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  1. Gender Politics and Privatization in the London Borough of Camden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Lisa D.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the differential impact of the privatization of social services on women in the London borough of Camden. Concludes that women will suffer greater decline than men in employment, wages, and status as a result of the privatization taking place in Great Britain. (JDH)

  2. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  3. Bangladeshi women's experiences of infant feeding in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.

    PubMed

    Rayment, Juliet; McCourt, Christine; Vaughan, Lisa; Christie, Janice; Trenchard-Mabere, Esther

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the main factors that influence Bangladeshi women living in London's decisions to partially breastfeed their children, including the influence of older women within the community. Fifty-seven women of Bangladeshi origin living in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets took part in seven discussion groups between April and June 2013. Five groups were held with women of child-bearing age and two groups with older women in the community. A further eight younger women and three older women took part in one-on-one interviews. Interviews were also carried out with eight local health care workers, including public health specialists, peer support workers, breastfeeding coordinators and a health visitor. The influences on women's infant feeding choices can be understood through a 'socio-ecological model', including public health policy; diverse cultural influences from Bangladesh, London and the Bangladeshi community in London; and the impacts of migration and religious and family beliefs. The women's commitment to breastfeeding was mediated through the complexity of their everyday lives. The tension between what was 'best' and what was 'possible' leads them not only to partially breastfeed but also to sustain partial breastfeeding in a way not seen in other socio-cultural groups in the United Kingdom. PMID:25684682

  4. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902–1937

    PubMed Central

    Aidt, Toke S.; Mooney, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902–1914) and universal suffrage (1921–1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending. PMID:25843984

  5. The prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV in Brent: a diverse London Borough.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Ava; Ananthavarathan, Piriyankan; Lorigan, James; Jowata, Mohamade; Brook, Gary; Banarsee, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV has changed from a rapidly deteriorating illness to a complex chronic disease, with increasing incidences of comorbidity, including cancer, and liver, lung and cardiovascular diseases. North West London has 6719 individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 873 of whom reside in the London Borough of Brent. Traditionally, commissioning services have focused on HIV therapy alone without considering how comorbidity affects treatment outcome and total service costs. Setting The setting for the study was NHS Brent Primary Care Trust, London UK. Question What associated comorbidities are present in people in Brent (London, UK) living with HIV, and how common are they? Methods A point-prevalence audit of retrospective data was conducted on all HIV-positive patients in Brent (financial year 2011/12). Data were collected from genito-urinary medicine (GUM) services, community services and general practitioners (GPs) on HIV diagnosis, patient demographics and past/current comorbidities: hepatitis B and C, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mental health disorders. Results This study identified that 29% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Brent have at least one comorbidity. The most common was hepatitis, followed by mental health disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Comorbidity was more likely in older male patients (in particular CVD and diabetes) and White patients (except for diabetes which was more common in Asian groups). Discussion/Conclusion Many PLWHA in Brent suffer from a number of other conditions, which appear largely independent of HIV. Findings confirm the need to treat HIV as a long-term condition, including patient education, empowerment and encouraging self-management. The multi-morbidity of many PLWHA suggests a role for both primary care and collaborative, holistic, patient-centred and individualised healthcare. Service providers and commissioners need to consider comorbidities in their treatment of and

  6. The prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV in Brent: a diverse London Borough

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Ava; Lorigan, James; Jowata, Mohamade; Brook, Gary; Banarsee, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV has changed from a rapidly deteriorating illness to a complex chronic disease, with increasing incidences of comorbidity, including cancer, and liver, lung and cardiovascular diseases. North West London has 6719 individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 873 of whom reside in the London Borough of Brent. Traditionally, commissioning services have focused on HIV therapy alone without considering how comorbidity affects treatment outcome and total service costs. Setting The setting for the study was NHS Brent Primary Care Trust, London UK. Question What associated comorbidities are present in people in Brent (London, UK) living with HIV, and how common are they? Methods A point-prevalence audit of retrospective data was conducted on all HIV-positive patients in Brent (financial year 2011/12). Data were collected from genito-urinary medicine (GUM) services, community services and general practitioners (GPs) on HIV diagnosis, patient demographics and past/current comorbidities: hepatitis B and C, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mental health disorders. Results This study identified that 29% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Brent have at least one comorbidity. The most common was hepatitis, followed by mental health disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Comorbidity was more likely in older male patients (in particular CVD and diabetes) and White patients (except for diabetes which was more common in Asian groups). Discussion/Conclusion Many PLWHA in Brent suffer from a number of other conditions, which appear largely independent of HIV. Findings confirm the need to treat HIV as a long-term condition, including patient education, empowerment and encouraging self-management. The multi-morbidity of many PLWHA suggests a role for both primary care and collaborative, holistic, patient-centred and individualised healthcare. Service providers and commissioners need to consider comorbidities in their treatment of and

  7. Factors Affecting the Involvement of Day Centre Care Staff in the Delivery of Physiotherapy to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study in One London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, M. -J.; Kitchen, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapists for adults with intellectual disabilities often work in day centres, relying on care staff to support programmes. This study investigates factors affecting physiotherapy delivery in 4 day centres in one London borough. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with day centre care staff,…

  8. Engaging the Somali community in the road safety agenda: a process evaluation from the London borough of Hounslow.

    PubMed

    Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Ahmed, Fatima; Knight, Elisabeth

    2012-08-01

    In the UK the most disadvantaged in society are more likely than those more affluent to be injured or killed in a road traffic collision and therefore it is a major cause of health inequality. There is a strong link between ethnicity, deprivation and injury. Whilst national road traffic injury data does not collect ethnic origin the London accident and analysis group does in terms of broad categories such as 'white', 'black' and 'Asian'. Analysis of this data revealed the over-representation of child pedestrian casualties from a 'black' ethnic origin. This information led road safety practitioners in one London borough to map child pedestrian casualties against census data which identified the Somali community as being particularly at risk of being involved in a road traffic collision. Working with the community they sought to discuss and address road safety issues and introduced practical evidence based approaches such as child pedestrian training. The process evaluation of the project used a qualitative approach and showed that engaging with community partners and working across organisational boundaries was a useful strategy to gain an understanding of the Somali community. A bottom approach provided the community with a sense of control and involvement which appears to add value in terms of reducing the sense of powerlessness that marginalised communities often feel. In terms of evaluation, small projects like these, lend themselves to a qualitative process evaluation though it has to be accepted that the strength of this evidence may be regarded as weak. Where possible routine injury data needs to take into account ethnicity which is a known risk factor for road casualty involvement which needs to be continually monitored. PMID:22109387

  9. Secondary school pupils' food choices around schools in a London borough: Fast food and walls of crisps.

    PubMed

    Caraher, M; Lloyd, S; Mansfield, M; Alp, C; Brewster, Z; Gresham, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five 'A's of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of 'two for one' type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as 'cool', queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were 'cool'. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five 'A's above. PMID:27105582

  10. Consumption of takeaway and fast food in a deprived inner London Borough: are they associated with childhood obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Rachel; Risby, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Objective A major concern is the ubiquitous presence of fast food and takeaway outlets within easy walking distance of schools, particularly in the light of the increasing burden of childhood obesity. Here, the associations between the schoolchildren's weights, their consumption of fast food and takeaway outlets were examined in a deprived inner London Borough. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants 193 schoolchildren (aged between 11 and 14 years old) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) percentiles specific for age and gender were obtained. Frequency of food and drinks purchased from fast food outlets and takeaway outlets over a weekly period and preferred types of drinks and food products usually consumed were measured. Results More than 50% of the children in our survey purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets twice or more a week, with about 10% consuming fast food or drinks from these outlets daily. About 70% of these children from Black ethnic groups and 54% of Asians purchased fast food more than twice a week. BMI has a significantly inverse relationship to fast food consumption. However, when age and gender are accounted, the BMI age–gender percentile is no longer significantly related to fast food consumption. Conclusions This study revealed a very high frequency of fast food consumption among the schoolchildren. Taste, quick access and peer influence were major contributing factors. These schoolchildren are exposed to an obesogenic environment, and it is not surprising that in this situation, many of these children are already overweight and will likely become obese as adults. PMID:22721691

  11. Quality of Life and Unmet Need in People with Psychosis in the London Borough of Haringey, UK

    PubMed Central

    Lambri, Maria; Chakraborty, Apu; Leavey, Gerard; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Deinstitutionalization of long-term psychiatric patients produced various community-based residential care facilities. However, inner-city areas have many patients with severe mental illness (SMI) as well as deprivation, unemployment, and crime. This makes meeting their community needs complex. We undertook a needs assessment of service provision and consonance between service users' evaluation of need and by care workers. Design. Cross-sectional study with random sample of SMI service users in four housing settings: rehabilitation units; high-supported; medium-supported; low-supported housing. Setting. London Borough of Haringey. Outcome Measures. 110 SMI service users and 110 keyworkers were interviewed, using Camberwell Assessment of Need; SF-36; Lancashire Quality-of-Life profile; demographic and clinical information. Results. People in “low-support” and “high-support” housing had similar symptom scores, though low support had significantly lower quality of life. Quality of life was positively predicted by self-reported mental-health score and negatively predicted by unmet-need score in whole sample and in medium-support residents. Residents' and care-workers' assessments of need differed considerably. Conclusions. Although patients' housing needs were broadly met, those in low-supported housing fared least well. Attendance to self-reported mental health and unmet social needs to quality of life underpins planning of residential services for those with SMI. Social and personal needs of people in supported housing may be underestimated and overlooked; service providers need to prioritise these if concept of “recovery” is to advance. PMID:23213300

  12. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  13. Evaluating quality and its determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of heart disease and stroke in primary care: a study in an inner London Borough

    PubMed Central

    Dodhia, Hiten; Kun, Liu; Logan Ellis, Hugh; Crompton, James; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Williams, Helen; Hodgkinson, Anna; Balazs, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess quality of management and determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using multilevel regression models. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Inner London borough, with a primary care registered population of 378 000 (2013). Participants 48/49 participating general practices with 7869 patients on heart disease/stroke registers were included. Outcome measures (1) Recording of current total cholesterol levels and lipid control according to national evidence-based standards. (2) Assessment of quality by age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, presence of other risks or comorbidity in meeting both lipid measurement and control standards. Results Some process standards were not met. Patients with a current cholesterol measurement >5 mmol/L were less likely to have a current statin prescription (adjusted OR=3.10; 95% CI 2.70 to 3.56). They were more likely to have clustering of other CVD risk factors. Women were significantly more likely to have raised cholesterol after adjustment for other factors (adjusted OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.53 to 1.98). Conclusions In this study, the key factor that explained poor lipid control in people with CVD was having no current prescription record of a statin. Women were more likely to have poorly controlled cholesterol (independent of comorbid risk factors and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, deprivation index and practice-level variation). Women with CVD should be offered statin prescription and may require higher statin dosage for improved control. PMID:26656014

  14. A fatal case of Lassa fever in London, January 2009.

    PubMed

    Kitching, A; Addiman, S; Cathcart, S; Bischop, L; Krahé, D; Nicholas, M; Coakley, J; Lloyd, G; Brooks, T; Morgan, D; Turbitt, D

    2009-02-12

    In January 2009, the eleventh [corrected] case of Lassa fever imported to the United Kingdom was diagnosed in London. Risk assessment of 328 healthcare contacts with potential direct exposure to Lassa virus - through contact with the case or exposure to bodily fluids - was undertaken. No contacts were assessed to be at high risk of infection and no secondary clinical cases identified. PMID:19215723

  15. Autistic Disorder in Nineteenth-Century London. Three Case Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…

  16. Altitude and Configuration of the Potentiometric Surface in the Upper White Clay Creek and Lower West Branch Brandywine Creek Basins including Portions of Penn, London Grove, New Garden, Londonderry, West Marlborough, Highland, and East Fallowfield Townships and West Grove, Avondale, Modena, and South Coatesville boroughs, Chester County, Pennsylvania, May through July 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Lindsay B.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Since 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been mapping the altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in Chester County as part of an ongoing cooperative program to measure and describe the water resources of the county. These maps can be used to determine the general direction of ground-water flow and are frequently referenced by municipalities and developers to evaluate ground-water conditions for water supply and resource-protection requirements. For this study, the potentiometric surface was mapped for an area in south-central Chester County. The northern part of the map includes portions of Highland, East Fallowfield, Londonderry, and West Marlborough Townships and South Coatesville and Modena Boroughs. The southern part of the map includes portions of Londonderry, West Marlborough, Penn, London Grove, and New Garden Townships and West Grove and Avondale Boroughs. The study area is mostly underlain by metamorphic rocks of the Glenarm Supergroup including Peters Creek Schist, Octoraro Phyllite, Wissahickon Schist, Cockeysville Mrable, and Setters Quartzite; and by pegmatite, mafic gneiss, felsic gneiss, and diabase. Ground water is obtained from these bedrock formations by wells that intercept fractures. The altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface was contoured from water levels measured on different dates in available wells during May through July 2006 and from the altitude of springs and perennial streams. Topography was used as a guide for contouring so that the altitude of the potentiometric surface was inferred nowhere to be higher than the land surface. The potentiometric surface shown on this map is an approximation of the water table. The altitude of the actual potentiometric surface may differ from the water table, especially in areas where wells are completed in a semi-confined zone or have long open intervals that reflect the composite hydraulic head of multiple water-yielding fractures. A composite

  17. Case Study: North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky, opened in Fall 1992, students and teachers entered a new facility and a new era of commitment to excellence for all students. In Spring 1993, North Laurel joined the Southern Regional Education Board's High Schools That Work initiative. The new school replaced the general track and raised graduation…

  18. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  19. Inner London's Education Authority: Reflections on ILEA Twenty-Five Years after Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is 25 years since the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was abolished and management of education in central London transferred to 13 London boroughs. The author reflects on the experience of being an ex-ILEA head teacher, and of managing one of the new local education authorities in the immediate post-ILEA period. He begins by commenting…

  20. 1. Photocopy of photograph, 1893 (Moore Memorial Library) CHRISTIANA BOROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph, 1893 (Moore Memorial Library) CHRISTIANA BOROUGH BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION CREW - Christiana Borough Bridge, Bridge Street over Pennsylvania Railroad, Christiana, Lancaster County, PA

  1. Building a Hypertextual Digital Library in the Humanities: A Case Study on London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Gregory; Smith, David A.; Wulfman, Clifford E.

    This paper describes the creation of a new humanities digital library collection: 11,000,000 words and 10,000 images representing books, images, and maps on pre-twentieth century London and its environs. The London collection contained far more dense and precise information than the materials from the Greco-Roman world. The London collection thus…

  2. Police service in Victorian and Edwardian London: a somwhat atypical case of a hazardous occupation.

    PubMed

    Shpayer-Makov, H

    1995-01-01

    British society in the nineteenth century showed a growing concern with public-health issues and with occupational hazards. Police service, which is at the centre of this paper, was not viewed by many as a hazardous occupation. Using the London Metropolitan Police as a case study, the paper suggests that working conditions in the Victorian and Edwardian police had detrimental effects on the health of officers. It is true that medical statistics of the time showed that police officers in London had a lower death rate than the average working man, but this comparison should not obscure the fact that policemen entered the force much healthier than when they retired and that this gap was not merely age-related. The paper sets out to answer the following questions: What were the prevalent injuries and illnesses in the Metropolitan Police? What was the work experience of the police officer and what impact did it have on his state of health? In addition to accounting for the deteriorating health of police officers, the paper provides the views of contemporary observers on the subject. PMID:11609064

  3. Are fuel poverty reduction schemes associated with decreased excess winter mortality in elders? A case study from London, U.K.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; El-Silimy, Sally

    2008-12-01

    The London Borough of Newham, London piloted the Warm Zone, a government-led fuel poverty reduction scheme. Fuel poverty is often cited as a factor in excess winter mortality (EWM) in the U.K. This study reported in this paper assessed whether EWM decreased for people aged > or =65 years in Newham as compared to all London, employing data from before and throughout the duration of the Warm Zone project. The paper also discusses the difficulties surrounding the measurement and interpretation of health impact relating to fuel poverty. We calculated and compared the yearly EWM indices for people aged > or =65 years for all of London, and for Newham over 12 years (1993-2005). The yearly EWM ratio for Newham in relation to all London was then calculated and compared. No definitive evidence to support the effect of the War Zone on EMW were noted. Relationships between EWM and fewer poverty reduction schemes are difficult to interpret, as many factors are entangled. These include cold strain and biological, genetic, gender, physiological, thermoregulation, environmental, meteorological, socio-economic, healthcare provision/expenditure, lifestyle and co-morbidity aspects, besides the challenges of sample sizes and whether other fuel poverty reduction schemes were simultaneously in operation. Those in privately owned housing might be ;masked' (underestimated) in their vulnerability to fuel poverty. Redefining the specific criteria for eligibility for fuel poverty grants and tackling heat inefficiency in privately owned homes not eligible for home heating improvement despite fulfilling other criteria for vulnerability requires attention. The implications are discussed. PMID:19091937

  4. Lessons for Control of Heroin-Associated Anthrax in Europe from 2009–2010 Outbreak Case Studies, London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Abbara, Aula; Brooks, Tim; Taylor, Graham P.; Nolan, Marianne; Donaldson, Hugo; Manikon, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of serious infections associated with heroin use in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) occur intermittently and require vigilance and rapid reporting of individual cases. Here, we give a firsthand account of the cases in London during an outbreak of heroin-associated anthrax during 2009–2010 in the United Kingdom. This new manifestation of anthrax has resulted in a clinical manifestation distinct from already recognized forms. During 2012–13, additional cases of heroin-associated anthrax among PWIDs in England and other European countries were reported, suggesting that anthrax-contaminated heroin remains in circulation. Antibacterial drugs used for serious soft tissue infection are effective against anthrax, which may lead to substantial underrecognition of this novel illness. The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community. PMID:24959910

  5. Priapism associated with risperidone: a case report, literature review and review of the South London and Maudsley hospital patients’ database

    PubMed Central

    Paklet, Lise; Olajide, Dele

    2013-01-01

    Priapism is a urological emergency defined as persistent penile erection that is unrelated to sexual stimulation and typically involving only the corporal cavernosa. It can occur as a rare side effect of antipsychotic medications and is mediated via their α-adrenergic antagonist effect. In this paper we describe a case of priapism in a patient started on risperidone and sodium valproate. We also review the South London and Maudsley Case Register Interactive Search database to assess how many other cases of priapism were reported in patients taking risperidone. We add this information to a literature review of cases of priapism associated with risperidone. PMID:23983987

  6. "Kelo v. City of New London": An Ideal Case to Teach Ethical and Legal Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Lamar; Gonzalez, Analco

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a decision that caused much concern and anxiety across America. "Kelo v. City of New London" was viewed by many as an egregious violation of the Takings Clause of the U.S. Constitution. In "Kelo", the majority upheld a state statute that supported the use of eminent domain for purposes of economic…

  7. Fritz London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  8. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform. PMID:22069793

  9. Listening to those on the frontline: service users’ experiences of London tuberculosis services

    PubMed Central

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Belling, Ruth; Woods, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore tuberculosis (TB) service users’ experiences and satisfaction with care provision. Background: Thirty-nine percent of all new UK TB cases occur in London. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs. Overall, research suggests inadequate control of London’s TB transmission; TB has become a health care priority for all London Primary Care Trusts. Service users’ experiences and satisfaction with care provision have not been explored adequately previously. Methods: A qualitative research design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Ten service users, purposively selected in key risk groups across London, were interviewed. All interviews were digitally recorded with users’ permission, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Results: Participants were treated in local hospitals for 6–12 months. Treatment was administered by TB nurses to inpatients and outpatients receiving directly observed therapy in consultation with medical staff and home visits for complex cases. Two participants did not realize the importance of compliance. Overall, they were satisfied with many TB services’ aspects, communication, and service organization. Early access, low suspicion index amongst some GPs, and restricted referral routes were identified as service barriers. Other improvement areas were information provision on drug side effects, diet, nutritional status, and a few health professionals’ attitudes. The effects on people varied enormously from minimal impact to psychological shock; TB also affected social and personal aspects of their life. With regard to further support facilities, some positive views on managed accommodation by TB-aware professionals for those with accommodation problems were identified. Conclusion: This first in-depth study of TB service users’ experiences across London offers valuable insights into service users’ experiences, providing information and recommendations for a strategic

  10. Higher Education Governance as Language Games: A Wittgensteinian Case Study of the Breakdown of Governance at the London School of Economics 2004-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-01-01

    This paper calls for a more detailed study of social practices in the analysis of governance failures. Using the Woolf report on the breakdown of governance at the London School of Economics as a case study and Wittgenstein's notion of language games as an analytic lens, the author argues that widely used institutional and structural theories of…

  11. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-04-15

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries.

  12. 19th century London dust-yards: a case study in closed-loop resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas A; Wilson, David C; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-04-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries. PMID:19121575

  13. ‘Shell shock’ Revisited: An Examination of the Case Records of the National Hospital in London

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Stefanie Caroline; Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, in Queen Square, London, then Britain’s leading centre for neurology, took a key role in the treatment and understanding of shell shock. This paper explores the case notes of all 462 servicemen who were admitted with functional neurological disorders between 1914 and 1919. Many of these were severe or chronic cases referred to the National Hospital because of its acknowledged expertise and the resources it could call upon. Biographical data was collected together with accounts of the patient’s military experience, his symptoms, diagnostic interpretations and treatment outcomes. Analysis of the notes showed that motor syndromes (loss of function or hyperkinesias), often combined with somato-sensory loss, were common presentations. Anxiety and depression as well as vegetative symptoms such as sweating, dizziness and palpitations were also prevalent among this patient population. Conversely, psychogenic seizures were reported much less frequently than in comparable accounts from German tertiary referral centres. As the war unfolded the number of physicians who believed that shell shock was primarily an organic disorder fell as research failed to find a pathological basis for its symptoms. However, little agreement existed among the Queen Square doctors about the fundamental nature of the disorder and it was increasingly categorised as functional disorder or hysteria. PMID:25284893

  14. London, England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Rockaway Borough Well Field, Rockaway Borough, New Jersey, September 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-29

    The Rockaway Borough Well Field site is located in Rockaway Borough, Morris County, New Jersey, and consists of three municipal supply wells which are in a glacial aquifer designated by EPA as the sole source aquifer for Rockaway Borough and the surrounding communities. High concentrations of TCE and PCE have been detected in the aquifer since 1980, but no sources of contamination have been identified. In 1981, the Borough of Rockaway constructed a three-bed granular activated-carbon adsorption system to treat contaminated well water. Treatment has effectively reduced volatile organic contaminant concentrations in finished water to less than 1 part per billion (ppb). Although thirteen VOCs have been detected in the well water, TCE and PCE are the primary contaminants of concern. The site was listed on the NPL in December of 1982, and the RI/FS was initiated in 1985. The remedial action for the Rockaway Borough site includes maintaining the existing filtration system and modifying operations to ensure compliance with Safe Drinking Water Act standards and EPA continuing the RI/FS in an attempt to identify the source and extent of contamination and evaluate alternatives to address source control. Estimated capital cost of remedial action is zero with annual OandM costs of $74,800.

  16. 78 FR 78354 - Borough of Weatherly; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Borough of Weatherly; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On November 4, 2013, the Borough of Weatherly (Borough)...

  17. Raising the Barriers: Meeting the Needs of Refugee Pupils and Families in a North London Borough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Jan; Bradley, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    Describes the work done in one British school district to support refugee and asylum-seeking students and their parents, focusing on refugees in the Haringey district, student mobility, providing a structured induction process for refugee children and families, and developing parent involvement initiatives.Discusses the district's efforts to…

  18. Secondary School Admissions: The Choice for Black Parents in the London Borough of Hackney, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalman, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, the law places a lot of emphasis on parental rights and choice--the right to choose the school that suits the needs of your child. Parents can list in order of preference and this ranked order is lodged with the education authority (through one common application form), and hope that within the complexities of the admissions process,…

  19. A Freshman Retention Project at Borough of Manhattan Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Stephen M.; Harte, Joyce

    At Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) in New York, the student body is 55% Black, 29% Hispanic, 7% Asian, and 9% White and other ethnic groups. Placement testing indicates that 70% of entering freshmen require some form of remediation. As part of BMCC's efforts to improve first-year retention rates, students requiring remediation have…

  20. Patient compliance with postoperative analgesia after day case surgery: a multisite observational study of patients in North East London

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Nisreen; Siah, Julian; Umo-Etuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain is the commonest reason for delayed discharge and readmission post day surgery with up to 45% of patients reported to suffer moderate-to-severe post-surgical pain 24 hours after discharge. The importance of post-surgical pain management extends beyond the acute phase when one considers that all chronic post-surgical pain was once acute. Although much focus is given to perioperative analgesia, a patient’s pain management once discharged can be overlooked, whilst at this time the patient’s pain management is within their own hands. Methods: We conducted this multisite observational study of adult patients undergoing day case surgery. After obtaining patient consent data was collected on the operation, intra- and postoperative analgesia administered and discharge analgesia prescribed. Patients were then contacted at home by telephone 48 hours after discharge and asked about their postoperative pain and analgesia requirements. Results: Of 150 patients consented for the enrolment, we were able to obtain postoperative analgesia data on 100. A total of 68% of patients reported pain following discharge with 26% reporting severe pain, defined as a pain score of ⩾7. A total 68% of patients were prescribed and dispensed analgesia, and of those, 83% were compliant with their analgesia. Thus, we conclude that in this patient group, the incidence of postoperative pain was not due to lack of patient compliance, but inadequate analgesia prescription. Discussion: We recognise that our data reflect a patient population in North East London but suggest that the results may still be relevant to a wider patient group across the United Kingdom as the incidence of postoperative pain in our study was similar to published figures. Better patient satisfaction with postoperative analgesia may be obtained with more patient- and surgery-specific analgesic prescription. PMID:27551418

  1. A methodology for risk assessment of municipal infrastructure due to climate change: a case study of London, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowering, E.; Peck, A.; Simonovic, S.

    2009-12-01

    climate change scenario. Identifying regions of high risk is important in disaster management and preparedness. These results will be available in municipal policy development and decision making. This methodology is applied as a case study to the City of London, Ontario, Canada.

  2. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Dillon, Trent; Bilec, Melissa M; Khanna, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems. PMID:27146689

  3. Knowledge Creation as an Approach to Facilitating Evidence Informed Practice: Examining Ways to Measure the Success of Using This Method with Early Years Practitioners in Camden (London)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three key aims. First it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in the London Borough of Camden. Second, it seeks to illustrate how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use…

  4. A validated methodology for the prediction of heating and cooling energy demand for buildings within the Urban Heat Island: Case-study of London

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokotroni, Maria; Bhuiyan, Saiful; Davies, Michael; Croxford, Ben; Mavrogianni, Anna

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method for predicting air temperatures within the Urban Heat Island at discreet locations based on input data from one meteorological station for the time the prediction is required and historic measured air temperatures within the city. It uses London as a case-study to describe the method and its applications. The prediction model is based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling and it is termed the London Site Specific Air Temperature (LSSAT) predictor. The temporal and spatial validity of the model was tested using data measured 8 years later from the original dataset; it was found that site specific hourly air temperature prediction provides acceptable accuracy and improves considerably for average monthly values. It thus is a very reliable tool for use as part of the process of predicting heating and cooling loads for urban buildings. This is illustrated by the computation of Heating Degree Days (HDD) and Cooling Degree Hours (CDH) for a West-East Transect within London. The described method could be used for any city for which historic hourly air temperatures are available for a number of locations; for example air pollution measuring sites, common in many cities, typically measure air temperature on an hourly basis. (author)

  5. Global sport mega-events and the politics of mobility: the case of the London 2012 Olympics.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Richard; Armstrong, Gary; Hales, Gavin; Hobbs, Dick

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the politics of mobility which surrounded the London 2012 Olympics. We provide a critical discussion of the mobility conflicts, problems and criticisms which emerged from our research with local people in the Stratford and wider Newham areas of London, where most Olympic events were located. The paper is divided into four broad parts. First, we identify and discuss the relevant components of the 'mobilities paradigm' in social science which underpin our analysis. Second, we briefly outline our research methods, centring particularly on fieldwork and interviews with different social groups. Third, we examine in detail the six main themes of mobility politics which were evident at London 2012, relating to social context, event construction, event mobility systems, commercial mobilities, the mobile politics of exclusion, and contested modes of mobility. In doing so, we seek to extend the mobilities paradigm by introducing various concepts and keywords - notably on the three-speed city, entryability, mobility panics, instrumental mobility, and corporate kettling - which may be utilized by social scientists to examine mobility systems in other social contexts. We conclude by reaffirming the significance of mobility-focused research at sport and other mega-events, and by indicating future lines of inquiry for social scientists. PMID:25339464

  6. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  7. Preventive Health Education Needs: A Survey of Adults in Elkland Borough, Tioga County, Pennsylvania, 1976. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taranto, Angelo A.; Leadley, Samuel M.

    From a population of 117 adult residents of Elkland Borough formerly interviewed in August 1974, 72 cases were chosen. Of these, 57 persons (43 women and 14 men) were reinterviewed in March 1976 as to their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. The age and sex of those interviewed were compared…

  8. Rockaway Borough Wellfield, Rockaway Borough, Morris County, New Jersey, Region 2. Cerclis No. NJD980654115. Addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-13

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) issued a Health Assessment for the Rockaway Borough Well Field site on April 17, 1989 (PB90-137613). The public health assessment addendum supplements the April 1989 health assessment and includes information gathered during the Phase II Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the Rockaway Borough Well Field site. Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were detected in treated municipal water supplies at levels above health comparison values. Complete (past and present) exposure pathways exist from PCE and TCE contamination of municipal water supplies during periods of contaminant breakthrough within the groundwater treatment system. Potential (past, present, future) human exposure pathways exist from contaminated residential drinking wells and surface soil through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact.

  9. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  10. Affordable and Sustainable Energy in the Borough of Woking in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, John P.; Curran, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Woking Borough Council in the United Kingdom has long been committed to protecting the environment, a goal explicitly stated as one of the borough's top three priorities. Woking is also known for its pioneering approach in operating an extensive networked electricity and district heating system based on co- and trigeneration, as well as what is…

  11. Can Social Support Protect Bullied Adolescents from Adverse Outcomes? A Prospective Study on the Effects of Bullying on the Educational Achievement and Mental Health of Adolescents at Secondary Schools in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to…

  12. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  13. The economic benefits of reducing the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near primary schools: The case of London.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Carla; Chatzidiakou, Lia; Cairns, John; Mumovic, Dejan

    2016-10-01

    Providing a healthy school environment is a priority for child health. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology that allows quantification of the potential economic benefit of reducing indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in children attending primary schools. Using environmental and health data collected in primary schools in London, this study estimates that, on average, 82 asthma exacerbations per school can be averted each year by reducing outdoor NO2 concentrations. The study expands upon previous analyses in two ways: first it assesses the health benefits of reducing children's exposure to indoor NO2 while at school, second it considers the children's perspective in the economic evaluation. Using a willingness to pay approach, the study quantifies that the monetary benefits of reducing children's indoor NO2 exposure while at school would range between £2.5 k per school if a child's perspective based on child's budget is adopted up to £60 k if a parent's perspective is considered. This study highlights that designers, engineers, policymakers and stakeholders need to consider the reduction of outdoor pollution, and particularly NO2 levels, near primary schools as there may be substantial health and monetary benefits. PMID:27451292

  14. Public health response to two incidents of confirmed MERS-CoV cases travelling on flights through London Heathrow Airport in 2014 – lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Parry-Ford, F; Boddington, N; Pebody, R; Phin, N

    2015-01-01

    In May 2014, Public Health England was alerted to two separate laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection who transited through London Heathrow Airport while symptomatic on flights from Saudi Arabia to the United States of America. We present the rationale for the public health response to both incidents, and report results of contact tracing. Following a risk assessment, passengers seated two seats around the cases were prioritised for contact tracing and a proactive media approach was used to alert all passengers on the planes of their possible exposure in both incidents. In total, 64 United Kingdom (UK) residents were successfully contacted, 14 of whom were sat in the priority area two seats all around the case(s). Five passengers reported respiratory symptoms within 14 days of the flight, but all tested were negative for MERS-CoV. Details of non-UK residents were passed on to relevant World Health Organization International Health Regulation focal points for follow-up, and no further cases were reported back. Different approaches were used to manage contact tracing for each flight due to variations in the quality and timeliness of the passenger contact information provided by the airlines involved. No evidence of symptomatic onward transmission was found. PMID:25990234

  15. Materials modelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciudad, David

    2016-04-01

    Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.

  16. An Upward Spiral? The Gate Project: A Case Study of the Role of Training in Addressing Homelessness in Central London. Monographs in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julia

    In 1990, the London Enterprise Agency, a private sector consortium dedicated to inner-city regeneration in London, established a project to address homelessness. Later called GATE (Guaranteed Accommodation and Training for Employment), the project had three central features: a focus on employment as a means of tackling homelessness; the use of a…

  17. Health assessment for Rockaway Borough Well Field National Priorities List (NPL) site, Borough of Rockaway, Morris County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980654115. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-17

    The Rockaway Borough Well Field is a National Priorities List site located in the Borough of Rockaway, Morris County, New Jersey. Because of yet unidentified source(s) of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in ground water, municipal wells of the Borough of Rockaway have been contaminated sometime prior to 1980, when well water was found to contain high concentrations of these volatile organic compounds. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to elevated concentrations of TCE and/or PCE may occur, be occurring, or have occurred via oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure to contaminated municipal drinking water (only in the unlikely event that breakthrough occurs) or private well water.

  18. 75 FR 36384 - City and Borough of Sitka; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments for an Applicant Prepared...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... (City) is using the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) alternative licensing process... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City and Borough of Sitka; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments for...

  19. 119. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 118. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 120. Thames River Bridge draw span. New London, New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. Thames River Bridge draw span. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 117. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 116. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 111. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 122.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. Oakland Ravine Stormwater Treatment System Project, Borough of Queens, NYC

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkle, R.E.; Moutal, H.P.; Evans, T.M.; Kloman, L.

    1999-07-01

    Compared to other cities, New York City (NYC) is abundantly endowed with parklands and open spaces, many of which can be utilized to treat and dissipate stormwater runoff flows, in conjunction with the preservation, restoration and creation of ecological systems. Such use of available parklands and open spaces has the benefit of decreasing cost for stormwater treatment and conveyance, while at the same time enhancing the natural biological systems. Through the combined efforts of the NYC Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP), which is responsible for stormwater control, and the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation (NYCDPR), which is responsible for preserving and restoring the ecological systems of parklands and open spaces, URS Greiner Woodward Clyde (URSGWC) developed a project to provide for the treatment of stormwater and the attenuation of peak stormwater flows through restoration and creation of wetlands within Oakland Ravine (located in the densely populated northeastern section of the Borough of Queens, NYC). The proposed Oakland Ravine Stormwater Treatment System Project was developed in conjunction with the East River Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Abatement Project, which is part of the NYC comprehensive program to reduce CSO discharges into receiving waters. Discharges into Alley Creek through Outfall TI-7, an outfall located about one-half mile northeast of the ravine which has been designated for CSO abatement, will be reduced as a result of the project.

  6. Use of Earth Observation in Support of Major Sport Events: Case Study for the Athens, Beijing and London Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Huili; Zhao, Wenhui; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenji

    2013-01-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (IPM) is one of the principal pollutants in Beijing. Sand weather in spring and winter seasons partly because of regional airflow, in most cases it is results from autochthonic pollution, especially in heating season of winter. In this paper, the law of temporal spatial distribution of IPM and the relationship between IPM and influence factors were studied combing RS techniques with ground-based monitoring. The change of underlying surface which were obtained from high resolution Remote Sensing images in different periods was analyzed; the content of different diameter of particles were collected by ground observation instrument and chemical composition were analyzed; the relationship of distribution of IPM and underlying surface was studied using spatial analysis of GIS. The results indicate that the pollution distribution of IPM has a very close relation with underlying surface, man-made pollution sources, population density and meteorological factors.

  7. Prevalence of Low Physical Activity and Its Relation to Social Environment in Deprived Areas in the London Borough of Redbridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Ge; Renton, Adrian; Wall, Martin; Estacio, Emee; Cawley, Justine; Datta, Pratibha

    2011-01-01

    Achieving adequate levels of physical activity (PA) is important to maintain health and prevent chronic disease. The costs of inadequate physical activity to the NHS have been estimated at over a billion pounds annually. While socio-demographic characteristics such as age, sex and ethnicity have been reported to be associated with different levels…

  8. Space-Time Analysis of Crime Patterns in Central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Williams, D.

    2012-07-01

    Crime continues to cast a shadow over citizen well-being in big cities today, while also imposing huge economic and social costs. Timely understanding of how criminality emerges and how crime patterns evolve is crucial to anticipating crime, dealing with it when it occurs and developing public confidence in the police service. Every day, about 10,000 crime incidents are reported by citizens, recorded and geo-referenced in the London Metropolitan Police Service Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) database. The unique nature of this dataset allows the patterns to be explored at particularly fine temporal granularity and at multiple spatial resolutions. This study provides a framework for the exploratory spatio-temporal analysis of crime patterns that combines visual inquiry tools (interactive animations, space-time cubes and map matrices) with cluster analysis (spatial-temporal scan statistics and the self-organizing map). This framework is tested on the CAD dataset for the London Borough of Camden in March 2010. Patterns of crime through space and time are discovered and the clustering methods were evaluated on their ability to facilitate the discovery and interpretation of these patterns.

  9. Suicide on the London Underground System.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R; O'Donnell, I; Tranah, T

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an increase in the numbers of people jumping/falling in front of trains on the London Underground system. Case-fatality rates have fallen from 70% in the 1950s to 55% today. The proportion certified as suicide has fallen while the proportions certified as accidents or open verdicts have risen. There is unusual clustering of events at some stations which are adjacent to psychiatric units. The hypothesis that ease of access to London Underground stations may sometimes be a determinant of suicide is investigated. PMID:1955255

  10. Flood-inundation maps for the Saddle River from Upper Saddle River Borough to Saddle River Borough, New Jersey, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Kara M.; Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 4.1-mile reach of the Saddle River from 0.6 miles downstream from the New Jersey-New York State boundary in Upper Saddle River Borough to 0.2 miles downstream from the East Allendale Road bridge in Saddle River Borough, New Jersey, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to select water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01390450, Saddle River at Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01390450. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations (in effect March 2013) at USGS streamgage 01390450, Saddle River at Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, and documented high-water marks from recent floods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine eight water-surface profiles for flood stages at 0.5-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from bankfull, 0.5 ft below NWS Action Stage, to the upper extent of the stage-discharge rating which is approximately 1 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. Action Stage is the stage which when reached

  11. Resilience of Self-Organised and Top-Down Planned Cities—A Case Study on London and Beijing Street Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaqiu

    2015-01-01

    The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street networks then is evaluated in primal space and dual space by deactivating road links under random and intentional attack scenarios. The results show that the reliability of London street network differs from that of Beijing, which seems to rely more on its architecture and connectivity. It is found that top-down planned Beijing with its higher average degree in the dual space and assortativity in the primal space is more robust than self-organised London using the measures of maximum and second largest cluster size and network efficiency. The article offers an insight, from a network perspective, into the reliability of street patterns in self-organised and top-down planned city systems. PMID:26682551

  12. “If We Build It, Will It Stay?” A Case Study of the Sustainability of Whole-System Change in London

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Catherine; Woodard, Fran

    2012-01-01

    Context The long-term sustainability of whole-system change programs is rarely studied, and when it is, it is inevitably undertaken in a shifting context, thereby raising epistemological and methodological questions. This article describes a transferable methodology that was developed to guide the evaluation of a three-year follow-up of a large health care change program in London, which took place during a period of economic turbulence and rapid policy change. Method Using a mixed-method organizational case study design, we studied three services (stroke, kidney, and sexual health) across primary and secondary care. Each had received £5 million (US$7.8 million) in modernization funding in 2004. In 2010/2011, we gathered data on the services and compared them with data from 2004 to 2008. The new data set contained quantitative statistics (access, process, and outcome metrics), qualitative interviews with staff and patients, documents, and field notes. Our data analysis was informed by two complementary models of sustainability: intervention-focused (guided by the question, What, if anything, of the original program has been sustained?) and system-dynamic (guided by the question, How and why did change unfold as it did in this complex system?). Findings Some but not all services introduced in the original transformation effort of 2004–2008 were still running; others had ceased or been altered substantially to accommodate contextual changes (e.g., in case mix, commissioning priorities, or national policies). Key cultural changes (e.g., quality improvement, patient centeredness) largely persisted, and innovative ideas and practices had spread elsewhere. To draw causal links between the original program and current activities and outcomes, it was necessary to weave a narrative thread with multiple intervening influences. In particular, against a background of continuous change in the local health system, the sustainability of the original vision and capacity for

  13. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  14. Are Londoners Prepared for an Emergency? A Longitudinal Study Following the London Bombings

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, James; Amlôt, Richard; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The UK government sees increasing individual preparedness as a priority, but the level of preparedness of people in the UK for a large-scale emergency is not known. The London bombings of July 7, 2005, affected many Londoners and may have altered their sense of vulnerability to a future terrorist attack. We used a longitudinal study design to assess individual preparedness within the same sample of Londoners at 2 points in time: immediately after the bombings (T1) and 7 to 8 months later (T2). A demographically representative sample of 1,010 Londoners participated in a phone interview at T1. Subsequently, at T2, 574 of the same people participated in a follow-up phone interview. At T1 51% of Londoners had made 4 or more relevant emergency plans; 48% had gathered 4 or more relevant supplies in case of emergency. There was evidence of increased preparedness at T2, by which time 90% had made 4 or more emergency plans. Ethnicity, low social status, and having felt a sense of threat during the bombings predicted increased preparedness between T1 and T2. Women in general, and women of low social status in particular, perceived themselves to be unprepared in the event of a future terrorist attack. In summary, Londoners show moderate levels of emergency preparedness, which increased following the London bombings. Although we cannot know whether this association is causal, the prospective nature of the study increases the likelihood that it is. However, preparedness is still patchy, and there are important demographic associations with levels of preparedness and perception of vulnerability. These findings have implications for future development of individual and community emergency preparedness policy. PMID:19117430

  15. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities. PMID:19615883

  16. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K. Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-15

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  17. 76 FR 6117 - Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...The Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Portage Valley, Alaska. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self- Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meeting is to review and recommend proposed...

  18. Audit Report of Borough of Manhattan Community College. Report 91-T-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malan, Roland M.

    The New York State Comptroller's Office (CO) performed a compliance review to detect specific errors or inconsistencies in the Borough of Manhattan Community College's (BMCC's) certifications of student eligibility for the state's Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) and Supplemental Tuition Assistance Program (STAP). The CO reviewed Higher Education…

  19. The Library Haines Built: Best Small Library in America 2005--Haines Borough Public Library, Haines, AK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2005-01-01

    "Community involvement," the standard cliche, does not come close to capturing the spirit and action that have structured the building, programs, collections, and services of the Haines Borough Public Library (HBPL), AK. Those achievements make HBPL the winner of the first annual award for the Best Small Library in America, cosponsored by Library…

  20. 77 FR 2972 - City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission...

  1. 77 FR 61559 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... September 15, 2009 and May 25, 2010, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 74 FR 47169 and 75 FR 29296... North Star Borough, Alaska, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... its proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Fairbanks North Star...

  2. Better Service through Data: Wai Sze (Lacey) Chan--Queens Borough Public Library, Jamaica, NY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The New Americans Program at Queens Borough Public Library (QBPL) is well known for the innovative collections and programs it provides to one of the nation's most diverse communities. What is less known is the rigorous analysis of demographic data that provides direction to the program. Wai Sze (Lacey) Chan uses demographics to create as complete…

  3. STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN HIGHLAND PARK BOROUGH: THE NEXT STEP IN A SUSTAINABILITY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will address problems associated with impaired surface water bodies in the Lower Raritan River Watershed Management Area of New Jersey. More specifically, it will target the Raritan River at and downstream from Highland Park Borough of Middlesex County, New Jersey...

  4. The New Americans Program: Queens Borough Public Library's Service to Multilingual/Multicultural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Sheau-yueh J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the history and development of the Queens Borough (New York) Public Library's New Americans Program that was designed to meet the needs of a culturally and linguistically diverse community. Highlights include outreach services, language classes, collection building, and examples of specific programs for Hispanic, Chinese, and Korean…

  5. Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Katherine; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Watson, Conall; Baguelin, Marc; Choga, Lethiwe; Patel, Anika; Raj, Thara; Jit, Mark; Griffiths, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design We analysed 2013–2015 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–2015 ImmForm general practitioner (GP) reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs and opinions about the programme. We conducted an online survey of London GPs to assess vaccine choice of vaccine and opinions about the pharmacy vaccine delivery programme. Setting All London boroughs. Participants London-based GPs, and pharmacies that currently offer seasonal flu vaccination. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Comparison of annual vaccine uptake in London across risk groups from years before pharmacy vaccination introduction to after pharmacy vaccination introduction. Completeness of vaccine uptake reporting data. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of flu vaccine delivery at pharmacies with that at GPs. Cost to pharmacists of flu delivery. Opinions of pharmacists and GPs regarding the flu vaccine pharmacy initiative. Results No significant change in the uptake of seasonal vaccination in any of the risk groups as a result of the pharmacy initiative. While on average a pharmacy-administered flu vaccine dose costs the NHS up to £2.35 less than a dose administered at a GP, a comparison of the 2 recording systems suggests there is substantial loss of data. Conclusions Flu vaccine delivery through pharmacies shows potential for improving convenience for vaccine recipients. However, there is no evidence that vaccination uptake increases and the use of 2 separate recording systems leads to time-consuming data entry and missing vaccine record data. PMID:26883237

  6. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  7. London International Youth Science Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  8. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Participants Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250 000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Findings to date Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Future plans Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20 000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume

  9. Looking into 'London'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rock abrasion tool target, 'London.' The image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on its 149th sol on Mars (June 24, 2004). Scientists 'read' the geology of the image from bottom to top, with the youngest material pictured at the bottom of the image and the oldest material in the layers pictured at the top. Millimeter-scale layers run horizontally across the exposed surface, with two sliced sphere-like objects, or 'blueberries' on the upper left and upper right sides of the impression. This material is similar to the evaporative material found in 'Eagle Crater.' However, the intense review of these layers in Endurance Crater is, in essence, deepening the water story authored by ancient Mars.

    In Eagle Crater, the effects of water were traced down a matter of centimeters. Endurance Crater's depth has allowed the tracing of water's telltale marks up to meters. Another process that significantly affects martian terrain is muddying the water story a bit. Although it is clear that the layers in Endurance were affected by water, it is also evident that Aeolian, or wind, processes have contributed to the makeup of the crater.

  10. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  11. No evidence of transmission from an acute case of hepatitis A in a foodhandler: follow-up of almost 1,000 potentially exposed individuals, London, United Kingdom, April 2012.

    PubMed

    Hall, V; Abrahams, A; Turbitt, D; Cathcart, S; Maguire, H; Balasegaram, S

    2014-01-01

    Identification of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a foodhandler in a London hotel led to a large incident response. We identified three potentially exposed groups: hotel staff who had regularly consumed food prepared by the case and shared toilet facilities with the case, patients who shared the same hospital ward as the case and hotel guests who consumed food prepared by the case. We arranged post-exposure HAV vaccination for all 83 potentially exposed hotel staff and all 17 patients. We emailed 887 guests advising them to seek medical care if symptomatic, but did not advise vaccination as it was too late to be effective for most guests. Through the International Health Regulations national focal points and the European Union Early warning and response system (EWRS), we communicated the details of the incident to public health agencies and potential risk of HAV transmission to international guests. Potentially exposed hotel staff and guests were asked to complete an online or telephone-administered questionnaire 50 days following possible exposure, to identify any secondary cases. Survey response was low, with 155 responses from guests and 33 from hotel staff. We identified no secondary cases of HAV infection through follow-up. PMID:25108536

  12. The epidemiology of suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    A database containing details of every incident of suicidal behaviour on the London Underground railway system between 1940 and 1990 was assembled from the records of London Underground Ltd and the British Transport Police. The total number of cases was 3240. The mean annual number of suicidal acts on the London Underground system increased from 36.1 (1940-1949) to 94.1 (1980-1989). There were significantly fewer incidents on Sundays than on the other days of the week and the daily rate was highest in the spring. 64% of incidents involved males and the peak age group for both sexes was 25-34 yr. Suicide verdicts were returned for a greater proportion of women than men. Overall case fatality was 55%. However, case fatality rates differed between stations, environmental factors appearing to influence survival. Possible strategies to prevent railway suicides and reduce the lethality of this method are discussed. PMID:8153744

  13. Lessons from London Schools: Investigating the Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baars, Sam; Bernardes, Eleanor; Elwick, Alex; Malortie, Abigail; McAleavy, Tony; McInerney, Laura; Menzies, Loic; Riggall, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This research seeks to investigate the claim that London schools have improved dramatically since 2000. The authors have reviewed the evidence of transformational change and explored possible reasons for the development in London's schools. The project was guided by three questions: (1) Is the success of London's schools as real as has…

  14. Flood-inundation maps for the Saddle River in Ho-Ho-Kus Borough, the Village of Ridgewood, and Paramus Borough, New Jersey, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Kara M.; Niemoczynski, Michal J.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the Saddle River in New Jersey from Hollywood Avenue in Ho-Ho-Kus Borough downstream through the Village of Ridgewood and Paramus Borough to the confluence with Hohokus Brook in the Village of Ridgewood were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Saddle River at Ridgewood, New Jersey (station 01390500). Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01390500 or at the National Weather Services (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?wfo=okx&gage=rwdn4. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation (March 11, 2011) at the USGS streamgage 01390500, Saddle River at Ridgewood, New Jersey. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from 5 ft, the NWS “action and minor flood stage”, to 14 ft, which is the maximum extent of the stage-discharge rating and 0.6 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system 3-meter (9.84-ft) digital elevation model derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data in order to delineate the area flooded

  15. Case studies in prehospital care from London HEMS: pre-hospital administration of prothrombin complex concentrate to the head-injured patient.

    PubMed

    Lendrum, Robbie A; Kotze, Jean-Pierre; Lockey, David J; Weaver, Anne E

    2013-03-01

    A case of pre-hospital administration of prothrombin complex concentrate to a patient anticoagulated with warfarin and with suspected intracranial haemorrhage is described. Effective, early reversal of anticoagulation by the time of arrival at hospital was achieved. PMID:23349352

  16. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  17. Diabetes, hyperinsulinaemia, and coronary risk factors in Bangladeshis in east London.

    PubMed

    McKeigue, P M; Marmot, M G; Syndercombe Court, Y D; Cottier, D E; Rahman, S; Riemersma, R A

    1988-11-01

    Immigrants from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) in England and Wales have higher morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease than the general population; this seems to apply to both Hindus and Muslims. Studies in north west London and Trinidad found that the increased risk of coronary heart disease in Indians was not explained by dietary fat intakes, smoking, blood pressure, or plasma lipids. In the present study the distribution of coronary risk factors was measured in an East London borough where the mortality and attack rate from coronary heart disease are higher in the Asian population, predominantly Muslims from Bangladesh, than in the rest of the population. In a sample of 253 men and women aged 35-69 from general practice, mean plasma cholesterol concentrations were lower in Bangladeshi than in European men and women. Mean systolic blood pressures were 10 mm Hg lower in Bangladeshis. Plasma fibrinogen concentrations were similar in Bangladeshis and Europeans and factor VII coagulant activity was lower in Bangladeshi than in European men. In contrast with the findings in Hindus in north west London, smoking rates were high in Bangladeshi men and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in plasma lipids was lower in Bangladeshis than in Europeans. Diabetes was three times more common in Bangladeshis than in Europeans and serum insulin concentrations measured after a glucose load were twice as high in Bangladeshis. High insulin concentrations in Bangladeshis were associated with high plasma triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Insulin resistance, leading to diabetes, hyperinsulinaemia, and secondary lipoprotein disturbances, is a possible mechanism for the high rates of coronary heart disease in South Asians in Britain and overseas. PMID:3060188

  18. The Olympic Regeneration in East London (ORiEL) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experiment to evaluate the impact of urban regeneration on young people and their families

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Neil R; Clark, Charlotte; Fahy, Amanda E; Tharmaratnam, Vanathi; Lewis, Daniel J; Thompson, Claire; Renton, Adrian; Moore, Derek G; Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Eldridge, Sandra; Petticrew, Mark; Greenhalgh, Tricia; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Cummins, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recent systematic reviews suggest that there is a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of large-scale urban regeneration programmes in improving health and well-being and alleviating health inequalities. The development of the Olympic Park in Stratford for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games provides the opportunity to take advantage of a natural experiment to examine the impact of large-scale urban regeneration on the health and well-being of young people and their families. Design and methods A prospective school-based survey of adolescents (11–12 years) with parent data collected through face-to-face interviews at home. Adolescents will be recruited from six randomly selected schools in an area receiving large-scale urban regeneration (London Borough of Newham) and compared with adolescents in 18 schools in three comparison areas with no equivalent regeneration (London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Barking & Dagenham). Baseline data will be completed prior to the start of the London Olympics (July 2012) with follow-up at 6 and 18 months postintervention. Primary outcomes are: pre–post change in adolescent and parent mental health and well-being, physical activity and parental employment status. Secondary outcomes include: pre–post change in social cohesion, smoking, alcohol use, diet and body mass index. The study will account for individual and environmental contextual effects in evaluating changes to identified outcomes. A nested longitudinal qualitative study will explore families’ experiences of regeneration in order to unpack the process by which regeneration impacts on health and well-being. Ethics and dissemination The study has approval from Queen Mary University of London Ethics Committee (QMREC2011/40), the Association of Directors of Children's Services (RGE110927) and the London Boroughs Research Governance Framework (CERGF113). Fieldworkers have had advanced Criminal Records Bureau clearance. Findings

  19. Low on the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.

    2013-09-01

    Until relatively recently, many authors have assumed that if extraterrestrial life is discovered it will be via the discovery of extraterrestrial intelligence: we can best try to detect life by adopting the SETI approach of trying to detect beacons or artefacts. The Rio Scale, proposed by Almár and Tarter in 2000, is a tool for quantifying the potential significance for society of any such reported detection. However, improvements in technology and advances in astrobiology raise the possibility that the discovery of extraterrestrial life will instead be via the detection of atmospheric biosignatures. The London Scale, proposed by Almár in 2010, attempts to quantify the potential significance of the discovery of extraterrestrial life rather than extraterrestrial intelligence. What might be the consequences of the announcement of a discovery that ranks low on the London Scale? In other words, what might be society's reaction if 'first contact' is via the remote sensing of the byproducts of unicellular organisms rather than with the products of high intelligence? Here, I examine some possible reactions to that question; in particular, I discuss how such an announcement might affect our views of life here on Earth and of humanity's place in the universe.

  20. How might the London 2012 Olympics influence health and the determinants of health? Local newspaper analysis of pre-Games pathways and impacts

    PubMed Central

    Selvanayagam, Marinie; Thompson, Claire; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Cummins, Steven; Bourke, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a content analysis of pre-Games local media coverage of the potential impact on health and the determinants of health in Newham, the site of the Olympic Park. Design Local newspaper content analysis. Setting Olympic park host site of the London Borough of Newham. Outcome measures Media coverage of employment, physical activity and well-being. Results Three hundred and 51 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. The overwhelming majority of the articles took a positive perspective on the Olympic Games being hosted in Newham with less than 10% (32/351) addressing potential adverse effects. The frequency of articles reporting on both employment and well-being increased significantly over time (p=0.002 and p=0.006, respectively). A non-significant increasing trend was observed for physical activity (p=0.146). New employment opportunities and the promotion of physical activity in young people were the pathways most frequently reported in the local media. However, much less attention is devoted to understanding the uncertainties about how much of these new opportunities will directly improve the determinants of health in the Newham population. Conclusions Pre-Games reporting on the impact on health and the determinants of health increased over time in the London Borough of Newham, and is overwhelmingly positive. However, specific uncertainties around the true nature of its impact on local employment and physical activity were articulated. Further evaluation of the tangible impacts on population health, and the determinants of health and health inequalities from the London 2012 Olympics, is required. PMID:23151394

  1. London's Jewish Communities and State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The Inner London education authority was a notable example of a radical and powerful local government body from which the fight for the comprehensive principle in English secondary education emerged. Building on previous work of women's contribution to state education in London, this articles focuses on Anglo-Jewish educator activists who helped…

  2. School Improvement in London: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavy, Tony; Elwick, Alex

    2016-01-01

    This report considers how successful London's schools have been over the past decade and identifies potentially transferable components of the success story. There is much to be learned from the transformation undergone in London that is relevant to policymakers and educationalists worldwide, working in both high-income and low-income countries.…

  3. Jack London: The Paradox of Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Because of their interest in naturalism and socialism, critics often overlook the major intellectual conflict in Jack London's work: the paradox of individualism. London regards society as affecting the individual in two ways: it either promotes individuality or it demands a conformity that undermines individualism. When society fails Buck in "The…

  4. The Well London program - a cluster randomized trial of community engagement for improving health behaviors and mental wellbeing: baseline survey results

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Well London program used community engagement, complemented by changes to the physical and social neighborhood environment, to improve physical activity levels, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing in the most deprived communities in London. The effectiveness of Well London is being evaluated in a pair-matched cluster randomized trial (CRT). The baseline survey data are reported here. Methods The CRT involved 20 matched pairs of intervention and control communities (defined as UK census lower super output areas (LSOAs); ranked in the 11% most deprived LSOAs in London by the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation) across 20 London boroughs. The primary trial outcomes, sociodemographic information, and environmental neighbourhood characteristics were assessed in three quantitative components within the Well London CRT at baseline: a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered adult household survey; a self-completed, school-based adolescent questionnaire; a fieldworker completed neighborhood environmental audit. Baseline data collection occurred in 2008. Physical activity, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing were assessed using standardized, validated questionnaire tools. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the outcomes and other variables in the adult and adolescent surveys. Results There were 4,107 adults and 1,214 adolescent respondents in the baseline surveys. The intervention and control areas were broadly comparable with respect to the primary outcomes and key sociodemographic characteristics. The environmental characteristics of the intervention and control neighborhoods were broadly similar. There was greater between-cluster variation in the primary outcomes in the adult population compared to the adolescent population. Levels of healthy eating, smoking, and self-reported anxiety/depression were similar in the Well London adult population and the national Health Survey for England. Levels of physical activity were higher

  5. 12. Photo copy of drawing, May 21, 1963. NEW LONDON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photo copy of drawing, May 21, 1963. NEW LONDON LEDGE LIGHT STATION LIGHTING. Drawing no. 03-2730, U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - New London Ledge Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, East of main harbor channel, New London, New London County, CT

  6. Studying policy implementation using a macro, meso and micro frame analysis: the case of the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research & Care (CLAHRC) programme nationally and in North West London

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The publication of Best research for best health in 2006 and the “ring-fencing” of health research funding in England marked the start of a period of change for health research governance and the structure of research funding in England. One response to bridging the ‘second translational gap’ between research knowledge and clinical practice was the establishment of nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs). The goal of this paper is to assess how national-level understanding of the aims and objectives of the CLAHRCs translated into local implementation and practice in North West London. Methods This study uses a variation of Goffman’s frame analysis to trace the development of the initial national CLAHRC policy to its implementation at three levels. Data collection and analysis were qualitative through interviews, document analysis and embedded research. Results Analysis at the macro (national policy), meso (national programme) and micro (North West London) levels shows a significant common understanding of the aims and objectives of the policy and programme. Local level implementation in North West London was also consistent with these. Conclusions The macro-meso-micro frame analysis is a useful way of studying the transition of a policy from high-level idea to programme in action. It could be used to identify differences at a local (micro) level in the implementation of multi-site programmes that would help understand differences in programme effectiveness. PMID:23067208

  7. Survey of women׳s experiences of care in a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area of London, England: 2. Specific aspects of care

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Alison J.; Rocca-Ihenacho, Lucia; Turner, Lyle R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective to describe and compare women׳s experiences of specific aspects of maternity care before and after the opening of the Barkantine Birth Centre, a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area. Design telephone surveys undertaken in late pregnancy and about six weeks after birth. Two separate waves of interviews were conducted, Phase 1 before the birth centre opened and Phase 2 after it had opened. Setting Tower Hamlets, a deprived inner city borough in east London, 2007–2010. Participants 620 women who were resident in Tower Hamlets and who satisfied the Barts and the London Trust’s eligibility criteria for using the birth centre. Of these, 259 women were recruited to Phase 1 and 361 to Phase 2. Measurements and findings the replies women gave show marked differences between the model of care in the birth centre and that at the obstetric unit at the Royal London Hospital with respect to experiences of care and specific practices. Women who initially booked for birth centre care were more likely to attend antenatal classes and find them useful and were less likely to be induced. Women who started labour care at the birth centre in spontaneous labour were more likely to use non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, most notably water and less likely to use pethidine than women who started care at the hospital. They were more likely to be able to move around in labour and less likely to have their membranes ruptured or have continuous CTG. They were more likely to be told to push spontaneously when they needed to rather than under directed pushing and more likely to report that they had been able to choose their position for birth and deliver in places other than the bed, in contrast to the situation at the hospital. The majority of women who had a spontaneous onset of labour delivered vaginally, with 28.6 per cent of women at the birth centre but no one at the hospital delivering in water. Primiparous women who delivered at the birth centre

  8. Fritz London's Legacy at Duke University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Horst

    2006-03-01

    When 3He became available in small quantities after WWII Fritz London, Professor at Duke University since 1939, became very interested in its properties in the liquid and solid phases, as contrasted with those of 4He. His influence and that of his colleague Walter Gordy led to the appointment of William Fairbank in 1952, who was able to verify experimentally the prediction on the Fermi degeneracy of liquid 3He below 1K, a few weeks before London's death in 1954. With his students and associates, Fairbank carried out a number of important experiments which became classics, several of which will be described. At Duke he also started planning other experiments inspired by London's predictions. After W. Fairbank's departure for Stanford in 1959, further research on liquid and solid 3He and 3He-4He mixtures was carried out by his successors at Duke University and some of the results in the sixties will be briefly described.

  9. Prosecuting attempted suicides in London: 1891-1913.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2009-12-01

    A study of 30 cases of attempted suicide tried at the Old Bailey criminal court in London (England) from 1891 to 1913 indicated that having made prior attempts was the only predictor of the severity of the sentence. 22 individuals were tried for murdering or attempting to murder their child and also attempting suicide. None of the murderers but half of the attempted murderers were found not guilty, or guilty then released. Mothers used drowning more than did fathers and were more likely to be found not guilty. PMID:20099544

  10. Knives and Other Weapons in London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. R. St. J.

    2005-01-01

    London schools operate in an area where crime rates, including violent crime, is statistically more frequent than the average for the whole of England and Wales (Moore and Yeo 2004). Violent crime in the capital increased (though not to a statistically significant extent) between 2002/3 and 2003/4 (Moore and Yeo 2004b). This has led to a…

  11. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  12. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  13. The Compact Route from Boston to London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brian

    1988-01-01

    The author describes the development and implementation of a business/secondary school compact in East London, based on the original Boston Compact. This cooperative relationship helps disadvantaged students attain employability skills and work experience, while employers gain a trained labor force for their entry-level jobs. (CH)

  14. Jack London and the San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sachs, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    After it was over, it seemed to many, and especially to eyewitnesses like Jack London, that the earthquake and fire had devastated San Francisco. However people were confident that, like the phoeniz, San Francisco would rise from the ashes and regain her palce as the "Imperial City of the West." 

  15. Preventing suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R V; Poyner, B

    1994-02-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the possibility of preventing suicide on the London Underground. Four groups of potentially valuable measures were identified with the objectives of: (i) reducing public access to the tracks; (ii) improving surveillance by station staff; (iii) facilitating emergency stops; and (iv) reducing injury. These strategies are discussed. PMID:8153749

  16. Ensuring equine biosecurity at London 2012.

    PubMed

    Slater, Josh

    2013-02-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Equestrian Games were the highest profile event in the 2012 equestrian calendar and were the culmination of four years of detailed and meticulous biosecurity planning to ensure that all horses arrived, competed and returned home safely and in good health. Josh Slater, Anthony Greenleaves and Andy Paterson describe how this was achieved. PMID:23378308

  17. 114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. 113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  19. 112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No... Academy, New London, Connecticut....

  1. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following...

  2. Recognising and Developing Urban Teachers: Chartered London Teacher Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubb, Sara; Porritt, Vivienne

    2008-01-01

    Chartered London Teacher (CLT) status is a unique scheme designed by London Challenge to recognise and reward teachers' achievements and provide a framework for professional development. As well as having the prestige of being a Chartered London Teacher for life, educators receive a one-time payment of 1,000 British pounds from the school budget…

  3. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following...

  4. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following...

  5. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following...

  6. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No... Academy, New London, Connecticut....

  7. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No... Academy, New London, Connecticut....

  8. 32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. OCTOBER 3, 1932. COMPLETION OF ERECTION OF STEELWORK FOR ELEVATOR. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  9. 30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. 2 JUNE 1930. SUBMARINE TRAINING TANK - STEELWORK 98% COMPLETE; BRICKWORK 95% COMPLETE, PIPING 10% IN PLACE. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  10. Fairbanks North Star Borough Public Library, Final Performance Report for Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Title VI, Library Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christine Betz; Sherif, Sue; Hurbi, Crystal

    The Fairbanks North Star Borough Public Library (Alaska) conducted a project that involved recruitment, coalition building, public awareness, training, basic literacy, collection development, tutoring, computer assisted services, and English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. The project served a community of 50,000-100,000, and targeted inmates…

  11. The Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Evaluation System of the Board of Education for the Borough of York. Management of Educational Resources System (MERS). Progress Report Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York Borough Board of Education, Toronto (Ontario).

    Three aspects of the York Borough's school instructional programs are discussed: program structure, program costs, and program evaluation. Some basic philosophies of the Management of Educational Resources System (MERS) are set forth and the early history of the project is described showing how the boardwide MERS evolved from a pilot experiment…

  12. Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

    2011-12-01

    The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine

  13. The Educational and Employment Aspirations of Adolescents from Areas of High Deprivation in London.

    PubMed

    Frostick, Caroline; Phillips, Gemma; Renton, Adrian; Moore, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents from areas of high deprivation are often assumed to have low aspirations for the future. However, recent research has suggested otherwise and there have been calls for more substantial investigation into the relationship between poverty and aspiration. This article reports levels and variation in aspiration from 1214 adolescents (49.5 % male; 50.5 % female) living in areas of high deprivation across 20 London boroughs. A strength of this study is our large and diverse population of low socio-economic status (SES) adolescents, comprising of white British (22 %), black African (21 %), black Caribbean (9 %), Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi/Other Asian (24 %), mixed ethnicity (9 %), and 15 % defining themselves as Other. Our measures indicated a high group level of reported aspiration with notable variations. Females reported higher educational (but not occupational) aspirations than males; white British students reported lower educational and occupational aspirations than other ethnic groups; and black African children reported the highest educational aspirations. Perceived parental support for education had the largest positive association with aspirations. In contrast to previous findings from studies carried out in the United States, aspirations were found to be negatively associated with perceptions of school and school peer environment. These measures explored feelings of safety, happiness and belonging within the school environment and school peer group. We discuss possible explanations for this unexpected finding within our population of adolescents from UK state schools and how it might affect future policy interventions. This study makes an important contribution to the literature on adolescent aspirations because of the unique nature of the data sample and the multiple domains of functioning and aspiration measured. PMID:26346034

  14. The 2015 Pregnancy Summit, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Cherynne

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancy Summit, Cineworld, The O2, London, UK, 29 September to 1 October 2015 The 2015 Pregnancy Summit was held over 3 days from 29 September to 1 October at Cineworld, The O2, London, UK. The event brings together a multidisciplinary faculty of international researchers and clinicians to discuss both scientific and clinical aspects of pregnancy-related issues in an informal setting. The goal of the meeting was to provide delegates with an update of recent advances in management of pregnancy-related conditions, to present research data and to discuss the current attitudes and practices in relevant topics. An extensive range of topics were discussed, from preeclampsia and treatment of hypertension, to the psychological impact of termination of pregnancy and feticide. This report will summarize a selection of the lectures presented. PMID:26900652

  15. Molecular Self-Assembly Driven by London Dispersion Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guo; Cooper, Valentino R; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hongjun; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2011-01-01

    The nature and strength of intermolecular interactions are crucial to a variety of kinetic and dynamic processes at surfaces. Whereas strong chemisorption bonds are known to facilitate molecular binding, the importance of the weaker yet ubiquitous van der Waals (vdW) interactions remains elusive in most cases. Here we use first-principles calculations combined with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to unambiguously demonstrate the vital role that vdW interactions play in molecular self-assembly, using styrene nanowire growth on silicon as a prototypical example. We find that, only when the London dispersion forces are included, accounting for the attractive parts of vdW interactions, can the effective intermolecular interaction be reversed from being repulsive to attractive. Such attractive interactions, in turn, ensure the preferred growth of long wires under physically realistic conditions as observed experimentally. We further propose a cooperative scheme, invoking the application of an electric field and the selective creation of Si dangling bonds, to drastically improve the ordered arrangement of the molecular structures. The present study represents a significant step forward in the fundamental understanding and precise control of molecular self-assembly guided by London dispersion forces.

  16. Presence of Legionella in London's water supplies.

    PubMed

    Colbourne, J S; Trew, R M

    1986-09-01

    Legionella occurs frequently (52 to 54%) in domestic water and cooling water inside commercial, industrial and health care buildings, and these types of water systems are now regarded as a normal habitat for Legionella. The factors that predispose a particular water system to colonization by these organisms are ill-defined, although it is fairly certain that biological and physicochemical environmental factors play an important role in allowing Legionella to multiply in the circulating water. It has been postulated that the organism may gain access to water systems inside buildings by one of three routes: contact with air through open points such as uncovered storage tanks or vents, ingress of soil or surface water during construction or repair, or intermittent seeding with organisms present in low numbers in the public water supply. Three studies in the USA have found Legionella in 0.4 to 8.8% of drinking-water samples, but these were not representative of the public supply network as a whole. The aim of this study was to determine, over a period of 1 year, the frequency of Legionella in London's drinking water--from the treatment plant through to the consumer's tap. To date, Legionella has not been isolated from raw river water entering London's treatment works or from treated water entering the distribution network. Sixty-two monitoring taps in buildings located in 21 supply areas have been sampled twice for Legionella; only 2 (2.4%) have proved positive during the autumn and winter of 1985/86. The strain found was L. pneumophila serotype 1, subgroup Olda, and the numbers ranged from 10(2) to 10(4)/l. Although the survey is incomplete, it is already clear that the public water supplies in London are not a source of strains of Legionella associated with disease. PMID:3793445

  17. London's changing ethnic landscape, 2001-2011: a cartographic exploration.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Ron; Poulsen, Michael; Forrest, James

    2014-01-01

    London population became increasing more diverse ethnically over the decade 2001-2011, a period when the White population declined, with many commentators suggesting that there has been 'White flight' from some districts in the face of 'invasion' by members of ethnic minority groups. To examine how extensively the city's ethnic landscape changed during that period--and whether suggestions of the operation of 'invasion and succession processes' are valid--this article reports on statistical mapping of small area data for the two censuses. The results identify clearly-defined, substantial blocks of territory within the urban residential fabric where members of each of the main census respondent self-identified ethnic groups are concentrated. These have expanded outwards, into areas from which the White population has clearly withdrawn, though in most cases the rate of cluster areal expansion has been less than the groups' numerical growth. PMID:25080618

  18. The worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London.

    PubMed

    Hunting, P

    2004-01-01

    The Society of Apothecaries is both a City livery company and an examining authority for the medical profession. Founded in 1617 by the royal apothecary Gideon de Laune leading a breakaway group from the Grocers' Company, the Society was instrumental in raising the status of apothecaries as general practitioners. Under the Apothecaries' Act (1815) the Society examined for the LSA and it now awards the LMSSA (Licence in Medicine and Surgery of the Society of Apothecaries) and postgraduate diplomas, while maintaining the civic, charitable, and ceremonial traditions of a livery company of the City of London. PMID:14760181

  19. Experiential Approaches to the Global City: London as Social Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gristwood, Anthony; Woolf, Michael

    2011-01-01

    London is the paramount example of a city that is not bounded by its geography and cannot be grasped in isolation. The U.K.'s national capital and the prime focus for business, finance and creative industries, London also transcends the U.K.'s borders as a hub of the world economy. This paper argues that London, a city riddled by the socioeconomic…

  20. Ground-water availability in part of the Borough of Carroll Valley, Adams County, Pennsylvania, and the establishment of a drought-monitor well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Continued population growth in the Borough of Carroll Valley (Borough) coupled with the drought of 2001 have increased the demand for ground water in the Borough. This demand has led Borough officials to undertake an effort to evaluate the capability of the crystalline-bedrock aquifers to meet future, projected growth and to establish a drought-monitor well within and for the use of the Borough. As part of this effort, this report summarizes ground-water data available from selected sections within the Borough and provides geohydrologic information needed to evaluate ground-water availability and recharge sources within part of the Borough. The availability of ground water in the Borough is limited by the physical characteristics of the underlying bedrock, and its upland topographic setting. The crystalline rocks (metabasalt, metarhyolite, greenstone schist) that underlie most of the study area are among the lowest yielding aquifers in the Commonwealth. More than 25 percent of the wells drilled in the metabasalt, the largest bedrock aquifer in the study area, have driller reported yields less than 1.25 gallons per minute. Driller reports indicate also that water-producing zones are shallow and few in number. In general, 50 percent of the water-producing zones reported by drillers are penetrated at depths of 200 feet or less and 90 percent at depths of 370 feet or less. Borehole geophysical data indicate that most of the water-producing zones are at lithologic contacts, but such contacts are penetrated infrequently and commonly do not intersect areas of ground-water recharge. Single-well aquifer tests and slug tests indicate that the bedrock aquifers also do not readily transmit large amounts of water. The median hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the bedrock aquifers are 0.01 foot per dayand 2.75 feet squared per day, respectively. The crystalline and siliciclastic (Weverton and Loudoun Formations) bedrock aquifers are moderately to highly resistant to

  1. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  2. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Boroughs of Lewisburg and Milton, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 8-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River from approximately 2 miles downstream from the Borough of Lewisburg, extending upstream to approximately 1 mile upstream from the Borough of Milton, Pennsylvania, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict the estimated areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa. In addition, the information has been provided to the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) for incorporation into their Susquehanna Inundation Map Viewer (SIMV) flood warning system (http://maps.srbc.net/simv/). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information (http://water.weather.gov/ahps) for USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibration of the model was achieved using the most current stage-discharge relations (rating number 11.1) at USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., a documented water-surface profile from the December 2, 2010, flood, and recorded peak stage data. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 14 feet (ft) to 39 ft. Modeled flood stages, as defined by NWS, include Action Stage, 14 ft; Flood Stage, 18 ft; Moderate Flood Stage, 23 ft; and Major Flood Stage, 28 ft. Geographic information system (GIS) technology

  3. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY AT THE NEW LONDON HARBOR FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A radiological survey done to assess levels of environmental radioactivity in and around navy harbor facilities located on the Thames River near New London, Connecticut. These facilities include the New London Submarine Base at Groton, the Electric Boat Company at Groton, Sound ...

  4. Alternative Spaces of Learning in East London: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article emerges from an ongoing exploration into how British minority ethnic communities in the London area create spaces in community-based programs to maintain or develop their languages and literacies. In London, more than one-third of the 850,000 school children speak a language other than English at home (Baker & Eversley, 2000). This…

  5. Education in a Global City: Essays from London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim, Ed.; Fullick, Leisha, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This collection of essays by academic and policy experts brings together a wide range of data to offer a clear picture of London's changing education scene. Its mapping of new and developing strategies for successful urban education will be useful to educators and policymakers not only in London but also in other cities operating in similar…

  6. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  7. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews with members of the…

  8. London in Space and Time: Peter Ackroyd and Will Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the treatment of London by two authors who are profoundly influenced by the concept of the power of place and the nature of urban space. The works of Peter Ackroyd, whose writings embody, according to Onega (1997, p. 208) "[a] yearning for mythical closure" where London is "a mystic centre of…

  9. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  10. Patterns of early transmission of pandemic influenza in London – link with deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Balasegaram, Sooria; Ogilvie, Flora; Glasswell, Amy; Anderson, Charlotte; Cleary, Vivien; Turbitt, Deborah; McCloskey, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Balasegaram et al. (2012) Patterns of early transmission of pandemic influenza in London – link with deprivation. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e35–e41. Background  During the early containment phase in England from April to June 2009, the national strategy for H1N1 pandemic influenza involved case investigation and treatment, and tracing and prophylaxis of contacts. Objective  To describe the relationship between early transmission of H1N1 pandemic influenza in London and age and socio‐economic status. Methods  Epidemiological data on cases of pandemic flu in London reported to the London Flu Response Centre were analysed to determine patterns of transmission. Results  There were 3487 reported cases (2202 confirmed, 1272 presumed and 14 probable) from 20 April to 28 June 2009, during the ‘containment’ period. The highest report rate of 206 per 100 000 (95% CI 195–218) was seen in primary school–age children (5−11 years) followed by 129 (95% CI 119–139) in secondary school–age children (12–18 years). Reports of cases were initially concentrated in affluent areas but overall showed a clear trend with deprivation and risk ratio of 2·32 (95% CI 1·94–2·78) between the most deprived and the least deprived. Conclusion  Early transmissions were highest amongst school‐aged children but linked with socio‐economic deprivation across all age groups. PMID:22236079

  11. Exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in London: incidence, survival and bystander response

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Melanie J; Fothergill, Rachael T

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to (1) establish the incidence of exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in London, (2) investigate survival from exercise-related SCA and (3) examine factors related to survival. Method This retrospective observational study examined 2 years’ data from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) cardiac arrest registry for patients in whom resuscitation was attempted following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), a cardiac cause was presumed and the arrest occurred during or within 1 h of exercise. Results The incidence of exercise-related SCA in London was estimated to be 0.6 per 100 000 person-years which equated to 0.5% of all OHCA, and 1.5% of all OHCA with presumed cardiac aetiology and resuscitation attempted. The majority of cases were male and the incidence increased from age 40 years. Just under one-third of patients survived to hospital discharge. Survival in the Utstein comparator group (cases with presumed cardiac aetiology, resuscitation attempted, bystander witnessed and a presenting cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia) was higher at 42%. Survival was significantly associated with initial cardiac rhythm (χ2=17.5, df=2, p<0.001) and bystander defibrillation (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). Conclusions Incidence of exercise-related SCA in the general population in London is rare. Survival following exercise-related SCA was considerably higher than survival for all OHCA with presumed cardiac aetiology and resuscitation attempted attended by the LAS during the same period. The major limitation of the study is the likely under identification of cases of exercise-related SCA. PMID:26468401

  12. Stability of topological defects in chiral superconductors: London theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Vakaryuk, V.

    2011-12-22

    This paper examines the thermodynamic stability of chiral domain walls and vortices-topological defects which can exist in chiral superconductors. Using London theory it is demonstrated that at sufficiently small applied and chiral fields the existence of domain walls and vortices in the sample is not favored and the sample's configuration is a single domain. The particular chirality of the single-domain configuration is neither favored nor disfavored by the applied field. Increasing the field leads to an entry of a domain-wall loop or a vortex into the sample. The formation of a straight domain wall is never preferred in equilibrium. Values of the entry (critical) fields for both types of defects, as well as the equilibrium size of the domain-wall loop, are calculated. We also consider a mesoscopic chiral sample and calculate its zero-field magnetization, susceptibility, and a change in the magnetic moment due to a vortex or a domain-wall entry. We show that in the case of a soft domain wall whose energetics is dominated by the chiral current (and not by the surface tension) its behavior in mesoscopic samples is substantially different from that in the bulk case and can be used for a controllable transfer of edge excitations. The applicability of these results to Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} - a tentative chiral superconductor - is discussed.

  13. Challenges in researching migration status, health and health service use: an intersectional analysis of a South London community

    PubMed Central

    Gazard, Billy; Frissa, Souci; Nellums, Laura; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the associations between migration status and health-related outcomes and to examine whether and how the effect of migration status changes when it is disaggregated by length of residence, first language, reason for migration and combined with ethnicity. Design. A total of 1698 adults were interviewed from 1076 randomly selected households in two South London boroughs. We described the socio-demographic and socio-economic differences between migrants and non-migrants and compared the prevalence of health-related outcomes by migration status, length of residence, first language, reason for migration and migration status within ethnic groups. Unadjusted models and models adjusted for socio-demographic and socio-economic indicators are presented. Results. Migrants were disadvantaged in terms of socio-economic status but few differences were found between migrant and non-migrants regarding health or health service use indicators; migration status was associated with decreased hazardous alcohol use, functional limitations due to poor mental health and not being registered with a general practitioner. Important differences emerged when migration status was disaggregated by length of residence in the UK, first language, reason for migration and intersected with ethnicity. The association between migration status and functional limitations due to poor mental health was only seen in White migrants, migrants whose first language was not English and migrants who had moved to the UK for work or a better life or for asylum or political reasons. There was no association between migration status and self-rated health overall, but Black African migrants had decreased odds for reporting poor health compared to their non-migrant counterparts [odds ratio = 0.15 (0.05–0.48), p < 0.01]. Conclusions. Disaggregating migration status by length of residence, first language and reason for migration as well as intersecting it with ethnicity leads

  14. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  15. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Hugo; Vaughan, Geraint; Wareing, David

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  16. The Policy-Practice Nexus in English Classrooms in Delhi, Johannesburg, and London: Teachers and the Textual Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Rimli; Gupta, Snehlata; Jewitt, Carey; Newfield, Denise; Reed, Yvonne; Stein, Pippa

    2007-01-01

    This article makes a methodological contribution to investigating the policy-practice nexus in the English classroom. It looks beyond language to offer a multimodal case study analysis of English classrooms in three cities: Delhi, Johannesburg, and London. The article shows how policies mediated by the agencies of the state, the school, the…

  17. London 2012: prescribing for athletes in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, R G H; Thomas, G P L; Potter, M J; Norris, J H

    2012-01-01

    Aims Prescribing for athletes requires an up-to-date knowledge of the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances. As the London 2012 Olympic Games attract athletes from around the world, we review the current guidelines with respect to all medications licensed for ophthalmic use in the United Kingdom. We describe the process that an ophthalmologist can use to check for permissible medications and also highlight treatments that are contraindicated. Methods We systematically reviewed all 77 drugs listed in Section 11 of the British National Formulary (Issue 63) for use in the treatment of ophthalmic conditions, and referenced these against the 2012 Prohibited List published by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Results The majority of ophthalmic preparations are suitable for use in- and out-of-competition. Some preparations, such as glucocorticoids, are prohibited when administered systemically but permitted for topical administration. Beta-blockers are prohibited in-competition and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are prohibited in- and out-of competition. Conclusion The 2012 Prohibited List has important implications for the pharmacological treatment of ophthalmic conditions in athletes. Clinicians prescribing for athletes have a duty to familiarise themselves with the list in order to avoid causing significant damage to their patient's career and reputation. PMID:22744394

  18. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757) approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed a decrease of the mean healthy (−1.12, se 0.12) and unhealthy (−0.48, se 0.16) diet scores. There were significant positive relationships between the distances travelled to grocers and healthy diet scores though effects were very small (0.003, 95%CI 0.001 – 0.006). Significant negative relationships between proximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates. Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools

  19. East London Experience with Enteric Fever 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jayshree; Millar, Michael; Maxeiner, Horst; Freedman, Joanne; Meade, Rachel; Rosmarin, Caryn; Jordan, Matthew; Andrews, Nick; Holliman, Richard; Sefton, Armine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The clinical presentation and epidemiology for patients with enteric fever at two hospitals in East London during 2007–2012 is described with the aim to identify preventive opportunities and to reduce the cost of treatment. Methods A retrospective analysis of case notes from patients admitted with enteric fever during 2007 to 2012 with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis was undertaken. Details on clinical presentation, travel history, demographic data, laboratory parameters, treatment, patient outcome and vaccination status were collected. Results Clinical case notes were available for 98/129 (76%) patients including 69 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and 29 Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi). Thirty-four patients (35%) were discharged from emergency medicine without a diagnosis of enteric fever and then readmitted after positive blood cultures. Seventy-one of the 98 patients (72%) were UK residents who had travelled abroad, 23 (23%) were foreign visitors/new entrants to the UK and four (4%) had not travelled abroad. Enteric fever was not considered in the initial differential diagnosis for 48/98 (49%) cases. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 0–57 days). The total cost of bed days for managing enteric fever was £454,000 in the two hospitals (mean £75,666/year). Median time to clinical resolution was five days (range 1–20). Seven of 98 (7%) patients were readmitted with relapsed or continued infection. Six of the 71 (8%) patients had received typhoid vaccination, 34 (48%) patients had not received vaccination, and for 31 cases (44%) vaccination status was unknown. Conclusions Further interventions regarding education and vaccination of travellers and recognition of the condition by emergency medicine clinicians in travellers to South Asia is required. PMID:25790017

  20. 122. Four Blade Semaphore Tower. Groton, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Four Blade Semaphore Tower. Groton, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. Infant mortality in London, 1538-1850: a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Razzell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A review of evidence on infant mortality derived from the London bills of mortality and parish registers indicates that there were major registration problems throughout the whole of the parish register period. One way of addressing these problems is to carry out reconstitution studies of individual London parishes, but there are a number of problems with reconstitution methodology, including the traffic in corpses between parishes both inside and outside of London and the negligence of clergymen in registering both baptisms and burials. In this paper the triangulation of sources has been employed to measure the adequacy of burial registration, including the comparison of data from bills of mortality, parish registers and probate returns, as well as the use of the same-name technique. This research indicates that between 20 and 40 per cent of burials went unregistered in London during the parish register period. PMID:22397160

  2. 124. Mystic River Bridge. Mystic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. Mystic River Bridge. Mystic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 132.16. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 123. Mystic River Bridge. Mystic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Mystic River Bridge. Mystic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 132.16. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  5. London Tideway Tunnels: tackling London's Victorian legacy of combined sewer overflows.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G B; Crawford, D

    2011-01-01

    It takes a few millimetres of rainfall to cause the 34 most polluting combined sewer overflows (CSOs) to discharge into the River Thames. Currently, in a typical year, spillages to the tidal reaches of the River Thames occur about 60 times, with an estimated spill volume of 39 million cubic metres. Both the UK Government and the European Union have determined that the CSO discharges have an adverse environmental impact on fish species, introduce unacceptable aesthetics and elevate the health risks for recreational users of the Thames, with a frequency of discharge which is in breach of the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive. Studies have established that the environmental objectives can be fully met on the most cost-effective basis by completing both quality improvements to treatment works and by the provision of a storage and transfer tunnel to intercept unsatisfactory CSOs. Extensive modelling has been undertaken to develop an optimised solution. In parallel with the design development a rigorous and comprehensive site selection methodology has been established to select sites and consult stakeholders and the public on the preferred sites and scheme, with the first stage of public consultation planned for later in 2010. The London Tideway Tunnels are an essential part of the delivery of improvements to the water quality of the tidal River Thames, and this ambitious, historic scheme represents a vital strategic investment in London's infrastructure. PMID:21245557

  6. Study of 100 patients injured by London underground trains 1981-6.

    PubMed

    Cocks, R A

    1987-12-12

    One hundred patients who were injured by London underground trains during 1981-6 were studied; 43 of them died. Deliberate self harm was probable in roughly three quarters. Alcohol intoxication was thought to play an important part in a further tenth of cases. Thirteen were psychiatric inpatients at the time of the incident, and a further two had recently been discharged. Early warning of a potential suicide attempt was given during the 24 hours preceding the incident in 15 of the cases. Some of the deaths in the psychiatric patients may have been preventable. PMID:3122889

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Garden State Cleaners, Buena Borough, Atlantic County, NJ. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-26

    The 3,000-square-foot Garden State Cleaners (GSC) site is an active dry cleaning operation in Minotola, Bueno Borough, Atlantic County, New Jersey. Land use in the area is residential and commercial, and local residents obtain drinking water from the Borough municipal water supply system. From 1966 to the present, dry cleaning activities using PCE were conducted at the GSC site, and until 1985, wastes were discharged through pipes directly into the ground. In 1984, State investigations showed elevated levels of PCE in ground water adjacent to and downgradient from the GSC and SJCC facilities, and elevated levels of PCE and TCE in onsite soil. The selected remedial action for the site includes treating onsite approximately 1,600 cubic yards of contaminated soil using in-situ vapor extraction; treating the contaminated wastewater from the vapor extraction processes onsite using an air stripping column; treating air emissions using carbon adsorption units; pumping and onsite treatment of contaminated ground water using air stripping and carbon adsorption; reinjecting the treated ground water upgradient from the site; regenerating spent activated carbon from both treatment processes offsite; conducting long-term ground water monitoring; and implementing temporary institutional controls. The estimated present worth cost for the remedial action at the GSC site is $5,451,000, which includes an estimated annual O and M cost of $249,500 for 70 years.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    PubMed

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles. PMID:27236164

  9. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attar, K. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books)" (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare Family…

  10. Third Year Continuation of a Research and Design Criteria for the Implementation and Establishment of a Neighborhood Information Center in Five Public Libraries: Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, and Queens Borough. Final Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    The 1972-1975 Neighborhood Information Center (NIC) Project was undertaken in Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, and Queens Borough to demonstrate the feasibility of using existing library branches as neighborhood information centers. This summary evaluation utilized data from site visits, interviews with staff and clients, a questionnaire…

  11. A Comprehensive Occupational Education System: Research and Experimentation in a Career Development Center. Volume II. Plan for a Comprehensive Occupational Education System in New York City's Borough of the Bronx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Educational Planning and Support.

    Designed to gather and analyze the information needed to develop a plan for a model comprehensive occupational education system (COES), this research project is reported in five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the project which was conducted in the Bronx borough of New York City because this area exemplifies the problems of urban…

  12. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London street network.

    PubMed

    Murcio, Roberto; Masucci, A Paolo; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not suffice to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, which can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, which converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofractal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through diffusion limited aggregation, evolve toward monofractality if their growth is constrained by a nonpermeable boundary. PMID:26764655

  13. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London street network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcio, Roberto; Masucci, A. Paolo; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not suffice to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, which can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, which converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofractal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through diffusion limited aggregation, evolve toward monofractality if their growth is constrained by a nonpermeable boundary.

  14. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  15. Parish apprenticeship and the old poor law in London1

    PubMed Central

    Levene, Alysa

    2010-01-01

    This article offers an examination of the patterns and motivations behind parish apprenticeship in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century London. It stresses continuity in outlook from parish officials binding children, which involved placements in both the traditional and industrializing sectors of the economy. Evidence on the ages, employment types, and locations of 3,285 pauper apprentices bound from different parts of London between 1767 and 1833 indicates a variety of local patterns. The analysis reveals a pattern of youthful age at binding, a range of employment experiences, and parish-specific links to particular trades and manufactures. PMID:20939134

  16. Ridding London of smallpox: the aerial transmission debate and the evolution of a precautionary approach

    PubMed Central

    MORTIMER, P. P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The efforts of the Metropolitan Asylums Board in Victorian London to isolate cases of smallpox in hospitals, and so limit its spread, set off a controversy about ‘hospital influence’, i.e. alleged escapes of the disease into the neighbourhood. When, in 1870, the Board began to gather cases of smallpox into its new intra-urban isolation hospitals, nearby householders resisted, and in 1881 their fear of aerial transmission was endorsed by a government medical inspector, W. H. Power. Not all agreed with Power, but as a result from 1885 the Board removed almost all known cases of smallpox in London to hospital ships moored in the Thames Estuary. The ships failed to provide adequate and secure accommodation, however, and so Board smallpox hospitals were erected on the adjacent Dartford marshes. After 1903, there being no more smallpox epidemics in Britain, these isolation hospitals and many similar ones outside other towns and cities were little used for their main intended purpose. Their retention for many years thereafter can be seen as an application of the precautionary principle; it bears on current contingency plans in Britain and elsewhere for dealing with serious epidemics. PMID:18325128

  17. Exploring the Impact of Aspects of the London Leadership Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Matthews, Peter; Day, Christopher; Gu, Qing

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the methodology adopted for the formative evaluation of aspects of the London Leadership Strategy (LLS). The LLS is an ambitious example of a program designed and supported by the National College of School Leadership in England (NCSL) to enhance leadership and management so as to improve the quality of education and raise…

  18. In London, a Working-Class University Wrestles with Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    Patrick McGhee, vice chancellor of the University of East London, has a lot in common with many of the 28,000 students at the large urban institution he leads. He was the first in his family to attend university. And he dislikes much about the government's higher-education reform efforts, which he has deemed "misguided, premature, unproven and…

  19. Battersea: Education in a London Parish since 1750

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of educational institutions and buildings in one slice of a big city over a long timescale. The city is London and the slice Battersea, an inner suburb of mixed character and volatile fortunes. The narrative explores the shifts and interactions between state and voluntary provision, local community needs and…

  20. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  1. Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654): London's first general practitioner?

    PubMed

    Farthing, Michael J G

    2015-08-01

    Nicholas Culpeper is often regarded as an ill-disciplined, maverick, mid-17th century herbalist and the father of contemporary alternative medicine. There are elements of this statement that have some truth but to dismiss his contribution to the development of health provision in London at the time would be a great injustice. Culpeper did not complete his apprenticeship as an apothecary and was not a formally trained physician, but he developed a clinical practice for the poor of London, indistinguishable from the role of the present day general practitioner. Observers at the time recognised his concern and compassion and his commitment to treat the whole patient and not just the disease. His enduring contribution was his translation from Latin of the physicians' Pharmacopoeia Londinensis which could be regarded as the first major step towards the demystification of medicine. Culpeper's London Dispensatory and the many other medical treatises that followed were affordable and widely available to the common man. Culpeper antagonised both apothecaries and physicians because he breached the regulations of the day by accepting patients directly. So perhaps Culpeper was, de facto, London's first general practitioner, at least 150 years before the role was formally recognised in the Apothecaries Act 1815. PMID:24585603

  2. The University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Davis, Stephen; Bartrip, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research note gives details of 2 releases of audio recordings available from speakers who stutter that can be accessed on the Web. Method: Most of the recordings are from school-age children. These are available on the University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS) Web site, and information is provided about how to…

  3. Microform Applications Within the City of London Polytechnic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Alan

    A review is made of the possible applications within the libraries of the City of London Polytechnic of the three basic types of microforms--microfilm, microfiche, and microopaques. Major uses outlined involve: 1) the exploitation of existing data bases; 2) the storage of back issues of periodicals; 3) the presentation of programed instruction; 4)…

  4. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  5. Developing an Integrated Institutional Repository at Imperial College London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Fereshteh; Jones, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how a highly integrated approach to repository development and deployment can be beneficial in producing a successful archive. Design/methodology/approach: Imperial College London undertook a significant specifications process to gather and formalise requirements for its repository system. This was done…

  6. Amputations at the London Hospital 1852-1857

    PubMed Central

    Chaloner, E J; Flora, H S; Ham, R J

    2001-01-01

    Between 1852 and 1857 at the London Hospital, 142 amputations were performed in 136 patients. The most common indication was an injury sustained at work. Overall mortality was 46% and the death rate was especially high for lower-limb amputations. Most deaths were due to postoperative sepsis. Those who received chloroform anaesthesia did worse than those who received ether. PMID:11461989

  7. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  8. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21). 146 deaths (60%) were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7) other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43%) of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%). The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03). Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found. PMID:21078190

  9. London Challenge: Surveys of Pupils and Teachers, 2005. Research Report RR718

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Kate; Knight, Sarah; Scott, Emma; Benton, Tom; Woodthorpe, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The London Challenge is a Department for Education and Skills (DfES) initiative, which aims to raise levels of attainment in London secondary schools and to create a world class education system in the capital. In 2005, London Challenge commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to carry out a survey of Year 7 pupils,…

  10. 33 CFR 165.140 - New London Harbor, Connecticut-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New London Harbor, Connecticut... London Harbor, Connecticut—security zone. (a) Security zones—(1) Security Zone A. The waters of the..., west of the Naval Submarine Base, New London, CT, enclosed by a line beginning at a point on...

  11. 33 CFR 165.140 - New London Harbor, Connecticut-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New London Harbor, Connecticut... London Harbor, Connecticut—security zone. (a) Security zones—(1) Security Zone A. The waters of the..., west of the Naval Submarine Base, New London, CT, enclosed by a line beginning at a point on...

  12. London through Rose-Colored Graphics: Visual Rhetoric and Information Graphic Design in Charles Booth's Maps of London Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual…

  13. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-01-01

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:22874459

  14. Changing trends in the pattern and outcome of stab injuries at a North London hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manojkumar S; Uzzaman, Mohammed M; Al-Zuhir, Naail; Jadeja, Ashok; Navaratnam, Romi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence, pattern and outcome of stab injuries attending a North London Teaching Hospital over a 3-year (2006-2008) period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of collected data from the Hospital database was conducted. The database contains comprehensive medical records for all patients attended by the trauma team for deliberate stab injuries. It is updated by the surgical team after each admission. All patients with deliberate penetrating injury who were attended by the service between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2008 were identified. Patients who died in the prehospital phase, those managed exclusively by the emergency department and limb injuries without vascular compromise were excluded from the study. Results: Six hundred and nineteen patients with stab injuries (following knife crime) from North London attended the Hospital in the above period. One hundred and thirty-seven paients required surgical admission. Two were cases of self-inflicted knife injuries. Over the 3-year period the percentage of victims below 20 years of age is increasing. Ninety-three percent of knife crime occured between 6 pm and 6 am; recently moving toward week days from weekend period. Conclusions: The overall rate of penetrating injuries (stab injuries) is slowly declining. Timely cardiothoracic support facility is vital in saving lives with major cardiac stab injuries. Although alcohol drinking restriction has been lifted, most cases of stabbings are still occurring out-of-hours when surgical personnel are limited. PMID:22090737

  15. Timing of the initiation of antenatal care: An exploratory qualitative study of women and service providers in East London

    PubMed Central

    Hatherall, Bethan; Morris, Joanne; Jamal, Farah; Sweeney, Lorna; Wiggins, Meg; Kaur, Inderjeet; Renton, Adrian; Harden, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objective to explore the factors which influence the timing of the initiation of a package of publically-funded antenatal care for pregnant women living in a diverse urban setting Design a qualitative study involving thematic analysis of 21 individual interviews and six focus group discussions. Setting Newham, a culturally diverse borough in East London, UK Participants individual interviews were conducted with 21 pregnant and postnatal women and focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 26 health service staff members(midwives and bilingual health advocates) and 32 women from four community groups (Bangladeshi, Somali, Lithuanian and Polish). Findings initial care-seeking by pregnant women is influenced by the perception that the package of antenatal care offered by the National Health Service is for viable and continuing pregnancies, as well as little perceived urgency in initiating antenatal care. This is particularly true when set against competing responsibilities and commitments in women’s lives and for pregnancies with no apparent complications or disconcerting symptoms. Barriers to access to this package of antenatal care include difficulties in navigating the health service and referral system, which are compounded for women unable to speak English, and service provider delays in the processing of referrals. Accessing antenatal care was sometimes equated with relinquishing control, particularly for young women and women for whom language barriers prohibit active engagement with care. Conclusions and implications for practice if women are to be encouraged to seek antenatal care from maternity services early in pregnancy, the purpose and value to all women of doing so need to be made clear across the communities in which they live. As a woman may need time to accept her pregnancy and address other priorities in her life before seeking antenatal care, it is crucial that once she does decide to seek such care, access is quick and easy

  16. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  17. Enhancement of the London Penetration Depth in Pnictides at the Onset of Spin-Density-Wave Order under Superconducting Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, A.; Vavilov, M. G.; Khodas, M.; Chubukov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    Recent measurements of the doping dependence of the London penetration depth λ(x) at low T in clean samples of isovalent BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 at T≪Tc [Hashimoto et al., Science 336, 1554 (2012)SCIEAS0036-8075] revealed a peak in λ(x) near optimal doping x=0.3. The observation of the peak at T≪Tc, points to the existence of a quantum critical point beneath the superconducting dome. We associate such a quantum critical point with the onset of a spin-density-wave order and show that the renormalization of λ(x) by critical magnetic fluctuations gives rise to the observed feature. We argue that the case of pnictides is conceptually different from a one-component Galilean invariant Fermi liquid, for which correlation effects do not cause the renormalization of the London penetration depth at T=0.

  18. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Toby P.; Fry, Hannah M.; Wilson, Alan G.; Bishop, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area. PMID:23425781

  19. Rock and mineral physics at University College London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Paul; Meredith, Philip; Price, David

    The Department of Geological Sciences at University College London (UCL), has undergone a period of major expansion and growth as a result of the restructuring of geology departments within the University of London that was carried out in 1982. This exercise produced the amalgamation of selected parts of the Department of Geological Sciences of Queen Mary College and the Department of Geology, UCL, on the UCL site. The creation of this strengthened grouping has been successful in attracting a significant number of active researchers in the field of rock and mineral physics (RMP) to the new UCL department. As a result, the academic staff has more than douhled since 1982 and now stands at 31.

  20. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...°, 1,400 yards; 246°, 925 yards; 217°, 1,380 yards; and 235°, 1,450 yards. (2) Anchorage B. In the...,460 yards; 009°, 2,480 yards; 026°, 1,175 yards; and 008°, 1,075 yards. (3) Anchorage C. In the Thames River southward of New London Harbor, bounded by lines connecting a point bearing 100°, 450 yards...

  1. New series for agricultural prices in London, 1770–1914.

    PubMed

    Solar, Peter M; Klovland, Jan Tore

    2011-01-01

    New annual series for the prices of major agricultural commodities sold in London markets between 1770 and 1914 are presented. These series are based on bimonthly observations drawn from newspaper market reports. The products covered are wheat, barley (grinding and malting), oats, potatoes, hay, butter, beef, mutton, and pork. Annual prices are calculated for both calendar and production years. The new series are compared to existing series. PMID:21328804

  2. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  3. Development of flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Borough of Jersey Shore, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Streamflow data, water-surface-elevation profiles derived from a Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System hydraulic model, and geographical information system digital elevation models were used to develop a set of 18 flood-inundation maps for an approximately 5-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Borough of Jersey Shore, Pa. The inundation maps were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and Lycoming County as part of an ongoing effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service to focus on continued improvements to the flood forecasting and warning abilities in the Susquehanna River Basin and to modernize flood-forecasting methodologies. The maps, ranging from 23.0 to 40.0 feet in 1-foot increments, correspond to river stage at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage 01549760 at Jersey Shore. The electronic files used to develop the maps were provided to the National Weather Service for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service website. The maps are displayed on this website, which serves as a web-based floodwarning system, and can be used to identify areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. During times of flooding or predicted flooding, these maps can be used by emergency managers and the public to take proactive steps to protect life and reduce property damage caused by floods.

  4. Aquifer-test analysis of the upper aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan- Magothy aquifer system, Union Beach Borough, Monmouth County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pucci, A.A., Jr.; Pope, D.A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    1989-01-01

    The hydraulic properties of the upper aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system and of the overlying and underlying confining units were determined from and aquifer test in the vicinity of Union Beach Borough, New Jersey, near Raritan Bay. The April 1986 test included the pumping of 2 test wells for 72 hours at a combined discharge rate of 1,375 gal/min, and the measurement of water levels in 10 observation wells. No lateral recharge boundary in Raritan Bay affected the observed water-level changes. Assuming leaky artesian conditions, the average transmissivity and storage coefficient of the upper aquifer are 7,754 sq ft/day and 0.00044 respectively. The leakance of the combined confining units ranges from 0.000030 to 0.000076/day/ft. On the basis of lithologic samples from a nearby well, the overlying and underlying confining units were assumed to have similar hydraulic properties. By using this assumption, the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining units ranges from 0.010 to 0.027 ft/day. (USGS)

  5. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant south London Asians.

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, D. P.; Powell, K. J.; Thaker, A.; Millard, F. J.; Maxwell, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London. METHODS--Using a case-control study technique Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent diagnosed with tuberculosis during the past 10 years and two Asian control groups (community and outpatient clinic controls) from the Indian subcontinent were investigated. Cases and community controls were approached by letter. A structured questionnaire concerning a range of demographic, migration, socioeconomic, dietary, and health topics was administered by a single trained interviewer to subjects (56 cases and 100 controls) who agreed to participate. RESULTS--The results confirmed earlier findings that Hindu Asians had an increased risk of tuberculosis compared with Muslims. However, further analysis revealed that religion had no independent influence after adjustment for vegetarianism (common among Hindu Asians). Unadjusted odds ratios for tuberculosis among vegetarians were 2.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.4) using community controls, and 4.3 (95% CI 1.8 to 10.4) using clinic controls. There was a trend of increasing risk of tuberculosis with decreasing frequency of meat or fish consumption. Lactovegetarians had an 8.5 fold risk (95% CI 1.6 to 45.4) compared with daily meat/fish eaters. Adjustment for a range of other socioeconomic, migration, and lifestyle variables made little difference to the relative risks derived using either community or clinic controls. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that a vegetarian diet is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant Asians. The mechanism is unexplained. However

  6. Air pollution dispersion models for human exposure predictions in London.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Sean D; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Williams, Martin L; Kelly, Frank J; Ross Anderson, H; Carslaw, David C

    2013-01-01

    The London household survey has shown that people travel and are exposed to air pollutants differently. This argues for human exposure to be based upon space-time-activity data and spatio-temporal air quality predictions. For the latter, we have demonstrated the role that dispersion models can play by using two complimentary models, KCLurban, which gives source apportionment information, and Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ)-urban, which predicts hourly air quality. The KCLurban model is in close agreement with observations of NO(X), NO(2) and particulate matter (PM)(10/2.5), having a small normalised mean bias (-6% to 4%) and a large Index of Agreement (0.71-0.88). The temporal trends of NO(X) from the CMAQ-urban model are also in reasonable agreement with observations. Spatially, NO(2) predictions show that within 10's of metres of major roads, concentrations can range from approximately 10-20 p.p.b. up to 70 p.p.b. and that for PM(10/2.5) central London roadside concentrations are approximately double the suburban background concentrations. Exposure to different PM sources is important and we predict that brake wear-related PM(10) concentrations are approximately eight times greater near major roads than at suburban background locations. Temporally, we have shown that average NO(X) concentrations close to roads can range by a factor of approximately six between the early morning minimum and morning rush hour maximum periods. These results present strong arguments for the hybrid exposure model under development at King's and, in future, for in-building models and a model for the London Underground. PMID:23443237

  7. Medicine, metals and empire: the survival of a chymical projector in early eighteenth-century London.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Koji

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that Newtonian philosophers such as Johan T. Desaguliers defined their authority in contradistinction to the 'projector', a promoter of allegedly impractical and fraudulent schemes. Partly due to the lack of evidence, however, we know relatively little about these eighteenth-century projectors, especially those operating outside learned networks without claims to gentility, disinterest or theoretical sophistication. This paper begins to remedy this lacuna through the case of a 'chymical' projector, Moses Stringer (fl. 1693-1714). Instead of aspiring to respectability, this London chymist survived by vigorously promoting new projects, thereby accelerating, rather than attenuating, the course of action that rendered him dubious in the first place. The article follows his (often abortive) exploitation of medicine, metals and empire, and thereby illuminates the shady end of the enlightened world of public science. PMID:26336059

  8. Space in Pentecostal healing practices among Ghanaian migrants in London.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    In this article I analyze different spatial practices related to Pentecostal healing, drawing on fieldwork with Pentecostal believers who have migrated from Ghana to London, UK. I explore the relationship between space and the manifestation of the Holy Spirit by looking at how points of contact with the divine are created in the personal life of people and at the sites where the casting out of demons takes place. Unlike in other spirit-centered healing traditions, the Christian Holy Spirit is not conceived of as embodied in specific places, but rather is spatially unbound. To manifest, however, the Holy Spirit requires specific spatial qualities and esthetics. PMID:24383751

  9. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  10. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  11. Frontiers in cardiovascular biology: London 2012 - a scientific 'olympiad'.

    PubMed

    Harding, Sian E

    2012-09-01

    Imperial College London (UK) was the showcase for the second in the 'Frontiers in Cardiovascular Biology' series, a biennial meeting of the European Society of Cardiology Council on basic cardiovascular sciences, held from 30 March to 1 April 2012. The aim of this series is to bring researchers together to learn the very latest findings in cardiac and vascular sciences, and to see state-of-the-art and developing technologies that could impact cardiovascular research. Five keynote lectures, 25 scientific symposia and two translational lunchtime symposia were grouped around the central themes of bioimaging, degeneration and regeneration, and inflammation. PMID:23013121

  12. Contribution of wood burning to PM10 in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Gary W.; Tremper, Anja H.; Baker, Timothy D.; Yttri, Karl Espen; Butterfield, David

    2014-04-01

    Ahead of measures to incentivise wood heating, the current level of wood burning in London was assessed by two tracer methods; i) a six week campaign of daily measurements of levoglucosan along a 38 km transect across the city during winter 2010, ii) a three year (2009-2011) measurement programme of black carbon and particulate matter from wood burning using differential IR and UV absorption by Aethalometer. Mean winter levoglucosan concentrations were 160 ± 17 ng m-3 in central London and 30 ± 26 ng m-3 greater in the suburbs, with good temporal correlation (r2 = 0.68-0.98) between sampling sites. Sensitivity testing found that the aethalometer wood burning tracer method was more sensitive to the assumed value of the Ångström coefficient for fossil fuel black carbon than it was to the Ångström coefficient for wood burning PM, and that the model was optimised with Ångström coefficient for fossil fuel black carbon of 0.96. The aethalometer and levoglucosan estimates of mean PM from wood burning were in good agreement during the winter campaign; 1.8 μg m-3 (levoglucosan) and 2.0 μg m-3 (aethalometer); i.e. between 7% and 9% of mean PM10 across the London transect. Analysis of wood burning tracers with respect to wind speed suggested that wood burning PM was dominated by sources within the city. Concentrations of aethalometer and levoglucosan wood burning tracers were a greatest at weekends suggesting discretionary or secondary domestic wood burning rather than wood being used as a main heating source. Aethalometer wood burning tracers suggests that the annual mean concentration of PM10 from wood burning was 1.1 μg m-3. To put this in a policy context, this PM10 from wood burning is considerably greater than the city-wide mean PM10 reduction of 0.17 μg m-3 predicted from the first two phases of the London Low Emission Zone which was introduced to reduce PM from traffic sources.

  13. Public health assessment for US Naval Submarine Base, New London, Groton, New London County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980906515. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-26

    The New London Submarine Base was divided by the town boundaries of Groton to the south and Ledyard to the north in New London County, Connecticut. In 1983, the Navy identified 16 potential source areas of environmental contamination during their investigations. The submarine base was listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in August 1990 because of the potential for on-base groundwater contamination to migrate to off-base residential wells that are close to the New London Submarine Base.

  14. Diversity in Adoption of Linguistic Features of London English by Chinese and Bangladeshi Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…

  15. The Increasing Presence of Spanish-Speaking Latinos in London: An Emergent Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the number of Spanish-speaking Latinos in Britain and London has grown considerably. Estimates from different sources put the population in London as high as 300,000. Unfortunately, this growing ethnolinguistic group is an underresearched minority, and information of any kind is hard to come by. In this article, my aim is to…

  16. Engendering City Politics and Educational Thought: Elite Women and the London Labour Party, 1914-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article uses biographical approaches to recover the contribution of hitherto neglected figures in the history of education and the political history of the Left in London. Place and location are important since it is important to grasp the uniqueness of the London County Council within the framework of English local government and of the…

  17. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  18. Travel in holography continued: from London to Gent to Point Reyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casdin-Silver, Harriet

    1995-02-01

    Since Lake Forest Symposium '91, when her paper recounted her holographic work in three locations, Kiev, Ukraine; Miami Beach, U.S.A.; and Paris, France; the author has worked in the laboratories of the Royal college of Art, London, England; Rijksuniversiteit, Gent, Belgium; Third Dimension, London, England; and in Point Reyes, California, U.S.A. A discussion of these ventures follows.

  19. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  20. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  1. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  2. The New Education and the Institute of Education, University of London, 1919-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The London Day Training College (LDTC), founded in 1902, soon became the leading institution for the study of education and for the training of teachers in England. In 1932 it was transmuted into the Institute of Education of the University of London. Its title and pre-eminence have continued to this day. In the period 1919-1945 it was closely,…

  3. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress Report from London 2015.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was held in London from 29 August to 2 September 2015. It is the leading conference in cardiology in the world, with presentations on the latest scientific discoveries, innovations, technology, education, and clinical practices. More than 32,000 delegates and 5,000 exhibitors from 140 countries participated, sharing a number of scientific presentations, including 28 clinical hot lines, 18 clinical trial updates, 20 registry studies, 12 basic and translational science hot line studies, and 4,533 abstract studies. Japan had the highest number of accepted abstracts at the Congress, indicating the great contribution of Japanese scientists and the Japanese Circulation Society. PMID:26459395

  4. Should I pay for your risky behaviours? Evidence from London.

    PubMed

    Miraldo, Marisa; Galizzi, Matteo M; Merla, Anna; Levaggi, Rosella; Schulz, Peter J; Auxilia, Francesco; Castaldi, Silvana; Gelatti, Umberto

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the extent to which respondents from a general population sample in London (July-August 2011) agree or disagree with the NHS covering the healthcare costs related to five risky health behaviours: overeating, unhealthy diet, sedentary life, excess of alcohol, and smoking. For each behaviour, we also directly explore the main factors associated with the likelihood to agree or disagree. Half of the respondents (N=146) manifest agreement with the idea. Wider agreement exists for covering the costs associated smoking, heavy drinking, and sedentary lives than with overeating, or poor diets. With the exception of alcohol drinking and sedentary life, there is an almost one-to-one relationship between the agreement that the NHS should pay the healthcare costs associated with a specific behaviour, and the respondents' actual engagement in that behaviour. Those at higher risk of depending on publicly funded healthcare, are more likely to agree. PMID:24945692

  5. Acheiving speech intelligibility at Paddington Station, London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Helen M.

    2002-11-01

    Paddington Station in London, UK is a large rail terminus for long distance electric and diesel powered trains. This magnificent train shed has four arched spans and is one of the remaining structural testaments to the architect Brunel. Given the current British and European legislative requirements for intelligible speech in public buildings AMS Acoustics were engaged to design an electroacoustic solution. In this paper we will outline how the significant problems of lively natural acoustics, the high operational noise levels and the strict aesthetic constraints were addressed. The resultant design is radical, using the most recent dsp controlled line array loudspeakers. In the paper we detail the acoustic modeling undertaken to predict both even direct sound pressure level coverage and STI. Further it presents the speech intelligibility measured upon handover of the new system. The design has proved to be successful and given the nature of the space, outstanding speech intelligibility is achieved.

  6. Ethnopharmacy of Turkish-speaking Cypriots in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Yöney, Ahmet; Prieto, José M; Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael

    2010-05-01

    For centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region, medicinal plant use has been widely accepted as a treatment method for both minor and major diseases. Although some knowledge exists on the use of such medicinal plants within the Greek Cypriot culture and considerable information is available on various regions in Turkey, no detailed ethnopharmaceutical or ethnobotanical studies exist on Turkish-speaking Cypriots (TSC) both in Cyprus and within one of the largest TSC migrant communities in London, UK. Semi-structured interviews with members of the TSC community in London were conducted by using a questionnaire consisting both of open and closed questions. Open questions were aimed at identifying herbs, spices, medicinal plants and their uses. Also, graded questions were used to define informants' opinions as a quantitative parameter, constructing a statistical basis. A wide range of therapeutic claims were recorded, including 13 chronic illnesses within 85 different plant species, of which 18 were cited more than 10 times. The most frequently mentioned species were Mentha spicata, Salvia fruticosa and Pimpinella anisum. The plants recorded are frequently based on knowledge derived from Turkish-Cypriot traditions, but many examples of medicinal plants with a use based on UK or general western herbal medical traditions were also recorded. Informants highlighted the risk of knowledge loss in younger generations and thus this study serves as a repository of knowledge for use in the future. Due to a lack of knowledge about such usages in the healthcare professions, our study also highlights the need to develop information sources for use by healthcare practitioners in order to raise awareness about benefits and risks of such medical and health food products. PMID:19827023

  7. Recent TB transmission, clustering and predictors of large clusters in London, 2010–2012: results from first 3 years of universal MIRU-VNTR strain typing

    PubMed Central

    Hamblion, Esther L; Le Menach, Arnaud; Anderson, Laura F; Lalor, Maeve K; Brown, Tim; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Anderson, Charlotte; Maguire, Helen; Anderson, Sarah R

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of TB has doubled in the last 20 years in London. A better understanding of risk groups for recent transmission is required to effectively target interventions. We investigated the molecular epidemiological characteristics of TB cases to estimate the proportion of cases due to recent transmission, and identify predictors for belonging to a cluster. Methods The study population included all culture-positive TB cases in London residents, notified between January 2010 and December 2012, strain typed using 24-loci multiple interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors for clustering using sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of cases and for cluster size based on the characteristics of the first two cases. Results There were 10 147 cases of which 5728 (57%) were culture confirmed and 4790 isolates (84%) were typed. 2194 (46%) were clustered in 570 clusters, and the estimated proportion attributable to recent transmission was 34%. Clustered cases were more likely to be UK born, have pulmonary TB, a previous diagnosis, a history of substance abuse or alcohol abuse and imprisonment, be of white, Indian, black-African or Caribbean ethnicity. The time between notification of the first two cases was more likely to be <90 days in large clusters. Conclusions Up to a third of TB cases in London may be due to recent transmission. Resources should be directed to the timely investigation of clusters involving cases with risk factors, particularly those with a short period between the first two cases, to interrupt onward transmission of TB. PMID:27417280

  8. Aircraft trace gas measurements during the London 2012 Olympics: Air quality and emission fluxes derived from sampling upwind and downwind of a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; O'Shea, S.; Muller, J.; Jones, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Lee, J. D.; Bauguitte, S.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C.; Barratt, B.; McQuaid, J. B.; Illingworth, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements recorded during July and August 2012, across the period of the London 2012 Summer Olympics and simultaneous with the Clear air for London (ClearfLo) ground-based measurement and modelling campaign. Through long-term (2-year) and intensive observation periods (Winter 2011 and Summer 2012), the ClearfLo programme aims to better understand emissions, as well as the chemical, dynamical and micro-meteorological processes which modulate air quality in the London urban environment - an important risk factor for both acute and chronic health effects. The work presented here focuses on two contrasting case studies within the summer ClearfLo period: 30 July 2012 and 9 August 2012, representing relatively clean background and polluted background cases, respectively, and characterised by well-mixed Atlantic westerly maritime inflow in the former and stagnant air (high pressure) in the latter. Measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, HCN, and other gases measured on board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft will be presented and interpreted, with emphasis on observed concentration gradients and tracer-tracer correlations as well as airmass vertical structure and airmass history upwind and downwind of central London in each case. By applying a simple advective model and making use of vertically resolved thermodynamic and composition data, we are able to derive emission strengths for these gases that are representative of the total enclosed surface area. Example emissions for these two cases range between 6x105 kg(C)/hr and 9x105 kg(C)/hr for CO2, and ~0.6x105 kg(C)/hr for CH4. This airborne sampling methodology highlights the unique utility of aircraft measurements to routinely and climatologically characterise emissions from area sources such as cities, and points to future missions to target localised hotspots and distributed point sources.

  9. Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R W; Anderson, H R; Strachan, D P; Bland, J M; Bremner, S A; Ponce de Leon, A

    1999-02-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints. PMID:10065665

  10. Investigating an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis in a school using smartphone technology, London, March 2013.

    PubMed

    Simone, B; Atchison, C; Ruiz, B; Greenop, P; Dave, J; Ready, D; Maguire, H; Walsh, B; Anderson, S

    2014-01-01

    On 22 March 2013, 150 of 1,255 students (13–17 years) and staff at a school in London reported gastrointestinal symptoms; onset peaked 8 to 12 hours after a lunch served in the school on 21 March. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all students and staff. We defined cases as school attenders on 20 and 21 March with onset of gastrointestinal symptoms between 20 and 23 March. We tested food, environmental and stool samples of cases for common pathogens and bacterial toxins. We administered an online questionnaire via email, encouraging the use of smartphones to respond, to measure risk of illness for food items eaten at school on 20 and 21 March. Survey response was 45%. Adjusted risk ratios were generated in a multivariable analysis. Those who ate chicken balti on 21 March were 19.3 times more likely to become ill (95% confidence interval: 7.3–50.9). Clostridium perfringens was detected in all 19 stool samples collected. Within eight school hours of its launch, 412 of 561 (73%) responders had completed the survey. Hygienic standards in the kitchen were satisfactory. The investigation was done rapidly due to smartphone technology and we recommend considering this technology in future outbreaks. PMID:24852955

  11. Jean Decima Jacomb (1894-1988), matron of The London Clinic, 20 Devonshire Place, London W1 from 1938 to 1949.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Miss Jean Jacomb born into a wealthy family, was at the age of 22 a student nurse at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London in 1917 where she nursed convalescent soldiers from World War I. Her midwifery training was in the slums around Whitechapel where a nurses uniform and medical bag provided a safe passage in the East End of London. For a while she worked in South Africa and India and returning to UK in 1923 she progressed to appointment as matron at the now re-named Royal Marsden Hospital in Chelsea. In 1938 she was appointed matron to The London Clinic during the years of World War II following which in 1949 she retired at the age of 55. She then travelled the world extensively by ship, always first class. She died in 1988. PMID:24944046

  12. Novel methylotrophic bacteria isolated from the River Thames (London, UK).

    PubMed

    Boden, Rich; Thomas, Elizabeth; Savani, Parita; Kelly, Donovan P; Wood, Ann P

    2008-12-01

    Enrichment and elective culture for methylotrophs from sediment of the River Thames in central London yielded a diversity of pure cultures representing several genera of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, which were mainly of organisms not generally regarded as typically methylotrophic. Substrates leading to successful isolations included methanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, methanesulfonate and dimethylsulfone. Several isolates were studied in detail and shown by their biochemical and morphological properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to be Sphingomonas melonis strain ET35, Mycobacterium fluoranthenivorans strain DSQ3, Rhodococcus erythropolis strain DSQ4, Brevibacterium casei strain MSQ5, Klebsiella oxytoca strains MMA/F and MMA/1, Pseudomonas mendocina strain TSQ4, and Flavobacterium sp. strains MSA/1 and MMA/2. The results show that facultative methylotrophy is present across a wide range of Bacteria, suggesting that turnover of diverse C(1)-compounds is of much greater microbiological and environmental significance than is generally thought. The origins of the genes encoding the enzymes of methylotrophy in diverse heterotrophs need further study, and could further our understanding of the phylogeny and antiquity of methylotrophic systems. PMID:18681896

  13. Healthcare Planning for the Olympics in London: A Qualitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. Methods We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. Findings We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Interpretation Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential. PMID:24647613

  14. Carbon in black crusts from the Tower of London

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandra Bonazza; Peter Brimblecombe; Carlota M. Grossi; Cristina Sabbioni

    2007-06-15

    This paper investigates the origin, fluxes, and transformation of carbon compounds within black crusts on the stone walls of the Tower of London. The crusts were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon, including the water soluble fraction. The stratigraphy of the old, thicker crusts highlighted the presence of prismatic particles, spherical aluminosilicates and metals, and carbonaceous particles. These are indicative of wood, coal and oil combustion processes. Elemental carbon and low solubility compounds such as oxalates appeared to be conserved because of long residence times. Conversely, more soluble ions, like chloride and formate would be removed from the layers relatively quickly by rainfall. At higher organic carbon concentrations acetic acid may be produced within the crusts from biological transformations. Currently, traffic sources contribute to increasingly organic rich crusts. The deposition of elemental carbon to buildings darkens surfaces and has important aesthetic implications. The increased organic content may have further aesthetic consequence by changing the color of buildings to warmer tones, particularly browns and yellows. Management of historic buildings requires us to recognize the shift away from simple gypsum crusts to those richer in organic materials. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Anatomists and entrepreneurs in early eighteenth-century London.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Anita

    2004-04-01

    Anatomical demonstration in the eighteenth century took place in many formats. In this essay I discuss public anatomical demonstration as performed by entrepreneurial anatomists in London between 1700 and 1740. These anatomists offered courses, advertised in newspapers, to anyone who was willing to pay. In contrast to courses offered in official settings to prospective physicians and surgeons, these courses emphasized natural philosophy and natural theology rather than practical knowledge. Entrepreneurial lecturers also aimed to entertain. In this article I examine the lectures of James Douglas, William Cheselden, and Frank Nicholls, each of whom differed significantly from the others in style and content but were all anatomical entrepreneurs. All of them, moreover, employed not only human cadavers but also living and dead animals in their lessons. I examine the content of the lectures and the motivations of the lecturers' audiences. I also argue that the prevailing historiographical representation of eighteenth-century science as "polite" requires considerable revision to accommodate as impolite an activity as public anatomy. PMID:15109154

  16. Malaria in Birmingham and a London teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, C J; Eykyn, S J; Watkins, P; Bell, M; Geddes, A M

    1979-01-01

    During the past five years the incidence of imported malaria increased among patients seen in East Birmingham Hospital and in St Thomas's Hospital, London. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species in Birmingham, and was almost always acquired by Asian immigrants visiting the Indian subcontinent. In St Thomas's P falciparum was most commonly imported, usually by African immigrants visiting Nigeria and Ghana. Two patients (one Irish, one Japanese) died of falciparum malaria after visiting tropical Africa. In both hospitals the immigrant patients had seldom taken prophylactic drugs, and the few who had, ceased to do so on arrival in the UK and sometimes before leaving the malarious country. Apparently immigrants who visit their homeland do not consult their general practitioners before travelling, are given inappropriate advice, or do not take appropriate advice when given. Since the incidence of imported falciparum malaria in the UK is rising, the following points should be considered: the infection may be lethal, particularly in patients lacking immunity; it can mimic other diseases, which may lead to delayed diagnosis; severe disease may be associated with few parasites on a blood film, and even if the result is negative further tests should be performed; clinicians and hospital pharmacists should be aware of the need to keep permanent stocks of parenteral chloroquine and quinine preparations. PMID:367507

  17. INVITATION : Latest astronomical results from ISO: Press briefing in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    Representatives of the media are invited to attend the briefing at the Institute of Physics, which will commence with registration and demonstrations at 10:00 a.m. London time. As of 10:30, Paul Murdin, Head of Astronomy at PPARC will initiate the briefing on behalf of PPARC. Reinhard Genzel, a German astronomer and Director of the Max Planck Institute, will make an independent assessment of ISO's achievements and announce some recent discoveries. Martin Kessler, the European Space Agency's project scientist, will summarize the extent of ISO's observations and describe the continuing work of analysis. At 11:45 (after questions) ISO scientists will be available for interviews, with quiet rooms for radio interviews and a scale model of ISO as backdrop for TV interviews and still pictures. Other facilities will include digital images from ISO, and a demonstration of educational project work. To coincide with the event, ESA will distribute a video news release, an Information Note, and new pictures from ISO. After the briefing there will be a buffet lunch. The nearest underground stations to the Institute of Physics are Great Portland Street and Regent's Park. Representatives of the media wishing to attend are requested to return by fax (+33(0)1.53.69.76.90) the attached accreditation form. For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel : +33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax : +33(0)1.53.69.76.90

  18. Geological Society of London Issues Statement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerhayes, Colin

    2011-02-01

    On 1 November the Geological Society of London (GSL) published a statement (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site//GSL//lang/en/climatechange) about the geological evidence relating to past climates, atmospheric carbon levels, and their interrelationships. The online version also carries a list of recommendations for further reading. The GSL's Geoscientist magazine (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site/GSL/lang/en/page8578.html) reported Bryan Lovell, GSL president, as saying, “Climate change is a defining issue of our time, whose full understanding needs geology's long perspective. Earth scientists can read…the geological record of changes in climate that occurred long before we were around to light so much as a camp fire, let alone burn coal, gas and oil. A dramatic global warming event 55 million years ago gives us a particularly clear indication of what happens when there is a sudden release of 1500 billion tonnes of carbon into Earth's atmosphere. It gets hot, the seas become more acid, and there is widespread extinction of life. We are a third of the way to repeating that ancient natural input of carbon through our own agency. The message from the rocks is that it would be a good idea to stop pulling that carbon trigger.”

  19. Apprentices in Trouble: Some Problems in the Training of Surgeons and Apothecaries in Seventeenth Century London

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Thomas R.

    1979-01-01

    Mayor's Court interrogatories and depositions in six disputes between apprentices and their surgeon and apothecary masters in London in 1654-1684 are reviewed. Evidence is presented to illustrate aspects of the operation of the apprentice system. PMID:377827

  20. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon) experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  1. Enhancement of the London penetration depth in pnictides at the onset of SDW order under superconducting dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, Alex; Vavilov, Maxim; Kuzmanovski, Dushko; Khodas, Maxim; Chubukov, Andrey

    2013-03-01

    Recent measurements of the doping dependence of the London penetration depth λ (x) in clean samples of isovalent BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 at T <case of pnictides is conceptually different from a one-component Galilean invariant Fermi liquid, for which correlation effects do not cause the renormalization of the London penetration depth at T = 0 .

  2. The East London glaucoma prediction score: web-based validation of glaucoma risk screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Cook; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza

    2013-01-01

    AIM It is difficult for Optometrists and General Practitioners to know which patients are at risk. The East London glaucoma prediction score (ELGPS) is a web based risk calculator that has been developed to determine Glaucoma risk at the time of screening. Multiple risk factors that are available in a low tech environment are assessed to provide a risk assessment. This is extremely useful in settings where access to specialist care is difficult. Use of the calculator is educational. It is a free web based service. Data capture is user specific. METHOD The scoring system is a web based questionnaire that captures and subsequently calculates the relative risk for the presence of Glaucoma at the time of screening. Three categories of patient are described: Unlikely to have Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect and Glaucoma. A case review methodology of patients with known diagnosis is employed to validate the calculator risk assessment. RESULTS Data from the patient records of 400 patients with an established diagnosis has been captured and used to validate the screening tool. The website reports that the calculated diagnosis correlates with the actual diagnosis 82% of the time. Biostatistics analysis showed: Sensitivity = 88%; Positive predictive value = 97%; Specificity = 75%. CONCLUSION Analysis of the first 400 patients validates the web based screening tool as being a good method of screening for the at risk population. The validation is ongoing. The web based format will allow a more widespread recruitment for different geographic, population and personnel variables. PMID:23550097

  3. Integrated care pilot in north-west London: a mixed methods evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Natasha; Harris, Matthew; Gunn, Laura H.; Pappas, Yannis; Blunt, Ian; Soljak, Michael; Mastellos, Nikolaos; Holder, Holly; Smith, Judith; Majeed, Azeem; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Greaves, Felix; Belsi, Athina; Costin-Davis, Nicola; Jones Nielsen, Jessica D.; Greenfield, Geva; Cecil, Elizabeth; Patterson, Susan; Car, Josip; Bardsley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in north-west London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and/or those aged 75+ through care planning, multidisciplinary case reviews, information sharing and project management support. Methods The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey); and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level datasets and a matched control study). Results The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, the engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes. Conclusion Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that National Health Service managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time. PMID:24167455

  4. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London.

    PubMed

    Main, Izabella

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations. PMID:27258327

  5. Wilate use in 47 children with von Willebrand disease: the North London paediatric haemophilia network experience.

    PubMed

    Khair, K; Batty, P; Riat, R; Bowles, L; Burgess, C; Chen, Y-H; Hart, D; Platton, S; Pasi, J; Liesner, R

    2015-01-01

    Children with von Willebrand disease (VWD) in whom DDAVP is ineffective or contraindicated require treatment with a coagulation factor concentrate containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII). The aim of this study was to monitor the safety, efficacy and tolerability of Wilate(®) (a VWF:FVIII concentrate with a 1:1 ratio) used across the North London Paediatric Haemophilia Network since May 2010. In total, 47 children (aged 0.0-17.0 years) with type 1 (n = 28), type 2 (n = 7), type 3 (n = 10) and acquired VWS (n = 2) have been treated for bleeds, surgery and/or prophylaxis using 260 000 IU Wilate(®). Analysis of dose and frequency of treatment show expected responses to treatment with mean doses of 55, 50 and 50 IU kg(-1) for bleeds, surgery and prophylaxis respectively. Most bleeds responded to a single treatment. Surgical procedures were covered with clinician approved dosing schedules with 95% (39/41) reported as having excellent or good efficacy. There was no accumulation of FVIII or VWF and no thromboembolic events. This case series confirms the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Wilate(®) in neonates, children and adolescents when used on-demand, prophylactically and in the surgical setting. PMID:25112927

  6. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556

  7. Prostitution and risk of HIV: female prostitutes in London.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, H; Day, S; Mezzone, J; Dunlop, L; Donegan, C; Farrar, S; Whitaker, L; Harris, J R; Miller, D L

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the prevalence of HIV and to describe established risk factors in female prostitutes. DESIGN--A cross sectional survey. SETTING--A genitourinary medicine clinic, streets, and magistrates' courts in London. SUBJECTS--280 female prostitutes recruited between April 1989 and August 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Infection with HIV-1, reported risk behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections. RESULTS--228 of the women had HIV tests, and two (0.9% (95% confidence interval 0% to 2.1%)) were infected with HIV-1. Reported use of condoms was high for commercial clients and low for non-paying partners: 98% (251/255) of women used condoms with all clients and 12% (25/207) with non-paying partners for vaginal intercourse. Twenty two women were current or past injecting drug users. Of the 193 women examined for sexually transmitted infections, 27 had an acute infection (gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomonas, or primary genital herpes) at the time of interview. Infection was associated with younger age and increasing numbers of non-paying sexual partners, but not with duration of prostitution, numbers of clients, or reports of condom failures. When age and numbers of non-paying partners were analysed by logistic regression they remained significantly associated with sexually transmitted infections. CONCLUSIONS--A large and diverse sample of prostitutes had a low prevalence of infection with HIV and high levels of use of condoms in commercial sex. There was a significant risk of other sexually transmitted infections associated with prostitutes' non-commercial sexual relationships, in which unprotected sex is common. Interventions to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections in prostitutes should address both commercial and non-commercial sexual partnerships. PMID:8374417

  8. Work characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in London.

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, S A; North, F M; White, I; Marmot, M G

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To describe the association between self reported and externally assessed work characteristics and psychiatric disorder. DESIGN--Analysis of questionnaire data collected from the first phase of the Whitehall II study, a cohort study of an employed population. SETTING--Twenty civil service departments in London. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 6900 male and 3414 female civil servants aged 35-55 years. MAIN RESULTS--High levels of subjective social support at work, control at work, job variety, and skill use were associated with greater satisfaction and wellbeing and less psychiatric disorder measured by the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ). High levels of subjective work pace and conflicting demands were associated with less satisfaction and wellbeing and greater psychiatric disorder. The combined effects of work characteristics were similar to the effects of the work characteristics considered separately, except that for men there was a small interaction between psychological demands and control on the GHQ. There was little overall support for the two factor job strain model. In contrast, objective indices of work were generally not associated with the psychological indices. Findings in men and women were generally comparable and were not significantly influenced by employment grade. CONCLUSIONS--Negative affectivity and a tendency to report negatively about both work and the psychological indices may partly explain the difference in the findings between subjective and objective work characteristics. However, subjective work characteristics were still associated with psychiatric disorder after adjusting for negative affectivity. The potential confounding effects of employment grade did not explain the association between either subjective or objective work characteristics and the psychological indices. While modifications to the work environment may directly reduce certain adverse physical health effects, the influence of work place design and

  9. Reassessment of the lethal London fog of 1952: novel indicators of acute and chronic consequences of acute exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, M L; Davis, D L

    2001-01-01

    This article develops and assesses novel indicators of respiratory and other morbidity and mortality following London's lethal smog in the winter of 1952. Public health insurance claims, hospital admission rates for cardiac and respiratory disease, pneumonia cases, mortality records, influenza reports, temperature, and air pollutant concentrations are analyzed for December-February 1952-1953 and compared with those for the previous year or years. Mortality rates for the smog episode from December 1952 to February 1953 were 50-300% higher than the previous year. Claims that the smog only elevated health risks during and immediately following the peak fog 5-9 December 1952 and that an influenza epidemic accounted fully for persisting mortality increases in the first 2 months of 1953 are rejected. We estimate about 12,000 excess deaths occurred from December 1952 through February 1953 because of acute and persisting effects of the 1952 London smog. Pollution levels during the London smog were 5-19 times above current regulatory standards and guidelines and approximate current levels in some rapidly developing regions. Ambient pollution in many regions poses serious risks to public health. PMID:11427388

  10. Reassessment of the lethal London fog of 1952: novel indicators of acute and chronic consequences of acute exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Bell, M L; Davis, D L

    2001-06-01

    This article develops and assesses novel indicators of respiratory and other morbidity and mortality following London's lethal smog in the winter of 1952. Public health insurance claims, hospital admission rates for cardiac and respiratory disease, pneumonia cases, mortality records, influenza reports, temperature, and air pollutant concentrations are analyzed for December-February 1952-1953 and compared with those for the previous year or years. Mortality rates for the smog episode from December 1952 to February 1953 were 50-300% higher than the previous year. Claims that the smog only elevated health risks during and immediately following the peak fog 5-9 December 1952 and that an influenza epidemic accounted fully for persisting mortality increases in the first 2 months of 1953 are rejected. We estimate about 12,000 excess deaths occurred from December 1952 through February 1953 because of acute and persisting effects of the 1952 London smog. Pollution levels during the London smog were 5-19 times above current regulatory standards and guidelines and approximate current levels in some rapidly developing regions. Ambient pollution in many regions poses serious risks to public health. PMID:11427388

  11. The NHS Health Check programme: implementation in east London 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Robson, John; Dostal, Isabel; Madurasinghe, Vichithranie; Sheikh, Aziz; Hull, Sally; Boomla, Kambiz; Page, Helen; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe implementation and results from the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme. Design Three-year observational open cohort study: 2009–2011. Participants People of age 40–74 years eligible for an NHS Health Check. Setting 139/143 general practices in three east London primary care trusts (PCTs) serving an ethnically diverse and socially disadvantaged population. Method Implementation was supported with education, IT support and performance reports. Tower Hamlets PCT additionally used managed practice networks and prior-stratification to call people at higher cardiovascular (CVD) risk first. Main outcomes measures Attendance, proportion of high-risk population on statins and comorbidities identified. Results Coverage 2009, 2010, 2011 was 33.9% (31 878/10 805), 60.6% (30 757/18 652) and 73.4% (21 194/28 890), respectively. Older people were more likely to attend than younger people. Attendance was similar across deprivation quintiles and was in accordance with population distributions of black African/Caribbean, South Asian and White ethnic groups. 1 in 10 attendees were at high-CVD risk (20% or more 10-year risk). In the two PCTs stratifying risk, 14.3% and 9.4% of attendees were at high-CVD risk compared to 8.6% in the PCT using an unselected invitation strategy. Statin prescription to people at high-CVD risk was higher in Tower Hamlets 48.9%, than in City and Hackney 23.1% or Newham 20.2%. In the 6 months following an NHS Health Check, 1349 new cases of hypertension, 638 new cases of diabetes and 89 new cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were diagnosed. This represents 1 new case of hypertension per 38 Checks, 1 new case of diabetes per 80 Checks and 1 new case of CKD per 568 Checks. Conclusions Implementation of the NHS Health Check programme in these localities demonstrates limited success. Coverage and treatment of those at high-CVD risk could be improved. Targeting invitations to people at high-CVD risk

  12. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Emberlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts >80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts ( n = 60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  13. To Moscow with love: partial reconstruction of Vygotsky's trip to London.

    PubMed

    van der Veer, René; Zavershneva, Ekaterina

    2011-12-01

    The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) left the Soviet Union only once to attend a conference on the education of the deaf in London. So far almost nothing was known about this trip, which took place in a period when Vygotsky was still completely unknown as a psychologist, both inside his own country and abroad. Making use of a newly discovered notebook, it proved possible to partially reconstruct Vygotsky's journey and stay in London. Vygotsky's very personal remarks show him to have been a very sensitive and spirited man, who was prey to strong emotions during the conference and afterwards. Rather surprisingly, Vygotsky's own paper about the education of the deaf was never presented during the conference and the stay in London appears to have had a limited value for his own scientific development. PMID:21626140

  14. An analysis of population and social change in London wards in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Congdon, P

    1989-01-01

    "This paper discusses the estimation and projection of small area populations in London, [England] and considers trends in intercensal social and demographic indices which can be calculated using these estimates. Information available annually on vital statistics and electorates is combined with detailed data from the Census Small Area Statistics to derive demographic component based population estimates for London's electoral wards over five year periods. The availability of age disaggregated population estimates permits derivation of small area social indicators for intercensal years, for example, of unemployment and mortality. Trends in spatial inequality of such indicators during the 1980s are analysed and point to continuing wide differentials. A typology of population and social indicators gives an indication of the small area distribution of the recent population turnaround in inner London, and of its association with other social processes such as gentrification and ethnic concentration." PMID:12282380

  15. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2009-11-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from cyclic perfluorocarbon tracer experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study dispersion over a large vertical gradient. These gradients are then compared with classical Gaussian profiles of the relevant stability classes over a range of distances as well as interpretation of data with reference to both anemometry and LIDAR measurements made. Data are then compared with an operational model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign looking at dosage compared with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analysis illustrates the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  16. John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911): An adornment to the London Hospital.

    PubMed

    Swash, Michael

    2015-02-01

    John Hughlings Jackson was associated with the London Hospital as a Lecturer and Physician for nearly 40 years while also on the staff at The National Hospital, Queen Square. His experience at the two hospitals was complementary; sometimes, a patient would be exchanged between the two hospitals. At the London Hospital, he was especially revered by students, colleagues and even by the House Governor, for his knowledge and his contributions to neurology. His ideas helped to resolve the chaotic contemporary understanding of neurological phenomena into a coherent whole, determining the direction of future neurological research in the following century. His life and work was supported and strengthened by the help and friendship of his colleagues at the London Hospital, especially Sir Jonathan Hutchinson. PMID:25585567

  17. Developing an Integrated Approach for Local Urban Climate Models in London from Neighbourhood to Street Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, M.; Davies, M.; Steadman, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    We currently have an incomplete understanding of how weather varies across London and how the city's microclimate will intensify levels of heat, cold and air pollution in the future. There is a need to target priority areas of the city and to promote design guidance on climate change mitigation strategies. As a result of improvements in the accuracy of local weather data in London, an opportunity is emerging for designers and planners of the built environment to measure the impact of their designs on local urban climate and to enhance the designer's role in creating more informed design choices at an urban micro-scale. However, modelling the different components of the urban environment separately and then collating and comparing the results invariably leads to discrepancies in the output of local urban climate modelling tools designed to work at different scales. Of particular interest is why marked differences appear between the data extracted from local urban climate models when we change the scale of modelling from city to building scale. An example of such differences is those that have been observed in relation to the London Unified Model and London Site Specific Air Temperature model. In order to avoid these discrepancies we need a method for understanding and assessing how the urban environment impacts on local urban climate as a whole. A step to achieving this is by developing inter-linkages between assessment tools. Accurate information on the net impact of the urban environment on the local urban climate will in turn facilitate more accurate predictions of future energy demand and realistic scenarios for comfort and health. This paper will present two key topographies of London's urban environment that influence local urban climate: land use and street canyons. It will look at the possibilities for developing an integrated approach to modelling London's local urban climate from the neighbourhood to the street scale.

  18. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory. PMID:27098421

  19. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Felix; Pappas, Yannis; Bardsley, Martin; Harris, Matthew; Curry, Natasha; Holder, Holly; Blunt, Ian; Soljak, Michael; Gunn, Laura; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Background Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect. Study design We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context. Theory and discussion This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them. Conclusions We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important. PMID:23687478

  20. Outreach and screening following the 2005 London bombings: usage and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, C. R.; Fuchkan, N.; Huntley, Z.; Robertson, M.; Thompson, M.; Scragg, P.; d'Ardenne, P.; Ehlers, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about how to remedy the unmet mental health needs associated with major terrorist attacks, or what outcomes are achievable with evidence-based treatment. This article reports the usage, diagnoses and outcomes associated with the 2-year Trauma Response Programme (TRP) for those affected by the 2005 London bombings. Method Following a systematic and coordinated programme of outreach, the contact details of 910 people were obtained by the TRP. Of these, 596 completed a screening instrument that included the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ) and items assessing other negative responses. Those scoring ⩾6 on the TSQ, or endorsing other negative responses, received a detailed clinical assessment. Individuals judged to need treatment (n=217) received trauma-focused cognitive-behaviour therapy (TF-CBT) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Symptom levels were assessed pre- and post-treatment with validated self-report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, and 66 were followed up at 1 year. Results Case finding relied primarily on outreach rather than standard referral pathways such as primary care. The effect sizes achieved for treatment of DSM-IV PTSD exceeded those usually found in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and gains were well maintained an average of 1 year later. Conclusions Outreach with screening, linked to the provision of evidence-based treatment, seems to be a viable method of identifying and meeting mental health needs following a terrorist attack. Given the failure of normal care pathways, it is a potentially important approach that merits further evaluation. PMID:20178677

  1. Radiological surveys of naval facilities in the New London Harbor and on the Thames River, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, M.O.; Blanchard, R.L. )

    1991-12-01

    This report presents results of the surveys conducted by NAREL personnel to assess levels of environmental radioactivity resulting from maintenance and operation of nuclear-powered warships at the New London Submarine Base (NLSB). General Dynamics Electric Boat Division, Sound Signature Facility, and the State Pier, all located within New London, Connecticut, Harbor on the Thames River. The purpose of the survey was to determine if activities related to nuclear-powered warships resulted in release of radionuclides which may contribute to significant population exposure of contamination of the environment.

  2. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-01

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  3. Rydberg-London potential for diatomic molecules and unbonded atom pairs.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kevin; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2004-12-01

    We propose and test a pair potential that is accurate at all relevant distances and simple enough for use in large-scale computer simulations. A combination of the Rydberg potential from spectroscopy and the London inverse-sixth-power energy, the proposed form fits spectroscopically determined potentials better than the Morse, Varnshi, and Hulburt-Hirschfelder potentials and much better than the Lennard-Jones and harmonic potentials. At long distances, it goes smoothly to the London force appropriate for gases and preserves van der Waals's "continuity of the gas and liquid states," which is routinely violated by coefficients assigned to the Lennard-Jones 6-12 form. PMID:15634034

  4. "Walking and watching" in queer London: Sarah Waters' Tipping The Velvet and The Night Watch.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Sarah Waters' representation of London in her historical fictions Tipping the Velvet and The Night Watch is used to delineate the gendered bodies and sexual identities of her characters. A historical summary demonstrates that female masculinity was slowly mapped onto sexual identity between the 1880s and 1940s in Britain. The article argues that Waters' "inventive" use of this history allows her to question the construction of both historical and contemporary identifications. The way that Waters' characters are constricted and liberated by London's urban landscape demonstrates the spatial and temporal contingency of both gender and sexuality. PMID:23855943

  5. The perception of the South African Nursing Association by registered nurses of the East London branch.

    PubMed

    Bellad-Ellis, P; Fourie, W J; Keogh, J J

    1990-12-01

    A growth rate in the average attendance of SANA branch meetings in East London was noted over the past five years, with the highest attendance figure during 1988. Despite this improvement an attendance figure of 17.05% is unacceptably low. The question of such poor attendance at the East London branch prompted the researchers to investigate the issue. Some of the interesting findings are that marital status and young children were not found to be reasons for not attending meetings. Members felt that SANA met their expectations in most respects, however, they felt that SANA did not do enough in respect of negotiations for improved salaries and conditions of service. PMID:2091858

  6. Medical Practice, Urban Politics and Patronage: The London ‘Commonalty’ of Physicians and Surgeons of the 1420s *

    PubMed Central

    Ralley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Medical practice in fifteenth-century England is often seen as suffering from the low status and unregulated practice of which Thomas Linacre later complained. Unlike in many European cities, the provision of physic was uncontrolled, and while urban guilds oversaw surgery as a manual art, no comprehensive system of medical organisation or regulation existed. However, in a remarkable episode of the 1420s, a group of university-trained physicians and elite surgeons associated with Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, briefly established just such a system. While their efforts initially secured approval for a national scheme, it was only in the City of London that they succeeded in implementing their plans. The detailed ordinances of the collegiate ‘commonalty’ they founded provide a unique insight into their attitudes. Drawing on continental models, they attempted to control all medicine within the city by establishing a hierarchy of practitioners, preventing illicit and incompetent practice, and offering treatment to even the poorest Londoners. Yet they failed to appreciate the vested interests of civic politics: achieving these aims meant curtailing the rights of the powerful Grocers and the Barbers, a fact made clear by their adjudication of a case involving two members of the Barbers’ Company, and the Barbers’ subsequent riposte—a mayoral petition that heralded the commonalty’s end. Its founder surgeons went on to revitalise their Surgeons’ Fellowship, which continued independently of the Barbers until a merger in 1540; in contrast, the physicians withdrew from civic affairs, and physic remained entirely unregulated until episcopal licensing was instituted in 1511. PMID:27019518

  7. Pentecostal and Catholic Migrant Churches in London--The Role of Ideologies in the Language Planning of Faith Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Ana; Kwapong, Amoafi; Woodham, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The former British Labour Government acknowledged that religious practices play an important role in the development of children's identities [DCFS. (2009). "Your child, your schools, our future: building a 21st century schools system." London: HMSO; DfES (2007). "Curriculum review: Diversity and citizenship." London: HMSO]. However, little is…

  8. 'Islamic fatalism': life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London--an interview study 2.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in eastern London demonstrated frequent appeals to God and deprecation of personal agency. This paper offers an interpretation of this apparent 'fatalism', which argues for the logical downplaying of human agency and ambition in archaic Arabia, contemporary rural Sylhet and among first generation Sylheti migrants in London. PMID:24670160

  9. Adaptation and Validation of the Tower of London Test of Planning and Problem Solving in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, J. D.; Dagnan, D.; Evans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a need for validated, standardised tools for the assessment of executive functions in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examines the validity of a test of planning and problem solving (Tower of London) with adults with ID. Method: Participants completed an adapted version of the Tower of London (ToL) while…

  10. Developing the next Generation of Black and Global Majority Leaders for London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri; Campbell-Stephens, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the views of black and ethnic minority school leaders about the "Investing in Diversity" program, a black-led program developed in 2004 to address the underrepresentation of black leaders in the London schools. Major themes are identified from interviews with black and South Asian women graduates of the…

  11. London Schools and the Black Child: Towards a Vision of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apiah, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Describes a conference on black students in London's schools, focusing on continuing achievement gaps and solutions proposed by various experts. Addresses such issues as equitable resources, parent-school relationships, teacher-student relationships, street culture, and personal development. Includes recommendations for Local Education Agencies…

  12. Acute kidney injury: highlights from the ERA-EDTA Congress in London.

    PubMed

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru

    2016-02-01

    The ERA-EDTA 52nd Congress was held in London, 28-31 May 2015. In the scientific programme, overall, during the symposium, there were 18 lectures, 3 minilectures, 15 free communications and 135 poster presentations on acute kidney injury (AKI). Among many excellent reports and presentations, I selected three hot topics on AKI for the readership of Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. PMID:26769681

  13. 33 CFR 100.101 - Harvard-Yale Regatta, Thames River, New London, CT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harvard-Yale Regatta, Thames River, New London, CT. 100.101 Section 100.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.101...

  14. 33 CFR 100.101 - Harvard-Yale Regatta, Thames River, New London, CT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harvard-Yale Regatta, Thames River, New London, CT. 100.101 Section 100.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.101...

  15. Different Spaces: Learning and Literacy with Children and Their Grandparents in East London Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessel, John; Kenner, Charmian; Gregory, Eve; Ruby, Mahera; Arju, Tahera

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates informal learning, literacy and language development occurring in the home through exchanges between children of three to six years of age and their grandparents in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families of mixed ethnicity living in east London. A survey identifying…

  16. Scenarios of London Local Authorities' Engagement with Evidence Bases for Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Hallami, Mariam; Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the use of research and evidence in the formation of education policy within London local authorities. In particular it explores the policy processes in three local authorities, and observes the role of research and the interplay between research and policy within each. We begin the paper with a general overview of policy…

  17. Conference Report: Online Information Meeting 2005, Olympia, London (UK), 29 November-1 December 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education for Information, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For many years now the Holiday season has been associated with the gathering of information professionals in west London for the annual Online Information Meeting. The Meeting currently is organized by VNU Exhibitions Europe (formerly Imark Communication), though for old-timers it will forever be associated with Learned Information, the…

  18. 77 FR 16198 - Safety & Security Zones; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Thames River, New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public..., Thames River, New London, CT AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish temporary safety and security zones on the Thames River near...

  19. 77 FR 32898 - Safety & Security Zones; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Thames River, New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... CT Connecticut DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register SLIS Sector Long Island Sound... in the Federal Register (77 FR 16198). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public..., Thames River, New London, CT AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  20. Complementary Schools in Action: Networking for Language Development in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde

    2014-01-01

    In a challenging economic and political context, complementary schools in East London are mentoring each other and forming networks across communities to gain recognition and status for community languages in education and the wider community. As issues of power and status impact in different ways on differently situated communities, complementary…

  1. The Training Situation of the Non-Native EFL Teacher in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, M. H. Combe

    1975-01-01

    Describes problems faced by non-native teacher trainees in London and emphasizes necessity of EFL teachers to be aware of these problems. RSA courses in EFL have successfully prepared non-native trainees from many countries. Six centers outside the UK are training mostly non-native teachers for the RSA certificate. (CJ)

  2. EAL Pupils in London Schools: A Success Story against the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture Professor Catherine Wallace explores the literacy and language development of two groups of EAL (English as an Additional Language) pupils in London schools: Year 5 pupils in a primary school and Year 8 new arrivals in a secondary school. As they navigate their way through the British educational system, the learners recount…

  3. From the Tokugawas to Taiping; from Shakespeare's London to the Gulag (Booksearch).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents descriptions of nine historical novels (not set in the Americas) recommended for junior and senior high readers, ranging from seventeenth-century Japan and nineteenth-century China to Shakespeare's London and war-torn Europe in the twentieth century. (SR)

  4. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  5. Cardiac centres of excellence. 'Royal Brompton': the specialist centre in London that specialist centres consult.

    PubMed

    2011-06-01

    It may be diagnosing Thalassaemia with magnetic resonance, navigating catheters round tight corners with magnets, or treating Marfan's syndrome with the Brompton Sheath--but if it is state of the art and it works, the Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, will almost certainly have pioneered it, reports Barry Shurlock MA, PhD. PMID:21815300

  6. Teaching the Very Recent Past: "Miriam's Vision" and the London Bombings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitson, Alison; Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    "Miriam's Vision" is an educational project developed by the Miriam Hyman Memorial Trust, an organisation set up in memory of Miriam Hyman, one of the 52 victims of the London bombings of 2005. The project has developed a number of subject-based modules, including history, which are provided free to schools through the website…

  7. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  8. The Expenditure Impacts of London's Higher Education Institutions: The Role of Diverse Income Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…

  9. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.

    PubMed

    Turner, Claire E; Pyzio, Marta; Song, Bonita; Lamagni, Theresa; Meltzer, Margie; Chow, J Yimmy; Efstratiou, Androulla; Curtis, Sally; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2016-06-01

    Scarlet fever notifications surged across the United Kingdom in spring 2014. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in North-West London highlighted increased emm4 and emm3 infections coincident with the upsurge. Unlike outbreaks in other countries, antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, highlighting an urgent need to better understand the drivers of scarlet fever activity. PMID:27192393

  10. Cecilia John: An Australian Heads the London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics, 1932-1955

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics (LSDE) was established in 1913, and a significant figure in its history was the remarkable Cecilia John, one of seven Australians to complete the three-year course between 1917 and 1927. Apart from two short visits to Australia, John lived and taught in England for the remainder of her life. Following the…

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE CONGESTION CHARGING SCHEME ON AIR QUALITY IN LONDON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The modeling studies predicted small changes in both emissions and ambient concentrations of NOx, NO2, and PM10 across London that could be related to the implementation of the CCS, although the effects within the CCZ were projected to be more pronounced than elsewhere. The...

  12. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Claire E.; Pyzio, Marta; Song, Bonita; Lamagni, Theresa; Meltzer, Margie; Chow, J. Yimmy; Efstratiou, Androulla; Curtis, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Scarlet fever notifications surged across the United Kingdom in spring 2014. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in North-West London highlighted increased emm4 and emm3 infections coincident with the upsurge. Unlike outbreaks in other countries, antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, highlighting an urgent need to better understand the drivers of scarlet fever activity. PMID:27192393

  13. Preliminary Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of the bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut. The map depicts contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map was published as part of a study of fractured bedrock aquifers and regional tectonics.

  14. Urban Education: Confronting the Contradictions--An Analysis with Special Reference to London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide some answers to two questions: What are the distinctive challenges of urban education (especially in London) and how can schools help to meet them? Using theoretical frameworks derived from the writings of two leading scholars of the urban, Manuel Castells and David Harvey, this paper argues that the challenges "in"…

  15. Dating the Shift to English in the Financial Accounts of Some London Livery Companies: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcolado Carnicero, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-language phenomenon such as language shift has been acknowledged to constitute one of the hallmarks of the manuscripts in which the members of the City of London livery companies recorded their financial transactions during the late medieval period. Despite these texts having been studied by scholars in very diverse disciplines,…

  16. Dispersion Interactions between Rare Gas Atoms: Testing the London Equation Using ab Initio Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    A computational chemistry experiment is described in which students can use advanced ab initio quantum mechanical methods to test the ability of the London equation to account quantitatively for the attractive (dispersion) interactions between rare gas atoms. Using readily available electronic structure applications, students can calculate the…

  17. 75 FR 20776 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Shaw Cove, New London, CT, Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Shaw Cove, New London, CT, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  18. 75 FR 54024 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Shaw Cove, New London, CT, Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Shaw Cove, New London, CT, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  19. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  20. 77 FR 67566 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation Area A... this temporary final rule on September 5, 2012 (77 FR 54495). We received two public comments on the... Replacement Operations; New London, CT AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  1. Using a Group Approach to Preventing Heroin Overdose in North London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Glover, Chris; Allan, Teresa; Khoo, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Aims: This study used group psycho-education methods to assist injecting heroin users in preventing, and responding to overdose. Methods: An "OD Prevention" group was advertised in a London prescribing service and associated primary care unit. The intervention took place in a small group over one afternoon (3.5 hours), and trained participants in…

  2. Discursive Constructions of Language and Identity: Parents' Competing Perspectives in London Turkish Complementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytra, Vally

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I draw on interview data to explore parents' constructions of language and identity in two London Turkish complementary schools. I examine parents' evaluative talk about standard Turkish, Cypriot-Turkish and other regional varieties of Turkish, the cultural values they attach to them and images of personhood these invoke. I…

  3. The London Association for the Teaching of English 1947-67: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This is the fascinating story of the birth, growth, and development of the London Association for the Teaching of English from its earliest years through to the formation of the National Association for the Teaching of English and thereafter. The work of founder members of LATE, such as James Britton, Harold Rosen, and Nancy Martin, was critical…

  4. Language Shift and Vitality Perceptions amongst London's Second-Generation Bangladeshis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2013-01-01

    With more than 64,500 members, the Bangladeshi community in London is one of the largest in the UK. Originating from a wave of immigration during the 1970s, a considerable part of the community now consists of a second, UK-born generation. This explorative study seeks to address, first, the extent of the intergenerational language shift from…

  5. Reconnecting to Mission: Connecticut College's Outreach to New London during the Claire Gaudiani Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marthers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    During her presidency (1988-2001), Claire Gaudiani reconnected Connecticut College with New London, the college's home city, whose citizens through grassroots fund raising and donations of land established the college in 1911. Through an emphasis on service-learning, community outreach, and an education not for oneself as well as economic…

  6. 33 CFR 165.T01-0623 - Regulated Navigation Area: Thames River New London, CT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply. (2) In accordance with...-468-4401. (8) Notwithstanding anything contained in this rule, the Rules of the Road (33 CFR Part 84... River New London, CT. 165.T01-0623 Section 165.T01-0623 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  7. 33 CFR 165.T01-0623 - Regulated Navigation Area: Thames River New London, CT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.10, 165.11, and 165.13 apply. (2) In accordance with...-468-4401. (8) Notwithstanding anything contained in this rule, the Rules of the Road (33 CFR Part 84... River New London, CT. 165.T01-0623 Section 165.T01-0623 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  8. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... restricted area provided their vessels display registration numbers issued by the Naval Submarine Base,...

  9. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... restricted area provided their vessels display registration numbers issued by the Naval Submarine Base,...

  10. Making the Geography Curriculum: Reflections on the IGU-CGE London Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Clare

    2013-01-01

    "Curriculum making", highlighted in the Geographical Association's Manifesto in 2009, was the focus of a research symposium held in London in April 2011. Using an auto-ethnographic approach, I reflect on and explore my experience of participating in that symposium. The analysis explores the "cultures of influence" and the "forms of…

  11. From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

  12. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  13. Reporting on Children's Well-Being: The State of London's Children Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and reporting on the well-being of children has a central role to play in the development of policies to improve children's lives. This paper uses two reports on child well-being--the State of London's Children Reports--as exemplars to show how regular reporting on children can be linked to planning and policy-making in an urban…

  14. Interruption of the Tower of London Task: Support for a Goal-Activation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Helen M.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2006-01-01

    Unexpected interruptions introduced during the execution phase of simple Tower of London problems incurred a time cost when the interrupted goal was retrieved, and this cost was exacerbated the longer the goal was suspended. Furthermore, time taken to retrieve goals was greater following a more complex interruption, indicating the processing…

  15. Drama to Inspire: A London Drama Guide to Excellent Practice in Drama for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coventon, John, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Drama to Inspire" is a timely selection of practice based accounts produced by fifteen workshop leaders and friends of the long established association for teachers of drama, London Drama. Many of the authors are internationally renowned for their work. Each piece affirms the immense potential for dynamic learning that is at the heart of drama.…

  16. Age Differences in Strategic Planning as Indexed by the Tower of London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Dustin; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in performance on the Tower of London, a measure of strategic planning, in a diverse sample of 890 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30. Although mature performance was attained by age 17 on relatively easy problems, performance on the hardest problems showed improvements into the early 20s.…

  17. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and regional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.

    2014-10-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions can exceed the contributions from traffic emissions, and have been identified as a major cause of exceedences of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or regional contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction likely included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC using average source ratios from published data was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Black carbon (BC) data from 2 and 7 wavelength Aethalometers were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic, based upon the enhanced absorption of wood smoke at UV wavelengths compared to BC. While the source apportionment of BC using this approach found similar trends to that observed for EC, higher percentage contributions of wood burning to BC were estimated. Based on a wood smoke mass conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at the sites was found to range from 0.78-1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m

  18. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and regional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.

    2015-03-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions have been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or regional contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Aethalometer-derived black carbon data were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic and showed trends similar to those observed for EC. Mean wood smoke mass at the sites was estimated to range from 0.78 to 1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m tower in London suggested a similar ratio of brown to black carbon (reflecting wood burning and traffic respectively) in regional and London air. Peaks in the levoglucosan and K+ concentrations were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, consistent with domestic heating as a major contributing local source in London. Overall, the source of biomass smoke in London was concluded to be a

  19. Assessing the sources and bioaccessibility of Lead in Soils from London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna; Chenery, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The lead content of soil is important since it is toxic to humans and particularly because children tend to more readily absorb lead than do adults: children absorb up to 40% into the bloodstream from ingested or inhaled lead, versus 5-15% in adults. Studies have shown that relatively low concentrations of lead in blood can lead to significant decrease in IQ of children (e.g. Jakubowski, 2011) leading to neuropathy and hypertension in adults. The British Geological Survey has recently completed a systematic high-density geochemical soil survey of the Greater London Area (GLA) in which over 6000 surface soil samples were collected and analysed for 50 elements. The Pb content of the soils range from 11 mg/kg to greater than 10000 mg/kg with mean and median values of 301 and 185 mg/kg, respectively. The ingestion bioaccessible fraction of Pb was measured using an in-vitro bioaccessibility test showing that 68% of the total Pb in London soils is bioaccessible. Measurement of Pb isotopic ratios in selected soils matched with those found in London air particulates and, to a lesser extent, with petrol lead. Self modelling mixture resolution of the 50 element geochemical data set was used to identify geochemically distinct components in the data with Pb being associated with 11 of the components which were of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Relationships between the soil components, the bioaccessible fraction and the Pb isotope ratios provided an indication of the sources of mobile lead in the London soils. References JAKUBOWSKI, M. 2011. Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children - the current concepts of risk assessment. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Vol. 24, 1-7. APPLETON, J D, CAVE, M R, and WRAGG, J. 2012. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 171, 265-272.

  20. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

  1. Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Apperson, Charles S; Harrison, Bruce A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Irby, William S; Savage, Harry M; Aspen, Stephen E; Watson, D Wesley; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Engber, Barry R; Nasci, Roger S

    2002-09-01

    The host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the Borough of Queens in New York City in July and August 2000 were investigated using an indirect ELISA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-heteroduplex assay. Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic vectors of West Nile virus. Culex salinarius Coquillett and Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) fed mainly on mammals, with fewer blood meals taken from birds, and these two species are potential bridge vectors of West Nile virus. Culex mosquitoes took blood meals (n = 54) from 11 different avian species. Only the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), American robin (Turdus migratorius), and Brown-headed cow bird (MolIothrus ater) were fed upon by all three Culex species. Multiple blood feedings on avian hosts were detected in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. Species identifications of Culex mosquitoes made using morphological characteristics were confirmed with a PCR assay that employed species-specific primers. All Cx. pipiens (n = 20) and Cx. salinarius (n = 10) specimens were correctly identified, but three (20%) of 15 Cx. restuans were misidentified as Cx. pipiens. PMID:12349862

  2. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  3. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O’Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate air pollution (PM2.5, (collected 2005-12). Participants 578 607 users of the London cycle hire scheme, aged 14 years and over, with an estimated 78% of travel time accounted for by users younger than 45 years. Main outcome measures Change in lifelong disability adjusted life years (DALYs) based on one year impacts on incidence of disease and injury, modelled through medium term changes in physical activity, road traffic injuries, and exposure to air pollution. Results Over the year examined the users made 7.4 million cycle hire trips (estimated 71% of cycling time by men). These trips would mostly otherwise have been made on foot (31%) or by public transport (47%). To date there has been a trend towards fewer fatalities and injuries than expected on cycle hire bicycles. Using these observed injury rates, the population benefits from the cycle hire scheme substantially outweighed harms (net change −72 DALYs (95% credible interval −110 to −43) among men using cycle hire per accounting year; −15 (−42 to −6) among women; note that negative DALYs represent a health benefit). When we modelled cycle hire injury rates as being equal to background rates for all cycling in central London, these benefits were smaller and there was no evidence of a benefit among women (change −49 DALYs (−88 to −17) among men; −1 DALY (−27 to 12) among women). This sex difference largely reflected higher road collision fatality rates for female cyclists. At older ages the modelled

  4. Outcomes of domestic violence screening at an acute London trust: are there missed opportunities for intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Bartley, Angela; Bayly, Jude; Dutey-Magni, Peter; Edwards, Sarah; Madge, Sara; Miller, Charlotte; Nicholas, Rachel; Radhakrishnan, Sheila; Sathia, Leena; Swarbrick, Helen; Blaikie, Dee; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Domestic violence screening is advocated in some healthcare settings. Evidence that it increases referral to support agencies or improves health outcomes is limited. This study aimed to (1) investigate the proportion of hospital patients reporting domestic violence, (2) describe characteristics and previous hospital attendances of affected patients and (3) assess referrals to an in-house domestic violence advisor from Camden Safety Net. Design A series of observational studies. Setting Three outpatient clinics at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. Participants 10 158 patients screened for domestic violence in community gynaecology, genitourinary medicine (GUM) and HIV medicine clinics between 1 October 2013 and 30 June 2014. Also 2253 Camden Safety Net referrals over the same period. Main outcome measures (1) Percentage reporting domestic violence by age group gender, ethnicity and clinic. (2) Rates of hospital attendances in the past 3 years for those screening positive and negative. (3) Characteristics, uptake and risk assessment results for hospital in-house domestic violence referrals compared with Camden Safety Net referrals from other sources. Results Of the 10 158 patients screened, 57.4% were female with a median age of 30 years. Overall, 7.1% reported ever-experiencing domestic violence, ranging from 5.7% in GUM to 29.4% in HIV services. People screening positive for domestic violence had higher rates of previous emergency department attendances (rate ratio (RR) 1.63, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.48), emergency inpatient admissions (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.84) and day-case admissions (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.43) than those screening negative. The 77 hospital referrals to the hospital-based domestic violence advisor during the study period were more likely to be taken up and to be classified as high risk than referrals from elsewhere. Conclusions Selective screening for domestic violence in high-risk hospital clinic populations has the

  5. Promoting Diversity in Creative Art Education: The Case of Fine Art at Goldsmiths, University of London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, Annette Ruth; Haste, Polly; Jones, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Students studying art at university in the United Kingdom tend to be female, from higher social classes and from majority ethnic groups. This paper considers some of the complex and deeply-rooted social and economic factors that militate against wider participation in the arts and describes how we started to tackle under-representation at…

  6. Impact of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the Public Health Laboratory London.

    PubMed

    Williams, K; Sinclair, C; McEwan, R; Fleet, K; Balasegaram, S; Manuel, R

    2014-07-01

    Planning for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games at the Public Health Laboratory London was based on the requirement to meet potential increased demand with scalable capacity. The aim of this study was to determine the impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services during the Games period. Retrospective cross-sectional time-series data analysis was used to assess the number of gastrointestinal specimens received in the laboratory and the number of positive results. There was no increase in the number of gastrointestinal specimens received during the Games period, thus the Games had no impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the laboratory. There was a decrease in the number of public health specimens received for culture [incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-0.86, P = 0.02] and a decrease in the number of culture positive community specimens (odds ratio = 0.59, 95 % CI = 0.40-0.85, P = 0.005), suggesting a decrease in gastrointestinal illness during the Games period. As previous planning assumptions were not based on actual specimen activity, the results of this study may modify the extent of additional planning for microbiological services required for mass gatherings. PMID:24809387

  7. Singularity of the London Penetration Depth at Quantum Critical Points in Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Swingle, Brian; Berg, Erez; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-10-01

    We present a general theory of the singularity in the London penetration depth at symmetry-breaking and topological quantum critical points within a superconducting phase. While the critical exponents and ratios of amplitudes on the two sides of the transition are universal, an overall sign depends upon the interplay between the critical theory and the underlying Fermi surface. We determine these features for critical points to spin density wave and nematic ordering, and for a topological transition between a superconductor with Z2 fractionalization and a conventional superconductor. We note implications for recent measurements of the London penetration depth in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 [K. Hashimoto , Science 336, 1554 (2012)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1219821].

  8. Developing a new syndromic surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, S E; Fletcher, J; Loveridge, P; Bains, A; Morbey, R; Yeates, A; McCloskey, B; Smyth, B; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2012-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:22892324

  9. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)]. PMID:25362275

  10. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same “direct relativistic mapping” between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  11. The "Dreadful Visitation": public health and public awareness in seventeenth-century London.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, S J

    1997-01-01

    The decision was made in Britain three centuries ago that an educated populace was best able to deal with a public health crisis of staggering proportions--outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague. As early as 1603, the printing press was enlisted to educate the public about urgent health issues. This education took several forms. The City of London, with the tacit permission of the Crown, printed bills of mortality that reported who was dying of what in London, detailed by parish, for the years in the seventeenth century when plague deaths were reported. New books about plague prevention and cures were published; older works were reprinted. The resulting wealth of data gave impetus to the evolution of the new field of epidemiological demographics, founded by John Graunt and Sir William Petty. Publishing in the plague years also established a model for informing the general populace that is not without parallel in today's "information society." Images PMID:9431429

  12. Heterotopic ossification in victims of the London 7/7 bombings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D S; Clasper, J C; Patel, H D L

    2015-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of bone at extraskeletal sites. Over 60% of amputees injured by improvised explosive devices in the recent conflict in Afghanistan have developed HO, resulting in functional impairment. It is hypothesised that a key aetiological factor is the blast wave; however, other environmental and medical risk factors, which the casualties have been exposed to, have also been postulated. The suicide terrorist bombings in London in 2005 resulted in many blast-related casualties, many of whom were managed by the Royal London Hospital. This cohort of severely injured patients whose injuries also included trauma-related amputations shared some, but not all, of the risk factors identified in the military population. We reviewed these patients, in particular to assess the presence or absence of military-established risk factors for the formation of HO in these casualties. PMID:25645697

  13. Molecular identification of novel intermediate host species of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Patel, Zainab; Gill, A Christina; Fox, Mark T; Hermosilla, Carlos; Backeljau, Thierry; Breugelmans, Karin; Keevash, Esther; McEwan, Claudia; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Elson-Riggins, Jocelyn G

    2014-12-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that can cause serious and potentially fatal disease in dogs and other canids. The aim of this study was to determine the intermediate slug species infected in nature by sampling sites in Greater London and Hertfordshire located within a known hyperendemic region. Overall, A. vasorum larvae were recovered from 6/381 slugs (1.6%) by tissue digestion, and their identity was confirmed by PCR. Infected slugs originated from three different sites in the Greater London area: one in Waltham Forest and two in Bromley. Slugs parasitised by A. vasorum were identified by a combination of external morphological characteristics and molecular techniques and belonged to three different families: the Arionidae, the Milacidae and the Limacidae. This includes two new host records for the parasite: Arion distinctus and Tandonia sowerbyi. This is the first record of A. vasorum in the family Milacidae, indicating that the parasite has a broader intermediate host range than previously recognised. PMID:25195057

  14. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented. PMID:22144852

  15. First-order phase transition and tricritical point in multiband U (1 ) London superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellin, Karl A. H.; Babaev, Egor

    2016-02-01

    The order of the superconducting phase transition is a classical problem. Single-component type-2 superconductors exhibit a continuous "inverted-X Y " phase transition, as was first demonstrated for U (1 ) lattice London superconductors by a celebrated duality mapping with subsequent backing by numerical simulations. Here we study this problem in multiband U (1 ) London superconductors and find evidence that by contrast the model has a tricritical point. The superconducting phase transition becomes first order when the Josephson length is sufficiently large compared to the magnetic field penetration length. We present evidence that the fluctuation-induced dipolar interaction between vortex loops makes the phase transition discontinuous. We discuss that this mechanism is also relevant for the phase transitions in multicomponent gauge theories with higher broken symmetry.

  16. Psychological and social problems in HIV infection: interviews with general practitioners in London.

    PubMed

    King, M B

    1989-09-16

    A random sample of 270 general practitioners in London was interviewed to assess current practice and opinions about managing psychological and social problems related to HIV infection. Physicians caring for patients with HIV infection were asked about numbers of patients in their pratice with HIV or AIDS; consultation with third parties such as sexual partners or family; reports to employers and other third parties; terminal care; contact with HIV clinics; testing for HIV infection without consent; and the impact of patients with HIV infection on their practice. All physicians were asked about patients concerned with HIV infection; awareness of other health resources for patients with HIV infection; terminal care; "safer sex" education; confidentiality; interest in AIDS; intravenous drug users as patients; managing homosexual patients; and ethical considerations. King discusses the findings and draws conclusions about primary care of HIV-infected patients in London. PMID:2508884

  17. Looking back on the London Olympics: Independent outcome and hindsight effects in decision evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blank, Hartmut; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    Outcome bias and hindsight bias are related, but how exactly? To remedy theoretical ambiguity and non-existent directly relevant empirical research, we contrast an older idea (Baron & Hershey, 1988, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 54, 569) that sees outcome bias as partly mediated through hindsight bias with the idea that the two biases independently affect decision evaluations. In an Internet study of retrospections on the 2012 London Olympics, evaluations of the Games' success and its foreseeability had independent effects on evaluations of the International Olympic Committee's decision to award the Olympics to London; there was no evidence of mediation. Further theoretical discussion emphasizes the need to distinguish between a holistic assessment of decisions and a more specific assessment of the decision-making process in future outcome bias research. PMID:25997708

  18. Physical Activity in Deprived Communities in London: Examining Individual and Neighbourhood-Level Factors

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Paul; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Bottomley, Christian; Yu, Ge; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Moore, Derek; Frostick, Caroline; Lock, Karen; Renton, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of this study were to examine relationships between neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics and physical activity in deprived London neighbourhoods. Methods In 40 of the most deprived neighbourhoods in London (ranked in top 11% in London by Index of Multiple Deprivation) a cross-sectional survey (n = 4107 adults aged > = 16 years), neighbourhood audit tool, GIS measures and routine data measured neighbourhood and individual-level characteristics. The binary outcome was meeting the minimum recommended (CMO, UK) 5×30 mins moderate physical activity per week. Multilevel modelling was used to examine associations between physical activity and individual and neighbourhood-level characteristics. Results Respondents living more than 300 m away from accessible greenspace had lower odds of achieving recommended physical activity levels than those who lived within 300 m; from 301–600 m (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5–0.9) and from 601–900 m (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4–0.8). There was substantial residual between-neighbourhood variance in physical activity (median odds ratio = 1.7). Other objectively measured neighbourhood-level characteristics were not associated with physical activity levels. Conclusions Distance to nearest greenspace is associated with meeting recommended physical activity levels in deprived London neighbourhoods. Despite residual variance in physical activity levels between neighbourhoods, we found little evidence for the influence of other measured neighbourhood-level characteristics. PMID:23922717

  19. Stabbing and safeguarding in children and young people: a Pan-London service evaluation and audit

    PubMed Central

    Apps, John R; Williams, Carrie; McGuinness, Anne; Gabbie, Susie; Sutcliffe, Alastair G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize paediatric presentations of stabbing to emergency departments across London and to audit existing referral rates to the police and social services against the new standard set by the General Medical Council. Design Retrospective multi-centre service evaluation/audit. Setting All emergency departments within London. Participants Patients under 18 years of age presenting to emergency departments with non-accidental stabbing between 1 April 2007 and 30 April 2009. Main outcome measures Patient age, nature of assault, assailant, injuries and management. Rates of documented referral to police and social services, as mandated by GMC guidance. Results A total of 381 presentations were identified from 20 out of the 32 hospitals in London, 160 of whom were less than 16 years old. The majority were seen only by emergency department staff and only a minority (28%) were admitted. Three died in the departments. A knife was the commonest weapon and the limbs the most common site of injury. Referrals to police were documented in only 30% of patients (43% if <16 years old) and to social services in 16% (31% if <16 years old) of those discharged. In the majority, there was no documentation (police 64%, social services 79%). Conclusions A significant number of paediatric stabbings present to emergency departments across London. The majority of these are discharged directly from departments. Of those discharged, documentation regarding referral rates to Police and Social Services was poor, and documented referral rates low. This study covered a period prior to the introduction of new General Medical Council guidance and a repeat audit to assess subsequent documented referrals is required. PMID:23885300

  20. Professional Support, London: the professional development unit supporting practitioner well-being, refreshment, remediation and revalidation

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Julia; Morris, Penny; Halpern, Helen

    2013-01-01

    London' s Professional Support Unit (PSU) was launched in April 2012 at a time when changes and financial pressures across the health service were placing considerable demand on the medical and dental workforce. At the same time the infrastructure to support medical revalidation was established. The PSU provides developmental support to clinicians across London in all career grades and specialities, to sustain and restore them to contribute effectively to health service delivery across the capital. The costs of medical training are high. Maintaining doctors at work has to be cost effective. Clinicians in multicultural London require diverse resources, as increasing numbers have trained abroad. The PSU offers a holistic, tailor-made approach to professional and personal development with a range of resources and approaches. It provides proven high quality educational interventions, creating a linked and integrated service, providing clinicians with new opportunities. Access is by self-referral with resources targeted at those going through transitions in their professional lives, as well as those who have specific developmental needs. A collaborative approach across the PSU and its education and governance communities ensured the provision of personal support to over 1300 clinicians in its first year, together with interdisciplinary group learning opportunities. Online materials were created to assist individuals, workplace groups and a broad network of support and expertise. To maximise the effectiveness of the service, learning events were also held for those working within the PSU. In commending the PSU and its positive impact, the General Medical Council has recommended the model be shared nationally. At the same time the London's three Local Education Training Boards have recommended that the PSU expand to encompass a more diverse range of professional groups. Our challenge is how to extend such flexible, responsive and values-based support across the workforce

  1. Greek Manuscripts at the Wellcome Library in London: A Descriptive Catalogue

    PubMed Central

    Bouras-Vallianatos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new, detailed catalogue of the Greek manuscripts at the Wellcome Library in London. It consists of an introduction to the history of the collection and its scholarly importance, followed by separate entries for each manuscript. Each entry identifies the text(s) found in the respective manuscript – including reference to existing printed edition(s) of such texts – and gives a physical description of the codex, details on its provenance and bibliographical references. PMID:25766544

  2. Wastewater filtration and re-use: an alternative water source for London.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jonathan D; Blunt, Martin J

    2012-10-15

    The rapid growth and climate of the Greater London region have contributed towards large deficits in water supply. Inexpensive, energy-efficient and sustainable water resource schemes are increasingly sought as a means to boost supply. Here, we propose a small-scale recycling scheme whereby tertiary-treated wastewater is pumped to the Cretaceous chalk of the London Basin. By taking advantage of the natural filtration properties of the underlying chalk, contaminants can be effectively attenuated over relatively short length scales to result in pure water. The problem is approached from four different scales. First, we define two localities in London where such a pumping scheme might operate; regions which combine a thick unsaturated zone and high chalk transmissivity, both essential to ensure maximum contaminant removal and minimum environmental impact. Secondly, the effects of pumping fluid into the Chalk at the two localities are quantified using a finite-difference groundwater flow model. We show that rivers impose a regular groundwater flow regime, whereas pre-existing abstraction wells will lead to less predictable results. Thirdly, we consider the effect of fractures on channelling rapid fluid flow within the rock mass. By digitising a fracture map based upon outcrop measurements from chalk exposed on the Kent coast similar to that beneath London, we quantify transport patterns of wastewater after injection. Imbibition to the chalk matrix (and therefore filtration) will occur where fluid pressure gradients are highest, for instance around disconnected fracture tips. Finally we demonstrate the efficacy of chalk in contaminant removal by injecting an analogue 'effluent' through a chalk core. ICP-AES analysis on the recovered solution shows the contaminants (viz. a suite of heavy metals) are arrested or removed over relatively small time- and length-scales. Numerical and analytical solutions fit the data poorly, shedding some light on the importance of

  3. A study of the atmosphere in London underground trains before and after the ban on smoking.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the ambient atmosphere in London Underground train compartments were made before and after a ban on smoking. Levels of nicotine and carbon monoxide and estimates of airborne particulates are given. This paper describes the analytical techniques used in measuring constituents of tobacco smoke in the ambient air of public environments. Levels observed were all found to be far lower than recommended OSHA limits for safe exposure. PMID:3810674

  4. Understanding the role of London dispersion forces in molecular surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Valentino R.

    2012-02-01

    The interactions and dynamics of molecules at surfaces and within pores are essential to many chemical processes, ranging from molecular storage to catalysis and self-assembly. A molecular level understanding of molecule-surface interactions is crucial for tuning surface/pore selectivity and reactivity. While it is clear that strong chemisorption bonds facilitate these interactions, the role of weaker van der Waals (vdW) forces, which include London dispersion and π-π stacking interactions, are often unknown or overlooked. Recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) have now made it possible to reliably account for London dispersion interactions. In this paper, I will discuss the use of one such technique, the Rutgers-Chalmers vdW non-local correlation functional,ootnotetextM. Dion, H. Rydberg, E. Schr"oder, B. I. Lundqvist and D. C. Langreth, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 246401 (2004)^,ootnotetextT. Thonhauser, V. R. Cooper, S. Li, A. Puzder, P. Hyldgaard, and David C. Langreth, Phys. Rev. B, 76, 125112 (2007) to demonstrate how the inclusion of London dispersion forces is critical for a truly first principles understanding of processes sensitive to molecule-surface interactions, such as the loading of H2 within porous materials and the chemisorption of organic molecules at surfaces. These works highlight the fundamental importance of London dispersion interactions in the broader context of chemical physics. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, BES, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.ootnotetextCollaborators: Guo Li, Isaac Tamblyn, Yungok Ihm, Jun-Hyung Cho, Shixuan Du, Jeffrey B. Neaton, Hong-Jun Gao, Zhenyu Zhang, James R. Morris

  5. Treating London-Dispersion Effects with the Latest Minnesota Density Functionals: Problems and Possible Solutions.

    PubMed

    Goerigk, Lars

    2015-10-01

    It is shown that the latest Minnesota density functionals (SOGGA11, M11-L, N12, MN12-L, SOGGA11-X, M11, N12-SX, and MN12-SX) do not properly describe London-dispersion interactions. Grimme's DFT-D3 correction can solve this problem partially; however, double-counting of medium-range electron correlation can occur. For the related M06-L functional, the alternative VV10 van der Waals kernel is tested, but it experiences similar double-counting. Most functionals give unphysical dissociation curves for the argon dimer, an indication for method-inherent problems, and further investigation is recommended. These results are further evidence that the London-dispersion problem in density functional theory approximations is unlikely to be solved by mere empirical optimization of functional parameters, unless the functionals contain components that ensure the correct asymptotic long-range behavior. London dispersion is ubiquitous, which is why the reported findings are not only important for theoreticians but also a reminder to the general chemist to carefully consider their choice of method before undertaking computational studies. PMID:26722889

  6. Drastic reduction in the growth temperature of graphene on copper via enhanced London dispersion force

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Li, Zhancheng; Cui, Ping; Fan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hui; Zeng, Changgan; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    London dispersion force is ubiquitous in nature, and is increasingly recognized to be an important factor in a variety of surface processes. Here we demonstrate unambiguously the decisive role of London dispersion force in non-equilibrium growth of ordered nanostructures on metal substrates using aromatic source molecules. Our first-principles based multi-scale modeling shows that a drastic reduction in the growth temperature, from ~1000°C to ~300°C, can be achieved in graphene growth on Cu(111) when the typical carbon source of methane is replaced by benzene or p-Terphenyl. The London dispersion force enhances their adsorption energies by about (0.5–1.8) eV, thereby preventing their easy desorption, facilitating dehydrogenation, and promoting graphene growth at much lower temperatures. These quantitative predictions are validated in our experimental tests, showing convincing demonstration of monolayer graphene growth using the p-Terphenyl source. The general trends established are also more broadly applicable in molecular synthesis of surface-based nanostructures. PMID:23722566

  7. Prise en compte des ``courants de London'' dans la modélisation des supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossavit, Alain

    1997-10-01

    A model is given, in variational form, in which volumic “Bean currents”, ruled by Bean's law, and surface “London currents” coexist. This macroscopic model generalizes Bean's one, by appending to the critical density j_c a second parameter, with the dimension of a length, similar to London's depth λ. The one-dimensional version of the model is investigated, in order to link this parameter with the standard observable H-M characteristics On propose un modèle, sous forme variationnelle, associant des “courants de Bean” volumiques, décrits par la loi de Bean, et des “courants de London”, surfaciques. Ce modèle macroscopique généralise celui de Bean, caractérisé par le courant critique j_c, et fait intervenir un second paramètre, homogène à une longueur, analogue au λ de London. La version unidimensionnelle du modèle est étudiée en détail de manière à relier ce paramètre à l'observation des caractéristiques H-M usuelles.

  8. ‘Complex’ but coping: experience of symptoms of tuberculosis and health care seeking behaviours - a qualitative interview study of urban risk groups, London, UK

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis awareness, grounded in social cognition models of health care seeking behaviour, relies on the ability of individuals to recognise symptoms, assess their risk and access health care (passive case finding). There is scant published research into the health actions of ‘hard-to-reach’ groups with tuberculosis, who represent approximately 17% of the London TB caseload. This study aimed to analyse patients’ knowledge of tuberculosis, their experiences of symptoms and their health care seeking behaviours. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 participants, predominantly homeless and attending a major tuberculosis centre in London, UK. Most had complex medical and social needs including drug and alcohol use or immigration problems affecting entitlement to social welfare. Analytical frameworks aimed to reflect the role of broader social structures in shaping individual health actions. Results Although participants demonstrated some knowledge of tuberculosis their awareness of personal risk was low. Symptoms commonly associated with tuberculosis were either not recognised or were attributed to other causes for which participants would not ordinarily seek health care. Many accessed health care by chance and, for some, for health concerns other than tuberculosis. Conclusions Health education, based on increasing awareness of symptoms, may play a limited role in tuberculosis care for populations with complex health and social needs. The findings support the intensification of outreach initiatives to identify groups at risk of tuberculosis and the development of structured care pathways which support people into prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24943308

  9. Alaska Undergraduates Produce a New Bathymetric Map of Auke Lake near Juneau Using an Acoustic Depth Sounder, Differential GPS, and ArcGIS as part of collaboration between the City and Borough of Juneau and the University of Alaska Southeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Smith, L.; Knuth, E.; Farrell, M.; Monteith, D.

    2006-12-01

    The University of Alaska Southeast (UAS), in collaboration with the City and Borough of Juneau (CBJ) is planning an upgrade to the old Auke Lake trail. A summer 2006 field course in Archeology required anthropology and environmental science students to do independent research projects along the shoreline of Auke Lake, adjacent to the UAS campus. For this study, depth and location data were collected from a small boat using an acoustic depth sounder (1 kilowatt transducer with a 6 degree narrow beam width) coupled with a differential GPS (DGPS) receiver which logged positions at 5 second intervals. The accuracy of the soundings is thought to be about 0.5 m and DGPS locations accurate to about 1 m. Raw water depth data was registered to 17 m above MHHW, an elevation recorded on the 1986, 1:25,000 scale, USGS Juneau B2 NW topographic map. Auke Lake level remains relatively constant due to a NOAA fish weir and dam downstream which blocks the outlet stream (Auke Creek. 4904 soundings were collected and co-registered with DGPS positions to produce a bathymetric map of the lake in order to better understand the origin of its bedrock basin and glacial history. This map will also aid in studies of impacts to shoreline habitats by lake recreational users. These include lakeside residents including the University, shoreline fishers, canoers, kayakers, swimmers, jet skiers, other motorized boaters, and float plane pilots taking off and landing. In addition, the new map will support ongoing ecology and fisheries studies directed at questions about physical limnology, sockeye and pink salmon habitat distributed by depth, water quality, and nutrient cycling. The map was produced using bathymetry processed with 3D Analyst in ArcGIS 9.1, using existing IKONOS 1 m/pixel imagery for the basemap.

  10. Methane Emissions in the London Region: Deciphering Regional Sources with Mobile Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazzeri, G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoisellé, M.; Bjorkegren, A.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    Methane stable isotope analysis, coupled with mole fraction measurement, has been used to link isotopic signature to methane emissions from the leading methane sources in the London region, such as landfills and gas leaks. A mobile Picarro G2301 CRDS analyser was installed in a vehicle, together with an anemometer and a Hemisphere GPS receiver, to measure atmospheric methane mole fractions and their relative location. When methane plumes were located and intercepted, air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, for δ13C-CH4 isotopic analysis by CF-GC-IRMS (Continous Flow-Gas Chromatography-Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectroscopy). This method provides high precision isotopic values, determining δ13C-CH4 to ±0.05 per mil. The bulk signature of the methane plume into the atmosphere from the whole source area was obtained by Keeling plot analysis, and a δ13C-CH4 signature, with the relative uncertainty, allocated to each methane source investigated. The averaged δ13C-CH4 signature for landfill sites around the London region is - 58 ± 3 ‰, whereas the δ13C-CH4 signature for gas leaks is fairly constant at -36 ± 2 ‰, a value characteristic of North Sea supply. The Picarro G2301 analyser was installed also on the roof of King's College London, located in the centre of the city, and connected to an air inlet located 7 meters above roof height. An auto-sampler was connected to the same air inlet and launched remotely when a high nocturnal build up was expected, allowing up to twenty air bags to be collected for methane isotopic analysis over a 24 hour period. The main source contributing to overnight methane build up in central London is fugitive gas, in agreement with inventories. From the isotopic characterisation of urban methane sources and the source mix in London, the contribution to the urban methane budget and the local distribution of the methane sources given in inventories can be validated.

  11. Measurements of free radicals in a megacity during the Clean Air for London Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Dwayne; Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Clancy, Noel; Lee, James; Kleffman, Jorg; Laufs, Sebastian; Bandy, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Free radicals control the photo-oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3, multifunctional species and particulates. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals and OH reactivity recorded at North Kensington, Central London, during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of the Clear Air for London (Clearflo) project in the summer and winter of 2012. OH and HO2 were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy at low pressure (the FAGE technique), and RO2 was measured using the recently developed ROXLIF technique, which utilises an external flow-reactor interfaced to FAGE, and which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals. Through control of reagent gases we are further able to provide a separate measurement of those RO2 species which are known to give an interference for HO2 measurements (namely alkene, aromatic and large-chain alkane derived RO2). OH reactivity was measured using laser-flash photolysis combined with FAGE. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the winter IOP, with mixing ratios of [OH] ~ 0.04 pptv, [HO2] ~ 0.4 pptv, and [RO2] ~ 1.6 pptv at noon, all displaying a negative correlation with NO. The photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O vapour was only a minor contribution to radical production in winter, with photolysis of HONO a major radical source. The summer IOP coincided with the London Olympic Games, with a number of pollution events, with ozone peaking at 100 ppbv (exceeding EU air quality directives) and elevated radical concentrations (peak [OH] ~ 0.14 pptv, [HO2] ~ 4 pptv, [RO2] ~ 6.4 pptv) being observed. The net rate of ozone production was calculated from radical observations and agreed well with measured ozone production, suggesting that advection/dilution by continental air-masses was not playing a significant role in determining ozone

  12. A retrospective assessment of mortality from the London smog episode of 1952: the role of influenza and pollution.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Fletcher, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The London smog of 1952 is one of history's most important air pollution episodes in terms of its impact on science, public perception of air pollution, and government regulation. The association between health and air pollution during the episode was evident as a strong rise in air pollution levels was immediately followed by sharp increases in mortality and morbidity. However, mortality in the months after the smog was also elevated above normal levels. An initial government report proposed the hypothesis that influenza was responsible for high mortality during these months. Estimates of the number of influenza deaths were generated using multiple methods, indicating that only a fraction of the deaths in the months after the smog could be attributable to influenza. Sensitivity analysis reveals that only an extremely severe influenza epidemic could account for the majority of the excess deaths for this time period. Such an epidemic would be on the order of twice the case-fatality rate and quadruple the incidence observed in a general medical practice during the winter of 1953. These results underscore the need for diligence regarding extremely high air pollution that still exists in many parts of the world. PMID:14698923

  13. Planning like an Olympian. How London Ambulance Service successfully handled their 'summer of sport'.

    PubMed

    Killens, Jason

    2013-03-01

    LOCOG Medical managed thousands of patient contacts across all the Games venues without our intervention. A polyclinic in the athlete's village had extensive diagnostic options, including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging for athletes and the Olympic family. These helped limit the number of patients who needed transport to the ED. Although the delivery was seamless, there were "behind the scenes" moments in the final stages of planning that made us think. We received additional requests for ambulance cover at training venues that hadn't been planned for on short notice. In addition, the torch relay attracted bigger crowds than initially planned for. Some of the planning assumptions and agreements changed on short notice for various reasons. This meant we had to adjust our plans while also solving human resource issues that you would expect to see among a workforce of around 500 across a six-week period. As part of the National Health Service (NHS) ambulance service Games cohort, more than 500 staff were deployed across 18 venues and 30 days of sport in London. In doing so, they delivered in excess of 165,000 hours of standby and care, responded to nearly 1,500 Games-related incidents and conveyed 800 patients to emergency departments across the capital. After such an influx, it wasn't easy to return to business as usual. Officials with previous host cities had advised us that there would be a feeling of "what next" once the Games concluded. When I first heard this, I thought the opposite would be the case. I expected feeling relieved of overwhelming emotion as well as from the exhaustion of the long days. I do have to say that although this was the case, it's also true that there is a "post Games" come down. We had just been part of a fantastic summer of sport with a brilliant medal tally from Team Great Britain and Paralympics Great Britain that, of course, helped the euphoria. But we did feel real sense of uncertainty about what to do next. We had spent five

  14. Population Genomics of Cardiometabolic Traits: Design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Andrew; Amuzu, Antoinette; Ong, Ken; Gaunt, Tom; Holmes, Michael V.; Warren, Helen; Davies, Teri-Louise; Drenos, Fotios; Cooper, Jackie; Sofat, Reecha; Caulfield, Mark; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Humphries, Steve E.; Power, Christine; Hypponen, Elina; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Wareham, Nicholas; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Day, Ian N.; Whincup, Peter; Morris, Richard; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Price, Jacqueline; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Plagnol, Vincent; Dudbridge, Frank; Whittaker, John C.; Casas, Juan P.; Hingorani, Aroon D.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Metabochip) incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1) fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2) precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3) investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4) use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies. PMID:23977022

  15. Population genomics of cardiometabolic traits: design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Dale, Caroline; Shah, Sonia; White, Jon; Giambartolomei, Claudia; McLachlan, Stela; Zabaneh, Delilah; Cavadino, Alana; Finan, Chris; Wong, Andrew; Amuzu, Antoinette; Ong, Ken; Gaunt, Tom; Holmes, Michael V; Warren, Helen; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Davies, Teri-Louise; Drenos, Fotios; Cooper, Jackie; Sofat, Reecha; Caulfield, Mark; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Talmud, Philippa J; Humphries, Steve E; Power, Christine; Hypponen, Elina; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Wareham, Nicholas; Langenberg, Claudia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Day, Ian N; Whincup, Peter; Morris, Richard; Strachan, Mark W J; Price, Jacqueline; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Plagnol, Vincent; Dudbridge, Frank; Whittaker, John C; Casas, Juan P; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2013-01-01

    Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Metabochip) incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1) fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2) precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3) investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4) use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies. PMID:23977022

  16. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  17. Multidisciplinary group performance—measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Matthew; Greaves, Felix; Gunn, Laura; Patterson, Susan; Greenfield, Geva; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Pappas, Yannis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Multidisciplinary Group meetings (MDGs) are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision-making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups. We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot. Methods We defined ‘integrating’ as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken. Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures—the Valence, the Focus, and the Level. Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity. Results Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score. Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described. Conclusion This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating. The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values. PMID:23687473

  18. Usefulness of Long-term Urban Greenhouse Gas monitoring: the London record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of CH4 at Egham, SW London, shows reduction in the source input since the mid 1990s. There is a distinct seasonal cycle, in part reflecting background variation, tracked by comparison with the Mace Head Atlantic record. Local emissions, led by higher fossil fuel consumption in the winter months, also contribute to the cycle. Inter-annual variability is in part meteorological. The urban increment can be estimated by comparing specific wind sectors (e.g. incoming SSW Atlantic air compared to easterly urban air). Ratios of CH4 to CO2, calculated from the continuous records, allow relative emissions of CH4 and CO2 to be quantified, providing immediate tests of inventories. Ratios of excess over background of CH4 to CO2 for periods of 7 consecutive days of easterly air flow to the Egham site (from London) indicate a reduction in CH4 emissions of 11% relative to CO2 over the period 1999-2007. Isotopes discriminate sharply between methane sources. Diurnal (Keeling plot) δ13CCH4 campaigns identify source mixes. For London, both CO2 and CH4 annual emissions are cited to 0.1 ton (i.e. to 9 significant figures of CO2, and to 6 figures for methane). However, it can be difficult to reconcile isotopic measurements of local methane increments with declared emissions budgets (Lowry et al., 2001). Rapid, inexpensive, small-sample isotopic techniques (Fisher et al., 2006) allow simple tests of the veracity of emissions declarations. Local emissions can be detected, by geographic location, given known background patterns. Moreover, seasonal variation can be tracked. This makes it potentially possible cheaply to audit emissions in populated areas. Lowry, D., et al. (2001) J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7427-48 Fisher, R., et al. (2006) Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrometry, 20, 200-208.

  19. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  20. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Ng, N. L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P. S.; Herndon, S. C.; Brooks, B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Fleming, Z.; Visser, S.; Prevot, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatial distribution of PM1 in the greater London area during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012 by applying two High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). While the concentration of organic aerosol (OA) is comparable between the rural and urban sites, the OA sources are distinctly different. Due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area, the concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site. In contrast, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. This is likely caused by a steep concentration gradient of OOA when air masses are advected from polluted mainland Europe. Taking advantage of low biogenic emissions in winter, the sources of OOA, which are highly uncertain, are investigated. Combing Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis and radiocarbon analysis, the majority of OOA is estimated to arise from aged biomass burning. We deploy a suite of instruments to investigate the organic volatility at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250°C in a thermal-denuder (TD), the mass fraction remaining of organics is 16%, which indicates the presence of non-volatile organics. By comparing the OA associated with refractory black carbon (measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) and total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS), we proposed that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as refractory black carbon in the atmosphere. Finally, we will discuss the relationship between the volatility and the degree of oxidation of organics.

  1. The impact of the congestion charging scheme on ambient air pollution concentrations in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, R. W.; Barratt, B.; Armstrong, B.; Anderson, H. R.; Beevers, S. D.; Mudway, I. S.; Green, D.; Derwent, R. G.; Wilkinson, P.; Tonne, C.; Kelly, F. J.

    On 17th February 2003, a congestion charging scheme (CCS), operating Monday-Friday, 07:00-18:00, was introduced in central London along with a programme of traffic management measures. We investigated the potential impact of the introduction of the CCS on measured pollutant concentrations (oxides of nitrogen (NO X, NO and NO 2), particles with a median diameter less than 10 microns (PM 10), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O 3)) measured at roadside and background monitoring sites across Greater London. Temporal changes in pollution concentrations within the congestion charging zone were compared to changes, over the same time period, at monitors unlikely to be affected by the CCS (the control zone) and in the boundary zone between the two. Similar analyses were done for CCS hours during weekends (when the CCS was not operating). Based on the single roadside monitor with the CCS Zone, it was not possible to identify any relative changes in pollution concentrations associated with the introduction of the scheme. However, using background monitors, there was good evidence for a decrease in NO and increases in NO 2 and O 3 relative to the control zone. There was little change in background concentrations of NO X. There was also evidence of relative reductions in PM 10 and CO. Similar changes were observed during the same hours in weekends when the scheme was not operating. The causal attribution of these changes to the CCS per se is not appropriate since the scheme was introduced concurrently with other traffic and emissions interventions which might have had a more concentrated effect in central London. This study provides important pointers for study design and data requirements for the evaluation of similar schemes in terms of air quality. It also shows that results may be unexpected and that the overall effect on toxicity may not be entirely favourable.

  2. Seasonal trends in concentrations and fluxes of volatile organic compounds above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, A. C.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations and fluxes of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured between August and December 2012 at a roof-top site in central London as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). VOC concentrations were quantified using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer and fluxes were calculated using a virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique. The median VOC fluxes, including aromatics, oxygenated compounds and isoprene, ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 mg m-2 h-1 and mixing ratios were 7.27 ppb for methanol (m / z 33) and <1 ppb for the remaining compounds. Strong relationships were observed between most VOC fluxes and concentrations with traffic density, but also with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature for the oxygenated compounds and isoprene. An estimated 50-90 % of aromatic fluxes were attributable to traffic activity, which showed little seasonal variation, suggesting boundary layer effects or possibly advected pollution may be the primary causes of increased concentrations of aromatics in winter. PAR and temperature-dependent processes accounted for the majority of isoprene, methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes and concentrations in August and September, when fluxes and concentrations were largest. Modelled biogenic isoprene fluxes using the G95 algorithm agreed well with measured fluxes in August and September, due to urban vegetation. Comparisons of estimated annual benzene emissions from the London and National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory agreed well with measured benzene fluxes. Flux footprint analysis indicated emission sources were localized and that boundary layer dynamics and source strengths were responsible for temporal and spatial VOC flux and concentration variability during the measurement period.

  3. Seasonal and diurnal trends in concentrations and fluxes of volatile organic compounds in central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, A. C.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations and fluxes of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured between August and December 2012 at a rooftop site in central London as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). VOC concentrations were quantified using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and fluxes were calculated using a virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique. The median VOC fluxes, including aromatics, oxygenated compounds and isoprene, ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 mg m-2 h-1. Median mixing ratios were 7.3 ppb for methanol and < 1 ppb for the other compounds. Strong relationships were observed between the fluxes and concentrations of some VOCs with traffic density and between the fluxes and concentrations of isoprene and oxygenated compounds with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature. An estimated 50-90 % of the fluxes of aromatic VOCs were attributable to traffic activity, which showed little seasonal variation, suggesting that boundary layer effects or possibly advected pollution may be the primary causes of increased concentrations of aromatics in winter. Isoprene, methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes and concentrations in August and September showed high correlations with PAR and temperature, when fluxes and concentrations were largest suggesting that biogenic sources contributed to their fluxes. Modelled biogenic isoprene fluxes from urban vegetation using the Guenther et al. (1995) algorithm agreed well with measured fluxes in August and September. Comparisons of estimated annual benzene emissions from both the London and the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventories agreed well with measured benzene fluxes. Flux footprint analysis indicated emission sources were localised and that boundary layer dynamics and source strengths were responsible for temporal and spatial VOC flux and concentration variability during the measurement period.

  4. Using public health scenarios to predict the utility of a national syndromic surveillance programme during the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Morbey, R A; Elliot, A J; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Verlander, N Q; Leach, S; Hall, I; Barrass, I; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Said, B; Walsh, A; Pebody, R; Smith, G E

    2014-05-01

    During 2012 real-time syndromic surveillance formed a key part of the daily public health surveillance for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. It was vital that these systems were evaluated prior to the Games; in particular what types and scales of incidents could and could not be detected. Different public health scenarios were created covering a range of potential incidents that the Health Protection Agency would require syndromic surveillance to rapidly detect and monitor. For the scenarios considered it is now possible to determine what is likely to be detectable and how incidents are likely to present using the different syndromic systems. Small localized incidents involving food poisoning are most likely to be detected the next day via emergency department surveillance, while a new strain of influenza is more likely to be detected via GP or telephone helpline surveillance, several weeks after the first seed case is introduced. PMID:23902949

  5. Engaging with the Public on Volcanic Risk through Hands-on Interaction with the London Volcano.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, M.; Pyle, D. M.; Barclay, J.; Mather, T. A.; Hicks, A.; Ratner, J.; Leonard, H.; Woods, C.

    2015-12-01

    London Volcano is a major public engagement and outreach effort that emerged from a large-scale interdisciplinary research project on Strengthening Resilience in Volcanic Areas (STREVA). The activity was created for a 5-day public exhibition in London, in 2014, and brought together 3 elements to illustrate the timeline of a volcanic crisis: a 5m x 3m scale model of Soufrière St Vincent, an interactive 'monitoring station' to explore technology used in monitoring and an engaging 'bin bang' sequence to simulate a volcanic explosion. Having a large hands-on volcano as a centrepiece to the exhibit enabled interaction with primary-age school children through the use of creativity and imagination. They looked at seismic traces of 'bin bang' explosions; measured dispersal of projectile ducks; and decided where to place a model house on the island, on which the model volcano sat. Over the 5-days we evolved the activity of the volcano to re-create the 1902 eruption. During the first 3 days, 94 houses were placed around the volcano, but after the cataclysmic eruption mid-week, 12 of these houses were destroyed by simulated pyroclastic flows and lahars down the flanks of the volcano model. Light and sound were key parts of the London Volcano simulation. A sound track was created to mimic the sounds reported by eyewitnesses. Between eruptions, the volcano would intermittently rumble, adding excitement and unpredictability to the eruptions. Explosions were simulated with compressed-CO2 jets, and a G-flame; but these events were rare. Creative arts are an effective mechanism for transfer of knowledge from communities living with volcanic activity, so artwork from school children living near Tungurahua, Ecuador and poems from school children on Montserrat were on display. The London Volcano was a unique opportunity to engage with over 2,000 people on volcanic risk and what it means to live near a volcano. Encouraging school children to be creative and to use their imagination

  6. Correlations and clustering in the trading of members of the London Stock Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zovko, Ilija I.; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes correlations in patterns of trading of different members of the London Stock Exchange. The collection of strategies associated with a member institution is defined by the sequence of signs of net volume traded by that institution in hour intervals. Using several methods we show that there are significant and persistent correlations between institutions. In addition, the correlations are structured into correlated and anti-correlated groups. Clustering techniques using the correlations as a distance metric reveal a meaningful clustering structure with two groups of institutions trading in opposite directions.

  7. Wastewater Filtration and Re-use: An Alternative Water Source for London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, J. D.; Blunt, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid growth and climate of the Greater London region have contributed towards large deficits in water supply. Inexpensive, energy-efficient and sustainable water resource schemes are increasingly sought as a means to boost supply. We propose a small-scale recycling scheme whereby tertiary-treated wastewater is pumped to the Cretaceous chalk of the London Basin. By taking advantage of the natural filtration properties of the underlying chalk, contaminants can be effectively attenuated over relatively short length scales to result in a useful complementary pure water source for such a densely populated area. First, we define two localities where such a pumping scheme might operate; regions of thick unsaturated zone and high chalk transmissivity are essential to ensure maximum contaminant removal and minimum environmental impact. Secondly, the effects of pumping fluid into the Chalk at the two localities are quantified using a finite-difference groundwater flow model. Thirdly, we consider the effect of fractures on channelling rapid fluid flow within the rock mass. By digitising a fracture map based upon outcrop measurements from chalk exposed on the southern coast similar to that beneath London, we are able to quantify the transport patterns of wastewater after injection. Imbibition to the chalk matrix (and therefore filtration) will occur where fluid pressure gradients are highest, for instance around fracture tips. Finally we inject an analogue `effluent' through a chalk core in the laboratory and perform ICP-AES analysis on the recovered solution, showing contaminant (viz. a suite of heavy metals) retardation or removal over relatively short time- and length-scales. Numerical and analytical solutions fit the data poorly, shedding some light on the importance of hydrodynamic dispersion on aqueous contaminants within chalk. We have been encouraged by (i) the success of other similar schemes worldwide in places as far apart (both physically and economically) as

  8. Insights into the experiences of patients with cancer in London: framework analysis of free-text data from the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey 2012/2013 from the two London Integrated Cancer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Theresa; Lucas, Grace; Sangha, Amrit; Randolph, Anuska; Stapleton, Sarah; Pattison, Natalie; O'Gara, Geraldine; Harris, Katherine; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Dolan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Objective To shed light on experiences of patients with cancer in London National Health Service (NHS) trusts that may not be fully captured in national survey data, to inform improvement action plans by these trusts. Design Framework analysis of free-text data from 2012/2013 National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (NCPES) from the 2 London Integrated Cancer Systems. Setting and participants Patients with a cancer diagnosis treated by the NHS across 27 trusts in London. Main outcome measures Free-text data received from patients categorised into what patients found good about their cancer care and what could be improved. Methods Using Framework analysis, a thematic framework was created for 15 403 comments from over 6500 patients. Themes were identified across the London data set, by tumour group and by trust. Results Two-thirds of free-text comments from patients in London were positive and one-third of those related to the good quality of care those patients received. However, the majority of comments for improvement related to quality of care, with a focus on poor care, poor communication and waiting times in outpatient departments. Additionally, 577 patients (9% of those who returned free-text data in London) commented on issues pertaining to the questionnaire itself. Some patients who experienced care from multiple trusts were unclear on how to complete the questionnaire for the single trust whose care they were asked to comment on, others said the questions did not fit their experiences. Conclusions NCPES free-text analysis can shed light on the experiences of patients that closed questions might not reveal. It further indicates that there are issues with the survey itself, in terms of ambiguities in the questionnaire and difficulties in identifying patients within specific trusts. Both of these issues have the potential to contribute to knowledge and understanding of the uses and limitations of free-text data in improving cancer services. PMID:26482767

  9. The Dependence on Smokeless Tobacco in the South Asian Communities in East London

    PubMed Central

    Khaja, Amjad Hussain; Zwiad, Abdulsalam Ali; Tarakji, Bassel; Gazal, Giath; Albaba, Feras; KalajI, Nader; Petro, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: The purpose of the study was to understand the dependency on smokeless tobacco. Methods: The major aspect of the interview was to study the type of chewing tobacco used, frequency of purchase of chewing tobacco, change in attitude and behavior after the use of chewing tobacco. This study was done in 2005 in London. Of the 110 respondents interviewed 88 were used for the data analysis. Study Design: An exploratory study was conducted in East London, United Kingdom. The selected sample was interviewed through a questionnaire, based on the Severson Smokeless Tobacco Dependence Scale. Results: Cross tabulations report that in a sample of 88 South Asian UK resident men 46.6% used leaf (paan), 43.2% used processed form of chewing tobacco and 10.2% used gutka. Older age (67%) respondents were more likely than the younger age (30%) respondents to chew tobacco. The frequency of purchase of chewing tobacco is reported high (67.2%) in the older age group than the younger age group (50%). Conclusion: This current study used an amended form of the Severson Smokeless Tobacco Scale questionnaire to study the dependency on smokeless tobacco. The study could be developed in the selection of the sample, which would include both males and females to study the dependency on smokeless tobacco. PMID:26234985

  10. Comment on "A petrologic assessment of internal zonation in granitic pegmatites" by David London (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rainer; Davidson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    London (2014) provides an interesting article which presents a study of pegmatite zonation which is of considerable interest to students of pegmatites. However, although there is much to recommend it we take exception to his attempts to dismiss an extensive body of work on the use of melt inclusions to address the critical question of actual melt compositions during the evolution of pegmatites. Volatiles are by definition fugitive, since they are readily lost by degassing, and yet they are clearly critical to the growth of the large crystals which are a defining characteristic of pegmatites (e.g. Bartoli et al., 2014; Bowen, 1956; London, 2008; Lowenstern, 2003). Any research technique which can address the pre-degassing melt compositions should therefore be considered on its merits. Although melt inclusion studies are of relatively recent vintage the problems and possible questions of interpretation have been addressed in considerable detail for at least the last two decades (e.g. Lowenstern, 2003, and references therein) and recently in Audétat and Lowenstern (2014). Likewise, any discussion needs to cover "simple" quartz-feldspar-muscovite pegmatites (e.g. Thomas et al., 2009b), as well as the much less common if more interesting rare-element rich pegmatites (e.g. Thomas et al., 2009a).

  11. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London.

    PubMed

    Canadelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community. PMID:26856068

  12. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-02-01

    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. PMID:26674127

  13. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London's nocturnal urban heat island.

    PubMed

    Doick, Kieron J; Peace, Andrew; Hutchings, Tony R

    2014-09-15

    The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration. PMID:24995636

  14. Medical nanotechnology in the UK: a perspective from the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Horton, Michael A; Khan, Abid

    2006-03-01

    Nanotechnology research is booming worldwide, and the general belief is that medical and biological applications will form the greatest sector of expansion over the next decade, driven by an attempt to bring radical solutions to areas of unmet medical need. What is true in the United States is also being fulfilled in Europe. This, though, is generally at a significantly lower investment level, even if for "large" capital infrastructure and interdisciplinary centers. Against this, the United Kingdom and its European partners are following the maxim "small is beautiful" and are attempting to identify and develop academic research and commercial businesses in areas that traditional nanotechnology developments involving engineering or physics find challenging. Thus in London-University College London (UCL) in a major joint project with Imperial College and linked to other UK and European centers of excellence-we are building upon our internationally competitive medical research (the two universities together form one of the largest centers of biomedical research outside the United States) to focus on and develop medical nanotechnology as a major sector of our research activity. A novel approach to commercialization has been the establishment with government and private equity funds of a "BioNanotechnology Centre" that will act as a portal for UK industry to access specialist skills to solve issues relating to developing nanotechnology-based medical applications, for example, for environmental screening, diagnostics, and therapy. This article reviews our academic and business strategy with examples from our current biomedical research portfolio. PMID:17292115

  15. An outbreak of illness among schoolchildren in London: toxic poisoning not mass hysteria.

    PubMed Central

    Aldous, J C; Ellam, G A; Murray, V; Pike, G

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To determine the cause of an outbreak of acute gastrointestinal illness that occurred shortly after lunch in children attending a school in London, UK. DESIGN--A questionnaire survey of children at the affected school was carried out on the day after the incident. Microbiological, environmental, and toxicological investigations were also undertaken. SETTING--A school in London, UK. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 374/468 (80%) of the children who had eaten lunch at the school on the day of the incident completed a questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS--There was a significant association between illness and the consumption of raw cucumber (relative risk = 6.1; 95% confidence interval 2.2, 16). Microbiological investigation of the foods served at lunch did not show any pathogens and toxicological investigations suggested that the cucumbers were contaminated by a pesticide. CONCLUSIONS--Although the outbreak displayed several typical features of mass psychogenic illness, the most probable cause was a toxic chemical present in cucumber served at lunch. Those responsible for investigating outbreaks of illness should be aware of the possible toxicological causes and the appropriate modes of investigation. They should be wary of too readily attributing a psychogenic cause to unusual outbreaks of acute illness in schoolchildren. PMID:8138768

  16. Modernization Of Saint Pancras And King's Cross Railway Stations In London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźwik, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The article concerns the renovation and modernization of two London railway stations - St. Pancras and King`s Cross. Both stations were built in the middle of the nineteenth century and are an example of industrial heritage. A characteristic feature that distinguishes the two buildings is the metal (iron) structure with a glass canopy. The St. Pancras railway station was characterized by a hall with the largest span in the world, and today is one of the leading examples of using iron in the development of architecture and building structures. Both stations have experienced periods of flourishing and stagnation throughout their history. There were even plans to demolish the old stations and build new facilities and in their place. Now, after the successful modernization of St. Pancras and King's Cross railway stations, they serve as good examples of the adaptation of transport utilities to modern needs, while respecting their historic structure. The problems that the designers and contractors were faced with during the renovation and modernization of the two London stations also deserve attention.

  17. Tower of London versus real life analogue planning in schizophrenia with disorganization and psychomotor poverty symptoms.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Kathryn E; Wykes, Til; Sigmundsson, Thordur; Landau, Sabine; Morris, Robin G

    2011-05-01

    Neuropsychological models propose qualitatively distinct planning impairments in the psychomotor poverty and disorganization syndromes in schizophrenia. It was proposed that poor plan initiation in psychomotor poverty would lead to longer initial planning times, while poor plan execution in disorganization would lead to greater inefficiency. Participants with psychomotor poverty (n = 30) and disorganization (n = 29) symptoms were contrasted with healthy controls (n = 28) to elucidate distinct planning impairments. Planning was compared in the Tower of London task versus real life analogue performance in the form of a board-game style diary planning task. The specificity of planning impairments was investigated by controlling for current IQ. The disorganization group demonstrated inefficient planning across both tasks, with poor performance on the Tower of London but not on the real life analogue task remaining after intelligence levels were taken into account. Initial planning times did not differ between groups. Previous associations between poor planning and symptoms may have been driven by poor planning with disorganization symptoms and associated lower order impairments in executive function or the semantic system. Targeting these impairments in people with disorganization symptoms may lead to a greater chance of success in promoting generalization to the real world. PMID:21473804

  18. Age Patterns of Mortality During the Black Death in London, A.D. 1349–1350

    PubMed Central

    DeWitte, Sharon N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines adult age-specific mortality patterns of one of the most devastating epidemics in recorded history, the Black Death of A.D. 1347–351. The goal was to determine whether the epidemic affected all ages equally or if it targeted certain age groups. Analyses were done using a sample of 337 individuals excavated from the East Smithfield cemetery in London, which contains only individuals who died during the Black Death in London in 1349–1350. The age patterns from East Smithfield were compared to a sample of 207 individuals who died from non-epidemic causes of mortality. Ages were estimated using the method of transition analysis, and age-specific mortality was evaluated using a hazards model. The results indicate that the risk of mortality during the Black Death increased with adult age, and therefore that age had an effect on risk of death during the epidemic. The age patterns in the Black Death cemetery were similar to those from the non-epidemic mortality sample. The results from this study are consistent with previous findings suggesting that despite the devastating nature of the Black Death, the 14th-century disease had general patterns of selectivity that were similar to those associated with normal medieval mortality. PMID:21572598

  19. Lumbar vertebral canal size in adults and children: observations from a skeletal sample from London, England.

    PubMed

    Watts, R

    2013-04-01

    The morphometry of the lumbar vertebral canal is of importance to clinical and bioarchaeological researchers, yet there are no growth standards for its diameters and there is a disagreement over the age at which its development is complete. Direct measurements of the midsagittal and interpedicular diameters of the lumbar vertebral canal (L1-L5) were taken from 65 children (3-17 years) and 120 adults (>17 years) from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery, London (1348-1350 CE) to discover the age at which these diameters reached their final adult size in an historical population from later mediaeval London. Children were grouped into age categories: 3-5 years; 6-10 years; 11-14 years; 15-17 years, and the group means of each diameter were compared with the mean adult diameters using one-way ANOVAs. The child midsagittal diameters were not significantly different from adults in any age category, indicating that this diameter reached adult size by 3-5 years of age. However, interpedicular diameters increased with age until 15-17 years when they reached full adult size. Mean diameters and percentiles (10th and 90th) are provided for each age category. PMID:23415375

  20. Complaints about dog faeces as a symbolic representation of incivility in London, UK: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Derges, Jane; Lynch, Rebecca; Clow, Angela; Petticrew, Mark; Draper, Alizon

    2012-12-01

    During a 'Well London' study, residents were asked about their neighbourhood and its environment. Above all other complaints, 'dog poo' was mentioned as a key concern. Despite low rates of infection and disease among the human population resulting from contact with canine faecal matter, the concerns of the public continue to rate it as a serious public health issue. Most public health studies, therefore, seek to identify processes of transmission and disease pathology as a method of addressing the problem. This study approaches the issue through a contextualised analysis of residents' complaints, using anthropological theory to examine the symbolic representation of 'dog poo'. Analysis of the interviews shows that these specific complaints were located among less easily defined or articulated experiences of social and environmental neglect, where neighbours were estranged from one another and local authorities seen as negligent. This approach has important implications for public health, as it provides not only a strong indicator of the level of dissatisfaction within some of London's more disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but also identifies a need for policies that are grounded in cross-disciplinary research into the relationship between health, 'wellbeing' and experiences of marginalisation among urban populations. PMID:23335839

  1. The London and Paris Daily Pressure Series, 1692-2007: the development of two new data series.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornes, R.; Jones, P.; Briffa, K.; Osborn, T.

    2009-04-01

    It has been known for some time that the potential exists to create long daily series of pressure for the cities of London and Paris by piecing together the barometer readings from various observers and institutions. However, most of the readings prior to 1920 have not previously been digitized or converted to modern units. To rectify this, work began in 2006 to locate and digitize these observations and then to correct the data to form homogeneous series of pressure. Observations have been located to span the years 1670-2007 for Paris and 1692-2007 for London, although significant gaps exist for the periods 1726-47 (Paris) and 1717-22 (London) where no daily pressure observations appear to have survived. The barometer observations were subjected to a detailed quality control procedure before being corrected to represent daily means of sea-level pressure at standard conditions. Monthly and annual means were calculated from the daily data and the homogeneity of these data series over the period 1780-2007 was assessed by using the Penalized Maximal t test through the use of several reference series. The homogeneity of the pre-1780 period, in the absence of highly correlated reference series, was tested by using the Penalized Maximal F test. Both of these tests were implemented through the RHtest V2 software package and it thus appears to be one of the first applications of this software to the homogenization of long pressure series. During this homogenization procedure, the London and Paris series were kept separate to avoid the introduction of circular relationships in subsequent analyses. In addition to the increased resolution and the extended length of these new series, the data are considered to be an improvement in terms of homogeneity over the monthly resolution London and Paris pressure series previously developed under the ADVICE project. In particular, the overall mean of the new London series is approximately 1hPa lower than that of the ADVICE London

  2. Atmospheric OH reactivity in central London: observations, model predictions and estimates of in situ ozone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, Lisa K.; Stone, Daniel; Bandy, Brian; Dunmore, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Hopkins, James; Lee, James D.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Heard, Dwayne E.

    2016-02-01

    Near-continuous measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity in the urban background atmosphere of central London during the summer of 2012 are presented. OH reactivity behaviour is seen to be broadly dependent on air mass origin, with the highest reactivity and the most pronounced diurnal profile observed when air had passed over central London to the east, prior to measurement. Averaged over the entire observation period of 26 days, OH reactivity peaked at ˜ 27 s-1 in the morning, with a minimum of ˜ 15 s-1 during the afternoon. A maximum OH reactivity of 116 s-1 was recorded on one day during morning rush hour. A detailed box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism was used to calculate OH reactivity, and was constrained with an extended measurement data set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from a gas chromatography flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and a two-dimensional GC instrument which included heavier molecular weight (up to C12) aliphatic VOCs, oxygenated VOCs and the biogenic VOCs α-pinene and limonene. Comparison was made between observed OH reactivity and modelled OH reactivity using (i) a standard suite of VOC measurements (C2-C8 hydrocarbons and a small selection of oxygenated VOCs) and (ii) a more comprehensive inventory including species up to C12. Modelled reactivities were lower than those measured (by 33 %) when only the reactivity of the standard VOC suite was considered. The difference between measured and modelled reactivity was improved, to within 15 %, if the reactivity of the higher VOCs (⩾ C9) was also considered, with the reactivity of the biogenic compounds of α-pinene and limonene and their oxidation products almost entirely responsible for this improvement. Further improvements in the model's ability to reproduce OH reactivity (to within 6 %) could be achieved if the reactivity and degradation mechanism of unassigned two-dimensional GC peaks were estimated. Neglecting the contribution of the higher VOCs (⩾ C

  3. Atmospheric OH reactivity in central London: observations, model predictions and estimates of in situ ozone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Bandy, B.; Dunmore, R.; Hamilton, J. F.; Hopkins, J.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Heard, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    Near-continuous measurements of OH reactivity in the urban background atmosphere of central London during the summer of 2012 are presented. OH reactivity behaviour is seen to be broadly dependent on airmass origin with the highest reactivity and the most pronounced diurnal profile observed when air had passed over central London to the East, prior to measurement. Averaged over the entire observation period of 26 days, OH reactivity peaked at ~ 27 s-1 in the morning with a minimum of ~ 15 s-1 during the afternoon. A maximum OH reactivity of 116 s-1 was recorded on one day during morning rush hour. A detailed box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism was used to calculate OH reactivity, and was constrained with an extended measurement dataset of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from GC-FID and a two-dimensional GC instrument which included heavier molecular weight (up to C12) aliphatic VOCs, oxygenated VOCs and the biogenic VOCs of α pinene and limonene. Comparison was made between observed OH reactivity and modelled OH reactivity using (i) a standard suite of VOC measurements (C2-C8 hydrocarbons and a small selection of oxygenated VOCs) and (ii) a more comprehensive inventory including species up to C12. Modelled reactivities were lower than those measured (by 33 %) when only the reactivity of the standard VOC suite was considered. The difference between measured and modelled reactivity was improved, to within 15 %, if the reactivity of the higher VOCs (≥ C9) was also considered, with the reactivity of the biogenic compounds of α pinene and limonene and their oxidation products almost entirely responsible for this improvement. Further improvements in the model's ability to reproduce OH reactivity (to within 6 %) could be achieved if the reactivity and degradation mechanism of unassigned two-dimensional GC peaks were estimated. Neglecting the contribution of the higher VOCs (≥ C9) (particularly α pinene and limonene) and model

  4. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Fleming, Z. L.; Visser, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-08-01

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the sources of OA are distinctly different. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC, measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS) at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as rBC in the atmosphere

  5. Volatile organic compound fluxes and concentrations in London (ClearfLo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, Amy; Langford, Ben; Nemitz, Eiko; MacKenzie, Rob; Hewitt, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion or evaporative emissions can directly and indirectly affect human health. Some VOCs, such as benzene and 1,3- butadiene are carcinogens. These and other VOCs contribute to the formation of ozone (O3) and aerosol particles, which have effects on human health and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Although in the UK VOC emissions are subject to control under European Commission Directive 2008/50/EC and emission reducing technologies have been implemented, urban air pollution remains a concern. Urban air quality is likely to remain a priority since currently >50% of the global population live in urban areas with trends in urbanization and population migration predicted to increase. The ClearfLo project is a large multi-institutional consortium funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and provides integrated measurements of meteorology, gas phase and particulate composition of the atmosphere over London. Both long term and IOP measurements were made at street and elevated locations at a range of sites across London and its surroundings during 2011 and 2012. Mixing ratios of a selection of nine VOCs were measured using a high sensitivity proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) at a ground level urban background (North Kensington) and kerbside (Marylebone Road) site during the winter IOP. VOC fluxes were measured by virtually disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) at an elevated urban site (King's College Strand) in Aug-Dec 2012. Our results for the first IOP showed that most of the selected compound concentrations depended on traffic emissions, although there was a marked difference between the urban background and kerbside sites. We identified some temperature effects on VOC concentrations. We also present the first analyses of VOC flux measurements over London. Preliminary analyses indicate most compounds associated with vehicle emissions closely

  6. Chemical composition and sources of organic aerosols over London from the ClearfLo 2012 campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finessi, Emanuela; Holmes, Rachel; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Harrison, Roy; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Air quality in urban areas represents a major public health issue with around one third of the European population concentrated in cities and numbers expected to increase at global scale, particularly in developing countries. Particulate matter (PM) represents a primary threat for human health as numerous studies have confirmed the association between increased levels of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases with the exposure to PM. Despite considerable efforts made in improving air quality and progressively stricter emissions regulations, the PM concentrations have not changed much over the past decades for reasons that remain unclear, and highlight that studies on PM source apportionment are required for the formulation of effective policy. We investigated the chemical composition of organic aerosol (OA) collected during two intensive field campaigns held in winter and summer 2012 in the frame of the project Clean air for London (http://www.clearflo.ac.uk/). PM samples were collected both at a city background site (North Kensington) and at a rural site 50 km southeast of London (Detling) with 8 to 24 hours sampling schedule and analysed using off-line methods. Thermal-optical analysis was used to quantify OC-EC components while a suite of soft ionization mass spectrometric techniques was deployed for detailed chemical characterization. Liquid chromatography mass Spectrometry (LC-MSn) was mostly used for the simultaneous detection and quantification of various tracers for both primary and secondary OA sources. Well-established markers for wood burning primary OA like levoglucosan and azelaic acid were quantified together with various classes of nitroaromatics including methyl-nitrocatechols that are potential tracers for wood burning secondary OA. In addition, oxidation products of biogenic VOCs such as isoprene and monoterpenes were also quantified for both seasons and sites. A non-negligible contribution from biogenic SOA to urban OA was found in summertime

  7. ‘Islamic fatalism’: life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London – an interview study 2

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in eastern London demonstrated frequent appeals to God and deprecation of personal agency. This paper offers an interpretation of this apparent ‘fatalism’, which argues for the logical downplaying of human agency and ambition in archaic Arabia, contemporary rural Sylhet and among first generation Sylheti migrants in London. PMID:24670160

  8. "That Great Educational Experiment": The City of London Vacation Course in Education 1922-1938--A Forgotten Story in the History of Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Each summer between 1922 and 1938, up to 500 elementary school teachers from across Britain, and some from overseas, joined together in London for a two-week residential vacation course. Organised by Evans' Brothers Publishers and patronised by leading educationists, politicians and policy-makers, the City of London Vacation Course came to be…

  9. Food Projects in London: Lessons for Policy and Practice--A Hidden Sector and the Need for "More Unhealthy Puddings ... Sometimes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraher, Martin; Dowler, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective: Successive governments have promoted local action to address food components of public health. This article presents findings from research commissioned by the (then) London NHS Office, scoping the range of food projects in the London area, and the potential challenges to public health practice. Methods: Research followed…

  10. Patients with protracted pain: A survey conducted at The London Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Jennifer M; Stollar, Thelma D; Littlejohns, David W; Twycross, Robert G; Vere, Duncan W

    1977-01-01

    Physical pain has always been part of human experience, and throughout history it is recorded that doctors and wise men and women have sought to ease pain. The attitudes of those suffering pain, however, have varied from stoical acceptance to sullen endurance. Today, most people consciously seek to avoid pain or to have their pain eased, although they do not always expect what in fact appears to be possible. This study of 13 patients with protracted pain was carried out at The London Hospital by a professional group to see how patients regarded their own pain and the efforts of doctors and nurses to relieve it. The attitudes of the doctors and nurses were also studied, and the results, despite the limitations of the survey, suggest that: [List: see text] PMID:874980

  11. Highlights from Faraday Discussion: Designing New Heterogeneous Catalysts, London, UK, April 2016.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nico; Manyar, Haresh G; Roldan, Alberto

    2016-06-28

    The Faraday Discussion on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts took place from 4-6 April 2016 in London, United Kingdom. It brought together world leading scientists actively involved in the synthesis, characterisation, modelling and testing of solid catalysts, attracting more than one hundred delegates from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experience levels - academic and industrial researchers, experimentalists and theoreticians, and students. The meeting was a reflection of how big of an impact the ability to control and design catalysts with specific properties for particular processes can potentially have on the chemical industry, environment, economy and society as a whole. In the following, we give an overview of the topics covered during this meeting and briefly highlight the content of each presentation. PMID:27307017

  12. Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Anderson, H Ross; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to traffic pollution on health is inconsistent. In Greater London we examined associations between traffic pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases by applying linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models in a small-area analysis. For both models the results for children and adults were close to unity. In the elderly, linear models found negative associations whereas piecewise models found non-linear associations characterized by positive risks in the lowest and negative risks in the highest exposure category. An increased risk was observed among those living in areas with the highest socioeconomic deprivation. Estimates were not affected by adjustment for traffic noise. The lack of convincing positive linear associations between primary traffic pollution and hospital admissions agrees with a number of other reports, but may reflect residual confounding. The relatively greater vulnerability of the most deprived populations has important implications for public health. PMID:26476693

  13. Cost analysis of magnetic resonance imaging at St. Joseph's Health Centre of London.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, L

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986 St. Joseph's Health Centre of London, Ont., completed 3 years of operating a magnetic resonance imaging unit. The first 2 years were devoted to research and development. From Apr. 1, 1985, to Mar. 31, 1986, the unit operated as the first clinical service unit in Canada. Over the 12 months 1671 patients (an average of 9 patients per 12-hour day) were examined. Studies of the brain (62%) and the spine (21%) accounted for most of the procedures. The operating costs for the year were $892,000; revenues totalled $449,000, for a deficit of $443,000. The average technical cost per patient was $534. Increasing the number of patients examined per year would lower the cost to $431. PMID:3815214

  14. Change in Urban Albedo in London: A Multi-scale Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susca, T.; Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization-induced change in land use has considerable implications for climate, air quality, resources and ecosystems. Urban-induced warming is one of the most well-known impacts. This directly and indirectly can extend beyond the city. One way to reduce the size of this is to modify the surface atmosphere exchanges through changing the urban albedo. As increased rugosity caused by the morphology of a city results in lower albedo with constant material characteristics, the impacts of changing the albedo has impacts across a range of scales. Here a multi-scale assessment of the potential effects of the increase in albedo in London is presented. This includes modeling at the global and meso-scale informed by local and micro-scale measurements. In this study the first order calculations are conducted for the impact of changing the albedo (e.g. a 0.01 increase) on the radiative exchange. For example, when incoming solar radiation and cloud cover are considered, based on data retrieved from NASA (http://power.larc.nasa.gov/) for ~1600 km2 area of London, would produce a mean decrease in the instantaneous solar radiative forcing on the same surface of 0.40 W m-2. The nature of the surface is critical in terms of considering the impact of changes in albedo. For example, in the Central Activity Zone in London pavement and building can vary from 10 to 100% of the plan area. From observations the albedo is seen to change dramatically with changes in building materials. For example, glass surfaces which are being used increasingly in the central business district results in dramatic changes in albedo. Using the documented albedo variations determined across different scales the impacts are considered. For example, the effect of the increase in urban albedo is translated into the corresponding amount of avoided emission of carbon dioxide that produces the same effect on climate. At local scale, the effect that the increase in urban albedo can potentially have on local

  15. Nature Utilizes Unusual High London Dispersion Interactions for Compact Membranes Composed of Molecular Ladders.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Philipp; Schreiner, Peter R

    2014-03-11

    London dispersion interactions play a key role in nature, in particular, in membranes that constitute natural barriers. Here we demonstrate that the spatial alignment of "molecular ladders" ([n]ladderanes), i.e., highly unusual and strained all-trans-fused cyclobutane moieties, leads to much larger attractive dispersion interactions as compared to alkyl chains of the same length. This provides a rationale for the occurrence of peculiar ladderane fatty acids in the dense cell walls of anammox bacteria. Despite the energetic penalty paid for the assembly of such strained polycycles, the advantage lies in significantly higher, dispersion-dominated interaction energies as compared to straight-chain hydrocarbon moieties commonly found in fatty acids. We discern the dispersion contributions to the total interaction energies using a variety of computational methods including modern dispersion-corrected density functional theory and high level ab initio approaches. Utilizing larger assemblies, we also show that the intermolecular interactions behave additively. PMID:26580198

  16. Infectious disease surveillance for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Severi, E; Heinsbroek, E; Watson, C; Catchpole, M

    2012-01-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games will be one of the largest mass gathering events in British history. In order to minimise potential infectious disease threats related to the event, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has set up a suite of robust and multisource surveillance systems. These include enhancements of already established systems (notification of infectious diseases, local and regional reporting,laboratory surveillance, mortality surveillance, international surveillance, and syndromic surveillance in primary care), as well as new systems created for the Games (syndromic surveillance in emergency departments and out-of-hours/unscheduled care,undiagnosed serious infectious illness surveillance).Enhanced existing and newly established surveillance systems will continue after the Games or will be ready for future reactivation should the need arise. In addition to the direct improvements to surveillance, the strengthening of relationships with national and international stakeholders will constitute a major post-Games legacy for the HPA. PMID:22874458

  17. Palliative care provision for people with intellectual disabilities: interviews with specialist palliative care professionals in London.

    PubMed

    Tuffrey-Wijne, I; McEnhill, L; Curfs, L; Hollins, S

    2007-09-01

    Growing numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are in need of palliative care, but there is inequity of access to palliative care services for this group. This study investigates the issues and difficulties arising for palliative care staff in providing care for people with ID. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 palliative care professionals in London. Factors affecting palliative care provision for people with ID included social issues (home situation and family issues), emotional and cognitive issues (fear, patient understanding, communication, cooperation and capacity to consent), problems with assessment, and the impact on staff and other patients. An underlying theme was the need to take more time and to build trust. Despite the challenges, many palliative care staff managed the care of people with ID well. The importance of collaboration with carers and ID services is highlighted. Further studies are needed to investigate how widespread the problems are. PMID:17846089

  18. School Choice in London and Paris – A Comparison of Middle-class Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Michaela; Bridge, Gary; Wilson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Education is one major public service in which quasi-markets and other choice-based mechanisms are now established methods of delivery. The types of school people choose, and the extent to which their choices are realized, have a fundamental impact on the outcomes of any mechanism of school choice. In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the school choice strategies of middle-class families in London and Paris. We draw on approximately 200 in-depth interviews carried out across the two cities. This enables us to investigate the extent to which middle-class school choice strategies transcend the institutional context provided by both the local (state and private) schools market and national education policy in England and France. We discuss these findings in the context of current school choice policy and consider their implications for future policy design. PMID:25750467

  19. An RAS Specialist Meeting, London, 14 October 2005: "Science from La Palma - Looking Beyond 2009"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, D.; Evans, C.; Drew, J.

    2005-12-01

    In 2009 the international agreement setting up the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma will have been in existence for a period of 30 years. In 2007 the United Kingdom will have to make a decision on whether or not to withdraw from that agreement and PPARC, through its ownership of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, has the responsibility of deciding on the UK's involvement in the observatory beyond 2009. As part of the decision making process, and in support of the UK's overall strategic re-evaluation in astronomy, the ING was reviewed during 2005. It was therefore thought timely to assess recent scientific achievements from the Roque de los Muchachos, and to consider what role the observatory might have beyond 2009. Under the auspices of the Royal Astronomical Society a Specialist Meeting was held in Burlington House, Piccadilly, London on October 14th 2005 and was attended by approximately 100 astronomers from around the UK.

  20. Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Multilevel, Multigroup, Multiscale Approach Exemplified by London in 2011.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron; Manley, David; Owen, Dewi; Charlton, Chris

    2015-12-01

    We develop and apply a multilevel modeling approach that is simultaneously capable of assessing multigroup and multiscale segregation in the presence of substantial stochastic variation that accompanies ethnicity rates based on small absolute counts. Bayesian MCMC estimation of a log-normal Poisson model allows the calculation of the variance estimates of the degree of segregation in a single overall model, and credible intervals are obtained to provide a measure of uncertainty around those estimates. The procedure partitions the variance at different levels and implicitly models the dependency (or autocorrelation) at each spatial scale below the topmost one. Substantively, we apply the model to 2011 census data for London, one of the world's most ethnically diverse cities. We find that the degree of segregation depends both on scale and group. PMID:26487190

  1. Ali, Cunich: Halley's Churches: Halley and the London Queen Anne Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Cunich, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Edmond Halley's enormous contribution to science has received much attention. New research adds an intriguing chapter to his story and concerns his hitherto unexplored association with the baroque architectural visionary Nicholas Hawksmoor, and some important Temple-inspired churches that were built in London in the early 1700s. We argue that Christchurch Spitalfields and St Anne's Limehouse, which were both started in the summer of 1714, were aligned exactly eastwards using ``corrected'' magnetic-compass bearings and that Halley influenced or aided Hawksmoor. By this time the men had probably known each other for 30 years and had recently worked together on the Clarendon Building in Oxford. Despite there being more than 1500 years of Chinese and about 500 years of Western compass technology at the time, these probably represent the first constructions planned using a modern-day ``scientific'' technique. The research also throws light on Halley's contended religious position.

  2. Endogenous steroids and financial risk taking on a London trading floor

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J. M.; Herbert, J.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial risk taking. Here, we report the findings of a study in which we sampled, under real working conditions, endogenous steroids from a group of male traders in the City of London. We found that a trader's morning testosterone level predicts his day's profitability. We also found that a trader's cortisol rises with both the variance of his trading results and the volatility of the market. Our results suggest that higher testosterone may contribute to economic return, whereas cortisol is increased by risk. Our results point to a further possibility: testosterone and cortisol are known to have cognitive and behavioral effects, so if the acutely elevated steroids we observed were to persist or increase as volatility rises, they may shift risk preferences and even affect a trader's ability to engage in rational choice. PMID:18413617

  3. Soul sisters: the St. John and Raynard nurses in nineteenth century London.

    PubMed

    Williamson, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper uses the archives of the St John's training institution for nurses and the Raynard Mission to determine the extent to which cultural images and specialised space defined and drove the nursing profession in nineteenth and early twentieth century London. Emphasis is placed upon image and rhetoric, both sacred and secular, and the way the two combined to define the 'ideal' Victorian woman and nursing in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and the understanding and treatment of illness. Research to date suggests that through a process of rationalisation of biblical and socio-cultural rhetoric, a specialisation of space, symbolic and literal, abstract and real was created; this enabled women to work in a gendered enclave, the organisational structure and rhetoric of which paralleled that of nunneries or convents. And even as the 'secular' became dominant in medical attitudes and treatment, the 'sacred'aspect of nursing and the emphasis placed upon it as being a vocation remained strong. PMID:11618488

  4. A survey of metal levels in street dusts in an inner London neighborhood

    SciTech Connect

    Leharne, S.; Charlesworth, D.; Chowdhry, B. )

    1992-01-01

    Dust samples were collected from various roads situated in the Globetown Neighborhood area of East London. The samples were analyzed for lead, copper, nickel, manganese, iron, and aluminum by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results indicate that lead levels in roads designated as busy are significantly greater than residential roads. The highest lead levels, though, were found in the vicinity of a car repair workshop. Iron levels in the vicinity of scrap metal yards are significantly higher than levels in residential roads. Aluminum levels, a putative indicator of crustal contributions to dust metal burdens, are significantly greater in residential roads and in the vicinity of scrap metal yards compared to busy roads. Manganese nickel, and copper in dust levels are evenly dispersed throughout the area. Finally, the results indicate that possible hot spots' exist which have dusts containing excessively high levels of particular metallic elements.

  5. From the physics of interacting polymers to optimizing routes on the London Underground

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Saad, David; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing paths on networks is crucial for many applications, ranging from subway traffic to Internet communication. Because global path optimization that takes account of all path choices simultaneously is computationally hard, most existing routing algorithms optimize paths individually, thus providing suboptimal solutions. We use the physics of interacting polymers and disordered systems to analyze macroscopic properties of generic path optimization problems and derive a simple, principled, generic, and distributed routing algorithm capable of considering all individual path choices simultaneously. We demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm by applying it to: (i) random graphs resembling Internet overlay networks, (ii) travel on the London Underground network based on Oyster card data, and (iii) the global airport network. Analytically derived macroscopic properties give rise to insightful new routing phenomena, including phase transitions and scaling laws, that facilitate better understanding of the appropriate operational regimes and their limitations, which are difficult to obtain otherwise. PMID:23898198

  6. From the physics of interacting polymers to optimizing routes on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Saad, David; Wong, K Y Michael

    2013-08-20

    Optimizing paths on networks is crucial for many applications, ranging from subway traffic to Internet communication. Because global path optimization that takes account of all path choices simultaneously is computationally hard, most existing routing algorithms optimize paths individually, thus providing suboptimal solutions. We use the physics of interacting polymers and disordered systems to analyze macroscopic properties of generic path optimization problems and derive a simple, principled, generic, and distributed routing algorithm capable of considering all individual path choices simultaneously. We demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm by applying it to: (i) random graphs resembling Internet overlay networks, (ii) travel on the London Underground network based on Oyster card data, and (iii) the global airport network. Analytically derived macroscopic properties give rise to insightful new routing phenomena, including phase transitions and scaling laws, that facilitate better understanding of the appropriate operational regimes and their limitations, which are difficult to obtain otherwise. PMID:23898198

  7. [Identification of ancient Chinese medicinal specimens preserved at Natural History Museum in London].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric

    2015-12-01

    On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces. PMID:27245044

  8. London Dispersion Decisively Contributes to the Thermodynamic Stability of Bulky NHC-Coordinated Main Group Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Philipp; Schreiner, Peter R

    2016-01-12

    We evaluated the dispersion stabilization of a series of seemingly reactive main group compounds coordinated to bulky N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. We computed the thermochemistry of hypothetical isodesmic exchange reactions of these ligands with their unsubstituted parent systems employing the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory with and without dispersion corrections. The energy difference between these two approaches gave dispersion corrections of 30 kcal mol(-1) and more. We therefore conclude that London dispersion contributes critically to the thermodynamic stabilities of these compounds. As such, these core-shell structures undergo reactions of the reactive core as long as the dispersion stabilization is conserved. PMID:26606127

  9. Annotated type catalogue of land snails collected from Taiwan (Formosa) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present catalogue lists the type specimens of land snail species, collected from Taiwan and deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. Thirty-seven nominal species described by Pfeiffer, Adams, Nevill, Moellendorff, Godwin-Austen and Gude were traced. I present here information on type status, collection data obtained from the registers and labels of each collection, and annotations on the current taxonomic affiliation. Lectotypes of 28 nominal (sub)species were newly designated. One holotype was fixed originally and two holotypes newly fixed by monotypy. Syntypes of two species and paralectotypes of three species were also discovered in the Museum. No specimen of the species Pupina adamsi Sowerby, 1878, which was supposed to be deposited in the NHM, was found. Pictures of the name-bearing types are provided for further research on biodiversity of the island. PMID:25901108

  10. Social Deprivation, Inequality, and the Neighborhood-Level Incidence of Psychotic Syndromes in East London

    PubMed Central

    Kirkbride, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Although urban birth, upbringing, and living are associated with increased risk of nonaffective psychotic disorders, few studies have used appropriate multilevel techniques accounting for spatial dependency in risk to investigate social, economic, or physical determinants of psychosis incidence. We adopted Bayesian hierarchical modeling to investigate the sociospatial distribution of psychosis risk in East London for DSM-IV nonaffective and affective psychotic disorders, ascertained over a 2-year period in the East London first-episode psychosis study. We included individual and environmental data on 427 subjects experiencing first-episode psychosis to estimate the incidence of disorder across 56 neighborhoods, having standardized for age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. A Bayesian model that included spatially structured neighborhood-level random effects identified substantial unexplained variation in nonaffective psychosis risk after controlling for individual-level factors. This variation was independently associated with greater levels of neighborhood income inequality (SD increase in inequality: Bayesian relative risks [RR]: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04–1.49), absolute deprivation (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08–1.51) and population density (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00–1.41). Neighborhood ethnic composition effects were associated with incidence of nonaffective psychosis for people of black Caribbean and black African origin. No variation in the spatial distribution of the affective psychoses was identified, consistent with the possibility of differing etiological origins of affective and nonaffective psychoses. Our data suggest that both absolute and relative measures of neighborhood social composition are associated with the incidence of nonaffective psychosis. We suggest these associations are consistent with a role for social stressors in psychosis risk, particularly when people live in more unequal communities. PMID:23236081

  11. Methodology for Airborne Quantification of NOx fluxes over Central London and Comparison to Emission Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, A. R.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Purvis, R.; Carslaw, D.; Misztal, P. K.; Metzger, S.; Beevers, S.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hewitt, C. N.; Shaw, M.; Karl, T.; Davison, B.

    2015-12-01

    The emission of pollutants is a major problem in today's cities. Emission inventories are a key tool for air quality management, with the United Kingdom's National and London Atmospheric Emission Inventories (NAEI & LAEI) being good examples. Assessing the validity of such inventoried is important. Here we report on the technical methodology of matching flux measurements of NOx over a city to inventory estimates. We used an eddy covariance technique to directly measure NOx fluxes from central London on an aircraft flown at low altitude. NOx mixing ratios were measured at 10 Hz time resolution using chemiluminescence (to measure NO) and highly specific photolytic conversion of NO2 to NO (to measure NO2). Wavelet transformation was used to calculate instantaneous fluxes along the flight track for each flight leg. The transformation allows for both frequency and time information to be extracted from a signal, where we quantify the covariance between the de-trended vertical wind and concentration to derive a flux. Comparison between the calculated fluxes and emission inventory data was achieved using a footprint model, which accounts for contributing source. Using both a backwards lagrangian model and cross-wind dispersion function, we find the footprint extent ranges from 5 to 11 Km in distance from the sample point. We then calculate a relative weighting matrix for each emission inventory within the calculated footprint. The inventories are split into their contributing source sectors with each scaled using up to date emission factors, giving a month; day and hourly scaled estimate which is then compared to the measurement.

  12. Smoking and pursuit of thinness in schoolgirls in London and Ottawa.

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, A. H.; Halek, C.; Sedgewick, P.; Stravraki, C.; Williams, E.; Kiossis, I.; Sedgwick, P.; Stavrakaki, C.

    1998-01-01

    It has been proposed that teenage girls often smoke cigarettes to protect themselves from the impulse to binge eat, with its feared weight-gain consequences, particularly when other measures such as greater dietary restraint have failed. The present study looked at the relationship between body mass index and standardised questionnaire responses concerning smoking, alcohol consumption, moods, weight changes, attitudes to body weight and shape, dietary patterns and menstruation in 1936 British (London) and 832 Canadian (Ottawa) schoolgirls. Data analysis revealed links between cigarette smoking and body weight/shape concerns, and awareness by subjects of these links; there was also a tendency for smokers in these two populations to be overweight but not grossly obese. Smoking was also related at all ages to being postmenarchal. The London population in particular revealed an association between smoking and a weight loss of 7 kg or more at some stage since puberty. Smoking was also linked, in a minority, with regular vomiting undertaken as a further defence against weight gain when overeating had occurred. These associations existed alongside the major and predictable association found between alcohol consumption and smoking. Similarities between the British and Canadian schoolgirls were striking in respect of rank order of reasons given for smoking and consequences of giving it up. Since smoking amongst older women is reportedly associated with below-average body weight it may indeed be effective in helping to curb weight gain. Our study provided little evidence of association between smoking and generalised anxiety or social anxiety (in either population), or depression (in the British cohort). We suggest that any preventive psychological approach to teenage female smoking should include attention to weight gain anxiety and consequent pursuit of thinness. PMID:9926121

  13. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  14. Understanding London's Water Supply Tradeoffs When Scheduling Interventions Under Deep Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E. S.; Harou, J. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply planning in many major world cities faces several challenges associated with but not limited to climate change, population growth and insufficient land availability for infrastructure development. Long-term plans to maintain supply-demand balance and ecosystem services require careful consideration of uncertainties associated with future conditions. The current approach for London's water supply planning utilizes least cost optimization of future intervention schedules with limited uncertainty consideration. Recently, the focus of the long-term plans has shifted from solely least cost performance to robustness and resilience of the system. Identifying robust scheduling of interventions requires optimizing over a statistically representative sample of stochastic inputs which may be computationally difficult to achieve. In this study we optimize schedules using an ensemble of plausible scenarios and assess how manipulating that ensemble influences the different Pareto-approximate intervention schedules. We investigate how a major stress event's location in time as well as the optimization problem formulation influence the Pareto-approximate schedules. A bootstrapping method that respects the non-stationary trend of climate change scenarios and ensures the even distribution of the major stress event in the scenario ensemble is proposed. Different bootstrapped hydrological scenario ensembles are assessed using many-objective scenario optimization of London's future water supply and demand intervention scheduling. However, such a "fixed" scheduling of interventions approach does not aim to embed flexibility or adapt effectively as the future unfolds. Alternatively, making decisions based on the observations of occurred conditions could help planners who prefer adaptive planning. We will show how rules to guide the implementation of interventions based on observations may result in more flexible strategies.

  15. The changing oxidizing environment in London - trends in ozone precursors and their contribution to ozone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schneidemesser, E.; Vieno, M.; Monks, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    Ground-level ozone is recognized to be a threat to human health (WHO, 2003), have a deleterious impact on vegetation (Fowler et al., 2009), is also an important greenhouse gas (IPCC, 2007) and key to the oxidative ability of the atmosphere (Monks et al., 2009). Owing to its harmful effect on health, much policy and mitigation effort has been put into reducing its precursors - the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The non-linear chemistry of tropospheric ozone formation, dependent mainly on NOx and NMVOC concentrations in the atmosphere, makes controlling tropospheric ozone complex. Furthermore, the concentration of ozone at any given point is a complex superimposition of in-situ produced or destroyed ozone and transported ozone on the regional and hemispheric-scale. In order to effectively address ozone, a more detailed understanding of its origins is needed. Here we show that roughly half (5 μg m-3) of the observed increase in urban (London) ozone (10 μg m-3) in the UK from 1998 to 2008 is owing to factors of local origin, in particular, the change in NO : NO2 ratio, NMVOC : NOx balance, NMVOC speciation, and emission reductions (including NOx titration). In areas with previously higher large concentrations of nitrogen oxides, ozone that was previously suppressed by high concentrations of NO has now been "unmasked", as in London and other urban areas of the UK. The remaining half (approximately 5 μg m-3) of the observed ozone increase is attributed to non-local factors such as long-term transport of ozone, changes in background ozone, and meteorological variability. These results show that a two-pronged approach, local action and regional-to-hemispheric cooperation, is needed to reduce ozone and thereby population exposure, which is especially important for urban ozone.

  16. Social deprivation, inequality, and the neighborhood-level incidence of psychotic syndromes in East London.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride, James B; Jones, Peter B; Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy W

    2014-01-01

    Although urban birth, upbringing, and living are associated with increased risk of nonaffective psychotic disorders, few studies have used appropriate multilevel techniques accounting for spatial dependency in risk to investigate social, economic, or physical determinants of psychosis incidence. We adopted Bayesian hierarchical modeling to investigate the sociospatial distribution of psychosis risk in East London for DSM-IV nonaffective and affective psychotic disorders, ascertained over a 2-year period in the East London first-episode psychosis study. We included individual and environmental data on 427 subjects experiencing first-episode psychosis to estimate the incidence of disorder across 56 neighborhoods, having standardized for age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. A Bayesian model that included spatially structured neighborhood-level random effects identified substantial unexplained variation in nonaffective psychosis risk after controlling for individual-level factors. This variation was independently associated with greater levels of neighborhood income inequality (SD increase in inequality: Bayesian relative risks [RR]: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), absolute deprivation (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08-1.51) and population density (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.41). Neighborhood ethnic composition effects were associated with incidence of nonaffective psychosis for people of black Caribbean and black African origin. No variation in the spatial distribution of the affective psychoses was identified, consistent with the possibility of differing etiological origins of affective and nonaffective psychoses. Our data suggest that both absolute and relative measures of neighborhood social composition are associated with the incidence of nonaffective psychosis. We suggest these associations are consistent with a role for social stressors in psychosis risk, particularly when people live in more unequal communities. PMID:23236081

  17. The CDCC's Teacher Bursaries Scheme. European Teachers' Seminar on "Intercultural Education" (London, March 20-25, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrman, Carl-Axel, Ed.; Williams, Michael, Ed.

    This report describes a 1-week residential in-service course dealing with intercultural education and attended by European teachers from ten countries. The following presentations are reviewed: (1) "Welcoming Address" (D. Lawton); (2) "Interculturalism and the New Swedish Teacher-Training Programme" (C. Sparrman); (3) "Multicultural London" (J.…

  18. Teachers' Experiences of Autonomy in Continuing Professional Development: Teacher Learning Communities in London and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Berry, Rita; Lai, Y. C.; Leung, Pamela; Scott, David; Stobart, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' experiences of autonomy as they undertook Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the form of Teacher Learning Communities (TLCs) to develop Assessment for Learning (AfL). Participant teacher interview data were used from two parallel TLC projects, one in Hong Kong and one in London, UK. Autonomy was defined…

  19. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  20. Two Years on: Koha 3.0 in Use at the CAMLIS Library, Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissels, Gerhard; Chandler, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the further development of the Koha 3.0 library management system (LMS) and the involvement of external software consultants at the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Library and Information Service (CAMLIS), Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the…

  1. Implementation of an Open Source Library Management System: Experiences with Koha 3.0 at the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissels, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the selection process and criteria that led to the implementation of the Koha 3.0 library management system (LMS) at the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Library and Information Service (CAMLIS), Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a report based on…

  2. Adolescent Psychological Health Problems and Delinquency among Volatile Substance Users in a School Sample in South London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, David; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Floyd, Karen; Rawaf, Salman; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    The study assessed prevalence of volatile substance abuse (VSA), and its link to other forms of psychoactive substance use and to other problem behaviours among 14-15 year olds recruited from sixteen secondary schools in south-west London. Lifetime use of volatile substances was reported by 126 young people (6% of the sample) whose mean age of…

  3. Young People and E-Safety: The Results of the 2015 London Grid for Learning E-Safety Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wespieser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This report looks at the online activities of London's young people. The report highlights that children and young people use technology to have fun, study and communicate with others. Most children and young people have positive experiences online. On the whole they are sensible online and do not put themselves "at risk". However, the…

  4. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  5. Understanding Planning Ability Measured by the Tower of London: An Evaluation of Its Internal Structure by Latent Variable Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Boonstra, A. Marije

    2010-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) is a widely used instrument for assessing planning ability. Inhibition and (spatial) working memory are assumed to contribute to performance on the TOL, but findings about the relationship between these cognitive processes are often inconsistent. Moreover, the influence of specific properties of TOL problems on cognitive…

  6. The Construct Validity of the Tower of London (DX) as a Measure of the Executive Functioning of ADHD Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, William C.; Zillmer, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    The construct-related validity of the Tower of London-Drexel (TOL-DX), a measure of executive functioning (W. Culbertson and A. Zillmer, 1995) was studied with 129 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results show that the TOL-DX loads prominently on an Executive Planning/Inhibition factor while separating for factors…

  7. Syncretism as a Creative Act of Mind: The Narratives of Children from Four Faith Communities in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, E.; Lytra, V.; Choudhury, H.; Ilankuberan, A.; Kwapong, A.; Woodham, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate how young children from four faith communities (Tamil Hindu/Saiva, Bangladeshi Muslim, Polish Catholic and Ghanaian Pentecostal) new to London bring together and juxtapose an array of different languages, literacies, learning and discourse styles, communicative resources and experience to create unique personal…

  8. Administering "Operation Pied Piper"--How the London County Council Prepared for the Evacuation of Its Schoolchildren 1938-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Niko

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, two days before declaring war on Germany, the British government evacuated over half a million children from London to supposedly safer areas in the country. Schoolchildren went there with their teachers and infants with their mothers. Immediately after the event (and ever since) the impact of the evacuation on the children--the…

  9. Back on "Whose" Track? Reframing Ideologies of Inclusion and Misrecognition in a Participatory Theatre Project with Young People in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the limitations of applied drama interventions promising integration and inclusion against the material realities of urban disenfranchisement and misrecognition. Through reflection on a participatory theatre project facilitated with young women in an urban secondary school in London, social and moral agendas emerge which…

  10. Grafting, Going to College and Working on Road: Youth Transitions and Cultures in an East London Neighbourhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Anthony; Watt, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The local neighbourhood has an enduring significance for British urban, working-class youth in relation to their transitions, cultures and leisure practices. This paper examines these interrelated issues by drawing upon ethnographic research undertaken in "Manor", a deprived, multi-ethnic East London neighbourhood. It explores the transitions…

  11. Gender, Education and Social Change: A Study of Feminist Politics and Practice in London, 1870-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article explores feminist interventions in urban school politics. First, it argues that the female contribution was an essential component to politics and policy making in the 120-year period that London had a single education authority. Second, it suggests that these women politicians were advocates of a cultural praxis that involved…

  12. REEXAMINATION OF LONDON, ENGLAND, MORTALITY IN RELATION TO EXPOSURE TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS DURING 1963-1972 WINTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution epidemiology since the 1950s has been able to demonstrate that increases in daily mortality in London, England, were associated with elevated concentrations of index air pollutants, i.e., British Smoke (BS) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). n this work, we reanalyze that po...

  13. Improving feedback from outpatient medical appointments attended by escorted psychiatric patients in the North London Forensic Service

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Kathleen; Croxford, Anna

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that patients with mental illness are known to have a high level of morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. This is particularly prominent in long-stay psychiatric patients, such as those in secure settings. The Royal College of Psychiatrists recommends that psychiatrists should promote the physical health of their patients and liaise with other specialties. However, there is evidence that communication between psychiatry and other specialties is poor. A survey was carried out at the North London Forensic Service in June 2014. This looked at the views of clinical staff about the frequency and quality of feedback obtained when inpatients attend outpatient hospital appointments at local general hospitals. This survey highlighted the general perception among staff that feedback is poor, with 68.43% of respondents saying that they were “very unsatisfied” or “unsatisfied” with the level and quality of feedback. Clinical staff felt that many patients who attended hospital outpatient appointments, even when escorted by staff, returned with little or no feedback. This was confirmed by a baseline audit across 3 wards showing that details of the appointment (date, time, hospital, and specialty) were only documented in 54.5% of cases and the content of the appointment documented in even fewer cases. A form was designed by junior doctors that provided a simple framework of 6 questions to be answered at the outpatient clinic about the problem, diagnosis, and further actions needed. This was introduced and its impact assessed with a 3-month and 6-month audit of electronic notes, as well as a follow-up survey after 6 months. The audit showed significant improvement in the quality of feedback about the appointment at both the 3-month and 6-month point. The follow-up survey showed that 70% of respondents were aware of the form and 100% of those who were aware of the form had used it at least once and found it helpful. The general

  14. How Do You Modernize a Health Service? A Realist Evaluation of Whole-Scale Transformation in London

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Humphrey, Charlotte; Hughes, Jane; Macfarlane, Fraser; Butler, Ceri; Pawson, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Context: Large-scale, whole-systems interventions in health care require imaginative approaches to evaluation that go beyond assessing progress against predefined goals and milestones. This project evaluated a major change effort in inner London, funded by a charitable donation of approximately $21 million, which spanned four large health care organizations, covered three services (stroke, kidney, and sexual health), and sought to “modernize” these services with a view to making health care more efficient, effective, and patient centered. Methods: This organizational case study draws on the principles of realist evaluation, a largely qualitative approach that is centrally concerned with testing and refining program theories by exploring the complex and dynamic interaction among context, mechanism, and outcome. This approach used multiple data sources and methods in a pragmatic and reflexive manner to build a picture of the case and follow its fortunes over the three-year study period. The methods included ethnographic observation, semistructured interviews, and scrutiny of documents and other contemporaneous materials. As well as providing ongoing formative feedback to the change teams in specific areas of activity, we undertook a more abstract, interpretive analysis, which explored the context-mechanism-outcome relationship using the guiding question “what works, for whom, under what circumstances?” Findings: In this example of large-scale service transformation, numerous projects and subprojects emerged, fed into one another, and evolved over time. Six broad mechanisms appeared to be driving the efforts of change agents: integrating services across providers, finding and using evidence, involving service users in the modernization effort, supporting self-care, developing the workforce, and extending the range of services. Within each of these mechanisms, different teams chose widely differing approaches and met with differing success. The realist analysis

  15. Regional methods for mapping major faults in areas of uniform low relief, as used in the London Basin, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, Richard; Aldiss, Donald

    2013-04-01

    Most of the London Basin, south-eastern UK, is underlain by the Palaeogene London Clay Formation, comprising a succession of rather uniform marine clay deposits up to 150 m thick, with widespread cover of Quaternary deposits and urban development. Therefore, in this area faults are difficult to delineate (or to detect) by conventional geological surveying methods in the field, and few are shown on the geological maps of the area. However, boreholes and excavations, especially those for civil engineering works, indicate that faults are probably widespread and numerous in the London area. A representative map of fault distribution and patterns of displacement is a pre-requisite for understanding the tectonic development of a region. Moreover, faulting is an important influence on the design and execution of civil engineering works, and on the hydrogeological characteristics of the ground. This paper reviews methods currently being used to map faults in the London Basin area. These are: the interpretation of persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) data from time-series satellite-borne radar measurements; the interpretation of regional geophysical fields (Bouguer gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic), especially in combination with a digital elevation model; and the construction and interpretation of 3D geological models. Although these methods are generally not as accurate as large-scale geological field surveys, due to the availability of appropriate data in the London Basin they provide the means to recognise and delineate more faults, and with more confidence, than was possible using traditional geological mapping techniques. Together they reveal regional structures arising during Palaeogene crustal extension and subsidence in the North Sea, followed by inversion of a Mesozoic sedimentary basin in the south of the region, probably modified by strike-slip fault motion associated with the relative northward movement of the African Plate and the Alpine orogeny. This

  16. London atmospheric Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide: 12 year record, fluxes, and diurnal studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanoisellé, M.; Fisher, R. E.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lowry, D.; Fowler, C. M. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been measured at the Royal Holloway site, 30km WSW of London, for 12 years. This site receives air that has passed over London when there are easterly winds and cleaner, background air when the wind comes from the SW. H2 and CO mixing ratios are measured continuously at 30 minute intervals on a Trace Analytical Reduction Gas Detector coupled to a HP5890 GC since September 1996, and on a Peak Performer I (or PP1) since July 2007 at 5 minute intervals. Both instruments use 2 1/8" packed columns in series: a Unibeads 1S and a Molecular Sieve 5A. The PP1 detector (Reduced Compound Photometer) is an updated version of the old RGD2, and both use zero air as the carrier gas. CO is calibrated twice a month against NOAA-CMDL standards (mixing ratios range: 186 to 300 ppb). H2 was uncalibrated until 2006, but is now calibrated monthly against internal standards (range 530 to 750 ppb) measured at MPI-Jena as part of the Eurohydros project. A linearity correction is applied to each instrument, based on the standard measurements. A secondary standard is measured before each sample on the GC-RGD and another one is measured 4 to 6 times in a row twice a day on the PP1. A target gas is measured daily on both instruments since September 2008. The secondary standards and the target gas are dry ambient air in 70L stainless steel tanks filled to a pressure of 8 bars. Comparison of results from the two instruments suggests that for the most part the data are in good agreement, but an interlaboratory round robin comparison exercise for the Eurohydros project showed that the RGD is not linear at low values of CO. This is particularly noticeable for CO levels below 150 ppb. The long-term record of CO at Royal Holloway shows a significant decline since the start of the record: the annual mean CO mixing ratio in 2008 was three times lower than in 1997. Flux calculations, by ratio against 222Rn, CH4 and CO2, suggest CO emissions

  17. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Fleming, Z. L.; Visser, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Ng, N. L.

    2016-02-01

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS) at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical

  18. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; et al

    2016-02-02

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites.more » The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS) at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  19. Discovery of previously unrecognised local faults in London, UK, using detailed 3D geological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiss, Don; Haslam, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In parts of London, faulting introduces lateral heterogeneity to the local ground conditions, especially where construction works intercept the Palaeogene Lambeth Group. This brings difficulties to the compilation of a ground model that is fully consistent with the ground investigation data, and so to the design and construction of engineering works. However, because bedrock in the London area is rather uniform at outcrop, and is widely covered by Quaternary deposits, few faults are shown on the geological maps of the area. This paper discusses a successful resolution of this problem at a site in east central London, where tunnels for a new underground railway station are planned. A 3D geological model was used to provide an understanding of the local geological structure, in faulted Lambeth Group strata, that had not been possible by other commonly-used methods. This model includes seven previously unrecognised faults, with downthrows ranging from about 1 m to about 12 m. The model was constructed in the GSI3D geological modelling software using about 145 borehole records, including many legacy records, in an area of 850 m by 500 m. The basis of a GSI3D 3D geological model is a network of 2D cross-sections drawn by a geologist, generally connecting borehole positions (where the borehole records define the level of the geological units that are present), and outcrop and subcrop lines for those units (where shown by a geological map). When the lines tracing the base of each geological unit within the intersecting cross-sections are complete and mutually consistent, the software is used to generate TIN surfaces between those lines, so creating a 3D geological model. Even where a geological model is constructed as if no faults were present, changes in apparent dip between two data points within a single cross-section can indicate that a fault is present in that segment of the cross-section. If displacements of similar size with the same polarity are found in a series

  20. A Low Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, V.; Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Stewart, G.; Kaye, P.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric composition within urban areas has a direct effect on the air quality of an environment in which a large majority of people live and work. Atmospheric pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) can have a significant effect on human health. As such it is important to determine the potential exposure of individuals to these atmospheric constituents and investigate the processes that lead to the degradation of air quality within the urban environment. Whilst modelled pollutant levels on the local scale often suggest high degrees of spatial and temporal variability, the relatively sparse fixed site automated urban networks only provide low spatial resolution data that do not appear adequate in detecting such small scale variability. In this paper we demonstrate that measurements can now be made using networks of low-cost sensors that utilise a variety of techniques, including electrochemical and optical, to measure concentrations of atmospheric species. Once equipped with GPS and GPRS to determine position and transmit data respectively, these networks have the potential to provide valuable insights into pollutant variability inherent on the local or micro-scale. The methodology has been demonstrated successfully in field campaigns carried out in cities including London and Valencia, and is now being deployed as part of the Sensor Networks for Air Quality currently deployed at London Heathrow airport (SNAQ-Heathrow) which is outlined in the partner paper presented by Mead et al. (this conference). The SNAQ-Heathrow network of 50 sensor nodes will provide an unprecedented data set that includes measurements of O3, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, total VOCs, size-speciated PM as well as meteorological variables that include temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. This network will provide high temporal (20 second intervals) and spatial (50 sites within the airport area

  1. Advanced source apportionment of size-resolved trace elements at multiple sites in London during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, S.; Slowik, J. G.; Furger, M.; Zotter, P.; Bukowiecki, N.; Canonaco, F.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Green, D. C.; Tremper, A. H.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Williams, L. R.; Mohr, C.; Xu, L.; Ng, N. L.; Nemitz, E.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Fleming, Z. L.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-10-01

    Trace element measurements in PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3 aerosol were performed with 2 h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London. The environment-dependent variability of emissions was characterized using the Multilinear Engine implementation of the positive matrix factorization model, conducted on data sets comprising all three sites but segregated by size. Combining the sites enabled separation of sources with high temporal covariance but significant spatial variability. Separation of sizes improved source resolution by preventing sources occurring in only a single size fraction from having too small a contribution for the model to resolve. Anchor profiles were retrieved internally by analysing data subsets, and these profiles were used in the analyses of the complete data sets of all sites for enhanced source apportionment. A total of nine different factors were resolved (notable elements in brackets): in PM10-2.5, brake wear (Cu, Zr, Sb, Ba), other traffic-related (Fe), resuspended dust (Si, Ca), sea/road salt (Cl), aged sea salt (Na, Mg) and industrial (Cr, Ni); in PM2.5-1.0, brake wear, other traffic-related, resuspended dust, sea/road salt, aged sea salt and S-rich (S); and in PM1.0-0.3, traffic-related (Fe, Cu, Zr, Sb, Ba), resuspended dust, sea/road salt, aged sea salt, reacted Cl (Cl), S-rich and solid fuel (K, Pb). Human activities enhance the kerb-to-rural concentration gradients of coarse aged sea salt, typically considered to have a natural source, by 1.7-2.2. These site-dependent concentration differences reflect the effect of local resuspension processes in London. The anthropogenically influenced factors traffic (brake wear and other traffic-related processes), dust and sea/road salt provide further kerb-to-rural concentration enhancements by direct source emissions by a factor of 3.5-12.7. The traffic and dust factors are mainly emitted in PM10-2.5 and show strong

  2. Atmospheric ethanol in London and the potential impacts of future fuel formulations.

    PubMed

    Dunmore, Rachel E; Whalley, Lisa K; Sherwen, Tomás; Evans, Mathew J; Heard, Dwayne E; Hopkins, James R; Lee, James D; Lewis, Alastair C; Lidster, Richard T; Rickard, Andrew R; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2016-07-18

    There is growing global consumption of non-fossil fuels such as ethanol made from renewable biomass. Previous studies have shown that one of the main air quality disadvantages of using ethanol blended fuels is a significant increase in the production of acetaldehyde, an unregulated and toxic pollutant. Most studies on the impacts of ethanol blended gasoline have been carried out in the US and Brazil, with much less focus on the UK and Europe. We report time resolved measurements of ethanol in London during the winter and summer of 2012. In both seasons the mean mixing ratio of ethanol was around 5 ppb, with maximum values over 30 ppb, making ethanol currently the most abundant VOC in London air. We identify a road transport related source, with 'rush-hour' peaks observed. Ethanol is strongly correlated with other road transport-related emissions, such as small aromatics and light alkanes, and has no relationship to summer biogenic emissions. To determine the impact of road transport-related ethanol emission on secondary species (i.e. acetaldehyde and ozone), we use both a chemically detailed box model (incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM) and a global and nested regional scale chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), on various processing time scales. Using the MCM model, only 16% of the modelled acetaldehyde was formed from ethanol oxidation. However, the model significantly underpredicts the total levels of acetaldehyde, indicating a missing primary emission source, that appears to be traffic-related. Further support for a primary emission source comes from the regional scale model simulations, where the observed concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde can only be reconciled with the inclusion of large primary emissions. Although only constrained by one set of observations, the regional modelling suggests a European ethanol source similar in magnitude to that of ethane (∼60 Gg per year) and greater than that of acetaldehyde (∼10 Gg per year). The

  3. Personal Storytelling and Narrative as a Means for Climate Scientists to Engage and Inform Public Audiences - Illustrated by the Play '2071 - The World We'll Leave Our Grandchildren' Comissioned by the Royal Court Theatre, London and the Deutsches Schauspielhaus, Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapley, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    In order to engage greater public interest in science it is necessary to move beyond the traditional academic "information deficit" mode of communication, with its emphasis on the delivery and explantion of 'facts'. This is especially the case for topics such as climate science, which have the potential to provoke strong conscious or unconscious emotional and ideological audience reactions. The use of personalised narrative and storytelling offers a means to draw in non-experts in a way that overcomes barriers of disinterest or prejudice. The talk will address the role of climate scientists in communicating within the public square, and will use the play '2071 - The World We'll Leave Our Grandchildren" as an example of how theatre can provide an effective means of communicating complex and provocative knowledge and understanding. The play was commissioned by the Royal Court Theatre, London and the Deutshes Schauspielhaus, Hamburg. It received positive reviews and sold out at the London venue.

  4. The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Jordan W.; Luginaah, Isaac N.; Booth, Gillian L.; Harris, Stewart B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic determinants of health in London (Ontario, Canada) to characterize neighbourhoods in an effort to target these neighbourhoods for local level community-based program planning and intervention. Multivariate spatial-statistical techniques and geographic information systems were used to examine diabetes rates and socioeconomic variables aggregated at the census tract level. Creation of a deprivation index facilitated investigation across multiple determinants of health. Findings from our research identified ‘at risk’ neighbourhoods in London with socioeconomic disadvantage and high diabetes. Future endeavours must continue to identify local level trends in order to support policy development, resource planning and care for improved health outcomes and improved equity in access to care across geographic regions. PMID:20623032

  5. Sir James Edward Smith (1759-1828) MD FRS, botanist, co-founder of the Linnean Society of London.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2009-05-01

    James Edward Smith's interest in botany led him to enter medicine at Edinburgh in 1781. Smith was continuing his medical studies in London when Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820) suggested to him that he should purchase the collection of the famous Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus that had just been offered to Banks. Smith bought the Linnean Collection and Library in 1784. In 1786 he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine from Leiden. In 1788 Smith, with two associates, founded the Linnean Society of London and became President for life. Smith turned from medicine to natural history as a lecturer and writer. During his lifetime he produced numerous botanical works of high value, including The English Flora (1824-28), and he did much to popularize botany. PMID:19401517

  6. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. PMID:27428585

  7. A rivalry of foulness: official and unofficial investigations of the London cholera epidemic of 1854.

    PubMed Central

    Paneth, N; Vinten-Johansen, P; Brody, H; Rip, M

    1998-01-01

    Contemporaneous with John Snow's famous study of the 1854 London cholera epidemic were 2 other investigations: a local study of the Broad Street outbreak and an investigation of the entire epidemic, undertaken by England's General Board of Health. More than a quarter-century prior to Koch's description of Vibrio comma, a Board of Health investigator saw microscopic "vibriones" in the rice-water stools of cholera patients that, in his later life, he concluded had been cholera bacilli. Although this finding was potential evidence for Snow's view that cholera was due to a contagious and probably live agent transmitted in the water supply, the Board of Health rejected Snow's conclusions. The Board of Health amassed a huge amount of information which it interpreted as supportive of its conclusion that the epidemic was attributable not so much to water as to air. Snow, by contrast, systematically tested his hypothesis that cholera was water-borne by exploring evidence that at first glance ran contrary to his expectations. Snow's success provides support for using a hypothetico-deductive approach in epidemiology, based on tightly focused hypotheses strongly grounded in pathophysiology. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:9772861

  8. Forecasting peak asthma admissions in London: an application of quantile regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic condition of great public health concern globally. The associated morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation place an enormous burden on healthcare infrastructure and services. This study demonstrates a multistage quantile regression approach to predicting excess demand for health care services in the form of asthma daily admissions in London, using retrospective data from the Hospital Episode Statistics, weather and air quality. Trivariate quantile regression models (QRM) of asthma daily admissions were fitted to a 14-day range of lags of environmental factors, accounting for seasonality in a hold-in sample of the data. Representative lags were pooled to form multivariate predictive models, selected through a systematic backward stepwise reduction approach. Models were cross-validated using a hold-out sample of the data, and their respective root mean square error measures, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values compared. Two of the predictive models were able to detect extreme number of daily asthma admissions at sensitivity levels of 76 % and 62 %, as well as specificities of 66 % and 76 %. Their positive predictive values were slightly higher for the hold-out sample (29 % and 28 %) than for the hold-in model development sample (16 % and 18 %). QRMs can be used in multistage to select suitable variables to forecast extreme asthma events. The associations between asthma and environmental factors, including temperature, ozone and carbon monoxide can be exploited in predicting future events using QRMs.

  9. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m3, respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC. PMID:26464095

  10. Student-led oral health education for the homeless community of East London.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, R M; Hine, C E; Franks, M A; Fisher-Brown, L

    2014-07-01

    Within the BDS curriculum, dental public health and the importance of social responsibility is clearly emphasised though often in a didactic manner, without practical application. Preventative concepts are taught and relayed to individual patients being treated within a dental school. The impact of oral disease on general health within disadvantaged communities is a problem commonly addressed by healthcare professionals. Part of this responsibility should be shared with and experienced by the next generation of dental practitioners through health education outreach programmes within the undergraduate curriculum. Not only will this benefit recipients within disadvantaged populations such as the homeless, but it will also develop and encourage a philosophy of social responsibility throughout the future careers of undergraduate dental and hygiene/therapy students. To explore the feasibility of achieving this objective, we devised an oral health awareness programme to address the needs of 'hard to reach' homeless people within the communities served by the Community Dental Service of Tower Hamlets, City and Hackney, London. PMID:25060460

  11. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study. PMID:25655642

  12. Sector Identification in a Set of Stock Return Time Series Traded at the London Stock Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronnello, C.; Tumminello, M.; Lillo, F.; Micciche, S.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2005-09-01

    We compare some methods recently used in the literature to detect the existence of a certain degree of common behavior of stock returns belonging to the same economic sector. Specifically, we discuss methods based on random matrix theory and hierarchical clustering techniques. We apply these methods to a portfolio of stocks traded at the London Stock Exchange. The investigated time series are recorded both at a daily time horizon and at a 5-minute time horizon. The correlation coefficient matrix is very different at different time horizons confirming that more structured correlation coefficient matrices are observed for long time horizons. All the considered methods are able to detect economic information and the presence of clusters characterized by the economic sector of stocks. However, different methods present a different degree of sensitivity with respect to different sectors. Our comparative analysis suggests that the application of just a single method could not be able to extract all the economic information present in the correlation coefficient matrix of a stock portfolio.

  13. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, Markus; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Lamb, Michael E.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction vary by residential location (i.e., personality–neighborhood interactions). Residential area was recorded at the level of postal districts (216 districts, n = 56,019 participants). Results indicated that the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction depended on neighborhood characteristics. Higher openness to experience was more positively associated with life satisfaction in postal districts characterized by higher average openness to experience, population density, and ethnic diversity. Higher agreeableness and conscientiousness were more strongly associated with life satisfaction in postal districts with lower overall levels of life satisfaction. The associations of extraversion and emotional stability were not modified by neighborhood characteristics. These findings suggest that people’s life satisfaction depends, in part, on the interaction between individual personality and particular features of the places they live. PMID:25583480

  14. Residues characterisation from the fluidised bed combustion of East London's solid recovered fuel.

    PubMed

    Balampanis, D E; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N; Longhurst, P; Coulon, F; Villa, R

    2010-07-01

    Waste thermal treatment in Europe is moving towards the utilisation of the combustible output of mechanical, biological treatment (MBT) plants. The standardisation of solid recovered fuels (SRF) is expected to support this trend and increase the amount of the generated combustion residues. In this work, the residues and especially the fly ashes from the fluidised bed combustion (FBC) of East London's NCV 3, Cl 2, and Hg 1 class SRF, are characterised. The following toxicity indicators have been studied: leachable chlorine, organochlorides expressed as pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene, and the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb. Furthermore the mineralogical pattern of the ashes has been studied by means of XRD and SEM-EDS. The results suggest that these SRF derived ashes have significantly lower quantities of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, leachable Cl, and organochlorides when compared to other literature values from traditional waste thermal treatment applications. This fact highlights the importance of modern separation technologies employed in MBT plants for the removal of components rich in metals and chlorine from the combustible output fraction of SRF resulting to less hazardous residues. PMID:20231082

  15. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Sediment Remediation at the London Olympic Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there is an emerging 'green and sustainable remediation' (GSR) movement. It is drawing increasing attention from both the government and the industry, because this GSR movement is promising in accelerating process in addressing the contaminated land issue, by overcoming regulatory barriers, encouraging technological innovation, and balancing life cycle environmental stewardship with economic vitality and social well-being. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used by both researchers and industrial practitioners in an initiative to make environmental remediation greener and more sustainable. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), aiming at expanding the traditional LCA model in both breadth and depth (e.g. to incorporate both environmental and social-economic sustainability), is an important research direction in the existing LCA research field. The present study intends to develop a LCSA method based on a hybrid LCA model and economic input-output (EIO) data. The LCSA method is applied to a contaminated sediment remediation project conducted at the London Olympic Park site.

  16. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes. PMID:23899758

  17. Sherborn's foraminiferal studies and their influence on the collections at the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Miller, C Giles

    2016-01-01

    Sherborn's work on the Foraminifera clearly provided the initial spark to compile the major indexes for which he is famous. Contact and help from famous early micropalaeontologists such as T. Rupert Jones and Fortescue William Millett led Sherborn to produce his Bibliography of Foraminifera and subsequently a two-part Index of Foraminiferal Genera and Species. Edward Heron-Allen, whose mentor was Millett, was subsequently inspired by the bibliography to attempt to acquire every publication listed. This remarkable collection of literature was donated to the British Museum (Natural History) in 1926 along with the foraminiferal collections Heron-Allen had mainly purchased from early micropalaeontologists. This donation forms the backbone of the current NHM micropalaeontological collections. The NHM collections contain a relatively small amount of foraminiferal material published by Sherborn from the London Clay, Kimmeridge Clay and Speeton Clay. Another smaller collection reflects his longer-term interest in the British Chalk following regular fieldwork with A. W. Rowe. Other collections relating to Sherborn's early published work, particularly with T. R. Jones, are not present in the collections but these collections may have been sold or deposited elsewhere by his co-workers. PMID:26877653

  18. Monitoring CO2 and CH4 concentrations along an urban-rural transect in London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Alex; Broquet, Gregoire; Clifford, Debbie; Chevallier, Frederic; Butterfield, David

    2013-04-01

    Cities are important sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Anthropogenic CO2 is released in the combustion of fossil fuels for heating, electricity and transport. The major sources of CH4 in city environments are natural gas leakage, landfill sites and transport emissions. Monitoring of urban greenhouse gas concentrations is crucial for cities aiming to reduce emissions through measures such as changes to the transport infrastructure and green planning. We present measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentrations using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) at four sites located in and around London, UK. Two sites were located in the inner city, one in the suburban fringe and the fourth in a rural location close to the city. This study was funded by Astrium Services Ltd as part of a pilot scheme to monitor city-scale GHG emissions and presented a unique opportunity to study changes in greenhouse gas concentrations across an urban to rural 'transect'. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model is used to estimate CO2 and CH4 concentrations throughout the four month measurement period during the summer of 2012. Comparisons are made between the measured and modelled CO2 and CH4 concentrations and the representativity of the study sites for future urban greenhouse gas monitoring is considered. This study also examines the ability of a variety of measurement and modelling techniques to partition anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 sources.

  19. Contact sensitivity to chromate: comparison at a London contact dermatitis clinic over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Olsavszky, R; Rycroft, R J; White, I R; McFadden, J P

    1998-06-01

    It has been argued that for chromate sensitivity to be reduced, then ferrous sulfate should be added to cement. This has not yet been done in the UK. To explore this further, we have looked at the comparative sensitization rates of patients attending the St. John's Institute of Dermatology Contact Dermatitis Clinic between the years 1982-3 and 1992-3. Patch-test-positive rates for females were not significantly different between the 2 populations studied (1982-3, 1.59% and 1992-3, 1.99% p NS). Similarly, there was no significantly different rate between the males (1982-3, 3.99% and 1992-3, 4.25% p NS) in the same time period. There was no difference in the distribution of eczema in chromate-positive subjects, nor of cobalt co-sensitization, a crude indicator of sensitization via cement. This work demonstrates no appreciable difference in the frequency of chromate sensitivity between the early 1980s and 1990s in London. Adding ferrous sulfate to cement may help to lower the frequency in the future. PMID:9687032

  20. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m(3), respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC. PMID:26464095

  1. Integrated Multibeam and LIDAR Bathymetry Data Offshore of New London and Niantic, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; McMullen, K.Y.; Parker, Castle E.; Lewit, P.G.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Nearshore areas within Long Island Sound are of great interest to the Connecticut and New York research and resource management communities because of their ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Although advances in multibeam echosounder technology permit the construction of high-resolution representations of sea-floor topography in deeper waters, limitations inherent in collecting fixed-angle multibeam data make using this technology in shallower waters (less than 10 meters deep) difficult and expensive. These limitations have often resulted in data gaps between areas for which multibeam bathymetric datasets are available and the adjacent shoreline. To address this problem, the geospatial data sets released in this report seamlessly integrate complete-coverage multibeam bathymetric data acquired off New London and Niantic Bay, Connecticut, with hydrographic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data acquired along the nearshore. The result is a more continuous sea floor representation and a much smaller gap between the digital bathymetric data and the shoreline than previously available. These data sets are provided online and on CD-ROM in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) raster-grid and GeoTIFF formats in order to facilitate access, compatibility, and utility.

  2. Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunsoo

    2013-01-01

    The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

  3. Water-energy links in cities: the urban metabolism of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijic, A.; Ruiz Cazorla, J.; Keirstead, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanisation results in increased water consumption in cities, requiring improved tools for understanding adaptive measures for water resources management under climate change. The energy sector is facing the same challenges and requires equally comprehensive solutions. More frequent water shortages due to climate and land use changes and potential limits on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels that science demands indicate clearly that the next step in the sustainable city development will be to look for the most efficient use of these highly interdependent resources. One of the concepts that could be used for quantifying fundamental flows in an urban environment such as water and energy is the urban metabolism framework. This paper will examine the concept of urban metabolism by quantifying amounts and trends of water and energy consumed in London by four main sectors: residential, industrial, commercial and public. Key data requirements at the sector level will be identified and initial mapping of critical factors for urban sustainability will be provided. Finally, the work will examine the potential of urban metabolism framework to provide data and information for implementing water, energy and greenhouse emissions trade-off 'fit-for-purpose' strategy for water supply security. The paper is a part of the Panta Rhei Research Initiative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) under the working group of Energy and Food Impacts on Water.

  4. Exploring Twitter to analyze the public's reaction patterns to recently reported homicides in London.

    PubMed

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people's perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public's concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users' estimated home locations to the homicides' locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident's occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency. PMID:25811780

  5. Does sleep disturbance predict depression in elderly people? A study in inner London.

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, G; Blizard, B; Mann, A

    1993-01-01

    Insomnia in elderly people has traditionally been regarded as inevitable and trivial. A longitudinal study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbance among elderly people in an inner London community and its association with demographic variables, depression, dementia and disability. Those aged 65 years and over living at home were interviewed using a validated and reliable semi-structured interview schedule. A total of 705 people were interviewed in 1987-88 and 524 were re-interviewed in 1990. Subjective sleep disturbance was found to be common (33% and 43%, respectively). Sleep disturbance was associated with being a woman, being unmarried, living alone, disability, and current and future depression, but not with dementia or older age. The best predictor of future depression in elderly people who were not depressed was current sleep disturbance. In the presence of current sleep disturbance, the traditional predictors of depression--being a woman, having a disability, being unmarried, living alone and being older--did not contribute further. This study has shown that sleep disorder is associated with pathology. Insomnia in elderly people requires assessment and this must be accompanied by the treatment of underlying disorders and monitoring of future health. PMID:8292414

  6. Going for gold: blood planning for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Rackham, R; Doughty, H

    2014-06-01

    The Olympics is one of the largest sporting events in the world. Major events may be complicated by disruption of normal activity and major incidents. Health care and transfusion planners should be prepared for both. Previously, transfusion contingency planning has focused on seasonal blood shortages and pandemic influenzas. This article is the first published account of transfusion contingency planning for a major event. We describe the issues encountered and the lessons identified during transfusion planning for the London 2012 Olympics. Planning was started 18 months in advance and was led by a project team reporting to the Executive. Planning was based on three periods of Gamestime. The requirements were planned with key stakeholders using normal processes enhanced by service developments. Demand planning was based on literature review together with computer modelling. The aim was blood-stock sufficiency complimented by a high readiness donor panel to minimise waste. Plans were widely communicated and table-top exercised. Full transfusion services were maintained during both Games with all demands met. The new service improvements and high readiness donors worked well. Emergency command and control have been upgraded. Red cell concentrate (RCC) stock aged but wastage was not significantly increased. The key to success was: early planning, stakeholder engagement, service developments, integration of transfusion service planning within the wider health care community and conduct within an assurance framework. PMID:24750387

  7. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  8. Integrating research & teaching: the Queen Mary, University of London module in Geodiversity & Geoconservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, M.

    2012-04-01

    The School of Geography at Queen Mary, University of London has been running a Level 6 (undergraduate) module in "Geodiversity & Geoconservation" since 2004. The course is based around the book Geodiversity: valuing and conserving abiotic nature (John Wiley, 2004) but lectures are used to update each topic based on the latest research. The course is divided into 5 parts: 1. Defining and describing geodiversity - which discusses the concept of geodiversity, its definition and the nature of the geodiversity of Planet Earth; 2. Values of, and threats to, geodiversity - a lecture on valuing geodiversity is now based around important research on the role of geodiversity in "ecosystem services" assessments. A second lecture covers the major threats to geodiversity; 3. The protected area approach - lectures here cover geological World Heritage Sites, Global Geoparks, GSSPs, and national geoconservation systems in the UK, USA and other parts of the world; 4. Protecting geodiversity in the wider landscape - the contribution of geology and geomorphology to landscape character are described, together with the role of land-use planning and policy-making in protecting geodiversity. 5. Putting it all together - lectures here emphasize that geodiversity is an important basis for geoconservation, that different geoconservation methods are appropriate to different elements of geodiversity, and that integrated geo/bio conservation is essential. A field trip to three Chalk/Quaternary Sites of Special Scientific Interest in East Sussex is included which discusses some of the planning issues that have arisen at these sites, a theme that is expanded in the lectures.

  9. Exploring Twitter to Analyze the Public’s Reaction Patterns to Recently Reported Homicides in London

    PubMed Central

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people’s perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public’s concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users’ estimated home locations to the homicides’ locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident’s occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency. PMID:25811780

  10. HIV prevention outreach in commercial gay venues in large cities: evaluation findings from London.

    PubMed

    Bonell, Chris; Strange, V; Allen, E; Barnett-Page, E

    2006-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention delivered in gay venues in US cities has been found to be effective in reducing HIV transmission in the 1990s but effects might not be generalizable to different times and settings. Doubts have been raised about: outreach's ability to address skills and explore personal behaviour; big-city commercial gay venues being appropriate sites for outreach because of gossip and social surveillance; and acceptability of outreach by professionals rather than 'popular opinion formers'. We evaluated coverage, feasibility, acceptability and perceived impact of venue-based HIV prevention outreach by professionals in London, employing observation, surveys and interviews with venue-users, and focus groups/semi-structured interviews with workers. We found high coverage especially among target groups. Addressing negotiation skills and personal behaviour was feasible but required worker motivation and skill. Social surveillance rarely impeded work. Gay men generally found outreach acceptable and useful, and professionals were not regarded negatively. Impact on knowledge was commonly reported; impacts on negotiation skills and reflection on personal behaviour were more common among men experiencing longer contacts. In conclusion, professional HIV prevention outreach in gay venues in large cities is a feasible and acceptable intervention with significant potential impacts. Workers need to be well briefed and trained to maximize impact. PMID:16306218

  11. Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

    2014-04-15

    The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively. PMID:24654768

  12. Is preparedness for CBRN incidents important to general practitioners in East London?

    PubMed

    Dabrera, Gavin; Anyaegbu, Emmanuel; Addiman, Sarah; Keeling, David; Ashton, Charlotte; Whala, Shakeel; Dunne, Adrienne; Figueroa, Jose; Lovitt, Chris; Basnett, Ian; Balasegaram, Sooria

    2012-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in public health response to CBRN incidents, including disseminating information to worried patients and undertaking risk assessments of patients. The authors undertook the first known UK survey of GPs' CBRN preparedness to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CBRN preparedness among GPs in East London, in the area of the Olympic Park. A questionnaire was developed, focusing on GPs' self-preparedness for, and perceived roles in CBRN incidents, and GPs' access to resources and policies for dealing with such incidents. Of 157 GPs, 56 responded, although some responded collectively for their practice. The majority of respondents recognised roles for themselves in CBRN incidents, including recognition of illness, supporting decontamination, and appropriate reporting. However, 79 per cent of GPs also felt unprepared for such incidents. The most popular topic for training to address this was clinical presentation of CBRN exposures. Most practices had no policy for dealing with suspect packages and white powder incidents. Since this survey, guidance and training has been made available to local GPs. As the UK will host more events like the 2012 Olympics, preparedness for GPs will continue to be an important consideration in the UK. PMID:22948105

  13. London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: public health surveillance and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Brian; Endericks, Tina; Catchpole, Mike; Zambon, Maria; McLauchlin, Jim; Shetty, Nandini; Manuel, Rohini; Turbitt, Deborah; Smith, Gillian; Crook, Paul; Severi, Ettore; Jones, Jane; Ibbotson, Sue; Marshall, Roberta; Smallwood, Catherine A H; Isla, Nicolas; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Heymann, David L; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2014-06-14

    Mass gatherings are regarded as potential risks for transmission of infectious diseases, and might compromise the health system of countries in which they are hosted. The evidence for increased transmission of infectious diseases at international sporting mass gatherings that attract many visitors from all over the world is not clear, and the evidence base for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and response at events such as the Olympics is small. However, infectious diseases are a recognised risk, and public health planning is, and should remain, a crucial part of the overall planning of sporting events. In this Series paper, we set out the planning and the surveillance systems that were used to monitor public health risks during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games in the summer of 2012, and draw attention to the public health issues-infectious diseases and chemical, radiation, and environmental hazards-that arose. Although the absolute risk of health-protection problems, including infectious diseases, at sporting mass gatherings is small, the need for reassurance of the absence of problems is higher than has previously been considered; this could challenge conventional public health surveillance systems. Recognition of the limitations of health-surveillance systems needs to be part of the planning for future sporting events. PMID:24857700

  14. Performance of humans vs. exploration algorithms on the Tower of London Test.

    PubMed

    Fimbel, Eric; Lauzon, Stéphane; Rainville, Constant

    2009-01-01

    The Tower of London Test (TOL) used to assess executive functions was inspired in Artificial Intelligence tasks used to test problem-solving algorithms. In this study, we compare the performance of humans and of exploration algorithms. Instead of absolute execution times, we focus on how the execution time varies with the tasks and/or the number of moves. This approach used in Algorithmic Complexity provides a fair comparison between humans and computers, although humans are several orders of magnitude slower. On easy tasks (1 to 5 moves), healthy elderly persons performed like exploration algorithms using bounded memory resources, i.e., the execution time grew exponentially with the number of moves. This result was replicated with a group of healthy young participants. However, for difficult tasks (5 to 8 moves) the execution time of young participants did not increase significantly, whereas for exploration algorithms, the execution time keeps on increasing exponentially. A pre-and post-test control task showed a 25% improvement of visuo-motor skills but this was insufficient to explain this result. The findings suggest that naive participants used systematic exploration to solve the problem but under the effect of practice, they developed markedly more efficient strategies using the information acquired during the test. PMID:19787066

  15. The challenge project: perpetrators of child sexual abuse in south east London.

    PubMed

    Craissati, J; McClurg, G

    1996-11-01

    The collection of descriptive data on sex offenders has been marred by methodological problems: failing to distinguish between different types of sex offenders, or using selective samples form specialist institutions. The Challenge Project is a community project for perpetrators of child sexual abuse in South East London. Over a 2 year period, all convicted child molesters appearing before the court for sentencing or applying for parole were assessed by the Project Team. Data was collected on a range of personal, offense-related, and psychometric variables. Some of these were replicated on violent and property offender populations to allow for a preliminary comparison to be made. The descriptive profile of the offenders mirrored findings of previous research, and the comparison with other offender groups suggested that there is a cluster of childhood experiences which differentiate these sex offenders from other types of offenders. The research findings supported the hypothesis that perpetrators of child sexual abuse from a heterogeneous group of offenders, with identifiable--albeit overlapping--subgroups related to key variables such as a history of sexual abuse, repeat offending, and victim gender and relationship. The essential importance of these variables in relation to compliance with and response to treatment is discussed in further research. PMID:8958456

  16. Gross enamel hypoplasia in molars from subadults in a 16th-18th century London graveyard.

    PubMed

    Ogden, A R; Pinhasi, R; White, W J

    2007-07-01

    Dental Enamel Hypoplasia has long been used as a common nonspecific stress indicator in teeth from archaeological samples. Most researchers report relatively minor linear and pitted hypoplastic defects on tooth crown surfaces. In this work we report a high prevalence and early age of onset of extensive enamel defects in deciduous and permanent molars in the subadults from the post-medieval cemetery of Broadgate, east central London. Analysis of the dentition of all 45 subadults from the cemetery, using both macroscopic and microscopic methods, reveals disturbed cusp patterns and pitted, abnormal and arrested enamel formation. Forty-one individuals from this group (93.2%) showed some evidence of enamel hypoplasia, 28 of them showing moderate or extensive lesions of molars, deciduous or permanent (63.6% of the sample). Scanning Electron Microscope images reveal many molars with grossly deformed cuspal architecture, multiple extra cusps and large areas of exposed Tomes' process pits, where the ameloblasts have abruptly ceased matrix production, well before normal completion. This indented, rough and poorly mineralized surface facilitates both bacterial adhesion and tooth wear, and when such teeth erupt fully into the mouth they are likely to wear and decay rapidly. We suggest that this complex combination of pitted and plane-form lesions, combined with disruption of cusp pattern and the formation of multiple small cusps, should henceforth be identified as "Cuspal Enamel Hypoplasia." PMID:17492667

  17. Measuring unintended pregnancies in postpartum Iranian women: validation of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Roshanaei, S; Shaghaghi, A; Jafarabadi, M A; Kousha, A

    2015-08-01

    Research suggests a relatively sizable rate of unintended pregnancies in some subgroups of Iranian women, but there is no concise, standard scale to measure the pregnancy intention of Iranian women. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) were investigated. The Persian version of the LMUP was tested on randomly selected married women aged 15-49 years in the city of Ajabshir, East Azerbaijan province, north-west of Islamic Republic of Iran. The scale's face validity and internal consistency was examined and its construct validity was tested by exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency of the scale was acceptable (Cronbach alpha coefficient 0.87). Structural indicators of the Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin measure (0.85) and Bartlett test of sphericity (P < 0.001) verified interpretability of the exploratory factor analysis output. Applicability of the Persian version of the LMUP is accepted. Further investigation is needed to understand cultural norms that might influence Iranian women's responses to queries about pregnancy intentions. PMID:26446528

  18. Safer Schools in the UK--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Carol; Holt, Amanda; Martin, Denise; Nee, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a research that is based on a European Safer Schools Partnership that included ten countries and specifically the UK case study which was located in London. The initiators of this partnership had been involved in early SSPs in the UK and the educationalists were very much focussed on work that would address problematic…

  19. A tale of two cities: effects of air pollution on hospital admissions in Hong Kong and London compared.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Atkinson, Richard W; Anderson, H Ross; Hedley, Anthony Johnson; Ma, Stefan; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2002-01-01

    The causal interpretation of reported associations between daily air pollution and daily admissions requires consideration of residual confounding, correlation between pollutants, and effect modification. If results obtained in Hong Kong and London--which differ in climate, lifestyle, and many other respects--were similar, a causal association would be supported. We used identical statistical methods for the analysis in each city. Associations between daily admissions and pollutant levels were estimated using Poisson regression. Nonparametric smoothing methods were used to model seasonality and the nonlinear dependence of admissions on temperature, humidity, and influenza admissions. For respiratory admissions (> or = 65 years of age), significant positive associations were observed with particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone in both cities. These associations tended to be stronger at shorter lags in Hong Kong and at longer lags in London. Associations were stronger in the cool season in Hong Kong and in the warm season in London, periods during which levels of humidity are at their lowest in each city. For cardiac admissions (all ages) in both cities, significant positive associations were observed for PM(10), NO(2), and SO(2) with similar lag patterns. Associations tended to be stronger in the cool season. The associations with NO(2) and SO(2) were the most robust in two-pollutant models. Patterns of association for pollutants with ischemic heart disease were similar in the two cities. The associations between O(3) and cardiac admissions were negative in London but positive in Hong Kong. We conclude that air pollution has remarkably similar associations with daily cardiorespiratory admissions in both cities, in spite of considerable differences between cities in social, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The results strengthen the argument that air pollution causes detrimental short

  20. Examining the Reasons Black Male Youths Give for Committing Crime with Reference to Inner City Areas of London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Chioma; Azaiki, Steve; Nworgu, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mini research carried out by the Focus Learning Support (FLS) team on reasons why young black males in the community commit crime. Knife and gun crime is seen as a serious problem in the black community involving black males in the inner London city areas--many of whom are both victims and offenders of knife and gun crime.…

  1. Victims and survivors: stable isotopes used to identify migrants from the Great Irish Famine to 19th century London.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Julia; Geber, Jonny; Powers, Natasha; Wilson, Andrew; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Montgomery, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Historical evidence documents mass migration from Ireland to London during the period of the Great Irish Famine of 1845-52. The rural Irish were reliant on a restricted diet based on potatoes but maize, a C(4) plant, was imported from the United States of America in 1846-47 to mitigate against Famine. In London, Irish migrants joined a population with a more varied diet. To investigate and characterize their diet, carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were obtained from bone collagen of 119 and hair keratin of six individuals from Lukin Street cemetery, Tower Hamlets (1843-54), and bone collagen of 20 individuals from the cemetery at Kilkenny Union Workhouse in Ireland (1847-51). A comparison of the results with other contemporaneous English populations suggests that Londoners may have elevated δ(15) N compared with their contemporaries in other cities. In comparison, the Irish group have lower δ(15) N. Hair analysis combined with bone collagen allows the reconstruction of perimortem dietary changes. Three children aged 5-15 years from Kilkenny have bone collagen δ(13) C values that indicate consumption of maize (C(4)). As maize was only imported into Ireland in quantity from late 1846 and 1847, these results demonstrate relatively rapid bone collagen turnover in children and highlight the importance of age-related bone turnover rates, and the impact the age of the individual can have on studies of short-term dietary change or recent migration. Stable light isotope data in this study are consistent with the epigraphic and documentary evidence for the presence of migrants within the London cemetery. PMID:23124593

  2. The ethics of dental practice in London in the sixteenth century. 2. Sir Thomas More's 'Ordinances' for the Barber-Surgeons, 1530.

    PubMed

    Bishop, M

    2012-07-01

    Sir Thomas More's Ordinances can tell us much about London dental practice in the sixteenth century, providing an overview of training, development and practice within a healthcare service much like our own. PMID:22836422

  3. Field study on the choice of friends in two multi-racial pre-schools (South Africa/London).

    PubMed

    Exenberger, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    The present research examined the influence of the two independent variables sex and race on the choice of friends in pre-school children. Data for this investigation were collected in two pre-schools, one situated in Stellenbosch, South Africa, the other in London, U.K. Both schools have in common that they accommodate children of different racial backgrounds (black, white, and coloured children), but the children's experience with desegregated classrooms differ. Friendship was operational defined with thirteen categories, summarized to the basic category pro-social behaviour. Fifty hours of free-play time were taped with one video camera in South Africa, and hundred hours were taped with two video cameras in London. The results showed that sex and race interact in their effect on the choice of friends. In South Africa race is supposed to be a strong indicator for friendship choices, especially for black children, whereas the black children in London choose friends more or less on the basis of sex. PMID:12872548

  4. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. Methods An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. Results The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip rate were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11293: 95% CI 5169 to 17416). Conclusions Brief interventions that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have short-term effects on travel behaviour. Repeated brief interventions at frequent intervals could contribute to increasing population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of active modes of transportation. PMID:22024219

  5. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  6. Assessment of the impact of the London Olympics 2012 on selected non-genitourinary medicine clinic sexual health services.

    PubMed

    Hartley, A; Foster, R; Brook, M G; Cassell, J A; Mercer, C H; Coyne, K; Hughes, G; Crook, P

    2015-04-01

    With minimal information on sexual health provision during mass-gathering events, our aim was to describe the use of sexual health, contraceptive, sex worker and sexual assault services during the London 2012 Olympics. We analysed data from five sources. One contraceptive service provider reported a 10% increase in attendance during the main Games, while emergency contraception prescriptions rose during the main Olympics, compared to the week before, but were similar or lower than at the beginning and end of the summer period. A health telephone advice line reported a 16% fall in sexual health-related calls during the main Olympics, but a 33% increase subsequently. London sexual assault referral centres reported that 1.8% of sexual assaults were Olympics-linked. A service for sex workers reported that 16% started working in the sex industry and 7% moved to London to work during the Olympics. Fifty-eight per cent and 45% of sex workers reported fewer clients and an increase in police crack-downs, respectively. Our results show a change in activity across these services during the 2012 summer, which may be associated with the Olympics. Our data are a guide to other services when anticipating changes in service activity and planning staffing for mass-gathering events. PMID:24894726

  7. An annotated catalogue of type specimens of the land snail genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoridae) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Nantarat, Nattawadee; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Ablett, Jonathan; Naggs, Fred; Panha, Somsak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The collection of land caenogastropod snails in the genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 housed in the Natural History Museum, London (NHM), includes 52 type lots. Lectotypes have been designated for 43 available species-level names to stabilize existing nomenclature, two previously designated lectotype, two holotypes, one paratype, one syntype, one possible syntype and two paralectotypes are also listed. A complete catalogue of the Cyclophorus types in NHM, London is provided for the first time. PMID:24899854

  8. More than A to B: the role of free bus travel for the mobility and wellbeing of older citizens in London.

    PubMed

    Green, Judith; Jones, Alasdair; Roberts, Helen

    2014-03-01

    This study contributes to the literature on mobility and wellbeing at older ages through an empirical exploration of the meanings of free bus travel for older citizens, addressing the meanings this holds for older people in urban settings, which have been under-researched. Taking London as a case study, where older citizens have free access to a relatively extensive public transport network through a Freedom Pass, we explore from a public health perspective the mechanisms that link this travel benefit to determinants of wellbeing. In addition to the ways in which the Freedom Pass enabled access to health-related goods and services, it provided less tangible benefits. Travelling by bus provided opportunities for meaningful social interaction; travelling as part of the 'general public' provided a sense of belonging and visibility in the public arena - a socially acceptable way of tackling chronic loneliness. The Freedom Pass was described not only as providing access to essential goods and services but also as a widely prized mechanism for participation in life in the city. We argue that the mechanisms linking mobility and wellbeing are culturally, materially and politically specific. Our data suggest that in contexts where good public transport is available as a right, and bus travel not stigmatised, it is experienced as a major contributor to wellbeing, rather than a transport choice of last resort. This has implications for other jurisdictions working on accessible transport for older citizens and, more broadly, improving the sustainability of cities. PMID:24478532

  9. Determinants and Outcomes of Emergency Caesarean Section following Failed Instrumental Delivery: 5-Year Observational Review at a Tertiary Referral Centre in London

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Sian; Chandraharan, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To review the determinants for a failed operative vaginal delivery and to examine associated fetal and maternal morbidity. Design. Retrospective observational study. Setting. Large London Teaching Hospital. Method. A retrospective review of case notes during a 5-year period was carried out. Results. Overall 119 women (0.44%) out of 26,856 births had a caesarean section following a failed instrumental delivery, which comprised 5.1% of all operative vaginal births. 73% had a spontaneous onset of labour and 63% required syntocinon at some time prior to delivery. 71.5% of deliveries were complicated by malposition. Only 20% of deliveries were attended by a consultant obstetrician. Almost 50% of women and 8.4% of neonates sustained trauma at the time of either their failed instrumental delivery or the caesarean section. Conclusions. Emergency caesarean section during the second stage of labour is associated with maternal and fetal complications. A ‘failed instrumental delivery score' (FIDS) may aid practitioners in predicting an increased likelihood of a failed operative vaginal birth and therefore to consider a trial of operative vaginal delivery in the theatre. Senior input should also be sought because a failed operative vaginal birth is associated with increased maternal and fetal morbidity. PMID:26078882

  10. Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.; Whalley, L. K.; Heard, D. E.; Stone, D.; Dunmore, R. E.; Hamilton, J. F.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of HONO were carried out at an urban background site near central London as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in summer 2012. Data were collected from 22 July to 18 August 2014, with peak values of up to 1.8 ppbV at night and non-zero values of between 0.2 and 0.6 ppbV seen during the day. A wide range of other gas phase, aerosol, radiation, and meteorological measurements were made concurrently at the same site, allowing a detailed analysis of the chemistry to be carried out. The peak HONO/NOx ratio of 0.04 is seen at ˜ 02:00 UTC, with the presence of a second, daytime, peak in HONO/NOx of similar magnitude to the night-time peak, suggesting a significant secondary daytime HONO source. A photostationary state calculation of HONO involving formation from the reaction of OH and NO and loss from photolysis, reaction with OH, and dry deposition shows a significant underestimation during the day, with calculated values being close to 0, compared to the measurement average of 0.4 ppbV at midday. The addition of further HONO sources from the literature, including dark conversion of NO2 on surfaces, direct emission, photolysis of ortho-substituted nitrophenols, the postulated formation from the reaction of HO2 × H2O with NO2, photolysis of adsorbed HNO3 on ground and aerosols, and HONO produced by photosensitized conversion of NO2 on the surface increases the daytime modelled HONO to 0.1 ppbV, still leaving a significant missing daytime source. The missing HONO is plotted against a series of parameters including NO2 and OH reactivity (used as a proxy for organic material), with little correlation seen. Much better correlation is observed with the product of these species with j(NO2), in particular NO2 and the product of NO2 with OH reactivity. This suggests the missing HONO source is in some way related to NO2 and also requires sunlight. Increasing the photosensitized surface conversion rate of NO2 by a factor of 10 to a mean daytime first

  11. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51° 31' 17.4' N 0° 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent

  12. Size distribution, mixing state and source apportionments of black carbon aerosols in London during winter time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Coe, H.; Beddows, D.; Fleming, Z. L.; Flynn, M. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Harrison, R. M.; Lee, J.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Taylor, J. W.; Yin, J.; Williams, P. I.; Zotter, P.

    2014-06-01

    Black carbon aerosols (BC) at a London urban site were characterized in both winter and summer time 2012 during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) factors of organic aerosol mass spectra measured by a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) showed traffic-dominant sources in summer but in winter the influence of additional non-traffic sources became more important, mainly from solid fuel sources (SF). Measurements using a single particle soot photometer (SP2, DMT), showed the traffic-dominant BC exhibited an almost uniform BC core size (Dc) distribution with very thin coating thickness throughout the detectable range of Dc. However the size distribution of Dc (project average mass median Dc = 149 ± 22 nm in winter, and 120 ± 6 nm in summer) and BC coating thickness varied significantly in winter. A novel methodology was developed to attribute the BC number concentrations and mass abundances from traffic (BCtr) and from SF (BCsf), by using a 2-D histogram of the particle optical properties as a function of BC core size, as measured by the SP2. The BCtr and BCsf showed distinctly different Dc distributions and coating thicknesses, with BCsf displaying larger Dc and larger coating thickness compared to BCtr. BC particles from different sources were also apportioned by applying a multiple linear regression between the total BC mass and each AMS-PMF factor (BC-AMS-PMF method), and also attributed by applying the absorption spectral dependence of carbonaceous aerosols to 7-wavelength Aethalometer measurements (Aethalometer method). Air masses that originated from westerly (W), southeasterly (SE), or easterly (E) sectors showed BCsf fractions that ranged from low to high, and whose mass median Dc values were 137 ± 10 nm, 143 ± 11 nm, and 169 ± 29 nm respectively. The corresponding bulk relative coating thickness of BC (coated particle size / BC core - Dp / Dc) for these same sectors was 1.28 ± 0.07, 1.45 ± 0

  13. Size distribution, mixing state and source apportionment of black carbon aerosol in London during wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Coe, H.; Beddows, D.; Fleming, Z. L.; Flynn, M. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Harrison, R. M.; Lee, J.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Taylor, J. W.; Yin, J.; Williams, P. I.; Zotter, P.

    2014-09-01

    Black carbon aerosols (BC) at a London urban site were characterised in both winter- and summertime 2012 during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project. Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) factors of organic aerosol mass spectra measured by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) showed traffic-dominant sources in summer but in winter the influence of additional non-traffic sources became more important, mainly from solid fuel sources (SF). Measurements using a single particle soot photometer (SP2, DMT), showed the traffic-dominant BC exhibited an almost uniform BC core size (Dc) distribution with very thin coating thickness throughout the detectable range of Dc. However, the size distribution of sf (project average mass median Dc = 149 ± 22 nm in winter, and 120 ± 6 nm in summer) and BC coating thickness varied significantly in winter. A novel methodology was developed to attribute the BC number concentrations and mass abundances from traffic (BCtr) and from SF (BCsf), by using a 2-D histogram of the particle optical properties as a function of BC core size, as measured by the SP2. The BCtr and BCsf showed distinctly different sf distributions and coating thicknesses, with BCsf displaying larger Dc and larger coating thickness compared to BCtr. BC particles from different sources were also apportioned by applying a multiple linear regression between the total BC mass and each AMS-PMF factor (BC-AMS-PMF method), and also attributed by applying the absorption spectral dependence of carbonaceous aerosols to 7-wavelength Aethalometer measurements (Aethalometer method). Air masses that originated from westerly (W), southeasterly (SE), and easterly (E) sectors showed BCsf fractions that ranged from low to high, and whose mass median Dc values were 137 ± 10 nm, 143 ± 11 nm and 169 ± 29 nm, respectively. The corresponding bulk relative coating thickness of BC (coated particle size/BC core - Dp/Dc) for these same sectors was 1.28 ± 0.07, 1.45 ± 0

  14. The Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Behaviors of Latino Children in London (Ontario, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Mandich, Gillian; Burke, Shauna; Gaston, Anca; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of a sample of Latino children in London, Ontario, Canada. Methods: Seventy-four Latino children (54.1% male; mean age = 11.4) completed self-report questionnaires related to physical activity and sedentary behaviors. A subset of children (n = 64) wore Actical (Mini Mitter, Respironics) accelerometers for a maximum of four days. Results: Latino children self-reported moderate levels of physical activity (i.e., mean score of 2.8 on 5-point scale). Accelerometer data revealed that children spent an average of 50.0 min in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 59.2 min on weekdays and 50.6 min on weekend days) and were sedentary for an average of 8.4 h (508.0 min) per day (533.5 min on weekdays and 497.7 min on weekend days). Children reported spending an average of 3.8 h (228 min) daily in front of screens—1.7 h (102 min) watching television, 1.2 h (72 min) on the computer, and 0.9 h (54 min) playing video games. Conclusions: This feasibility project provided a preliminary account of objectively measured daily physical activity and sedentary time among a sample of Latino children in Canada, as well as insight into the challenge of measuring these behaviors. Sedentary behavior reduction techniques should be explored and implemented in this young population, along with strategies to promote adherence to accelerometer protocols. PMID:26006126

  15. Use of contraception in women who present for termination of pregnancy in inner London.

    PubMed

    Price, S J; Barrett, G; Smith, C; Paterson, C

    1997-11-01

    To assess the contraceptive needs of induced abortion patients, a 3-month (1992-93) prospective study was conducted of 269 women presenting to a National Health Service clinic in London, England, for pregnancy termination. 163 women (62.6%) had been using contraception--primarily condoms--around the time they became pregnant, but 86 failed to use the method correctly. Another 81 women (31.2%) had used contraceptives in the past, but not at the time of the index conception. 73 of these women were former pill users and 39 had used condoms. 39.5% of these women had discontinued use because of contraceptive side effects, particularly nausea. Finally, 16 women (6.2%) had never used a contraceptive method. 15 of these women were from outside the UK and had difficulties speaking English. When asked what form of contraception they would like to use in the future, 48.8% of abortion patients identified the pill, 11.9% wanted Depo-Provera, 7.3% chose condoms, and 6.5% wanted the IUD. Chemists were a major source of contraceptive supplies for women in this study, and this trend may represent a way of avoiding discussions of sexual activity with health professionals. Among the recommendations emerging from this study are more widespread education about and availability of emergency contraception, health promotion education in pharmacies, enhanced training of general practitioners in pill prescribing criteria and counseling, efforts to prevent repeat unwanted pregnancies, and the preparation of educational materials for non-English speaking family planning clients. PMID:9392968

  16. Assessing the representativeness of monitoring data from an urban intersection site in central London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaperdas, A.; Colvile, R. N.

    The wind flow field around urban street-building configurations has an important influence on the microscale pollutant dispersion from road traffic, affecting overall dilution and creating localised spatial variations of pollutant concentration. As a result, the "representativeness" of air quality measurements made at different urban monitoring sites can be strongly dependent on the interaction of the local wind flow field with the street-building geometry surrounding the monitor. The present study is an initial attempt to develop a method for appraising the significance of air quality measurements from urban monitoring sites, using a general application computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate small-scale flow and dispersion patterns around real urban building configurations. The main focus of the work was to evaluate routine CO monitoring data collected by Westminster City Council at an intersection of street canyons at Marylebone Road, Central London. Many monitors in the UK are purposely situated at urban canyon intersections, which are thought to be local "hot spots" of pollutant emissions, however very limited information exists in the literature on the flow and dispersion patterns associated with them. With the use of simple CFD simulations and the analysis of available monitoring data, it was possible to gain insights into the effect of wind direction on the small-scale dispersion patterns at the chosen intersection, and how that can influence the data captured by a monitor. It was found that a change in wind direction could result in an increase or decrease of monitored CO concentration of up to 80%, for a given level of traffic emissions and meteorological conditions. Understanding and de-coupling the local effect of wind direction from monitoring data using the methods presented in this work could prove a useful new tool for urban monitoring data interpretation.

  17. The Self-Association of Graphane Is Driven by London Dispersion and Enhanced Orbital Interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changwei; Mo, Yirong; Wagner, J Philipp; Schreiner, Peter R; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D; Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason

    2015-04-14

    We investigated the nature of the cohesive energy between graphane sheets via multiple CH···HC interactions, using density functional theory (DFT) including dispersion correction (Grimme's D3 approach) computations of [n]graphane σ dimers (n = 6-73). For comparison, we also evaluated the binding between graphene sheets that display prototypical π/π interactions. The results were analyzed using the block-localized wave function (BLW) method, which is a variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory. BLW interprets the intermolecular interactions in terms of frozen interaction energy (ΔE(F)) composed of electrostatic and Pauli repulsion interactions, polarization (ΔE(pol)), charge-transfer interaction (ΔE(CT)), and dispersion effects (ΔE(disp)). The BLW analysis reveals that the cohesive energy between graphane sheets is dominated by two stabilizing effects, namely intermolecular London dispersion and two-way charge transfer energy due to the σ(CH) → σ*(HC) interactions. The shift of the electron density around the nonpolar covalent C-H bonds involved in the intermolecular interaction decreases the C-H bond lengths uniformly by 0.001 Å. The ΔE(CT) term, which accounts for ∼15% of the total binding energy, results in the accumulation of electron density in the interface area between two layers. This accumulated electron density thus acts as an electronic "glue" for the graphane layers and constitutes an important driving force in the self-association and stability of graphane under ambient conditions. Similarly, the "double faced adhesive tape" style of charge transfer interactions was also observed among graphene sheets in which it accounts for ∼18% of the total binding energy. The binding energy between graphane sheets is additive and can be expressed as a sum of CH···HC interactions, or as a function of the number of C-H bonds. PMID:26574371

  18. Estimation of particle resuspension source strength on a major London Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Alistair J.; Harrison, Roy M.; Boulter, Paul G.; McCrae, Ian S.

    Non-exhaust particles from road traffic arise from both abrasion sources and the resuspension of particles from the road surface. This paper reports a new combination of existing methods for indirect estimation of resuspension emission factors for Marylebone Road, London, a busy multi-lane highway in a street canyon. The method involves firstly estimating the total source strength of coarse particles (PM 2.5-10) arising from the road by calculating the roadside incremental concentration of coarse particles above the urban background. This is converted to a source strength by its ratio to NO x whose source strength is estimated from the knowledge of the traffic mix and mean speed. This coarse particle source strength is assumed to represent the sum of resuspension emissions and the coarse particle component of abrasion emissions. Using information on the traffic mix and speed, the abrasion emissions have been calculated from the EMEP/CORINAIR emissions factor database, the result subtracted from the total coarse particle emissions in order to yield resuspension emissions, and combined with traffic count data to derive fleet-average emission factors. Using the fact that the traffic mix differs substantially between weekdays and weekends, separate average emission factors for light- and heavy-duty vehicles have been estimated. In addition to traffic mix, the influence of wind speed and the time elapsed since the last rainfall upon resuspension have been estimated. Wind speed was found to have by far the larger influence, although this was still secondary to the number of heavy-duty vehicles. Uncertainties arising from the choice of urban background site and poor data quality are discussed.

  19. Climate change and heat waves in Paris and London metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousset, B.

    2010-12-01

    Summer warming trends in Western and Central Europe and in Mediterranean regions are increasing the incidence, intensity, and duration of heat waves. Those extreme events are especially deadly in large cities, owing to high population densities, surface characteristics, heat island effects, anthropogenic heat and pollutants. In August 2003, a persistent anticyclone over Western Europe generated a heat wave of exceptional strength and duration with an estimated death toll of 70,000, including 4678 in the Paris region. A series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite thermal images over the Paris and London metropolitan areas, were used to analyze Land Surface Temperature (LST) and its related mortality. In the Paris region, LSTs were merged with land use and cover data to identify risk areas, and thermal indicators were produced at the addresses of ~ 500 elderly people to assess diurnal heat exposure. Results indicate: (i) contrasting night time and daytime heat island patterns related to land use and surface characteristics; (ii) the relation between night-time heat islands and heat waves intensity; (iii) the impact of elevated minimal temperatures on excess mortality, with a 0.5 °C increase doubling the risk of death, (in the temperature range of the heatwave); iv) the correlation between the spatial distribution of highest night-time LSTs and that of highest mortality ratios; and v) the significant impact of urban parks in the partitioning between latent and sensible surface heat fluxes, despite a prior warm and dry spring. Near-real time satellite monitoring of heat waves in urban areas improve our understanding of the LST processes and spatial variability, and of the related heat stress and mortality. These observations provide criteria for warning systems, contingency policies and planning, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  20. Associations between daily mortality in London and combined oxidant capacity, ozone and nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Williams, M L; Atkinson, R W; Anderson, H R; Kelly, F J

    2014-01-01

    Both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) are powerful oxidants in ambient air that are intimately linked through atmospheric chemistry and which continuously interchange over very short timescales. Based upon atmospheric chemistry alone, there is a strong, a priori, reason for considering O3 and NO2 together in epidemiological studies, rather than either of the two pollutants separately in single-pollutant models. This paper compares two approaches to this, using Ox, defined as O3 + NO2, as a single metric and also using O3 and NO2 together in two-pollutant models. We hypothesised that the magnitude of the association between Ox and daily mortality would be greater than for NO2 and O3 individually. Using collocated hourly measurements for O3 and NO2 in London, from 2000 to 2005, we carried out a time series analysis of daily mortality. We investigated O3, NO2 and Ox individually in single-pollutant Poisson regression models and NO2 and O3 jointly in two-pollutant models in both all-year and season-specific analyses. We observed larger associations for mean 24-h concentrations of Ox (1.30 % increase in mortality per 10 ppb) than for O3 (0.87 %) and NO2 (0 %) individually. However, when analysed jointly in two-pollutant models, associations for O3 (1.54 %) and NO2 (1.07 %) were comparable to the Ox association. Season-specific analyses broadly followed this pattern irrespective of whether the Ox concentrations were driven by O3 production (summer) or depletion (winter). This novel approach in air pollution epidemiology captures the simultaneous impact of both oxidants whilst avoiding many of the statistical issues associated with two-pollutant models and potentially simplifies health impact calculations. PMID:25431629