.; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate all-optical multilogic gate operations and transistor functionalities using a Kerr phase gate method in a room-temperature 85Rb vapor. Two symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers are constructed in the same vapor cell in which a Raman gain medium is established. We show three basic logic gates (and, or, and not) by controlling the output combinations from the two interferometers. With one weakly driven interferometer acting as the phase control light for a strongly driven interferometer, we further demonstrate optical field-effect transistor functionalities. More complex combinations of this Kerr phase gate method and scheme allow all eight basic logic gate operations including the controlled-not gate to be constructed and implemented.

  15. Multi-responsive and logic controlled release of DNA-gated mesoporous silica vehicles functionalized with intercalators for multiple delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengwang; Du, Xuezhong; Cui, Fangbo; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2014-03-12

    Novel DNA-gated mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) vehicles functionalized with disulfide-linked acridinamine intercalators are constructed for multi-responsive controlled release. The DNA-gated MSN vehicles release cargo encapsulated in the MSN pores under different stimuli, including disulfide reducing agents, elevated temperature, and deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), for codelivery of drugs and DNA/genes in different forms. Furthermore, the cascade release of encapsulated and intercalative drugs is controlled by AND logic gates in combination of dual stimuli. The ingeniously designed DNA-gated MSN vehicles integrates multiple responses and AND logic gate operations into a single smart nanodevice not only for codelivery of drugs and DNA/genes but also for cascade release of two drugs and has promising biological applications to meet diverse requirements of controlled release. PMID:24745059

  16. Process Control Logic Modification to Mitigate Transient Following Tripping of a Primary Circulating Pump for a 540 MWe PHWR Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Contractor, Ankur D; Gaikwad, Avinash J.; Kumar, Rajesh; Chakraborty, G.; Vhora, S.F.

    2006-07-01

    The 540 MWe Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) incorporates many new features as compared to the earlier 220 MWe PHWRs. To evaluate the new design features like Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system configuration with two loops, four Primary Circulating Pumps (PCPs) and four passes through core, addition of a Pressurizer (surge Tank) in the PHT system along with Feed/Bleed system and their safety related implications, simulation model have been developed. A reactor step-back is proposed following one PCP trip. The corresponding PCP in the healthy loop is tripped to avoid asymmetrical flow and pressure distribution in the two identical loops. In spite of such elaborate provisions, the margins from high/low PHT pressure are small following tripping of one PCP. Mathematical models for all the major components and sub-systems of the proposed 540 MWe PHWR were developed based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and equation of state. All the associated control systems are also modeled. The PHT system includes the reactor core with nuclear fuel, PCP, PHT system pressure controller with feed/bleed system and Pressurizer (Surge Tank). The secondary system includes mainly the Steam Generators (SGs), the SG level and pressure controllers, apart from the various steam cycle components. All these models are integrated together to form the Plant Transient Analysis Computer Code Dyna540. The scenario following one PCP trips leads to different states (high/low pressure in Reactor Outlet Header (ROH)) depending upon the banks in which the PCP trips. The pressurizer is connected to two ROHs on one side of the reactor. The system pressure is controlled based on average of four ROHs pressure. In the case of asymmetrical pump operation, this logic leads to a situation where individual ROH pressure goes very near the low/high PHT system pressure trip set point, even though the controlled average pressure is very close to the set pressure. The PHT high

  17. A novel fuzzy logic correctional algorithm for traction control systems on uneven low-friction road conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Ran, Xu; Wu, Kaihui; Song, Jian; Han, Zongqi

    2015-06-01

    The traction control system (TCS) might prevent excessive skid of the driving wheels so as to enhance the driving performance and direction stability of the vehicle. But if driven on an uneven low-friction road, the vehicle body often vibrates severely due to the drastic fluctuations of driving wheels, and then the vehicle comfort might be reduced greatly. The vibrations could be hardly removed with traditional drive-slip control logic of the TCS. In this paper, a novel fuzzy logic controller has been brought forward, in which the vibration signals of the driving wheels are adopted as new controlled variables, and then the engine torque and the active brake pressure might be coordinately re-adjusted besides the basic logic of a traditional TCS. In the proposed controller, an adjustable engine torque and pressure compensation loop are adopted to constrain the drastic vehicle vibration. Thus, the wheel driving slips and the vibration degrees might be adjusted synchronously and effectively. The simulation results and the real vehicle tests validated that the proposed algorithm is effective and adaptable for a complicated uneven low-friction road.

  18. Picking Out Logic Operations in a Naphthalene β-Diketone Derivative by Using Molecular Encapsulation, Controlled Protonation, and DNA Binding.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Sameena; Alex, Ritty; Selvakumar, Paulraj Mosae; Enoch, Israel V M V; Subramanian, Palani Sivagnana; Sun, Yu

    2015-08-01

    On-off switching and molecular logic in fluorescent molecules are associated with what chemical inputs can do to the structure and dynamics of these molecules. Herein, we report the structure of a naphthalene derivative, the fashion of its binding to β-cyclodextrin and DNA, and the operation of logic possible using protons, cyclodextrin, and DNA as chemical inputs. The compound crystallizes out in a keto-amine form, with intramolecular N-H⋅⋅⋅O bonding. It shows stepwise formation of 1:1 and 1:2 inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. The aminopentenone substituents are encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, leaving out the naphthalene rings free. The binding constant of the β-cyclodextrin complex is 512 m(-1). The pKa value of the guest molecule is not greatly affected by the complexation. Dual input logic operations, based on various chemical inputs, lead to the possibility of several molecular logic gates, namely NOR, XOR, NAND, and Buffer. Such chemical inputs on the naphthalene derivative are examples of how variable signal outputs based on binding can be derived, which, in turn, are dependent on the size and shape of the molecule. PMID:26478846

  19. Triplex DNA logic gate based upon switching on/off their structure by Ag(+)/cysteine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiyou; Zhu, Houya; Xin, Aiping; Li, Yubin; Ling, Liansheng

    2015-11-01

    The formation of intramolecular triplex DNA can be regulated by Ag(+) and Cys (cysteine), which switch off/on the fluorescence of the oligonucleotides, 5'-TAMRA-TTC TCT TCC TCT TCC TTC TGA CGA CAG TTG ACT CTT CCT TCT CCT TCT CTT-BHQ-2-3' (Oligo 1) and 3'-GAA GGA AGA GGA AGA GAA-5' (Oligo 2). Based on this principle, sensors for Ag(+) and Cys are developed. The sensor for Ag(+) has a linear range of 2.5 nM-40 nM and a detection limit of 1.8 nM, whereas the sensor for Cys has a linear range of 10.0 nM-120.0 nM and a detection limit of 8.2 nM. Furthermore, the fluorescence is reversible with the alternate addition of Ag(+) and Cys. We constructed a DNA logic gate using Ag(+) and Cys as the input, and the fluorescence intensity as the output. The DNA logic gate is simple; moreover, it has a fast response and good reversibility. PMID:26359516

  20. All-optical switching and all-optical logic gates based on bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuhua; Wu, Shin-Tson; Zhao, Youyuan

    2004-06-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical switching using a bacteriorhodopsin (bR) film. The transmission of the bR film is investigated using the pump-probe method. A diode-pumped second harmonic YAG laser (λ = 532nm which is around the maximum initial B state absorption) was used as a pumping beam and a cw He-Ne laser (λ = 632 nm which is around the peaks of K and O states) was used as a probe. Due to the nonlinear intensity induced excited state absorption of the K, L, M, N, and O states in the bR photocycle, the switching characteristics are sensitive to the intensity of the probe and pump beams. Based on this property, we design an all-optical operating device functioning as 11 kinds of variable binary all-optical logic gates. The incident 532nm beam acts as an input to the logic gate and the transmission of the 632nm bears the output of the gate.

  1. Electro-optical logic gates based on graphene-silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiwei; Yang, Longzhi; Wang, Pengjun; Zhang, Yawei; Zhou, Liqiang; Yang, Tianjun; Wang, Yang; Yang, Jianyi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, designs of electro-optical AND/NAND, OR/ NOR, XOR/XNOR logic gates based on cascaded silicon graphene switches and regular 2×1 multimode interference combiners are presented. Each switch consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in which silicon slot waveguides embedded with graphene flakes are designed for phase shifters. High-speed switching function is achieved by applying an electrical signal to tune the Fermi levels of graphene flakes causing the variation of modal effective index. Calculation results show the crosstalk in the proposed optical switch is lower than -22.9 dB within a bandwidth from 1510 nm to 1600 nm. The designed six electro-optical logic gates with the operation speed of 10 Gbit/s have a minimum extinction ratio of 35.6 dB and a maximum insertion loss of 0.21 dB for transverse electric modes at 1.55 μm.

  2. Fuzzy-logic-based approach to study the electrons mobility in nanoscale Double Gate MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendib, T.; Djeffal, F.; Arar, D.; Dibi, Z.; Ferdi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Double Gate silicon (DG) MOSFET with extremely short-channel length has the appropriate features to constitute the devices for nanoscale circuit design. To develop a physical model for extremely scaled DG MOSFETs, the electron mobility distribution throughout the channel must be accurately determined under the application of drain and gate voltages. However, the modeling of the transport behavior for the nanoscale structures requires the use of overkill methods and models in terms of complexity and computation time (self-consistent, quantum computations,..). Therefore, new methods and techniques are required to overcome these constraints. In this work, a new approach based on the fuzzy logic computation is proposed to model the electron mobility behavior for nanoscale DG MOSFETs. The proposed approach can be implemented into devices simulator to study the nanoscale CMOS-based circuits.

  3. Posture recognition based on fuzzy logic for home monitoring of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Brulin, Damien; Benezeth, Yannick; Courtial, Estelle

    2012-09-01

    We propose in this paper a computer vision-based posture recognition method for home monitoring of the elderly. The proposed system performs human detection prior to the posture analysis; posture recognition is performed only on a human silhouette. The human detection approach has been designed to be robust to different environmental stimuli. Thus, posture is analyzed with simple and efficient features that are not designed to manage constraints related to the environment but only designed to describe human silhouettes. The posture recognition method, based on fuzzy logic, identifies four static postures and is robust to variation in the distance between the camera and the person, and to the person's morphology. With an accuracy of 74.29% of satisfactory posture recognition, this approach can detect emergency situations such as a fall within a health smart home. PMID:22997188

  4. An all-metallic logic gate based on current-driven domain wall motion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Xia, Ke; Gu, Changzhi; Tang, Ling; Yang, Haifang; Li, Junjie

    2008-02-01

    The walls of magnetic domains can become trapped in a ferromagnetic metallic point contact when the thickness of the film and the width of the contact are less than their critical values. The discovery that domain walls can be moved from such constrictions by a sufficiently large current has attracted considerable attention from researchers working on both fundamental research and potential applications. Here we show that Invar nanocontacts fabricated on silica substrates exhibit a sharp drop in resistance with increasing bias voltage at room temperature in the absence of an applied magnetic field. Moreover, when two nanocontacts are combined in an all-metallic comparison circuit, it is possible to perform logical NOT operations. The use of electrical currents rather than applied magnetic fields to control the domain walls also reduces energy consumption and the risk of crosstalk in devices. PMID:18654469

  5. Digital Microfluidic Logic Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Tao; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Microfluidic computing is an emerging application for microfluidics technology. We propose microfluidic logic gates based on digital microfluidics. Using the principle of electrowetting-on-dielectric, AND, OR, NOT and XOR gates are implemented through basic droplet-handling operations such as transporting, merging and splitting. The same input-output interpretation enables the cascading of gates to create nontrivial computing systems. We present a potential application for microfluidic logic gates by implementing microfluidic logic operations for on-chip HIV test.

  6. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based molecular logic circuit using a DNA scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a method of information processing using biomolecular input signals and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signaling constructed on a DNA scaffold. Logic operations are achieved by encoding molecular inputs into an arrangement of fluorescence dyes using simple DNA reactions and by evaluating a logic expression using local photonic signaling that is much faster than DNA reactions. Experimental results verify the operation of a complete set of Boolean logic functions (AND, OR, NOT) and combinational logic operations using a FRET-signal cascade.

  7. A manufacturing quality assessment model based-on two stages interval type-2 fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Helmi Shintya Dewi, Intan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an assessment models for manufacturing quality using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (IT2-FL). The proposed model is developed based on one of building block in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM), which is benefit of SCM, and focuses more on quality. The proposed model can be used to predict the quality level of production chain in a company. The quality of production will affect to the quality of product. Practically, quality of production is unique for every type of production system. Hence, experts opinion will play major role in developing the assessment model. The model will become more complicated when the data contains ambiguity and uncertainty. In this study, IT2-FL is used to model the ambiguity and uncertainty. A case study taken from a company in Yogyakarta shows that the proposed manufacturing quality assessment model can work well in determining the quality level of production.

  8. Electro-optic directed XOR logic circuits based on parallel-cascaded micro-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yonghui; Zhao, Yongpeng; Chen, Wenjie; Guo, Anqi; Li, Dezhao; Zhao, Guolin; Liu, Zilong; Xiao, Huifu; Liu, Guipeng; Yang, Jianhong

    2015-10-01

    We report an electro-optic photonic integrated circuit which can perform the exclusive (XOR) logic operation based on two silicon parallel-cascaded microring resonators (MRRs) fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. PIN diodes embedded around MRRs are employed to achieve the carrier injection modulation. Two electrical pulse sequences regarded as two operands of operations are applied to PIN diodes to modulate two MRRs through the free carrier dispersion effect. The final operation result of two operands is output at the Output port in the form of light. The scattering matrix method is employed to establish numerical model of the device, and numerical simulator SG-framework is used to simulate the electrical characteristics of the PIN diodes. XOR operation with the speed of 100Mbps is demonstrated successfully. PMID:26480148

  9. A modular diagnosis system based on fuzzy logic for UASB reactors treating sewage.

    PubMed

    Borges, R M; Mattedi, A; Munaro, C J; Franci Gonçalves, R

    2016-01-01

    A modular diagnosis system (MDS), based on the framework of fuzzy logic, is proposed for upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating sewage. In module 1, turbidity and rainfall information are used to estimate the influent organic content. In module 2, a dynamic fuzzy model is used to estimate the current biogas production from on-line measured variables, such as daily average temperature and the previous biogas flow rate, as well as the organic load. Finally, in module 3, all the information above and the residual value between the measured and estimated biogas production are used to provide diagnostic information about the operation status of the plant. The MDS was validated through its application to two pilot UASB reactors and the results showed that the tool can provide useful diagnoses to avoid plant failures. PMID:27438234

  10. A comparative analysis of the bistability switch for platelet aggregation by logic ODE based dynamical modeling.

    PubMed

    Mischnik, Marcel; Gambaryan, Stepan; Subramanian, Hariharan; Geiger, Jörg; Schütz, Claudia; Timmer, Jens; Dandekar, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    A kinetic description of the fragile equilibrium in thrombozytes regulating blood flow would be an important basis for rational medical interventions. Challenges for such a model include regulation by a complex bistability switch that determines the transition from reversible to irreversible aggregation and sparse data on the kinetics. A so far scarcely applied technique is given by the derivation of ordinary differential equations from Boolean expressions, which are called logic ODEs. We employ a combination of light-scattering based thrombocyte aggregation data, western blot and calcium measurements to compare three different ODE approaches regarding their suitability to achieve a data-consistent model of the switch. Our analysis reveals the standardized qualitative dynamical system approach (SQUAD) to be a better choice than classical mass action formalisms. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamical properties of the platelet aggregation threshold as a basis for medical interventions such as novel platelet aggregation inhibitors. PMID:24852796

  11. Ultrafast all-optical arithmetic logic based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostimirovic, Dusan; Ye, Winnie N.

    2016-03-01

    For decades, the semiconductor industry has been steadily shrinking transistor sizes to fit more performance into a single silicon-based integrated chip. This technology has become the driving force for advances in education, transportation, and health, among others. However, transistor sizes are quickly approaching their physical limits (channel lengths are now only a few silicon atoms in length), and Moore's law will likely soon be brought to a stand-still despite many unique attempts to keep it going (FinFETs, high-k dielectrics, etc.). This technology must then be pushed further by exploring (almost) entirely new methodologies. Given the explosive growth of optical-based long-haul telecommunications, we look to apply the use of high-speed optics as a substitute to the digital model; where slow, lossy, and noisy metal interconnections act as a major bottleneck to performance. We combine the (nonlinear) optical Kerr effect with a single add-drop microring resonator to perform the fundamental AND-XOR logical operations of a half adder, by all-optical means. This process is also applied to subtraction, higher-order addition, and the realization of an all-optical arithmetic logic unit (ALU). The rings use hydrogenated amorphous silicon as a material with superior nonlinear properties to crystalline silicon, while still maintaining CMOS-compatibility and the many benefits that come with it (low cost, ease of fabrication, etc.). Our method allows for multi-gigabit-per-second data rates while maintaining simplicity and spatial minimalism in design for high-capacity manufacturing potential.

  12. Environmental impact assessment procedure: A new approach based on fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Peche, Roberto; Rodriguez, Esther

    2009-09-15

    The information related to the different environmental impacts produced by the execution of activities and projects is often limited, described by semantic variables and, affected by a high degree of inaccuracy and uncertainty, thereby making fuzzy logic a suitable tool with which to express and treat this information. The present study proposes a new approach based on fuzzy logic to carry out the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of these activities and projects. Firstly, a set of impact properties is stated and two nondimensional parameters - ranging from 0 to 100 -are assigned, (p{sub i}) to assess the value of the property and (v{sub i}) to assess its contribution to each environmental impact. Next, the impact properties are described by means of fuzzy numbers p{sub i}{sup -} using generalised confidence intervals. Then, a procedure based on fuzzy arithmetic is developed to define the assessment functions v-bar = f(p-bar) - conventional mathematical functions, which incorporate the knowledge of these impact properties and give the fuzzy values v{sub i}{sup -} corresponding to each p{sub i}{sup -}. Subsequently, the fuzzy value of each environmental impact V-bar is estimated by aggregation of the values v{sub i}{sup -}, in order to obtain the total positive and negative environmental impacts V{sup +-} and V{sup --} and, later - from them - the total environmental impact of the activity or project TV{sup -}. Finally, the defuzzyfication of TV{sup -} leads to a punctual impact estimator TV{sup (1)} - a conventional EI estimation - and its corresponding uncertainty interval estimator left brace(delta{sub l}(TV{sup -}),delta{sub r}(TV{sup -})right brace, which represent the total value of the environmental impact caused by the execution of the considered activity or project.

  13. Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques for Assertion-Based Software Testing Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Software testing is a very labor intensive and costly task. Therefore, many software testing techniques to automate the process of software testing have been reported in the literature. Assertion-Based automated software testing has been shown to be effective in detecting program faults as compared to traditional black-box and white-box software testing methods. However, the applicability of this approach in the presence of large numbers of assertions may be very costly. Therefore, software developers need assistance while making decision to apply Assertion-Based testing in order for them to get the benefits of this approach at an acceptable level of costs. In this paper, we present an Assertion-Based testing metrics technique that is based on fuzzy logic. The main goal of the proposed technique is to enhance the performance of Assertion-Based software testing in the presence of large numbers of assertions. To evaluate the proposed technique, an experimental study was performed in which the proposed technique is applied on programs with assertions. The result of this experiment shows that the effectiveness and performance of Assertion-Based software testing have improved when applying the proposed testing metrics technique. PMID:26060839

  14. Electrically reconfigurable logic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    To compose the complicated systems using algorithmically specialized logic circuits or processors, one solution is to perform relational computations such as union, division and intersection directly on hardware. These relations can be pipelined efficiently on a network of processors having an array configuration. These processors can be designed and implemented with a few simple cells. In order to determine the state-of-the-art in Electrically Reconfigurable Logic Array (ERLA), a survey of the available programmable logic array (PLA) and the logic circuit elements used in such arrays was conducted. Based on this survey some recommendations are made for ERLA devices.

  15. Plain packaging: a logical progression for tobacco control in one of the world's ‘darkest markets’

    PubMed Central

    Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The Australian approach to tobacco control has been a comprehensive one, encompassing mass media campaigns, consumer information, taxation policy, access for smokers to smoking cessation advice and pharmaceutical treatments, protection from exposure to tobacco smoke and regulation of promotion. World-first legislation to standardise the packaging of tobacco was a logical next step to further reduce misleadingly reassuring promotion of a product known for the past 50 years to kill a high proportion of its long-term users. Similarly, refreshed, larger pack warnings which started appearing on packs at the end of 2012 were a logical progression of efforts to ensure that consumers are better informed about the health risks associated with smoking. Regardless of the immediate effects of legislation, further progress will continue to require a comprehensive approach to maintain momentum and ensure that government efforts on one front are not undermined by more vigorous efforts and greater investment by tobacco companies elsewhere.

  16. A sample theory-based logic model to improve program development, implementation, and sustainability of Farm to School programs.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs hold promise to address childhood obesity. These programs may increase students’ access to healthier foods, increase students’ knowledge of and desire to eat these foods, and increase their consumption of them. Implementing Farm to School programs requires the involvement of multiple people, including nutrition services, educators, and food producers. Because these groups have not traditionally worked together and each has different goals, it is important to demonstrate how Farm to School programs that are designed to decrease childhood obesity may also address others’ objectives, such as academic achievement and economic development. A logic model is an effective tool to help articulate a shared vision for how Farm to School programs may work to accomplish multiple goals. Furthermore, there is evidence that programs based on theory are more likely to be effective at changing individuals’ behaviors. Logic models based on theory may help to explain how a program works, aid in efficient and sustained implementation, and support the development of a coherent evaluation plan. This article presents a sample theory-based logic model for Farm to School programs. The presented logic model is informed by the polytheoretical model for food and garden-based education in school settings (PMFGBE). The logic model has been applied to multiple settings, including Farm to School program development and evaluation in urban and rural school districts. This article also includes a brief discussion on the development of the PMFGBE, a detailed explanation of how Farm to School programs may enhance the curricular, physical, and social learning environments of schools, and suggestions for the applicability of the logic model for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers. PMID:22867069

  17. Using fuzzy logic analysis for siting decisions of infiltration trenches for highway runoff control.

    PubMed

    Ki, Seo Jin; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-15

    Determining optimal locations for best management practices (BMPs), including their field considerations and limitations, plays an important role for effective stormwater management. However, these issues have been often overlooked in modeling studies that focused on downstream water quality benefits. This study illustrates the methodology of locating infiltration trenches at suitable locations from spatial overlay analyses which combine multiple layers that address different aspects of field application into a composite map. Using seven thematic layers for each analysis, fuzzy logic was employed to develop a site suitability map for infiltration trenches, whereas the DRASTIC method was used to produce a groundwater vulnerability map on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one of the most popular overlay analyses, was used for comparison to fuzzy logic. The results showed that the AHP and fuzzy logic methods developed significantly different index maps in terms of best locations and suitability scores. Specifically, the AHP method provided a maximum level of site suitability due to its inherent aggregation approach of all input layers in a linear equation. The most eligible areas in locating infiltration trenches were determined from the superposition of the site suitability and groundwater vulnerability maps using the fuzzy AND operator. The resulting map successfully balanced qualification criteria for a low risk of groundwater contamination and the best BMP site selection. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the suitability scores were strongly affected by the algorithms embedded in fuzzy logic; therefore, caution is recommended with their use in overlay analysis. Accordingly, this study demonstrates that the fuzzy logic analysis can not only be used to improve spatial decision quality along with other overlay approaches, but also is combined with general water quality models for initial and refined

  18. Low delay and area efficient soft error correction in arbitration logic

    DOEpatents

    Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-09-10

    There is provided an arbitration logic device for controlling an access to a shared resource. The arbitration logic device comprises at least one storage element, a winner selection logic device, and an error detection logic device. The storage element stores a plurality of requestors' information. The winner selection logic device selects a winner requestor among the requestors based on the requestors' information received from a plurality of requestors. The winner selection logic device selects the winner requestor without checking whether there is the soft error in the winner requestor's information.

  19. Context-Based Exercises in Logic: To Park or Not to Park, 'Tis the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munakata, Mika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, ambiguous street and park signs are analysed and deciphered using symbolic logic. These examples showcase the ways in which instructors of undergraduate mathematics courses can blend their students' everyday exposure to logical reasoning with classroom experiences. (Contains 4 tables and 6 figures.)

  20. An enzyme-free and DNA-based Feynman gate for logically reversible operation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Wang, Kun; Fan, Daoqing; Wu, Changtong; Liu, Dali; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang

    2015-06-28

    A logically reversible Feynman gate was successfully realized under enzyme-free conditions by integrating graphene oxide and DNA for the first time. The gate has a one-to-one mapping function to identify inputs from the corresponding outputs. This type of reversible logic gate may have great potential applications in information processing and biosensing systems. PMID:26028329

  1. Search and selection hotel system in Surabaya based on geographic information system (GIS) with fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purbandini, Taufik

    2016-03-01

    Surabaya is a metropolitan city in Indonesia. When the visitor has an interest in Surabaya for several days, then the visitor was looking for lodging that is closest to the interests of making it more efficient and practical. It was not a waste of time for the businessman because of congestion and so we need full information about the hotel as an inn during a stay in Surabaya began name, address of the hotel, the hotel's website, the distance from the hotel to the destination until the display of the map along the route with the help of Google Maps. This system was designed using fuzzy logic which aims to assist the user in making decisions. Design of hotel search and selection system was done through four stages. The first phase was the collection of data and as the factors that influence the decision-making along with the limit values of these factors. Factors that influence covers a distance of the hotel, the price of hotel rooms, and hotel reviews. The second stage was the processing of data and information by creating membership functions. The third stage was the analysis of systems with fuzzy logic. The steps were performed in systems analysis, namely fuzzification, inference using Mamdani, and defuzzification. The last stage was the design and construction of the system. Designing the system using use case diagrams and activity diagram to describe any process that occurs. Development system includes system implementation and evaluation systems. Implementation of mobile with Android-based system so that these applications were user friendly.

  2. Fixed weight Hopfield Neural Network based on optical implementation of all-optical MZI-XNOR logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugamesh Mutter, Kussay; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Abdul Aziz, Azlan

    2010-05-01

    Many researches are conducted to improve Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) performance especially for speed and memory capacity in different approaches. However, there is still a significant scope of developing HNN using Optical Logic Gates. We propose here a new model of HNN based on all-optical XNOR logic gates for real time color image recognition. Firstly, we improved HNN toward optimum learning and converging operations. We considered each unipolar image as a set of small blocks of 3-pixels as vectors for HNN. This enables to save large number of images in the net with best reaching into global minima, and because there are only eight fixed states of weights so that only single iteration performed to construct a vector with stable state at minimum energy. HNN is useless in dealing with data not in bipolar representation. Therefore, HNN failed to work with color images. In RGB bands each represents different values of brightness, for d-bit RGB image it is simply consists of d-layers of unipolar. Each layer is as a single unipolar image for HNN. In addition, the weight matrices with stability of unity at the diagonal perform clear converging in comparison with no self-connecting architecture. Synchronously, each matrix-matrix multiplication operation would run optically in the second part, since we propose an array of all-optical XOR gates, which uses Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) for neurons setup and a controlling system to distribute timely signals with inverting to achieve XNOR function. The primary operation and simulation of the proposal HNN is demonstrated.

  3. Introducing Exclusion Logic as a Deontic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Richard

    This paper introduces Exclusion Logic - a simple modal logic without negation or disjunction. We show that this logic has an efficient decision procedure. We describe how Exclusion Logic can be used as a deontic logic. We compare this deontic logic with Standard Deontic Logic and with more syntactically restricted logics.

  4. Small RNA-based feedforward loop with AND-gate logic regulates extrachromosomal DNA transfer in Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Papenfort, Kai; Espinosa, Elena; Casadesús, Josep; Vogel, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer via plasmid conjugation is a major driving force in microbial evolution but constitutes a complex process that requires synchronization with the physiological state of the host bacteria. Although several host transcription factors are known to regulate plasmid-borne transfer genes, RNA-based regulatory circuits for host–plasmid communication remain unknown. We describe a posttranscriptional mechanism whereby the Hfq-dependent small RNA, RprA, inhibits transfer of pSLT, the virulence plasmid of Salmonella enterica. RprA employs two separate seed-pairing domains to activate the mRNAs of both the sigma-factor σS and the RicI protein, a previously uncharacterized membrane protein here shown to inhibit conjugation. Transcription of ricI requires σS and, together, RprA and σS orchestrate a coherent feedforward loop with AND-gate logic to tightly control the activation of RicI synthesis. RicI interacts with the conjugation apparatus protein TraV and limits plasmid transfer under membrane-damaging conditions. To our knowledge, this study reports the first small RNA-controlled feedforward loop relying on posttranscriptional activation of two independent targets and an unexpected role of the conserved RprA small RNA in controlling extrachromosomal DNA transfer. PMID:26307765

  5. Design of optical reversible logic gates using electro-optic effect of lithium niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Chanderkanta; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-07-20

    In recent years reversible logic has come as a promising solution in the optical computing domain. In reversible gates, there is one-to-one mapping between input and output, causing no loss of information. Reversible gates are useful for application in low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductors, with less dissipation, and in quantum computing. These benefits can be utilized by implementing reversible gate structures in the optical domain. In this paper, basic reversible Feynman and Fredkin logic gates using a lithium niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometer are proposed. The different applications utilizing the proposed structures are also explained in this study. PMID:27463925

  6. Robust nonlinear PID-like fuzzy logic control of a planar parallel (2PRP-PPR) manipulator.

    PubMed

    Londhe, P S; Singh, Yogesh; Santhakumar, M; Patre, B M; Waghmare, L M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a robust nonlinear proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-like fuzzy control scheme is presented and applied to complex trajectory tracking control of a 2PRP-PPR (P-prismatic, R-revolute) planar parallel manipulator (motion platform) with three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The proposed control law consists of mainly two parts: first part uses a feed forward term to enhance the control activity and estimated perturbed term to compensate for the unknown effects namely external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics, and the second part uses a PID-like fuzzy logic control as a feedback portion to enhance the overall closed-loop stability of the system. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:27012441

  7. A Fuzzy-Logic Subsumption Controller for Home Energy Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ainstworth, Nathan; Johnson, Brian; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-10-05

    Presentation for NAPS 2015 associated with conference publication CP-64392. Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) are controllers that manage and coordinate the generation, storage, and loads in a home. These controllers are increasingly necessary to ensure that increasing penetrations of distributed energy resources are used effectively and do not disrupt the operation of the grid. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to HEMS design based on behavioral control methods, which do not require accurate models or predictions and are very responsive to changing conditions.

  8. Fuzzy Logic Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna

    2005-01-01

    The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.

  9. Resist process control for 32-nm logic node and beyond with NA > 1.30 immersion exposure tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Seiji; Takahata, Kazuhiro; Nakagawa, Seiji; Murakami, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Shinpei; Ueki, Makoto; Satake, Masaki; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Fujise, Hiroharu; Yonemitsu, Hiroki; Seino, Yuriko; Nakagawa, Shinichiro; Asano, Masafumi; Kitamura, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Takayuki; Mimotogi, Shoji; Tominaga, Makoto

    2009-03-01

    Resist process challenges for 32-nm node and beyond are discussed in this paper. For line and space (L/S) logic patterns, we examine ways to balance the requirements of resolution-enhancement techniques (RETs). In 32-nm node logic patterning, two-dimensional (2D) layout pattern deformation becomes more severe with stronger RET (e.g., narrow angle CQUAD illumination). Also pattern collapse more frequently happens in 2D-pattern layouts when stronger RET is used. In contrast, milder RET (annular illumination) does not induce the severe pattern collapse in 2D-pattern layout. For 2D-pattern layouts, stronger RET seems to worsen image contrast and results in high background-light in the resist pattern, which induces more pattern collapse. For the minimum-pitch L/S pattern in 32-nm node logic, annular illumination is acceptable for patterning with NA1.35 scanner when high contrast resist is used. For contact/via patterns, it is necessary to expand the overlapping CD process window. Better process margin is realized through the combination of hole-shrink technique and precise acid-diffusion control in an ArF chemically amplified resist.

  10. Digital biosensors with built-in logic for biomedical applications--biosensors based on a biocomputing concept.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joseph; Katz, Evgeny

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews biomolecular logic systems for bioanalytical applications, specifically concentrating on the prospects and fundamental and practical challenges of designing digitally operating biosensors logically processing multiple biochemical signals. Such digitally processed information produces a final output in the form of a yes/no response through Boolean logic networks composed of biomolecular systems, and hence leads to a high-fidelity biosensing compared with traditional single (or parallel) sensing devices. It also allows direct coupling of the signal processing with chemical actuators to produce integrated "smart" "sense/act" (biosensor-bioactuator) systems. Unlike common biosensing devices based on a single input (analyte), devices based on biochemical logic systems require a fundamentally new approach for the sensor design and operation and careful attention to the interface of biocomputing systems and electronic transducers. As common in conventional biosensors, the success of the enzyme logic biosensor would depend, in part, on the immobilization of the biocomputing reagent layer. Such surface confinement provides a contact between the biocomputing layer and the transducing surface and combines efficiently the individual logic-gate elements. Particular attention should thus be given to the composition, preparation, and immobilization of the biocomputing surface layer, to the role of the system scalability, and to the efficient transduction of the output signals. By processing complex patterns of multiple physiological markers, such multisignal digital biosensors should have a profound impact upon the rapid diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and particularly upon the timely detection and alert of medical emergencies (along with immediate therapeutic intervention). Other fields ranging from biotechnology to homeland security would benefit from these advances in new biocomputing biosensors and the corresponding closed-loop "add/act" operation

  11. Performance analysis of an all-optical logic gate based on a single I/Q modulator with direct detection.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yaxue; Tang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Zhang, Wenbo

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the performance of an all-optical logic gate scheme based on a single in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) modulator with direct detection. The proposed scheme of an all-optical logic gate is simple, high speed, and easily reconfigured to realize 24 logic states by adjusting bias voltages, peak-to-peak voltages of the driven RF signals, and the phase shift. As the scheme to realize logic gates is based on the irregular use of a commercially available I/Q modulator and laser source, a specialized logic gate system including a laser, I/Q modulator, and driven RF module should be optimally designed to obtain the best performance. With the system's extinction ratio (ER) and Q-factor as metrics, the performance of the proposed logic gate scheme is analyzed theoretically and numerically in this paper. We first give a new theoretical model of the I/Q modulator. Next, taking the OR gate as an example, the simulations are carried out to analyze performance under the influence of some key factors in the system. Results show that the extinction ratio of the whole system is affected by the phase shift between the two arms of the I/Q modulator and the extinction ratios of two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs), while Q-factor is further influenced by the output power of the laser and the insertion loss of the MZMs in the I/Q modulator. For an I/Q modulator with MZMs having an extinction ratio of 20 dB, the minimum laser output power to obtain a system's ER higher than 16 dB is 3 dBm, while in order to obtain a Q-factor higher than 6, the output power of the laser must not be <10  dBm. PMID:27607252

  12. Dynamic Fuzzy Logic-Based Quality of Interaction within Blended-Learning: The Rare and Contemporary Dance Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Sofia B.; Diniz, José A.; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of the process of pedagogical planning within the Blended (b-) learning environment with the users' quality of interaction ("QoI") with the Learning Management System (LMS) is explored here. The required "QoI" (both for professors and students) is estimated by adopting a fuzzy logic-based modeling approach,…

  13. Proposal of ultra-compact NAND/NOR/XNOR all-optical logic gates based on a nonlinear 3x1 multimode interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajaldini, Mehdi; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2014-05-01

    We present a highly miniaturized multimode interference (MMI) coupler based on nonlinear modal propagation analysis (NMPA) method as a novel design method and potential application for optical NAND, NOR and XNOR logic gates for Boolean logic signal processing devices. Crystalline polydiacetylene is used to allow the appearances of nonlinear effects in low input intensities and ultra- short length to control the MMI coupler as an active device to access light switching due to its high nonlinear susceptibility. We consider a 10x33 μm2 MMI structure with three inputs and one output. Notably, the access facets are single-mode waveguides with sub-micron width. The center input contributes to control the induced light propagation in MMI by intensity variation whereas others could be launched by particular intensity when they are ON and 0 in OFF. Output intensity is analyzed in various sets of inputs to show the capability of Boolean logic gates, the contrast between ON and OFF is calculated on mentioned gates to present the efficiency. Good operation in low intensity and highly miniaturized MMI coupler is observed. Furthermore, nonlinear effects could be realized through the modal interferences. The issue of high insertion loss is addressed with a 3×3 upgraded coupler. Furthermore, the main significant aspect of this paper is simulating an MMI coupler that is launched by three nonlinear inputs, simultaneously, whereas last presents have never studied more than one input in nonlinear regimes.

  14. Spintronic logic design methodology based on spin Hall effect-driven magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wang; Wang, Zhaohao; Zhang, Youguang; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Lv, Weifeng; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-02-01

    Conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology is now approaching its physical scaling limits to enable Moore’s law to continue. Spintronic devices, as one of the potential alternatives, show great promise to replace CMOS technology for next-generation low-power integrated circuits in nanoscale technology nodes. Until now, spintronic memory has been successfully commercialized. However spintronic logic still faces many critical challenges (e.g. direct cascading capability and small operation gain) before it can be practically applied. In this paper, we propose a standard complimentary spintronic logic (CSL) design methodology to form a CMOS-like logic design paradigm. Using the spin Hall effect (SHE)-driven magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) device as an example, we demonstrate CSL implementation, functionality and performance. This logic family provides a unified design methodology for spintronic logic circuits and partly solves the challenges of direct cascading capability and small operation gain in the previously proposed spintronic logic designs. By solving a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, the magnetization dynamics in the free layer of the MTJ is theoretically described and a compact electrical model is developed. With this electrical model, numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the functionality and performance of the proposed CSL design. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CSL design paradigm is rather promising for low-power logic computing.

  15. A new logic-based alarm analyzer for on-line operational environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, H.; Liu, C.C.; Sforna, M.

    1996-08-01

    Existing fault diagnostic techniques for power systems are based on the operation of breakers using on-line alarm messages available from the Energy Management Systems (EMSs). Some utility systems also acquire, on-line, the information on relay operations in order to increase the precision of fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new on-line fault diagnosis system called Intelligent Alarm Analyzer (IAA). This paper identifies the information from sequence-of-events recorders (SERs) at the substations that can be used in the EMS environment. The breaker operations together with the selected SER information provide sufficient data to help pinpoint the fault location(s) and malfunctioning device(s) on-line. The proposed IAA is capable of handling transmission line, busbar and transformer faults as well as relay and breaker malfunctions. The other unique feature of IAA is its logic-based algorithms implemented in an object-oriented software structure. Based on the testing with the actual data from ENEL, the Italian power system, the proposed implementation is highly efficient and promising for the on-line environment.

  16. Development of a Logic Model for a Physical Activity–Based Employee Wellness Program for Mass Transit Workers

    PubMed Central

    Petruzzello, Steven J.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation workers, who constitute a large sector of the workforce, have worksite factors that harm their health. Worksite wellness programs must target this at-risk population. Although physical activity is often a component of worksite wellness logic models, we consider it the cornerstone for improving the health of mass transit employees. Program theory was based on in-person interviews and focus groups of employees. We identified 4 short-term outcome categories, which provided a chain of responses based on the program activities that should lead to the desired end results. This logic model may have significant public health impact, because it can serve as a framework for other US mass transit districts and worksite populations that face similar barriers to wellness, including truck drivers, railroad employees, and pilots. The objective of this article is to discuss the development of a logic model for a physical activity–based mass-transit employee wellness program by describing the target population, program theory, the components of the logic model, and the process of its development. PMID:25032838

  17. A fuzzy logic based-method for prognostic decision making in breast and prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Seker, Huseyin; Odetayo, Michael O; Petrovic, Dobrila; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2003-06-01

    Accurate and reliable decision making in oncological prognosis can help in the planning of suitable surgery and therapy, and generally, improve patient management through the different stages of the disease. In recent years, several prognostic markers have been used as indicators of disease progression in oncology. However, the rapid increase in the discovery of novel prognostic markers resulting from the development in medical technology, has dictated the need for developing reliable methods for extracting clinically significant markers where complex and nonlinear interactions between these markers naturally exist. The aim of this paper is to investigate the fuzzy k-nearest neighbor (FK-NN) classifier as a fuzzy logic method that provides a certainty degree for prognostic decision and assessment of the markers, and to compare it with: 1) logistic regression as a statistical method and 2) multilayer feedforward backpropagation neural networks an artificial neural-network tool, the latter two techniques having been widely used for oncological prognosis. In order to achieve this aim, breast and prostate cancer data sets are considered as benchmarks for this analysis. The overall results obtained indicate that the FK-NN-based method yields the highest predictive accuracy, and that it has produced a more reliable prognostic marker model than the statistical and artificial neural-network-based methods. PMID:12834167

  18. A Cu2+-selective fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY with two pyridine ligands and logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liuqian; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoxiu; Ma, Yifan; Huang, Tianjiao; Shen, Xi; Qiu, Huayu; He, Xingxing; Yin, Shouchun

    2015-06-01

    A novel near-infrared fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY (Py-1) has been synthesized and characterized. Py-1 displays high selectivity and sensitivity for sensing Cu2+ over other metal ions in acetonitrile. Upon addition of Cu2+ ions, the maximum absorption band of Py-1 in CH3CN displays a red shift from 603 to 608 nm, which results in a visual color change from pink to blue. When Py-1 is excited at 600 nm in the presence of Cu2+, the fluorescent emission intensity of Py-1 at 617 nm is quenched over 86%. Notably, the complex of Py-1-Cu2+ can be restored with the introduction of EDTA or S2-. Consequently, an IMPLICATION logic gate at molecular level operating in fluorescence mode with Cu2+ and S2- as chemical inputs can be constructed. Finally, based on the reversible and reproducible system, a nanoscale sequential memory unit displaying "Writing-Reading-Erasing-Reading" functions can be integrated.

  19. 2D photonic crystal logic gates based on self-collimated effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ranran; Yang, Xiulun; Meng, Xiangfeng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-08-01

    Four kinds of logic gates are proposed using interference between the self-collimated beams in photonic crystals, namely NOT, OR, AND and XOR gates, which can be used in the design of photonic integrated circuits. The radius of the splitter and the optical path difference between splitters are adjusted to produce certain phase difference between the reflected and transmitted beams, which may interfere constructively or destructively to realize logical operation. They have high contrast ratios and low power consumption, the extinction ratio between logic 1 and logic 0 for NOT and AND gates can reach 24.7 dB, 30 dB and 12.6 dB for the wavelength used by optical communication (1550 nm), respectively, which makes it potentially applicable for photonic integrated circuits.

  20. An Improved Genetic Fuzzy Logic Control Method to Reduce the Enlargement of Coal Floor Deformation in Shearer Memory Cutting Process

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chao; Xu, Rongxin; Wang, Zhongbin; Si, Lei; Liu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the enlargement of coal floor deformation and the manual adjustment frequency of rocker arms, an improved approach through integration of improved genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic control (GFLC) method is proposed. The enlargement of coal floor deformation is analyzed and a model is built. Then, the framework of proposed approach is built. Moreover, the constituents of GA such as tangent function roulette wheel selection (Tan-RWS) selection, uniform crossover, and nonuniform mutation are employed to enhance the performance of GFLC. Finally, two simulation examples and an industrial application example are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient. PMID:27217824

  1. An Improved Genetic Fuzzy Logic Control Method to Reduce the Enlargement of Coal Floor Deformation in Shearer Memory Cutting Process.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chao; Xu, Rongxin; Wang, Zhongbin; Si, Lei; Liu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the enlargement of coal floor deformation and the manual adjustment frequency of rocker arms, an improved approach through integration of improved genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic control (GFLC) method is proposed. The enlargement of coal floor deformation is analyzed and a model is built. Then, the framework of proposed approach is built. Moreover, the constituents of GA such as tangent function roulette wheel selection (Tan-RWS) selection, uniform crossover, and nonuniform mutation are employed to enhance the performance of GFLC. Finally, two simulation examples and an industrial application example are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient. PMID:27217824

  2. Graphene-based aptamer logic gates and their application to multiplex detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhu, Jinbo; Han, Lei; Jin, Lihua; Zhu, Chengzhou; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-08-28

    In this work, a GO/aptamer system was constructed to create multiplex logic operations and enable sensing of multiplex targets. 6-Carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled adenosine triphosphate binding aptamer (ABA) and FAM-labeled thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) were first adsorbed onto graphene oxide (GO) to form a GO/aptamer complex, leading to the quenching of the fluorescence of FAM. We demonstrated that the unique GO/aptamer interaction and the specific aptamer-target recognition in the target/GO/aptamer system were programmable and could be utilized to regulate the fluorescence of FAM via OR and INHIBIT logic gates. The fluorescence changed according to different input combinations, and the integration of OR and INHIBIT logic gates provided an interesting approach for logic sensing applications where multiple target molecules were present. High-throughput fluorescence imagings that enabled the simultaneous processing of many samples by using the combinatorial logic gates were realized. The developed logic gates may find applications in further development of DNA circuits and advanced sensors for the identification of multiple targets in complex chemical environments. PMID:22823159

  3. Deterministic Control of Magnetization Dynamics in Reconfigurable Nanomagnetic Networks for Logic Applications.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Arabinda; Adeyeye, Adekunle Olusola

    2016-01-26

    Information processing based on nanomagnetic networks is an emerging area of spintronics, as the energy consumption and integration density of the current semiconductor technology are reaching their fundamental limits. Nanomagnet-based devices rely on manipulating the magnetic ground states for device operations. While the static behavior of nanomagnets has been explored, little information is available on their dynamic behavior. Here, we demonstrate an additional functionality based on their collective dynamic response and explore the concept utilizing networks of bistable rhomboid nanomagnets. The control of the magnetic ground states of the networks was achieved by the geometrical design of the nanomagnets instead of the conventional interelement dipolar coupling. Dynamic responses of both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ground states were monitored using broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, the Brillouin light scattering technique, and direct magnetic force microscopy. Micromagnetic simulations and numerical calculations validate our experimental observations. This method would have potential implications for low-power magnonic devices based on reconfigurable microwave properties. PMID:26738567

  4. Multi-objective design of fuzzy logic controller in supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    Unlike commonly used methods, in this paper, we have introduced a new approach for designing fuzzy controllers. In this approach, we have simultaneously optimized both objective functions of a supply chain over a two-dimensional space. Then, we have obtained a spectrum of optimized points, each of which represents a set of optimal parameters which can be chosen by the manager according to the importance of objective functions. Our used supply chain model is a member of inventory and order-based production control system family, a generalization of the periodic review which is termed `Order-Up-To policy.' An auto rule maker, based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, has been applied to the experimental initial fuzzy rules. According to performance measurement, our results indicate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  5. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    PubMed Central

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295

  6. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device.

    PubMed

    Hafiz, M A A; Kosuru, L; Younis, M I

    2016-01-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295

  7. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  8. Fault tolerant control based on interval type-2 fuzzy sliding mode controller for coaxial trirotor aircraft.

    PubMed

    Zeghlache, Samir; Kara, Kamel; Saigaa, Djamel

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a robust controller for a Six Degrees of Freedom (6 DOF) coaxial trirotor helicopter control is proposed in presence of defects in the system. A control strategy based on the coupling of the interval type-2 fuzzy logic control and sliding mode control technique are used to design a controller. The main purpose of this work is to eliminate the chattering phenomenon and guaranteeing the stability and the robustness of the system. In order to achieve this goal, interval type-2 fuzzy logic control has been used to generate the discontinuous control signal. The simulation results have shown that the proposed control strategy can greatly alleviate the chattering effect, and perform good reference tracking in presence of defects in the system. PMID:26428878

  9. A novel fuzzy logic-based image steganography method to ensure medical data security.

    PubMed

    Karakış, R; Güler, I; Çapraz, I; Bilir, E

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to secure medical data by combining them into one file format using steganographic methods. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is selected as hidden data, and magnetic resonance (MR) images are also used as the cover image. In addition to the EEG, the message is composed of the doctor׳s comments and patient information in the file header of images. Two new image steganography methods that are based on fuzzy-logic and similarity are proposed to select the non-sequential least significant bits (LSB) of image pixels. The similarity values of the gray levels in the pixels are used to hide the message. The message is secured to prevent attacks by using lossless compression and symmetric encryption algorithms. The performance of stego image quality is measured by mean square of error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity measure (SSIM), universal quality index (UQI), and correlation coefficient (R). According to the obtained result, the proposed method ensures the confidentiality of the patient information, and increases data repository and transmission capacity of both MR images and EEG signals. PMID:26555746

  10. Fuzzy Logic Based Edge Detection in Smooth and Noisy Clinical Images

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Izhar

    2015-01-01

    Edge detection has beneficial applications in the fields such as machine vision, pattern recognition and biomedical imaging etc. Edge detection highlights high frequency components in the image. Edge detection is a challenging task. It becomes more arduous when it comes to noisy images. This study focuses on fuzzy logic based edge detection in smooth and noisy clinical images. The proposed method (in noisy images) employs a 3×3 mask guided by fuzzy rule set. Moreover, in case of smooth clinical images, an extra mask of contrast adjustment is integrated with edge detection mask to intensify the smooth images. The developed method was tested on noise-free, smooth and noisy images. The results were compared with other established edge detection techniques like Sobel, Prewitt, Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), Roberts and Canny. When the developed edge detection technique was applied to a smooth clinical image of size 270×290 pixels having 24 dB ‘salt and pepper’ noise, it detected very few (22) false edge pixels, compared to Sobel (1931), Prewitt (2741), LOG (3102), Roberts (1451) and Canny (1045) false edge pixels. Therefore it is evident that the developed method offers improved solution to the edge detection problem in smooth and noisy clinical images. PMID:26407133

  11. Teaching Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    To make introducing logic to college students in speech and expository writing classes more interesting, letters to the editor can be used to teach logical fallacies. Letters to the editor are particularly useful because they give students a sense of the community they live in (issues, concerns, and the spectrum of opinion), they are easily…

  12. Walking motion generation, synthesis, and control for biped robot by using PGRL, LPI, and fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Li, Tzuu-Hseng S; Su, Yu-Te; Lai, Shao-Wei; Hu, Jhen-Jia

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes the implementation of fuzzy motion control based on reinforcement learning (RL) and Lagrange polynomial interpolation (LPI) for gait synthesis of biped robots. First, the procedure of a walking gait is redefined into three states, and the parameters of this designed walking gait are determined. Then, the machine learning approach applied to adjusting the walking parameters is policy gradient RL (PGRL), which can execute real-time performance and directly modify the policy without calculating the dynamic function. Given a parameterized walking motion designed for biped robots, the PGRL algorithm automatically searches the set of possible parameters and finds the fastest possible walking motion. The reward function mainly considered is first the walking speed, which can be estimated from the vision system. However, the experiment illustrates that there are some stability problems in this kind of learning process. To solve these problems, the desired zero moment point trajectory is added to the reward function. The results show that the robot not only has more stable walking but also increases its walking speed after learning. This is more effective and attractive than manual trial-and-error tuning. LPI, moreover, is employed to transform the existing motions to the motion which has a revised angle determined by the fuzzy motion controller. Then, the biped robot can continuously walk in any desired direction through this fuzzy motion control. Finally, the fuzzy-based gait synthesis control is demonstrated by tasks and point- and line-target tracking. The experiments show the feasibility and effectiveness of gait learning with PGRL and the practicability of the proposed fuzzy motion control scheme. PMID:21095871

  13. Logic-Based and Cellular Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Bortezomib Responses in U266 Human Myeloma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Vaishali L; Ovacik, Meric A; Abernethy, Darrell R; Mager, Donald E

    2015-09-01

    Systems models of biological networks show promise for informing drug target selection/qualification, identifying lead compounds and factors regulating disease progression, rationalizing combinatorial regimens, and explaining sources of intersubject variability and adverse drug reactions. However, most models of biological systems are qualitative and are not easily coupled with dynamical models of drug exposure-response relationships. In this proof-of-concept study, logic-based modeling of signal transduction pathways in U266 multiple myeloma (MM) cells is used to guide the development of a simple dynamical model linking bortezomib exposure to cellular outcomes. Bortezomib is a commonly used first-line agent in MM treatment; however, knowledge of the signal transduction pathways regulating bortezomib-mediated cell cytotoxicity is incomplete. A Boolean network model of 66 nodes was constructed that includes major survival and apoptotic pathways and was updated using responses to several chemical probes. Simulated responses to bortezomib were in good agreement with experimental data, and a reduction algorithm was used to identify key signaling proteins. Bortezomib-mediated apoptosis was not associated with suppression of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) protein inhibition in this cell line, which contradicts a major hypothesis of bortezomib pharmacodynamics. A pharmacodynamic model was developed that included three critical proteins (phospho-NFκB, BclxL, and cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase). Model-fitted protein dynamics and cell proliferation profiles agreed with experimental data, and the model-predicted IC50 (3.5 nM) is comparable to the experimental value (1.5 nM). The cell-based pharmacodynamic model successfully links bortezomib exposure to MM cellular proliferation via protein dynamics, and this model may show utility in exploring bortezomib-based combination regimens. PMID:26163548

  14. Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.

  15. Improved sensitivity in the diagnosis of gastro-intestinal tumors by fuzzy logic-based tumor marker profiles including the tumor M2-PK.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joachim; Bitterlich, Norman; Schulze, Guntram

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve diagnostic efficiency in the detection of gastro-intestinal cancers by using fuzzy logic modeling in combination with a tumor marker panel (CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9) including Tumor M2-PK. In this prospective study histologically confirmed colorectal (n=247), esophageal (n=86) and gastric cancer (n=122) patients were investigated and compared to control (n=53) persons without any malignant diseases. Tumor M2-PK was measured in plasma with an ELISA (ScheBoBiotech, Germany); all other markers were measured in sera (Roche, Germany). At 95% specificity, tumor detection was possible by the best single marker in colorectal cancer patients in 48% (Tumor M2-PK), in gastric cancers in 61% (CA72-4) and in esophageal cancers in 56% (Tumor M2-PK). A fuzzy logic rule-based system employing a tumor marker panel increased sensitivity significantly in colorectal cancers (p<0. 001) to 63% (Tumor M2-PK and CEA), in gastric cancers (p<0.001) to 81% (Tumor M2-PK and CA 72-4) and in esophageal cancers (p<0.02) to 74% (Tumor M2-PK and CA72-4). Adding a third marker further improved the sensitivity only marginally. Fuzzy logic analysis has proven to be more powerful than measurement of single markers alone or combinations using multiple logistic regression analysis of the markers. Therefore, with the fuzzy logic method and a tumor marker panel (including Tumor M2-PK), a new diagnostic tool for the detection of gastro-intestinal cancers is available. PMID:16033052

  16. Real-Time Algebraic Derivative Estimations Using a Novel Low-Cost Architecture Based on Reconfigurable Logic

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Rafael; Rincón, Fernando; Gazzano, Julio Dondo; López, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Time derivative estimation of signals plays a very important role in several fields, such as signal processing and control engineering, just to name a few of them. For that purpose, a non-asymptotic algebraic procedure for the approximate estimation of the system states is used in this work. The method is based on results from differential algebra and furnishes some general formulae for the time derivatives of a measurable signal in which two algebraic derivative estimators run simultaneously, but in an overlapping fashion. The algebraic derivative algorithm presented in this paper is computed online and in real-time, offering high robustness properties with regard to corrupting noises, versatility and ease of implementation. Besides, in this work, we introduce a novel architecture to accelerate this algebraic derivative estimator using reconfigurable logic. The core of the algorithm is implemented in an FPGA, improving the speed of the system and achieving real-time performance. Finally, this work proposes a low-cost platform for the integration of hardware in the loop in MATLAB. PMID:24859033

  17. Real-time algebraic derivative estimations using a novel low-cost architecture based on reconfigurable logic.

    PubMed

    Morales, Rafael; Rincón, Fernando; Gazzano, Julio Dondo; López, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Time derivative estimation of signals plays a very important role in several fields, such as signal processing and control engineering, just to name a few of them. For that purpose, a non-asymptotic algebraic procedure for the approximate estimation of the system states is used in this work. The method is based on results from differential algebra and furnishes some general formulae for the time derivatives of a measurable signal in which two algebraic derivative estimators run simultaneously, but in an overlapping fashion. The algebraic derivative algorithm presented in this paper is computed online and in real-time, offering high robustness properties with regard to corrupting noises, versatility and ease of implementation. Besides, in this work, we introduce a novel architecture to accelerate this algebraic derivative estimator using reconfigurable logic. The core of the algorithm is implemented in an FPGA, improving the speed of the system and achieving real-time performance. Finally, this work proposes a low-cost platform for the integration of hardware in the loop in MATLAB. PMID:24859033

  18. Protected coding in optical line based on multiple-valued logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, A. L.; Bykovsky, A. Y.; Vasiliev, N. A.; Egorov, A. A.

    2008-03-01

    Multiple-valued logic (MVL) formalism is shown to be an effective mean to work with secret keys and to check data modification in an optical data transfer channel. Such wireless data lines are needed for multiagent robotic systems including a group of mobile robots. In order to generate secret keys by means of open optical line one can choose beforehand an arbitrary MVL function, calculate its minimized logic term and afterwards calculate a huge number of different fragments of MVL function to realize secret MVL keys. The proposed method enlarges and complements the earlier proposed effective method of MVL secret coding tables for systems with high (more than 50) number of logic levels. Some problems of correct MVL function generation are discussed. MVL check functions method is also proposed to indicate data modification in messages. MVL non-quantum coding methods can be integrated with low-throughput quantum optics data channels for additional crypto protection.

  19. Multi-Valued Logic Gates based on Ballistic Transport in Quantum Point Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Seo, M.; Hong, C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Choi, H. K.; Kim, N.; Chung, Y.; Umansky, V.; Mahalu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-valued logic gates, which can handle quaternary numbers as inputs, are developed by exploiting the ballistic transport properties of quantum point contacts in series. The principle of a logic gate that finds the minimum of two quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. The device is scalable to allow multiple inputs, which makes it possible to find the minimum of multiple inputs in a single gate operation. Also, the principle of a half-adder for quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. First, an adder that adds up two quaternary numbers and outputs the sum of inputs is demonstrated. Second, a device to express the sum of the adder into two quaternary digits [Carry (first digit) and Sum (second digit)] is demonstrated. All the logic gates presented in this paper can in principle be extended to allow decimal number inputs with high quality QPCs. PMID:24448272

  20. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, T.R.; Vidal, J.J.

    1988-02-01

    This paper presents a novel class of special purpose processors referred to as ASOCS (adaptive self-organizing concurrent systems). Intended applications include adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, system malfunction management, and in general, applications of logic reasoning. ASOCS combines massive parallelism with self-organization to attain a distributed mechanism for adaptation. The ASOCS approach is based on an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements (nodes) which operate in a combinational and asynchronous fashion. Problem specification (programming) is obtained by presenting to the system if-then rules expressed as Boolean conjunctions. New rules are added incrementally. In the current model, when conflicts occur, precedence is given to the most recent inputs. With each rule, desired network response is simply presented to the system, following which the network adjusts itself to maintain consistency and parsimony of representation. Data processing and adaptation form two separate phases of operation. During processing, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit. Control of the adaptive process is distributed among the network nodes and efficiently exploits parallelism.