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1

Effect of antioxidants on the stability of ONO-1301, a novel long-acting prostacyclin agonist, loaded in PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical stability of ONO-1301 in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (PLGA MS) under storage for 28 days in the absence or presence of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or ?-tocopherol as antioxidant. First, we observed the hydrolysed product: (i) in acidic solution and oxidized product and (ii) in PLGA MS under storage in HPLC study, each structure was determined by liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance/mass spectrometry. Second, ONO-1301-loaded PLGA MS containing 10% BHT was shown to be superior to ONO-1301-loaded PLGA MS without BHT, in the standpoint of the stability under storage or in vitro drug-release test, and AUC(0-28) following subcutaneous injection in rats. Finally, ONO-1301-loaded PLGA MS with 10% BHT were demonstrated to be significantly more effective than ONO-1301-loaded PLGA MS without BHT in a murine sponge model of angiogenesis. In conclusion, BHT is an effective antioxidant on the stability of ONO-1301 in PLGA MS under storage. PMID:23094609

Uchida, Takahiro; Hazekawa, Mai; Morisaki, Tomomi; Yoshida, Miyako; Sakai, Yoshiki

2013-01-01

2

IVIVC from Long Acting Olanzapine Microspheres.  

PubMed

In this study, four PLGA microsphere formulations of Olanzapine were characterized on the basis of their in vitro behavior at 37°C, using a dialysis based method, with the goal of obtaining an IVIVC. In vivo profiles were determined by deconvolution (Nelson-Wagner method) and using fractional AUC. The in vitro and in vivo release profiles exhibited the same rank order of drug release. Further, in vivo profiles obtained with both approaches were nearly superimposable, suggesting that fractional AUC could be used as an alternative to the Nelson-Wagner method. A comparison of drug release profiles for the four formulations revealed that the in vitro profile lagged slightly behind in vivo release, but the results were not statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Using the four formulations that exhibited different release rates, a Level A IVIVC was established using the deconvolution and fractional AUC approaches. A nearly 1?:?1 correlation (R (2) > 0.96) between in vitro release and in vivo measurements confirmed the excellent relationship between in vitro drug release and the amount of drug absorbed in vivo. The results of this study suggest that proper selection of an in vitro method will greatly aid in establishing a Level A IVIVC for long acting injectables. PMID:24578707

D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Deluca, Patrick P

2014-01-01

3

IVIVC from Long Acting Olanzapine Microspheres  

PubMed Central

In this study, four PLGA microsphere formulations of Olanzapine were characterized on the basis of their in vitro behavior at 37°C, using a dialysis based method, with the goal of obtaining an IVIVC. In vivo profiles were determined by deconvolution (Nelson-Wagner method) and using fractional AUC. The in vitro and in vivo release profiles exhibited the same rank order of drug release. Further, in vivo profiles obtained with both approaches were nearly superimposable, suggesting that fractional AUC could be used as an alternative to the Nelson-Wagner method. A comparison of drug release profiles for the four formulations revealed that the in vitro profile lagged slightly behind in vivo release, but the results were not statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Using the four formulations that exhibited different release rates, a Level A IVIVC was established using the deconvolution and fractional AUC approaches. A nearly 1?:?1 correlation (R2 > 0.96) between in vitro release and in vivo measurements confirmed the excellent relationship between in vitro drug release and the amount of drug absorbed in vivo. The results of this study suggest that proper selection of an in vitro method will greatly aid in establishing a Level A IVIVC for long acting injectables. PMID:24578707

Faraj, Jabar A.; DeLuca, Patrick P.

2014-01-01

4

The angiogenic effect of ONO-1301, a novel long-acting prostacyclin agonist loaded in PLGA microspheres prepared using different molecular weights of PLGA, in a murine sponge model.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiogenic effect of topical application of three types of ONO-1301-loaded poly (lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (ONO-1301 PLGA MS). ONO-1301 PLGA MS were prepared with PLGA 5010, 5020 and 5050 (with molecular weights of 10?K, 20?K and 50?K, respectively), using the solvent evaporation method. The lactide:glycolide ratio was fixed at 50:50; only the molecular weight was varied. The microspheres had an average diameter of almost 25?µm, and a loading efficiency of at least 70%. The sustained-release effect and its dependence on the molecular weight of the polymer used was confirmed in an in vitro drug-release test and by measuring subcutaneous plasma levels after administration of the three types of ONO-1301 PLGA MS to rats for 28 days. In the murine sponge model, the three types of ONO-1301 PLGA MS were administered to mice in a subcutaneously placed sponge and hemoglobin and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels in the sponge were measured at predefined intervals up to 28 days. The hemoglobin and HGF levels obtained were significantly higher than those obtained after daily administration of ONO-1301 powder. Additional in vivo fluorescence imaging showed that PLGA MS remained in the sponge for 28 days. In conclusion, the three types of ONO-1301 PLGA MS prepared with PLGA three different molecular weight suppress the burst release, stimulate angiogenesis on topical application in a murine sponge model. This formulation may therefore be capable of improving the clinical picture in some types of vascular disease. PMID:23937583

Hazekawa, Mai; Morihata, Kana; Yoshida, Miyako; Sakai, Yoshiki; Uchida, Takahiro

2014-11-01

5

Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50?:?50 and 75?:?25) were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40?mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50?:?50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75?:?25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug. PMID:24616812

D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Deluca, Patrick P

2014-01-01

6

Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50?:?50 and 75?:?25) were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40?mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50?:?50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75?:?25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug. PMID:24616812

D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A.; Giovagnoli, Stefano; DeLuca, Patrick P.

2014-01-01

7

PLGA Microspheres Incorporated Gelatin Scaffold: Microspheres Modulate Scaffold Properties  

PubMed Central

Freeze drying is one of the popular methods of fabrication for poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres incorporated polymer scaffolds. However, the consequence of microspheres incorporation on physical and biological properties of scaffold has not been studied yet. In this study, attempt has been made to characterize the effect of PLGA microsphere incorporation on the physical properties of freeze-dried gelatin scaffold and its influence on cytocompatibility. Scaffolds loaded with varying amount of PLGA microspheres (10%, 1%, 0.1% w/w) were subjected to microarchitecture analysis, swelling, porosity, mechanical properties, biodegradation, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation studies. Results revealed that an increase in percentage loading of microspheres reduced the pore size and uniformity of the pore structure. Moreover, loading of PLGA microspheres up to 1% w/w significantly increased porosity, swelling, and mechanical properties of the scaffold but variations were not proportional for 10% w/w loading. Results also showed that PLGA microspheres have no significant effect on cell adhesion but influenced the growth kinetics. PMID:20126575

Banerjee, Indranil; Mishra, Debasish; Maiti, Tapas K.

2009-01-01

8

Minimizing acylation of peptides in PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to characterize and find mechanisms to prevent acylation of therapeutic peptides encapsulated in glucose-star poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. The effect of addition of divalent cation salts CaCl(2), MnCl(2) as well as carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) on inhibition of acylation of octreotide (Oct), salmon calcitonin (sCT), and human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) was evaluated. Peptide content and integrity inside the degrading microspheres was monitored by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry during release incubation under physiological conditions. The extent of peptide acylation was strongly inhibited in the formulations containing divalent cations and/or CMCS as excipients, although specific effects were dependent on the specific peptide and excipient combinations. Both inorganic cations improved stability of Oct and hPTH but not sCT. Addition of CMCS alone was ineffective. Combining inorganic cations with CMCS improved stability of Oct and sCT but it had no effect on hPTH stability. The operative stabilization mechanisms are consistent with blocking peptide-PLGA interactions by a) directly competing for PLGA interactions with dications and/or b) increasing peptide affinity in the stabilizer phase within PLGA pores. Hence, inorganic multivalent cations are general stabilizers against peptide acylation, the effect of which may be augmented in certain instances with addition of CMCS. PMID:22546683

Zhang, Ying; Schwendeman, Steven P

2012-08-20

9

Mathematical modeling of drug delivery from autocatalytically degradable PLGA microspheres --A review  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1. Introduction Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres are controlled- release drug

Braatz, Richard D.

10

Effects of formulation parameters on encapsulation efficiency and release behavior of thienorphine loaded PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

To develop a long-acting injectable thienorphine biodegradable poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere for the therapy of opioid addiction, the effects of formulation parameters on encapsulation efficiency and release behavior were studied. The thienorphine loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared by o/w solvent evaporation method and characterized by HPLC, SEM, laser particle size analysis, residual solvent content and sterility testing. The microspheres were sterilized by gamma irradiation (2.5 kGy). The results indicated that the morphology of the thienorphine PLGA microspheres presented a spherical shape with smooth surface, the particle size was distributed from 30.19 ± 1.17 to 59.15 ± 0.67 ?m and the drug encapsulation efficiency was influenced by drug/polymer ratio, homogeneous rotation speed, PVA concentration in the water phase and the polymer concentration in the oil phase. These changes were also reflected in drug release. The plasma drug concentration vs. time profiles were relatively smooth for about 25 days after injection of the thienorphine loaded PLGA microspheres to beagle dogs. In vitro and in vivo correlation was established. PMID:21967467

Yang, Yang; Gao, Yongliang; Mei, Xingguo

2013-01-01

11

Silk Coatings on PLGA and Alginate Microspheres for Protein Delivery  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori silk fibroin self-assembles on surfaces to form ultrathin nanoscale coatings based on our prior studies using layer-by-layer deposition techniques driven by hydrophobic interactions between silk fibroin protein molecules. In the present study, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and alginate microspheres were used as substrates and coated with silk fibroin. The coatings were visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluorescein-labeled silk fibroin. On PLGA microspheres the coating was ~1 ?m and discontinuous, reflecting the porous surface of these microspheres determined by SEM. In contrast, on alginate microspheres the coating was ~10 ?m thick and continuous. The silk fibroin penetrated into the alginate gel matrix. The silk coating on the PLGA microspheres delayed PLGA degradation. The silk coating on the alginate microspheres survived ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment used to remove the Ca+2-cross-links in the alginate gels to solubilize the alginate. This suggests that alginate microspheres can be used as templates to form silk microcapsules. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model protein drugs were encapsulated in the PLGA and alginate microspheres with and without the silk fibroin coatings. Drug release was significantly retarded by the silk coatings when compared to uncoated microsphere controls, and was retarded further by methanol-treated silk coating when compared to silk water-based coatings on alginate microspheres. Silk coatings on PLGA and alginate microspheres provide mechanically stable shells as well as a diffusion barrier to the encapsulated protein drugs. This coating technique has potential for biosensor and drug delivery applications due to the aqueous process employed, the ability to control coating thickness and crystalline content, and the biocompatibility of the silk fibroin protein used in the process. PMID:17583788

Wang, Xiaoqin; Wenk, Esther; Hu, Xiao; Castro, Guillermo R.; Meinel, Lorenz; Wang, Xianyan; Li, Chunmei; Merkle, Hans; Kaplan, David L.

2009-01-01

12

Prolonged release from PLGA/HAp scaffolds containing drug-loaded PLGA/gelatin composite microspheres.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds that can prolong the release of bioactive factors are urgently required in bone tissue engineering. In this study, PLGA/gelatin composite microspheres (PGMs) were carefully designed and prepared by entrapping poly(L: -lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (PMs) in gelatin matrix. By mixing PGMs with PLGA solution directly, drug-loaded PLGA/carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAp)/PGMs composite scaffolds were successfully fabricated. In vitro release of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD70S) as a model drug from the scaffolds as well as PMs and PGMs was studied by immersing samples in phosphate buffered saline (pH = 7.4) at 37°C for 32 days. Compared with PMs, PGMs and PLGA/HAp/PGMs scaffolds exhibited slow and steady release behavior with constant release rate and insignificantly original burst release. The swelling of PGMs, diffusion of drugs, and degradation of polymer dominated the release behaviors synergistically. The PLGA/HAp/PGMs scaffold offers a novel option for sequential or simultaneous release of several drugs in terms of bone regeneration. PMID:22095448

Tang, Gongwen; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Min

2012-02-01

13

Protein-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA microspheres: a tool for cell therapy.  

PubMed

A promising strategy to repair injured organs is possible by delivering a growth factor via poly-(d,l lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres; the latter are coated with adhesion molecules that serve as a support for cell delivery. At present, PLGA is not the optimal choice of polymer because of poor or incomplete protein release. The use of a more hydrophilic PLGA-PEG-PLGA (A-B-A) copolymer increases the degree of protein release. In this work, the impact of different combinations of (B) and (A) segments on the protein-release profile has been investigated. Continuous-release profiles, with no lag phases, were observed. The triblock ABA with a low molecular weight of PEG and a high molecular weight of PLGA showed an interesting release pattern with a small burst (<10% in 48 h) followed by sustained, protein release over 36 days. Incomplete protein release was found to be due to various causes: protein adsorption, protein aggregation and protein denaturation under acidic conditions. Interestingly, cell viability and cell adhesion on microspheres coated with fibronectin highlight the interest of these polymers for tissue engineering applications. PMID:22085679

Tran, Van-Thanh; Karam, Jean-Pierre; Garric, Xavier; Coudane, Jean; Benoît, Jean-Pierre; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Venier-Julienne, Marie-Claire

2012-01-23

14

PLGA microspheres containing bee venom proteins for preventive immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Bee venom (BV) allergy is potentially dangerous for allergic individuals because a single bee sting may induce an anaphylactic reaction, eventually leading to death. Currently, venom immunotherapy (VIT) is the only treatment with long-lasting effect for this kind of allergy and its efficiency has been recognized worldwide. This therapy consists of subcutaneous injections of gradually increasing doses of the allergen. This causes patient lack of compliance due to a long time of treatment with a total of 30-80 injections administered over years. In this article we deal with the characterization of different MS-PLGA formulations containing BV proteins for VIT. The PLGA microspheres containing BV represent a strategy to replace the multiple injections, because they can control the solute release. Physical and biochemical methods were used to analyze and characterize their preparation. Microspheres with encapsulation efficiencies of 49-75% were obtained with a BV triphasic release profile. Among them, the MS-PLGA 34kDa-COOH showed to be best for VIT because they presented a low initial burst (20%) and a slow BV release during lag phase. Furthermore, few conformational changes were observed in the released BV. Above all, the BV remained immunologically recognizable, which means that they could continuously stimulate the immune system. Those microspheres containing BV could replace sequential injections of traditional VIT with the remarkable advantage of reduced number of injections. PMID:21356289

Trindade, Reginaldo A; Kiyohara, Pedro K; de Araujo, Pedro S; Bueno da Costa, Maria H

2012-02-14

15

In vitro degradation rate of apatitic calcium phosphate cement with incorporated PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are frequently used as bone substitute material. Despite their superior clinical handling and excellent biocompatibility, they exhibit poor degradability, which limits bone ingrowth into the implant. Microspheres were prepared from poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and included in injectable CPCs as porogens in order to enhance its macroporosity after the polymeric microspheres had degraded. Upon degradation of the PLGA microspheres, acid is produced that enhances the dissolution rate of the CPC. However, the effect of the characteristics of PLGA microspheres on the degradation rate of CPCs has never been studied before. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the dependence of CPC degradation on the chemical and morphological characteristics of incorporated PLGA microspheres. With respect to the chemical characteristics of the PLGA microspheres, the effects of both PLGA molecular weight (5, 17 and 44kDa) and end-group functionalization (acid-terminated or end-capped) were studied. In addition, two types of PLGA microspheres, differing in morphology (hollow vs. dense), were tested. The results revealed that, although both chemical parameters clearly affected the polymer degradation rate when embedded as hollow microspheres in CPC, the PLGA and CPC degradation rates were mainly dependent on the end-group functionalization. Moreover, it was concluded that dense microspheres were more efficient porogens than hollow ones by increasing the CPC macroporosity during in vitro incubation. By combining all test parameters, it was concluded that dense PLGA microspheres consisting of acid-terminated PLGA of 17kDa exhibited the highest and fastest acid-producing capacity and correspondingly the highest and fastest amount of porosity. In conclusion, the data presented here indicate that the combination of dense, acid-terminated PLGA microspheres with CPC emerges as a successful combination to achieve enhanced apatitic CPC degradation. PMID:21689794

Félix Lanao, R P; Leeuwenburgh, S C G; Wolke, J G C; Jansen, J A

2011-09-01

16

The in vivo performance of CaP/PLGA composites with varied PLGA microsphere sizes and inorganic compositions.  

PubMed

Enrichment of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone substitutes with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres to create porosity overcomes the problem of poor CaP degradation. The degradation of CaP-PLGA composites can be customized by changing the physical and chemical properties of PLGA and/or CaP. However, the effect of the size of dense (solid rather than hollow) PLGA microspheres in CaP has not previously been described. The present study aimed at determining the effect of different dense (i.e. solid) PLGA microsphere sizes (small (S) ~20?m vs. large (L) ~130?m) and of CaP composition (CaP with either anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP) or calcium sulphate dihydrate (CSD)) on CaP scaffold biodegradability and subsequent bone in-growth. To this end mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with pre-set CaP-PLGA implants, with autologous bone being used as a control. After 4weeks the autologous bone group outperformed all CaP-PLGA groups in terms of the amount of bone present at the defect site. On the other hand, at 12weeks substantial bone formation was observed for all CaP-PLGA groups (ranging from 47±25% to 62±15%), showing equal amounts of bone compared with the autologous bone group (82±9%), except for CaP with DCP and large PLGA microspheres (47±25%). It was concluded that in the current study design the difference in PLGA microsphere size and CaP composition led to similar results with respect to scaffold degradation and subsequent bone in-growth. Further, after 12weeks all CaP-PLGA composites proved to be effective for bone substitution. PMID:23511808

Hoekstra, Jan Willem M; Ma, Jinling; Plachokova, Adelina S; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Bohner, Marc; Pan, Juli; Meijer, Gert J; Jansen, John A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

2013-07-01

17

Distribution and deposition of respirable PLGA microspheres in lung alveoli.  

PubMed

Although treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis with respirable microspheres (MS) with an incorporated antituberculosis drug is expected to be highly effective, this treatment seems to achieve a much lesser effect than expected in the case of killing Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing in the lungs. To elucidate the reason for this weaker effect, we examined the distribution and accumulation of respirable MS consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) in rat lungs. For this, we delivered the PLGA MS containing fluorescent coumarin 6 or an antituberculosis agent, rifampicin (RFP), by insufflation via the trachea and then determined the pulmonary distribution by counting the number of the MS in lung cryosections observed under a microscope. In addition, the uptake of MS by alveolar macrophage (AM?) was determined by immunostaining for M? cell marker CD68 and RFP content in the cells. Approximately half of the fluorescent PLGA MS reached the alveoli without entrapment by trachea and primary bronchi and were then ingested by the AM? cells up to 24h after insufflation. RFP in a form of PLGA MS was markedly transported into AM? at an amount 10 times greater than that for the free RFP powder. However, a large proportion of RFP was eliminated from the lungs by 6h after insufflation. PMID:23384687

Hirota, Keiji; Kawamoto, Tadafumi; Nakajima, Takehisa; Makino, Kimiko; Terada, Hiroshi

2013-05-01

18

Sulforaphane-PLGA microspheres for the intra-articular treatment of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Sulforaphane (SFN) is a member of the isothiocyanate family that has anti-inflammatory action as well as anti-carcinogenic properties. The authors have devised an intra-articular injectable SFN-PLGA microsphere system that can be used for treating osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the SFN-PLGA microsphere system. Articular chondrocytes were obtained from knee OA patients and were cultured in monolayers. The optimal concentration of SFN was obtained and the dose of SFN-PLGA microspheres was determined based on the concentration. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect on markers such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-5, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The in vivo therapeutic effect of SFN-PLGA microspheres was investigated using surgically-induced rat OA model. Treatment with SFN-PLGA microspheres inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of COX-2, ADAMTS-5 and MMP-2 induced by LPS in articular chondrocytes. Intraarticular SFN-PLGA microspheres delayed the progression of surgically-induced osteoarthritis in rats. In conclusion, SFN-PLGA microspheres can be a useful injectable delivery system for treating osteoarthritis. PMID:23601658

Ko, Ji-Yun; Choi, You-Jeong; Jeong, Geun-Jae; Im, Gun-Il

2013-07-01

19

Local antitumor effects of intratumoral delivery of rlL-2 loaded sustained-release dextran/PLGA-PLA core/shell microspheres.  

PubMed

In this study, we formulated a rIL-2 loaded sustained-release dextran/PLGA-PLA core/shell microsphere, mimicking the paracrine mechanisms of cytokine action, to investigate its local antitumor efficacy. The presented microspheres were formed in two steps: rIL-2 was firstly loaded into dextran particles to keep its bioactivity by a unique method of stabilizing aqueous-aqueous "emulsion"; subsequently, the particles were encapsulated into poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide)/polylactic acid (PLGA/PLA). A stable sustained release behavior in vitro was achieved for a period of about 25 days. In the subcutaneous colon carcinoma BALB/c mice models, a single dose of microspheres was introtumorally administrated and compared with multiple doses of rIL-2 solution to investigate the long acting effect of microspheres on tumor. The animal experiments showed the local efficacy at tumor site mediated by rIL-2 from a single dose of microspheres was better than that of multiple rIL-2 solution injections. Based on the experimental results, we conclude that rlL-2 loaded sustained-release dextran/PLGA-PLA core/shell microspheres represent a promising approach for local cancer treatment in animals. PMID:23624084

Zhao, Haiping; Wu, Fei; Cai, Yunpeng; Chen, Yinghui; Wei, Liangming; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

2013-06-25

20

Porous silicon oxide-PLGA composite microspheres for sustained ocular delivery of daunorubicin.  

PubMed

A water-soluble anthracycline antibiotic drug (daunorubicin, DNR) was loaded into oxidized porous silicon (pSiO2) microparticles and then encapsulated with a layer of polymer (poly lactide-co-glycolide, PLGA) to investigate their synergistic effects in control of DNR release. Similarly fabricated PLGA-DNR microspheres without pSiO2, and pSiO2 microparticles without PLGA were used as control particles. The composite microparticles synthesized by a solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion method have mean diameters of 52.33±16.37?m for PLGA-pSiO2_21/40-DNR and the mean diameter of 49.31±8.87?m for PLGA-pSiO2_6/20-DNR. The mean size, 26.00±8?m, of PLGA-DNR was significantly smaller, compared with the other two (P<0.0001). Optical microscopy revealed that PLGA-pSiO2-DNR microspheres contained multiple pSiO2 particles. In vitro release experiments determined that control PLGA-DNR microspheres completely released DNR within 38days and control pSiO2-DNR microparticles (with no PLGA coating) released DNR within 14days, while the PLGA-pSiO2-DNR microspheres released DNR for 74days. Temporal release profiles of DNR from PLGA-pSiO2 composite particles indicated that both PLGA and pSiO2 contribute to the sustained release of the payload. The PLGA-pSiO2 composite displayed a more constant rate of DNR release than the pSiO2 control formulation, and displayed a significantly slower release of DNR than either the PLGA or pSiO2 formulations. We conclude that this system may be useful in managing unwanted ocular proliferation when formulated with antiproliferation compounds such as DNR. PMID:24793657

Nan, Kaihui; Ma, Feiyan; Hou, Huiyuan; Freeman, William R; Sailor, Michael J; Cheng, Lingyun

2014-08-01

21

Preparation and in vitro evaluation of etoposide-loaded PLGA microspheres for pulmonary drug delivery.  

PubMed

Pulmonary drug delivery has become a promising route in the treatment of lung diseases because of better local retention and lower systemic penetration. In this study, etoposide-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were designed with potential pulmonary delivery properties. The microspheres were prepared via improved emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Physicochemical characteristics, micromeritics properties and in vitro drug release behavior of the microspheres were then evaluated. Results showed that etoposide-loaded PLGA microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surface with size (11.8 ± 1.25) ?m. Particles remained stable without any changing in size and morphology after dried by the freeze-drying method. Etoposide was loaded into PLGA microspheres in an amorphous state with high drug loading ((7.7 ± 0.3)%) and encapsulation efficiency ((84.2 ± 2.9)%). Results of micromeritics properties also demonstrated that etoposide-loaded PLGA microspheres were very suitable for pulmonary delivery. In addition, in vitro drug release study indicated a sustained release profile fitted with the Ritger-Peppas equation for up to 20 days. In conclusion, the etoposide-loaded PLGA microspheres were promising for pulmonary delivery, and etoposide could be sustained released from the PLGA microspheres. PMID:24107001

Feng, Ruihua; Zhang, Zhiyue; Li, Zhongwen; Huang, Guihua

2014-05-01

22

Active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Herein, we describe the detailed development of a simple and effective method to microencapsulate vaccine antigens in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by simple mixing of preformed active self-microencapsulating (SM) PLGA microspheres in a low concentration aqueous antigen solution at modest temperature (10-38 °C). Co-encapsulating protein-sorbing vaccine adjuvants and polymer plasticizers were used to "actively" load the protein in the polymer pores and facilitate polymer self-healing at a temperature>the hydrated polymer glass transition temperature, respectively. The microsphere formulation parameters and loading conditions to provide optimal active self-healing microencapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA was investigated. Active self-healing encapsulation of two antigens, ovalbumin and tetanus toxoid (TT), in PLGA microspheres was adjusted by preparing blank microspheres containing different vaccine adjuvants (aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)?) or calcium phosphate). Active loading of vaccine antigen in Al(OH)?-PLGA microspheres was found to: a) increase with an increasing loading of Al(OH)? (0.88-3 wt.%) and addition of porosigen, b) decrease when the inner Al(OH)?/trehalose phase to 1 mL outer oil phase and size of microspheres was respectively >0.2 mL and 63 ?m, and c) change negligibly by PLGA concentration and initial incubation (loading) temperature. Encapsulation of protein sorbing Al(OH)? in PLGA microspheres resulted in suppression of self-healing of PLGA pores, which was then overcome by improving polymer chain mobility, which in turn was accomplished by coincorporating hydrophobic plasticizers in PLGA. Active self-healing microencapsulation of manufacturing process-labile TT in PLGA was found to: a) obviate micronization- and organic solvent-induced TT degradation, b) improve antigen loading (1.4-1.8 wt.% TT) and encapsulation efficiency (~97%), c) provide nearly homogeneous distribution and stabilization of antigen in polymer, and d) provide improved in vitro controlled release of antigenic TT. PMID:23103983

Desai, Kashappa-Goud H; Schwendeman, Steven P

2013-01-10

23

Active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA microspheres  

PubMed Central

Herein, we describe the detailed development of a simple and effective method to microencapsulate vaccine antigens in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by simple mixing of preformed active self-microencapsulating (SM) PLGA microspheres in a low concentration aqueous antigen solution at modest temperature (10-38 °C). Co-encapsulating protein-sorbing vaccine adjuvants and polymer plasticizers were used to “actively” load the protein in the polymer pores and facilitate polymer self-healing at temperature > hydrated polymer glass transition temperature, respectively. The microsphere formulation parameters and loading conditions to provide optimal active self-healing microencapsulation of vaccine antigen in PLGA was investigated. Active self-healing encapsulation of two vaccine antigens, ovalbumin and tetanus toxoid (TT), in PLGA microspheres was adjusted by preparing blank microspheres containing different vaccine adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) or calcium phosphate). Active loading of vaccine antigen in Al(OH)3-PLGA microspheres was found to: a) increase proportionally with an increasing loading of Al(OH)3 (0.88-3 wt%) and addition of porosigen, b) decrease when the inner Al(OH)3/trehalose phase to 1 mL outer oil phase and size of microspheres was respectively > 0.2 mL and 63 ?m, and c) change negligibly by PLGA concentration and initial incubation (loading) temperature. Encapsulation of protein sorbing Al(OH)3 in PLGA microspheres resulted in suppression of self-healing of PLGA pores, which was then overcome by improving polymer chain mobility, which in turn was accomplished by coincorporating hydrophobic plasticizers in PLGA. Active self-healing microencapsulation of manufacturing process-labile TT in PLGA was found to: a) obviate micronization- and organic solvent-induced TT degradation, b) improve antigen loading (1.4-1.8 wt% TT) and encapsulation efficiency (~ 97%), c) provide nearly homogeneous distribution and stabilization of antigen in polymer, and d) provide improved in vitro controlled release of antigenic TT. PMID:23103983

Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

2013-01-01

24

Heuristic modeling of macromolecule release from PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Dissolution of protein macromolecules from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles is a complex process and still not fully understood. As such, there are difficulties in obtaining a predictive model that could be of fundamental significance in design, development, and optimization for medical applications and toxicity evaluation of PLGA-based multiparticulate dosage form. In the present study, two models with comparable goodness of fit were proposed for the prediction of the macromolecule dissolution profile from PLGA micro- and nanoparticles. In both cases, heuristic techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), feature selection, and genetic programming were employed. Feature selection provided by fscaret package and sensitivity analysis performed by ANNs reduced the original input vector from a total of 300 input variables to 21, 17, 16, and eleven; to achieve a better insight into generalization error, two cut-off points for every method was proposed. The best ANNs model results were obtained by monotone multi-layer perceptron neural network (MON-MLP) networks with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 15.4, and the input vector consisted of eleven inputs. The complicated classical equation derived from a database consisting of 17 inputs was able to yield a better generalization error (RMSE) of 14.3. The equation was characterized by four parameters, thus feasible (applicable) to standard nonlinear regression techniques. Heuristic modeling led to the ANN model describing macromolecules release profiles from PLGA microspheres with good predictive efficiency. Moreover genetic programming technique resulted in classical equation with comparable predictability to the ANN model. PMID:24348037

Szl?k, Jakub; Pac?awski, Adam; Lau, Raymond; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander

2013-01-01

25

Facile fabrication of biocompatible PLGA drug-carrying microspheres by O\\/W pickering emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is focused on the preparation of Ibuprofen (IBU) loaded micrometer-sized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and process variables on the size, drug loading and release during preparation of formulation. Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticle-coated PLGA microspheres were fabricated via a combined system of “Pickering-type” emulsion route and solvent volatilization method in the absence of any molecular surfactants. Stable oil-in-water emulsions

Zengjiang Wei; Chaoyang Wang; Hao Liu; Shengwen Zou; Zhen Tong

26

Gamma Irradiation of Active Self-healing PLGA Microspheres for Efficient Aqueous Encapsulation of Vaccine Antigens  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of ?-irradiation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/Al(OH)3/0 or 5 wt% diethyl phthalate (DEP) microspheres for active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens. Methods Microspheres were irradiated with 60Co at 2.5 and 1.8 MRad and 0.37 and 0.20 MRad/h. Encapsulation of tetanus toxoid (TT) was achieved by mixing Al(OH)3-PLGA microspheres with TT solution at 10-38°C. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to examine free radical formation. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and molecular weight of PLGA was measured by differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography, respectively. Loading and release of TT were examined by modified Bradford, amino acid analysis, and ELISA assays. Results EPR spectroscopy results indicated absence of free radicals in PLGA microspheres after ?-irradiation. Antigen-sorbing capacity, encapsulation efficiency, and Tg of the polymer were also not adversely affected. When DEP-loaded microspheres were irradiated at 0.2 MRad/h, some PLGA pores healed during irradiation and PLGA healing during encapsulation was suppressed. The molecular weight of PLGA was slightly reduced when DEP-loaded microspheres were irradiated at the same dose rate. These trends were not observed at 0.37 MRad/h. Gamma irradiation slightly increased TT initial burst release. Apart from the slightly higher polymer molecular weight decline caused by higher irradiation dose in case of DEP-loaded microspheres, the small increase in total irradiation dose from 1.8 to 2.5 MRad had insignificant effect on the polymer and microspheres properties analyzed. Conclusion Gamma irradiation is a plausible approach to provide a terminally sterilized, self-healing encapsulation PLGA excipient for vaccine delivery. PMID:23515830

Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Kadous, Samer; Schwendeman, Steven P.

2013-01-01

27

Preparation and characterization of PLGA microspheres by the electrospraying method for delivering simvastatin for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Microparticles formulated from poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA), a biodegradable polymer, have been investigated extensively as a drug delivery system. In this study, solid tiny PLGA microspheres were fabricated using the electrospraying method. PLGA polymer was dissolved in dichloromethane (DCM), and the solution was electrosprayed. The electrospraying conditions were adjusted so that the stream ejected from the needle was divided into spheres instead of continuous fibers or irregular-shaped particles. Several experiments were carried out using the PLGA-DCM source solution with different amounts of simvastatin (SIM), a drug that enhances bone regeneration, to understand this drug delivery system. The surface morphology and microstructure of the microspheres formed were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The in vitro experiments on drug loading and drug release behavior of the microspheres suggested a drug encapsulation efficacy >90%. The drug was continuously released from the microspheres for >3 weeks. Other experiments, such as MTT, cell attachment and proliferation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed good biocompatibility of the electrosprayed PLGA microspheres, which increased in the presence of SIM. Thus, electrosprayed PLGA microspheres have potential as a drug delivery system and application in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23291448

Nath, Subrata Deb; Son, Sora; Sadiasa, Alexandar; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong Taek

2013-02-25

28

Mathematical Modeling of Drug Delivery from Autocatalytically Degradable PLGA Microspheres--A Review**  

PubMed Central

PLGA microspheres are widely studied for controlled release drug delivery applications, and many models have been proposed to describe PLGA degradation and erosion and drug release from the bulk polymer. Autocatalysis is known to have a complex role in the dynamics of PLGA erosion and drug transport and can lead to size-dependent heterogeneities in otherwise uniformly bulk-eroding polymer microspheres. The aim of this review is to highlight mechanistic, mathematical models for drug release from PLGA microspheres that specifically address interactions between phenomena generally attributed to autocatalytic hydrolysis and mass transfer limitation effects. Predictions of drug release profiles with mechanistic models are useful for understanding mechanisms and designing drug release particles. PMID:23103455

Versypt, Ashlee N. Ford; Pack, Daniel W.; Braatz, Richard D.

2012-01-01

29

Mathematical modeling of drug delivery from autocatalytically degradable PLGA microspheres--a review.  

PubMed

PLGA microspheres are widely studied for controlled release drug delivery applications, and many models have been proposed to describe PLGA degradation and erosion and drug release from the bulk polymer. Autocatalysis is known to have a complex role in the dynamics of PLGA erosion and drug transport and can lead to size-dependent heterogeneities in otherwise uniformly bulk-eroding polymer microspheres. The aim of this review is to highlight mechanistic, mathematical models for drug release from PLGA microspheres that specifically address interactions between phenomena generally attributed to autocatalytic hydrolysis and mass transfer limitation effects. Predictions of drug release profiles by mechanistic models are useful for understanding mechanisms and designing drug release particles. PMID:23103455

Ford Versypt, Ashlee N; Pack, Daniel W; Braatz, Richard D

2013-01-10

30

Alginate-chitosan-PLGA composite microspheres induce both innate and adaptive immune response through parenteral immunization in fish.  

PubMed

Alginate-chitosan-PLGA composite microspheres encapsulating outer membrane protein antigen of Aeromonas hydrophila as an antigen carrier was explored for the first time in a fish model. This composite microsphere showed distinct advantages over the conventional PLGA microparticles in aspects of the high encapsulation efficiency due to the protein-friendly microenvironment created by the hydrophilic alginate-chitosan cores of the composite microspheres, preventing initial burst release and the elimination of lyophilizing process. The antibody responses significantly increased and persist up to 9 weeks in composite microspheres unlike that PLGA microsphere, native OMP and FIA adjuvant. Moreover, several innate immune parameters as respiratory burst, lysozyme and complement activity were significantly increased in both composite and PLGA microspheres up to 9 weeks than other treated groups. It also gives protection from A. hydrophila infection and brought some hope, for its application in replacement with conventional PLGA microparticle for antigen delivery in fish. PMID:23823131

Behera, Truptimayee; Swain, Priyabrat

2013-09-01

31

Facile fabrication of biocompatible PLGA drug-carrying microspheres by O/W pickering emulsions.  

PubMed

This study is focused on the preparation of Ibuprofen (IBU) loaded micrometer-sized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and process variables on the size, drug loading and release during preparation of formulation. Silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) nanoparticle-coated PLGA microspheres were fabricated via a combined system of "Pickering-type" emulsion route and solvent volatilization method in the absence of any molecular surfactants. Stable oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using SiO(2) nanoparticles as a particulate emulsifier and a dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) solution of PLGA as an oil phase. The SiO(2) nanoparticle-coated PLGA microspheres were fabricated by the evaporation of CH(2)Cl(2) in situ, and then bare-PLGA microspheres were prepared by removal of the SiO(2) nanoparticles using HF aqueous solution. The two types of microspheres were characterized in terms of size, component and morphology using scanning electronic microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared, optical microscope, and so on. Moreover, IBU was encapsulated into the hybrid beads by dispersing them in the CH(2)Cl(2) solution of PLGA in the fabrication process. The sustained release could be obtained due to the barrier of the polymeric matrix (PLGA). More over, the release curves were nicely fitted by the Weibull equation and the release followed Fickian diffusion. The combined system of Pickering emulsion and solvent volatilization opens up a new route to fabricate a variety of microspheres. The resulting microspheres may find applications as delivery vehicles for biomolecules, drugs, cosmetics and living cells. PMID:22088755

Wei, Zengjiang; Wang, Chaoyang; Liu, Hao; Zou, Shengwen; Tong, Zhen

2012-03-01

32

Sustained release of PTH(1-34) from PLGA microspheres suppresses osteoarthritis progression in rats.  

PubMed

We previously reported that PTH(1-34) inhibits the terminal differentiation of articular chondrocytes and, in turn, suppresses the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this treatment requires an injection of PTH(1-34) once every 3 days over the treatment period. In this study, we studied the effect of sustained administration of PTH(1-34) in a papain-induced OA rat model. We developed an effective controlled-release system for prolonging the treatment duration of an intra-articular injection for OA treatment in rats. The effects of released PTH(1-34) from PLGA(65:35)-encapsulated PTH(1-34) microspheres (PTH/PLGA) on papain-induced OA in rat knees were studied. Microsphere morphology was observed in vitro by scanning electron microscopy, and microsphere size was determined with a particle size analyzer. The PTH(1-34) encapsulation efficiency and release profile, as well as the toxicity of PTH/PLGA, were examined. The bioactivity of released PTH(1-34) was tested by examining cAMP levels in MC3T3E1 cells. In vivo, we evaluated the changes of localized GAG, Col II, and Col X in the articular cartilage of rat knees. Our results demonstrated that the surface of the PLGA microspheres was smooth, and the size of the microspheres was in the range of 51-127 ?m. PTH/PLGA microspheres sustainably released PTH(1-34) for 19 days with a concentration range of 0.01-100 nM that covered the expected concentration of 10nM at 37°C. The cAMP levels of MC3T3E1 cells were elevated in the response to released PTH(1-34) from PTH/PLGA microspheres, indicating that the released PTH(1-34) is bioactive. Most importantly, intra-articular treatment with either PTH(1-34) (0.1-100 nM) 3 days/injection or PTH/PLGA microspheres (15 days/injection) for 5 weeks revealed the similar effect on suppressing papain-induced OA changes (decreasing GAG and Col II and increasing Col X) in rat knee cartilage. The effect of PTH/PLGA microspheres on suppressing OA progression was similar to that of a once-every-three-day injection of PTH(1-34), indicating that both the sustained and intermittent action of PTH(1-34) effectively suppress OA progression. The developed PLGA microspheres with sustained release and long-term effect may be potent carriers for PTH(1-34) used to treat early OA. PMID:22414620

Eswaramoorthy, Rajalakshmanan; Chang, Chia-Chi; Wu, Shun-Cheng; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

2012-07-01

33

A long acting biodegradable controlled delivery of chitosan microspheres loaded with tetanus toxoide as model antigen.  

PubMed

The chitosan microspheres formulated by emulsion cross-linking method were found to be smooth and spherical without aggregation. The particle size range was between 1 and 90?m. The particle sizes were found to be influenced by the concentration of the chitosan gel. Tetanus toxoide (TT) vaccine was loaded by passive adsorption from an aqueous solution into the preformed chitosan microspheres cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. The loaded TT on to microspheres was estimated by ELISA method. The loading capacity was found to be 40% with microspheres prepared with 1% chitosan gel, 43% for 2% and 46% for the mixed batch of microspheres prepared from 1% and 2% chitosan gel. The loading efficiency was found to decrease with increase in the concentration of chitosan gel. The in vitro release of the antigenic TT into the phosphate buffer at 37°C from different batch of microspheres was studied and release had a remarkable dependence on the size of micropsheres. The percentage release of TT from chitosan microspheres prepared from 1% chitosan gel was 2.7% in 120days and that from 2% chitosan gel was only 2%. The mixed batch of microspheres could release 2.3% in 120days. The antigen integrity was investigated by SDS-PAGE with brilliant blue staining. The SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed that the antigen integrity was not affected by passive adsorption of protein antigen to preformed chitosan microspheres. The study revealed that the cross-linked chitosan microspheres would be an interesting system for long-term delivery of macromolecules drugs. PMID:24051124

Varma, Sujith; Sadasivan, C

2014-03-01

34

Pulsatile drug release from PLGA hollow microspheres by controlling the permeability of their walls with a magnetic field.  

PubMed

Pulsatile release: When a high-frequency magnetic field is applied, heat will be generated by coupling to the iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in the shells of PLGA hollow microspheres. As the temperature approaches the T(g) of PLGA, the polymer chains become more mobile, subsequently increasing the free volume of PLGA matrix and significantly enhancing the diffusion of drug molecules. PMID:22893436

Chiang, Wei-Lun; Ke, Cherng-Jyh; Liao, Zi-Xian; Chen, San-Yuan; Chen, Fu-Rong; Tsai, Chun-Ying; Xia, Younan; Sung, Hsing-Wen

2012-12-01

35

Stability study of full-length antibody (anti-TNF alpha) loaded PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Antibodies (Abs) require the development of stable formulations and specific delivery strategies given their susceptibility to a variety of physical and chemical degradation pathways. In this study, the encapsulation of an antibody into polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) based microspheres was explored to obtain a controlled-release of the incorporated drug. In order to avoid stability issues, a solid-in-oil-in-water (s/o/w) method was preferred. The solid phase was made of anti-TNF alpha monoclonal antibody (MAb) spray-dried microparticles, and the PLGA microspheres were produced using two different polymers (i.e., Resomer(®) RG505 and Resomer(®) RG755S). The stability of the MAb incorporated into the microspheres was investigated under three conditions (5 ± 3°C, 25 ± 2°C/60% RH and 40 ± 2°C/75% RH) for 12 weeks. During this stability study, it was demonstrated that the MAb loaded PLGA microspheres were stable when stored at 5 ± 3°C and that the Resomer(®) RG755S, composed of 75%(w/w) lactic acid as PLGA, was preferred to preserve the stability of the system. Storage at temperatures higher than 5°C led to antibody stability issues such as aggregation, fragmentation and loss of activity. The release profiles were also altered. Physical ageing of the system associated with changes in the glass transition temperature and enthalpy of relaxation was noticed during the storage of the MAb loaded PLGA microspheres. PMID:24792974

Marquette, S; Peerboom, C; Yates, A; Denis, L; Langer, I; Amighi, K; Goole, J

2014-08-15

36

BCNU/PLGA microspheres: a promising strategy for the treatment of gliomas in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effects of BCNU/PLGA microspheres on tumor growth, apoptosis and chemotherapy resistance in a C57BL/6 mice orthotopic brain glioma model using GL261 cell line. Methods BCNU/PLGA sustained-release microspheres were prepared by the water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique. GL261 cells were intracranially injected into C57BL/6 mouse by using the stereotactic technology. A total of 60 tumor-bearing mice were randomly and equally divided into three groups: untreated control, PLGA treated, BCNU/PLGA treated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was taken to evaluate tumor volume. BCNU/PLGA sustained-release wafers were implanted in the treatment group two weeks after inoculation. Survival time and quality were observed. Specimens were harvested, and immunohistochemical staining was used to check the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Statistical methods was used for analysis of relevant data. Results BCNU/PLGA sustained-release wafers were fabricated and implanted successfully. There is statistical difference of survival time between the BCNU/PLGA treated group and control groups (P<0.05). MRI scan showed inhibitory effect of BCNU/PLGA on tumor growth. Compared to the group A and B, BCNU/PLGA decreased the expression of apoptosis related gene Bcl-2 (P<0.05), but did not elevate the expression level of Bax (P>0.05), with the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 increased. For MGMT protein expression, no statistically significant change was found in treated group (P>0.05). Conclusions Local implantation of BCNU/PLGA microspheres improved the survival quality and time of GL261 glioma-bearing mice significantly, inhibited the tumor proliferation, induced more cell apoptosis, and did not increase the chemotherapy resistance. PMID:24653629

Zhu, Tongming; Shen, Yiwen; Tang, Qisheng; Chen, Luping; Gao, Huasong

2014-01-01

37

Enhanced targeting efficiency of PLGA microspheres loaded with Lornoxicam for intra-articular administration.  

PubMed

Owing to its rationale of targeting the drug to the site of action and minimizing systemic toxic effects of the drug, intra-articular drug delivery system has gained growing interests. In this study, emphasis was placed on intra-articular Lornoxicam-loaded PLGA microspheres (Lnxc-PLGA-MS) preparation and improving the targeting of lornoxicam (Lnxc) in knee joint. The microspheres were prepared by a process involving solid-in-oil-in-water(S/O/W) emulsion, and evaluated for physicochemical properties. Joint cavity's drug leakage into systemic circulation in rabbits was examined to define the drug stagnation. Meanwhile, drug retention in synovial fluid in rats was investigated to further validate the drug targeting. The microspheres were spherical as evidenced by the SEM photographs with mean size of 7.47 ?m, and encapsulation efficiency was observed 82.22% along with drug loading 12.17%. DSC revealed that the drug in the microspheres existed in the phase of uncrystallization. The formulated microspheres could prolong the drug release up to 32 days in vitro. Comparing with animals injected with lornoxicam solution, the plasma drug concentration decreased in rabbits and retention time increased in rats' synovial fluid with intra-articular injections of microspheres, revealing good targeting efficiency. In conclusion, PLGA microspheres could be used to deliver lornoxicam following intra-articular administration for enhancing targeting efficiency. PMID:21812757

Zhang, Zhiyue; Bi, Xiuli; Li, Hui; Huang, Guihua

2011-01-01

38

Hollow superparamagnetic PLGA/Fe 3O 4 composite microspheres for lysozyme adsorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniform hollow superparamagnetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/Fe3O4 composite microspheres composed of an inner cavity, PLGA inner shell and Fe3O4 outer shell have been synthesized by a modified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation method using Fe3O4 nanoparticles as a particulate emulsifier. The obtained composite microspheres with an average diameter of 2.5 ?m showed excellent monodispersity and stability in aqueous medium, strong magnetic responsiveness, high magnetite content (>68%), high saturation magnetization (58 emu g-1) and high efficiency in lysozyme adsorption.

Yang, Qi; Wu, Yao; Lan, Fang; Ma, Shaohua; Xie, Liqin; He, Bin; Gu, Zhongwei

2014-02-01

39

Hollow superparamagnetic PLGA/Fe3O4 composite microspheres for lysozyme adsorption.  

PubMed

Uniform hollow superparamagnetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/Fe(3)O(4) composite microspheres composed of an inner cavity, PLGA inner shell and Fe(3)O(4) outer shell have been synthesized by a modified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation method using Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles as a particulate emulsifier. The obtained composite microspheres with an average diameter of 2.5 ?m showed excellent monodispersity and stability in aqueous medium, strong magnetic responsiveness, high magnetite content (>68%), high saturation magnetization (58 emu g(-1)) and high efficiency in lysozyme adsorption. PMID:24492410

Yang, Qi; Wu, Yao; Lan, Fang; Ma, Shaohua; Xie, Liqin; He, Bin; Gu, Zhongwei

2014-02-28

40

Improvement of survival in C6 rat glioma model by a sustained drug release from localized PLGA microspheres in a thermoreversible hydrogel.  

PubMed

A local drug delivery system based on sustained drug release is an attractive approach to treat brain tumors. We have developed a novel device using drug-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres embedded in thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) formulation (drug/PLGA/TGP formulation). TGP forms a gel at body temperature but sol at room temperature. Therefore, when this formulation is injected into the brain tumor, the PLGA microspheres in TGP gel are localized at the injection site and do not diffuse throughout the brain tissue; eventually, sustained drug release from PLGA microspheres is achieved at the target site. In this study, two chemotherapeutic drugs (camptothecin (CPT) or vincristine (VCR)) were incorporated into PLGA microspheres to prepare drug/PLGA/TGP formulations. VCR/PLGA microspheres exhibited the higher encapsulation efficiency than CPT/PLGA microspheres (70.1% versus 30.1%). In addition, VCR/PLGA microspheres showed a higher sustained release profile than CPT/PLGA microspheres (54.5% versus 72.5% release, at 28 days). Therapeutic effect (mean survival) was evaluated in the C6 rat glioma model (control group, 18 days; CPT/PLGA/TGP treatment group, 24 days; VCR/PLGA/TGP treatment group, 33 days). In particular, the VCR/PLGA/TGP formulation produced long-term survivors (>60 days). Therefore, this formulation can be therapeutically effective formulation for the glioma therapy. PMID:22366485

Ozeki, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Daiki; Hashizawa, Kosuke; Imai, Yoshihiro; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Okada, Hiroaki

2012-05-10

41

Effect of stabilizers on bioactivity of peptide-24 in PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

In the present study, Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (PLGA MSs) were prepared for delivering a novel oligopeptide derived from rhBMP-2 (Peptide-24). Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as stabilizers for retaining bioactivity of the oligopeptide. The morphology, diameter, drugloading rates and encapsulation rates of the PLGA MSs were detected and compared. The PLGA MSs were incubated for 3 and 30 days respectively to obtain the release supernatant containing Peptide-24. The structure and bioactivity of released Peptide-24 from PLGA MSs were evaluated through physicochemical detections and cell culture. The structure integrity of the Peptide-24 was confirmed by Far-UV circular dichroism and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. The interaction between PLGA matrix and loaded Peptide- 24 was verified through Raman. The results showed that the diameter of PLGA MSs was from 8.62 to 15.34 ?m, the loading rate was 0.7-0.8%, and the encapsulation rate was 69.3-85.3%. The released Peptide-24 from PLGA MSs was proved to retain original bioactivity by the cellular activity and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test. HP-?-CD is a kind of excellent stabilizer for retaining the bioactivity of Peptide-24 in PLGA MSs. PMID:23227911

Wang, Mingbo; Guo, Xiaodong; Tan, Rongwei; She, Zhending; Feng, Qingling

2013-12-01

42

Effect of different sintering methods on bioactivity and release of proteins from PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Macromolecule release from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres has been well-characterized, and is a popular approach for delivering bioactive signals from tissue-engineered scaffolds. However, the effect of some processing solvents, sterilization, and mineral incorporation (when used in concert) on long-term release and bioactivity has seldom been addressed. Understanding these effects is of significant importance for microsphere-based scaffolds, given that these scaffolds are becoming increasingly more popular, yet growth factor activity following sintering and/or sterilization is heretofore unknown. The current study evaluated the 6-week release of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from PLGA and PLGA/hydroxyapatite (HAp) microspheres following exposure to ethanol (EtOH), dense phase carbon dioxide (CO2), or ethylene oxide (EtO). EtO was chosen based on its common use in scaffold sterilization, whereas EtOH and CO2 were chosen given their importance in sintering microspheres together to create scaffolds. Release supernatants were then used in an accelerated cell stimulation study with human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) with monitoring of gene expression for major chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. Results indicated that in microspheres without HAp, EtOH exposure led to the greatest amount of delivery, while those treated with CO2 delivered the least growth factor. In contrast, formulations with HAp released almost half as much protein, regardless of EtOH or CO2 exposure. Notably, EtO exposure was not found to significantly affect the amount of protein released. Cell stimulation studies demonstrated that eluted protein samples performed similarly to positive controls in PLGA-only formulations, and ambiguously in PLGA/HAp composites. In conclusion, the use of EtOH, subcritical CO2, and EtO in microsphere-based scaffolds may have only slight adverse effects, and possibly even desirable effects in some cases, on protein availability and bioactivity. PMID:23910352

Dormer, Nathan H; Gupta, Vineet; Scurto, Aaron M; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

2013-10-01

43

Effect of different sintering methods on bioactivity and release of proteins from PLGA microspheres  

PubMed Central

Macromolecule release from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres has been well-characterized, and is a popular approach for delivering bioactive signals from tissue-engineered scaffolds. However, the effect of some processing solvents, sterilization, and mineral incorporation (when used in concert) on long-term release and bioactivity has seldom been addressed. Understanding these effects is of significant importance for microsphere-based scaffolds, given that these scaffolds are becoming increasingly more popular, yet growth factor activity following sintering and/or sterilization is heretofore unknown. The current study evaluated the 6-week release of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from PLGA and PLGA/hydroxyapatite (HAp) microspheres following exposure to ethanol (EtOH), dense phase carbon dioxide (CO2), or ethylene oxide (EtO). EtO was chosen based on its common use in scaffold sterilization, whereas EtOH and CO2 were chosen given their importance in sintering microspheres together to create scaffolds. Release supernatants were then used in an accelerated cell stimulation study with human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) with monitoring of gene expression for major chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. Results indicated that in microspheres without HAp, EtOH exposure led to the greatest amount of delivery, whilst those treated with CO2 delivered the least growth factor. In contrast, formulations with HAp released almost half as much protein, regardless of EtOH or CO2 exposure. Notably, EtO exposure was not found to significantly affect the amount of protein released. Cell stimulation studies demonstrated that eluted protein samples performed similarly to positive controls in PLGA-only formulations, and ambiguously in PLGA/HAp composites. In conclusion, the use of EtOH, subcritical CO2, and EtO in microsphere-based scaffolds may have only slight adverse effects, and possibly even desirable effects in some cases, on protein availability and bioactivity. PMID:23910352

Dormer, Nathan H.; Gupta, Vineet; Scurto, Aaron M.; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

2013-01-01

44

Influence of PEG in PEG-PLGA microspheres on particle properties and protein release.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare different commercial available types of Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), multiblock copolymers of PLGA and polyethylene gylcol (PEG) as well as blends of PLGA and PEG regarding the preparation of microparticles and the release behavior of encapsulated protein. Microspheres were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique using the same conditions for each formulation. The encapsulation rate of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was unaffected by the different polymer types, and the mean was 79±4%. Microspheres composed of blends of PLGA and PEG showed a porous structure, a higher specific surface area, an inhomogenous distribution of protein and a higher release rate of BSA than microspheres consisting of PLGA, whereas the release profiles were the same. The specific surface area of microparticle formulations composed of diblock copolymers was the highest with 8.57±0.07m(2)/g emphasized by a highly porous, sponge-like structure. The triblock copolymer formulation revealed nearly spherical particles with a slightly uneven surface. Although the triblock copolymer consists of 10% PEG, the specific surface area was the lowest of all formulations. The rapid hydration due to PEG leads to a swollen matrix, which released the protein in a slow and continuous way. PMID:22306701

Buske, J; König, C; Bassarab, S; Lamprecht, A; Mühlau, S; Wagner, K G

2012-05-01

45

Visual Evidence of Acidic Environment Within Degrading Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) Microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. In the past decade, biodegradable polymers have becomethe materials of choice for a variety of biomaterials applications. Inparticular, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres havebeen extensively studied for controlled-release drug delivery. However,degradation of the polymer generates acidic monomers, andacidification of the inner polymer environment is a central issue in thedevelopment of these devices for drug delivery.

Karen Fu; Daniel W. Pack; Alexander M. Klibanov; Robert Langer

2000-01-01

46

Poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microspheres as immunoadjuvant for Brugia malayi antigens.  

PubMed

Recently we identified in Brugia malayi adult worm extract (BmA) a pro-inflammatory 54-68kDa SDS-PAGE resolved fraction F6 that protects the host from the parasite via Th1/Th2 type responses. We are currently investigating F6 as a potential source of vaccine candidate(s) and the present study is aimed at investigating the suitability of poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres (PLGA-Ms) as immunoadjuvant for the antigen administration in a single dose. PLGA-Ms were prepared aseptically by a modified double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique and their size, shape, antigen adsorption efficiency, in-process stability, and antigen release were characterized. Swiss mice were immunized by a single subcutaneous administration of BmA and F6 adsorbed on PLGA-Ms (lactide:glycolide ratios 50:50 and 75:25) and the immune responses were compared with administration of 1 or 2 doses of plain BmA and F6. Specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgE levels in serum, cellular-proliferative response and release of IFN-?, TNF-? and nitric oxide from the cells of immunized host in response to the antigens/LPS/Con A challenge and antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to parasite life stages were determined. The average size of PLGA-Ms 50:50 was smaller than the size of PLGA-Ms 75:25 and the % antigen adsorption efficiency of PLGA-Ms 50:50 was greater than PLGA-Ms 75:25. Single shot injection of PLGA-Ms 50:50/75:25-BmA/F6 produced better and stronger IgG, IgG1/IgG2a and cell-mediated immune responses than even two injections of plain BmA or F6. Further, PLGA-Ms 50:50-F6 produced stronger responses than PLGA-Ms 50:50-BmA. Anti-PLGA-Ms 50:50-F6 antibodies elicited higher ADCC response to infective larval and microfilarial stages of the parasite than anti-PLGA-Ms 75:25-F6 antibodies. The findings demonstrate that PLGA-Ms 50:50 is an excellent adjuvant for use with F6 in a single administration. This is the first ever report on PLGA as immunoadjuvant for filarial antigens. PMID:23827312

Saini, Vinay; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Murthy, P Kalpana; Kohli, Dharmveer

2013-08-28

47

Influence of particle size and antacid on release and stability of plasmid DNA from uniform PLGA microspheres  

PubMed Central

PLGA microspheres are attractive DNA delivery vehicles due to their controlled release capabilities. One major problem with PLGA microspheres is that they develop an acidic microclimate as the polymer degrades, lowering the intraparticle pH, and potentially damaging the DNA. Antacids have recently shown promise in buffering this acidic microclimate and enhancing protein stability. We manufactured uniform plasmid DNA-encapsulating PLGA microspheres of two sizes (47, 80 ?m diameter) and antacid concentrations (0, 3% Mg(OH)2). Microspheres with antacid had a homogeneous surface coverage of small pores, which resulted in a significant reduction of the burst effect. The 47 ?m microspheres exhibited complete release of plasmid DNA over the course of two months. Incomplete release was observed from 80 ?m spheres, though microspheres with 3% Mg(OH)2 showed a higher cumulative release, suggesting that the antacid at least partially aids in increasing the stability of DNA. SEM was used to visualize the surface pore evolution and cross-sectional microsphere structure over time. Subsequent image analysis was used to quantify the increase of surface pore sizes. Cross-sectional images showed increasing internal degradation and erosion, which resulted in a hollowing-out of microspheres. Our studies show that the incorporation of antacid into the microsphere structure has potential in addressing some of the major problems associated with DNA encapsulation and release in PLGA microspheres. PMID:17928089

Varde, Neelesh K.; Pack, Daniel W.

2007-01-01

48

5-Fluorouracil encapsulated HA/PLGA composite microspheres for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

5-Fluorouracil (5FU) was successfully entrapped within poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and hydroyapatite (HA) composite microspheres using the emulsification/solvent extraction technique. The effects of HA to PLGA ratio, solvent ratio as well as polymer inherent viscosity (IV) on encapsulation efficiency were investigated. The degradation and drug release rates of the microspheres were studied for 5 weeks in vitro in phosphate buffered solution of pH 7.4 at 37 °C. The drug release profile followed a biphasic pattern with a small initial burst followed by a zero-order release for up to 35 days. The initial burst release decreased with increasing HA content. The potential of HA in limiting the initial burst release makes the incorporation of HA into PLGA microspheres advantageous since it reduces the risk of drug overdose from high initial bursts. The linear sustained drug release profile over the course of 5 weeks makes these 5-FU-loaded HA/PLGA composite microparticles a promising delivery system for the controlled release of chemotherapy drugs in the treatment of cancer. PMID:22843166

Lin, Yuting; Li, Yan; Ooi, Chui Ping

2012-10-01

49

Monitoring of peptide acylation inside degrading PLGA microspheres by capillary electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to assess the acylation reactions of peptides, salmon calcitonin (sCT), human parathyroid hormone 1–34 (hPTH1–34) and leuprolide, in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were used for determining and monitoring peptide acylation and quantitating acylation products in the degrading PLGA microspheres. In the degrading

Dong Hee Na; Yu Seok Youn; Sang Deuk Lee; Mi-Won Son; Won-Bae Kim; Patrick P. DeLuca; Kang Choon Lee

2003-01-01

50

Effects of dexamethasone-loaded PLGA microspheres on human fetal osteoblasts.  

PubMed

Integration of a drug delivery function into implantable medical devices enables local release of specific bioactives to control cells-surface interactions. One alternative to achieve this biofunctionality for bone implants is to incorporate particulate drug delivery systems (DDSs) into the rough or porous implant surfaces. The scope of this study was to assess the effects of a model DDS consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone (DXM), on the response of Simian Virus-immortalized Human Fetal Osteoblast (SV-HFO) cells. The microspheres were prepared by the oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation method, whereas cells response was investigated by Alamar Blue test for viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity for differentiation, and Alizarin Red staining for matrix mineralization. Cell viability was not affected by the presence of increased concentrations of polymeric microspheres in the culture media. Furthermore, in the cultures with DXM-loaded microspheres, ALP activity was expressed at levels similar with those obtained under osteogenic conditions, indicating that DXM released from the microsphere-stimulated cell differentiation. Matrix mineralization occurred preferentially around the DXM-loaded microspheres confirming that the released DXM could act as osteogenic supplement for the cells. These in vitro findings suggest that a particulate PLGA-DXM DDS may actually provide dual, anti-inflammatory and osteogenic functions when incorporated on the surface of bone implants. PMID:21862514

Dawes, G J S; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Necula, B S; Apachitei, I; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Duszczyk, J; Eijken, M

2012-11-01

51

Controlled-release injectable containing terbinafine/PLGA microspheres for onychomycosis treatment.  

PubMed

Controlled-release drug delivery systems based on biodegradable polymers have been extensively evaluated for use in localized drug delivery. In the present study, intralesionally injectable poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres for controlled release of terbinafine hydrochloride (TH) was developed for treating fungal toe/finger nail infections. TH-PLGA microspheres were formulated using O/W emulsification and modified solvent extraction/evaporation technique. Microspheres were evaluated for particle size and size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface, and morphology. The in vitro drug release profile was studied in aqueous media as well as in 1% agar gel. Microspheres system was also evaluated in excised cadaver toe model, and extent of TH accumulation in nail bed, nail plate, and nail matrix was measured at different time points. Microspheres were found to provide consistent and sustained TH release. Intralesional administration of controlled-release microspheres can be a potential alternative mode of treating fungus-infected toe and/or finger nails. PMID:24497012

Angamuthu, Muralikrishnan; Nanjappa, Shivakumar H; Raman, Vijayasankar; Jo, Seongbong; Cegu, Phaniraj; Murthy, S Narasimha

2014-04-01

52

Fabrication and characterization of monodisperse PLGA-alginate core-shell microspheres with monodisperse size and homogeneous shells for controlled drug release.  

PubMed

Monodisperse PLGA-alginate core-shell microspheres with controlled size and homogeneous shells were first fabricated using capillary microfluidic devices for the purpose of controlling drug release kinetics. Sizes of PLGA cores were readily controlled by the geometries of microfluidic devices and the fluid flow rates. PLGA microspheres with sizes ranging from 15 to 50?m were fabricated to investigate the influence of the core size on the release kinetics. Rifampicin was loaded into both monodisperse PLGA microspheres and PLGA-alginate core-shell microspheres as a model drug for the release kinetics studies. The in vitro release of rifampicin showed that the PLGA core of all sizes exhibited sigmoid release patterns, although smaller PLGA cores had a higher release rate and a shorter lag phase. The shell could modulate the drug release kinetics as a buffer layer and a near-zero-order release pattern was observed when the drug release rate of the PLGA core was high enough. The biocompatibility of PLGA-alginate core-shell microspheres was assessed by MTT assay on L929 mouse fibroblasts cell line and no obvious cytotoxicity was found. This technique provides a convenient method to control the drug release kinetics of the PLGA microsphere by delicately controlling the microstructures. The obtained monodisperse PLGA-alginate core-shell microspheres with monodisperse size and homogeneous shells could be a promising device for controlled drug release. PMID:23535235

Wu, Jun; Kong, Tiantian; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok; Shum, Ho Cheung; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee; Wang, Liqiu; To, Michael Kai Tsun

2013-07-01

53

Phagostimulatory effect of uptake of PLGA microspheres loaded with rifampicin on alveolar macrophages.  

PubMed

Our previous results on the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages (M?s) toward poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres (PLGA MS) loaded with the anti-tuberculosis agent rifampicin (R-PLGA MS) suggest that the phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS enhances the phagocytic activity of M? cells. To confirm this possibility, we examined the effect of phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS and polystyrene latex (PSL) MS on the phagocytic uptake of fluorescent PSL (F-PSL) MS by cells of the rat alveolar macrophage cell line NR8383 at 37°C. Phagocytic activity was examined in terms of the population of M? cells that had phagocytosed MS (N(total)) and the total number of MS phagocytosed (n(total)) by counting the phagocytic M? cells and the MS ingested in optical microscopic fields. Phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS enhanced about 1.5 times the values of N(total) and n(total) of the phagocytosis of F-PSL MS under the conditions where the phagocytosis of F-PSL MS did not attain the saturated level. In contrast, the phagocytosis of PSL MS did not enhance the phagocytic activity of M? cells toward F-PSL MS. In conclusion, R-PLGA MS are favorable for drug delivery of anti-tuberculosis agents into alveolar M?s due to their ability to up-regulate the phagocytosis of MS. PMID:21700434

Hirota, Keiji; Hasegawa, Taizo; Nakajima, Takehisa; Makino, Kimiko; Terada, Hiroshi

2011-10-15

54

Stabilization and encapsulation of recombinant human erythropoietin into PLGA microspheres using human serum albumin as a stabilizer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prepare recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres using human serum albumin (HSA) as a stabilizer. Prior to encapsulation, the rhEPO-HSA mixture microparticles were fabricated using a modified freezing-induced phase separation method. The microparticles were subsequently encapsulated into PLGA microspheres. Process optimization revealed that the polymer concentration in the organic phase and the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in the outer water phase of the s/o/w emulsion played critical roles in determining the properties of the resultant microspheres. An in vitro release test showed that rhEPO was released from PLGA microspheres in a sustained manner up to 30 days. A single injection of rhEPO-loaded PLGA microspheres in Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in elevated hemoglobin and red blood cell concentrations for about 33 days. The stability of the rhEPO within the PLGA microspheres was systematically investigated by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC), SDS-PAGE, western blot and in vivo biological activity assay. The stability of rhEPO released from rhEPO-loaded microspheres was also examined by western blot. The results suggested that the integrity of rhEPO was successfully protected during the encapsulation process and the release period from polymeric matrices. PMID:21699969

He, Jintian; Feng, Meiyan; Zhou, Xianglian; Ma, Shufen; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hongxia

2011-09-15

55

In vitro degradation and controlled release behavior of D,L-PLGA50 and PCL-b-D,L-PLGA50 copolymer microspheres.  

PubMed

Blank and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded microspheres based on poly(lactic-acid-alt-glycolic acid) (D,L-PLGA50) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(lactic-acid-alt-glycolic acid) (PCL-b-D,L-PLGA50) were successfully fabricated using water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double-emulsion extraction/evaporation technique. In vitro degradation of the blank microspheres was characterized by techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PCL-b-D,L-PLGA50 copolymer (Mn: number-average molecular weight, Mw: weight-average molecular weight, Mn=44800, Mw/Mn=MWD=1.24, epsilon-caprolactone (CL) %=20.4% in molar ratio) had similar rate of molecular weight reduction compared with the D,L-PLGA50 copolymer before 5 weeks of in vitro degradation. The BSA % loading efficiency of microspheres was mainly controlled by both block copolymer composition and macromolecular architecture, while the sequence structure and the molecular weight of copolymer had no apparent effect on it. Significantly, The PCL-b-D,L-PLGA50 copolymer microspheres showed good release profiles with a nearly constant release during 20-110 days. PMID:16005093

Dong, Chang-Ming; Guo, Ying-Zhi; Qiu, Kun-Yuan; Gu, Zhong-Wei; Feng, Xin-De

2005-09-20

56

Local delivery of controlled-release simvastatin/PLGA/HAp microspheres enhances bone repair.  

PubMed

Statins are used clinically for reduction of cholesterol synthesis to prevent cardiovascular disease. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that statins stimulate bone formation. However, orally administered statins may be degraded during first-pass metabolism in the liver. This study aimed to prevent this degradation by developing a locally administered formulation of simvastatin that is encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite (SIM/PLGA/HAp) microspheres with controlled-release properties. The effect of this formulation of simvastatin on bone repair was tested using a mouse model of gap fracture bridging with a graft of necrotic bone. The simvastatin released over 12 days from 3 mg and 5 mg of SIM/PLGA/HAp was 0.03-1.6 ?g/day and 0.05-2.6 ?g/day, respectively. SIM/PLGA/HAp significantly stimulated callus formation around the repaired area and increased neovascularization and cell ingrowth in the grafted necrotic bone at week 2 after surgery. At week 4, both 3 mg and 5 mg of SIM/PLGA/HAp increased neovascularization, but only 5 mg SIM/PLGA/HAp enhanced cell ingrowth into the necrotic bone. The low dose of simvastatin released from SIM/PLGA/HAp enhanced initial callus formation, neovascularization, and cell ingrowth in the grafted bone, indicating that SIM/PLGA/HAp facilitates bone regeneration. We suggest that SIM/PLGA/HAp should be developed as an osteoinductive agent to treat osteonecrosis or in combination with an osteoconductive scaffold to treat severe bone defects. PMID:24143094

Tai, I-Chun; Fu, Yin-Chih; Wang, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

2013-01-01

57

Local delivery of controlled-release simvastatin/PLGA/HAp microspheres enhances bone repair  

PubMed Central

Statins are used clinically for reduction of cholesterol synthesis to prevent cardiovascular disease. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that statins stimulate bone formation. However, orally administered statins may be degraded during first-pass metabolism in the liver. This study aimed to prevent this degradation by developing a locally administered formulation of simvastatin that is encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite (SIM/PLGA/HAp) microspheres with controlled-release properties. The effect of this formulation of simvastatin on bone repair was tested using a mouse model of gap fracture bridging with a graft of necrotic bone. The simvastatin released over 12 days from 3 mg and 5 mg of SIM/PLGA/HAp was 0.03–1.6 ?g/day and 0.05–2.6 ?g/day, respectively. SIM/PLGA/HAp significantly stimulated callus formation around the repaired area and increased neovascularization and cell ingrowth in the grafted necrotic bone at week 2 after surgery. At week 4, both 3 mg and 5 mg of SIM/PLGA/HAp increased neovascularization, but only 5 mg SIM/PLGA/HAp enhanced cell ingrowth into the necrotic bone. The low dose of simvastatin released from SIM/PLGA/HAp enhanced initial callus formation, neovascularization, and cell ingrowth in the grafted bone, indicating that SIM/PLGA/HAp facilitates bone regeneration. We suggest that SIM/PLGA/HAp should be developed as an osteoinductive agent to treat osteonecrosis or in combination with an osteoconductive scaffold to treat severe bone defects. PMID:24143094

Tai, I-Chun; Fu, Yin-Chih; Wang, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

2013-01-01

58

PLGA microspheres by Supercritical Emulsion Extraction: a study on insulin release in myoblast culture.  

PubMed

Supercritical Emulsion Extraction in a Continuous operation layout is proposed for the production of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres loaded with insulin, selected as a model of bioactive signal. Microspheres with different mean sizes of 2??m (±0.9??m) and 3??m (±2.2??m) and insulin loadings of 3 and 6?mg/g were obtained by processing different water-oil-water emulsions; an encapsulation efficiency of about 60% w/w was measured in all cases. Insulin release profiles from PLGA microspheres were also characterized in two different media (Phosphate-Buffered Saline and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium) and kinetic constants were estimated by using a model proposed in literature. The produced microspheres were, then, used for the cultivation of rat embryonic ventricular myoblasts in a serum-free medium to monitor the biological effect of the released insulin. The best cell viability and proliferation, supported by released insulin, was monitored when microspheres with mean size of 3??m loaded with 3?mg/g of insulin were added. PMID:23786568

Della Porta, Giovanna; Falco, Nunzia; Giordano, Emanuele; Reverchon, Ernesto

2013-01-01

59

Phase separation behavior of fusidic acid and rifampicin in PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the phase separation behavior of fusidic acid (FA) and rifampicin (RIF) in poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using a model microsphere formulation. To accomplish this, microspheres containing 20% FA with 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% RIF and 20% RIF with 30%, 20% 10%, 5%, and 0% FA were prepared by solvent evaporation. Drug-polymer and drug-drug compatibility and miscibility were characterized using laser confocal microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, XRPD, DSC, and real-time video recordings of single-microsphere formation. The encapsulation of FA and RIF alone, or in combination, results in a liquid-liquid phase separation of solvent-and-drug-rich microdomains that are excluded from the polymer bulk during microsphere hardening, resulting in amorphous spherical drug-rich domains within the polymer bulk and on the microsphere surface. FA and RIF phase separate from PLGA at relative droplet volumes of 0.311 ± 0.014 and 0.194 ± 0.000, respectively, predictive of the incompatibility of each drug and PLGA. When coloaded, FA and RIF phase separate in a single event at the relative droplet volume 0.251 ± 0.002, intermediate between each of the monoloaded formulations and dependent on the relative contribution of FA or RIF. The release of FA and RIF from phase-separated microspheres was characterized exclusively by a burst release and was dependent on the phase exclusion of surface drug-rich domains. Phase separation results in coalescence of drug-rich microdroplets and polymer phase exclusion, and it is dependent on the compatibility between FA and RIF and PLGA. FA and RIF are mutually miscible in all proportions as an amorphous glass, and they phase separate from the polymer as such. These drug-rich domains were excluded to the surface of the microspheres, and subsequent release of both drugs from the microspheres was rapid and reflected this surface location. PMID:22482935

Gilchrist, Samuel E; Rickard, Deborah L; Letchford, Kevin; Needham, David; Burt, Helen M

2012-05-01

60

SOX9 gene plus heparinized TGF-? 3 coated dexamethasone loaded PLGA microspheres for inducement of chondrogenesis of hMSCs.  

PubMed

Microparticulated types of scaffolds have been widely applied in stem cell therapy and the tissue engineering field for the regeneration of wound tissues. During application of simple genes or growth factors and cell delivery vehicles, we designed a method that employs dexamethsone loaded PLGA microspheres consisting of polyplexed SOX9 genes plus heparinized TGF-? 3 on the surface of polymeric microspheres prepared using a layer-by-layer (LbL) method. The fabrication of the polyplexed SOX9 genes plus heparinized TGF-? 3 and their subsequent coating onto dexamethsone loaded PLGA microspheres represents a method for functionalization of the polymeric matrix. The use of SOX9 gene plus heparinized TGF-? 3 coated dexamethsone loaded PLGA microspheres was evaluated to determine their potential as both gene carriers and cell delivery vehicle. By adhesion of hMSCs onto SOX9 gene plus heparinized TGF-? 3 coated dexamethsone loaded PLGA microspheres, the chondrogenesis-related specific genes of collagen type II were increased 30 times comparing to control. Also, the specific extracellular matrix of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production of hMSCs adhered onto SOX9 gene plus heparinized TGF-? 3 coated dexamethasone loaded PLGA microspheres increased more 2.5 times than control group. Not only in vitro culture but in vivo results, the specific genes of COMP, aggrecan, collagen type II, and SOX9 showed much more gene expressions such as 20, 15, 10, 8 times. PMID:22795539

Park, Ji Sun; Yang, Han Na; Woo, Dae Gyun; Jeon, Su Yeon; Park, Keun-Hong

2012-10-01

61

Room-temperature attachment of PLGA microspheres to titanium surfaces for implant-based drug release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drug release from implant surfaces is an effective approach to impart biological activities, (e.g., antimicrobial and osteogenic properties) to bone implants. Coatings of polylactide-based polymer are a candidate for this purpose, but a continuous (fully covering) coating may be non-optimal for implant-bone fixation. This study reports a simple room-temperature method for attaching poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres to titanium (Ti) surfaces. Microspheres were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the emulsifier. Microspheres were attached to Ti discs by pipetting as a suspension onto the surfaces followed by vacuum drying. After immersion in shaking water bath for 14 d, a substantial proportion of the microspheres remained attached to the discs. In contrast, if the vacuum-drying procedure was omitted, only a small fraction of the microspheres remained attached to the discs after immersion for only 5 min. Microspheres containing triclosan (a broad-spectrum antibiotic) were attached by porous-surfaced Ti discs. In vitro experiments showed that the microsphere-carrying discs were able to kill Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia Coli, and support the adhesion and growth of primary rat osteoblasts. This simple method may offer a flexible technique for bone implant-based drug release.

Xiao, Dongqin; Liu, Qing; Wang, Dongwei; Xie, Tao; Guo, Tailin; Duan, Ke; Weng, Jie

2014-08-01

62

Intra-articular lornoxicam loaded PLGA microspheres: enhanced therapeutic efficiency and decreased systemic toxicity in the treatment of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the joint tissue distribution and pharmacodynamics of Lornoxicam (Lnxc) following intra-articular injection of either Lnxc suspensions or sustained release Lnxc-loaded PLGA microspheres (Lnxc-MS), as well as the biocompatibility of PLGA microspheres with or without drugs. In this study, Lnxc suspensions or Lnxc-loaded PLGA microspheres was injected into the knee joint cavity of rats. Blood samples were taken at predetermined times from the jugular vein and the joint tissue (cartilage and synovial membrane) were removed from the rats. Biocompatibility and pharmacodynamics were evaluated by observing the swelling of the joints of the rats and histological analysis following the injection of the microspheres. The plasma drug concentration decreased in rats and retention time increased in rats' joint with intra-articular injections of microspheres, revealing good targeting efficiency and decreased systemic toxicity. After 30 days of intra-articular injection with Lnxc-loaded or blank microspheres, the filtration liquid accumulation, blood vessels and fibrous proliferation were not detected, showing their good compatibility. Furthermore, the articular cartilage damage by papain could also be repaired by the Lnxc-loaded PLGA microspheres. In conclusion, intra-articular Lnxc-MS have considerable potential for creating a sustained release Lnxc delivery system and providing effective healing to Osteoarthritis. PMID:22775466

Zhang, Zhiyue; Huang, Guihua

2012-01-01

63

Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature  

PubMed Central

Injectable scaffolds are of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their minimally invasive mode of delivery. For tissue repair applications, it is essential that such scaffolds have the mechanical properties, porosity and pore diameter to support the formation of new tissue. In the current study, porous poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated with an average size of 84 ± 24 ?m for use as injectable cell carriers. Treatment with ethanolic sodium hydroxide for 2 min was observed to increase surface porosity without causing the microsphere structure to disintegrate. This surface treatment also enabled the microspheres to fuse together at 37 °C to form scaffold structures. The average compressive strength of the scaffolds after 24 h at 37 °C was 0.9 ± 0.1 MPa, and the average Young’s modulus was 9.4 ± 1.2 MPa. Scaffold porosity levels were 81.6% on average, with a mean pore diameter of 54 ± 38 ?m. This study demonstrates a method for fabricating porous PLGA microspheres that form solid porous scaffolds at body temperature, creating an injectable system capable of supporting NIH-3T3 cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. PMID:25152354

Qutachi, Omar; Vetsch, Jolanda R.; Gill, Daniel; Cox, Helen; Scurr, David J.; Hofmann, Sandra; Müller, Ralph; Quirk, Robin A.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Rahman, Cheryl V.

2014-01-01

64

Mechanism of drug release from double-walled PDLLA(PLGA) microspheres.  

PubMed

The drug release and degradation behavior of two double-walled microsphere formulations consisting of a doxorubicin-loaded poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core (?46 kDa) surrounded by a poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) shell layer (?55 and 116 kDa) were examined. It was postulated that different molecular weights of the shell layer could modulate the erosion of the outer coating and limit the occurrence of water penetration into the inner drug-loaded core on various time scales, and therefore control the drug release from the microspheres. For both microsphere formulations, the drug release profiles were observed to be similar. The degradation of the microspheres was monitored for a period of about nine weeks and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. Interestingly, both microsphere formulations exhibited occurrence of bulk erosion of PDLLA on a similar time scale despite different PDLLA molecular weights forming the shell layer. The shell layer of the double-walled microspheres served as an effective diffusion barrier during the initial lag phase period and controlled the release rate of the hydrophilic drug independent of the molecular weight of the shell layer. PMID:23453059

Xu, Qingxing; Chin, Shi En; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Pack, Daniel W

2013-05-01

65

The Effect of Temozolomide/Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/Nano-Hydroxyapatite Microspheres on Glioma U87 Cells Behavior  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the effects of temozolomide (TMZ)/Poly (lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA)/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres on the behavior of U87 glioma cells. The microspheres were fabricated by the “Solid/Water/Oil” method, and they were characterized by using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of glioma cells were evaluated by MTT, flow cytometry assay and Transwell assay. The presence of the key invasive gene, ?V?3 integrin, was detected by the RT-PCR and Western blot method. It was found that the temozolomide/PLGA/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres have a significantly diminished initial burst of drug release, compared to the TMZ laden PLGA microspheres. Our results suggest they can significantly inhibit the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells, and induce their apoptosis. Additionally, ?V?3 integrin was also reduced by the microspheres. These data suggest that by inhibiting the biological behavior of glioma cells in vitro, the newly designed temozolomide/PLGA/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres, as controlled drug release carriers, have promising potential in treating glioma. PMID:22312307

Zhang, Dongyong; Tian, Ang; Xue, Xiangxin; Wang, Mei; Qiu, Bo; Wu, Anhua

2012-01-01

66

The effect of temozolomide/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres on glioma U87 cells behavior.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the effects of temozolomide (TMZ)/Poly (lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA)/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres on the behavior of U87 glioma cells. The microspheres were fabricated by the "Solid/Water/Oil" method, and they were characterized by using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of glioma cells were evaluated by MTT, flow cytometry assay and Transwell assay. The presence of the key invasive gene, ?(V)?3 integrin, was detected by the RT-PCR and Western blot method. It was found that the temozolomide/PLGA/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres have a significantly diminished initial burst of drug release, compared to the TMZ laden PLGA microspheres. Our results suggest they can significantly inhibit the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells, and induce their apoptosis. Additionally, ?(V)?3 integrin was also reduced by the microspheres. These data suggest that by inhibiting the biological behavior of glioma cells in vitro, the newly designed temozolomide/PLGA/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres, as controlled drug release carriers, have promising potential in treating glioma. PMID:22312307

Zhang, Dongyong; Tian, Ang; Xue, Xiangxin; Wang, Mei; Qiu, Bo; Wu, Anhua

2012-01-01

67

Chemical and spatial analysis of protein loaded PLGA microspheres for drug delivery applications.  

PubMed

Polymer microspheres for controlled release of therapeutic protein from within an implantable scaffold were produced and analysed using complimentary techniques to probe the surface and bulk chemistry of the microspheres. Time of Flight - Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) surface analysis revealed a thin discontinuous film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) surfactant (circa 4.5 nm thick) at the surface which was readily removed under sputtering with C(60). Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging of microspheres before and after sputtering confirmed that the PVA layer was removed after sputtering revealing poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid(PLGA). Scanning electron microscopy showed the spheres to be smooth with some shallow and generally circular depressions, often with pores in their central region. The occurrence of the protein at the surface was limited to areas surrounding these surface pores. This surface protein distribution is believed to be related to a burst release of the protein on dissolution. Analysis of the bulk properties of the microspheres by confocal Raman mapping revealed the 3D distribution of the protein showing large voids within the pores. Protein was found to be adsorbed at the interface with the PLGA oil phase following deposition on evaporation of the solvent. Protein was also observed concentrated within pores measuring approximately 2 ?m across. The presence of protein in large voids and concentrated pores was further scrutinised by ToF-SIMS of sectioned microspheres. This paper demonstrates that important information for optimisation of such complex bioformulations, including an understanding of the release profile can be revealed by complementary surface and bulk analysis allowing optimisation of the therapeutic effect of such formulations. PMID:22580112

Rafati, A; Boussahel, A; Shakesheff, K M; Shard, A G; Roberts, C J; Chen, X; Scurr, D J; Rigby-Singleton, S; Whiteside, P; Alexander, M R; Davies, M C

2012-09-10

68

Celecoxib-loaded PLGA/cyclodextrin microspheres: characterization and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity on human chondrocyte cultures.  

PubMed

PLGA microspheres were prepared as a sustained release system for the intra-articular administration of celecoxib (CCB). The microspheres were prepared in the presence of different concentrations of dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin (DM-?-Cyd), by the simple oil-in-water emulsion/evaporation solvent method. The microspheres were evaluated as to surface morphology, size and technological properties (such as encapsulation efficiency, drug loading capacity and drug release). Ex vivo studies on cultures of human chondrocytes were performed in order to evaluate the influence of the polymeric carriers on the pharmacological activity of CCB. All systems ranged from about 1 to 5 ?m in size and had a high encapsulation efficiency percentage ranging from about 80% to 90% (w/w), except for CCB-loaded-PLGA microspheres containing the highest amount of DM-?-Cyd, in which a dramatic drop in the encapsulation efficiency was observed (about 54%, w/w). FIB images evidenced the fact that the microspheres had a porous structure in the presence of the highest amount of DM-?-Cyd. The macrocycle modulated the release profiles of CCB from the microspheres, producing in some cases a zero-order kinetic release. Ex vivo biological studies demonstrated that DM-?-Cyd improved the drug's anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, CCB-loaded PLGA/cyclodextrin microspheres may have a potential therapeutic application in the treatment of osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23838195

Cannavà, Carmela; Tommasini, Silvana; Stancanelli, Rosanna; Cardile, Venera; Cilurzo, Felisa; Giannone, Ignazio; Puglisi, Giovanni; Ventura, Cinzia Anna

2013-11-01

69

Microencapsulation of PEGylated Adenovirus within PLGA Microspheres for Enhanced Stability and Gene Transfection Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Green fluorescent protein (GFP) encoding adenovirus (ADV) was surface modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for microencapsulation\\u000a within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with the aim of improving stability and gene transfection activity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A series of PEGylated ADV (PEG-ADV) with different PEG seeding densities on the viral surface was prepared and the GFP expression\\u000a efficiency of each PEG-ADV in the series determined.

Hyejung Mok; Ji Won Park; Tae Gwan Park

2007-01-01

70

Anti-VEGFR2-conjugated PLGA microspheres as an x-ray phase contrast agent for assessing the VEGFR2 expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres as an x-ray phase contrast agent to assess the VEGFR2 expression in cell cultures. The cell lines, mouse LLC (Lewis lung carcinoma) and HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell), were selected for cell adhesion studies. The bound PLGA microspheres were found to better adhere to LLC cells or HUVECs than unbound ones. Absorption and phase contrast images of PLGA microspheres were acquired and compared in vitro. Phase contrast imaging (PCI) greatly improves the detection of the microspheres as compared to absorption contrast imaging. The cells incubated with PLGA microspheres were imaged by PCI, which provided clear 3D visualization of the beads, indicating the feasibility of using PLGA microspheres as a contrast agent for phase contrast CT. In addition, the microspheres could be clearly distinguished from the wall of the vessel on phase contrast CT images. Therefore, the approach holds promise for assessing the VEGFR2 expression on endothelial cells of tumor-associated vessels. We conclude that PLGA microsphere-based PCI of the VEGFR2 expression might be a novel, promising biomarker for future studies of tumor angiogenesis.

Tang, Rongbiao; Chai, Wei-Min; Ying, Weihai; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Xie, Honglan; Liu, Hui-Qiang; Chen, Ke-Min

2012-05-01

71

Anti-VEGFR2-conjugated PLGA microspheres as an x-ray phase contrast agent for assessing the VEGFR2 expression.  

PubMed

The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres as an x-ray phase contrast agent to assess the VEGFR2 expression in cell cultures. The cell lines, mouse LLC (Lewis lung carcinoma) and HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell), were selected for cell adhesion studies. The bound PLGA microspheres were found to better adhere to LLC cells or HUVECs than unbound ones. Absorption and phase contrast images of PLGA microspheres were acquired and compared in vitro. Phase contrast imaging (PCI) greatly improves the detection of the microspheres as compared to absorption contrast imaging. The cells incubated with PLGA microspheres were imaged by PCI, which provided clear 3D visualization of the beads, indicating the feasibility of using PLGA microspheres as a contrast agent for phase contrast CT. In addition, the microspheres could be clearly distinguished from the wall of the vessel on phase contrast CT images. Therefore, the approach holds promise for assessing the VEGFR2 expression on endothelial cells of tumor-associated vessels. We conclude that PLGA microsphere-based PCI of the VEGFR2 expression might be a novel, promising biomarker for future studies of tumor angiogenesis. PMID:22538445

Tang, Rongbiao; Chai, Wei-Min; Ying, Weihai; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Xie, Honglan; Liu, Hui-Qiang; Chen, Ke-Min

2012-05-21

72

Release kinetics and immunogenicity of parvovirus microencapsulated in PLA/PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to examine the immunogenicity of microencapsulated inactivated duck parvovirus in Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and goose. Inactivated duck parvovirus suspension was microencapsulated into 14-17 kDa poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA50:50H) by coacervation. The in vitro antigen release from individual and mixed PLA and PLGA50:50H microspheres (MS) was biphasic with an initial lag-phase of approx. 10 days followed by a relatively constant release over additional 12 days. By varying the composition of PLA+PLGA50:50H MS mixtures from 3+1 to 1+3, the release kinetics could be altered and controlled efficiently. The antigen-loaded MS were injected subcutaneously into ducks. The immune response, expressed as virus neutralisation (VN) titres, after single administration of MS was modest, i.e. below 200 over the 6 weeks tested, unless the animals were pre-immunised 3 weeks before injecting the MS. The weak immune response was attributed to the low dose injected and inappropriate antigen release kinetics. With pre-immunised animals, however, the results were encouraging and showed that the encapsulated parvovirus was immunogenic. PMID:11397576

Pálinkó-Biró, E; Rónaszèki, G; Merkle, H P; Gander, B

2001-06-19

73

Effect of polymer porosity on aqueous self-healing encapsulation of proteins in PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Self-healing (SH) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres are a unique class of functional biomaterials capable of microencapsulating process-sensitive proteins by simple mixing and heating the drug-free polymer in aqueous protein solution. Drug-free SH microspheres of PLGA 50/50 with percolating pore networks of varying porosity (??=?0.49-73) encapsulate increasing lysozyme (?1 to 10% w/w) with increasing ?, with typically ?20 to 25% pores estimated accessible to entry by the enzyme from the external solution. Release kinetics of lysozyme under physiological conditions is continuous over more than two weeks and most strongly influenced by ? and protein loading before reaching a lag phase until 28 d at the study completion. Recovered enzyme after release is typically predominantly monomeric and active. Formulations containing acid-neutralizing MgCO3 at ? 4.3% exhibit >97% monomeric and active protein after the release with full mass balance recovery. Hence, control of SH polymer ? is a key parameter to development of this new class of biomaterials. PMID:24285573

Reinhold, Samuel E; Schwendeman, Steven P

2013-12-01

74

Coating and release of an anti-inflammatory hormone from PLGA microspheres for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Many biomaterials used in tissue engineering cause a foreign body response in vivo, which left untreated can severely reduce the effectiveness of tissue regeneration. In this study, an anti-inflammatory hormone ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) was physically adsorbed to the surface of biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres to reduce inflammatory responses to this material. The stability and adsorption isotherm of peptide binding were characterized. The peptide secondary structure was not perturbed by the adsorption and subsequent desorption process. The ?-MSH payload was released over 72 h and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine, Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, indicating that the biological activity of ?-MSH was preserved. ?-MSH coated PLGA microspheres also appeared to reduce the influx of inflammatory cells in a subcutaneous implantation model in rats. This study demonstrates the potential of ?-MSH coatings for anti-inflammatory delivery and this approach may be applied to other tissue engineering applications. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012. PMID:22125254

Go, Dewi P; Palmer, Jason A; Gras, Sally L; O'Connor, Andrea J

2012-02-01

75

PLGA microspheres encapsulating siRNA anti-TNFalpha: efficient RNAi-mediated treatment of arthritic joints.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate potentialities of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres for the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) to achieve prolonged and efficient inhibition of TNF-? for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PLGA microspheres were prepared by a modified multiple emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, mean diameter and siRNAs distribution, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release kinetics. The efficiency of this system was then evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using the murine monocytic cell line J774 and a pre-clinical model of RA, respectively. siRNA-encapsulating PLGA microspheres were characterized by a high encapsulation efficiency and a slow and prolonged anti-TNF-? siRNAs. Our results provide evidence that, upon intra-articular administration, PLGA microspheres slowly releasing siRNAs effectively inhibited the expression of TNF-? in arthritic joints. Our system might represent an alternative strategy for the design of novel anti-rheumatic therapies based on the use of RNA interference in RA. PMID:22922428

Présumey, J; Salzano, G; Courties, G; Shires, M; Ponchel, F; Jorgensen, C; Apparailly, F; De Rosa, G

2012-11-01

76

Multidrug release based on microneedle arrays filled with pH-responsive PLGA hollow microspheres.  

PubMed

This work presents an approach to codelivering transdermally two model drugs, Alexa 488 and Cy5, in sequence, based on a system of polyvinylpyrrolidone microneedles (PVP MNs) that contain pH-responsive poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hollow microspheres (PLGA HMs). The MN system provides the green fluorescence of Alexa 488 in PVP MNs, the red fluorescence of the DiI-labeled PLGA shell of HMs, and the cyan fluorescence of Cy5 in their aqueous core. Combined together, the prepared MN arrays support the localization of the HMs and the monitoring of the release profiles of model drugs within the skin tissues. The key component of this system is NaHCO(3), which can be easily incorporated into HMs. After HMs are treated with an acidic solution (simulating the skin pH environment), protons (H(+)) can rapidly diffuse through the free volume in the PLGA shells to react with NaHCO(3) and form a large number of CO(2) bubbles. This effect generates pressure inside the HMs and creates pores inside their PLGA shells, releasing the encapsulated Cy5. Test MNs were strong enough to be inserted into rat skin without breaking. The PVP MNs were significantly dissolved within minutes, and the first model drug Alexa 488, together with HMs, were successfully deposited into the tissues. Once in the acidic environment of the skin, the released HMs started to release Cy5 and continued to spread throughout the neighboring tissues, in a second step of the release of the drug. This approach can be used clinically to codeliver sequentially and transcutaneously a broad range of drugs. PMID:22484044

Ke, Cherng-Jyh; Lin, Yi-Jou; Hu, Yi-Chen; Chiang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Ko-Jie; Yang, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Hao-Li; Fu, Chien-Chung; Sung, Hsing-Wen

2012-07-01

77

Mapping microclimate pH distribution inside protein-encapsulated PLGA microspheres using confocal laser scanning microscopy  

PubMed Central

The pH in the aqueous pores of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) matrix, also referred to microclimate pH (?pH), is often uncontrolled ranging from highly acidic to neutral pH range. The ?pH distribution inside protein-encapsulated PLGA microspheres was quantitatively evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescent response of Lysosensor yellow/blue® dextran used to map ?pH in PLGA was influenced by the presence of encapsulated protein. The nonprotonated form of pyridyl group on the fluorescence probe at neutral pH was responsible for the interference, which was dependent on the type and concentration of protein. A method for correction of this interference based on estimating protein concentration inside the microspheres was established and validated. After correction of the influence, the ?pH distribution kinetics inside microspheres was evaluated for different PLGA 50/50 microsphere formulations under physiological conditions for 4 weeks. Generally, the ?pH acidity increased with the progression of incubation time. The co-incorporation of poorly soluble base, magnesium carbonate, in the microspheres prolonged the appearance of detectable acidity for up to 3 weeks. Co-addition of an acetate buffer was able to control the ?pH over a slightly acidic range (around pH 4.7) after two weeks incubation. Microspheres prepared from a lower polymer concentration exhibited a higher ?pH, likely owing to reduced diffusional resistance to acidic degradation products. The stability of protein was enhanced by addition of MgCO3, acetate buffer, or by reduced polymer concentration in the preparation, as evidenced by more soluble protein recovered after incubation. Hence, the ?pH imaging technique developed can be employed in the future for optimization of formulation strategies for controlling ?pH and stabilizing encapsulated proteins. PMID:22428586

Liu, Yajun; Schwendeman, Steven P.

2012-01-01

78

Mapping microclimate pH distribution inside protein-encapsulated PLGA microspheres using confocal laser scanning microscopy.  

PubMed

The pH in the aqueous pores of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) matrix, also referred to as microclimate pH (?pH), is often uncontrolled, ranging from highly acidic to neutral pH range. The ?pH distribution inside protein-encapsulated PLGA microspheres was quantitatively evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescent response of Lysosensor yellow/blue dextran used to map ?pH in PLGA was influenced by the presence of encapsulated protein. The nonprotonated form of pyridyl group on the fluorescence probe at neutral pH was responsible for the interference, which was dependent on the type and concentration of protein. A method for correction of this interference based on estimating protein concentration inside the microspheres was established and validated. After correction of the influence, the ?pH distribution kinetics inside microspheres was evaluated for different PLGA 50/50 microsphere formulations under physiological conditions for 4 weeks. Generally, the ?pH acidity increased with the progression of incubation time. The coincorporation of poorly soluble base, magnesium carbonate, in the microspheres prolonged the appearance of detectable acidity for up to 3 weeks. Co-addition of an acetate buffer was able to control the ?pH over a slightly acidic range (around pH 4.7) after two week incubation. Microspheres prepared from a lower polymer concentration exhibited a higher ?pH, likely owing to reduced diffusional resistance to acidic degradation products. The stability of protein was enhanced by addition of MgCO(3), acetate buffer, or by reduced polymer concentration in the preparation, as evidenced by more soluble protein recovered after incubation. Hence, the ?pH imaging technique developed can be employed in the future for optimization of formulation strategies for controlling ?pH and stabilizing encapsulated proteins. PMID:22428586

Liu, Yajun; Schwendeman, Steven P

2012-05-01

79

Novel preparation method for sustained-release PLGA microspheres using water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic-oil-in-water emulsion  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of drugs are needing improved formulations to optimize patient compliance because of their short half-lives in blood. Sustained-release formulations of drugs are often required for long-term efficacy, and microspheres are among the most popular ones. When drugs are encapsulated into microsphere formulations, different methods of preparation need to be used according to specific clinical requirements and the differing physicochemical characteristics of individual drugs. In this work, we developed a novel method for sustained-release drug delivery using a water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (w/o/oh/w) emulsion to encapsulate a drug into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. Different effects were achieved by varying the proportions and concentrations of hydrophilic oil and PLGA. Scanning electron and optical microscopic images showed the surfaces of the microspheres to be smooth and that their morphology was spherical. Microspheres prepared using the w/o/oh/w emulsion were able to load protein efficiently and had sustained-release properties. These results indicate that the above-mentioned method might be useful for developing sustained-release microsphere formulations in the future. PMID:23882140

Hong, Xiaoyun; Wei, Liangming; Ma, Liuqing; Chen, Yinghui; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

2013-01-01

80

Novel preparation method for sustained-release PLGA microspheres using water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic-oil-in-water emulsion.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs are needing improved formulations to optimize patient compliance because of their short half-lives in blood. Sustained-release formulations of drugs are often required for long-term efficacy, and microspheres are among the most popular ones. When drugs are encapsulated into microsphere formulations, different methods of preparation need to be used according to specific clinical requirements and the differing physicochemical characteristics of individual drugs. In this work, we developed a novel method for sustained-release drug delivery using a water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (w/o/oh/w) emulsion to encapsulate a drug into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. Different effects were achieved by varying the proportions and concentrations of hydrophilic oil and PLGA. Scanning electron and optical microscopic images showed the surfaces of the microspheres to be smooth and that their morphology was spherical. Microspheres prepared using the w/o/oh/w emulsion were able to load protein efficiently and had sustained-release properties. These results indicate that the above-mentioned method might be useful for developing sustained-release microsphere formulations in the future. PMID:23882140

Hong, Xiaoyun; Wei, Liangming; Ma, Liuqing; Chen, Yinghui; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

2013-01-01

81

Hyaluronic acid as an internal phase additive to obtain ofloxacin/PLGA microsphere by double emulsion method.  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid (HA) was used as an internal phase additive to improve the loading efficiency of ofloxacin, a hydrophilic drug encapsulated by hydrophobic polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) materials, through a double emulsion (water-in-oil-in-water) solvent extraction/evaporation method. Results from laser distribution analysis show that polyelectrolyte additives have low impact on the average particle size and distribution of the microspheres. The negatively charged HA increases the drug loading efficiency as well as the amount of HA in microspheres. Burst release can be observed in the groups with the polyelectrolyte additives. The release rate decreases with the amount of HA inside the microspheres in all negatively charged polyelectrolyte-added microsphere groups. PMID:24211960

Wu, Gang; Chen, Long; Li, Hong; Wang, Ying-jun

2014-01-01

82

Preparation and characterization of rifampicin-PLGA microspheres/sodium alginate in situ gel combination delivery system.  

PubMed

We prepared a complex drug delivery system consisted of rifampicin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres in combination with sodium alginate in situ gel. The microspheres were obtained by using a solvent evaporation method, the mean diameter was 1.748 ?m and the span of particle distribution was 0.78. The combination delivery system was obtained by adding microspheres to sodium alginate solution followed by physically mixing. In an in vitro study of drug release monitored for 11 days, the release of rifampicin from combination delivery system was slower than microspheres. The cumulative release percent of rifampicin from combination delivery system was 91.83 ± 1.26%, which was lower than 97.36 ± 3.41% of rifampicin released from microspheres. An in vivo fluorescence imaging study suggests that the gel adhered to lungs within 24h, and microspheres stayed in lungs at least for 504 h (21 days). In vivo drug release study indicates that the maximum local rifampicin concentration in lungs was 48.60 ± 15.67 ?g mL(-1) 5h after administration. After 21 days, the local rifampicin concentration was 0.81±0.14?gmL(-1), which was above the minimum inhibitory concentration of rifampicin. The combination delivery system significantly prolonged RFP release compared to microspheres, from which RFP released could only be detected for 10 days. This approach to control the release of rifampicin using PLGA microspheres/in situ gel combination delivery system in conjunction with interventional technology is useful for improving anti-tuberculosis treatment effectiveness for patients. PMID:22424828

Hu, Chunhui; Feng, Hanzhou; Zhu, Chunyan

2012-06-15

83

Release of a Wound-Healing Agent from PLGA Microspheres in a Thermosensitive Gel  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research was to develop a topical microsphere delivery system in a thermosensitive 20% poloxamer 407 gel (Pluronic F127) to control release of KSL-W, a cationic antimicrobial decapeptide, for a period of 4–7 days for potential application in combat related injuries. KSL-W loaded microsphere formulations were prepared by a solvent extraction-evaporation method (water-oil-water), with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (50?:?50, low-weight, and hydrophilic end) as the polymeric system. After optimization of the process, three formulations (A, B, and C) were prepared with different organic to water ratio of the primary emulsion while maintaining other components and manufacturing parameters constant. Formulations were characterized for surface morphology, porous nature, drug loading, in vitro drug release, and antimicrobial activity. Microspheres containing 20% peptide with porous surfaces and internal structure were prepared in satisfactory yields and in sizes varying from 25 to 50??m. Gels of 20% Pluronic F127, which were liquid at or below 24.6°C and formed transparent films at body temperature, were used as carriers for the microspheres. Rheological studies showed a gelation temperature of 24.6°C for the 20% Pluronic F127 gel alone. Gelation temperature and viscosity of formulations A, B, and C as a function of temperature were very close to those of the carrier. A Franz diffusion cell system was used to study the release of peptide from the microspheres suspended in both, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and a 20% Pluronic F127 gel. In vitro release of greater than 50% peptide was found in all formulations in both PBS and the gel, and in one formulation there was a release of 75% in both PBS and the gel. Fractions collected from the release process were also tested for bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis using the broth microdilution method and found to provide effective antimicrobial activity to warrant consideration and testing in animal wound models for treating combat-related injuries. PMID:24224161

Machado, H. A.; Abercrombie, J. J.; You, T.; DeLuca, P. P.; Leung, K. P.

2013-01-01

84

Release of a wound-healing agent from PLGA microspheres in a thermosensitive gel.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to develop a topical microsphere delivery system in a thermosensitive 20% poloxamer 407 gel (Pluronic F127) to control release of KSL-W, a cationic antimicrobial decapeptide, for a period of 4-7 days for potential application in combat related injuries. KSL-W loaded microsphere formulations were prepared by a solvent extraction-evaporation method (water-oil-water), with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (50?:?50, low-weight, and hydrophilic end) as the polymeric system. After optimization of the process, three formulations (A, B, and C) were prepared with different organic to water ratio of the primary emulsion while maintaining other components and manufacturing parameters constant. Formulations were characterized for surface morphology, porous nature, drug loading, in vitro drug release, and antimicrobial activity. Microspheres containing 20% peptide with porous surfaces and internal structure were prepared in satisfactory yields and in sizes varying from 25 to 50 ?m. Gels of 20% Pluronic F127, which were liquid at or below 24.6°C and formed transparent films at body temperature, were used as carriers for the microspheres. Rheological studies showed a gelation temperature of 24.6°C for the 20% Pluronic F127 gel alone. Gelation temperature and viscosity of formulations A, B, and C as a function of temperature were very close to those of the carrier. A Franz diffusion cell system was used to study the release of peptide from the microspheres suspended in both, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and a 20% Pluronic F127 gel. In vitro release of greater than 50% peptide was found in all formulations in both PBS and the gel, and in one formulation there was a release of 75% in both PBS and the gel. Fractions collected from the release process were also tested for bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis using the broth microdilution method and found to provide effective antimicrobial activity to warrant consideration and testing in animal wound models for treating combat-related injuries. PMID:24224161

Machado, H A; Abercrombie, J J; You, T; Deluca, P P; Leung, K P

2013-01-01

85

Tissue distribution of DNA-Hsp65/TDM-loaded PLGA microspheres and uptake by phagocytic cells  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to demonstrate that microspheres, used as delivery vehicle of DNA-Hsp65/TDM [plasmid DNA encoding heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) coencapsulated with trehalose dimycolate (TDM) into PLGA microspheres], are widely spread among several organs after intramuscular administration in BALB/c mice. In general, we showed that these particles were phagocytosed by antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. Besides, it was demonstrated herein that draining lymph node cells presented a significant increase in the number of cells expressing costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) and MHC class II, and also that the administration of the DNA-Hsp65/TDM and vector/TDM formulations resulted in the up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and MHC class II expression when compared to control formulations (vector/TDM and empty). Regarding the intracellular trafficking we observed that following phagocytosis, the microspheres were not found in the late endosomes and/or lysosomes, until 15 days after internalization, and we suggest that these constructions were hydrolysed in early compartments. Overall, these data expand our knowledge on PLGA [poly (lactic-co- glycolic acid)] microspheres as gene carriers in vaccination strategies, as well as open perspectives for their potential use in clinical practice. PMID:17880727

Trombone, Ana Paula F; Silva, Celio L; Almeida, Luciana P; Rosada, Rogerio S; Lima, Karla M; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria C; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete AM

2007-01-01

86

Preparation, Characterization, In Vitro Release and Degradation of Cathelicidin-BF-30-PLGA Microspheres  

PubMed Central

Cathelicidin-BF-30 (BF-30), a water-soluble peptide isolated from the snake venom of Bungarus fasciatus containing 30 amino acid residues, was incorporated in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) 75?25 microspheres (MS) prepared by a water in oil in water W/O/W emulsification solvent extraction method. The aim of this work was to investigate the stability of BF-30 after encapsulation. D-trehalose was used as an excipient to stabilize the peptide. The MS obtained were mostly under 2 µm in size and the encapsulation efficiency was 88.50±1.29%. The secondary structure of the peptide released in vitro was determined to be nearly the same as the native peptide using Circular Dichroism (CD). The ability of BF-30 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli was also maintained. The cellular relative growth and hemolysis rates were 92.16±3.55% and 3.52±0.45% respectively. PMID:24963652

Li, Hongli; Yuan, Mingwei; Yuan, Minglong

2014-01-01

87

Preparation, characterization, in vitro release and degradation of cathelicidin-BF-30-PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Cathelicidin-BF-30 (BF-30), a water-soluble peptide isolated from the snake venom of Bungarus fasciatus containing 30 amino acid residues, was incorporated in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) 75?25 microspheres (MS) prepared by a water in oil in water W/O/W emulsification solvent extraction method. The aim of this work was to investigate the stability of BF-30 after encapsulation. D-trehalose was used as an excipient to stabilize the peptide. The MS obtained were mostly under 2 µm in size and the encapsulation efficiency was 88.50±1.29%. The secondary structure of the peptide released in vitro was determined to be nearly the same as the native peptide using Circular Dichroism (CD). The ability of BF-30 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli was also maintained. The cellular relative growth and hemolysis rates were 92.16±3.55% and 3.52±0.45% respectively. PMID:24963652

Li, Lili; Wang, Qifeng; Li, Hongli; Yuan, Mingwei; Yuan, Minglong

2014-01-01

88

Sustained Release of TGF?3 from PLGA Microspheres and Its Effect on Early Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Despite the widespread role of transforming growth factor-?3 (TGF?3) in wound healing and tissue regeneration, its long-term controlled release has not been demonstrated. Here, we report microencapsulation of TGF?3 in poly-d-l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres and determine its bioactivity. The release profiles of PLGA-encapsulated TGF?3 with 50:50 and 75:25 PLA:PGA ratios differed throughout the experimental period. To compare sterilization modalities of microspheres, bFGF was encapsulated in 50:50 PLGA microspheres and subjected to ethylene oxide (EO) gas, radiofrequency glow discharge (RFGD), or ultraviolet (UV) light. The release of bFGF was significantly attenuated by UV light, but not significantly altered by either EO or RFGD. To verify its bioactivity, TGF?3 (1.35 ng/mL) was control-released to the culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) under induced osteogenic differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase staining intensity was markedly reduced 1 week after exposing hMSC-derived osteogenic cells to TGF?3. This was confirmed by lower alkaline phosphatase activity (2.25 ± 0.57 mU/mL/ng DNA) than controls (TGF?3-free) at 5.8 ± 0.9 mU/mL/ng DNA (p < 0.05). Control-released TGF?3 bioactivity was further confirmed by lack of significant differences in alkaline phosphatase upon direct addition of 1.35 ng/mL TGF?3 to cell culture (p > 0.05). These findings provide baseline data for potential uses of microencapsulated TGF?3 in wound healing and tissue-engineering applications. PMID:16579687

MOIOLI, EDUARDO K.; HONG, LIU; GUARDADO, JESSE; CLARK, PAUL A.; MAO, JEREMY J.

2010-01-01

89

Ultrasound-modulated shape memory and payload release effects in a biodegradable cylindrical rod made of chitosan-functionalized PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive implants and/or scaffolds integrated with multiple functionalities are of interest in the clinical settings. In this paper, chitosan (CTS) functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres containing a model payload, lysozyme (Lyz), were prepared by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion method, from which cylindrical shaped rod (5 mm in diameter) was fabricated by sintering the composite microspheres in a mold. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was then employed as a unique technique to enable shape memory and payload release effects of the three-dimensional (3-D) structure. It was found that incorporation of CTS into PLGA microspheres could regulate the transition temperature Ttrans of the microsphere from 45 to 50 °C and affect shape memory ratio of the fabricated cylindrical rod to some extent. Shape memory test and drug release assay proved that HIFU could modulate the shape recovery process and synchronize the release kinetics of the encapsulated Lyz in the rod in a switchable manner. Moreover, the two processes could be manipulated by varying the acoustic power and insonation duration. Mechanical tests of the microspheres-based rod before and after ultrasound irradiation revealed its compressive properties in the range of trabecular bone. Examination of the degradation behavior indicated that the introduction of CTS into the PLGA microspheres also alleviated acidic degradation characteristic of the PLGA-dominant cylindrical rod. With HIFU, this study thus demonstrated the desired capabilities of shape recovery and payload release effects integrated in one microspheres-based biodegradable cylindrical structure. PMID:23675980

Bao, Min; Zhou, Qihui; Dong, Wen; Lou, Xiangxin; Zhang, Yanzhong

2013-06-10

90

Sustained release of melatonin from poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres to induce osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Melatonin promotes bone formation and prevents bone degradation via receptor-dependent or receptor-independent actions. The aim of this study is to encapsulate melatonin into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (PLGA-MEL-MS) and create a melatonin sustained release system, then to evaluate its effect on the osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro. PLGA-MEL-MS were prepared by single emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the incorporation of melatonin did not disturb the conventional generation of PLGA microspheres in size and morphology. In vitro drug release assay showed that PLGA-MEL-MS exhibited a biphasic drug release pattern: a low initial burst release effect with approximately 40% drug release at the first 3 days and a relatively retarded and continuous release with about 85% drug release over the 25 days. Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that PLGA-MEL-MS had no apparent effect on proliferation of human MSCs. In an osteogenesis assay, PLGA-MEL-MS obviously enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA expression and increased ALP activity compared to that in the control group. Meanwhile, several markers of osteoblast differentiation were also significantly upregulated, including runx2, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. Furthermore, quantificational alizarin red-based assay demonstrated that PLGA-MEL-MS significantly enhanced calcium deposit of hMSCs compared to the controls. Therefore, this simple melatonin sustained release system can control released melatonin to generate a microenvironment with a relatively stable concentration of melatonin for a period of time to support osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. This suggests that this system may be used as bone growth stimulator in bone healing in vivo. PMID:22712496

Zhang, Liangming; Zhang, Jinling; Ling, You; Chen, Changhua; Liang, Anjing; Peng, Yan; Chang, Hong; Su, Peiqiang; Huang, Dongsheng

2013-01-01

91

Coencapsulation of tumor lysate and CpG-ODN in PLGA-microspheres enables successful immunotherapy of prostate carcinoma in TRAMP mice.  

PubMed

Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (MS) deliver antigens and toll like receptor (TLR) ligands to antigen presenting cells (APC) in vitro and in vivo. PLGA-MS-microencapsulated model antigens are efficiently presented on MHC class I and II molecules of dendritic cells and stimulate strong cytotoxic and T helper cell responses enabling the eradication of pre-existing model tumors. The application of tumor lysates as a source of antigen for immunotherapy has so far not been very successful also due to a lack of suitable delivery systems. In this study we used PLGA-MS with co-encapsulated tumor lysates and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) as well as microencapsulated polyI:C in order to elicit anti-tumor responses. Immunization of mice with such mixtures of MS yielded substantial cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses and interfered with tumor growth in TRAMP mice, a pre-clinical transgenic mouse model of prostate carcinoma, which has previously resisted dendritic cell-based therapy. As an important step towards clinical application of PLGA-MS, we could show that ?-irradiation of PLGA-MS sterilized the MS, without reducing their efficacy in eliciting CTL and anti-tumor responses in subcutaneous tumor grafts. Since PLGA is approved for clinical application, sterilized PLGA-MS containing tumor lysates and TLR ligands hold promise as anti-tumor vaccines against prostate carcinoma in humans. PMID:22709589

Mueller, Marc; Reichardt, Wilfried; Koerner, Julia; Groettrup, Marcus

2012-08-20

92

Exenatide-loaded PLGA microspheres with improved glycemic control: in vitro bioactivity and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles after subcutaneous administration to SD rats.  

PubMed

A subcutaneous exenatide delivery system was developed and characterized in vitro and in vivo. The results clearly showed that the exenatide loaded PLGA microspheres prepared by using a non-aqueous processing medium had low burst release and high drug encapsulation efficiency. Exenatide loaded in the microspheres preserved its bioactivity. The pharmacokinetics parameters were determined after subcutaneous administration of microspheres to SD rats. The plasma concentration of the single dose of the sustained-release microspheres attained C(max) of 108.19±14.92 ng/ml at t(max) of 1.33±0.58 h and the t(½) was 120.65±44.18 h. There was a linear correlation between the in vitro and in vivo release behavior (R²=0.888). Exenatide loaded microspheres may prove to have great potential for clinical use. PMID:23770254

Xuan, Jiming; Lin, Yaling; Huang, Jingbin; Yuan, Fei; Li, Xiaoqing; Lu, Ying; Zhang, He; Liu, Junjie; Sun, Zhiguo; Zou, Hao; Chen, Yan; Gao, Jing; Zhong, Yanqiang

2013-08-01

93

Microencapsulation of alpha-mangostin into PLGA microspheres and optimization using response surface methodology intended for pulmonary delivery.  

PubMed

Documented to exhibit cytotoxicity and poor oral bioavailability, alpha-mangostin was encapsulated into PLGA microspheres with optimization of formulation using response surface methodology. Mixed levels of four factors Face central composite design was employed to evaluate critical formulation variables. With 30 runs, optimized formula was 1% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 1:10 ratio of oil to aqueous and sonicated at 2 and 5?min time for primary and secondary emulsion, respectively. Optimized responses for encapsulation efficiency, particle size and polydispersity index were found to be 39.12?±?0.01%, 2.06?±?0.017?µm and 0.95?±?0.009, respectively, which matched values predicted by mathematical models. About 44.4% of the encapsulated alpha-mangostin was released over 4 weeks. Thermal analysis of the microspheres showed physical conversion of alpha-mangostin from crystallinity to amorphous with encapsulated one had lower in vitro cytotoxicity than free alpha-mangostin. Aerodynamic diameter (784.3?±?7.5?nm) of this alpha-mangostin microsphere suggests suitability for peripheral pulmonary delivery. PMID:23631380

Elsaid Ali, Aimen Abdo; Taher, Muhammad; Mohamed, Farahidah

2013-01-01

94

Ammonolysis-induced solvent removal: a facile approach for solidifying emulsion droplets into PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

An ammonolysis-based microencapsulation technique useful for the preparation of biodegradable microspheres was described in this study. A dispersed phase consisting of poly- d, l-lactide- co-glycolide, progesterone, and methyl chloroacetate was emulsified in an aqueous phase. Upon addition of ammonia solution, the emulsion droplets were quickly transformed into poly- d, l-lactide- co-glycolide microspheres laden with progesterone. Rapid solvent removal was accompanied by ammonolysis. The chemical reaction converted water-immiscible methyl chloroacetate to water-miscible chloroacetamide and methanol. Chloroacetamide formation was proved by (1)H NMR and ESI-MS studies. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the microspheres contained only small amounts of residual methyl chloroacetate. Incorporation efficiencies of progesterone ranged from 64.3 +/- 1.1 to 72.8 +/- 0.3%, depending upon microsphere formulations. X-ray powder diffractometry analysis substantiated that no polymorphic transition of progesterone occurred during microencapsulation. To evaluate the feasibility of this new method against the commonly used microencapsulation method, microspheres were also prepared by a typical dichloromethane-based solvent evaporation process. The important attributes of microspheres prepared from both methods were characterized for comparison. The new ammonolysis-based microencapsulation process showed interesting features distinct from those of the solvent evaporation process. The microencapsulation process reported in this study might be applicable in loading pharmaceuticals into various polymeric microspheres. PMID:18031011

Kim, Jayoung; Hong, Dasom; Chung, Younglim; Sah, Hongkee

2007-12-01

95

Immune Augmentation of Single Contact Hepatitis B Vaccine by Using PLGA Microspheres as an Adjuvant  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to replace the alum type adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine. The hepatitis B vaccine was encapsulated in poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres by solvent evaporation technique. The formulated microspheres were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size analysis, in vitro release study and in vivo immune response in male Wistar rats. The FT IR spectrum illustrates the characteristics bands of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres and hepatitis B vaccine at 1750 cm-1 and 1650 cm-1, respectively. The hepatitis B vaccine loaded poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres were able to release antigens till day 42. Significant enhancement of specific antibodies to HBsAg was produced till day 90 after a single administration of HBsAg encapsulated poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. However, the conventional alum adsorbed hepatitis B vaccine was not found to produce any significant specific antibody levels till day 90 after a single dose. The results showed that poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres show potential as an adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:20046776

Sivakumar, S. M.; Sukumaran, N.; Murugesan, R.; Shanmugarajan, T. S.; Anbu, J.; Sivakumar, L.; Anilbabu, B.; Srinivasarao, G.; Ravichandran, V.

2008-01-01

96

Controlled release of imatinib mesylate from PLGA microspheres inhibit craniopharyngioma mediated angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres loaded with imatinib mesylate has been developed as a new therapeutic strategy to prevent craniopharyngioma recurrence. Microspheres composed of different lactic/glycolic acid ratios, molecular weights and drug compositions were synthesized and loaded with imatinib mesylate by modified double-emulsion/solvent evaporation technique and subsequently characterized by particle-size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Inhibitory potential of imatinib containing microspheres on tumor neovascularization was investigated on craniopharyngioma tumor samples by rat cornea angiogenesis assay. Results showed that microspheres in different LA:GA ratios [LA:GA 50:50 (G50), 75:25 (G25), 85:15 (G15)] considerably reduced neovascularization induced by recurrent tumor samples in an in vivo angiogenesis assay (P < 0.01). Our data indicate that local delivery of imatinib mesylate to the post-surgical tumoral cavity using biodegradable microspheres may be a promising biologically selective approach to prevent the recurrence of craniopharyngiomas, via inhibition of neovascularization. PMID:23053813

Karal-Yilmaz, Oksan; Ozkan, Abdulkadir; Akgun, Emel; Kukut, Manolya; Baysal, Kemal; Avsar, Timucin; Kilic, Turker

2013-01-01

97

Doxycycline delivery from PLGA microspheres prepared by a modified solvent removal method.  

PubMed

We report on the development of a modified solvent removal method for the encapsulation of hydrophilic drugs within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Using a water/oil/oil double emulsion, hydrophilic doxycycline was encapsulated within PLGA spheres with particle diameters ranging from approximately 600?nm to 19?µm. Encapsulation efficiencies of up to 74% were achieved for theoretical loadings from 1% to 10% (w/w), with biphasic release over 85 days with nearly complete release at the end of this time course. About 1% salt was added to the formulations to examine its effects on doxycycline release; salt modulated release only by increasing the magnitude of initial release without altering kinetics. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated no characteristic differences between doxycycline-loaded and control spheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction suggest that there may be a molecular dispersion of the doxycycline within the spheres and the doxycycline may be in an amorphous state, which could explain the slow, prolonged release of the drug. PMID:22263669

Patel, Roshni S; Cho, Daniel Y; Tian, Cheng; Chang, Amy; Estrellas, Kenneth M; Lavin, Danya; Furtado, Stacia; Mathiowitz, Edith

2012-01-01

98

Methylprednisolone-loaded PLGA microspheres: a new formulation for sustained release via intra-articular administration. A comparison study with methylprednisolone acetate in rats.  

PubMed

Methylprednisolone (MP) released by poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (PLGA MS) was monitored in plasma after intra-articular (i.a.) administration into rat joint. A validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method was used to quantify the plasmatic concentrations of MP. The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters were compared to those obtained after the i.a. administration of a commercially available suspension of MP acetate (MPA). Different pharmacokinetic profiles were observed in the two formulations, and a lower peak level (C(max) = 13.7 ± 4.3 ng · mL(-1)) and AUC(0-72 h) (198 ± 45 ng · mL(-1) · h) were observed for MP-PLGA MS than MPA (C(max) = 18.4 ± 2.7 ng · mL(-1)) and AUC(0-72 h) (943 ± 249 ng · mL(-1) · h). The administration of MP-PLGA MS resulted in a rapid increase in the MP concentration at 30 min, with a t(max) at 0.8 ± 0.3 h. Instead, for the MPA suspension the t(max) was 32.0 ± 13.9 h. These differences were indirectly confirmed by the evaluation of the extra-articular effects, namely, carrageenan-induced paw edema, since MP-PLGA MS showed a lower anti-inflammatory activity than MPA. PMID:21850665

Panusa, Alessia; Selmin, Francesca; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Carini, Marina; Cilurzo, Francesco; Aldini, Giancarlo

2011-11-01

99

Retinal ganglion cells survival in a glaucoma model by GDNF/Vit E PLGA microspheres prepared according to a novel microencapsulation procedure.  

PubMed

The present experimental work describes the use of a novel protein encapsulation method to achieve protection of the biological factor during the microencapsulation procedure. With this aim, the protein is included in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres without any preliminary manipulation, in contrast to the traditional S/O/W (solid-in-oil-in-water) method where the bioactive substance is first dissolved and then freeze-dried in the presence of lyoprotectors. Furthermore, the presented technique involves the use of an oily additive, vitamin E (Vit E), useful from a technological point of view, by promoting additional protein protection and also from a pharmacological point of view, because of its antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. Application of this microencapsulation technique has been performed for GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) designed for the treatment of optic nerve degenerative diseases, such as glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness in the western world. The protein was released in vitro in its bioactive form for more than three months, demonstrated by the survival of their potential target cells (photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells (RGC)). Moreover, the intravitreal injection of GDNF/Vit E PLGA microspheres in an experimental animal model of glaucoma significantly increased RGC survival compared with GDNF, Vit E or blank microspheres (p<0.01). This effect was present for at least eleven weeks, which suggests that the formulation prepared may be clinically useful as a neuroprotective tool in the treatment of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. PMID:21704662

Checa-Casalengua, Patricia; Jiang, Caihui; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Tucker, Budd A; Molina-Martínez, Irene T; Young, Michael J; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío

2011-11-30

100

Surface characteristics of spray-dried microspheres consisting of PLGA and PVP: relating the influence of heat and humidity to the thermal characteristics of these polymers.  

PubMed

In view of the increasing interest in injectable controlled release formulations for the treatment of chronic diseases, injectable polymeric microspheres consisting of a surface layer of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and an underlying polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) layer were previously developed. The present study focuses on the influence of heat and humidity on the surface characteristics of these spray-dried PLGA/PVP microspheres. The response of the polymeric matrix to these factors will provide an insight into the expected release behavior and stability of the formulation. This should result in the development of a drug matrix with desired and tunable characteristics in terms of physicochemical stability and drug release profile, relevant in a later stage of research. Glass transition temperatures (Tgs) and miscibility behavior were analyzed by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided insight in particle morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the nanoscale topography and phase behavior of the samples. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized for surface chemical analysis and quantification respectively. It could be concluded that the surface characteristics (chemical composition, phase behavior, and topography) of spray-dried PVP/PLGA microparticles were affected by exposure to heat and humidity. When exposed to these conditions, a surface rearrangement occurs whereby an increase of PVP at the surface is observed, coupled with a decrease in PLGA. This phenomenon can be explained based upon the relative thermal characteristics and consequent molecular mobility of the two polymers. PMID:23844639

Meeus, Joke; Scurr, David J; Amssoms, Katie; Davies, Martyn C; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

2013-08-01

101

The Influence of Surfactant on PLGA Microsphere Glass Transition and Water Sorption: Remodeling the Surface Morphology to Attenuate the Burst Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  The stability of protein unloaded and loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres fabricated with surfactant\\u000a was challenged through exposure to environmental conditions of different relative humidity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or Triton X-100 was added to the primary emulsion of the double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique.\\u000a After storage at ambient humidity and 75% relative humidity, the mechanical stability of the polymer was tested

C. Bouissou; J. J. Rouse; R. Price; C. F. van der Walle

2006-01-01

102

Release of PLGA-encapsulated dexamethasone from microsphere loaded porous surfaces  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology and function of a drug eluting metallic porous surface produced by the immobilization of poly lactide-co-glycolide microspheres bearing dexamethasone onto plasma electrolytically oxidized Ti–6Al–7Nb medical alloy. Spheres of 20 ?m diameter were produced by an oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation method and thermally immobilized onto titanium discs. The scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed that the size distribution and morphology of the attached spheres had not changed significantly. The drug release profiles following degradation in phosphate buffered saline for 1000 h showed that, upon immobilisation, the spheres maintained a sustained release, with a triphasic profile similar to the non-attached system. The only significant change was an increased release rate during the first 100 h. This difference was attributed to the effect of thermal attachment of the spheres to the surface. PMID:19669866

Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Necula, B. S.; Apachitei, I.; Witkamp, G. J.; Duszczyk, J.

2009-01-01

103

Release of PLGA-encapsulated dexamethasone from microsphere loaded porous surfaces.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology and function of a drug eluting metallic porous surface produced by the immobilization of poly lactide-co-glycolide microspheres bearing dexamethasone onto plasma electrolytically oxidized Ti-6Al-7Nb medical alloy. Spheres of 20 microm diameter were produced by an oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation method and thermally immobilized onto titanium discs. The scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed that the size distribution and morphology of the attached spheres had not changed significantly. The drug release profiles following degradation in phosphate buffered saline for 1000 h showed that, upon immobilisation, the spheres maintained a sustained release, with a triphasic profile similar to the non-attached system. The only significant change was an increased release rate during the first 100 h. This difference was attributed to the effect of thermal attachment of the spheres to the surface. PMID:19669866

Dawes, G J S; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Necula, B S; Apachitei, I; Witkamp, G J; Duszczyk, J

2010-01-01

104

Bone regeneration using a microstereolithography-produced customized poly(propylene fumarate)/diethyl fumarate photopolymer 3D scaffold incorporating BMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Bony defects have been three-dimensionally (3D) created in many clinical circumstances; however, many defects cannot be reconstructed because most of the current bony substitutes cannot provide the necessary exact 3D structure. Therefore, to overcome this limitation, a 3D scaffold with embedded growth factor-delivering microspheres was developed by solid free-form fabrication (SFF) technology using computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM). In this study, BMP-2-loaded poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were incorporated into a 3D scaffold that was fabricated using a microstereolithography (MSTL) system with a suspension of microspheres and a poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF)/diethyl fumarate (DEF) photopolymer. By measuring release profiles in vitro, we verified that the fabricated microsphere-containing 3D scaffold could gradually release growth factor. The effects of BMP-2 were also assessed in vitro by observing cell differentiation using MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Finally, we confirmed that SFF scaffolds created by MSTL were superior to traditional scaffolds produced using a particulate leaching/gas foaming method. In addition, based on in vivo tests, the scaffolds that released BMP-2 promoted bone formation. Based on these results, we concluded that our 3D scaffold might be a useful tool for enhancing reconstruction quality in many complex bony defects that should be reconstructed using a customized 3D scaffold. PMID:20933279

Lee, Jin Woo; Kang, Kyung Shin; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Jun-Young; Lee, Bu-Kyu; Cho, Dong-Woo

2011-01-01

105

Chemotherapy with PLGA microspheres containing docetaxel decreases angiogenesis in human hepatoma xenograft.  

PubMed

To investigate the antiangiogenic effect of sustained-release poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres containing docetaxel (PMCD) in human hepatoma xenograft. PMCD were prepared by solvent evaporation method with an encapsulation efficiency of 98.7% and a release period of about 3 weeks in vitro. PMCD were intratumorally injected once for mice bearing a human hepatocellular carcinoma. On day 21 post-treatment, the inhibition rate of tumor growth was 72.7% in the high-dose group, indicating a significant antitumor activity. Meanwhile, excellent antiangiogenic effect was observed based on the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as well as microvessel density determination. Additionally, the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR revealed that the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) genes were down-regulated significantly. Interstitial chemotherapy using PMCD was highly effective and safe for the treatment of the human hepatoma xenograft and that decreasing angiogenesis could be one of the most important mechanisms involved in the antitumor activity. PMID:21136211

Chen, Zhi-kui; Cai, Min-xian; Yang, Jing; Lin, Li-wu; Xue, En-sheng; Huang, Jing; Wei, Hong-fen; Zhang, Xiu-juan; Ke, Li-ming

2012-03-01

106

Inhalable microspheres embedding chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles for 2-methoxyestradiol.  

PubMed

Developing a highly effective and lung-targeted local drug delivery carrier with low irritancy may be critical for improving treatment of lung cancer. Using soluble excipients as microspheres (MS) matrix, respirable MS embedding chitosan-coated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (CNP-MS) for 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) were designed, which could avoid macrophage phagocytosis to achieve the targeted delivery of these drugs. 2-ME CNP-MS were prepared by spray-drying and characterized by morphology, redispersability, fine particle fraction (FPF) and drug release. Cytotoxicity, and lung deposition and histological examination were investigated. Results showed that 2-ME CNP-MS were spherical with a rough surfaces, exhibiting good redispersability, a high respirable fraction and sustained release characteristics. CNP-MS markedly enhanced the cytotoxicity of 2-ME by approximately 8.8-fold and 3.65-fold on SPC-A1 cells compared to solution and NP, respectively. After pulmonary administration, 2-ME CNP were distributed in rat lungs and for 10?mg of 2-ME CNP-MS, haematoxylin and eosin staining showed no obvious difference compared to the untreated control group. Therefore, CNP-MS revealed suitable features for local lung delivery and significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of 2-ME without obvious inflammation in lungs of rats, suggesting that 2-ME CNP-MS have great potential as an inhalation agent for targeted, highly effective and safe treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24417740

Guo, XinHong; Zhang, XinXin; Ye, Ling; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Rui; Hao, YongWei; Zhao, YaLin; Zhang, ZhenZhong; Zhang, Yun

2014-06-01

107

rhEGF-loaded PLGA-Alginate microspheres enhance the healing of full-thickness excisional wounds in diabetised Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) represent a major clinical challenge in the ageing population. To address this problem, rhEGF-loaded Poly-Lactic-co-Glycolic-Acid (PLGA)-Alginate microspheres (MS) were prepared by a modified w/o/w-double-emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Different formulations were evaluated with the aim of optimising MSs properties by adding NaCl to the surfactant solution and/or the solvent removal phase and adding alginate as a second polymer. The characterisation of the developed MS showed that alginate incorporation increased the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and NaCl besides increasing the EE also became the particle surface smooth and regular. Once the MS were optimised, the target loading of rhEGF was increased to 1% (PLGA-Alginate MS), and particles were sterilised by gamma radiation to provide the correct dosage for in vivo studies. In vitro cell culture assays demonstrated that neither the microencapsulation nor the sterilisation process affected rhEGF bioactivity or rhEGF wound contraction. Finally, the MS were evaluated in vivo for treatment of the full-thickness wound model in diabetised Wistar rats. rhEGF MS treated animals showed a statistically significant decrease of the wound area by days 7 and 11, a complete re-epithelisation by day 11 and an earlier resolution of the inflammatory process. Overall, these findings demonstrate the promising potential of rhEGF-loaded MS (PLGA-Alginate MS) to promote faster and more effective wound healing, and suggest its possible application in DFU treatment. PMID:23872142

Gainza, Garazi; Aguirre, José Javier; Pedraz, José Luis; Hernández, Rosa María; Igartua, Manoli

2013-11-20

108

Effect of lactoferrin-impregnated porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres on osteogenic differentiation of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop lactoferrin (LF)-impregnated porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (PMs) to induce osteogenic differentiation of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs). Porous PLGA PMs were fabricated by a fluidic device and their surfaces were modified with heparin-dopamine (Hep-DOPA). Then, LF (100?g, 500?g, and 1000?g) was impregnated on the surface of heparinized PMs (Hep-PMs) via electrostatic interactions to yield LF-impregnated PMs. PMs and modified PMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Osteogenic differentiation of rADSCs on PMs and modified PMs was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and mRNA expression of osteocalcin and osteopontin. Successful immobilization of Hep-DOPA and LF on the surface of PMs was confirmed by XPS analysis. LF-impregnated PMs generated significantly greater ALP activity, calcium deposition, and mRNA expression of osteocalcin and osteopontin compared with PMs. These results suggested that LF-impregnated PMs effectively induced osteogenic differentiation of rADSCs. PMID:25096719

Kim, Sung Eun; Yun, Young-Pil; Shim, Kyu-Sik; Park, Kyeongsoon; Choi, Sung-Wook; Suh, Dong Hun

2014-10-01

109

Usnic acid-loaded biocompatible magnetic PLGA-PVA microsphere thin films fabricated by MAPLE with increased resistance to staphylococcal colonization.  

PubMed

Due to their persistence and resistance to the current therapeutic approaches, Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the hospital environment. Since (+)-usnic acid (UA), a secondary lichen metabolite, possesses antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive cocci, including S. aureus, the aim of this study was to load magnetic polylactic-co-glycolic acid-polyvinyl alcohol (PLGA-PVA) microspheres with UA, then to obtain thin coatings using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation and to quantitatively assess the capacity of the bio-nano-active modified surface to control biofilm formation by S. aureus, using a culture-based assay. The UA-loaded microspheres inhibited both the initial attachment of S. aureus to the coated surfaces, as well as the development of mature biofilms. In vitro bioevalution tests performed on the fabricated thin films revealed great biocompatibility, which may endorse them as competitive candidates for the development of improved non-toxic surfaces resistant to S. aureus colonization and as scaffolds for stem cell cultivation and tissue engineering. PMID:24722318

Grumezescu, V; Holban, A M; Grumezescu, A M; Socol, G; Ficai, A; Vasile, B S; Trusc?, R; Bleotu, C; Lazar, V; Chifiriuc, C M; Mogosanu, G D

2014-09-01

110

Relationship between the solution thermodynamic properties of naproxen in organic solvents and its release profiles from PLGA microspheres.  

PubMed

Naproxen (NPX)-loaded poly-(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The different organic solvents used significantly affects the properties of the microparticles obtained. These microparticles exhibited a controlled release profile that extends up to 15 days depending on the organic solvent used. The formulations did not exhibit zero- or first-order release kinetics and no agreement with Higuchi or Korsmeyer-Peppas models was obtained. In all cases, the dissolution profiles were fitted to the model proposed by Gallagher and Corrigan for PLGA systems. It was found that this model fully describes the dissolution processes. An interesting relationship between the NPX solubility in the organic solvents studied and some parameters obtained for the dissolution model of the microparticles prepared with the same solvents is thus obtained. Accordingly, it can be proposed that the drug solubility in organic solvents is relevant to estimate the physical characteristics of microparticles other than its dissolution profiles. PMID:23369165

Aragón, Diana Marcela; Rosas, Jaiver Eduardo; Martínez, Fleming

2013-01-01

111

Influence of PEI as a Core Modifying Agent on PLGA Microspheres of PGE1, A Pulmonary Selective Vasodilator  

PubMed Central

This study tests the hypothesis that large porous poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) are viable carriers for pulmonary delivery of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a pulmonary vascular disorder. The particles were prepared by a double-emulsion solvent evaporation method with PEI-25 kDa in the internal aqueous phase to produce an osmotic pressure gradient. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used for external coating of the particles. The particles were examined for morphology, size, aerodynamic diameter, surface area, pore volume and in-vitro release profiles. Particles with optimal properties for inhalation were tested for in-vivo pulmonary absorption, metabolic stability in rat lung homogenates, and acute toxicity in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and respiratory epithelial cells, Calu-3. The micromeritic data indicated that the PEI-modified particles of PGE1 are optimal for inhalation. Incorporation of PEI in the formulations resulted in an increased entrapment efficiency–83.26±3.04% for particles with 1% PVA and 95.48±0.46% for particles with 2% PVA. The amount of cumulative drug released into the simulated interstitial lung fluid was between 50.8±0.76% and 55.36±0.06%. A remarkable extension of the circulation half-life up to 6.0–6.5 hours was observed when the formulations were administered via the lungs. The metabolic stability and toxicity studies showed that the optimized formulations were stable at physiological conditions and relatively safe to the lungs and respiratory epithelium. Overall, this study demonstrates that large porous inhalable polymeric microparticles can be a feasible option for non-invasive and controlled release of PGE1 for treatment of PAH. PMID:21530623

Gupta, Vivek; Ahsan, Fakhrul

2011-01-01

112

Pharmacological modulation of the tissue response to implanted polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polylactide microspheres have been identified as a promising release system for the sustained delivery of protein therapeutics. We prepared microspheres (30–50 microns) from either polylactic acid monomers (PLA), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) monomers containing 12-carbon end groups (blocked PLGA, B-PLGA) or unmodified polylactic-co-glycolic acid monomers (unblocked PLGA, UB-PLGA) and injected these subcutaneously into the interscapular region of rats. Striking differences were

Ann L. Daugherty; Jeffrey L. Cleland; Eileen M. Duenas; Randall J. Mrsny

1997-01-01

113

Long acting methods of contraception.  

PubMed

Long acting methods of contraception have been developed and refined over the last 10 years. From the classical long acting progestogen-only depot preparations we now have a range of delivery systems including both combined and progestogen only injection systems and vaginal rings also containing either progestogen only or oestrogen and progestogen in combination. Subcutaneous implants at present containing only a progestogen, offer a range of durations from 2-5 years. The efficacy of these methods is high, with failure rates as low as 0.1 per 100 woman years. However, with progestogen only systems a significant proportion of women develop unpredictable menstrual bleeding, which with counselling is acceptable. The commonest reason for discontinuation still remains menstrual disorders and recent WHO workshops have investigated the cause of this bleeding and refined the reference periods of analysis. The method of action of progestogen-only systems is primarily cervical mucus blockade and prevention of sperm penetration. However, they also tend to produce a thinned atrophic endometrium. Ovarian effects ranging from complete anovulation to disordered luteal phase, persistent follicles and disorganised hormone production add to the contraceptive effect in more than half of the treatment cycles, but cause some of the menstrual disturbance. All these long acting methods are essential to family planning programmes, offering highly acceptable, and in some cases novel methods with high efficacy. PMID:8324615

Newton, J

1993-01-01

114

Formulation and in vitro characterization of inhalable polyvinyl alcohol-free rifampicin-loaded PLGA microspheres prepared with sucrose palmitate as stabilizer: efficiency for ex vivo alveolar macrophage targeting.  

PubMed

In this work a new formulation of inhalable rifampicin-loaded PLGA microspheres (RIF-MS) is proposed for the management of tuberculosis treatment. For their formulation, the non-biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol surfactant was replaced with a biodegradable and biocompatible sucrose ester, sucrose palmitate. The effects of critical process and formulation parameters have been investigated and the obtained microspheres were characterized in terms of size, morphology, encapsulation efficiencies and RIF release profile. The optimized RIF-MS showed high drug loading (34.2%, w/w), an aerodynamic diameter compliant with deep lung delivery and an in vitro gradual and almost complete drug release over a week. The drug release data fitted well to the Higuchi models suggesting a drug release governed by Fickian diffusion. The RIF-MS uptake qualitative and quantitative studies on ex vivo rat alveolar macrophages (AM) revealed an efficient internalization of RIF-MS and their location in the perinuclear area. RIF intracellular levels were 7-fold higher in AM incubated with RIF-MS than with an equivalent amount of free RIF. PMID:22846409

Diab, R; Brillault, J; Bardy, A; Gontijo, A V L; Olivier, J C

2012-10-15

115

Determinants of Release Rate of Tetanus Vaccine from Polyester Microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled-release formulations based on poly(lactic) (PLA) and poly(lactic\\/glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres containing tetanus vaccine were designed. The polymers forming the microspheres were L-PLA of different molecular weights and DL-PLGA, 50:50. These microspheres were prepared by two solvent elimination procedures, both using a double emulsion, and were characterized for size, morphology, and toxoid release kinetics. The influence of formulation variables such

Maria J. Alonso; Smadar Cohen; Tae G. Park; Rajesh K. Gupta; George R. Siber; Robert Langer

1993-01-01

116

Bone regeneration using a microstereolithography-produced customized poly(propylene fumarate)\\/diethyl fumarate photopolymer 3D scaffold incorporating BMP2 loaded PLGA microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bony defects have been three-dimensionally (3D) created in many clinical circumstances; however, many defects cannot be reconstructed because most of the current bony substitutes cannot provide the necessary exact 3D structure. Therefore, to overcome this limitation, a 3D scaffold with embedded growth factor-delivering microspheres was developed by solid free-form fabrication (SFF) technology using computer-aided design\\/manufacturing (CAD\\/CAM). In this study, BMP-2-loaded

Jin Woo Lee; Kyung Shin Kang; Seung Ho Lee; Jun-Young Kim; Bu-Kyu Lee; Dong-Woo Cho

117

Long-acting local anesthetics in dentistry.  

PubMed Central

Long-acting local anesthetics have proved to be effective for the suppression of both intraoperative and postoperative pain. They are useful for lengthy dental treatments and for prevention of severe pain following many types of surgical procedures. Although the currently available long-acting local anesthetics for dentistry have minimal side effects in the doses usually employed, there are potential problems. Bupivacaine, for example, can cause significant cardiac depressant and dysrhythmogenic responses. Etidocaine has less pronounced effects on the cardiovascular system, but its use may be associated with inadequate control of intraoperative bleeding. A new long-acting local anesthetic, ropivacaine, appears to offer advantages over either of the currently used long-acting agents. PMID:1308373

Sisk, A. L.

1992-01-01

118

Encapsulation of plasmid DNA in biodegradable poly( d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres as a novel approach for immunogene delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plasmid DNA encoding bacterial ?-galactosidase gene was encapsulated in poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. Plasmid DNA extracted from PLGA microspheres retained both structural and functional integrity as evidenced by its restriction endonuclease digestion pattern and its ability to transfect COS-1 cells in vitro. PLGA microspheres protected plasmid DNA from digestion by deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) in vitro. The encapsulation efficiency

Daqing Wang; Deborah R. Robinson; Glen S. Kwon; John Samuel

1999-01-01

119

Race and Long Acting Antipsychotic Prescription at a Community Mental Health Center: A Retrospective Chart Review  

PubMed Central

Objective There has been concern that racial minorities are disproportionately prescribed Long Acting Injectable (LAI) antipsychotic drugs. Method Comprehensive administrative data and clinician survey were used to identify all patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who received long acting antipsychotic prescriptions from July 2009 to June 2010 at a community mental health center. Charts were reviewed retrospectively to validate long acting antipsychotic prescription (i.e. medication, dosage, etc.) and merged with administrative data from all center patients documenting socio-demographic characteristics (i.e. age, race, gender), and co-morbid diagnoses. The subsample of LAI patients was compared to non-LAI patients diagnosed with schizophrenia for the same period using bivariate chi square, t-tests, and multivariate logistic regression. Results White patients were significantly less likely to receive long acting antipsychotic prescriptions than minority patients (OR=.52, p<.0001), i.e. non-whites were 1.89 times more likely to receive such drugs. Age, gender, and co-morbid diagnoses, including substance abuse, were unrelated to LAI prescription and race/ethnicity was not associated with use of specific agents (haloperidol decanoate, fluphenazine decanoate, or risperidone microspheres) (p=.73). Conclusion Minorities are more likely than other patients with schizophrenia to receive long acting injection antipsychotics, suggesting that their prescribers may consider them less adherent to antipsychotic prescriptions. Other reasons such as increased risk for violence are also discussed. PMID:22579151

Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Rosenheck, Robert A.; Woods, Scott W.; Sernyak, Michael J.

2013-01-01

120

Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Antipsychotic drugs have been used to treat patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are useful for improving medication compliance with a better therapeutic option to treat patients who lack insight or adhere poorly to oral medication. Several long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are clinically available. Haloperidol decanoate and fluphenazine decanoate are first-generation depot drugs, but the use of these medicines has declined since the advent of second-generation depot agents, such as long-acting risperidone, paliperidone palmitate, and olanzapine pamoate. The second-generation depot drugs are better tolerated and have fewer adverse neurological side effects. Long-acting injectable risperidone, the first depot formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug, was prepared by encapsulating risperidone into biodegradable microspheres. Paliperidone palmitate is an aqueous suspension of nanocrystal molecules, and olanzapine pamoate is a microcrystalline salt of olanzapine and pamoic acid suspended in aqueous solution. This review summarizes the characteristics and recent research of formulations of each long-acting injectable antipsychotic drug. PMID:23543652

Park, Eun Ji; Amatya, Sarmila; Kim, Myung Sun; Park, Jong Hoon; Seol, Eunyoung; Lee, Heeyong; Shin, Young-Hee; Na, Dong Hee

2013-06-01

121

Release optimization of epidermal growth factor from PLGA microparticles.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to prepare poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based microparticles as potential carriers for recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF). In order to optimize characteristic parameters of protein-loaded microspheres, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was selected as the model protein. To reduce burst release as a common problem of microspheres, a proper alteration in the particle composition was used, such as addition of poly vinyl alcohol and changes in initial drug loading. The effects of these parameters on particle size, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release kinetics of BSA in PLGA microspheres were investigated using a Box-Behnken response surface methodology. The biological activity of the released rhEGF was assessed using human skin fibroblasts cell proliferation assay. The prepared rhEGF-loaded microspheres had an average size of 6.44 ± 2.45 µm, encapsulation efficiency of 97.04 ± 1.13%, burst release of 13.06 ± 1.35% and cumulative release of 22.56 ± 2.41%. The proliferation of human skin fibroblast cells cultivated with rhEGF releasate of microspheres was similar to that of pure rhEGF, indicating the biological activity of released protein confirming the stability of rhEGF during microsphere preparation. These results are in agreement with the purpose of our study to prepare rhEGF-entrapped PLGA microparticles with optimized characteristics. PMID:23777385

Mirdailami, Omolbanin; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Soleimani, Masoud; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh

2014-08-01

122

Poly(L-glutamic acid)/chitosan polyelectrolyte complex porous microspheres as cell microcarriers for cartilage regeneration.  

PubMed

In this study a novel kind of porous poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLGA)/chitosan polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) microsphere was developed through electrostatic interaction between PLGA and chitosan. By adjusting the formula parameters chitosan microspheres with an average pore size of 47.5 ± 5.4 ?m were first developed at a concentration of 2 wt.% and freeze temperature of -20 °C. For self-assembly of the PEC microspheres porous chitosan microspheres were then incubated in PLGA solution at 37 °C. Due to electrostatic interaction a large amount of PLGA (110.3 ?g mg(-1)) was homogeneously absorbed within the chitosan microspheres. The developed PEC microspheres retained their original size, pore diameters and interconnected porous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and zeta potential analysis revealed that the PEC microspheres were successfully prepared through electrostatic interaction. Compared with microspheres fabricated from chitosan, the porous PEC microspheres were shown to efficiently promote chondrocyte attachment and proliferation. After injection subcutaneously for 8 weeks PEC microspheres loaded with chondrocytes were found to produce significant more cartilaginous matrix than chitosan microspheres. These results indicate that these novel fabricated porous PLGA/chitosan PEC microspheres could be used as injectable cell carriers for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:24025620

Fang, Jianjun; Zhang, Yun; Yan, Shifeng; Liu, Zhiwen; He, Shiming; Cui, Lei; Yin, Jingbo

2014-01-01

123

Synthesis of uniform poly(d,l-lactide) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres using a microfluidic chip for comparison.  

PubMed

Applications of poly(l-lactide) (PLA) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres are widely used in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. The effects of PLA/PLGA on microsphere properties when using conventional particulate preparation methods are not easily defined due to the uncontrollable particle size and size distribution. This study was aimed to synthesize uniform PLA and PLGA microspheres using a phenol formaldehyde resin-based microfluidic chip, which has the advantage of being solvent-resistant, flexible, and is readily disassembled for cleaning. The proposed chip can rapidly fabricate reproducible PLA and PLGA microspheres. Uniform emulsion droplets can be achieved by hydrodynamic flow focusing. After solvent evaporation, the free-flowing PLA and PLGA microspheres have a high level of morphological uniformity and size, allowing for a clear comparison of material effects. The results indicate that the sizes of the PLA and PLGA microspheres for the various flow rates of dispersed/continuous phases are very similar. The PLA/PLGA materials do not have a significant effect on particle size, but the particle surface indicates a different morphology. The result of the cytotoxicity evaluation shows no difference between PLA and PLGA and ensures the biocompatibility of both prepared PLA and PLGA microspheres for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications in the future. PMID:23857679

Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Wang, Chih-Yu; Tzeng, Shian-Chiuan; Chen, Szu-Yu; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Yung-Sheng

2014-02-01

124

Investigation on structural integrity of PLGA during ammonolysis-based microencapsulation process.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to gain insights into the structural integrity of PLGA during an ammonolysis-based microencapsulation process. PLGA (lactide:glycolide ratio=75:25; M(w)=25,925 g/mol) was dissolved in ethyl acetate or isopropyl formate (3-6 ml), which was emulsified in an aqueous phase. Ammonia, being added to the emulsions, reacted with the dispersed solvents to yield water-miscible solvents. Consequently, emulsion droplets were solidified into microspheres. To evaluate the impact of ammonia upon PLGA, the molar ratio of ammonia to a dispersed solvent varied from 1 to 2 and 3. After preparation of microspheres by the ammonolysis-based procedure, the lactide:glycolide composition and Mw of PLGA were analyzed by (1)H NMR and GPC. Our results demonstrated that ammonia did indeed catalyze the cleavage of PLGA ester bonds during microencapsulation. Strikingly, PLGA degradation was affected by solvent type and volume, as well as ammonia concentration. For instance, when 6 ml of ethyl acetate was used and the molar ratio of ammonia to the solvent was 3, the glycolide content and M(w) of the microspheres considerably decreased to 17.56% and 10,814 g/mol, respectively. There were little changes in these terms, however, when microspheres were prepared using 3 ml of isopropyl formate and an equimolar amount of ammonia. Depending upon microencapsulation conditions, progesterone encapsulation efficiency ranged from 71.6 to 98.8%. Also, its release behavior was significantly influenced by ammonolysis-related process parameters. Our study demonstrated that all these contrasting results arose from differences in solvent reactivity toward ammonolysis, the rate of microsphere solidification, and the availability of ammonia to PLGA ester linkages. PMID:21839820

Heo, Sunju; Lee, Minjung; Lee, Sunhwa; Sah, Hongkee

2011-10-31

125

Development of a 5-fluorouracil-loaded PLGA microsphere delivery system by a solid-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil (S/O/hO) novel method for the treatment of tumors.  

PubMed

Tumor treatment requires a long-term regimen of chemotherapy, and both surgical tumor resection and radiation therapy are also used. The present study aimed to develop a novel method for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-loaded microspheres which enhance the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy, the quality of life of patients and reduce chemotherapy systemic side-effects. The preparation of a 5-FU microsphere delivery system by a solid-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil (S/O/hO) novel method was carried out and then in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the 5-FU-microsphere delivery system was conducted. The 5-FU microsphere delivery system prepared had sustained-release function and achieved local treatment efficacy for tumors. The encapsulation efficiency of the 5-FU microsphere delivery system was >90% [better than the fabrication method using water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W)]. The drug release profile from the 5-FU-loaded sustained-release microsphere delivery system matched the pseudo zero-order equation for 30 days in vitro. The plasma concentration of 5-FU was higher than the water solution by subcutaneous injection. The tumor growth rate of rabbits using the 5-FU microsphere delivery system was much lower than the rate in rabbit using a subcutaneous injection of 5-FU water solution. The 5-FU-loaded sustained-release microspheres using the novel method (S/O/hO) is a potential and effective method with which to inhibit tumor growth. PMID:25231485

Lin, Qing; Cai, Yunpeng; Yuan, Minglu; Ma, Lin; Qiu, Mingfeng; Su, Jing

2014-12-01

126

Development and characterization of GRGDSPC-modified poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) porous microspheres incorporated with protein-loaded chitosan microspheres for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Scaffolds that can achieve cell adhesion and controlled release of protein drugs are very promising in bone tissue engineering. Due to their biocompatibility and injectablity, poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) porous microspheres (PLGA-pMS) present potential scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. However, their application is hampered by the burst release of protein drugs and hydrophobicity that leads to poor cell adhesion. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed novel PLGA-pMS by incorporating bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded chitosan microspheres (CS-MS) in Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro-Cys (GRGDSPC) modified PLGA-pMS (CS-MS/PLGA-pMS). GRGDSPC was used to enhance the hydrophilicity and cell affinity of the porous microspheres. Results showed that PLGA-pMS had a size of 446.77±19.46?m, with an average surface pore size of 21.56±3.02?m, whereas CS-MS had a size of 15.98±0.96?m and 16.35±0.38?m (5% and 10% TPP-prepared CS-MS, respectively). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) revealed that CS-MS were partly embedded in the PLGA matrices and the integrity of CS-MS was retained. Thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA) also demonstrated that CS-MS were incorporated into PLGA-pMS. The CS-MS/PLGA-pMS had a size of 454.02±16.09?m, with a BSA encapsulation efficiency of 53.19±1.67% and 62.16±3.44% (5% and 10% TPP-prepared CS-MS, respectively). CS-MS/PLGA-pMS exhibited a sustained FITC-BSA release for 28 days. Modification of GRGDSPC significantly improved adhesion of MG-63 cells on the porous microspheres. In conclusion, CS-MS/PLGA-pMS may act as potential bifunctional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25074502

Tao, Chun; Huang, Jingbin; Lu, Ying; Zou, Hao; He, Xinyi; Chen, Yan; Zhong, Yanqiang

2014-10-01

127

Subcritical CO2 sintering of microspheres of different polymeric materials to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use CO2 at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Porous scaffolds composed of ~200 ?m microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO2 sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6 weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO2-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO2 sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. PMID:24094202

Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Scurto, Aaron M; Detamore, Michael S

2013-12-01

128

Healing kinetics of microneedle-formed pores in PLGA films.  

PubMed

The spontaneous healing of aqueous pores in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) drug delivery systems has been identified to play a key role in terminating the burst release of large molecules, and to provide a means for novel aqueous-based microencapsulation. To examine healing of PLGA, pores were created of defined size and depth on the surface of thin PLGA films by stamping with blunt-tip microneedles. Pore dimensions on the micron-scale were relevant to surface pores of common PLGA microspheres and could be easily monitored by light microscopy. Most pores healed reproducibly at temperatures above the glass-transition temperature (T(g)) of the films, with healing times decreasing sharply with increasing temperature according to Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) behavior. It is suggested that healing is driven by high surface tension in the films and occurs through viscoelastic creep. Hydrated films healed at lower temperatures than dry films, consistent with a drop in Tg upon polymer hydration. Larger pores took longer to heal than smaller ones, while pores larger than 20 ?m did not heal before significant polymer degradation occurred. Films of a less hydrophobic PLGA showed slower healing kinetics, attributed to a weaker surface tension driving force. Deeper pores showed signs of in-plane stress from spin-coating, and either ruptured or only partially healed when incubated wet and dry, respectively. PMID:23831588

Mazzara, J M; Balagna, M A; Thouless, M D; Schwendeman, S P

2013-10-28

129

Osteogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation of rBMSCs on Microsphere-Based Scaffolds Sintered Using Subcritical CO2  

E-print Network

of the culture period. The onset of PLGA degradation for the CO2 sintered microspheres in this study appeared at 1.5 weeks which affected chondrogenesis. With osteogenesis, the Osteogenic PLGA group showed greater calcium content value over the Osteogenic PCL...

Bhamidipati, Manjari

2011-12-31

130

Drug-loaded biodegradable microspheres for image-guided combinatory epigenetic therapy in cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesize drug-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for image-guided combinatory epigenetic therapy in MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells. LY294002 and Nile Red are encapsulated in microspheres for sustained drug release and fluorescence microscopic imaging. Drug-loaded microspheres target MCF-10A cells through a three-step binding process involving biotinylated antibody, streptavidin, and biotinylated microspheres. LY294002 loaded microspheres and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine are applied to MCF-10A cells for combinatory PI3K/AKT inhibition and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) demethylation. Our study implies the technical potential of disease targeting and image-guided combinatory epigenetic therapy using drug-loaded multifunctional biodegradable PLGA microspheres.

Xu, Ronald X.; Xu, Jeff S.; Zuo, Tao; Shen, Rulong; Huang, Tim H.; Tweedle, Michael F.

2011-02-01

131

In vitro and in vivo characterization of biodegradable enoxacin microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro release and plasma concentration profiles of sustained release enoxacin microspheres intended for the treatment of bone and systemic infections due to sensitive strains of bacteria were investigated. Microspheres of enoxacin were prepared by using poly(glycolic acid-co-dl-lactic acid) (PLGA) by the emulsion solvent evaporation technique and characterized by in vitro release in an incubator, and in vivo release

Michael Abazinge; Tanise Jackson; Qing Yang; Godfried Owusu-Ababio

2000-01-01

132

Dose–response for glycaemic and metabolic changes 28 days after single injection of long-acting release exenatide in diabetic fatty Zucker rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Exenatide (exendin-4) injected subcutaneously twice daily reduces glycaemic deterioration in diabetic fatty Zucker (ZDF) rats and reduces HbA1c in humans with type 2 diabetes. Because tachyphylaxis may develop with continuous peptide exposure, we examined the activity of a long-acting-release (LAR) formulation of exenatide on HbA1c, insulin sensitivity and beta cell secretion in ZDF rats.Methods  Single subcutaneous injections of a poly-lactide-glycolide microsphere

B. R. Gedulin; P. Smith; K. S. Prickett; M. Tryon; S. Barnhill; J. Reynolds; L. L. Nielsen; D. G. Parkes; A. A. Young

2005-01-01

133

Novel polymeric microspheres containing norcantharidin for chemoembolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoembolization has been found to be a potentially effective method of treating certain types of cancer. It involves arterial embolization of a tumor, in combination with simultaneous or subsequent local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, PLGA-alginate microspheres were evaluated for their potential application in chemoembolization. Norcantharidin, which possesses anti-tumor properties, was used to investigate the application of drug-containing

Xiaohua Liu; Wan Sia Heng; Qi Li; Lai Wah Chan

2006-01-01

134

Tricyclic antidepressants as long-acting local anesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, doxepin, desipramine, protriptyline, trimipramine, and maprotiline are tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) used orally in treating major depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that amitriptyline is more potent in blocking the sciatic nerve functions in vivo by local injection than bupivacaine, a long-acting local anesthetic. We therefore tested whether various TCAs could likewise act as local anesthetics in vivo after

Yukari Sudoh; Elaine Elliott Cahoon; Peter Gerner; Ging Kuo Wang

2003-01-01

135

Ovalbumin peptide encapsulated in Poly( d, l lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres is capable of inducing a T helper type 1 immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ovalbumin (OVA) peptide, consisting of residues 323–339, was incorporated into poly(d,l lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and administered to mice. It was hypothesized that microencapsulation of the peptide in PLGA microspheres would avoid the need for traditional adjuvants and bias the immune response towards a type 1 T helper (Th1) response. An immunomodulator, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), was incorporated into

K. D Newman; J Samuel; G Kwon

1998-01-01

136

Three-dimensional study of poly(lactic co-glycolic acid) micro-porous microspheres using hard X-ray nano-tomography.  

PubMed

Poly(lactic co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is widely used in diverse fields, especially in delivering biologically active proteins and drugs. For these applications, the knowledge of morphology and microstructure of PLGA micro-porous microspheres is of great importance since they strongly influence the drug delivering efficiency. In this study, micro-porous PLGA microspheres loaded by bovine serum albumin are investigated by using a full-field Zernike phase contrast transmission hard X-ray microscope. From three-dimensional reconstructions and segmentations, fundamental microstructural parameters such as size, shape, distribution and volume ratio among pores and proteins inside PLGA microspheres were obtained. These parameters are useful to understand the relationship between the internal microstructure and drug encapsulation, as well as the drug release efficiency of PLGA microspheres. The presented results demonstrate the capability of hard X-ray nano-tomography to characterize porous microspheres loaded with proteins and drugs, and also open a way to analyse, optimize and design new PLGA microspheres for specific applications. PMID:25178009

Wang, Dajiang; Li, Na; Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Yongming; Luo, Yuyan; Wang, Shengxiang; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wu, Ziyu

2014-09-01

137

Application of open porous poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres and the strategy of hydrophobic seeding in hepatic tissue cultivation.  

PubMed

In this article, porous poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere scaffolds with a size of ? 400 ?m and pores of ? 20 ?m were prepared for constructing injectable three-dimensional hepatocyte spheroids. The porous sites of PLGA microspheres provided a spatial space for hepatocyte distribution. Hepatocytes spheroids were cocultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cell, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell, or NIH/3T3 cells by combining the porous PLGA microspheres with the relatively hydrophobic culture strategy. The combination of open porous microspheres, hepatocytes, and nonparenchymal cells was demonstrated for application in functional hepatic tissue reconstruction. Hepatocellular-specific functions can sustained up to 2 weeks in the support of coculturing with nonparenchymal cells. The spheroidal hepatocyte coculture system had the advantages of an injectable delivery, higher cell seeding density, protection from exerted shear stress, better exchange of nutrients, oxygen and metabolites, and heterotypic cell-cell contact within and between microspheres. PMID:23505008

Chou, Ming-Ju; Hsieh, Chin-Hsiung; Yeh, Peng-Lin; Chen, Po-Cheng; Wang, Ching-Hua; Huang, Yi-You

2013-10-01

138

Novel long-acting bronchodilators for COPD and asthma  

PubMed Central

An important step in simplifying asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management and improving adherence with prescribed therapy is to reduce the dose frequency to the minimum necessary to maintain disease control. Therefore, the incorporation of once-daily dose administration is an important strategy to improve adherence and is a regimen preferred by most patients, which may also lead to enhancement of compliance, and may have advantages leading to improved overall clinical outcomes. Once-daily ?2-agonists or ultra long-acting ?2-agonists (LABAs) such as carmoterol, indacaterol, GSK-159797, GSK-597901, GSK-159802, GSK-642444 and GSK-678007 are under development for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Also some new long-acting antimuscarinic agents (LAMAs) such as aclidinium, LAS-35201, GSK656398, GSK233705, NVA-237 (glycopyrrolate) and OrM3 are under development. In any case, the current opinion is that it will be advantageous to develop inhalers containing combination of several classes of long-acting bronchodilator drugs in an attempt to simplify treatment regimens as much as possible. Consequently, several options for once-daily dual-action ultra LABA+LAMA combination products are currently being evaluated. A different approach is to have a dimer molecule in which both pharmacologies are present (these molecules are known as M3 antagonist-?2 agonist (MABA) bronchodilators). The advent of a successful MABA product will revolutionize the field and open the door for a new range of combination products. PMID:18604231

Cazzola, M; Matera, M G

2008-01-01

139

Patient and Health Care Provider Perspectives on Long Acting Injectable Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia and the Introduction of Olanzapine Long-Acting Injection  

PubMed Central

Olanzapine long acting injection has joined risperidone and paliperidone as the second generation long acting antipsychotic injection options for treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Long acting injections are important alternatives to oral medications for patients who have difficulty adhering to daily or multiple daily medication administrations, yet may be underutilized or not well understood. Patient perceptions, adherence, and preferences are important issues for health care providers to address when discussing treatment options with their patients. Reviewed here are overall patient and health care provider attitudes and perceptions regarding long acting injections and the details of olanzapine long acting injectable, the newest agent, and how it will fit in the marketplace. In addition, efficacy, safety, dosing and use data regarding this newest long acting agent are reviewed and compared to other available long acting agents. PMID:23293546

Wehring, Heidi J.; Thedford, Sheryl; Koola, Maju; Kelly, Deanna L.

2011-01-01

140

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/titania composite microsphere-sintered scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize novel three-dimensional porous scaffolds made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/nano-TiO(2)-particle composite microspheres for potential bone repair applications. The introduction of TiO(2) component has been proven capable of largely enhancing mechanical properties of PLGA/TiO(2) microsphere-sintered scaffold ("PLGA/TiO(2)-SMS"). In addition, composite nano-TiO(2) additives are capable of inducing an increased arrest of adhesive proteins from the environment, which benefits cell attachment onto the scaffolds. Osteoblast proliferation and maturation were evaluated by MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bony calcification assay. The results indicate that osteoblasts cultured on the composite scaffolds with different TiO(2) content (0, 0.1, and 0.3 g/1 g PLGA) display increased cell proliferation compared with pure PLGA scaffold. When cultured on composite scaffolds, osteoblasts also exhibit significantly enhanced ALP activity and higher calcium secretion, with respect to those on the pure PLGA scaffolds. Taken together, PLGA/TiO(2)-SMSs deserve attention utilizing for potential bone-repairing therapeutics. PMID:20091906

Wang, Yingjun; Shi, Xuetao; Ren, Li; Yao, Yongchang; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong-An

2010-04-01

141

The microclimate pH in poly(D,L-lactide-co-hydroxymethyl glycolide) microspheres during biodegradation  

PubMed Central

The microclimate pH (µpH) in biodegradable polymers, such as poly(D,L-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50, commonly falls to deleterious acidic levels during biodegradation, resulting in instability of encapsulated acid-labile molecules. The µpH distribution in microspheres of a more hydrophilic polyester, poly(D,L-lactide-co-hydroxymethyl glycolide) (PLHMGA), was measured and compared to that in PLGA 50/50 of similar molecular weight and degradation time scales. pH mapping in the polymers was performed after incubation under physiological conditions by using a previously validated ratiometric confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) method. Confocal µpH maps revealed that PLHMGA microspheres, regardless of copolymer composition, developed a far less acidic µpH during 4 weeks of incubation compared with microspheres from PLGA. A pH-independent fluorescent probe marker of polymer matrix diffusion of µpH-controlling water-soluble acid degradation products, bodipy, was observed by CLSM to diffuse ~3–7 fold more rapidly in PLHMGA compared to PLGA microspheres, consistent with much more rapid release of acids observed from the hydrophilic polymer during bioerosion. Hence, PLHMGA microspheres are less susceptible to acidification during degradation as compared to similar PLGA formulations, and therefore, PLHMGA may be more suitable to deliver acid labile molecules such as proteins. PMID:22819499

Liu, Yajun; Ghassemi, Amir H.; Hennink, Wim E.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

2012-01-01

142

Long-acting Injectable Antipsychotics in First-episode Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Antipsychotic medications are important for the successful management of schizophrenia. Continuous treatment with medication is superior in relapse prevention and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) that can guarantee adherence to a treatment regimen could be a useful treatment option. With the introduction of second-generation atypical antipsychotics-long acting injection (SGA-LAI), the risks for extrapyramidal adverse events are decreased. The indications for SGA-LAI have been extended from chronic, stabilized patients to acute psychotic patients. Some studies investigated the use of LAI in first-episode schizophrenia patients and raised the possibility of prescribing LAI as a treatment option. However, there is still limited research using LAI in first-episode schizophrenia. More well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials using SGA-LAIs in first episode schizophrenia are needed. Additionally, studies on side effects of SGA-LAI in long-term use are required prior to recommending LAI for patients with first episode schizophrenia. PMID:23678347

Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Lee, Moon-Soo

2013-04-01

143

Controlled Delivery Systems for Proteins Based on Poly(Lactic\\/Glycolic Acid) Microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of the use of poly(lactic\\/glycolic acid) polymers for long-term delivery of high molecular weight, water-soluble proteins. Poly(lactic\\/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres, containing (fluorescein isothiocyanate)-labeled bovine serum albumin and (fluorescein isothiocyanate)-labeled horseradish peroxidase, were prepared by a modified solvent evaporation method using a double emulsion. The microspheres were spherical with diameters of 55–95 µm and encapsulated more

Smadar Cohen; Toshio Yoshioka; Melissa Lucarelli; Lena H. Hwang; Robert Langer

1991-01-01

144

Dissolution, Stability, and Morphological Properties of Conventional and Multiphase Poly(DL-Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Microspheres Containing Water-Soluble Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiphase microspheres of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) containing water-soluble compounds were prepared by a multiple-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. These compounds were dissolved in the aqueous phase of a W\\/O emulsion with soybean oil as the oil phase. This emulsion was dispersed throughout the matrix of the microsphere. The morphological properties of the multiphase microspheres during in vitro dissolution studies were compared

Motokazu Iwata; James W. McGinity

1993-01-01

145

Physicochemical principles of application of long-acting corrosion inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

Because of the exhaustion of inhibitors in service, makeup inhibitor must be added periodically to the system. In order to maintain the inhibitor concentration in the required range for an extended period with allowance for exhaustion of the inhibitor, proposals have been advanced for the use of corrosion inhibitors in an immobilized state, giving an extended, slow supply of the active substance to the system being protected. The authors have formulated long-acting preparations consisting of the corrosion inhibitors GRM, IKB-2-2, and MSDA, immobilized on polymeric supports. The results from the studies confirm the feasibility and desirability of using preparations with gradual release of corrosion inhibitor under conditions of inhibitor exhaustion and periodic renewal of the dispersion medium.

Al'tshuler, M.A.; Apostalyuk, Z.S.; Deryagin, B.V.

1986-09-01

146

Process and formulation variables in the preparation of injectable and biodegradable magnetic microspheres  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to prepare biodegradable sustained release magnetite microspheres sized between 1 to 2 ?m. The microspheres with or without magnetic materials were prepared by a W/O/W double emulsion solvent evaporation technique using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as the biodegradable matrix forming polymer. Effects of manufacturing and formulation variables on particle size were investigated with non-magnetic microspheres. Microsphere size could be controlled by modification of homogenization speed, PLGA concentration in the oil phase, oil phase volume, solvent composition, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration in the outer water phase. Most influential were the agitation velocity and all parameters that influence the kinematic viscosity of oil and outer water phase, specifically the type and concentration of the oil phase. The magnetic component yielding homogeneous magnetic microspheres consisted of magnetite nanoparticles of 8 nm diameter stabilized with a polyethylene glycole/polyacrylic acid (PEG/PAA) coating and a saturation magnetization of 47.8 emu/g. Non-magnetic and magnetic microspheres had very similar size, morphology, and size distribution, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. The optimized conditions yielded microspheres with 13.7 weight% of magnetite and an average diameter of 1.37 ?m. Such biodegradable magnetic microspheres seem appropriate for vascular administration followed by magnetic drug targeting. PMID:17407608

Zhao, Hong; Gagnon, Jeffrey; Hafeli, Urs O

2007-01-01

147

The Acidic Microclimate in Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Microspheres Stabilizes Camptothecins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The camptothecin (CPT) analogue, 10-hydroxycamptothecin (10-HCPT) has been shown previously to remain in its acid-stable (and active) lactone form when encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (1). The purpose of this study was to determine the principal mechanism(s) of 10-HCPT stabilization.

Anna Shenderova; Thomas G. Burke; Steven P. Schwendeman

1999-01-01

148

Pharmacokinetics assessment of moxidectin long-acting formulation in cattle.  

PubMed

The plasma kinetics disposition of moxidectin following a subcutaneous administration with a long-acting formulation (Cydectin) 10%, Fort Dodge Animal Health, France) at the recommended dose of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight was evaluated in Charolais cattle breed (five females weighing 425-450 kg) for 120 days. Furthermore, its concentration was measured in hair for the same period. After plasma extraction and derivatization, samples were analysed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Moxidectin was first detected at 1 h after treatment for plasma (2.00+/-1.52 ng ml(-1)) and at 2 days for hair (446.44+/-193.26 ng g(-1)). The peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was 55.71+/-15.59 ng ml(-1) and 444.44+/-190.45 ng g(-1) for plasma and hair, respectively. The mean calculated time of peak occurrence (T(max)) was 3.40+/-3.36 and 2 days for plasma and hair, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT) was 28.93+/-2.87 and 13.32+/-2.48 days for plasma and hair cattle. The area under concentration-time curve (AUC) was 1278.95+/-228.92 ng day ml(-1) and 2663.82+/-1096.62 ng day g(-1) for plasma and hair, respectively. At the last sampling time (120 days), the concentration was 1.91+/-0.26 ng ml(-1) and 0.69+/-0.52 ng g(-1) for plasma and hair, respectively. The bioavailability of this long-acting formulation of moxidectin is similar to that registered after subcutaneous administration of moxidectin in cattle at 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight. For the first time the moxidectin pharmacokinetics parameters in hair after a subcutaneous administration was described. The moxidectin profile concentrations in hair reflected that registered in plasma. The previous studies of efficacy have to be correlated to the extended period of absorption and distribution by the LA formulation due to the fivefold higher dose rate in comparison with the 1% injectable formulation (0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight). PMID:17543457

Dupuy, J; Sutra, J F; Alvinerie, M

2007-07-20

149

Pharmacokinetics of olanzapine long-acting injection: the clinical perspective.  

PubMed

Olanzapine long-acting injection (OLAI) is a sustained-release depot antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Our objective was to explain the pharmacokinetics of OLAI to provide clinical insight. Simulation models and data from clinical trials are presented. Olanzapine concentrations were observed immediately upon injection. Half-life was ?30 days, controlled by the slow rate of intramuscular absorption rather than the 30-h elimination rate-based half-life of oral olanzapine. As each injection builds on the drug still being released from previous injections, concentrations increase gradually until a steady state is reached after ?3 months. Concentrations were similar to oral olanzapine and proportional to the dose; the average steady-state concentrations (10th-90th percentile) for the 150, 210, and 300 mg/2-week doses were 16-32, 15-55, and 20-67 ng/ml, respectively, and those for the 300 and 405 mg/4-week doses were 19-48 and 19-62 ng/ml, respectively. Peak concentrations most often occurred at 2-4 days after injection. Peak-to-trough fluctuation was greater for the 4-week dosing interval than the 2-week one, with no apparent clinical ramifications for these differences. Trough concentrations were above the lower end of the therapeutic range, even at the first injection. Long-term use up to 6 years indicated no additional accumulation. The impact of smoking and sex was similar, but less pronounced than for oral olanzapine. PMID:24815672

Heres, Stephan; Kraemer, Susanne; Bergstrom, Richard F; Detke, Holland C

2014-11-01

150

Massive levemir (long-acting) insulin overdose: case report.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old insulin-dependant diabetic man presented to the Emergency Department 2 hours after a deliberate massive overdose of 2100 units of long-acting Levemir insulin and a large quantity of whisky. On initial assessment, his GCS was 3/15 and his capillary blood sugar was 2.6?mmol/L. The patient was given a 50?ml bolus of 50% dextrose, followed by intravenous infusions of both 5% and 10% dextrose. Despite the continuous infusions, he experienced 4 symptomatic hypoglycaemic episodes in the first 12 hours after admission. These were managed with oral glucose, IM glucagon, and further dextrose boluses. Blood electrolytes and pH were monitored throughout. Insulin overdoses are relatively common and often occur with an excess of other drugs or alcohol which can enhance its action. Overdoses can result in persistent hypoglycaemia, liver enzyme derangement, electrolyte abnormalities, and neurological damage. Overall mortality is 2.7% with prognosis poorest in patients who are admitted with decreased Glasgow Coma scale (GCS) 12 hours after overdose. PMID:22924049

Oduru, Mamatha; Ahmad, Mahmood

2012-01-01

151

Efficacy and Safety of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception  

PubMed Central

Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) includes intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the subdermal implant. These methods are the most effective reversible methods of contraception, and have the additional advantages of being long-lasting, convenient, well liked by users and cost effective. Compared with other user-dependent methods that increase the risk of noncompliance-related method failure, LARC methods can bring ‘typical use’ failure rates more in line with ‘perfect use’ failure rates. LARC methods are ‘forgettable’; they are not dependent on compliance with a pill-taking regimen, remembering to change a patch or ring, or coming back to the clinician for an injection. LARC method failure rates rival that of tubal sterilization at <1% for IUDs and the subdermal implant. For these reasons, we believe that IUDs and implants should be offered as first-line contraception for most women. This article provides a review of the LARC methods that are currently available in the US, including their effectiveness, advantages, disadvantages and contraindications. Additionally, we dispel myths and misconceptions regarding IUDs, and address the barriers to LARC use. PMID:21668037

Stoddard, Amy; McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

2013-01-01

152

Pharmacokinetics of olanzapine long-acting injection: the clinical perspective  

PubMed Central

Olanzapine long-acting injection (OLAI) is a sustained-release depot antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Our objective was to explain the pharmacokinetics of OLAI to provide clinical insight. Simulation models and data from clinical trials are presented. Olanzapine concentrations were observed immediately upon injection. Half-life was ?30 days, controlled by the slow rate of intramuscular absorption rather than the 30-h elimination rate-based half-life of oral olanzapine. As each injection builds on the drug still being released from previous injections, concentrations increase gradually until a steady state is reached after ?3 months. Concentrations were similar to oral olanzapine and proportional to the dose; the average steady-state concentrations (10th–90th percentile) for the 150, 210, and 300 mg/2-week doses were 16–32, 15–55, and 20–67 ng/ml, respectively, and those for the 300 and 405 mg/4-week doses were 19–48 and 19–62 ng/ml, respectively. Peak concentrations most often occurred at 2–4 days after injection. Peak-to-trough fluctuation was greater for the 4-week dosing interval than the 2-week one, with no apparent clinical ramifications for these differences. Trough concentrations were above the lower end of the therapeutic range, even at the first injection. Long-term use up to 6 years indicated no additional accumulation. The impact of smoking and sex was similar, but less pronounced than for oral olanzapine. PMID:24815672

Kraemer, Susanne; Bergstrom, Richard F.; Detke, Holland C.

2014-01-01

153

Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) for Adolescent  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Teen pregnancy continues to plague the United States. This review will discuss long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method use in teens. It will specifically address the myths about appropriate candidates as well as continuation and satisfaction among teen users. Recent findings The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology along with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Centers for Disease Control, and the World health Organization have recognized the potential impact of LARC (comprising intrauterine contraception and subdermal implants) to reduce unintended pregnancies. They have affirmed the safety of such devices, and no effects on long-term fertility have been identified. Teen users of these methods have been shown to have high continuation and satisfaction rates. On the other hand, oral contraceptive pills, the patch, and the contraceptive vaginal ring have significantly higher contraceptive failure rates, and these rates are magnified in young women. Summary LARC methods should be considered first-line options for teens seeking contraception. PMID:22781078

McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F

2014-01-01

154

The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lidocaine-Loaded Biodegradable Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Microspheres  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop novel lidocaine microspheres. Microspheres were prepared by the oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion technique using poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) for the controlled delivery of lidocaine. The average diameter of lidocaine PLGA microspheres was 2.34 ± 0.3 ?m. The poly disperse index was 0.21 ± 0.03, and the zeta potential was +0.34 ± 0.02 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the prepared microspheres were 90.5% ± 4.3% and 11.2% ± 1.4%. In vitro release indicated that the lidocaine microspheres had a well-sustained release efficacy, and in vivo studies showed that the area under the curve of lidocaine in microspheres was 2.02–2.06-fold that of lidocaine injection (p < 0.05). The pharmacodynamics results showed that lidocaine microspheres showed a significant release effect in rats, that the process to achieve efficacy was calm and lasting and that the analgesic effect had a significant dose-dependency. PMID:25268618

Liu, Jianming; Lv, Xin

2014-01-01

155

The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lidocaine- Loaded Biodegradable Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Microspheres.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop novel lidocaine microspheres. Microspheres were prepared by the oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion technique using poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) for the controlled delivery of lidocaine. The average diameter of lidocaine PLGA microspheres was 2.34 ± 0.3 ?m. The poly disperse index was 0.21 ± 0.03, and the zeta potential was +0.34 ± 0.02 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the prepared microspheres were 90.5% ± 4.3% and 11.2% ± 1.4%. In vitro release indicated that the lidocaine microspheres had a well-sustained release efficacy, and in vivo studies showed that the area under the curve of lidocaine in microspheres was 2.02-2.06-fold that of lidocaine injection (p < 0.05). The pharmacodynamics results showed that lidocaine microspheres showed a significant release effect in rats, that the process to achieve efficacy was calm and lasting and that the analgesic effect had a significant dose-dependency. PMID:25268618

Liu, Jianming; Lv, Xin

2014-01-01

156

Polyacrolein microspheres as immunoreagents.  

PubMed

Polyacrolein microspheres were prepared by radiation polymerization of acrolein in the absence of emulsifying or stabilizing agent. The microspheres had functional surface aldehyde groups permitting covalent binding with antibody in 1 step. The particle size of the microspheres varied with polymerization conditions, especially irradiation temperature. The microsphere antibody conjugates obtained by binding immunoglobulins to polyacrolein microspheres were used to label cells. The reactivity of microsphere antibody conjugates was shown by specific aggregation by antigen. PMID:6352813

Kumakura, M; Suzuki, M; Adachi, S; Kaetsu, I

1983-09-30

157

Stabilization and encapsulation of a staphylokinase variant (K35R) into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to prepare poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres containing a staphylokinase variant K35R (DGR) with purpose of preserving the protein stability during both encapsulation and drug release. DGR-loaded microspheres are fabricated using a double-emulsion solvent extraction technique. Prior to encapsulation, the effect of ultrasonication emulsification of DGR solutions with methylene chloride on protein recovery was investigated. Moderate ultrasonic treatment of aqueous DGR/dichloromethane mixtures caused approximately 84% DGR aggregation. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) added into aqueous DGR solutions significantly improved DGR recovery to >90%. The effects of co-encapsulated PVA and NaCl in the external aqueous phase on the characteristics of the microspheres were investigated. When 2% PVA was co-encapsulated and 2.5% NaCl was added to the external water phase, DGR encapsulation efficiency was significantly increased from 7.1% to 78.1% and DGR was distributed uniformly throughout the microspheres. In vitro release test showed that DGR was released from PLGA microspheres in a sustained manner over 15 days. A large amount of released DGR was inactive in the absence of co-encapsulated PVA. On the contrary, when 2% PVA was co-encapsulated, the released DGR was almost completely intact within 9 days. In conclusion, PLGA microspheres can be an effective carrier for DGR and form a promising depot system. PMID:16413979

He, Jin-Tian; Su, Hua-Bo; Li, Guo-Ping; Tao, Xian-Mei; Mo, Wei; Song, Hou-Yan

2006-02-17

158

A new preparation method for protein loaded poly( d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres and protein release mechanism study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for encapsulating a model protein, lysozyme into hydrophilic uncapped poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres was developed using an oil\\/water (O\\/W) single emulsion technique. Lysozyme powder, which was prepared from lyophilization after adjusting a lysozyme solution pH at 3, was molecularly dissolved in a co-solvent system composed of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and methylene chloride. The resulting organic solution containing PLGA

Tae Gwan Park; Hee Yong Lee; Yoon Sung Nam

1998-01-01

159

RESEARCH ARTICLE Facile synthesis of PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles  

E-print Network

nanoprecipitation method reported here resulted in very robust PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles with close to 95 % drug. Keywords PEGylation . PLGA nanoparticles . Doxorubicin . Nanoprecipitation . Drug release . Fluorescence

Sridhar, Srinivas

160

Long-acting beta2-agonist in addition to tiotropium versus either tiotropium or long-acting beta2-agonist alone for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Long-acting bronchodilators comprising long-acting beta2-agonists and the anticholinergic agent tiotropium are commonly used for managing persistent symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Combining these treatments, which have different mechanisms of action, may be more effective than the individual components. However, the benefits and risks of combining tiotropium and long-acting beta2-agonists for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) disease are unclear. Objectives To assess the relative effects of treatment with tiotropium in addition to long-acting beta2-agonist compared to tiotropium or long-acting beta2-agonist alone in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials and clinicaltrials.gov up to January 2012. Selection criteria We included parallel group, randomised controlled trials of three months or longer comparing treatment with tiotropium in addition to long-acting beta2-agonist against tiotropium or long-acting beta2-agonist alone for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and then extracted data on trial quality and the outcome results. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected information on adverse effects from the trials. Main results Five trials were included in this review, mostly recruiting participants with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All of them compared tiotropium in addition to long-acting beta2-agonist to tiotropium alone, but only one trial additionally compared a combination of the two types of bronchodilator with long-acting beta2-agonist (formoterol) alone. Two studies used the long-acting beta2-agonist indacaterol, two used formoterol and one used salmeterol. Compared to tiotropium alone (3263 patients), treatment with tiotropium plus long-acting beta2-agonist resulted in a slightly larger improvement in the mean health-related quality of life (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) MD ?1.61; 95% CI ?2.93 to ?0.29). In the control arm, tiotropium alone, the SGRQ improved by falling 4.5 units from baseline and with both treatments the improvement was a fall of 6.1 units from baseline (on average). High withdrawal rates in the trials increased the uncertainty in this result, and the GRADE assessment for this outcome was therefore moderate. There were no significant differences in the other primary outcomes (hospital admission or mortality). The secondary outcome of pre-bronchodilator FEV1 showed a small mean increase with the addition of long-acting beta2-agonist (MD 0.07 L; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.09) over the control arm, which showed a change from baseline ranging from 0.03 L to 0.13 L on tiotropium alone. None of the other secondary outcomes (exacerbations, symptom scores, serious adverse events, and withdrawals) showed any statistically significant differences between the groups. There were wide confidence intervals around these outcomes and moderate heterogeneity for both exacerbations and withdrawals. The results from the one trial comparing the combination of tiotropium and long-acting beta2-agonist to long-acting beta2-agonist alone (417 participants) were insufficient to draw firm conclusions for this comparison. Authors’ conclusions The results from this review indicate a small mean improvement in health-related quality of life for patients on a combination of tiotropium and long-acting beta2-agonist compared to tiotropium alone, but it is not clear how clinically important this mean difference may be. Hospital admission and mortality have not been shown to be altered by adding long-acting beta2-agonists to tiotropium as there were not enough data to determine the relative efficacy and safety of tiotropium plus long-acting beta2-agonist compared to long-acting beta2-agonist alone. There were insufficient data to make comparisons between the different long-acting

Karner, Charlotta; Cates, Christopher J

2014-01-01

161

PLGA Microparticles Encapsulating Prostaglandin E 1 -Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (PGE 1 -HP?CD) Complex for the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To test the efficacy and viability of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres encapsulating an inclusion complex of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) for pulmonary delivery of PGE1 for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a disease of pulmonary circulation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  PLGA-based microparticulate formulations of PGE1-HP?CD inclusion complex or plain PGE1 were prepared by a double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. HP?CD was

Vivek Gupta; Marauo Davis; Fakhrul Ahsan

2011-01-01

162

Microradiographic microsphere manipulator  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

Singleton, Russell M. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

163

Hybrid microspheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Substrates, particularly inert synthetic organic resin beads (10) or sheet (12) such as polystyrene are coated with a covalently bound layer (24) of polyacrolein by irradiation a solution (14) of acrolein or other aldehyde with high intensity radiation. Individual microspheres (22) are formed which attach to the surface to form the aldehyde containing layer (24). The aldehyde groups can be converted to other functional groups by reaction with materials such as hydroxylamine. Adducts of proteins such as antibodies or enzymes can be formed by direct reaction with the surface aldehyde groups.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

164

Fabrication, characterization and in vitro release of paclitaxel (Taxol ®) loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres prepared by spray drying technique with lipid\\/cholesterol emulsifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray dry technique was applied to produce paclitaxel loaded microspheres of biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as an alternative delivery system. Various emulsifiers such as l-?-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), gelatin were incorporated in order to achieve high encapsulating efficiency of paclitaxel in the microspheres and desired properties for a sustained release. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron

L Mu; S. S Feng

2001-01-01

165

Long-Acting Injectable Naltrexone for the Management of Patients with Opioid Dependence  

PubMed Central

Opioid dependence is a condition with serious clinical ramifications. Treatment has focused on detoxification, agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine, or remission maintenance with the opioid antagonist, naltrexone. Treatment with oral naltrexone has been limited by poor treatment adherence and relapse. Studies with long-acting formulations have shown increased treatment adherence. Extended-release injectable naltrexone has been used for the treatment of alcohol dependence, and has recently received an indication for treatment of opioid dependence from the US Food and Drug Administration. Dosing occurs once monthly and existing data with long-acting naltrexone supports efficacy of treatment for opioid dependence; however published data is sparse. Treatment with long-acting naltrexone should be monitored for hepatotoxicity, and patients should be made aware of increased risk of overdose with administration of opioids during and immediately after discontinuation of long-acting naltrexone. PMID:22879745

Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

2011-01-01

166

Porcine insulin biodegradable polyester microspheres: stability and in vitro release characteristics.  

PubMed

The stability of porcine insulin in biodegradable polymers, i.e., poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 (50:50 DL-PLGA) and poly(L-lactide) (L-PLA) was investigated. Insulin encapsulated microspheres were fabricated from both polymers using double-emulsion-solvent evaporation and emulsion-solvent evaporation techniques and subjected to accelerated stability studies at 40 degrees C and 75% relative humidity. Porcine insulin was found to degrade in all microsphere formulations with an average of < 50% of the initial loading amount remaining intact at the end of 4 weeks. The two major degradation products observed in these formulations were determined to be A-21 desamido insulin and covalent insulin dimer with trace amounts of high molecular weight transformation products. In vitro release studies in phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C resulted in very slow and incomplete (< 30% in 30 days) release kinetics for all microsphere formulations. Extraction and analyses of the unreleased insulin within the microspheres revealed that an average of approximately 11% of the encapsulated insulin remained intact. The degradation products observed consisted of approximately 15% of three distinct deamidated hydrolysis products including A-21 desamido insulin, approximately 22% covalent insulin dimer, and trace amounts of high molecular weight transformation products. The degradation of porcine insulin within biodegradable polyester microspheres during stability and release studies can be attributed to the gradual decrease in the pH within the microspheres due to progressive polymer hydrolysis resulting in the production of DL-lactic and glycolic acids. The encapsulation of an acid-base indicator, bromophenol blue, in 50:50 PLGA microspheres (as a probe to estimate pH within the microspheres during accelerated stability studies) indicated that the pH decreased to approximately 3.8 after 3 weeks. PMID:10669912

Shao, P G; Bailey, L C

2000-01-01

167

Cationic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) iron oxide microspheres for nucleic acid detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, we envisage the possibility of preparing stable cationic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres encapsulating the iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs; 8-12 nm). The IONPs are incorporated into PLGA in organic phase followed by microsphere formation and chitosan coating in aqueous medium via nano-emulsion technique. The average size of the microspheres, as determined by dynamic light scattering are about 310 nm, while the zeta potential for the composite remains near 35 mV at pH 4.0. These microspheres are electrophoretically deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate used as cathode and parallel platinum plate as the counter electrode. This platform is utilized to fabricate a DNA biosensor, by immobilizing a probe sequence specific to Escherichia coli. The bioelectrode shows a surface-controlled electrode reaction with the electron transfer coefficient (?) of 0.64 and charge transfer rate constant (ks) of 61.73 s-1. Under the optimal conditions, this biosensor shows a detection limit of 8.7 × 10-14 M and is found to retain about 81% of the initial activity after 9 cycles of use.Herein, we envisage the possibility of preparing stable cationic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres encapsulating the iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs; 8-12 nm). The IONPs are incorporated into PLGA in organic phase followed by microsphere formation and chitosan coating in aqueous medium via nano-emulsion technique. The average size of the microspheres, as determined by dynamic light scattering are about 310 nm, while the zeta potential for the composite remains near 35 mV at pH 4.0. These microspheres are electrophoretically deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate used as cathode and parallel platinum plate as the counter electrode. This platform is utilized to fabricate a DNA biosensor, by immobilizing a probe sequence specific to Escherichia coli. The bioelectrode shows a surface-controlled electrode reaction with the electron transfer coefficient (?) of 0.64 and charge transfer rate constant (ks) of 61.73 s-1. Under the optimal conditions, this biosensor shows a detection limit of 8.7 × 10-14 M and is found to retain about 81% of the initial activity after 9 cycles of use. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34355c

Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Sharma, Aditya; Sumana, Gajjala; Tiwari, Ida; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

2013-04-01

168

Microsphere size influences the foreign body reaction.  

PubMed

Biodegradable poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (MSP) are attractive candidate vehicles for site-specific or systemic sustained release of therapeutic compounds. This release may be altered by the host's foreign body reaction (FBR), which is dependent on the characteristics of the implant, e.g. chemistry, shape or size. In this study, we focused on the characterisation of the influence of MSP size on the FBR. To this end we injected monodisperse MSP of defined size (small 5.8 µm, coefficient of variance (CV) 14 % and large 29.8 µm, CV 4 %) and polydisperse MSP (average diameter 34.1 µm, CV 51 %) under the skin of rats. MSP implants were retrieved at day 7, 14 and 28 after transplantation. The FBR was studied in terms of macrophage infiltration, implant encapsulation, vascularisation and extracellular matrix deposition. Although PLGA MSP of all different sizes demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, significant differences were found in the characteristics of the FBR. Small MSP were phagocytosed, while large MSP were not. Large MSP occasionally elicited giant cell formation, which was not observed after implantation of small MSP. Cellular and macrophage influx and collagen deposition were increased in small MSP implants compared to large MSP. We conclude that the MSP size influences the FBR and thus might influence clinical outcome when using MSP as a drug delivery device. We propose that a rational choice of MSP size can aid in optimising the therapeutic efficacy of microsphere-based therapies in vivo. PMID:25350249

Zandstra, J; Hiemstra, C; Petersen, A H; Zuidema, J; van Beuge, M M; Rodriguez, S; Lathuile, A A; Veldhuis, G J; Steendam, R; Bank, R A; Popa, E R

2014-01-01

169

Nasal absorption of mixtures of fast-acting and long-acting insulins  

PubMed Central

Mixtures of fast-acting and long-acting insulins were administered nasally to anesthetized, hyperglycemic rats in the presence and absence of tetradecyl-?-D-maltoside (TDM). The fast-acting analogs, aspart insulin, lispro insulin, and glulisine insulin, were all rapidly absorbed from the nose when applied individually with 0.125% TDM (Tmax = 15 minutes). One long-acting insulin analog, glargine insulin, was also absorbed from the nose when applied individually in the presence of 0.125% TDM (Tmax = 60 minutes). The other long-acting insulin analog, detemir insulin, was not soluble when formulated with 0.125% TDM. A series of mixtures (1:1) of the three rapid-acting insulins and long-acting glargine insulin were formulated with 0.125% TDM and applied nasally. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of the insulin mixtures reflected the additive contributions of both the rapid-acting and the long-acting insulin. These results support the possibility of formulating certain insulin mixtures in tandem to provide nasal insulin products that match the needs of patients with diabetes mellitus better than those currently available. PMID:20080164

Pillion, Dennis J.; Fyrberg, Michael D.; Meezan, Elias

2010-01-01

170

microsphere assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Fe ion concentration on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of TiO2 films supported on silica (SiO2) opals has been studied. TiO2:Fe2O3 films were prepared by the sol-gel method in combination with a vertical dip coating procedure; precursor solutions of Ti and Fe were deposited on a monolayer of SiO2 opals previously deposited on a glass substrate by the same procedure. After the dip coating process has been carried out, the samples were thermally treated to obtain the TiO2:Fe2O3/SiO2 composites at the Fe ion concentrations of 1, 3, and 5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show the formation of colloidal silica microspheres of about 50 nm diameter autoensembled in a hexagonal close-packed fashion. Although the X-ray diffractograms show no significant effect of Fe ion concentration on the crystal structure of TiO2, the ?-Raman and reflectance spectra do show that the intensity of a phonon vibration mode and the energy bandgap of TiO2 decrease as the Fe+3 ion concentration increases.

Peña-Flores, Jesús I.; Palomec-Garfias, Abraham F.; Márquez-Beltrán, César; Sánchez-Mora, Enrique; Gómez-Barojas, Estela; Pérez-Rodríguez, Felipe

2014-09-01

171

"Set it and forget it": women's perceptions and opinions of long-acting topical vaginal gels.  

PubMed

Women's initial understandings and anticipated acceptability of long-acting vaginal gels as potential anti-HIV microbicides was investigated by exploring the perceptibility variables associated with prototype formulations. Four focus groups with 29 women, aged 18-45, were conducted to consider gel prototypes with varied physicochemical and rheological properties. Participants responded favorably to the concept of long-acting vaginal gels as microbicides. Distinctions in understandings and stated needs regarding product dosing, characteristics, and effectiveness offer valuable insights into product design. Long-acting vaginal gels capable of protecting against HIV/STIs will be a viable option among potential users, with dosing frequency being an important factor in willingness to use. PMID:24248674

van den Berg, Jacob J; Rosen, Rochelle K; Bregman, Dana E; Thompson, Lara A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kiser, Patrick F; Katz, David F; Buckheit, Karen; Buckheit, Robert W; Morrow, Kathleen M

2014-05-01

172

Amyloid as a Depot for the Formulation of Long-Acting Drugs  

PubMed Central

Amyloids are highly organized protein aggregates that are associated with both neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and benign functions like skin pigmentation. Amyloids self-polymerize in a nucleation-dependent manner by recruiting their soluble protein/peptide counterpart and are stable against harsh physical, chemical, and biochemical conditions. These extraordinary properties make amyloids attractive for applications in nanotechnology. Here, we suggest the use of amyloids in the formulation of long-acting drugs. It is our rationale that amyloids have the properties required of a long-acting drug because they are stable depots that guarantee a controlled release of the active peptide drug from the amyloid termini. This concept is tested with a family of short- and long-acting analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and it is shown that amyloids thereof can act as a source for the sustained release of biologically active peptides. PMID:18254658

Maji, Samir K; Schubert, David; Rivier, Catherine; Lee, Soon; Rivier, Jean E; Riek, Roland

2008-01-01

173

Long-acting beta(2)-agonists: how are they used in an optimal way?  

PubMed

Inhaled long-acting beta(2)-agonists are frequently used for the treatment of asthma. When introduced to the market, the drug was accompanied by a debate among physicians and scientists raising warnings against the use of beta(2)-agonists, leading to a risk of tachyphylaxis and worsening of asthma control. During recent years, much of these warnings have been counter proved and there has been a tendency to institute treatment with long-acting beta(2)-agonists somewhat earlier in the course than before. However, the exact place for long-acting beta(2)-agonists in the asthma treatment plans, still needs to be established. While beta(2)-agonists have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and after single allergen exposure, this effect seems to disappear with regular treatment. The same phenomena have been shown to protect against obstruction caused by metacholine inhalation or exercise. Although the protective effect diminishes or even disappears, no signs of rebound phenomena or increased susceptibility to provocative stimulus has been shown. Thus, in contrast to earlier reports after regular use of short-acting beta(2)-agonists, no signs of tachyphylaxis have been reported after use of long-acting beta(2)-agonists. Moreover, the bronchodilatatory effect seems to be fairly stable after regular treatment, even though some reports claims that this effect diminishes over time. The present article is a review of some data involved in this debate. The authors conclude that long-acting beta(2)-agonists are a valuable contribution to the asthma treatment repertoire. However, the drugs should be regarded as long-acting bronchodilatators, supplementing the use of inhaled corticosteroids. The rapid appearing tolerance towards allergen-induced and provoked bronchial obstruction prevents these drugs from being used as monotherapy; they should be used only in combination with sufficient anti-inflammatory treatment, i.e. inhaled corticosteroids. PMID:9488891

Bjermer, L; Larsson, L

1997-11-01

174

The Impact of Long-Acting Medications on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Disparities  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Long-acting stimulants have increased medication adherence for many children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it is unknown whether the increase has been similar across racial/ethnic groups. Our objective was to determine whether differences in medication utilization and adherence among white, black, and Hispanic ADHD-diagnosed children and adolescents narrowed following the introduction of long-acting stimulants in the 1990s. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of Florida Medicaid claims data from fiscal years 1996–2005. At each of three cross sections, we identified children and adolescents 3–17 years of age with at least two claims with an ADHD diagnosis. We used linear regression to model disparities over the study period in utilization of any ADHD medications (utilization of long-acting medication specifically) and medication adherence, and identified patient level, treatment setting, and geographic contributors to disparities. Results Although ADHD medication utilization was lower for ADHD-diagnosed minorities than whites in all years, minorities were as likely as whites to switch to long-acting medications. The increase in prescribed days following long-acting medication diffusion was comparable for white and black medication users (40 and 43 days, respectively), but lower for Hispanics (27 days). Geography and provider setting helped to explain disparities in medication utilization overall, but disparities in adherence were not explained by any of the covariates. Conclusions Despite equivalent switching to long-acting medications in the study period, minorities continued to utilize all ADHD medications less than did whites, and for shorter periods. Provider setting helps explain the ADHD medication utilization gap. High-volume, minority-serving providers are potential targets for future interventions related to improved communication about medication and follow-up after medication initiation. PMID:23952187

Fullerton, Catherine; McGuire, Thomas

2013-01-01

175

Effectiveness of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in delusional disorders with nonprominent hallucinations and without hallucinations.  

PubMed

The presence of nonprominent hallucinations in delusional disorder (DD) has been accepted by the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. A recent meta-analysis revealed that patients with schizophrenia treated with long-acting atypical antipsychotics showed a significant improvement in psychotic symptoms. However, little research has been conducted on DD. Our goal was to investigate demographic and clinical differences between two subgroups of DD patients, those with nonprominent hallucinations and those without hallucinations, and to determine treatment effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics in these patients. We conducted a longitudinal observational study with a 6-month follow-up period in a clinical group of 45 DD outpatients. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HRSD-17) were used for assessment. Age at onset of DD, scores in baseline assessment scales, and drug compliance were included in the analysis as potential confounders. When uncorrected for influencing factors, patients treated with long-acting antipsychotics showed lower scores in PANSS positive and negative subscales. There were no statistically significant clinical subgroup×treatment group interactions for any of the scores in assessment scales at 6 months. After adjustment, patients treated with long-acting antipsychotics showed lower scores in the PANSS negative subscale and a tendency toward improvement in scores in the PANSS positive subscale. Our study suggests that risperidone long-acting injection and paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection may be useful in the treatment of DD patients, specifically those with nonprominent hallucinations. PMID:24681811

González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Molina-Andreu, Oriol; Penadés, Rafael; Bernardo, Miquel; Catalán, Rosa

2014-05-01

176

Development of Yersinia pestis F1 antigen-loaded microspheres vaccine against plague  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis F1 antigen-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) (PLGA/PEG) microspheres were produced using a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion/solvent extraction technique and assayed for their percent yield, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, in vitro release properties, and in vivo animal protect efficacy. The Y. pestis F1 antigen-loaded microspheres (mean particle size 3.8 ?m) exhibited a high loading capacity (4.5% w/w), yield (85.2%), and entrapment efficiency (38.1%), and presented a controlled in vitro release profile with a low initial burst (18.5%), then continued to release Y. pestis F1 antigen over 70 days. The distribution (%) of Y. pestis F1 on the microspheres surface, outer layer, and core was 3.1%, 28.9%, and 60.7%, respectively. A steady release rate was noticed to be 0.55 ?g Y. pestis F1 antigen/mg microspheres/day of Y. pestis F1 antigen release maintained for 42 days. The cumulative release amount at the 1st, 28th, and 42nd days was 8.2, 26.7, and 31.0 ?g Y. pestis F1 antigen/mg microspheres, respectively. The 100 times median lethal dose 50% (LD50) of Y. pestis Yokohama-R strain by intraperitoneal injection challenge in mice test, in which mice received one dose of 40 ?g F1 antigen content of PLGA/PEG microspheres, F1 antigen in Al(OH)3, and in comparison with F1 antigen in Al(OH)3 vaccine in two doses, was evaluated after given by subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c mice. The study results show that the greatest survival was observed in the group of mice immunized with one dose of F1 antigen-loaded PLGA/PEG microspheres, and two doses of F1 antigen in Al(OH)3 vaccine (100%). In vivo vaccination studies also demonstrated that F1 vaccines microspheres had a protective ability; its steady-state IgG immune protection in mice plasma dramatic increased from 2 weeks (18,764±3,124) to 7 weeks (126,468±19,176) after vaccination. These findings strongly suggest that F1-antigen loaded microspheres vaccine offer a new therapeutic strategy in optimizing the vaccine incorporation and delivery properties of these potential vaccine targeting carriers. PMID:24550673

Huang, Shih-shiung; Li, I-Hsun; Hong, Po-da; Yeh, Ming-kung

2014-01-01

177

Using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres to encapsulate plasmid of bone morphogenetic protein 2/polyethylenimine nanoparticles to promote bone formation in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Repair of large bone defects is a major challenge, requiring sustained stimulation to continually promote bone formation locally. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) plays an important role in bone development. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty of bone repair, we created a delivery system to slowly release human BMP-2 cDNA plasmid locally, efficiently transfecting local target cells and secreting functional human BMP-2 protein. For transfection, we used polyethylenimine (PEI) to create pBMP-2/PEI nanoparticles, and to ensure slow release we used poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to create microsphere encapsulated pBMP-2/PEI nanoparticles, PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI. We demonstrated that pBMP-2/PEI nanoparticles could slowly release from the PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI microspheres for a long period of time. The 3-15 ?m diameter of the PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI further supported this slow release ability of the PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI. In vitro transfection assays demonstrated that pBMP-2/PEI released from PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI could efficiently transfect MC3T3-E1 cells, causing MC3T3-E1 cells to secrete human BMP-2 protein, increase calcium deposition and gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), SP7 and I type collagen (COLL I), and finally induce MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. Importantly, in vivo data from micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological staining demonstrated that the human BMP-2 released from PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI had a long-term effect locally and efficiently promoted bone formation in the bone defect area compared to control animals. All our data suggest that our PLGA-nanoparticle delivery system efficiently and functionally delivers the human BMP-2 cDNA and has potential clinical application in the future after further modification. PMID:23990717

Qiao, Chunyan; Zhang, Kai; Jin, Han; Miao, Leiying; Shi, Ce; Liu, Xia; Yuan, Anliang; Liu, Jinzhong; Li, Daowei; Zheng, Changyu; Zhang, Guirong; Li, Xiangwei; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

2013-01-01

178

Endometrial vascular changes and bleeding disturbances with long-acting progestins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unscheduled disturbances of bleeding with long-acting progestogen-only methods continue to be a major social inconvenience, and the most common reason for premature discontinuation of use. The patterns of bleeding with different methods are now well characterised, but in spite of a substantial amount of recent research we still do not clearly understand the actual mechanisms underlying these disturbances. The major

Ian S Fraserab; Martha Hickey

2000-01-01

179

Does Prolonged Therapy with a Long-Acting Stimulant Suppress Growth in Children with ADHD?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate whether prolonged therapy with a long-acting stimulant affects growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: One hundred seventy-eight children ages 6 to 13 years received OROS methylphenidate (OROS MPH, CONCERTA) for at least 21 months. Height and weight were measured monthly during the…

Spencer, Thomas J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Lerner, Marc; Cooper, Kimberly M.; Zimmerman, Brenda

2006-01-01

180

EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION  

E-print Network

EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION Annie RODOLAKIS1 A ABORTIVE OVINE. ― Le traitement de la chlamydiose abortive ovine par la Terramycine/L A 200 a été-bas. La transposition d'un tel traitement à la pratique et son intérêt sont discutés. Chlamydial abortion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

181

Patient perspectives in the development and use of long-acting antipsychotics in schizophrenia: focus on olanzapine long-acting injection  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder generally treated with antipsychotic medication. However, non-adherence and partial adherence to antipsychotic medication treatment is common and long-acting injectable “depot” preparations of antipsychotic medications have been used as an alternative to oral medication therapy for patients for whom adherence is a clinically significant problem, as well as for the sake of convenience and in response to patient preference. Olanzapine long-acting injection (OLAI) is a new treatment option and has been approved by several regulatory agencies for the treatment of schizophrenia. OLAI is a crystalline salt formulation of olanzapine and pamoic acid. Efficacy was established in 2 double-blind randomized clinical trials of OLAI for the treatment of acute schizophrenia and for the maintenance of response. The therapeutic OLAI dosages are 150 mg q2 weeks, 210 mg q2 weeks, 300 mg q2 weeks or q4 weeks, and 405 mg q4 weeks, administered by deep intramuscular gluteal injection with a 19-gauge needle. Injection volume ranges from 1 to 2.7 mL. OLAI has essentially the same general tolerability as that of oral olanzapine; however with the depot there is the additional risk of a post-injection delirium sedation syndrome occurring at a rate of 0.07% of injections, requiring a risk management plan that includes observing the patient for 3 hours post injection. PMID:20016798

Citrome, Leslie

2009-01-01

182

Insulin nanoparticle preparation and encapsulation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres by using an anhydrous system.  

PubMed

Insulin has been encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres by solid-in-oil-in-oil (S/O/O) emulsion technique using DMF/corn oil as new solvent pairs. To get better encapsulation efficiency, insulin nanoparticles were prepared by the modified isoelectric point precipitation method so that it had good dispersion in the inner oil phase. The resulting microspheres had drug loading of 10% (w/w), while the encapsulation efficiency could be up to 90-100%. And the insulin release from the microspheres could last for 60 days. Microspheres encapsulated original insulin with the same method had lower encapsulation efficiency, and shorter release period. Laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated the insulin nanoparticle and original insulin had different distribution in microspheres. The results suggested that using insulin nanoparticle was better than original insulin for microsphere preparation by S/O/O method. Study about the secondary structure of insulin by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated high insulin structural integrity during the process. In vivo test showed insulin in microspheres retained its bioactivity. In addition, cytotoxicity evaluation by the MTT assay has proved that no extra toxicity was introduced into the microspheres during the emulsion process. PMID:19465100

Han, Yadong; Tian, Huayu; He, Pan; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin

2009-08-13

183

Long-acting injectable risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia: clinical perspectives.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia remains a severe disorder that is associated with a poor outcome in a large subgroup of patients. Major efforts should be made to improve treatment for all patients who have this debilitating disease. Second-generation antipsychotics were a major step forward in this respect; however, important unmet needs remain, such as a better solution for frequent noncompliance problems. Depot formulations are known to have advantages in this respect. However, for a long time, only depot formulations of conventional antipsychotics were available, with their high risk of extrapyramidal adverse effects. Therefore, there has been only very restricted use of depot antipsychotics, which mainly focused on patients with chronic disease who were difficult to treat and had a high risk of noncompliance. The situation may change with the advent of a depot formulation of an atypical antipsychotic. The first depot formulation of an atypical antipsychotic to be introduced to the market is long-acting injectable risperidone. On the basis of the pharmacokinetic properties of the depot formulation, a 2-week interval between administrations is recommended. The antipsychotic efficacy of long-acting risperidone was demonstrated in two 12-week, double-blind, randomised, phase III studies, one versus placebo and the other versus oral risperidone. These two studies, together with one open-label, long-term study over 12 months, belong to the core group of trials that were relevant for the licensing of long-acting risperidone. A relapse-prevention, control group study comparing the long-acting formulation versus oral risperidone was not performed because of the known principal methodological problems of such a comparison. Instead, as much clinical data as possible was collected from observational studies that investigated questions relevant for clinical practice, such as efficacy, safety and tolerability in different subgroups, and transition from pre-treatment with different kinds of antipsychotics to long-acting risperidone. On the basis of these data, it can be stated that the efficacy of the long-term formulation of risperidone is proven, and that the safety and tolerability are more or less comparable to those of oral risperidone. The local tolerability at the injection site is good. Because it is well known that noncompliance is a frequent feature of the treatment of schizophrenia, and considering the advantages of atypical antipsychotics, consideration of whether long-acting atypical antipsychotics should have a broader indication than is the case with the depot formulations of the classical antipsychotics is warranted. PMID:17661527

Möller, Hans-Jürgen

2007-01-01

184

Long-acting injectable antipsychotics in the elderly: guidelines for effective use.  

PubMed

The elderly are at increased risk for psychosis because of age-related deterioration of cortical areas and neurochemical changes, comorbid physical illnesses, social isolation, sensory deficits and polypharmacy. The prevalence of psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders requiring treatment with an antipsychotic agent is expected to increase dramatically among people aged >64 years. Antipsychotic agents are effective in the treatment of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, behavioural symptoms in patients with dementia, and mood disorders with psychosis. However, failure to adhere to a prescribed medication regimen by patients with psychosis is one of the most frustrating problems faced by mental healthcare providers, because of the high risk of relapse associated with partial compliance. For patients with psychosis who will not or cannot take oral medications on a regular daily basis or have other characteristics, such as memory, vision or auditory impairment, which contribute to partial compliance, long-acting injectable antipsychotic medication offers a solution. Older patients are especially at risk of adverse effects associated with traditional antipsychotic agents, such as motor effects, postural hypotension, excessive sedation, and anticholinergic effects because of age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors, coexisting medical illnesses and concomitant medications. Therefore, drug dosage recommendations in the elderly are much more conservative than in younger patients. The appropriate starting dose of an antipsychotic in older individuals is 25% of the usual adult dose; total daily maintenance doses ranges from 25-50% of the adult dose. There are few studies regarding the use of depot antipsychotics in elderly patients. Studies that are available indicate that traditional antipsychotic agents given as depot injections are associated with positive outcomes in the elderly. Because the risks for extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia are reduced dramatically with atypical antipsychotics compared with traditional agents, the development of long-acting atypical antipsychotic formulations has been pursued. Of the atypical antipsychotics, risperidone is the first agent to be approved in a long-acting injectable formulation. Unpublished clinical data have revealed that patients treated with long-acting injectable risperidone (25mg, 50mg or 75mg) are more likely to show significant clinical improvement than placebo. In addition, hospitalisation rates decreased continuously and significantly during 1 year of treatment for patients who received long-acting injectable risperidone.Long-acting injectable antipsychotic medication should be considered for older patients for whom long-term treatment is indicated. The choice of which drug to use should be based on patients' history of response and personal preference, clinician's previous experience and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:14651433

Masand, Prakash S; Gupta, Sanjay

2003-01-01

185

Microsphere Degradation in Outer Hydrogel Membranes Creates Macroscopic Porosity to Counter Biofouling-Induced Sensor Degradation  

PubMed Central

Biofouling and tissue inflammation present major challenges toward the realization of long-term implantable glucose sensors. Following sensor implantation, proteins and cells adsorb on sensor surfaces to not only inhibit glucose flux but also signal a cascade of inflammatory events that eventually lead to permeability-reducing fibrotic encapsulation. The use of drug-eluting hydrogels as outer sensor coatings has shown considerable promise to mitigate these problems via the localized delivery of tissue response modifiers to suppress inflammation and fibrosis, along with reducing protein and cell absorption. Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres encapsulated within a poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel matrix, presents a model coating where the localized delivery of the potent anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone has been shown to suppress inflammation over a period of 1-3 months. Here it is shown that the degradation of the PLGA microspheres provides an auxiliary venue to offset the negative effects of protein adsorption. This was realized by: 1) the creation of fresh porosity within the PVA hydrogel following microsphere degradation (which is sustained until the complete microsphere degradation); and 2) rigidification of the PVA hydrogel to prevent its complete collapse onto the newly created void space. Incubation of the coated sensors in PBS buffer led to a monotonic increase in glucose permeability (50%), with a corresponding enhancement in sensor sensitivity over a one-month period. Incubation in serum resulted in biofouling and consequent clogging of the hydrogel microporosity. This however, was partially offset by the generated macroscopic porosity following microsphere degradation. As a result of this, a two-fold recovery in sensor sensitivity for devices with microsphere/hydrogel composite coatings was observed as opposed to similar devices with blank hydrogel coatings. These findings suggest that the use of macroscopic porosity can reduce sensitivity drifts resulting from biofouling and this can be achieved synergistically with current efforts to mitigate negative tissue responses through localized and sustained drug delivery. PMID:23039161

Qiang, L.; Burgess, D. J.; Papadimitrakopoulos, F.

2013-01-01

186

A "drug cocktail" delivered by microspheres for the local treatment of rat glioblastoma.  

PubMed

For the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, an "anticancer drug cocktail" delivered by biodegradable poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)-microspheres is proposed. Celecoxib, etoposide, and elacridar were encapsulated by an oil/water emulsification solvent evaporation method. Drug-loaded microspheres were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and evaluated in a rat glioblastoma model. Microspheres had a mean diameter 10-20?µm, and encapsulation rates varied upon lipophilicity of the drug (celecoxib: 97.4?±?0.4%; elacridar: 98.1?±?0.3%; and etoposide: 38.7?±?8.3%). Drug release of celecoxib and elacridar resulted in a burst (t50: 3.1?h and 1.0?h, respectively) while etoposide release was slower (t50: 45.3?h). The comparison of celecoxib (p?=?0.021) and etoposide microspheres (p?=?0.002) as well as their combination (p?=?0.011) led to a significant increase in the probability of survival compared to blank microspheres. Local delivery of celecoxib and etoposide microspheres was found to be suitable for the treatment of glioblastoma in rats although simultaneous drug administration did not improve the therapeutic outcome. PMID:23448182

Allhenn, Daniela; Neumann, Dirk; Béduneau, Arnaud; Pellequer, Yann; Lamprecht, Alf

2013-01-01

187

Production of hollow aerogel microspheres  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800-1200 .mu. diameter and 100-300 .mu. wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Henning, Sten A. (Dalby, SE)

1993-01-01

188

Production of hollow aerogel microspheres  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800--1200{mu} diameter and 100--300{mu} wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

Upadhye, R.S.; Henning, S.A.

1990-12-31

189

Bovine serum albumin release from poly(?-hydroxy acid) microspheres: effects of polymer molecular weight and surface properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercially available PLGA polymers (lactic acid\\/glycolic acid 50:50, with respective molecular weights of 87 and 15 kDa) were used to prepare microspheres containing a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), following a process based on the (water-in-oil)-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation\\/extraction technique. The influence of the formulation parameters on the in vitro release profiles of BSA was assessed. The results

F. Boury; H. Marchais; J. E. Proust; J. P. Benoit

1997-01-01

190

A case of suicide attempt with long-acting methylphenidate (Concerta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prescribed use of methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widespread. The\\u000a intranasal and parenteral abuse of methylphenidate (Ritalin) among teenagers is becoming increasingly more common, and deaths\\u000a have been reported. Newer medical treatment options of long-acting stimulants offer effective treatment with a lower risk\\u000a of abuse potential. We describe a case of a 17-year-old

Esra OzdemirMehmet; Mehmet Goksin Karaman; Nihal Yurteri; Ayten Erdogan

2010-01-01

191

Safety and efficacy of long-acting somatostatin treatment in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety and efficacy of long-acting somatostatin treatment in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.BackgroundThe fluid filling renal cysts in human polycystic kidneys is secreted chiefly by the tubular epithelium lining the cysts via secondary chloride transport. Inhibiting this process by somatostatin therapy should induce shrinking of renal cysts.MethodsIn this randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial we compared the risk\\/benefit profile of 6-month treatment with

PIERO RUGGENENTI; ANDREA REMUZZI; PATRIZIA ONDEI; GIORGIO FASOLINI; LUCA ANTIGA; BOGDAN ENE-IORDACHE; GIUSEPPE REMUZZI; FRANKLIN H EPSTEIN

2005-01-01

192

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypopnea Efficacy and Safety of a Long-Acting ? 2 Agonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inhaled long-acting ß2-agonists in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is unknown, although from the pharmacological point of view both therapeutic and adverse effects need to be considered. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the efficacy and safety of salmeterol in patients with OSAS. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, effects of salmeterol

Kurt Rasche; Hans-Werner Duchna; Julia Lauer; Maritta Orth; Sylvia Kotterba; Torsten Thomas Bauer; Adrian Gillissen; Gerhard Schultze-Werninghaus

1999-01-01

193

A case of suicide attempt with long-acting methylphenidate (Concerta).  

PubMed

The prescribed use of methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widespread. The intranasal and parenteral abuse of methylphenidate (Ritalin) among teenagers is becoming increasingly more common, and deaths have been reported. Newer medical treatment options of long-acting stimulants offer effective treatment with a lower risk of abuse potential. We describe a case of a 17-year-old girl who had attempted suicide by ingesting 270 mg of Concerta. During the third years of treatment with Concerta, parents of patient reported that the patient had a depressive mood in the last week, and had attempted suicide with five tablets of Concerta 54 mg. She was sent to a local hospital with a diagnosis of long-acting methylphenidate overdose. All of vital and laboratory findings were normal except heart rate, which was 132 beats/min. Since more than 3 h have elapsed after the time of ingestion, activated charcoal administration was not carried out at the hospital. She was only observed for 12 h at the emergency department and later discharged from the hospital. While long-acting stimulants offer lower risk of abuse, their greater availability increases the likelihood of ingestion of this nature. Education of clinicians and families to be aware of this risk should reduce the frequency of this complication of treatment. PMID:21432595

Ozdemir, Esra; Karaman, Mehmet Goksin; Yurteri, Nihal; Erdogan, Ayten

2010-11-01

194

Evaluation of long-acting somatostatin analog injection devices by nurses: a quantitative study  

PubMed Central

The somatostatin analogs (SSAs) lanreotide Autogel/Depot and octreotide long-acting release are used to treat acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors. The present study evaluated opinions on SSA injection devices, including a recently approved lanreotide new device (lanreotide-ND), among nurses in Europe and the USA. Nurses injecting SSAs for at least three patients per year (n = 77) were interviewed regarding SSA devices. Device attributes were rated via questionnaire; nurses were then timed administering test injections with lanreotide-ND and octreotide long-acting release. The most important delivery system attributes were easy/convenient preparation and injection (ranked in the top five by 70% of nurses), low clogging risk (58%), and high product efficacy (55%). Compared with the octreotide long-acting release device, lanreotide-ND scored higher on 15/16 attributes, had shorter mean preparation and administration time (329 versus 66 seconds, respectively; P ? 0.01) and a higher overall preference score (70 versus 114, respectively; P ? 0.01). The five most important lanreotide-ND attributes were: prefilled device, confidence a full dose was delivered, low clogging risk, easy/convenient preparation and injection, and fast administration. These device features could lead to improvements in clinical practice and benefit patients/caregivers who administer SSAs at home. PMID:23293542

Adelman, Daphne T; Burgess, Andrea; Davies, Philippa R

2012-01-01

195

Octreotide long-acting repeatable and lanreotide Autogel are equally effective in controlling growth hormone secretion in acromegalic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Recently a new depot preparation of the long-acting somatostatin analogue, lanreotide Autogel was introduced for the treatment of acromegaly. Like octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR), it has high binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype SSTR 2 and less binding affi- nity for SSTR 5. We hypothesized that the ability to suppress growth hormone (GH) secretion in patients with acromegaly

S W van Thiel; J A Romijn; N R Biermasz; B E P M Ballieux; M Frolich; J W A Smit; E P M Corssmit; F Roelfsema; A M Pereira

2004-01-01

196

Efficacy of the New Long-Acting Formulation of Lanreotide (Lanreotide Autogel) in the Management of Acromegaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lanreotide Autogel is a new long-acting aqueous preparation of lanreotide for the treatment of acromegaly and is admin- istered by deep sc injection from a small volume, prefilled syringe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this new long-acting formulation in a large popula- tion of acromegalic patients previously responsive to lan- reotide 30

A. BECKERS; D. R. CULLEN; M. I. GOTH; B. GUTT; P. LAURBERG; A. M. PICO; M. VALIMAKI; W. ZGLICZYNSKI

197

Characteristics of patients with COPD newly prescribed a long-acting bronchodilator: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study aimed to characterize patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) newly prescribed a long-acting bronchodilator (LABD), and to assess changes in medication over 24 months. Methods A cohort of patients with COPD aged ?40 years newly prescribed an LABD between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 were identified from the Truven Marketscan® Commercial Database (Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) and followed for 24 months. Inclusion criteria included no prior prescription for an LABD or inhaled corticosteroids for 12 months prior to the LABD index date (baseline). Patient characteristics were examined. As LABDs were mainly long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), additions, switches, discontinuation, adherence to (medication possession ratio), and persistence (proportion of days covered) with LAMA monotherapy were assessed for 24 months following the index date. Adherence and persistence with long-acting ?2-agonists (LABAs) were also assessed. Results A cohort of 3,268 patients aged 40–65 years was identified (mean age 55.8 years, 48% male). LAMA monotherapy was prescribed to 93% of patients who received an LABD. During the 24-month follow-up, 16% of these patients added COPD medication, 10% switched to an inhaled corticosteroid-containing medication, and 25% discontinued after one LAMA prescription at baseline. Over 12 and 24 months, adherence to LAMA was 40% and 33%, respectively, and adherence to LABA was 29% and 24%, respectively. Over the same time periods, persistence with LAMA monotherapy was 19% and 15%, respectively, and persistence with LABA was 9% and 7%, respectively. Conclusion Adherence to newly initiated LAMA monotherapy was low, with one in four patients adding to or switching from LAMA and many patients discontinuing therapy. Adherence to LABA was also low. These results suggest that additional medication to a single LABD may be required in some patients with COPD to achieve optimal disease control. PMID:25285002

Wurst, Keele E; St Laurent, Samantha; Mullerova, Hana; Davis, Kourtney J

2014-01-01

198

Pregnancy Intentions, Long-Acting Contraceptive Use, and Rapid Subsequent Pregnancies among Adolescent and Adult First-Time Mothers  

PubMed Central

Problem Greater understanding is needed related to qualitatively-assessed pregnancy intentions and rapid subsequent pregnancies among adolescent and adult mothers. Methods 4-site prospective study of 227 adolescent and adult mothers. Data analyzed to understand the relationship between pregnancy intentions, adolescent status, and use of long-acting contraceptives and rapid subsequent pregnancy. Findings The findings from this study provide evidence of the importance of goal-oriented pregnancy intentions, long-acting contraceptive use, and older age in delaying a second pregnancy. Conclusion Findings reveal the need for clinician awareness of the qualitative pregnancy intentions of young women and potential desired use of long-acting contraceptives. PMID:22512527

Waggoner, Miranda R.; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Klerman, Lorraine V.

2012-01-01

199

Repair of an osteochondral defect by sustained delivery of BMP-2 or TGF?1 from a bilayered alginate-PLGA scaffold.  

PubMed

Regeneration of cartilage defects can be accelerated by localized delivery of appropriate growth factors (GFs) from scaffolds. In the present study we analysed the in vitro and in vivo release rates and delivery efficacies of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF?1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from a bilayered system, applied for osteochondral defect repair in a rabbit model. A bone-orientated, porous PLGA cylinder was overlaid with GF containing PLGA microspheres, dispersed in an alginate matrix. Four microsphere formulations were incorporated: (a) blank ones; (b) microspheres containing 50 ng TGF?1; (c) microspheres containing 2.5 µg BMP-2; and (d) microspheres containing 5 µg BMP-2. Release kinetics and tissue distributions were determined using iodinated ((125) I) GFs. Bioactivity of in vitro released BMP-2 and TGF?1 was confirmed in cell-based assays. In vivo release profiles indicated good GF release control. 20% of BMP-2 and 15% of TGF?1 were released during the first day. Virtually the total dose was delivered at the end of week 6. Significant histological differences were observed between untreated and GF-treated specimens, there being especially relevant short-term outcomes with 50 ng TGF?1 and 5 µg BMP-2. Although the evaluation scores for the newly formed cartilage did not differ significantly, 5 µg BMP-2 gave rise to higher quality cartilage with improved surface regularity, tissue integration and increased collagen-type II and aggrecan immunoreactivity 2 weeks post-implantation. Hence, the bilayered system controlled GF release rates and led to preserved cartilage integrity from 12 weeks up to at least 24 weeks. PMID:22733683

Reyes, R; Delgado, A; Sánchez, E; Fernández, A; Hernández, A; Evora, C

2014-07-01

200

Organic aerogel microspheres  

DOEpatents

Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-01-01

201

Organic aerogel microspheres  

DOEpatents

Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1999-06-01

202

Multifunctional PLGA particles containing poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles and ascorbic acid with simultaneous antioxidative and prolonged antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

A water-soluble antioxidant (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) was encapsulated together with poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNpPGA) within a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymeric matrix and their synergistic effects were studied. The PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles synthesized by a physicochemical method with solvent/non-solvent systems are spherical, have a mean diameter of 775 nm and a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.158. The encapsulation efficiency of AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid within PLGA was determined to be >90%. The entire amount of encapsulated ascorbic acid was released in 68 days, and the entire amount of AgNpPGAs was released in 87 days of degradation. The influence of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid on cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, as well as antimicrobial activity against seven different pathogens was investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay indicated good biocompatibility of these PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles. We measured the kinetics of ROS formation in HepG2 cells by a DCFH-DA assay, and found that PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid caused a significant decrease in DCF fluorescence intensity, which was 2-fold lower than that in control cells after a 5h exposure. This indicates that the PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid microspheres either act as scavengers of intracellular ROS and/or reduce their formation. Also, the results of antimicrobial activity of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid obtained by the broth microdilution method showed superior and extended activity of these particles. The samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential and particle size analysis. This paper presents a new approach to the treatment of infection that at the same time offers a very pronounced antioxidant effect. PMID:23988864

Stevanovi?, Magdalena; Bra?ko, Ines; Milenkovi?, Marina; Filipovi?, Nenad; Nuni?, Jana; Filipi?, Metka; Uskokovi?, Dragan P

2014-01-01

203

Controlled release of the fibronectin central cell binding domain from polymeric microspheres.  

PubMed

Non-ionic surfactants have been employed as alternatives to PVA for the emulsification-encapsulation of a conformationally labile protein (FIII9'-10) into PLGA microspheres. FIII9'-10 was encapsulated using a w/o/w double emulsification-evaporation technique and the microspheres fabricated were characterized by SEM and CLSM. The peptide backbone integrity of FIII9'-10 was assayed by SDS-PAGE and the degree of unfolding of FIII9'-10 following emulsification-encapsulation was assessed using a fibroblast cell-attachment assay. The encapsulation efficiency for FIII9'-10 was 25% when using PVA, compared to 50-60% when using Igepal CA-630 or Triton-X100, with values below for the other surfactants. FIII9'-10 released from microspheres promoted cell attachment in a concentration-dependent manner, only Igepal CA-630 and Triton X-100 maintaining near-maximal cell attachment, indicating that the conformation of the relatively unstable FIII9' domain was preserved. All non-ionic surfactants reduced microsphere surface porosity, compared to PVA, and an increasing surface rugosity (leading to minor 'ridges') could be correlated with decreasing surfactant HLB. Low surface porosities did not effect the diffusion of FIII9'-10 from the microspheres' internal pores in a 'burst release', as may have been imagined. In summary, non-ionic surfactants should be considered over PVA for the maintenance of biological activity of conformationally labile proteins during encapsulation. PMID:15023466

Bouissou, Camille; Potter, Ursula; Altroff, Harri; Mardon, Helen; Van Der Walle, Christopher

2004-03-24

204

A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide-protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process.  

PubMed

A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi's model (t(1/2)). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating injectable depots for sensitive hydrophilic drugs such as peptides and proteins, among others. PMID:23788833

Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

2013-01-01

205

The cost associated with administering risperidone long-acting injections in the Australian community  

PubMed Central

Background Risperidone long-acting injection (LAI) is mostly administered twice weekly to people with schizophrenia by nurses at community mental health centres (CMHC) or through mobile outreach visits. This study estimates the cost of resource utilisation associated with the administration of risperidone LAI and the potential savings from substituting two-weekly injections with a longer interval product of therapeutic equivalence. Methods A survey of mental health staff overseeing the administration of risperidone LAI at 253 distinct Australian CMHCs was undertaken in November 2009. For the two-week period prior to the survey, respondents were asked questions on injection time (and related tasks) and, for mobile outreach visits, distance and time travelled as well as reduction in visits. Results were stratified by Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) region. Resource use was quantified and valued in Australian dollars. Results Results are derived from 74 CMHCs, representing approximately 26% of the national average risperidone LAI unit two-week sales. Stratified average injection time (including related tasks) for risperidone LAI ranged from 18-29 minutes, with a national average of 20.12 minutes. For mobile outreach visits, average distance per patient ranged from 19.4 to 55.5 km for One Staff Visits and 15.2 to 218.1 km for More Than One Staff Visits, and average time travelled ranged from 34.1 to 54.5 minutes for One Staff Visits and 29.2 to 136.3 minutes for More Than One Staff visits. The upper range consistently reflected greater resource utilisation in rural areas compared to urban areas. If administration of risperidone LAI had not been required, 20% fewer mobile outreach visits would have occurred. Conclusions The national average saving per two-weekly risperidone long-acting injection avoided is $75.14. In 2009 in Australia, this would have saved ~$11 million for injection administration costs alone if all patients taking two-weekly risperidone LAI had instead been treated with a therapeutically equivalent long-acting injectable antipsychotic requiring one less injection per month. PMID:21943060

2011-01-01

206

Effect of PEGylation on stability of peptide in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PEGylation on the stabilization of peptide in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)\\u000a (PLGA) microspheres for sustained release delivery. As model peptide, growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) was conjugated\\u000a with succinimidyl propionate monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with an average molecular weight of 2000 Da. The mono-PEG-GHRP-6\\u000a was separated by ion-exchange chromatography, and its molecular mass

Eun Ji Park; Tae Hyuk Tak; Dong Hee Na; Kang Choon Lee

2010-01-01

207

Evaluation of orntide microspheres in a rat animal model and correlation to in vitro release profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orntide acetate, a novel luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonist, was prepared and evaluated in vivo in 30-day\\u000a and 120-day sustained delivery formulations using a rat animal model. Orntide poly(d,l- lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(d,l-\\u000a lactide) (PLA) microspheres were prepared by a dispersion method and administered subcutaneously in a liquid vehicle to rats\\u000a at 2.2 mg Orntide\\/kg of body weight (30-day forms)

Janusz W. Kostanski; Bhas A. Dani; George-Ann Reynolds; Cyril Y. Bowers; Patrick P. DeLuca

2000-01-01

208

Tetanus toxoid and synthetic malaria antigen containing poly(lactide)\\/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres: importance of polymer degradation and antigen release for immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of in vitro degradation of poly(lactide)\\/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLA\\/PLGA) microspheres and of the concomitant in vitro release of a natural and a synthetic antigen for eliciting immune response was studied in mice. A variety of PLAs and PLGAs differing in molecular weight (Mw of 14–130 kDa) and in polymer composition (lactic\\/glycolic acid ratio of 100:00, 75:25, and 50:50) were examined

Claudio Thomasin; Giampietro Corradin; Ying Men; Hans P. Merkle; Bruno Gander

1996-01-01

209

Reversible Contraception Update: The Importance of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception  

PubMed Central

The past several years have seen an expansion in contraception options. Emerging data support the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) such as the intrauterine device and subdermal implant as the most effective methods of contraception with the highest continuation rates and very high levels of patient satisfaction. In addition, the appropriate target population for the use of the intrauterine device now includes nulliparous women and adolescents. When a patient considers initiating a new contraceptive method, it is important to consider the characteristics of each method, including the side effects, effectiveness, and patient acceptability. Additionally, medical comorbidities must also be evaluated prior to choosing a method. In this article, we provide a brief overview of available reversible contraceptive methods, with an emphasis on LARC. PMID:19641264

Mestad, Renee E.; Kenerson, Jessica; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

2011-01-01

210

The role of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a critical appraisal  

PubMed Central

Despite their widespread use, long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (APs) are often regarded with some negativity because of the assumption of punishment, control and insufficient evolution towards psychosocial development of patients. However, LAI APs have proved effective in schizophrenia and other severe psychotic disorders because they assure stable blood levels, leading to a reduction of the risk of relapse. Therapeutic opportunities have also arisen after introduction of newer, second-generation LAI APs in recent years. Newer LAI APs are more readily dosed optimally, may be better tolerated and are better suited to integrated rehabilitation programmes. This review outlines the older and newer LAI APs available for the treatment of schizophrenia, with considerations of past and present pharmacological and therapeutic issues. Traditional, evidence-based approaches to systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials are of limited utility in this area so this paper’s blending of experimental trials with observational research is particularly appropriate and effective. PMID:25360245

Veguilla, Miguel Ruiz; Taylor, David; Balanzá-Martinez, Vicent

2014-01-01

211

Differences in acute anorectic effects of long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists in rats.  

PubMed

Long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have both glucose- and weight-lowering effects. The brain is poised to mediate both of these actions since GLP-1Rs are present in key areas known to control weight and glucose. Although some research has been performed on the effects of exendin-4 in the brain, little data exists on the central effects of liraglutide, a long-acting GLP-1R agonist with much closer structural homology to native GLP-1. In lean, Long-Evans rats, we found that direct intra-third cerebroventricular (i3vt) administration of 0.26 nmol liraglutide caused a 50% reduction in food intake. However, exendin-4 produced the same reduction in food intake with 10-fold greater potency (0.02 nmol). These data are supported by similar c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei by exendin-4 as compared to liraglutide despite differing doses. The anorectic effects of both drugs were blocked with i3vt pre-treatment of a GLP-1R competitive antagonist, exendin(9-39), indicating that both drugs required the GLP-1R for their effects. Exendin-4, and not liraglutide, caused hyperglycemia when given i3vt prior to an oral glucose tolerance test, although liraglutide did not lower glucose. Thus, these data show that GLP-1R agonists have differing anorectic potencies in the CNS, which may account for some of their clinical differences. Additionally, we show here that the glucose lowering properties of acute administration of GLP-1R agonists are not accounted for by their central effects. PMID:24879927

Sisley, Stephanie; Smith, Kathleen; Sandoval, Darleen A; Seeley, Randy J

2014-08-01

212

Tuning microcapsules surface morphology using blends of homo-and copolymers of PLGA and PLGA-PEG  

E-print Network

the surface morphology of polymer microcapsules containing perfluorooctyl bromide prepared by the solvent of poly(lacide-co-glyco- lide) (PLGA) surrounding a liquid core of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB). PLGA Red were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) was from Fluorochem (UK

Raphael, Elie

213

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

214

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-12-14

215

Combined corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist in one inhaler versus long-acting beta2-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Both inhaled steroids (ICS) and long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) are used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This updated review compared compound LABA plus ICS therapy (LABA/ICS) with the LABA component drug given alone. Objectives To assess the efficacy of ICS and LABA in a single inhaler with mono-component LABA alone in adults with COPD. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. The date of the most recent search was November 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind controlled trials. We included trials comparing compound ICS and LABA preparations with their component LABA preparations in people with COPD. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed study risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcomes were exacerbations, mortality and pneumonia, while secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life (measured by validated scales), lung function, withdrawals due to lack of efficacy, withdrawals due to adverse events and side-effects. Dichotomous data were analysed as random-effects model odds ratios or rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and continuous data as mean differences and 95% CIs. We rated the quality of evidence for exacerbations, mortality and pneumonia according to recommendations made by the GRADE working group. Main results Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, randomising 11,794 people with severe COPD. We looked at any LABA plus ICS inhaler (LABA/ICS) versus the same LABA component alone, and then we looked at the 10 studies which assessed fluticasone plus salmeterol (FPS) and the four studies assessing budesonide plus formoterol (BDF) separately. The studies were well-designed with low risk of bias for randomisation and blinding but they had high rates of attrition, which reduced our confidence in the results for outcomes other than mortality. Primary outcomes There was low quality evidence that exacerbation rates in people using LABA/ICS inhalers were lower in comparison to those with LABA alone, from nine studies which randomised 9921 participants (rate ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.84). This corresponds to one exacerbation per person per year on LABA and 0.76 exacerbations per person per year on ICS/LABA. Our confidence in this effect was limited by statistical heterogeneity between the results of the studies (I2 = 68%) and a risk of bias from the high withdrawal rates across the studies. When analysed as the number of people experiencing one or more exacerbations over the course of the study, FPS lowered the odds of an exacerbation with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.83 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.98, 6 studies, 3357 participants). With a risk of an exacerbation of 47% in the LABA group over one year, 42% of people treated with LABA/ICS would be expected to experience an exacerbation. Concerns over the effect of reporting biases led us to downgrade the quality of evidence for this effect from high to moderate. There was no significant difference in the rate of hospitalisations (rate ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.13, very low quality evidence due to risk of bias, statistical imprecision and inconsistency). There was no significant difference in mortality between people on combined inhalers and those on LABA, from 10 studies on 10,680 participants (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.11, downgraded to moderate quality evidence due to statistical imprecision). Pneumonia occurred more commonly in people randomised to combined inhalers, from 12 studies with 11,076 participants (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.01, moderate quality evidence due to risk of bias in relation to attrition) with an annual risk of around 3% on LABA alone compared to 4% on combination treatment. There were no significant differences between the results for either exacerbations or pneumonia from trials adding different doses or types of inhaled corticosteroid. Secondary outcomes ICS/LABA was more effective than LABA alone in improving health-related quality of life measured by the St George’s Resp

Nannini, Luis Javier; Lasserson, Toby J; Poole, Phillippa

2014-01-01

216

Polypyrrole-Coated Electrospun PLGA Nanofibers for Neural Tissue Applications  

PubMed Central

Electrospinning is a promising approach to create nanofiber structures that are capable of supporting adhesion and guiding extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, electrical stimulation of neurons in the absence of topographical features also has been shown to guide axonal extension. Therefore, the goal of this study was to form electrically conductive nanofiber structures and to examine the combined effect of nanofiber structures and electrical stimulation. Conductive meshes were produced by growing polypyrrole (PPy) on random and aligned electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers, as confirmed by scanning electron micrographs and X-ray photon spectroscopy. PPy-PLGA electrospun meshes supported the growth and differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells and hippocampal neurons comparable to non-coated PLGA control meshes, suggesting that PPy-PLGA may be suitable as conductive nanofibers for neuronal tissue scaffolds. Electrical stimulation studies showed that PC12 cells, stimulated with a potential of 10 mV/cm on PPy-PLGA scaffolds, exhibited 40–50% longer neurites and 40–90% more neurite formation compared to unstimulated cells on the same scaffolds. In addition, stimulation of the cells on aligned PPy-PLGA fibers resulted in longer neurites and more neurite-bearing cells than stimulation on random PPy-PLGA fibers, suggesting a combined effect of electrical stimulation and topographical guidance and the potential use of these scaffolds for neural tissue applications. PMID:19501901

Lee, Jae Young; Bashur, Chris A.; Goldstein, Aaron S.; Schmidt, Christine E.

2009-01-01

217

Flexibly timed once-daily dosing with degludec: a new ultra-long-acting basal insulin.  

PubMed

Insulin treatment in type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D) is highly efficacious, but in practice, non-adherence and ineffective dose titration limit its effectiveness. Barriers to more effective insulin treatment are numerous, including hypoglycaemia, fear of hypoglycaemia and concern about weight gain. The regular treatment timing needed with conventional basal insulins [neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin and the first-generation analogues glargine and detemir] may also make adherence to these treatments problematic for many patients. Indeed, surveys indicate that the rigidity of this schedule induces some patients with T1D and T2D to omit insulin doses. Degludec is a novel, ultra-long-acting basal insulin analogue that is as effective as insulin glargine, but significantly reduces patients' risk of nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Because of its peakless, extended and highly predictable glucose-lowering effect, once-daily dosing on a flexible schedule may be feasible with degludec. Studies testing this possibility suggest that degludec tolerates day-to-day variation in dose timing while maintaining full efficacy and low risk of nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Degludec would appear to be an appropriate choice for patients being considered for a basal analogue, and it may be particularly well suited to patients with unpredictable social or work schedules, those who travel frequently and those who find rigid scheduling of their insulin injections a burden or barrier to regular treatment. PMID:23577589

Josse, R G; Woo, V

2013-12-01

218

Dual use of long-acting reversible contraceptives and condoms among adolescents.  

PubMed

Unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) continue to be significant public health problems, and adolescents are disproportionately affected by both. With national attention and funding directed toward adolescent pregnancy prevention, promotion of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use among adolescents is both timely and relevant. However, LARCs provide no protection against STIs, requiring dual-method use of both LARC and barrier methods, most commonly the male latex condom, to address these issues simultaneously. Rates of both LARC and dual-method contraception are low in the United States, but have increased in recent years. Dual-method contraception is highest among younger women and adolescents with multiple or new sex partners. Consistent condom use remains a major barrier to dual-method use, as it necessitates admission of STI risk by both partners, and use is dependent upon two decision-makers rather than a single contraceptive user. Promoting the initiation and maintenance of LARC and condom use across multiple partnered sexual encounters requires understanding of individual, dyadic, and social influences. Successful maintenance of contraceptive and STI prevention behaviors requires individualized, longitudinal reinforcement, and social supports, but can ultimately reduce the burden of unintended pregnancy and STI among adolescents. PMID:23535054

Williams, Rebekah L; Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-04-01

219

Increased Use of Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injections with Community Treatment Orders  

PubMed Central

Background: Community treatment orders (CTOs) are increasingly being used, despite a weak evidence base, and problems continue regarding Second Opinion Appointed Doctor (SOAD) certification of medication. Aims: The aim of the current study was to describe current CTO usage regarding patient characteristics, prescribed medication and CTO conditions. Method: A 1-year prospective cohort study with consecutive sampling was conducted for all patients whose CTO was registered in a large mental health trust. Only the first CTO for each patient was included. Measures included sociodemographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, CTO date of initiation and conditions, psychotropic medication and date of SOAD certification for medication. This study was conducted in the first year of CTO legislation in England and Wales. Results: A total of195 patients were sampled (mean age 40.6 years, 65% male, 52% black ethnic origin). There was significant geographical variability in rates of CTO use (?2 = 11.3, p = 0.012). A total of 53% had their place of residence specified as a condition and 29% were required to allow access into their homes. Of those with schizophrenia, 64% were prescribed an antipsychotic long-acting injection (LAI). Of the total group, 7% received high-dose antipsychotics, 10% were prescribed two antipsychotics and only 15% received SOAD certification in time. Conclusions: There was geographical and ethnic variation in CTO use but higher rates of hospital detention in minority ethnic groups may be contributory. Most patients were prescribed antipsychotic LAIs and CTO conditions may not follow the least restrictive principle. PMID:23983926

Patel, Maxine X.; Matonhodze, Jane; Baig, Mirza K.; Gilleen, James; Boydell, Jane; Holloway, Frank; Taylor, David; Szmukler, George; Lambert, Tim; David, Anthony S.

2011-01-01

220

Safety of long-acting beta agonists and inhaled corticosteroids in children and adolescents with asthma.  

PubMed

The introduction of long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) was considered a major advance in bronchodilator therapy for adult, as well as pediatric, patients with asthma. However, the use of LABAs has raised safety concerns, especially the potential for severe asthma exacerbations (SAEs) resulting in hospitalizations or even death. Meanwhile, the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), a cornerstone in the treatment of mild-to-severe persistent asthma, has been associated with growth suppression in children. The purpose of this review was to identify and discuss the major published safety studies surrounding LABA, ICS, and combined LABA/ICS usage in children. By way of a critical search for influential published clinical trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies, six studies relevant to the safety of LABA monotherapy, seven studies relevant to ICS monotherapy, and four studies on the subject of LABA/ICS combination usage were identified and reviewed. Based on the reviewed literature, the controversy surrounding these anti-asthma medications was clearly exposed. On the one hand, there is some evidence that LABA monotherapy may be associated with SAEs and asthma-related death, while ICS monotherapy may be associated with a higher risk of growth suppression. On the other hand, the concurrent use of a LABA with an ICS has been associated with positive outcomes including symptom reduction and reduced rate and severity of exacerbations. Further clinical research is warranted and has been called for by the US Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25114786

Xia, Ying; Kelton, Christina M L; Xue, Liang; Guo, Jeff J; Bian, Boyang; Wigle, Patricia R

2013-12-01

221

Subcutaneous implants for long-acting drug therapy in laboratory animals may generate unintended drug reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Background: Long-acting therapy in laboratory animals offers advantages over the current practice of 2-3 daily drug injections. Yet little is known about the disintegration of biodegradable drug implants in rodents. Objective: Compare bioavailability of buprenorphine with the biodegradation of lipid-encapsulated subcutaneous drug pellets. Methods: Pharmacokinetic and histopathology studies were conducted in BALB/c female mice implanted with cholesterol-buprenorphine drug pellets. Results: Drug levels are below the level of detection (0.5 ng/mL plasma) within 4-5 days of implant. However, necroscopy revealed that interstitial tissues begin to seal implants within a week. Visual inspection of the implant site revealed no evidence of inflammation or edema associated with the cholesterol-drug residue. Chemical analyses demonstrated that the residues contained 10-13% of the initial opiate dose for at least two weeks post implant. Discussion: The results demonstrate that biodegradable scaffolds can become sequestered in the subcutaneous space. Conclusion: Drug implants can retain significant and unintended reservoirs of drugs. PMID:24459402

Guarnieri, Michael; Tyler, Betty M.; DeTolla, Louis; Zhao, Ming; Kobrin, Barry

2014-01-01

222

Long-acting paliperidone palmitate - interim results of an observational study of its effect on hospitalization  

PubMed Central

Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a recently introduced long-acting atypical, or second-generation, antipsychotic. Published data on PP are currently limited to controlled trials and case reports. In this observational study, we followed up 200 consecutive patients prescribed PP in normal practice. After 1 year, 65% of patients were still receiving PP. The number of admissions to hospital in the year following PP initiation was 0.49/patient compared with 0.69/patient/year, 3 years before initiation (P=0.0001). The mean number of bed days fell from 38.78 to 23.09/patient/year over the corresponding period (P=0.0001). The median number of bed days 3 years before PP initiation was 21.50/year and in the year following PP initiation, it was 0. Outcomes were numerically but not statistically better in those continuing PP than in those who ceased PP within a year of initiation. PP was effective and well-tolerated and, given its positive effect on hospital bed days, broadly cost-effective. PMID:24419004

Olofinjana, Olubanke

2014-01-01

223

Long-Acting GLP-1 Analogue in V-Shaped Conformation by Terminal Polylysine Modifications.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) possesses multiple physiological functions, which make it a potential drug candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, its clinical application was limited severely by its short half-life in vivo. Therefore, stabilization of GLP-1 is critical for the use of this peptide in drug development. In this study, a novel GLP-1 derivative, VGLP1K6, processed a significantly prolonged half-life in vivo. Structural analysis using molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that VGLP1K6 has a rigid V-shaped conformation resulting from the intrapeptide disulfide bond. The C-terminal polylysine residues of VGLP1K6 caused the vulnerable N-terminus of GLP-1 (HA-fragment) to reside within the pocket-like cavity of the peptide due to the intrahydrogen bonds. The structural analysis suggested that this structural alteration contributed to the remarkable prolonged half-life of VGLP1K6, which was approximately 70 h. In addition, VGLP1K6 induced better long-acting glucose tolerance and greater HbA1c reductions than GLP-1 in rodents. Our findings suggest that the GLP-1 derivative VGLP1K6 might be a possible potent antidiabetic drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25243635

Yang, Xue; Li, Ying; Wang, Yuli; Zheng, Xuemin; Kong, Weiling; Meng, Fancui; Zhou, Zhixing; Liu, Changxiao; Li, Ying; Gong, Min

2014-11-01

224

Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of chronic airway diseases  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (neuronal and non-neuronal origin) regulates bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion. It has an inflammatory effect by inducing attraction, survival and cytokine release from inflammatory cells. Muscarinic receptors throughout the bronchial tree are mainly restricted to muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 receptors. Three long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) were approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe: once-daily tiotropium bromide; once-daily glycopyrronium bromide; and twice-daily aclidinium bromide. All have higher selectivity for M3 receptors than for M2 receptors, and dissociate more slowly from the M3 receptors than they do from the M2 receptors. Some LAMAs showed anti-inflammatory effects [inhibition of neutrophil chemotactic activity and migration of alveolar neutrophils, decrease of several cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and leukotriene (LT)B4] and antiremodeling effects (inhibition of mucus gland hypertrophy and decrease in MUC5AC-positive goblet cell number, decrease in MUC5AC overexpression). In the clinic, LAMAs showed a significant improvement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), quality of life, dyspnea and reduced the number of exacerbations in COPD and more recently in asthma. This review will focus on the three LAMAs approved in Europe in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. PMID:24587893

Palot, Alain; Sofalvi, Tunde; Pahus, Laurie; Gouitaa, Marion; Tummino, Celine; Martinez, Stephanie; Charpin, Denis; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal

2014-01-01

225

Olanzapine long-acting injection: insights from an early case series in the UK  

PubMed Central

Objective: Olanzapine long-acting injection depot (OLAI) has been licensed in the UK since 2008. As a result of the recognition during clinical trials that in 0.07% of injections there may be inadvertent intravenous administration leading to post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS), the licence mandates a 3 h observation after each injection and accompaniment of the patient to their final destination. The administration of OLAI may thus necessitate organization of local service provisions. We report on how a single healthcare facility in Northern Ireland has treated three initial patients and present a brief case series on these patients and their clinical outcomes. Methods: In the first three patients with schizophrenia to receive OLAI, the clinical notes were retrospectively examined to provide clinical data. Results: All three patients had acceptable clinical outcomes showing sustained clinical improvement and have continued on OLAI for over 1 year. Observation has been undertaken within an existing daycare unit staffed by nursing staff and occupational therapists for 3 h after each injection. No issues have emerged from the use of this service that has also provided educational and psycho-educational programmes for the patients. No cases of post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome were reported. There have been no additional cost implications. Conclusions: In patients for whom OLAI may be clinically indicated, the utilization of an existing service to provide the 3 h of observation after each injection may represent a solution with a cost-neutral outcome. PMID:23983974

McGlennon, Deirdre

2012-01-01

226

Electrospinning growth factor releasing microspheres into fibrous scaffolds.  

PubMed

This procedure describes a method to fabricate a multifaceted substrate to direct nerve cell growth. This system incorporates mechanical, topographical, adhesive and chemical signals. Mechanical properties are controlled by the type of material used to fabricate the electrospun fibers. In this protocol we use 30% methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid (HA), which has a tensile modulus of ~500 Pa, to produce a soft fibrous scaffold. Electrospinning on to a rotating mandrel produces aligned fibers to create a topographical cue. Adhesion is achieved by coating the scaffold with fibronectin. The primary challenge addressed herein is providing a chemical signal throughout the depth of the scaffold for extended periods. This procedure describes fabricating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres that contain Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and directly impregnating the scaffold with these microspheres during the electrospinning process. Due to the harsh production environment, including high sheer forces and electrical charges, protein viability is measured after production. The system provides protein release for over 60 days and has been shown to promote primary nerve cell growth. PMID:25178038

Whitehead, Tonya J; Sundararaghavan, Harini G

2014-01-01

227

Porous microsphere and its applications  

PubMed Central

Porous microspheres have drawn great attention in the last two decades for their potential applications in many fields, such as carriers for drugs, absorption and desorption of substances, pulmonary drug delivery, and tissue regeneration. The application of porous microspheres has become a feasible way to address existing problems. In this essay, we give a brief introduction of the porous microsphere, its characteristics, preparation methods, applications, and a brief summary of existing problems and research tendencies. PMID:23515359

Cai, Yunpeng; Chen, Yinghui; Hong, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

2013-01-01

228

Influence of storage temperature and moisture on the performance of microsphere/hydrogel composites.  

PubMed

The current study involved investigation of the effect of storage temperature and moisture on the performance of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere/poly(vinyl-alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel composites. Physical aging occurred in composites stored at 25°C due to structural relaxation. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and enthalpy of relaxation of the composites increased leading to a slower cumulative % release. The Tg of composites incubated at 40°C, 75% RH decreased significantly due to the plasticization effect of absorbed water, whereas no change was observed in the Tg of microspheres alone; indicating that the hydrogel component enhanced water absorption. PLGA degradation occurred leading to significantly faster dexamethasone release following incubation at 40°C, 75% RH for 1 month. No significant change was observed in the in vitro release profiles of composites after 6 months storage at 25°C, 60% RH, however, release was accelerated following 12 months storage. Accordingly, exposure of the composites to ambient temperature/moisture during storage, shipping or handling may cause physical aging, plasticization, and degradation and hence, their performance may be affected. The extent to which the performance of the composite is affected by storage temperature and moisture is a net effect of physical aging and moisture induced plasticization/hydrolytic degradation. PMID:23811131

Wang, Yan; Burgess, Diane J

2013-09-15

229

Advances in Asthma and COPD Treatment: Combination Therapy with Inhaled Corticosteroids and Long-Acting ?2-Agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma treatment guidelines advocate the use of long-acting ?2-agonists (LABA) in addition to inhaled corti- costeroids (ICS) in patients whose asthma is uncontrolled by ICS alone, thereby addressing two processes fundamental to asthma: bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Superior control - including a reduction in severe exacerbations - of asthma and COPD by ICS\\/LABA combination therapy has been demonstrated. Results from clinical

A. Miller-Larsson; O. Selroos

2006-01-01

230

Use of long-acting neuroleptics to reduce the stress response to management practices in red deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of six adult red deer hinds were used to determine whether long-acting neuroleptic (LAN) tranquillisers were able to modify the behavioural and physiological responses of the deer to a range of routine management stressors: such drugs may eventually prove useful in capture procedures for wild animals. While the stressors increased moving activity and decreased inactive lying and inter-animal

Silvana Diverio; Pete J. Goddard; Iain J. Gordon

1996-01-01

231

EVALUATION OF A LONG-ACTING SELENIUM AND COPPER PREPARA-TION FOR INTRARUMINAL ADMINISTRATION TO CATTLE  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF A LONG-ACTING SELENIUM AND COPPER PREPARA- TION FOR INTRARUMINAL ADMINISTRATION et de cuivre dans le plasma des veaux nés de vaches traitées est encore faible. Selenium (Se of ruminant animals under pasture conditions is the use of selenium soluble glass boluses (SGB) (Hidiroglou et

Boyer, Edmond

232

Treatment Outcomes with Long Acting Octreotide in Inoperable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: a Local Experience and Review of Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the efficacy of long acting octreotide (LAR) in the treatment of inoperable hepatocellu- lar carcinoma; as well as to estimate the improvement in the quality of life. Methods: This study was carried out at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad between February and September 2003. Patients were recruited after an informed consent. There were 22 patients who decided

Muzaffar Lateef Gill; Muslim Atiq; Syma Sattar; Nasir Khokhar

233

CO2-assisted high pressure homogenization: a solvent-free process for polymeric microspheres and drug-polymer composites.  

PubMed

The study explores the enabling role of near-critical CO(2) as a reversible plasticizer in the high pressure homogenization of polymer particles, aiming at their comminution as well as at the formation of drug-polymer composites. First, the effect of near-critical CO(2) on the homogenization of aqueous suspensions of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) was investigated. Applying a pressure drop of 900 bar and up to 150 passes across the homogenizer, it was found that particles processed in the presence of CO(2) were generally of microspherical morphology and at all times significantly smaller than those obtained in the absence of a plasticizer. The smallest particles, exhibiting a median x(50) of 1.3 ?m, were obtained by adding a small quantity of ethyl acetate, which exerts on PLGA an additional plasticizing effect during the homogenization step. Further, the study concerns the possibility of forming drug-polymer composites through simultaneous high pressure homogenization of the two relevant solids, and particularly the effect of near-critical CO(2) on this process. Therefore, PLGA was homogenized together with crystalline S-ketoprofen (S-KET), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, at a drug to polymer ratio of 1:10, a pressure drop of 900 bar and up to 150 passes across the homogenizer. When the process was carried out in the presence of CO(2), an impregnation efficiency of 91% has been reached, corresponding to 8.3 wt.% of S-KET in PLGA; moreover, composite particles were of microspherical morphology and significantly smaller than those obtained in the absence of CO(2). The formation of drug-polymer composites through simultaneous homogenization of the two materials is thus greatly enhanced by the presence of CO(2), which increases the efficiency for both homogenization and impregnation. PMID:22750408

Kluge, Johannes; Mazzotti, Marco

2012-10-15

234

Liraglutide, a long-acting GLP-1 mimetic, and its metabolite attenuate inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory response plays a pivotal role in propagating injury of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone with antidiabetic effect and may also have antiinflammatory properties. Despite consensus that the glucoregulatory action is mediated by the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), mechanisms in the brain remain unclear. We investigated the effect of a long-acting GLP-1 analog, liraglutide, and its truncated metabolite, GLP-1(9-36)a from dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) cleavage in ICH-induced brain injury. Primary outcomes were cerebral edema formation, neurobehavior, and inflammatory parameters. GLP-1(9-36)a, GLP-1R inhibitor, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation inhibitor and DPP-4 inhibitor were administered to examine the mechanisms of action. Liraglutide suppressed neuroinflammation, prevented brain edema and neurologic deficit following ICH, which were partially reversed by GLP-1R inhibitor and AMPK phosphorylation inhibitor. Liraglutide-mediated AMPK phosphorylation was unaffected by GLP-1R inhibitor, and was found to be induced by GLP-1(9-36)a. GLP-1(9-36)a showed salutary effects on primary outcomes that were reversed by AMPK phosphorylation inhibitor but not by GLP-1R inhibitor. Liraglutide and DPP-4 inhibitor co-administration reversed liraglutide-mediated AMPK phosphorylation and antiinflammatory effects. Liraglutide exerted duals actions and the antiinflammatory effects are partially mediated by its metabolite in a phosphorylated AMPK-dependent manner. Therapies that inhibit GLP-1 degradation may weaken the metabolite-mediated effects. PMID:22968320

Hou, Jack; Manaenko, Anatol; Hakon, Jakob; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

2012-01-01

235

Preclinical pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy.  

PubMed

Long-acting injectable nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) was developed with the explicit goal of improving medicine compliance and for drug targeting of viral tissue reservoirs. Prior nanoART studies completed in humanized virus-infected mice demonstrated sustained antiretroviral responses. However, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tissue distribution of nanoART were not characterized. To this end, the PK and tissue distribution of nanoformulated atazanavir (ATV) and ritonavir (RTV) injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly in mice and monkeys were evaluated. Fourteen days after injection, ATV and RTV levels were up to 13-, 41-, and 4,500-fold higher than those resulting from native-drug administration in plasma, tissues, and at the site of injection, respectively. At nanoART doses of 10, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg of body weight, relationships of more- and less-than-proportional increases in plasma and tissue levels with dose increases were demonstrated with ATV and RTV. Multiple-dose regimens showed serum and tissue concentrations up to 270-fold higher than native-drug concentrations throughout 8 weeks of study. Importantly, nanoART was localized in nonlysosomal compartments in tissue macrophages, creating intracellular depot sites. Reflective data were obtained in representative rhesus macaque studies. We conclude that nanoART demonstrates blood and tissue antiretroviral drug levels that are enhanced compared to those of native drugs. The sustained and enhanced PK profile of nanoART is, at least in part, the result of the sustained release of ATV and RTV from tissue macrophases and at the site of injection. PMID:23612193

Gautam, Nagsen; Roy, Upal; Balkundi, Shantanu; Puligujja, Pavan; Guo, Dongwei; Smith, Nathan; Liu, Xin-Ming; Lamberty, Benjamin; Morsey, Brenda; Fox, Howard S; McMillan, Joellyn; Gendelman, Howard E; Alnouti, Yazen

2013-07-01

236

Long-acting glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide ameliorates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.  

PubMed

Obesity induces low-grade chronic inflammation, manifested by proinflammatory polarization of adipose tissue innate and adaptive resident and recruited immune cells that contribute to insulin resistance (IR). The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that mediates postprandial insulin secretion and has anabolic effects on the adipose tissue. Importantly, recent evidence suggested that GIP is a potential suppressor of inflammation in several metabolic models. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory role of GIP in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) using the long-acting GIP analog [d-Ala(2)]GIP. Administration of [d-Ala(2)]GIP resulted in adipocytes of increased size, increased levels of adipose tissue lipid droplet proteins, indicating better lipid storage capacity, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Flow cytometry analysis revealed reduced numbers of inflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes and F4/80(hi)CD11c(+) macrophages, associated with IR. In addition, [d-Ala(2)]GIP reduced adipose tissue infiltration of IFN-?-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, [d-Ala(2)]GIP treatment induced a favorable adipose tissue adipokine profile, manifested by a prominent reduction in key inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IFN-?) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL8, and CCL5) and an increase in adiponectin. Notably, [d-Ala(2)]GIP also reduced the numbers of circulating neutrophils and proinflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes in mice fed regular chow or a high-fat diet. Finally, the beneficial immune-associated effects were accompanied by amelioration of IR and improved insulin signaling in liver and adipose tissue. Collectively, our results describe key beneficial immunoregulatory properties for GIP in DIO and reveal that its augmentation ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation and improves IR. PMID:25217161

Varol, Chen; Zvibel, Isabel; Spektor, Lior; Mantelmacher, Fernanda Dana; Vugman, Milena; Thurm, Tamar; Khatib, Marian; Elmaliah, Elinor; Halpern, Zamir; Fishman, Sigal

2014-10-15

237

Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. PMID:24194642

Zhao, Yueren; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao; Ikeda, Manabu

2013-01-01

238

Long-acting Reversible Contraception for Adolescents and Young Adults: Patient and Provider Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Study objective To describe and explore provider- and patient-level perspectives regarding long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) for teens and young adults (ages 16-24). Methods Data collection occurred between June – December 2011. We first conducted telephone interviews with administrative directors at 20 publicly funded facilities that provide family planning services. At six of these sites, we conducted a total of six focus group discussions (FGDs) with facility staff and forty-eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) with facility clients ages 16-24. Results Staff in the FGDs did not generally equate being a teen with ineligibility for IUDs. In contrast to staff, one quarter of the young women did perceive young age as rendering them ineligible. Clients and staff agreed that the “forgettable” nature of the methods and their duration were some of LARC’s most significant advantages. They also agreed that fear of pain associated with both insertion and removal and negative side effects were disadvantages. Some aspects of IUDs and implants were perceived as advantages by some clients but disadvantages by others. Common challenges to providing LARC-specific services to younger patients included extra time required to counsel young patients about LARC methods, outdated clinic policies requiring multiple visits to obtain IUDs, and a perceived higher removal rate among young women. The most commonly cited strategy for addressing many of these challenges was securing supplementary funding to support the provision of these services to young patients. Conclusion Incorporating young women’s perspectives on LARC methods into publicly funded family planning facilities’ efforts to provide these methods to a younger population may increase their use among young women. PMID:23287602

Kavanaugh, Megan L.; Frohwirth, Lori; Jerman, Jenna; Popkin, Ronna; Ethier, Kathleen

2013-01-01

239

Knowledge and attitudes about long-acting reversible contraception among Latina women who desire sterilization  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in increasing the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), and suggestions that such methods may serve as an alternative to sterilization. However, there is little information about whether women who do not want more children would be interested in using LARC methods. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 120 parous Latina women in El Paso, Texas who wanted a sterilization but had not obtained one. We assessed women’s awareness of and interest in using the copper intrauterine device (IUD), levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), and etonogestrel implant. Findings Overall, 51%, 23% and 47% of women reported they had heard of the copper IUD, LNG-IUS and implant, respectively. More women stated they would use the copper IUD (24%) than the LNG-IUS (14%) or implant (9%). Among women interested in LARC, the most common reasons were that, relative to their current method, LARC methods were more convenient, effective, and provided longer-term protection against pregnancy. Those who had reservations about LARC were primarily concerned with menstrual changes. Women also had concerns about side effects and the methods' effectiveness in preventing pregnancy, preferring to use a familiar method. Conclusions Although these findings indicate many Latina women in this setting do not consider LARC an alternative to sterilization, they point to an existing demand among some who wish to end childbearing. Efforts are needed to improve women’s knowledge and access to a range of methods so they can achieve their childbearing goals. PMID:23816156

White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Potter, Joseph E.; Grossman, Daniel

2013-01-01

240

Preclinical Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of Long-Acting Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Long-acting injectable nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) was developed with the explicit goal of improving medicine compliance and for drug targeting of viral tissue reservoirs. Prior nanoART studies completed in humanized virus-infected mice demonstrated sustained antiretroviral responses. However, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tissue distribution of nanoART were not characterized. To this end, the PK and tissue distribution of nanoformulated atazanavir (ATV) and ritonavir (RTV) injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly in mice and monkeys were evaluated. Fourteen days after injection, ATV and RTV levels were up to 13-, 41-, and 4,500-fold higher than those resulting from native-drug administration in plasma, tissues, and at the site of injection, respectively. At nanoART doses of 10, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg of body weight, relationships of more- and less-than-proportional increases in plasma and tissue levels with dose increases were demonstrated with ATV and RTV. Multiple-dose regimens showed serum and tissue concentrations up to 270-fold higher than native-drug concentrations throughout 8 weeks of study. Importantly, nanoART was localized in nonlysosomal compartments in tissue macrophages, creating intracellular depot sites. Reflective data were obtained in representative rhesus macaque studies. We conclude that nanoART demonstrates blood and tissue antiretroviral drug levels that are enhanced compared to those of native drugs. The sustained and enhanced PK profile of nanoART is, at least in part, the result of the sustained release of ATV and RTV from tissue macrophases and at the site of injection. PMID:23612193

Gautam, Nagsen; Roy, Upal; Balkundi, Shantanu; Puligujja, Pavan; Guo, Dongwei; Smith, Nathan; Liu, Xin-Ming; Lamberty, Benjamin; Morsey, Brenda; Fox, Howard S.; McMillan, JoEllyn; Gendelman, Howard E.

2013-01-01

241

Who Is Using Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Methods? Findings from Nine Low-Fertility Countries  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods—IUDs and implants—are more effective than other reversible methods, yet are little used in the United States. Examining which U.S. women use LARC methods and how they differ from users in other low-fertility countries may help point the way toward increasing use. METHODS Data from married or cohabiting women participating in the National Survey of Family Growth (2008–2010) and in eight countries’ Generations and Gender Programme surveys (2004–2010) were used in bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses examining LARC use within each setting. RESULTS The proportion of contraceptive use accounted for by LARC methods was generally greater in Europe (10–32%) than in the United States (10%) and Australia (7%). Compared with LARC use among comparable groups in other countries, use was particularly low among U.S. women who were married, were aged 40–44 or had had three or more children, yet was comparatively high among 18–24-year-olds. Among U.S. women, those aged 35–39 or 40–44 were more likely than 18–29-year-olds to rely on sterilization rather than on LARC methods (odds ratios, 3.0 and 10.7, respectively), those who had had three or more children were more likely to do so than were those who had had none or one (4.9), and women who had completed college were less likely than those who had not finished high school to do so (0.4). CONCLUSIONS Certain subgroups of U.S. women may benefit from the reversibility and effectiveness of LARC methods. PMID:25040454

Eeckhaut, Mieke C. W.; Sweeney, Megan M.; Gipson, Jessica D.

2014-01-01

242

Tetracycline-HCl-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres prepared by a spray drying technique: influence of gamma-irradiation on radical formation and polymer degradation.  

PubMed

Tetracycline-HCl (TCH)-loaded microspheres were prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by spray drying. The drug was incorporated in the polymer matrix either in solid state or as w/o emulsion. The spin probe 4-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) and the spin trap tert-butyl-phenyl-nitrone (PBN) were co-encapsulated into the TCH-loaded and placebo particles. We investigated the effects of gamma-irradiation on the formation of free radicals in polymer and drug and the mechanism of chain scission after sterilization. Gamma-Irradiation was performed at 26.9 and 54.9 kGy using a 60Co source. The microspheres were characterized especially with respect to the formation of radicals and in vitro polymer degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for characterization of the microspheres. Using EPR spectroscopy, we successfully detected gamma-irradiation induced free radicals within the TCH-loaded microspheres, while unloaded PLGA did not contain radicals under the same conditions. The relatively low glass transition temperature of the poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (37-39 degrees C) seems to favor subsequent reactions of free radicals due to the high mobility of the polymeric chains. Because of the high melting point of TCH (214 degrees C), the radicals can only be stabilized in drug loaded microspheres. In order to determine the mechanism of polymer degradation after exposure to gamma-rays, the spin trap PBN and the spin probe TEMPOL were encapsulated in the microspheres. gamma-Irradiation of microspheres containing PBN resulted in the formation of a lipophilic spin adduct, indicating that a polymeric radical was generated by random chain scission. Polymer degradation by an unzipping mechanism would have produced hydrophilic spin adducts of PBN and monomeric radicals of lactic or glycolic acid. These degradation products were not detected by EPR. This result is confirmed by the observation that possible diamagnetic reaction products of low molecular weight, consisting of TEMPOL and lactide or glycolide monomers, could not be detected by GC-MS. While an irradiation dose-dependent decrease in molecular weight of PLGA could be verified in agreement with the literature, TCH content of the microspheres was not affected by the exposure to gamma-rays. It can be concluded that EPR spectroscopy in combination with GPC, DSC, and HPLC allows a detailed characterization of the impact of gamma-sterilization on biodegradable parenteral drug delivery systems. PMID:10210719

Bittner, B; Mäder, K; Kroll, C; Borchert, H H; Kissel, T

1999-05-01

243

PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles for the improved delivery of doxorubicin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) can be maximized and dose-limiting cardiotoxicity minimized by controlled release from PEGylated nanoparticles. To test this hypothesis, a unique surface modification technique was used to create PEGylated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles encapsulating DOX. An avidin-biotin coupling system was used to control poly(ethylene glycol) conjugation to the surface of PLGA nanoparticles, of diameter

Jason Park; Peter M. Fong; Jing Lu; Kerry S. Russell; Carmen J. Booth; W. Mark Saltzman; Tarek M. Fahmy

2009-01-01

244

Engineering of lipid-coated PLGA nanoparticles with a tunable payload of diagnostically active nanocrystals for medical imaging  

E-print Network

Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable and therefore have been extensively investigated as therapeutic carriers. Here, we engineered diagnostically active PLGA nanoparticles ...

Mieszawska, Aneta J.

245

Attitudes towards the administration of long-acting antipsychotics: a survey of physicians and nurses  

PubMed Central

Background Discontinuation of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia can interrupt improvement and exacerbate the illness. Reasons for discontinuing treatment are multifactorial and include adherence, efficacy and tolerability issues. Poor adherence may be addressed through non-pharmacological approaches as well as through pharmacological ones, ie ensured delivery of medication, such as that achieved with long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics. However, attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards LAI antipsychotics may influence their prescribing decisions and may influence medication choices offered to patients. We therefore conducted a survey to investigate factors driving LAI use as well as physician and nurse attitudes to LAI antipsychotics and to different injection sites. Methods An independent market research agency conducted the survey of HCPs across Europe. Participants were recruited by telephone and completed the survey online. Using conjoint analyses (a multivariate statistical technique analysing preferences on the basis of ranking a limited number of attributes which are presented repetitively), attitudes to oral versus LAI medication and gluteal versus deltoid injection routes were assessed. Results A total of 891 HCPs across Europe were surveyed. Of these, 40% would choose LAI antipsychotics for first episode patients whereas 90% would select LAI antipsychotics for chronic patients with two to five psychotic episodes. Dominant elements in antipsychotic choice were low sedation but no tardive dyskinesia, no or mild pain at injection and low risk of embarrassment or impact upon therapeutic alliance. Eighty-six per cent of respondents considered that having the choice of a deltoid as well as gluteal administration site was beneficial over not having that choice. Two thirds of respondents said they agreed that medication administration via the deltoid muscle may reduce social embarrassment associated with LAI antipsychotics and most respondents (61%) believed that administration of LAI antipsychotics into the deltoid muscle as opposed to the gluteal muscle may be more respectful to the patient. Conclusions In this survey of physicians and nurses, attitudes towards LAI antipsychotics compared with oral medication were generally positive. Respondents considered that the availability of a deltoid administration route would offer increased choice in LAI antipsychotic administration and may be perceived as more respectful and less socially embarrassing. PMID:23414331

2013-01-01

246

Activity of aclidinium bromide, a new long-acting muscarinic antagonist: a phase I study  

PubMed Central

AIM Aclidinium bromide is a muscarinic antagonist in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This phase I trial in healthy subjects investigated the bronchodilator activity of aclidinium and its ability to reduce methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. METHODS This double-blind, partial-crossover study randomized 12 subjects to treatment with single doses of aclidinium (50, 300 or 600 µg) or placebo. Drug activity was assessed for 24 h after administration by specific airway conductance (sGaw), airways resistance (Raw) and bronchial responsiveness (PC35 sGaw methacholine). RESULTS Aclidinium significantly increased sGaw compared with placebo at all assessments and doses (sGaw mean ± SD AUC (l kPa?1 h) for placebo 24.4 ± 4.37, for 50 µg 29.0 ± 7.08, for 300 µg 31.2 ± 6.68 and for 600 µg 32.7 ± 7.95) (P < 0.009), except 50 µg at 1 and 24 h. Significant decreases in Raw were observed with aclidinium 300 and 600 µg compared with placebo at all assessments (Raw mean ± SD AUC (kPa s?1 l?1 h) for placebo 7.7 ± 3.46, for 300 µg 5.8 ± 2.33, for 600 µg 6.3 ± 3.11) (P < 0.04) except 600 µg at 24 h. Differences between aclidinium 300 and 600 µg vs. placebo in PC35 doubling concentration were significant at all assessments (mean ± SD AUC (mg ml?1 h) for placebo 100.0 ± 30.27, for 50 µg 117.2 ± 33.33, for 300 µg 168.9 ± 28.66 and for 600 µg 179.1 ± 15.73 (P < 0.0001). For all endpoints, there was a significant difference between aclidinium 50 µg and the higher doses (P < 0.0001). Aclidinium was not detected in plasma and was well tolerated. CONCLUSION Aclidinium produced statistically significant and sustained bronchodilation over 24 h, suggesting long-acting efficacy and providing a rationale for future studies in patients with COPD. PMID:20573081

Schelfhout, Vanessa J; Ferrer, Pau; Jansat, Josep Maria; Peris, Francesc; Gil, Esther Garcia; Pauwels, Romain A; Joos, Guy F

2010-01-01

247

Guidelines for the use and management of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in serious mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations are not widely used in routine practice even though they offer advantages in terms of relapse prevention. As part of a process to improve the quality of care, the French Association for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN) elaborated guidelines for the use and management of antipsychotic depots in clinical practice. Methods Based on a literature review, a written survey was prepared that asked about 539 options in 32 specific clinical situations concerning 3 fields: target-population, prescription and use, and specific populations. We contacted 53 national experts, 42 of whom (79%) completed the survey. The options were scored using a 9-point scale derived from the Rand Corporation and the University of California in the USA. According to the answers, a categorical rank (first-line/preferred choice, second-line/alternate choice, third-line/usually inappropriate) was assigned to each option. The first-line option was defined as a strategy rated as 7–9 (extremely appropriate) by at least 50% of the experts. The following results summarize the key recommendations from the guidelines after data analysis and interpretation of the results of the survey by the scientific committee. Results LAI antipsychotics are indicated in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder and bipolar disorder. LAI second-generation antipsychotics are recommended as maintenance treatment after the first episode of schizophrenia. LAI first-generation antipsychotics are not recommended in the early course of schizophrenia and are not usually appropriate in bipolar disorder. LAI antipsychotics have long been viewed as a treatment that should only be used for a small subgroup of patients with non-compliance, frequent relapses or who pose a risk to others. The panel considers that LAI antipsychotics should be considered and systematically proposed to any patients for whom maintenance antipsychotic treatment is indicated. Recommendations for medication management when switching oral antipsychotics to LAI antipsychotics are proposed. Recommendations are also given for the use of LAI in specific populations. Conclusion In an evidence-based clinical approach, psychiatrists, through shared decision-making, should be systematically offering to most patients that require long-term antipsychotic treatment an LAI antipsychotic as a first-line treatment. PMID:24359031

2013-01-01

248

Immunofluorescence detection methods using microspheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microsphere-based immunoassays were devised for compounds of agricultural and biomedical interest (e.g., digoxin, theophylline, and zearalenone). Commercially available microspheres with surface functional groups for chemical derivatization were used as solid carriers. After immobilizing the target substances, the surface of the haptenized microspheres was blocked by a protein to reduce aspecific binding. Competitive immunoassays were performed using the functionalized microspheres and antibodies labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Immunofluorescence signal amplification was achieved by enzyme-catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD). An epifluorescence microscope, a CCD camera interfaced with a computer, and microscopy image analysis software were employed for quantitative detection of fluorescent light emitted from individual microspheres. Integration of several such immunoassays and application of an optical encoding method enabled multianalyte determination. These immunoassays can also be utilized in an immunosensor array format. This immunoarray format could facilitate miniaturization and automation of multianalyte immunoassays.

Szurdoki, Ferenc; Michael, Karri L.; Agrawal, Divya; Taylor, Laura C.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Walt, David R.

1999-01-01

249

Case report: intoxication with high dose of long-acting methylphenidate (Concerta ® ) in a suicidal 14-year-old girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14-year-old girl with suicidal ideation was presented to the paediatric hospital about 2 h after ingestion of 21 long-acting\\u000a methylphenidate (MPH) 54-mg tablets (1,134 mg Concerta®). At admission signs of sympathomimetic syndrome were observed like agitation, visual hallucinations, slight hypertension,\\u000a and sinus tachycardia. Treatment included prevention of absorption (30 g activated charcoal orally) and careful observation\\u000a related to the overstimulation of the

K. Klampfl; A. Quattländer; R. Burger; B. Pfuhlmann; A. Warnke; M. Gerlach

2010-01-01

250

Gentamicin-loaded discs and microspheres and their modifications: characterization and in vitro release.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone, and successful treatment involves local administration for about 6 weeks. Gentamicin is a very hydrophilic drug and tends to come out into the water phase when microspheres are fabricated using solvent evaporation method. Hence, spray drying is an option, and it was observed that the release rate tends to be fast when the particle size is small and large particles cannot be prepared by spray drying. In an effort to get better encapsulation efficiency and release rate, we have worked on the possibility of compressing the microspheres into discs and modifying the porosity of the discs by using biocompatible materials like polyethylene glycol (PEG) and calcium phosphates and also on the fabrication of double-walled and composite microspheres. In the case of microspheres, two methods of fabrication both based on solvent evaporation method were employed. The two polymers used are poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and copolymers of poly-DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). One method is based on the spreading coefficient theory for the formation of double-walled microspheres by using single solvent, while the other is based on the property of PLLA not being soluble in ethyl acetate (EA). Characterization to check if the microspheres formed are double-walled was performed. The fabrication method where two solvents, dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate, were used gave double-walled microspheres, while the other where only dichloromethane was used gave composites. The double-walled microspheres were smaller in size compared to the composites, which were in the range of 100-600 microm. This can be attributed to the difference in the fabrication procedure. We were able to achieve better encapsulation efficiencies of more than 50% and slower release rates, which lasted for about 15 days. It was observed that size played a major role in the encapsulation efficiency and release rates. The possibility of achieving better results by studying the effect of concentration of polymer in solvent and the effect of using different polymers was investigated. PMID:15653156

Naraharisetti, Pavan Kumar; Lew, Magdeleine Duan Ning; Fu, Yin-Chih; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wang, Chi-Hwa

2005-02-01

251

Preparation and evaluation of lectin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for oral delivery of thymopentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate lectin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for oral delivery of thymopentin. Thymopentin loaded PLGA nanoparticles (TP5–NPs) were prepared by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Novel WGA–PLGA conjugates were synthesized by coupling the amino groups of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to the carbodiimide-activated carboxylic groups of PLGA, and were incorporated into nanoparticles preparation to

YaShu Yin; DaWei Chen; MingXi Qiao; Zhe Lu; HaiYang Hu

2006-01-01

252

PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles as protein carriers: synthesis, preparation and biodistribution in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to assess the merits of PEGylated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG–PLGA) nanoparticles as protein and peptide drugs (PPD) carriers. PEG–PLGA copolymer, which could be used to prepare the stealth nanoparticles or long-circulating nanoparticles, was synthesized with methoxypolyethyleneglycol (MePEG) and PLGA. The structure of PEG–PLGA was confirmed with 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum,

Ya-Ping Li; Yuan-Ying Pei; Xian-Ying Zhang; Zhou-Hui Gu; Zhao-Hui Zhou; Wei-Fang Yuan; Jian-Jun Zhou; Jian-Hua Zhu; Xiu-Jian Gao

2001-01-01

253

Case report: intoxication with high dose of long-acting methylphenidate (Concerta(®)) in a suicidal 14-year-old girl.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl with suicidal ideation was presented to the paediatric hospital about 2 h after ingestion of 21 long-acting methylphenidate (MPH) 54-mg tablets (1,134 mg Concerta(®)). At admission signs of sympathomimetic syndrome were observed like agitation, visual hallucinations, slight hypertension, and sinus tachycardia. Treatment included prevention of absorption (30 g activated charcoal orally) and careful observation related to the overstimulation of the sympathic system. Despite the intake of charcoal, the serum concentrations of MPH were 107 and 93 ng/ml 2.5 and 22 h after ingestion of MPH tablets. No support of vital functions was necessary. The girl made a full recovery and was discharged after 3 days of care at the paediatric clinic and referred to the child and adolescent psychiatric department. Exposure to a huge overdose of long-acting MPH exhibited acute sympathomimetic toxicity but no life-threatening symptoms in this patient. Thus this case report suggests that patients intoxicated with high dose long-acting MPH formulations can recover without sequelae when managed properly. PMID:21432608

Klampfl, K; Quattländer, A; Burger, R; Pfuhlmann, B; Warnke, A; Gerlach, M

2010-12-01

254

In vivo biocompatibility of the PLGA microparticles in parotid gland  

PubMed Central

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are used in various disorders for the controlled or sustained release of drugs, with the management of salivary gland pathologies possible using this technology. There is no record of the response to such microparticles in the glandular parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to assess the morphological changes in the parotid gland when injected with a single dose of PLGA microparticles. We used 12 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were injected into their right parotid gland with sterile vehicle solution (G1, n=4), 0.5 mg PLGA microparticles (G2, n=4), and 0.75 mg PLGA microparticles (G3, n=4); the microparticles were dissolved in a sterile vehicle solution. The intercalar and striated ducts lumen, the thickness of the acini and the histology aspect in terms of the parenchyma organization, cell morphology of acini and duct system, the presence of polymeric residues, and inflammatory response were determined at 14 days post-injection. The administration of the compound in a single dose modified some of the morphometric parameters of parenchyma (intercalar duct lumen and thickness of the glandular acini) but did not induce tissue inflammatory response, despite the visible presence of polymer waste. This suggests that PLGA microparticles are biocompatible with the parotid tissue, making it possible to use intraglandular controlled drug administration. PMID:24228103

Cantin, Mario; Miranda, Patricio; Suazo Galdames, Ivan; Zavando, Daniela; Arenas, Patricia; Velasquez, Luis; Vilos, Cristian

2013-01-01

255

Protein Micropatterns by PEG Grafting on Dewetted PLGA Films.  

PubMed

The ability to control protein and cell positioning on a microscopic scale is crucial in many biomedical applications, such as single cell studies. We have developed and investigated the grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brushes onto poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) thin films, which can be micropatterned by exploiting their spontaneous dewetting on top of polystyrene (PS) films. Dense PEG brushes with excellent protein repellence were achieved on PLGA by using cloud point grafting conditions, and selective adsorption of proteins on the micropatterned substrates was achieved by exploiting the different affinity protein adsorption onto the PEG brushes and the PS holes. PEG-grafted PLGA films showed better resistance against spontaneous degradation in buffer than bare PLGA films, due to passivation by the thin PEG coating. The simplicity of dewetting and subsequent grafting approaches, coupled with the ability to coat and pattern nonplanar substrates give rise to possible applications of PEG-grafted PLGA films in single cell studies and cell cultures for tissue engineering. PMID:25195610

Ghezzi, Manuel; Thickett, Stuart C; Telford, Andrew M; Easton, Christopher D; Meagher, Laurence; Neto, Chiara

2014-10-01

256

Towards Monodispersed Polymer Microspheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniform polymer microspheres prepared by Spinning Disk Atomization Our spinning disk atomization (SDA) can, relative to other existing techniques, produce micron-sized particles of very narrow size distribution. Around the edge of the disk, small teeth channel the flow into identical droplets that are flung off over the disk rim. These solidify during flight to form spherical particles. Applications for spheres produced by SDA can be found in areas such as adhesives, powder coatings, food, biomedical use, drug delivery systems, etc. We have atomized polyethyleneglycol into very narrowly dispersed microspheres ranging from 50 to 500 =B5m. The aim of this work is to model the droplet formation occurring at the rim of the spinning disk in order to better understand the experimental results. The viscosity contribution in the fluid breakup is qualitatively analyzed and is adapted to the theoretical model to show how it affects the droplet size. We have used the pendant drop model (Ramesh Babu, S. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 116, 350-372 (1987).) for spinning disk atomization to describe the drop-shape evolution during growth.

Senuma, Yoshinori; Hilborn, Jons

1998-03-01

257

Addition of long-acting beta-agonists to inhaled corticosteroids for chronic asthma in children  

PubMed Central

Background Long-acting ß2-agonists (LABA) in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are increasingly prescribed in asthmatic children. Objectives To compare the safety and benefit of adding LABA to ICS with the same or an increased dose of ICS in children with persistent asthma. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Asthma Trials Register (May 2008). Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials testing the combination of LABA and ICS versus the same or an increased dose of ICS for minimum of at least 28 days in children and adolescents with asthma. The main outcome was the rate of exacerbations requiring rescue oral steroids. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary function, symptoms, adverse events, and withdrawals. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed independently by two review authors for methodological quality and data extraction. Confirmation was obtained from the trialists when possible. Main results A total of 25 trials representing 31 control-intervention comparisons were included in the review randomising 5572 children. Most of the participants were inadequately controlled on current ICS dose. We assessed the addition of LABA to the same dose of ICS and to an increased dose of ICS: (1)The addition of LABA to ICS was compared to same dose ICS, namely 400 mcg/day of beclomethasone or less in 16 of the 24 studies. The mean age of participants was 10 years and males accounted for 64% of the study populations. The mean FEV1 at baseline was 80% of predicted or above in 10 studies; FEV1 61% to 79% of predicted in eight studies; and unreported in the remaining study. Participants were inadequately controlled before randomisation in all but seven studies. Compared to ICS alone, the addition of LABA to ICS was not associated with a significant reduction in exacerbations requiring oral steroids (seven studies, RR 0.92 95% CI 0.60 to 1.40). Compared to ICS alone, there was a significantly greater improvement in FEV1 with the addition of LABA (nine studies; 0.08 Litres, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.11) but no statistically significant group differences in symptom-free days, hospital admission, quality of life, use of reliever medication, and adverse events. Withdrawals occurred significantly less frequently with the addition of LABA.(2)A total of seven studies assessed the addition of LABA to ICS therapy compared with an increased dose of ICS randomising 1021 children. The mean age of participants was 8 years with 67% of males. The baseline mean FEV1 was 80% of predicted or above in 2 of the 3 studies reporting this characteristic. All trials enrolled participants who were inadequately controlled on a baseline dose equivalent to 400 mcg/day of beclomethasone or less. There was no group significant difference in the risk of an exacerbation requiring oral steroids with the combination of LABA and ICS compared to a double dose of ICS (two studies, RR 1.5 95% CI 0.65 to 3.48). The increased risk of hospital admission with combination therapy was also not statistically significant (RR 2.21 95% CI 0.74 to 6.64). Compared to double dose ICS, use of LABA was associated with a significantly greater improvement in morning PEF (four studies; MD 7.55 L/min 95% CI: 3.57 to 11.53) and evening PEF L/min (three studies, MD 5.5 L/min; 95% CI 1.21 to 9.79), but there were insufficient data to aggregate data on FEV1, symptoms, rescue reliever use, and quality of life. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall risk of all cause withdrawals (five studies; RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.20. There was no group difference in the risk of overall adverse effects detected. Short term growth was significantly greater in children treated with combination therapy compared to double dose ICS (two studies: MD 1.2 cm/year; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.7). Authors’ conclusions In children with persistent asthma, the addition of LABA to ICS was not associated with a significant reduction in the rate of exacerbations requiring systemic steroids, but was superior for improving lung function compared to t

Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Lasserson, Toby J; Greenstone, Ilana; Ducharme, Francine M

2014-01-01

258

Fabrication of pillared PLGA microvessel scaffold using femtosecond laser ablation  

PubMed Central

One of the persistent challenges confronting tissue engineering is the lack of intrinsic microvessels for the transportation of nutrients and metabolites. An artificial microvascular system could be a feasible solution to this problem. In this study, the femtosecond laser ablation technique was implemented for the fabrication of pillared microvessel scaffolds of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). This novel scaffold facilitates implementation of the conventional cell seeding process. The progress of cell growth can be observed in vitro by optical microscopy. The problems of becoming milky or completely opaque with the conventional PLGA scaffold after cell seeding can be resolved. In this study, PLGA microvessel scaffolds consisting of 47 ?m × 80 ?m pillared branches were produced. Results of cell culturing of bovine endothelial cells demonstrate that the cells adhere well and grow to surround each branch of the proposed pillared microvessel networks. PMID:22605935

Wang, Hsiao-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Wei; Li, Ching-Wen; Chang, Han-Wei; Wu, Ping-Han; Wang, Gou-Jen

2012-01-01

259

Microsphere contrast agents for OCT  

E-print Network

,17 , absorbing dyes18,19 , plasmon-resonant nanoparticles20,21 and magnetomotive nanoparticles22 . This chapter describes the fabrication, characterization and application of a new class of engineered protein microsphere

Suslick, Kenneth S.

260

Interaction of PLGA and trimethyl chitosan modified PLGA nanoparticles with mixed anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid bilayers studied using molecular dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a biodegradable polymer. Nanoparticles of PLGA are commonly used for drug delivery applications. The interaction of the nanoparticles with the cell membrane may influence the rate of their uptake by cells. Both PLGA and cell membranes are negatively charged, so adding positively charged polymers such as trimethyl chitosan (TMC) which adheres to the PLGA particles improves their cellular uptake. The interaction of 3 nm PLGA and TMC-modified-PLGA nanoparticles with lipid bilayers composed of mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine lipids was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The free energy profiles as function of nanoparticles position along the normal direction to the bilayers were calculated, the distribution of phosphatidylserine lipids as a function of distance of the particle from the bilayer was calculated, and the time scale for particle motion in the directions parallel to the bilayer surface was estimated.

Novak, Brian; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Moldovan, Dorel

2012-02-01

261

Prevalence and factors affecting use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction In Ethiopia, knowledge of contraceptive methods is high though there is low contraceptive prevalence rate. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors affecting long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives utilization from March to April 2008. Eight hundred child bearing age women were participated in the quantitative study and 32 purposively selected focus group discussants were participated in the qualitative study. Face to face interview was used for data collection. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were computed to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was 7.3%. Three fourth (76.1%) of the women have ever heard about implants and implant 28 (50%) were the most widely used method. Almost two third of women had intention to use long acting and permanent methods. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods. Conclusion The overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was low. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with use of long acting and permanent contraceptive. Extensive health information should be provided.

Mekonnen, Getachew; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

262

Glass microsphere lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the manufacturing of the microspheres, while sorting entails deciphering the good microspheres from the bad ones. Each process is discussed in detail.

Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

1991-01-01

263

Oral Delivery of DMAB-Modified Docetaxel-Loaded PLGA-TPGS Nanoparticles for Cancer Chemotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of nanoparticle formulation from biodegradable PLGA-TPGS random copolymer were developed in this research for oral administration of anticancer drugs, which include DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles, unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLGA-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. DMAB was used to increase retention time at the cell surface, thus increasing the chances of particle uptake and improving oral drug bioavailability. Nanoparticles were found to be of spherical shape with an average particle diameter of around 250 nm. The surface charge of PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was changed to positive after DMAB modification. The results also showed that the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cellular uptake than that of DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro, cytotoxicity experiment showed advantages of the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation over commercial Taxotere® in terms of cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, oral chemotherapy by DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation is an attractive and promising treatment option for patients.

Chen, Hongbo; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Ge; Tian, Yan; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kexin; Li, Lei; Li, Zhen; Mei, Lin; Huang, Laiqiang

2011-12-01

264

Oral Delivery of DMAB-Modified Docetaxel-Loaded PLGA-TPGS Nanoparticles for Cancer Chemotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of nanoparticle formulation from biodegradable PLGA-TPGS random copolymer were developed in this research for oral administration of anticancer drugs, which include DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles, unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLGA-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. DMAB was used to increase retention time at the cell surface, thus increasing the chances of particle uptake and improving oral drug bioavailability. Nanoparticles were found to be of spherical shape with an average particle diameter of around 250 nm. The surface charge of PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was changed to positive after DMAB modification. The results also showed that the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cellular uptake than that of DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro, cytotoxicity experiment showed advantages of the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation over commercial Taxotere® in terms of cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, oral chemotherapy by DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation is an attractive and promising treatment option for patients.

Chen, Hongbo; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Ge; Tian, Yan; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kexin; Li, Lei; Li, Zhen; Mei, Lin; Huang, Laiqiang

2010-12-01

265

Anticancer activity of cisplatin-loaded PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles on LNCaP prostate cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro anticancer activity of cisplatin-loaded PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles on human prostate cancer LNCaP cells was investigated. The uptake of the PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles by the LNCaP cells was also studied. Blank PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles exhibited low cytotoxicity, which increased with increasing PLGA\\/PEG ratio in the PLGA-mPEG copolymer used to prepare the nanoparticles, possibly due to the increased cell uptake observed with

Evangelos C. Gryparis; Maria Hatziapostolou; Evangelia Papadimitriou; Konstantinos Avgoustakis

2007-01-01

266

A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide-protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process  

PubMed Central

A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi’s model (t1/2). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating injectable depots for sensitive hydrophilic drugs such as peptides and proteins, among others. PMID:23788833

Alcala-Alcala, Sergio; Urban-Morlan, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

2013-01-01

267

Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces  

DOEpatents

A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

Elsholz, W.E.

1982-09-30

268

Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces  

DOEpatents

A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

Elsholz, William E. (Acampo, CA)

1984-01-01

269

Pharmacokinetics of a long-acting oxytetracycline preparation in ring-necked pheasants, great horned owls, and Amazon parrots.  

PubMed

After a single IV or IM dose of a long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC) preparation, serum concentrations were determined at various times in the ring-necked pheasant, great horned owl, and Amazon parrot. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including serum half-life (t1/2) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd) were calculated from the OTC concentration-time curves for each species and route of administration. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) were found in the t1/2 and Vd parameters between species and routes of administration. Dosage regimens to maintain minimum OTC concentration of 5 micrograms/ml of serum were calculated from the t 1/2 and Vd values obtained, using steady-state pharmacokinetics. In the pheasant, the calculated mean IV dose was 23 mg/kg of body weight every 6 hours, whereas the mean IM dose was 43 mg/kg every 24 hours. The mean IM dose was 16 mg/kg every 24 hours for the owl and 58 mg/kg every 24 hours for the parrot. The small volumes required for treatment, the long-dosing interval obtainable, and the broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity of the long-acting OTC preparation studied offered major advantages over other antibiotics commonly used in treating avian species. PMID:4083606

Teare, J A; Schwark, W S; Shin, S J; Graham, D L

1985-12-01

270

Design of PLGA Based Nanoparticles for Imaging Guided Applications.  

PubMed

An amphiphilic Gd(III) complex has been efficiently loaded in polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) to yield a novel, high sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for imaging guided drug delivery applications. As the Gd(III) complex is soluble in organic solvents, the nanoparticles were prepared as oil/water emulsions. PLGA-NPs were stable, in buffer, for more than 1 week without any release of the incorporated agents. The millimolar relaxivity of the Gd(III) complex incorporated in the particles (140 nm diameter) was of 21.7 mM(-1) s(-1) at 21.5 MHz, a value that is about 5 times higher than that observed with the commercially available contrast agents used in clinic. The relaxometric efficiency of these particles resulted inversely proportional to the particle size measured by dynamic light scattering. The high stability and sensitivity of PLGA-NPs allowed their accumulation in vivo in murine melanoma xenograft as shown in the corresponding MR images. Once loaded with drug and contrast agents, PLGA nanoparticles can be proposed as efficient theranostic MRI agents. PMID:25225751

Mariano, Rodolfo Nicolás; Alberti, Diego; Cutrin, Juan Carlos; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Aime, Silvio

2014-11-01

271

Simulation of Drug Release from PLGA Particles In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Specific targeting of tissues and/or cells is essential for any type of drug delivery system because this determines the efficacy and side effects of the drug. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acids (PLGA) have long been used as biomaterials for drug delivery due to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Direct visualization of PLGA particles is feasible even within tissues, and cell specificity of the drug delivery system is normally assessed by using labeled particles. However, particle labeling alone does not address factors such as the release and distribution of the drug. Thus, it is desirable to set up a simulation system of drug release and distribution in vivo. In the present study, we aimed to establish a method to simulate drug distribution in PLGA drug delivery by using Hoechst 33342 as an imitating drug. Our approach enabled us to identify, isolate, and characterize cells exposed to Hoechst 33342 and to deduce the concentration of this fluorescent dye around both targeted and nontargeted cells. We believe that the method described herein will provide essential information regarding the specificity of cell targeting in any type of PLGA drug delivery system. PMID:24222857

Sasaki, Kaori; Igarashi, Martha; Hinata, Manami; Komori, Yuna

2013-01-01

272

Dose-response effects of long-acting injectable vitamin B12 plus selenium (Se) on the vitamin B12 and Se status of ewes and their lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine the effect of increasing doses of long-acting injectable vitamin B12 plus selenium (Se) given pre-mating on the vitamin B12 and Se status of ewes and their lambs from birth to weaning.METHODS: Four groups of 24 Poll Dorset ewes each were injected 4 weeks pre-mating with different doses of a long-acting vitamin B12 + Se product, containing 3

ND Grace; SO Knowles

2006-01-01

273

Preparation of biodegradable magnetic microspheres with poly(lactic acid)-coated magnetite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles were made using uncapped PLA with free carboxylate groups. The physical properties of these particles were compared to those of oleate-coated or oleate/sulphonate bilayer (W40) coated magnetic particles. Magnetic microspheres (MMS) with the matrix material poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or PLA were then formed by the emulsion solvent extraction method with encapsulation efficiencies of 40%, 83% and 96% for oleate, PLA and oleate/sulfonate-coated magnetic particles, respectively. MMS made from PLA-coated magnetite were hemocompatible and produced no hemolysis, whereas the other MMS were hemolytic above 0.3 mg/mL of blood.

Zhao, Hong; Saatchi, Katayoun; Häfeli, Urs O.

2009-05-01

274

Effects of PLGA reinforcement methods on the mechanical property of carbonate apatite foam.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to improve the mechanical property of brittle carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) foam aimed as bone substitute material by reinforcement with poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). The CO3Ap foam was reinforced with PLGA by immersion and vacuum infiltration methods. Compressive strength of CO3Ap foam (12.0±4.9 kPa) increased after PLGA reinforcement by immersion (187.6±57.6 kPa) or vacuum infiltration (407.0±111.4 kPa). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation showed a gapless PLGA and CO3Ap foam interface and larger amount of PLGA inside the hollow space of the strut when vacuum infiltration method was employed. In contrast a gap was observed at the PLGA and CO3Ap foam interface and less amount of PLGA inside the hollow space of the strut when immersion method was employed. Strong PLGA-CO3Ap foam interface and larger amount of PLGA inside the hollow space of the strut is therefore the key to higher mechanical property obtained for CO3Ap foam when vacuum infiltration was employed for PLGA reinforcement. PMID:25201395

Munar, Girlie M; Munar, Melvin L; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

2014-01-01

275

Advances in Microsphere Insulation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microsphere insulation, typically consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. Microspheres provide robust, low-maintenance insulation systems for cryogenic transfer lines and dewars. They also do not suffer from compaction problems typical of perlite that result in the necessity to reinsulate dewars because of degraded thermal performance and potential damage to its support system. Since microspheres are load bearing, autonomous insulation panels enveloped with lightweight vacuum-barrier materials can be created. Comprehensive testing performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory located at the NASA Kennedy Space Center demonstrated competitive thermal performance with other bulk materials. Test conditions were representative of actual-use conditions and included cold vacuum pressure ranging from high vacuum to no vacuum and compression loads from 0 to 20 psi. While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual implementation has not been pursued. Innovative microsphere insulation system configurations and applications are evaluated.

Allen, M. S.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

2004-06-01

276

Optical trapping of coated microspheres.  

PubMed

In an optical trap, micron-sized dielectric particles are held by a tightly focused laser beam. The optical force on the particle is composed of an attractive gradient force and a destabilizing scattering force. We hypothesized that using anti-reflection-coated microspheres would reduce scattering and lead to stronger trapping. We found that homogeneous silica and polystyrene microspheres had a sharp maximum trap stiffness at a diameter of around 800 nm--the trapping laser wavelength in water--and that a silica coating on a polystyrene microsphere was a substantial improvement for larger diameters. In addition, we noticed that homogeneous spheres of a correct size demonstrated anti-reflective properties. Our results quantitatively agreed with Mie scattering calculations and serve as a proof of principle. We used a DNA stretching experiment to confirm the large linear range in detection and force of the coated microspheres and performed a high-force motor protein assay. These measurements show that the surfaces of the coated microspheres are compatible with biophysical assays. PMID:18772994

Bormuth, Volker; Jannasch, Anita; Ander, Marcel; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik

2008-09-01

277

Efficacy of the new long-acting formulation of lanreotide (lanreotide Autogel) in the management of acromegaly.  

PubMed

Lanreotide Autogel is a new long-acting aqueous preparation of lanreotide for the treatment of acromegaly and is administered by deep sc injection from a small volume, prefilled syringe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this new long-acting formulation in a large population of acromegalic patients previously responsive to lanreotide 30 mg, im (sustained release microparticle formulation). Lanreotide Autogel was administered by deep sc injection every 28 d to 107 patients (54 males and 53 females; mean age, 54 +/- 1.2 yr). All patients had been treated with lanreotide (30 mg) for at least 3 months before study entry and had a mean GH level less than 10 ng/ml after at least 4 subsequent im injections every 14 d (48%), 10 d (32%), or 7 d (20%). Treatment was switched from lanreotide 30 mg injected every 14, 10, or 7 d to 60, 90, or 120 mg lanreotide Autogel, respectively, every 28 d. After three fixed dose injections of lanreotide Autogel, mean lanreotide levels were similar to those obtained at steady state with lanreotide 30 mg. During lanreotide Autogel treatment, the control of acromegalic symptoms was comparable with that previously achieved during lanreotide 30 mg treatment. After 3 injections of lanreotide Autogel, mean GH (2.87 +/- 0.22 ng/ml) and IGF-I (317 +/- 15 ng/ml) values were comparable with those recorded at the end of lanreotide 30 mg treatment (GH, 2.82 +/- 0.19 ng/ml; IGF-I, 323 +/- 16 ng/ml). GH levels below 2.5 ng/ml and age-/sex-normalized IGF-I were achieved in 33% and 39% of patients during lanreotide 30 mg and lanreotide Autogel treatment, respectively. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea were reported by 38%, 22%, and 18% of patients during lanreotide 30 mg treatment and by 29%, 17%, and 9% of patients, respectively, during lanreotide Autogel treatment. In conclusion, this clinical study shows that lanreotide Autogel is at least as efficacious and well tolerated as lanreotide 30 mg. This new long-acting lanreotide formulation, lanreotide Autogel, which is administered from a small volume, prefilled syringe by deep sc injection, is therefore likely to improve the acceptability of medical treatment for patients requiring long-term somatostatin analog therapy. PMID:11788630

Caron, Ph; Beckers, A; Cullen, D R; Goth, M I; Gutt, B; Laurberg, P; Pico, A M; Valimaki, M; Zgliczynski, W

2002-01-01

278

Curcumin-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Coating onto Metal Stent by EPD Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2007, Vol. 28, No. 3 397 Curcumin-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Curcumin-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Coating onto Metal Stent by EPD Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2007, Vol. 28, No. 3 397 Curcumin-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Coating onto Metal Stent by Electrophoretic) nanoparticles embedded with curcumin, which was done by a modified spontaneous emulsification method and used

Park, Jong-Sang

279

Development and evaluation of a novel biodegradable sustained release microsphere formulation of paclitaxel intended to treat breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a novel 1 month depot paclitaxel (PTX) microspheres that give a sustained and complete drug release. Materials and Methods: PTX loaded microspheres were prepared by o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique using the blends of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 75/25, polycaprolactone 14,000 and polycaprolactone 80,000. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate drug excipient compatibility. Compatible blends were used to prepare F1-F6 microspheres, the process was characterised and the optimum formulation was selected based on the release. Optimised formulation was characterised for solid state of the drug using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, surface morphology using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in vivo drug release, in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) and anticancer activity. Anticancer activity of release medium was determined using the cell viability assay in Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF-7) cell line. Results: Blend of PLGA with polycaprolactone (Mwt 14,000) at a ratio of 1:1 (F5) resulted in complete release of the drug in a time frame of 30 days. F5 was considered as the optimised formulation. Incomplete release of the drug resulted from other formulations. The surface of the optimised formulation was smooth and the drug changed its solid state upon fabrication. The formulation also resulted in 1-month drug release in vivo. The released drug from F5 demonstrated anticancer activity for 1-month. Cell viability was reduced drastically with the release medium from F5 formulation. A 100% IVIVC was obtained with F5 formulation suggesting the authenticity of in vitro release, in vivo release and the use of the formulation in breast cancer. Conclusions: From our study, it was concluded that with careful selection of different polymers and their combinations, PTX 1 month depot formulation with 100% drug release and that can be used in breast cancer was developed. PMID:24167783

Shiny, Jacob; Ramchander, Thadkapally; Goverdhan, Puchchakayala; Habibuddin, Mohammad; Aukunuru, Jithan Venkata

2013-01-01

280

The safety of long-acting ?2-agonists in the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Inhaled long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both the twice-daily long-acting ?2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) salmeterol and formoterol and the once-daily LABA indacaterol are indicated for use in COPD. This review examines current evidence for the safety of LABAs in COPD, focusing on their effect on exacerbations and deaths. Methods We searched PubMed for placebo-controlled studies evaluating long-term (?24 weeks) use of formoterol, salmeterol, or indacaterol in patients with stable COPD, published between January 1990 and September 2012. We summarized data relating to exacerbations and adverse events, particularly events related to COPD. Results From 20 studies examined (8774 LABA-treated patients), there was no evidence of an association between LABA treatment and increased exacerbations, COPD-related adverse events, or deaths. Where analyzed as an efficacy outcome, LABA treatment was generally associated with significant or numerical reductions in COPD exacerbations compared with placebo. Incidences of COPD-related adverse events were similar for active and placebo treatments. The incidence of adverse events typically associated with the ?2-agonist drug class such as skeletal muscle tremors and palpitations was low (often <1% of patients), and there were no reports of increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. The systemic effects of ?2-adrenoceptor stimulation, such as high glucose and potassium levels, were considered minor. Conclusion Current evidence from clinical studies of the safety and tolerability profile of LABAs supports their long-term use in COPD. PMID:23378756

Decramer, Marc L; Hanania, Nicola A; Lotvall, Jan O; Yawn, Barbara P

2013-01-01

281

Long-acting NanoART Elicits Potent Antiretroviral and Neuroprotective Responses in HIV-1 Infected Humanized Mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) with improved pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and limited systemic toxicities will likely improve drug compliance and access to viral reservoirs. Design Atazanvir and ritonavir crystalline nanoART were formulated in a poloxamer-188 excipient by high-pressure homogenization. These formulations were evaluated for antiretroviral and neuroprotective activities in humanized NOD/scid-IL-2Rgcnull (NSG) mice. Methods NanoART-treated NSG mice were evaluated for drug biodistribution, pharmacodynamics and nanotoxicology. CD34+ human hematopoietic stem cells were transplantation at birth in NSG mice. The mice were infected with HIV-1ADA at 5 months of age and 8 weeks later, infected animals were treated with weekly subcutaneous injections of nanoformulated ATV and RTV. Peripheral viral load, CD4+ T cell count, lymphoid tissue and brain pathology were evaluated. Results NanoART treatments by 6 once a week injections reduced viral loads >1000 fold and protected CD4+ T cell populations. This paralleled high ART levels in liver, spleen and blood that were in or around the human minimal effective dose concentration without notable toxicities. Importantly, examination of infected brain subregions showed that nanoART elicited neuroprotective responses with detectable increases in microtubule-associated protein-2, synaptophysin and neurofilament expression when compared to untreated virus-infected animals. Therapeutic interruptions produced profound viral rebounds. Conclusions Long-acting nanoART has translational potential with sustained and targeted efficacy and with limited systemic toxicities. Such success in drug delivery and distribution could improve drug adherence and reduce viral resistance in infected people. PMID:22824628

Dash, Prasanta K.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Roy, Upal; Balkundi, Shantanu; Alnouti, Yazen; Mosley, R. Lee; Gelbard, Harris A.; McMillan, JoEllyn; Gorantla, Santhi; Poluektova, Larisa Y.

2014-01-01

282

In vitro evaluation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) loaded PLGA nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a prodrug for topical photodynamic therapy. The effectiveness of topical ALA can be limited by its bioavailability. The aim of this study was to develop a novel ALA delivery approach using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). Methods A modified double emulsion solvent evaporation method was used to prepare ALA loaded PLGA NPs (ALA PLGA NPs). The characteristics, uptake, protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics, and cytotoxicity of ALA PLGA NPs toward a human skin squamous cell carcinoma cell line were examined. Results The mean particle size of spherical ALA PLGA NPs was 65.6 nm ± 26 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.62. The encapsulation efficiency was 65.8% ± 7.2% and ALA loading capacity was 0.62% ± 0.27%. When ALA was dispersed in PLGA NPs, it turned into an amorphous phase. ALA PLGA NPs could be taken up by squamous cell carcinoma cells and localized in the cytoplasm. The protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that ALA PLGA NPs were more effective than free ALA of the same concentration. Conclusion PLGA NPs provide a promising ALA delivery strategy for topical ALA-photodynamic therapy of skin squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23926429

Shi, Lei; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Feng; Luan, Hansen; Tu, Qingfeng; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Hongwei

2013-01-01

283

Chemical degradation of peptides and proteins in PLGA: a review of reactions and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymers have been studied extensively for the controlled release of peptide and protein drugs. In addition to polymer biodegradation, chemical degradation of the incorporated peptide/protein has also been reported in PLGA devices, and the role of the polymer in promoting these reactions has been debated. This review summarizes the peptide/protein chemical degradation reactions that have been reported in PLGA systems and their mechanisms. Reported methods for stabilizing peptides and proteins in PLGA devices are also discussed. PMID:17828756

Houchin, M L; Topp, E M

2008-07-01

284

Electrostatically Tuned Interactions in Silica Microsphere-Polystyrene Nanoparticle Mixtures  

E-print Network

Electrostatically Tuned Interactions in Silica Microsphere-Polystyrene Nanoparticle Mixtures Angel mechanism in binary mixtures of silica microspheres and polystyrene nanoparticles. By selectively tuning of silica microspheres and polystyrene nanoparticles whose mutual electrostatic interactions can be tuned

Lewis, Jennifer

285

PLGA–PEI nanoparticles for gene delivery to pulmonary epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary gene delivery is thought to play an important role in treating genetically related diseases and may induce immunity towards pathogens entering the body via the airways. In this study we prepared poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles bearing polyethyleneimine (PEI) on their surface and characterized them for their potential in serving as non-viral gene carriers to the pulmonary epithelium. Particles that

Maytal Bivas-Benita; Stefan Romeijn; Hans E. Junginger; Gerrit Borchard

2004-01-01

286

Effects of chemical and physical parameters in the generation of microspheres by hydrodynamic flow focusing.  

PubMed

Hydrodynamic flow focusing is a seminal, easy-to-use technology for micro- and nanodroplet generation. It is characterized by the co-axial focusing of two (or more) immiscible liquid streams forced through a small orifice. In this method, the outer continuous phase has a much higher flow velocity than the inner disperse phase. While passing through the orifice, the prevailing pressure drop and shear stress force the inner phase to break up into uniform droplets. Using a biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer solution as the disperse phase, monodisperse and user-defined polymer micro- and nanospheres can be generated. Here we present a consecutive parameter study of hydrodynamic flow focusing to study the effect of chemical and physical parameters that effect the dispersity of the droplets generated in the 1-5 ?m range. The parameter study shows the applicability and challenges of hydrodynamic flow focusing in the preparation of biodegradable microspheres. Applications for microspheres made with this method can be found in the medical, pharmaceutical and technical fields. PMID:21680160

Schneider, Thomas; Chapman, Glenn H; Häfeli, Urs O

2011-10-15

287

Gene delivery using dimethyldidodecylammonium bromide-coated PLGA nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this present work we describe a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle formulation for intracellular delivery of plasmid DNA. This formulation was developed to encapsulate DNA within PLGA nanoparticles that combined salting out and emulsion-evaporation processes. This process reduced the requirement for sonication which can induce degradation of the DNA. A monodispersed nanoparticle population with a mean diameter of approximately 240 nm was produced, entrapping a model plasmid DNA in both supercoiled and open circular structures. To induce endosomal escape of the nanoparticles, a superficial cationic charge was introduced using positively charged surfactants cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dimethyldidodecylammonium bromide (DMAB), which resulted in elevated zeta potentials. As expected, both cationic coatings reduced cell viability, but at equivalent positive zeta potentials, the DMAB coated nanoparticles induced significantly less cytotoxicity than those coated with CTAB. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the DMAB coated cationic nanoparticles were able to evade the endosomal lumen and localise in the cytosol of treated cells. Consequently, DMAB coated PLGA nanoparticles loaded with a GFP reporter plasmid exhibited significant improvements in transfection efficiencies with comparison to non-modified particles, highlighting their functional usefulness. These nanoparticles may be useful in delivery of gene therapies to targeted cells. PMID:20185174

Fay, François; Quinn, Derek J; Gilmore, Brendan F; McCarron, Paul A; Scott, Christopher J

2010-05-01

288

Combined modality doxorubicin-based chemotherapy and chitosan-mediated p53 gene therapy using double-walled microspheres for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic efficiency of combined chemotherapy and gene therapy on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells was investigated using double-walled microspheres that consisted of a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core surrounded by a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) shell layer and fabricated via the precision particle fabrication (PPF) technique. Here, double-walled microspheres were used to deliver doxorubicin (Dox) and/or chitosan-DNA nanoparticles containing the gene encoding the p53 tumor suppressor protein (chi-p53), loaded in the core and shell phases, respectively. Preliminary studies on chi-DNA nanoparticles were performed to optimize gene transfer to HepG2 cells. The transfection efficiency of chi-DNA nanoparticles was optimal at an N/P ratio of 7. In comparison to the 25-kDa branched polyethylenimine (PEI), chitosan showed no inherent toxicity towards the cells. Next, the therapeutic efficiencies of Dox and/or chi-p53 in microsphere formulations were compared to free drug(s) and evaluated in terms of growth inhibition, and cellular expression of tumor suppressor p53 and apoptotic caspase 3 proteins. Overall, the combined Dox and chi-p53 treatment exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity as compared to either Dox or chi-p53 treatments alone. Moreover, the antiproliferative effect was more substantial when cells were treated with microspheres than those treated with free drugs. High p53 expression was maintained during a five-day period, and was largely due to the controlled and sustained release of the microspheres. Moreover, increased activation of caspase 3 was observed, and was likely to have been facilitated by high levels of p53 expression. Overall, double-walled microspheres present a promising dual anticancer delivery system for combined chemotherapy and gene therapy. PMID:23578555

Xu, Qingxing; Leong, Jiayu; Chua, Qi Yi; Chi, Yu Tse; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Pack, Daniel W.; Wang, Chi-Hwa

2013-01-01

289

Microsphere coated substrate containing reactive aldehyde groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthetic organic resin is coated with a continuous layer of contiguous, tangential, individual microspheres having a uniform diameter preferably between 100 Angstroms and 2000 Angstroms. The microspheres are an addition polymerized polymer of an unsaturated aldehyde containing 4 to 20 carbon atoms and are covalently bonded to the substrate by means of high energy radiation grafting. The microspheres contain reactive aldehyde groups and can form conjugates with proteins such as enzymes or other aldehyde reactive materials.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

290

A compartmental pharmacokinetic evaluation of long-acting rilpivirine in HIV-negative volunteers for pre-exposure prophylaxis.  

PubMed

Rilpivirine long-acting (RPV-LA) is a parenteral formulation enabling prolonged plasma exposure. We explored its multiple-compartment pharmacokinetics (PK) after a single dose, for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Sixty-six HIV-negative volunteers were enrolled: women received an intramuscular dose of 300, 600, or 1,200 mg, with plasma and genital levels measured to 84 days postdose; men receiving 600 mg had similar PK determined in plasma and rectum. Ex vivo antiviral activity of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) was also assessed. After a single dose, RPV concentrations peaked at days 6-8 and were present in plasma and genital-tract fluid to day 84. Vaginal and male rectal tissue levels matched those in plasma. At the 1,200 mg dose, CVL showed greater antiviral activity, above baseline, at days 28 and 56. All doses were well tolerated. All doses gave prolonged plasma and genital-tract rilpivirine exposure. PK and viral inhibition of repeated doses will be important in further dose selection. PMID:24862215

Jackson, A G A; Else, L J; Mesquita, P M M; Egan, D; Back, D J; Karolia, Z; Ringner-Nackter, L; Higgs, C J; Herold, B C; Gazzard, B G; Boffito, M

2014-09-01

291

Introduction of postabortion contraception, prioritizing long-acting reversible contraceptives, in the principal maternity hospital of Gabon.  

PubMed

A prospective, descriptive, analytic study was conducted at the Centre Hospitalier de Libreville in Gabon between February and September 2013 to evaluate acceptance of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) following abortion. Women received counseling on the combined oral pill, DMPA, copper intrauterine devices (IUDs), and implants. The association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, knowledge of contraceptives, and acceptance was analyzed. Of the 383 women admitted with abortion complications, 206 (53.7%) knew of no systemic contraceptives. The best-known method was the oral pill (42.0%). Only 14 women (3.6%) knew of a LARC method (IUD or implants) and only 2 (0.5%) said the injectable was their best-known method. Over 90% accepted a modern contraceptive method after abortion. Two-thirds (66.8%) chose the pill, 14.6% DMPA, and 9.3% a LARC method. Only 9.1% of the women refused to initiate use of any method. PMID:24745694

Mayi-Tsonga, Sosthène; Obiang, Pamphile Assoumou; Minkobame, Ulysse; Ngouafo, Doris; Ambounda, Nathalie; de Souza, Maria Helena

2014-07-01

292

Development of long-acting bioadhesive vaginal gels of oxybutynin: formulation, in vitro and in vivo evaluations.  

PubMed

Overactive bladder (OAB) and vaginal dryness are common problems after menopause. Oxybutynin (OXY) is an antimuscarinic agent that has been available for more than 30 years in the treatment of OAB patients. The aim of the work reported in this paper was to develop long acting mucoadhesive gel formulations of OXY and to investigate their effects on blood levels compared to those of oral OXY immediate release tablets, in rabbits. Mucoadhesive gels were prepared with chitosan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100M) and Poloxamer 407 (Pluronic F 127). The physicopharmaceutical properties of gels were evaluated. The gel formulation which was prepared with HPMC K100M, exhibited the highest viscosity, the greatest adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion values. The formulation which was prepared from HPMC K100M showed suitable permeation characteristics across the vaginal mucosa. Comparative bioavailability studies were carried out on rabbits with vaginal HPMC gel, vaginal chitosan gel, vaginal OXY solution and commercially available oral Üropan tablets. It was concluded that the highest AUC and relative bioavailability values were obtained for the bioadhesive vaginal gel formulation prepared with HPMC K100M. Therefore, the mucoadhesive vaginal gels of OXY can be a promising and innovative alternative therapeutic system for the treatment of OAB. It can be safely used in cases of overactive bladder and as well as vaginal dryness after menopause. PMID:24036011

Tu?cu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Acartürk, Füsun; Erdo?an, Deniz

2013-11-30

293

Radioimmunoassay for octapeptide analogs of somatostatin: Measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations  

SciTech Connect

The development of a long-acting delivery system for D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Trp-NH{sub 2} (RC-160), an octapeptide analog of somatostatin, required the establishment of a method for determining the concentration of this analog in serum during treatment. A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for RC-160 was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of this peptide from microcapsules of poly(DL-lactide-coglycolide). Antibodies were generated in a rabbit against RC-160 conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. At an antiserum dilution of 1:100,000, the antibodies bound approximately 25% of added radiolabeled RC-160. Somatostatin octapeptide analogs that had a disulfide bridge showed crossreactivity with the antiserum, but analogs without the disulfide bridge and other peptides tested did not crossreact. The minimum detectable dose of RC-160 was 10 pg. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 9.1% to 12.8% and from 14% to 30%, respectively. The RIA was suitable for direct determination of RC-160 in serum. Eleven prototype batches of microcapsules were tested in rats, and the rate of release of the analog from the microcapsules was followed. An improved batch of microcapsules made from RC-160 pamoate maintained high serum levels of RC-160 for more than 30 days after intramuscular injection. The RIA should be of value for monitoring levels of this analog in serum during long-term therapy.

Mason-Garcia, M.; Vaccarella, M.; Horvath, J.; Redding, T.W.; Groot, K.; Orsolini, P.; Schally, A.V. (Endocrine, Polypeptide and Cancer Institute, New Orleans, LA (USA))

1988-08-01

294

Glass microspheres for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres have been developed as biodegradable radiation delivery vehicles for the radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Once injected into a diseased joint, the microspheres deliver a potent dose of radiation to the diseased tissue, while a non-uniform chemical reaction converts the glass into an amorphous, porous, hydrated dysprosium phosphate reaction product. The non-radioactive, lithium-borate component is dissolved from the glass (up to 94% weight loss), while the radioactive 165Dy reacts with phosphate anions in the body fluids, and becomes "chemically" trapped in a solid, dysprosium phosphate reaction product that has the same size as the un-reacted glass microsphere. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) chelation therapy can be used to dissolve the dysprosium phosphate reaction product after the radiation delivery has subsided. The dysprosium phosphate reaction product, which formed in vivo in the joint of a Sprague-Dawley rat, was dissolved by EDTA chelation therapy in <1 week, without causing any detectable joint damage. The combination of dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres and EDTA chelation therapy provides an unique "tool" for the medical community, which can deliver a large dose (>100 Gy) of localized beta radiation to a treatment site within the body, followed by complete biodegradability. The non-uniform reaction process is a desirable characteristic for a biodegradable radiation delivery vehicle, but it is also a novel material synthesis technique that can convert a glass to a highly porous materials with widely varying chemical composition by simple, low-temperature, glass/solution reaction. The reaction product formed by nonuniform reaction occupies the same volume as the un-reacted glass, and after drying for 1 h at 300°C, has a specific surface area of ?200 m2/g, a pore size of ?30 nm, and a nominal crushing strength of ?10 MPa. Finally, rhenium glass microspheres, composed of micron-sized, metallic rhenium particles dispersed within a magnesium alumino borate glass matrix were produced by sintering ReO2 powder and glass frit at 1050°C. A 50 mg injection of radioactive rhenium glass microspheres containing 3.7 GBq of 186Re and 8.5 GBq of 188Re could be used to deliver a 100 Gy dose to a cancerous tumor, while limiting the total body dose caused by rhenium dissolution to approximately 1 mGy.

Conzone, Samuel David

295

Coupling system to a microsphere cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of coupling optical energy in a waveguide mode, into a resonator that operates in a whispering gallery mode. A first part of the operation uses a fiber in its waveguide mode to couple information into a resonator e.g. a microsphere. The fiber is cleaved at an angle .PHI. which causes total internal reflection within the fiber. The energy in the fiber then forms an evanescent field and a microsphere is placed in the area of the evanescent field. If the microsphere resonance is resonant with energy in the fiber, then the information in the fiber is effectively transferred to the microsphere.

Iltchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Yao, Steve (Inventor); Wu, Chi (Inventor)

2002-01-01

296

[A comparative study of early degradation of PLLA and PLGA rods at various sites in rabbit].  

PubMed

This study was designed to assess the effect of implantation site and environment on early in vivo degradation behaviors of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) copolymer. The rods were implanted at two sites in each of 24 New Zealand White rabbits. The first site was within the suprapatellar bursa of the joint cavities (JC) and the second site was in the opposite condyles of femurs (CF). Three rabbits of each group underwent explantation of rods after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. At each interval, measures were taken to evaluate the molecular weight, shear strength, weight loss and thermal properties of PLLA and PLGA. It was found that PLGA degraded slightly faster than PLLA. After 16 weeks, PLLA's initial inherent viscosity of 4.6 decreased to about 3.4 in both implantation sites while that of PLGA decreased from 4.6 to about 2.2. Both PLGA and PLLA showed enough shear strength retention in 16 weeks (> or = 53MPa) within 16 weeks. Autocatalysis mechanism was confirmed by the fact of accelerated weight loss of PLGA after 8 weeks and of PLLA after 12 weeks. The results revealed that PLGA could be a promising candidate material as a replacement of PLLA in internal fixation of bone fractures, and no significant difference of early in vivo degradation behaviors between PLLA and PLGA was observed in regard to different implantation sites in 16 weeks. PMID:21374982

Pang, Di; Ye, Jingbing; Chen, Dongliang; Li, Jian; Xiong, Chengdong; Li, Qing

2010-12-01

297

Magnetite-PLGA Microparticles for Oral Delivery of Insulin Jianjun Cheng,1  

E-print Network

Magnetite-PLGA Microparticles for Oral Delivery of Insulin Jianjun Cheng,1 Christopher H. Yim,1 School, Boston, MA 02115 ABSTRACT Magnetic responsive particles were designed for use in oral delivery at magnetite content 5 wt % or less. Mice were gavaged with 125 I-insulin-magnetite- PLGA microparticles

Cheng, Jianjun

298

Preparation and Characterization of Novel PBAE/PLGA Polymer Blend Microparticles for DNA Vaccine Delivery  

PubMed Central

Context. Poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) with its pH sensitiveness and Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with huge DNA cargo capacity in combination prove to be highly efficient as DNA delivery system. Objective. To study the effectiveness of novel synthesized PBAE polymer with PLGA blend at different ratios in DNA vaccine delivery. Methods. In the present study, multifunctional polymer blend microparticles using a combination of PLGA and novel PBAE polymers A1 (bis(3-(propionyloxy)propyl)3,3?-(propane-1,3-diyl-bis(methylazanediyl))dipropanoate) and A2 (bis(4-(propionyloxy)butyl)3,3?-(ethane-1,2-diyl-bis(isopropylazanediyl))dipropanoate) at different ratios (85?:?15, 75?:?25, and 50?:?50) were prepared by double emulsion solvent removal method. The microparticles were characterized for cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency, and DNA encapsulation efficiency. Result. It was evident from results that among the microparticles prepared with PLGA/PBAE blend the PLGA?:?PBAE at 85?:?15 ratio was found to be more effective combination than the microparticles prepared with PLGA alone in terms of transfection efficiency and better DNA integrity. Microparticles made of PLGA and PBAE A1 at 85?:?15 ratio, respectively, were found to be less toxic when compared with microparticles prepared with A2 polymer. Conclusion. The results encourage the use of the synthesized PBAE polymer in combination with PLGA as an effective gene delivery system.

Balashanmugam, Meenashi Vanathi; Nagarethinam, Sivagurunathan; Jagani, Hitesh; Josyula, Venkata Rao; Alrohaimi, Abdulmohsen; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

2014-01-01

299

Elucidation of the physicomechanical and ab initio quantum energy transitions of a crosslinked PLGA scaffold.  

PubMed

This study elucidated the in vitro physicomechanical transitions of a crosslinked polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold, utilizing quantum mechanics to compute the ab initio energy requirements of a salted-out and subsequently crosslinked PLGA scaffold interacting with simulated physiological fluid, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) at a molecular level. Twenty-six salted-out PLGA scaffolds were formulated using a four factor, two centerpoint quadratic Face-Centered Central Composite Design (FCCD). PLGA molecular mass, PLGA concentration, water volume and salting-out reaction time were the dependant formulation variables. Subsequent to PLGA solubilization in dimethyl formamide (DMF), protonated water was added to induce salting-out of PLGA into a scaffolds that were immersed in PBS, oscillated at 100 rpm, and analyzed at pre-determined time intervals for their physicomechanical and ab initio quantum energy transitions. Results indicated that the matrix resilience (MR) decreased with longer incubation periods (MR=35-45%) at day 30. Scaffolds salted-out using higher PLGA concentrations exhibited minimal changes in MR and the matrix ability to absorb energy was found to closely correlate with the scaffold residence time in PBS. Spartan-based ab initio quantum energy predictions elucidated the potential scaffold stability from a molecular viewpoint and its suitability for use in rate-modulated drug delivery. PMID:17524474

Sibambo, Sibongile R; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; Khan, Riaz A; Sweet, Joe L

2007-09-01

300

Tetraiodothyroacetic acid-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles: a nanomedicine approach to treat drug-resistant breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim was to evaluate tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a thyroid hormone analog of l-thyroxin, conjugated to poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (T-PLGA-NPs) both in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of drug-resistant breast cancer. Materials & methods The uptake of tetrac and T-PLGA-NPs in doxorubicin-resistant MCF7 (MCF7-Dx) cells was evaluated using confocal microscopy. Cell proliferation assays and a chick chorioallantoic membrane model of FGF2-induced angiogenesis were used to evaluate the anticancer effects of T-PLGA-NPs. In vivo efficacy was examined in a MCF7-Dx orthotopic tumor BALBc nude mouse model. Results T-PLGA-NPs were restricted from entering into the cell nucleus, and T-PLGA-NPs inhibited angiogenesis by 100% compared with 60% by free tetrac. T-PLGA-NPs enhanced inhibition of tumor-cell proliferation at a low-dose equivalent of free tetrac. In vivo treatment with either tetrac or T-PLGA-NPs resulted in a three- to five-fold inhibition of tumor weight. Conclusion T-PLGA-NPs have high potential as anticancer agents, with possible applications in the treatment of drug-resistant cancer. PMID:23448245

Bharali, Dhruba J; Yalcin, Murat; Davis, Paul J; Mousa, Shaker A

2013-01-01

301

In Vivo Biocompatibility of PLGA-Polyhexylthiophene Nanofiber Scaffolds in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Electroactive polymers have applications in tissue engineering as a physical template for cell adhesion and carry electrical signals to improve tissue regeneration. Present study demonstrated the biocompatibility and biodegradability of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PLGA-PHT) blend electrospun scaffolds in a subcutaneous rat model. The biocompatibility of PLGA-undoped PHT, PLGA-doped PHT, and aligned PLGA-doped PHT nanofibers was evaluated and compared with random PLGA fibers. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks; the surrounding tissue along with the implant was removed to evaluate biocompatibility and biodegradability by histologic analysis and GPC, respectively. Histology results demonstrated that all scaffolds except PLGA-undoped PHT showed decrease in inflammation over time. It was observed that the aligned PLGA-doped PHT fibers elicited moderate response at 2 weeks, which further reduced to a mild response over time with well-organized tissue structure and collagen deposition. The degradation of aligned nanofibers was found to be very slow when compared to random fibers. Further, there was no reduction in the molecular weight of undoped form of PHT throughout the study. These experiments revealed the biocompatibility and biodegradability of PLGA-PHT nanofibers that potentiate it to be used as a biomaterial for various applications. PMID:23971031

Subramanian, Anuradha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

2013-01-01

302

Lectin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles loaded with thymopentin: Ex vivo bioadhesion and in vivo biodistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjugation of lectins onto PLGA nanoparticles has been demonstrated to effectively improve the intestinal absorption of thymopentin. In this study, thymopentin-loaded nanoparticles made from fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled PLGA were modified with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The specific bioadhesion of nanoparticles on rat intestinal mucosa was studied ex vivo. An important increase of interaction between WGA-conjugated nanoparticles and the intestinal

YaShu Yin; DaWei Chen; MingXi Qiao; XiuYan Wei; HaiYang Hu

2007-01-01

303

Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

2006-01-01

304

Long-acting versus short-acting methylphenidate for paediatric ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative efficacy  

PubMed Central

Objective To synthesise existing knowledge of the efficacy and safety of long-acting versus short-acting methylphenidate for paediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Electronic literature search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Scopus and Web of Science for articles published in the English language between 1950 and 2012. Reference lists of included studies were checked for additional studies. Study selection Randomised controlled trials of paediatric ADHD patients (<18?years), comparing a long-acting methylphenidate form to a short-acting methylphenidate form. Data extraction Two authors independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Continuous outcomes were compared using standardised mean differences (SMDs) between treatment groups. Adverse events were compared using risk differences between treatment groups. Heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analysis based on the type of long-acting formulation used. Results Thirteen RCTs were included; data from 882 participants contributed to the analysis. Meta-analysis of three studies which used parent ratings to report on hyperactivity/impulsivity had an SMD of ?0.30 (95% CI ?0.51 to ?0.08) favouring the long-acting forms. In contrast, three studies used teacher ratings to report on hyperactivity and had an SMD of 0.29 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.52) favouring the short-acting methylphenidate. In addition, subgroup analysis of three studies which used parent ratings to report on inattention/overactivity indicate that the osmotic release oral system generation long-acting formulation was favoured with an SMD of ?0.35 (95% CI ?0.52 to ?0.17), while the second generation showed less efficacy than the short-acting formulation with an SMD of 0.42 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.68). The long-acting formulations presented with slightly more total reported adverse events (n=578) as compared with the short-acting formulation (n=566). Conclusions The findings from this systematic review indicate that the long-acting forms have a modest effect on the severity of inattention/overactivity and hyperactivity/impulsivity according to parent reports, whereas the short-acting methylphenidate was preferred according to teacher reports for hyperactivity. PMID:23503579

Punja, Salima; Zorzela, Liliane; Hartling, Lisa; Urichuk, Liana; Vohra, Sunita

2013-01-01

305

Provision of long-acting reversible contraception in HIV-prevalent countries: results from nationally representative surveys in southern Africa  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyse the current provision of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and clinician training needs in HIV-prevalent settings. Design Nationally representative survey of clinicians. Setting HIV-prevalent settings in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Population Clinicians in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Methods Nationally representative surveys of clinicians were conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe (n = 1444) to assess current clinical practice in the provision of LARC in HIV-prevalent settings. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse contraceptive provision and clinician training needs. Main outcome measure Multivariable logistic regression of contraceptive provision and clinician training needs. Results Provision of the most effective reversible contraceptives is limited: only 14% of clinicians provide copper intrauterine devices (IUDs), 4% levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs and 16% contraceptive implants. Clinicians’ perceptions of patient eligibility for IUD use were overly restrictive, especially related to HIV risks. Less than 5% reported that IUDs were appropriate for women at high risk of HIV or for HIV-positive women, contrary to evidence-based guidelines. Only 15% viewed implants as appropriate for women at risk of HIV. Most clinicians (82%), however, felt that IUDs were underused by patients, and over half desired additional training on LARC methods. Logistic regression analysis showed that LARC provision was largely restricted to physicians, hospital settings and urban areas. Results also showed that clinicians in rural areas and clinics, including nurses, were especially interested in training. Conclusions Clinician competency in LARC provision is important in southern Africa, given the low use of methods and high rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive and at-risk women. Despite low provision, clinician interest is high, suggesting the need for increased evidence-based training in LARC to reduce unintended pregnancy and associated morbidities. PMID:23721413

Morse, J; Chipato, T; Blanchard, K; Nhemachena, T; Ramjee, G; McCulloch, C; Blum, M; Saleeby, E; Harper, CC

2013-01-01

306

Impact on Intracortical Myelination Trajectory of Long Acting Injection Versus Oral Risperidone in First-Episode Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Context Imaging and post-mortem studies suggest that frontal lobe intracortical myelination is dysregulated in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior MRI studies suggested that early in treatment of SZ, antipsychotic medications initially increase frontal lobe intracortical myelin (ICM) volume, which subsequently declines prematurely in chronic stages of the disease. Insofar as the trajectory of ICM decline in chronic SZ is due to medication non-adherence or pharmacokinetics, it may be modifiable by long acting injection (LAI) formulations. Objectives Assess the effect of risperidone formulation on the ICM trajectory during a six-month randomized trial of LAI (RLAI) versus oral (RisO) in first-episode SZ subjects. Design Two groups of SZ subjects (RLAI, N=9; and RisO, N=13) matched on pre-randomization oral medication exposure were prospectively examined at baseline and six months later, along with 12 healthy controls (HCs). Frontal lobe ICM volume was assessed using inversion recovery (IR) and proton density (PD) MRI images. Medication adherence was tracked. Main outcome measure ICM volume change scores adjusted for the change in the HCs. Results ICM volume increased significantly (p=.005) in the RLAI and non-significantly (p=.39) in the RisO groups compared to the healthy controls. A differential between-group treatment effect was at a trend level (p=.093). SZ subjects receiving RLAI had better medication adherence and more ICM increases (chi-square p<.05). Conclusions The results suggest that RLAI may promote ICM development in first-episode SZ patients. Better adherence and/or pharmacokinetics provided by LAI may modify the ICM trajectory. In vivo MRI myelination measures can help clarify pharmacotherapeutic mechanisms of action. PMID:22809684

Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H.; Raven, Erika P.; Amar, Chetan P.; Detore, Nicole R.; Couvrette, Alexander J.; Mintz, Jim; Ventura, Joseph; Casaus, Laurie R.; Luo, John S.; Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

2013-01-01

307

Validation of the manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein.  

PubMed

Recombinant factor IX Fc (rFIXFc) fusion protein is the first of a new class of bioengineered long-acting factors approved for the treatment and prevention of bleeding episodes in haemophilia B. The aim of this work was to describe the manufacturing process for rFIXFc, to assess product quality and to evaluate the capacity of the process to remove impurities and viruses. This manufacturing process utilized a transferable and scalable platform approach established for therapeutic antibody manufacturing and adapted for production of the rFIXFc molecule. rFIXFc was produced using a process free of human- and animal-derived raw materials and a host cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells. The process employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including use of a protein A affinity capture chromatography step, which binds to the Fc portion of the rFIXFc molecule with high affinity and specificity, and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. Process validation studies were performed to evaluate identity, purity, activity and safety. The manufacturing process produced rFIXFc with consistent product quality and high purity. Impurity clearance validation studies demonstrated robust and reproducible removal of process-related impurities and adventitious viruses. The rFIXFc manufacturing process produces a highly pure product, free of non-human glycan structures. Validation studies demonstrate that this product is produced with consistent quality and purity. In addition, the scalability and transferability of this process are key attributes to ensure consistent and continuous supply of rFIXFc. PMID:24811361

McCue, J; Osborne, D; Dumont, J; Peters, R; Mei, B; Pierce, G F; Kobayashi, K; Euwart, D

2014-07-01

308

A six month randomized controlled trial of long acting injectable risperidone 50 and 100mg in treatment resistant schizophrenia.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ? 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ? six months. PMID:24630262

Meltzer, H Y; Lindenmayer, J-P; Kwentus, J; Share, D B; Johnson, R; Jayathilake, K

2014-04-01

309

Amelioration of the Cardiovascular Effects of Cocaine in Rhesus Monkeys by a Long-Acting Mutant Form of Cocaine Esterase  

PubMed Central

A long-acting mutant form of a naturally occurring bacterial cocaine esterase (T172R/G173Q CocE; double mutant CocE (DM CocE)) has previously been shown to antagonize the reinforcing, convulsant, and lethal effects of cocaine in rodents. However, the effectiveness and therapeutic characteristics of DM CocE in nonhuman primates, in a more clinically relevant context, are unknown. The current studies were aimed at (1) characterizing the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in freely moving rhesus monkeys, (2) evaluating the capacity of DM CocE to ameliorate these cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects when administered 10?min after cocaine, and (3) assessing the immunological responses of monkeys to DM CocE following repeated administration. Intravenous administration of cocaine produced dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) that persisted throughout the 2-h observation period following a dose of 3.2?mg/kg cocaine. Cocaine failed to produce reliable changes in electrocardiograph (ECG) parameters, body temperature, and locomotor activity. DM CocE produced a rapid and dose-dependent amelioration of the cardiovascular effects, with saline-like MAP measures restored within 5–10?min, and saline-like HR measures restored within 20–40?min of DM CocE administration. Although administration of DM CocE produced increases in anti-CocE antibodies, they did not appear to have a neutralizing effect on the capacity of DM CocE to reverse the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. In conclusion, these findings in monkeys provide strong evidence to suggest that highly efficient cocaine esterases, such as DM CocE, can provide a potential therapeutic option for treatment of acute cocaine intoxication in humans. PMID:21289605

Collins, Gregory T; Carey, Kathy A; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Nichols, Joseph; Berlin, Aaron A; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H; Ko, Mei-Chuan

2011-01-01

310

Pharmacokinetics and the effect of application site on a novel, long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution in healthy laboratory Beagles.  

PubMed

Application of transdermal drugs to different anatomical sites can result in different absorption characteristics. The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and bioequivalence of a single 2.6 mg/kg (50 ?L/kg) dose of a novel, long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution were determined when applied topically to the ventral abdominal or dorsal interscapular skin of 40 healthy laboratory Beagles. The PKs were differentiated by a more rapid initial absorption of fentanyl from the dorsal application site. Mean plasma fentanyl concentrations remained above 0.6 ng/mL from 4 to 96 h in the dorsal application group and from 8 to 144 h in the ventral application group. Bioequivalence analysis demonstrated that the sites were not equivalent; the 90% confidence intervals of the ratio of the geometric means for both the maximum concentration (C(max)) and the area under the curve (AUC) were not contained within the 80-125% interval. The C(max) was 2.34 ± 1.29 (mean ± standard deviation) and 2.02 ± 0.84 ng/mL for the ventral and dorsal application groups, respectively. The terminal elimination half-lives (t(1/2)) for both groups were similar with values of 137 ± 58.9 and 117 ± 59.6 h for the ventral and dorsal application site groups, respectively. A mean absorption rate of ? 2 ?g · kg/h was maintained from 2 to 144 h following dorsal application and from 2 to 264 h following ventral application. These results suggest that transdermal fentanyl solution could be applied as a single dose to the dorsal scapular area 2-4 h prior to surgery with analgesia lasting a minimum of 4 days. PMID:22731773

Freise, K J; Newbound, G C; Tudan, C; Clark, T P

2012-08-01

311

Encapsulation of antihypertensive drugs in cellulose-based matrix microspheres: characterization and release kinetics of microspheres and tableted microspheres.  

PubMed

This study is an attempt to prepare microspheres loaded with two antihypertensive drugs viz., nifedipine (NFD) and verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) using cellulose-based polymers viz., ethyl cellulose (EC) and cellulose acetate (CA). Emulsification and solvent evaporation methods were optimized using ethyl acetate as a dispersing solvent. The particles are spherical in shape and have smooth surfaces, as evidenced by the scanning electron microscopy. The microspheres were characterized for their particle size and distribution, tapped density and encapsulation efficiency. Smaller sized particles with a narrow size distribution were produced with EC when compared to CA matrices. Molecular level drug distribution in the microspheres was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. The microspheres were directly compressed into tablets using different excipients. The drug release from CA was faster than EC microspheres and, also, the VRP release was faster than NFD. The excipients used in tableting showed an effect on the release as well as the physical properties of the tablets. PMID:11308229

Soppimath, K S; Kulkarni, A R; Aminabhavi, T M

2001-01-01

312

Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations  

SciTech Connect

The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 {times} 10{sup 6} microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period.

von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L. (Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa) Louisianna State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport (USA) Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland))

1988-02-01

313

Gastro-resistant microspheres containing ketoprofen.  

PubMed

Ketoprofen gastroresistant microspheres were prepared by spray-drying using common pH dependent polymers, such as Eudragit S and L, CAP, CAT and HPMCP. The long ketoprofen recrystallization time was a serious hindrance to the preparation of microspheres having a drug content higher than 35%. Microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and in vitro dissolution studies, and used for the preparation of tablets. During this step, the compaction ability of the spray-dried powders was measured. While the compressibility of the microspheres containing the enteric cellulosic derivatives are not acceptable and different from those of the microcrystalline cellulose, the compaction properties of ketoprofen/Eudragit L or S microspheres are comparable to those of the Avicel PH 101. In vitro dissolution studies were performed on the microspheres and the tablets. All microspheres showed a good gastroresistance, but some differences among the five polymers in reducing drug release at low pH values are present. Acrylic polymers (Eudragit L or S) are considerably more effective than the cellulosic derivatives CAP and CAT, while the HPMCP profile is in an intermediate position. These differences are erased by the microspheres compression process. In HCl 0.1 N, the percentage of ketoprofen released from the tablets is always close to zero, independently from the polymer used. PMID:11811753

Palmieri, G F; Bonacucina, G; Di Martino, P; Martelli, S

2002-01-01

314

Evaluation of drug release from PLGA nanospheres containing bethametasone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research poly (d,l-lactide-coglycolide acid) (PLGA) as polymeric nanospheres, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with 87-89% hydrolysis degree as surfactant and distilled water as suspending medium were used. The encapsulated drug was Bethametasone. The nanospheres were prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The nanospheres characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amount of drug release was determined by HPLC. In emulsion-solvent evaporation technique, time of ultrasound exposure, surfactant content in the formulation and evaporation rate of organic solvents were considered as formulation variables.

Khosroshahi, Mohammad E.; Enayati, Marjan; Shafiei, Sara; Tavakoli, Javad

2007-07-01

315

Inhaled PLGA Particles of Prostaglandin E1 Ameliorate Symptoms and Progression of Pulmonary Hypertension at a Reduced Dosing Frequency  

PubMed Central

This study sought to investigate the efficacy of a noninvasive and long acting polymeric particle based formulation of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), a potent pulmonary vasodilator, in alleviating the signs of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and reversing the biochemical changes that occur in the diseased lungs. PH rats, developed by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (MCT), were treated with two types of polymeric particles of PGE1, porous and nonporous, and intratracheal or intravenous plain PGE1. For chronic studies, rats received either intratracheal porous poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles, once- or thrice-a-day, or plain PGE1 thrice-a-day for 10 days administered intratracheally or intravenously. The influence of formulations on disease progression was studied by measuring the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), evaluating right ventricular hypertrophy and assessing various molecular and cellular makers including the degree of muscularization, platelet aggregation, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Both plain PGE1 and large porous particles of PGE1 reduced MPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) in rats that received the treatments for 10 days. Polymeric porous particles of PGE1 produced the same effects at a reduced dosing frequency compared to plain PGE1 and caused minimal off-target effects on systemic hemodynamics. Microscopic and immunohistochemical studies revealed that porous particles of PGE1 also reduced the degree of muscularization, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and PCNA expression in the lungs of PH rats. Overall, our study suggests that PGE1 loaded inhalable particulate formulations improve PH symptoms and arrest the progression of disease at a reduced dosing frequency compared to plain PGE1. PMID:23485062

Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Nilesh; Shaik, Imam H.; Mehvar, Reza; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; McMurtry, Ivan F.; Oka, Masahiko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Ahsan, Fakhrul

2014-01-01

316

Integrated Cryogenic Experiment (ICE) microsphere investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective is to determine the performance of microsphere insulation in a 0-g environment and compare its performance to reference insulations such as multilayer insulation. The Lockheed Helium Extended-Life Dewar (HELD) is used to provide superfluid-helium cold sink for the experiment. The use of HELD allows the low-g dynamic properties of Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts (PODS) to be characterized and provides a flight demonstration of the PODS system. The thermal performance of microspheres in 1 and 0 g was predicted, a flight experiment was designed to determine microsphere thermal performance, and the interface was also designed between the experimental package and the shuttle through HELD and the Hitchhiker-M carrier. A single test cell was designed and fabricated. The cell was filled with uncoated glass microspheres and tested with a liquid-nitrogen cold sink. The data were found to agree with predictions of microsphere performance in 1 g.

Spradley, I.; Read, D.

1989-01-01

317

Polymer microspheres carrying fluorescent DNA probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer microspheres carried DNA probe, which was based on resonance energy transfer, was presented in this paper when CdTe quantum dots(QDs) were as energy donors, Au nanoparticles were as energy accepters and poly(4- vinylpyrindine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) microspheres were as carriers. Polymer microspheres with functional group on surfaces were prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization when ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was as crosslinker in acetonitrile. CdTe QDs were prepared when 3-mercaptopropionic acid(MPA) was as the stabilizer in aqueous solution. Because of the hydrogen-bonding between the carboxyl groups of MPA on QDs and the pyrindine groups on the microspheres, the QDs were self-assembled onto the surfaces of microspheres. Then, the other parts of DNA probe were finished according to the classic method. The DNA detection results indicated that this novel fluorescent DNA probe system could recognize the existence of complementary target DNA or not.

Chen, Xiaoyu; Dai, Zhao; Zhang, Jimei; Xu, Shichao; Wu, Chunrong; Zheng, Guo

2010-07-01

318

Preparation of floating microspheres for fish farming.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop floating microspheres with practical applications to fish farming. Each microsphere with a central hollow cavity was prepared using a solvent diffusion and evaporation method with Eudragit E100. Various manufacturing parameters were investigated by single factor method. The macrolide antibiotic josamycin was selected as a model drug. The loading efficiency of the drug in the microspheres was 64.7%. In the release study, virtually none of the drug was released into the fresh water whereas the entire drug was released from the josamycin-loaded microspheres into the simulated gastric fluid of rainbow trout (pH 2.7). The buoyancy was excellent with approximately 90% of the microspheres still floating after 24h. PMID:17485183

Nepal, Pushp R; Chun, Myung-Kwan; Choi, Hoo-Kyun

2007-08-16

319

Thermal response of chalcogenide microsphere resonators  

SciTech Connect

A chalcogenide microsphere resonator (CMR) used for temperature sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The CMR is fabricated using a simple technique of heating chalcogenide glass and allowing the molten glass to form a microsphere on the waist of a tapered silica fibre. The thermal responses of the CMR is investigated and compared to that of a single-mode-fibre (SMF) based microsphere resonator. It is observed that the CMR sensitivity to ambient temperature changes is 8 times higher than that of the SMF-based microsphere resonator. Heating the chalcogenide microsphere with a laser beam periodically turned on and off shows periodic shifts in the transmission spectrum of the resonator. By injecting an intensity-modulated cw signal through the resonator a thermal relaxation time of 55 ms is estimated.

Ahmad, H; Aryanfar, I; Lim, K S; Chong, W Y; Harun, S W

2012-05-31

320

Physicochemical characterization of camptothecin membrane binding properties and polymeric microsphere formulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to design novel formulation strategies to optimize the antitumor activity of camptothecin (CPT), the physicochemical and membrane binding properties of the drug, were investigated by various techniques in acidic and physiological pH. The intrinsic solubility of the CPT-lactone free base was determined to be 3.44 muM and 5.11 muM at 22°C and 37°C, respectively. The equilibrium solubility of the drug was found to increase with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. The enhanced solubility of the drug at very low pH is attributed to the protonation of the nitrogen atom in the ring B and the increased solvency of the highly acidic media. The logarithmic value of the intrinsic partition coefficient P of the free base CPT-lactone form was estimated to be 1.65, characteristic of a molecule suitable for oral absorption. The association constants Kf of the drug for bilayers composed of the zwitterionic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and the negatively-charged 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho- rac-(1-glycerol) (DOPG) were studied at acidic pH by fluorescence anisotropy and determined to be 35.4 +/- 4.5 M-1 and 93.1 +/- 11.0 M-1 for DOPC and DOPG, respectively, indicating a tendency of CPT to preferentially bind to negatively charged membranes. The energy of activation for the hydrolysis of CPT at physiological pH was found to be 114.3 +/- 33.4 kj/mole. The calculated t½ of the reaction at pH 7.2 at temperatures 25°C and 10°C was found to be 0.07 days and 5.12 days, respectively, whereas the time required for 1% of CPT-lactone to hydrolyze to CPT-carboxylate (t99%) was determined to be 1.8 hours, thus offering enough time to safely handle CPT-lactone at low temperatures. The preformulation results indicated that at highly acidic media CPT is positively charged and exists at its stable lactone form of increased solubility and has a capacity to bind to negatively charged membranes. Taking advantage of the increased stability of CPT in acidic media CPT-loaded microspheres were prepared in a 10 N HCl-methylene chloride mixture using the H-series of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (H-PLGA). The system was then compared with a standard microsphere formation method and the results were evaluated with respect to particle morphology and drug release profile. Rough surface of the particles were obtained from the preparation method where a 10 N HCl solution was used. The release pattern of CPT was biphasic comprising a first burst effect followed by zero order release for all the formulations. However, the release of the drug was slightly faster from the microspheres formed with the modified method compared to the standard. Until now clinical application of CPT has been highly restricted by the insolubility and instability of the drug in its active lactone form, resulting in less antitumor potency and poor bioavailability. The pH-dependent release of the CPT-loaded microspheres was also compared and faster initial release (burst phase) was found at neutral pH, whereas at low pH the release was zero order for all the formulations. The results indicate that the stabilization and sustained release of CPT from H-PLGA microspheres might reduce local toxicity while simultaneously prolonging efficiency, suggesting new perspectives in CPT chemotherapy.

Selvi, Bilge

321

Enhancing immunogenicity to PLGA microparticulate systems by incorporation of alginate and RGD-modified alginate.  

PubMed

Poly-lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA) and alginate represent two different families of polymers widely used for microencapsulation application, even more, for vaccination purposes as particulate delivery/adjuvant systems. Combination of these polymers has been previously considered for tissue engineering and drug delivery, however there is currently no report regarding their combination for vaccine application. In the present work, a w/o/w solvent extraction technique was developed to prepare novel 1?m microparticles (MP) composed of PLGA and a small percentage of alginate (PLGA-alg MP). In addition, RGD-modified alginate was also employed as biofunctionalized material favoring MP-cell interaction (PLGA-alg-RGD MP). Two malaria synthetic peptides, SPf66 and S3, were microencapsulated into PLGA, PLGA-alg and PLGA-alg-RGD MP. The diverse MP formulations resulted very similar in terms of size and morphology, although the addition of alginate improved encapsulation efficiency and reduced the amount of surface adsorbed peptide. Immunization studies in Balb/c mice by intradermal route demonstrated that incorporation of alginate elicited higher humoral and cellular immune responses leading to more balanced Th1/Th2 responses. Furthermore, administration of MP containing RGD-modified alginate showed evidence of cell targeting by enhancing immunogenicity of microparticles, in particular with regard to cellular responses such as IFN-? secretion and lymphoproliferation. PMID:21699977

Mata, Elena; Igartua, Manoli; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Pedraz, José Luis; Hernández, Rosa M

2011-09-18

322

Effects of chemically modified nanostructured PLGA on functioning of lung and breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanotopographies with alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption on the functioning of healthy and cancerous lung and breast cells, including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes tumor angiogenesis and secretion. Methods We used a well established cast-mold technique to create nanoscale surface features on PLGA. Some of the nanomodified PLGA films were then exposed to alginate and chitosan. Surface roughness and the presence of protein was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Surface energy was quantified by contact angle measurement. Results Nanostructured PLGA surfaces with 23 nm features decreased synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells compared with conventional PLGA. Preadsorbing alginate further decreased cancer cell function, with nanostructured PLGA preadsorbed with alginate achieving the greatest decrease in synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells. In contrast, compared with nonmodified smooth PLGA, healthy cell functions were either not altered (ie, breast) or were enhanced (ie, lung) by use of nanostructured features and alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption. Conclusion Using this technique, we developed surface nanometric roughness and modification of surface chemistry that could selectively decrease breast and lung cancer cell functioning without the need for chemotherapeutics. This technique requires further study in a wide range of anticancer and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:23696702

Zhang, Lijuan; Webster, Thomas J

2013-01-01

323

A cell leakproof PLGA-collagen hybrid scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

A cell leakproof porous poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-collagen hybrid scaffold was prepared by wrapping the surfaces of a collagen sponge except the top surface for cell seeding with a bi-layered PLGA mesh. The PLGA-collagen hybrid scaffold had a structure consisting of a central collagen sponge formed inside a bi-layered PLGA mesh cup. The hybrid scaffold showed high mechanical strength. The cell seeding efficiency was 90.0% when human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were seeded in the hybrid scaffold. The central collagen sponge provided enough space for cell loading and supported cell adhesion, while the bi-layered PLGA mesh cup protected against cell leakage and provided high mechanical strength for the collagen sponge to maintain its shape during cell culture. The MSCs in the hybrid scaffolds showed round cell morphology after 4 weeks culture in chondrogenic induction medium. Immunostaining demonstrated that type II collagen and cartilaginous proteoglycan were detected in the extracellular matrices. Gene expression analyses by real-time PCR showed that the genes encoding type II collagen, aggrecan, and SOX9 were upregulated. These results indicated that the MSCs differentiated and formed cartilage-like tissue when being cultured in the cell leakproof PLGA-collagen hybrid scaffold. The cell leakproof PLGA-collagen hybrid scaffolds should be useful for applications in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:20039440

Kawazoe, Naoki; Inoue, Chieko; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Chen, Guoping

2010-01-01

324

PLGA Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Delivery to Solid Tumors  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on novel approaches in the field of nanotechnology-based carriers utilizing ultrasound stimuli as a means to spatially target gene delivery in vivo, using nanoparticles made with either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or other polymers. We specifically discuss the potential for gene delivery by particles that are echogenic (amenable to destruction by ultrasound) composed either of polymers (PLGA, polystyrene) or other contrast agent materials (Optison, SonoVue microbubbles). The use of ultrasound is an efficient tool to further enhance gene delivery by PLGA or other echogenic particles in vivo. Echogenic PLGA nanoparticles are an attractive strategy for ultrasound-mediated gene delivery since this polymer is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for drug delivery and diagnostics in cancer, cardiovascular disease, and also other applications such as vaccines and tissue engineering. This paper will review recent successes and the potential of applying PLGA nanoparticles for gene delivery, which include (a) echogenic PLGA used with ultrasound to enhance local gene delivery in tumors or muscle and (b) PLGA nanoparticles currently under development, which could benefit in the future from ultrasound-enhanced tumor targeted gene delivery. PMID:22506124

Figueiredo, Marxa; Esenaliev, Rinat

2012-01-01

325

Long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management.  

PubMed

The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected exposure to long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides (LAAR). An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. It is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and health professionals providing care. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with exposure due to suspected self-harm, abuse, misuse, or potentially malicious administration should be referred to an emergency department immediately regardless of the doses reported (Grade D). 2) Patients with symptoms of LAAR poisoning (e.g., bleeding, bruising) should be referred immediately to an emergency department for evaluation regardless of the doses reported (Grade C). 3) Patients with chronic ingestion of LAAR should be referred immediately to an emergency department for evaluation of intent and potential coagulopathy (Grade B). 4) Patients taking anticoagulants therapeutically and who ingest any dose of a LAAR should have a baseline prothrombin time measured and then again at 48-72 hours after ingestion (Grade D). 5) Patients with unintentional ingestion of less than 1 mg of LAAR active ingredient can be safely observed at home without laboratory monitoring. This includes practically all unintentional ingestions in children less than 6 years of age (Grade C). 6) Pregnant patients with unintentional exposure to less than 1 mg of LAAR active ingredient should be evaluated by their obstetrician or primary care provider as an outpatient. Immediate referral to an ED or clinic is not required (Grade D). 7) Patients with unintentional ingestion of 1 mg or more of active ingredient and are asymptomatic should be evaluated for coagulopathy at 48-72 hours after exposure (Grade B). 8) Physicians' offices or outpatient clinics must be able to obtain coagulation study results in a timely manner, preferably in less than 24 hours, for patients who require outpatient monitoring (Grade D). 9) Gastrointestinal decontamination with ipecac syrup or gastric lavage is not recommended (Grade D). 10) Transportation to an emergency department should not be delayed for administration of activated charcoal (Grade D). 11) Patients with dermal exposures should be decontaminated by washing the skin with mild soap and water (Grade D). 12) The administration of vitamin K is not recommended prior to evaluation for coagulopathy (Grade D). PMID:17357377

Caravati, E Martin; Erdman, Andrew R; Scharman, Elizabeth J; Woolf, Alan D; Chyka, Peter A; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Wax, Paul M; Manoguerra, Anthony S; Christianson, Gwenn; Nelson, Lewis S; Olson, Kent R; Booze, Lisa L; Troutman, William G

2007-01-01

326

Long-acting bronchodilator use after hospitalization for COPD: an observational study of health insurance claims data  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with long-acting bronchodilator (LABD) medications is recommended by the 2014 Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. The primary objective of this study was to examine LABD prescription fills after a COPD-related hospitalization. Methods This retrospective observational study used claims from Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases. Patients (age ?40, commercial; age ?65, Medicare supplemental) had a first hospitalization with a primary COPD diagnosis between April 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011 (index hospitalization) and were continuously enrolled for 1 year before and 9 months after hospitalization. Patients were categorized according to pre-index and/or post-index pharmacy claims. Results A total of 27,738 patients had an index hospitalization and met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of those, 19,783 patients had COPD as a primary or secondary diagnosis during the year before index hospitalization and were included in the analysis. Approximately one quarter of the patients (26.32%) did not fill a prescription for an LABD or short-acting bronchodilator both 90 days before and 90 days after hospitalization. During the 90-day pre-index period, 40.57% of patients filled an LABD (with or without a short-acting bronchodilator) prescription. Over half of the patients (56.88%) filled an LABD prescription at some point during the 180-day post-index period, but, of those, a significantly greater proportion of patients filled an LABD prescription in the 1- to 90-day post-index period than in the 91- to 180-day post-index period (51.27% versus 43.66%; P<0.0001). Conclusion A significant proportion of COPD patients in this study did not fill an LABD prescription before hospitalization for COPD. Moreover, hospitalization did not appear to greatly impact LABD initiation. Lastly, patients who did not fill an LABD prescription within the first 90 days posthospitalization were not likely to fill an LABD prescription later. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that many patients with COPD are undertreated. PMID:24833898

Baker, Christine L; Zou, Kelly H; Su, Jun

2014-01-01

327

A qualitative study of the attitudes of patients in an early intervention service towards antipsychotic long-acting injections  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate attitudinal themes to antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAIs) in patients in an early intervention team (EIT). Methods: Interviews were carried out with outpatients purposively sampled from an EIT to represent patients currently prescribed antipsychotic LAIs, oral antipsychotics and those not prescribed antipsychotic medication. Interviews were conducted and analysed according to grounded theory. Recruitment stopped when saturation of themes was reached. Results: Interviews from 11 patients were analysed (median age 24 years). Attitudes to LAIs were condensed into three key categories: therapeutic alliance and the psychiatrists’ recommendation of antipsychotic medication; patients’ knowledge and beliefs about LAIs; and patients’ views regarding the appropriateness of LAIs. Participants valued their psychiatrist’s recommendation as to the most appropriate antipsychotic. Attitudes to LAIs varied but were most positive among those currently receiving a LAI. Among those not prescribed LAIs, some were open to considering a LAI if their clinician recommended it but others were opposed to such treatment and preferred tables. There was a lack of awareness of LAIs as a treatment option among those not prescribed a LAI. Delay in being offered a LAI was reported in the group currently prescribed a LAI. Several participants associated oral antipsychotics, LAIs and mental illness with stigma. Some not prescribed a LAI had misperceptions about the nature of this treatment. Participants regarded the advantages of LAIs as convenience and avoiding forgetting to take tablets, while disadvantages included injection pain, fear of needles and coercion. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge, misperceptions and stigma related to LAIs and other treatment options should be addressed by providing patients with accurate information. This will facilitate patients being involved in choices about treatment, and should they decide to accept medication, which drug and formulation is most appropriate for their needs. Clinicians should avoid making assumptions about patients’ attitudes to LAIs; attitudes vary but some early intervention patients not prescribed LAIs are open to considering this treatment. Antipsychotic prescribing should result from a shared decision-making process in which clinicians and patients openly discuss the pros and cons of different formulations and drugs. The themes identified in this qualitative study require further exploration using quantitative methodology.

Das, Amlan K.; Malik, Abid

2014-01-01

328

Long-acting antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia: use in daily practice from naturalistic observations  

PubMed Central

Background Current guidelines suggest specific criteria for oral or long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs (LAIs). This review aims to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of the ideal profile of the patient with schizophrenia treated with LAIs, through the analysis of nonrandomized studies. Methods A systematic review of nonrandomized studies in English was performed attempting to analyze the factors related to the choice and use of LAIs in daily practice. The contents were outlined using the Cochrane methods for nonrandomized studies and the variables included demographic as well as clinical characteristics. The available literature did not allow any statistical analysis that could be used to identify the ideal profile of patients with schizophrenia to be treated with LAIs. Results Eighty publications were selected and reviewed. Prevalence of LAI use ranged from 4.8% to 66%. The only demographic characteristics that were consistently assessed through retrieved studies were age (38.5?years in the 1970’s, 35.8?years in the 1980’s, 39.3?years in the 1990’s, to 39.5?years in the 2000’s) and gender (male?>?female). Efficacy was assessed through the use of various symptom scales and other indirect measurements; safety was assessed through extrapyramidal symptoms and the use of anticholinergic drugs, but these data were inconsistent and impossible to pool. Efficacy and safety results reported in the different studies yielded a good therapeutic profile with a maximum of 74% decrease in hospital admissions and the prevalence of extrapyramidal symptoms with LAIs consistently increased at 6, 12, 18, and 24?months (35.4%, 37.1%, 36.9%, and 41.3%, respectively). Conclusions This analysis of the available literature strongly suggests that further observational studies on patients with schizophrenia treated with LAIs are needed to systematically assess their demographic and clinical characteristics and the relationships between them and patient outcome. Besides the good efficacy and safety profile of LAIs, health care staff must also take into account the importance of establishing a therapeutic alliance with the patient and his/her relatives when selecting the most appropriate treatment. LAIs seem to be a good choice not only because of their good safety and efficacy profile, but also because they improve compliance, a key factor to improving adherence and to establishing a therapeutic alliance between patients with schizophrenia, their relatives, and their health care providers. PMID:22909285

2012-01-01

329

Combination inhaled steroid and long-acting beta2-agonist in addition to tiotropium versus tiotropium or combination alone for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background The long-acting bronchodilator tiotropium and single inhaler combination therapy of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists are both commonly used for maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Combining these treatments, which have different mechanisms of action, may be more effective than the individual components. However, the benefits and risks of using tiotropium and combination therapy together for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are unclear. Objectives To assess the relative effects of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist combination therapy in addition to tiotropium compared to tiotropium or combination therapy alone in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials (July 2010) and reference lists of articles. Selection criteria We included parallel, randomised controlled trials of three months or longer, comparing inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonists combination therapy in addition to inhaled tiotropium against tiotropium alone or combination therapy alone. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed trials for inclusion and then extracted data on trial quality and outcome results. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected information on adverse effects from the trials. Main results Three trials (1021 patients) were included comparing tiotropium in addition to inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist combination therapy to tiotropium alone. The duration, type of combination treatment and definition of outcomes varied. The limited data led to wide confidence intervals and there was no significant statistical difference in mortality, participants with one or more hospitalisations, episodes of pneumonia or adverse events. The results on exacerbations were heterogeneous and were not combined. The mean health-related quality of life and lung function were significantly different when combination therapy was added to tiotropium, although the size of the average benefits of additional combination therapy were small, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (MD ?2.49; 95% CI ?4.04 to ?0.94) and forced expiratory volume in one second (MD 0.06 L; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.08). One trial (60 patients) compared tiotropium plus combination therapy to combination therapy alone. The results from the trial were insufficient to draw firm conclusions for this comparison. Authors’ conclusions To date there is uncertainty regarding the long-term benefits and risks of treatment with tiotropium in addition to inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist combination therapy on mortality, hospitalisation, exacerbations of COPD and pneumonia. The addition of combination treatment to tiotropium has shown improvements in average health-related quality of life and lung function. PMID:21412920

Karner, Charlotta; Cates, Christopher J

2014-01-01

330

Long-acting methylphenidate formulations in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review of head-to-head studies  

PubMed Central

Background The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) has been a mainstay of treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for many years. Owing to the short half-life and the issues associated with multiple daily dosing of immediate-release MPH formulations, a new generation of long-acting MPH formulations has emerged. Direct head-to-head studies of these long-acting MPH formulations are important to facilitate an evaluation of their comparative pharmacokinetics and efficacy; however, to date, relatively few head-to-head studies have been performed. The objective of this systematic review was to compare the evidence available from head-to-head studies of long-acting MPH formulations and provide information that can guide treatment selection. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and PsycINFO in March 2012 using the MeSH terms: attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity/drug therapy; methylphenidate/therapeutic use and All Fields: Concerta; Ritalin LA; OROS and ADHD; Medikinet; Equasym XL and ADHD; long-acting methylphenidate; Diffucaps and ADHD; SODAS and methylphenidate. No filters were applied and no language, publication date or publication status limitations were imposed. Articles were selected if the title indicated a comparison of two or more long-acting MPH preparations in human subjects of any age; non-systematic review articles and unpublished data were not included. Results Of 15,295 references returned in the literature search and screened by title, 34 articles were identified for inclusion: nine articles from pharmacokinetic studies (nine studies); nine articles from laboratory school studies (six studies); two articles from randomized controlled trials (two studies); three articles from switching studies (two studies) and three articles from one observational study. Conclusions Emerging head-to-head studies provide important data on the comparative efficacy of the formulations available. At a group level, efficacy across the day generally follows the pharmacokinetic profile of the MPH formulation. No formulation is clearly superior to another; careful consideration of patient needs and subtle differences between formulations is required to optimize treatment. For patients achieving suboptimal symptom control, switching long-acting MPH formulations may be beneficial. When switching formulations, it is usually appropriate to titrate the immediate-release component of the formulation; a limitation of current studies is a focus on total daily dose rather than equivalent immediate-release components. Further studies are necessary to provide guidance in clinical practice, particularly in the treatment of adults and pre-school children and the impact of comorbidities and symptom severity on treatment response. PMID:24074240

2013-01-01

331

Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles via human serum albumin conjugation for controlled delivery of docetaxel  

PubMed Central

Background Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nanoparticles are considered to be a promising drug carrier in tumor targeting but suffer from the high level of opsonization by reticuloendothelial system due to their hydrophobic structure. As a result surface modification of these nanoparticles has been widely studied as an essential step in their development. Among various surface modifications, human serum albumin (HSA) possesses advantages including small size, hydrophilic surface and accumulation in leaky vasculature of tumors through passive targeting and a probable active transport into tumor tissues. Methods PLGA nanoparticles of docetaxel were prepared by emulsification evaporation method and were surface conjugated with human serum albumin. Fourier transform infrared spectrum was used to confirm the conjugation reaction where nuclear magnetic resonance was utilized for conjugation ratio determination. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed two different contrast media in conjugated nanoparticles. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of free docetaxel, unconjugated and conjugated PLGA nanoparticles was studied in HepG2 cells. Results Size, zeta potential and drug loading of PLGA nanoparticles were about 199 nm, ?11.07 mV, and 4%, respectively where size, zeta potential and drug loading of conjugated nanoparticles were found to be 204 nm, ?5.6 mV and 3.6% respectively. Conjugated nanoparticles represented a three-phasic release pattern with a 20% burst effect for docetaxel on the first day. Cytotoxicity experiment showed that the IC50 of HSA conjugated PLGA nanoparticles (5.4 ?g) was significantly lower than both free docetaxel (20.2 ?g) and unconjugated PLGA nanoparticles (6.2 ?g). Conclusion In conclusion surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles through HSA conjugation results in more cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines compared with free docetaxel and unconjugated PLGA nanoparticles. Albumin conjugated PLGA nanoparticles may represent a promising drug delivery system in cancer therapy. PMID:23866721

2013-01-01

332

Microencapsulation of a synbiotic into PLGA/alginate multiparticulate gels.  

PubMed

Probiotic bacteria have gained popularity as a defence against disorders of the bowel. However, the acid sensitivity of these cells results in a loss of viability during gastric passage and, consequently, a loss of efficacy. Probiotic treatment can be supplemented using 'prebiotics', which are carbohydrates fermented specifically by probiotic cells in the body. This combination of probiotic and prebiotic is termed a 'synbiotic'. Within this article a multiparticulate dosage form has been developed, consisting of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules containing prebiotic Bimuno™ incorporated into an alginate-chitosan matrix containing probiotic Bifidobacterium breve. The aim of this multiparticulate was that, in vivo, the probiotic would be protected against gastric acid and the release of the prebiotic would occur in the distal colon. After microscopic investigation, this synbiotic multiparticulate was shown to control the release of the prebiotic during in vitro gastrointestinal transit, with the release of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) initially occurred over 6h, but with a triphasic release pattern giving further release over 288 h. Encapsulation of B. breve in multiparticulates resulted in a survival of 8.0 ± 0.3 logCFU/mL cells in acid, an improvement over alginate-chitosan microencapsulation of 1.4 logCFU/mL. This was attributed to increased hydrophobicity by the incorporation of PLGA particles. PMID:24657143

Cook, Michael T; Tzortzis, George; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

2014-05-15

333

Porosity and mechanically optimized PLGA based in situ hardening systems.  

PubMed

Goal of the present study was to develop and to characterize in situ-hardening, porous PLGA-based systems for their future application as bone grafting materials. Therefore, we investigated the precipitation behavior of formulations containing PLGA and a water-miscible solvent, DMSO, PEG 400, and NMP. To increase porosity, a pore forming agent (NaCMC) was added and to enhance mechanical properties of the system, an inorganic filler (?-TCP) was incorporated. The behavior upon contact with water and the influence of the prior addition of aqueous media on the morphology of the corresponding hardened implants were investigated. We proved cell-compatibility by live/dead assays for the hardened porous polymer/ceramic-composite scaffolds. The IsHS formulations can therefore be used to manufacture hardened scaffolds ex vivo by using molds with the desired shape and size. Cells were further successfully incorporated into the IsHS by precultivating the cells on the ?-TCP-powder prior to their admixing to the formulation. However, cell viability could not be maintained due to toxicity of the tested solvents. But, the results demonstrate that in vivo cells should well penetrate, adhere, and proliferate in the hardened scaffolds. Consequently, we consider the in situ hardening system being an excellent candidate as a filling material for non-weight-bearing orthopedic indications, as the resulting properties of the hardened implant fulfill indication-specific needs like mechanical stability, elasticity, and porosity. PMID:22947486

Schloegl, W; Marschall, V; Witting, M Y; Volkmer, E; Drosse, I; Leicht, U; Schieker, M; Wiggenhorn, M; Schaubhut, F; Zahler, S; Friess, W

2012-11-01

334

Biological evaluation of 5-fluorouracil nanoparticles for cancer chemotherapy and its dependence on the carrier, PLGA  

PubMed Central

Nanoscaled devices have great potential for drug delivery applications due to their small size. In the present study, we report for the first time the preparation and evaluation of antitumor efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-entrapped poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with dependence on the lactide/glycolide combination of PLGA. 5-FU-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with two different monomer combinations, 50-50 and 90-10 were synthesized using a modified double emulsion method, and their biological evaluation was done in glioma (U87MG) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines. 5-FU-entrapped PLGA 50-50 nanoparticles showed smaller size with a high encapsulation efficiency of 66%, which was equivalent to that of PLGA 90-10 nanoparticles. Physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction suggested the presence of 5-FU in molecular dispersion form. In vitro release studies showed the prolonged and sustained release of 5-FU from nanoparticles with both the PLGA combinations, where PLGA 50-50 nanoparticles showed faster release. Nanoparticles with PLGA 50-50 combination exhibited better cytotoxicity than free drug in a dose- and time-dependent manner against both the tumor cell lines. The enhanced efficiency of PLGA 50-50 nanoparticles to induce apoptosis was indicated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Cell cycle perturbations studied using flow cytometer showed better S-phase arrest by nanoparticles in comparison with free 5-FU. All the results indicate that PLGA 50-50 nanoparticles possess better antitumor efficacy than PLGA 90-10 nanoparticles and free 5-FU. Since, studies have shown that long-term exposure of ailing tissues to moderate drug concentrations is more favorable than regular administration of higher concentration of the drug; our results clearly indicate the potential of 5-FU-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with dependence on carrier combination as controlled release formulation to multiplex the therapeutic effect of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:21980233

Nair K, Lekha; Jagadeeshan, Sankar; Nair, S Asha; Kumar, GS Vinod

2011-01-01

335

Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) as Biodegradable Controlled Drug Delivery Carrier  

PubMed Central

In past two decades poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) has been among the most attractive polymeric candidates used to fabricate devices for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. PLGA is biocompatible and biodegradable, exhibits a wide range of erosion times, has tunable mechanical properties and most importantly, is a FDA approved polymer. In particular, PLGA has been extensively studied for the development of devices for controlled delivery of small molecule drugs, proteins and other macromolecules in commercial use and in research. This manuscript describes the various fabrication techniques for these devices and the factors affecting their degradation and drug release. PMID:22577513

Makadia, Hirenkumar K.; Siegel, Steven J.

2011-01-01

336

Facile fabrication of porous ZnO microspheres by thermal treatment of ZnS microspheres.  

PubMed

Porous ZnO microspheres with an average size of around 500 nm had been synthesized by thermal treatment of ZnS microspheres in an air atmosphere. The ZnS spheres had been synthesized at a low temperature of 100 degrees C by using L-cysteine (an ordinary amino acid) as a sulfur source with the assist of gelatin. By combining the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and Fourier transformation infrared spectra (FTIR), a structural and morphological characterization of the products was performed. The photocatalytic activity of ZnS microspheres and porous ZnO microspheres have been tested by degradation of Rhodamine-B (RB) under UV light, indicating that the porous ZnO microspheres showed enhanced photocatalytic performance compared to ZnS microspheres and commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2). PMID:19913355

Wu, Xiao; Li, KunWei; Wang, Hao

2010-02-15

337

Bisphosphonate release profiles from magnetite microspheres.  

PubMed

Hyperthermia has been suggested as a novel, minimally invasive cancer treatment method. After implantation of magnetic nano- or microparticles around a tumour through blood vessels, irradiation with alternating magnetic fields facilitates the efficient in situ hyperthermia even for deep-seated tumours. On the basis of this idea, if the microspheres are capable of delivering drugs, they could be promising multifunctional biomaterials effective for chemotherapy as well as hyperthermia. In the present study, magnetite microspheres were prepared by aggregation of the iron oxide colloid in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. The release behaviour of alendronate, a typical bisphosphonate, from the microspheres was examined in vitro as a model of the bone tumour prevention and treatment system. The alendronate was successfully incorporated onto the porous magnetite microspheres in vacuum conditions. The drug-loaded microspheres maintained their original spherical shapes even after shaking in ultrapure water for 3 days, suggesting that they have sufficient mechanical integrity for clinical use. It was attributed to high aggregation capability of the magnetite nanoparticles through van der Waals and weak magnetic attractions. The microspheres showed slow release of the alendronate in vitro, resulting from tight covalent or ionic interaction between the magnetite and the alendronate. The release rate was diffusion-controlled type and well controlled by the alendronate concentration in drug incorporation to the microspheres. PMID:24854985

Miyazaki, Toshiki; Inoue, Tatsuya; Shirosaki, Yuki; Kawashita, Masakazu; Matsubara, Takao; Matsumine, Akihiko

2014-10-01

338

Role of Long-Acting Injectable Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Clinical Perspective  

PubMed Central

Approximately 80% of patients with the first-episode schizophrenia reach symptomatic remission after antipsychotic therapy. However, within two years most of them relapse, mainly due to low levels of insight into the illness and nonadherence to their oral medication. Therefore, although the formal data available is limited, many experts recommend prescribing long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics (mostly risperidone or alternatively paliperidone) in the early stages of schizophrenia, particularly in patients who have benefited from the original oral molecule in the past and agree to receive long-term injectable treatment. Early application of long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics can significantly reduce the risk of relapse in the future and thus improve not only the social and working potential of patients with schizophrenia but also their quality of life. PMID:22966444

Prikryl, Radovan; Prikrylova Kucerova, Hana; Vrzalova, Michaela; Ceskova, Eva

2012-01-01

339

Fabrication and in vitro biocompatibility of biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, biomorphic poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds were successfully prepared using cane as a template. The porous morphology, phase, compression characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds and biomorphic PLGA scaffolds as control were investigated. The results showed that the biomorphic scaffolds preserved the original honeycomb-like architecture of cane and exhibited a bimodal porous structure. The average channel diameter and micropore size of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were 164 ± 52 ?m and 13 ± 8 ?m, respectively, with a porosity of 89.3 ± 1.4%. The incorporation of nHA into PLGA decreased the degree of crystallinity of PLGA, and significantly improved the compressive modulus of biomorphic scaffolds. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could better support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than the biomorphic PLGA scaffolds. The localization depth of MC3T3-E1 cells within the channels of the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could reach approximately 400 ?m. The results suggested that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24433891

Qian, Junmin; Xu, Weijun; Yong, Xueqing; Jin, Xinxia; Zhang, Wei

2014-03-01

340

Aceclofenac microspheres: quality by design approach.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to prepare polymeric microspheres containing aceclofenac by single emulsion [oil-in-water (o/w)] solvent evaporation method. Two biocompatible polymers, ethylcellulose, and Eudragit® RS100 were used in combination. Seven processing factors were investigated by Plackett-Burman design (PBD) in order to enhance the encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres. A Plackett-Burman design was employed by using the Design-Expert® software (Version-8.0.7.1). The resultant microspheres were characterized for their size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. Imaging of particles was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Interaction between the drug and polymers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD). Graphical and mathematical analyses of the design showed that Eudragit® RS100, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were significant negative effect on the encapsulation efficiency and identified as the significant factor determining the encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres. The low magnitudes of error and the significant values of R(2) in the present investigation prove the high prognostic ability of the design. The microspheres showed high encapsulation efficiency (70.15% to 83.82%). The microspheres were found to be discrete, oval with smooth surface. The FTIR analysis confirmed the compatibility of aceclofenac with the polymers. The XRPD revealed the dispersion of drug within microspheres formulation. Perfect prolonged drug release profile over 12h was achieved by a combination of ethylcellulose, and Eudragit® RS100 polymers. In conclusion, polymeric microspheres containing aceclofenac can be successfully prepared using the technique of experimental design, and these results helped in finding the optimum formulation variables for encapsulation efficiency of microspheres. PMID:24433918

Deshmukh, Rameshwar K; Naik, Jitendra B

2014-03-01

341

Improvement of insulin sensitivity for glucose metabolism with the long-acting Ca-channel blocker amlodipine in essential hypertensive subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify whether the long-acting calcium-channel blocker amlodipine restores insulin insensitivity in essential hypertension, insulin sensitivity tests were performed at the physiological steady-state insulin level (45 to 55 ?U\\/mL) before and after amlodipine (2.5 to 7.5 mg\\/d) administration for 2 to 4 months in borderline and mild essential hypertensive subjects. Instead of somatostatin, Sandostatin (Sandoz, Basel, Switzerland) was used for

Y. Harano; A. Kageyama; J. Hirose; Y. Asakura; T. Yokota; M. Ikebuchi; M. Suzuki; T. Omae

1995-01-01

342

Comparative effects of long-acting ? 2-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor on exercise-induced asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a common problem that can be controlled with long-acting ?-agonists and leukotriene-modifying compounds. There is, however, limited information on the comparative effectiveness of the two classes of drugs, as well as the relative potencies of the antileukotriene agents. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide data on the above issues. Methods: We

Albert Coreno; Mary Skowronski; Chakradhar Kotaru; E. R. McFadden

2000-01-01

343

Efficacy of a new once-daily long-acting inhaled ?2-agonist indacaterol versus twice-daily formoterol in COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIndacaterol is a long-acting inhaled ?2-agonist (LABA) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In previous studies, indacaterol provided 24 h bronchodilation on once-daily dosing with a fast onset of action. This study compared the efficacy and safety of indacaterol with the twice-daily LABA formoterol and placebo over 1 year.MethodsPatients with moderate to severe COPD were randomised to

Ronald Dahl; Kian Fan Chung; Roland Buhl; Helgo Magnussen; Vladimir Nonikov; Damon Jack; Patricia Bleasdale; Roger Owen; Mark Higgins; Benjamin Kramer

2010-01-01

344

Bone Remodeling, Bone Mass and Weight Gain in Patients with Stabilized Schizophrenia in Real-Life Conditions Treated with Long-Acting Injectable Risperidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prolactin-raising antipsychotics, risperidone (antidopaminergic activity), may be associated with low bone mass. On the other hand, risperidone may cause an increase in body weight thought to be favorable for bone. Objectives: (1) To determine bone remodeling parameters and bone mass in patients with schizophrenia on long-term treatment with long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR) in naturalistic settings, and (2) to evaluate

Mirjana Doknic; Nadja P. Maric; Dubravka Britvic; Sandra Pekic; Aleksandar Damjanovic; Dragana Miljic; Marko Stojanovic; Zoran Radojicic; Miroslava Jasovic Gasic; Vera Popovic

2011-01-01

345

Influence of the injection site on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after intramuscular administration of a conventional and a long-acting formulation in sheep.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin (AMX) were investigated in sheep following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m) injection, comparing two different drug formulations, a conventional and a long-acting AMX-trihydrate suspension. For the i.m. application two different injections sites, the neck area and the hind limb were used to identify possible differences in the kinetic parameters related to the site of injection. A three-compartment open model could best describe AMX disposition after i.v. administration. Data analysis after i.m. administration of the conventional suspension at both injection sites revealed the occurrence of a flip-flop phenomenon, clearly indicating that absorption of AMX is the rate-limiting step of its overall disposition. A moderate effect of the injection site was observed with a tendency for the neck area to be advantageous, mainly in terms of rate rather than extent of absorption. Injection of the long-acting formulation led to a focal depot formation, thus yielding lower but remarkably prolonged serum AMX levels reflected in the respective terminal half-lives. The concentration-time profile of AMX after administration of the long-acting formulation was less affected by the injection site, but the low serum levels justify its use only in cases in which a high susceptibility of the involved bacterial population is confirmed. PMID:19754912

Delis, G; Batzias, G; Theodosiadou, E; Kounenis, G; Koutsoviti-Papadopoulou, M

2009-10-01

346

Impact of Pay for Performance on Prescribing of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Primary Care: An Interrupted Time Series Study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), a major pay-for-performance programme in the United Kingdom, on prescribing of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) in primary care. Methods Negative binomial interrupted time series analysis using practice level prescribing data from April 2007 to March 2012. The main outcome measure was the prescribing rate of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), including hormonal and non hormonal intrauterine devices and systems (IUDs and IUSs), injectable contraceptives and hormonal implants. Results Prescribing rates of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) were stable before the introduction of contraceptive targets to the QOF and increased afterwards by 4% annually (rate ratios ?=?1.04, 95% CI?=?1.03, 1.06). The increase in LARC prescribing was mainly driven by increases in injectables (increased by 6% annually), which was the most commonly prescribed LARC method. Of other types of LARC, the QOF indicator was associated with a step increase of 20% in implant prescribing (RR?=? 1.20, 95% CI?=? 1.09, 1.32). This change is equivalent to an additional 110 thousand women being prescribed with LARC had QOF points not been introduced. Conclusions Pay for performance incentives for contraceptive counselling in primary care with women seeking contraceptive advice has increased uptake of LARC methods. PMID:24694949

Arrowsmith, Myat E.; Majeed, Azeem; Lee, John Tayu; Saxena, Sonia

2014-01-01

347

SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

2008-04-15

348

Protease immobilization onto polyacrolein microspheres.  

PubMed

Water-insoluble proteases were prepared by immobilizing papain and chymotrypsin onto the surface of polyacrolein microspheres with and without oligoglycines as spacer. The activity of immobilized proteases was found to be still high toward small ester substrates, but very low toward casein, a high-molecular-weight substrate. The relative activity of the immobilized proteases without spacer decreased gradually with the decreasing surface concentration of the immobilized proteases on the microspheres. On the contrary, the immobilized proteases with oligoglycine spacers gave an almost constant activity for the substrate hydrolysis within the surface concentration region studied and gave a much higher relative activity than those without any spacer. With the longer spacer, the immobilized enzymes showed a higher activity toward casein hydrolysis, whereas there was an optimum length for the spacer when hydrolysis was carried out toward the low-molecular-weight substrate. The thermal stability of the immobilized proteases was higher than that of the respective native proteases. The initial enzymatic activity of the immobilized proteases maintained almost unchanged without any elimination and inactivation of proteases, when the batch enzyme reaction was performed repeatedly, indicating the excellent durability. PMID:18592545

Hayashi, T; Ikada, Y

1990-03-01

349

A prospective, open-label study to evaluate symptomatic remission in schizophrenia with risperidone long-acting injectable in Korea.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate long-term clinical outcomes of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. An open-label, 48-week, prospective study of RLAI treatment was carried out at 63 centers in South Korea. Initial and maintenance dosage of RLAI were adjusted according to clinical judgment. Efficacy was measured by the remission rate, continuation rate, and changes in the clinical measurements such as eight items of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression - Severity, and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale. In terms of the safety, Simpson-Angus rating Scale, adverse events (AEs), and BMI were investigated. Of the 522 patients who were enrolled, 472 patients who had been assessed on the eight items of PANSS at baseline and at least once during RLAI treatment were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. The per-protocol (PP) population included 184 patients (39.0%), who completed all assessments during 48 weeks of the follow-up period. Total scores of eight items of PANSS, Clinical Global Impression - Severity, and Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale were reduced significantly from baseline to endpoint in both ITT and PP populations. The mean dose (SD) of RLAI was 33.2 (7.6) mg. In the PP population, the number of patients who scored 1-3 on eight items of PANSS were 47 (25.5%) at baseline and 144 (78.3%) at 48 weeks. According to the remission defining as scores 1-3 on eight items of PANSS sustaining of at least 6 months' duration by Andreasen, the numbers of patients who achieved remission were 45 (24.5%) at 24 weeks and 120 (65.2%) at 48 weeks. A significant decrease in the mean score of Simpson-Angus rating Scale and a significant increase in BMI over time in last observation carried forward were observed, and patients who fulfilled the remission criteria during the study showed more weight gain than those who did not. During the study period, a total of 645 AEs were noted in 233 patients (49.3%) who were included in the ITT population. Sixty-nine serious AEs in 51 patients were reported, but all of them were not directly attributable to administration of RLAI. This prospective, open-label study showed improvements in symptom and AEs and a significant increase in BMI during 48 weeks of biweekly RLAI treatment. The rate of study completion was 39.0% and the remission rate among those who completed the study was 65.2%. None of the serious AEs were directly related to the administration of RLAI. PMID:24583566

Lee, Nam Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Cho, Seong Jin; Chung, Young-Cho; Jung, In Kwa; Kim, Chang Yoon; Kim, Duk Ho; Lee, Dong Geun; Lee, Yo Han; Lim, Weon Jeong; Na, Young Suk; Shin, Sang Eun; Woo, Jong-Min; Yoon, Jin Sang; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

2014-09-01

350

Characterization of a Polyamine Microsphere and Its Adsorption for Protein  

PubMed Central

A novel polyamine microsphere, prepared from the water-in-oil emulsion of polyethylenimine, was characterized. The investigation of scanning electron microscopy showed that the polyamine microsphere is a regular ball with a smooth surface. The diameter distribution of the microsphere is 0.37–4.29 ?m. The isoelectric point of the microsphere is 10.6. The microsphere can adsorb proteins through the co-effect of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Among the proteins tested, the highest value of adsorption of microsphere, 127.8 mg·g?1 microsphere, was obtained with lipase. In comparison with other proteins, the hydrophobic force is more important in promoting the adsorption of lipase. The microsphere can preferentially adsorb lipase from an even mixture of proteins. The optimum temperature and pH for the selective adsorption of lipase by the microsphere was 35 °C and pH 7.0. PMID:23344018

Wang, Feng; Liu, Pei; Nie, Tingting; Wei, Huixian; Cui, Zhenggang

2013-01-01

351

Current advances in research and clinical applications of PLGA-based nanotechnology  

PubMed Central

Co-polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanotechnology has been developed for many years and has been approved by the US FDA for the use of drug delivery, diagnostics and other applications of clinical and basic science research, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, vaccine and tissue engineering. This article presents the more recent successes of applying PLGA-based nanotechnologies and tools in these medicine-related applications. It focuses on the possible mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment effects of PLGA preparations and devices. This updated information will benefit to both new and established research scientists and clinical physicians who are interested in the development and application of PLGA nanotechnology as new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for many diseases. PMID:19435455

Lü, Jian-Ming; Wang, Xinwen; Marin-Muller, Christian; Wang, Hao; Lin, Peter H; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

2009-01-01

352

The Characteristics and Mechanisms of Uptake of PLGA Nanoparticles in Rabbit Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To delineate the characteristics and mechanisms of up- take of biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles in primary cultured rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells (RCECs).

Mohamed G. Qaddoumi; Hideo Ueda; Johnny Yang; Jasmine Davda; Vinod Labhasetwar; Vincent H. L. Lee

2004-01-01

353

In-vitro anticancer and antimicrobial activities of PLGA/silver nanofiber composites prepared by electrospinning.  

PubMed

In the present work, a series of 0, 1 and 7 wt% silver nano-particles (Ag NPs) incorporated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nano-fibers were synthesized by the electrospinning process. The PLGA/Ag nano-fibers sheets were characterized using SEM, TEM and DSC analyses. The three synthesized PLGA/silver nano-fiber composites were screened for anticancer activity against liver cancer cell line using MTT and LDH assays. The anticancer activity of PLGA nano-fibers showed a remarkable improvement due to increasing the concentration of the Ag NPs. In addition to the given result, PLGA nano-fibers did not show any cytotoxic effect. However, PLGA nano-fibers that contain 1 % nano silver showed anticancer activity of 8.8 %, through increasing the concentration of the nano silver to 7 % onto PLGA nano-fibers, the anticancer activity was enhanced to a 67.6 %. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities of these three nano-fibers, against the five bacteria strains namely; E.coli o157:H7 ATCC 51659, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 13565, Bacillus cereus EMCC 1080, Listeria monocytogenes EMCC 1875 and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC25566 using the disc diffusion method, were evaluated. Sample with an enhanced inhibitory effect was PLGA/Ag NPs (7 %) which inhibited all strains (inhibition zone diameter 10 mm); PLGA/Ag NPs (1 %) sample inhibited only one strain (B. cereus) with zone diameter 8 mm. The PLGA nano-fiber sample has not shown any antimicrobial activity. Based on the anticancer as well as the antimicrobial results in this study, it can be postulated that: PLGA nanofibers containing 7 % nano silver are suitable as anticancer- and antibiotic-drug delivery systems, as they will increase the anticancer as well as the antibiotic drug potency without cytotoxicity effect on the normal cells. These findings also suggest that Ag NPs, of the size (5-10 nm) evaluated in the present study, are appropriate for therapeutic application from a safety standpoint. PMID:24375170

Almajhdi, Fahad N; Fouad, H; Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek; Awad, Hanem M; Mohamed, Sahar H S; Elsarnagawy, T; Albarrag, Ahmed M; Al-Jassir, Fawzi F; Abdo, Hany S

2014-04-01

354

Surface hydrophilization of electrospun PLGA micro-\\/nano-fibers by blending with Pluronic ® F-108  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) has been widely explored as scaffolds in tissue engineering. However, its hydrophobicity can adversely affect events such as protein adsorption and downstream cell adhesion in tissue engineering applications. Although surface modification techniques (high energy radiation\\/chemical treatment) to modify the hydrophobicity of PLGA can be useful at the macroscopic scale, their usefulness for micro-\\/nano-meter scale objects can be limited

Rajesh Vasita; Gopinath Mani; C. Mauli Agrawal; Dhirendra S. Katti

2010-01-01

355

Sustained release of dexamethasone from hydrophilic matrices using PLGA nanoparticles for neural drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone (DEX) from nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) embedded in alginate hydrogel (HG) matrices was investigated. DEX-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using a solvent evaporation technique and were characterized for size, drug loading, and in-vitro release. The crosslinking density of the HG was studied and correlated with drug release kinetics. The amount of DEX

Dong-Hwan Kim; David C. Martin

2006-01-01

356

Targeting of tumor endothelium by RGD-grafted PLGA-nanoparticles loaded with Paclitaxel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PEGylated PLGA-based nanoparticles (NP) have been previously described as more effective in vitro and in vivo than Taxol®. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that our PEGylated PLGA-based nanoparticles grafted with the RGD peptide or RGD-peptidomimetic (RGDp) would target the tumor endothelium and would further enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of PTX. The ligands were

Fabienne Danhier; Benoît Vroman; Nathalie Lecouturier; Nathalie Crokart; Vincent Pourcelle; Hélène Freichels; Christine Jérôme; Jacqueline Marchand-Brynaert; Olivier Feron; Véronique Préat

2009-01-01

357

Paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: preparation, physicochemical characterization and in vitro anti-tumoral activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to develop a polymeric drug delivery system for paclitaxel, intended to be intravenously administered, capable of improving the therapeutic index of the drug and devoid of the adverse effects of Cremophor® EL. To achieve this goal paclitaxel (Ptx)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (Ptx-PLGA-Nps) were prepared by the interfacial deposition method. The influence of

Cristina Fonseca; Sérgio Simões; Rogério Gaspar

2002-01-01

358

Beta dose distribution for randomly packed microspheres  

E-print Network

of radiation dose distribution when utilizing this technique. This study focuses on random packing of microspheres and seeks to determine dose distributions for specific cases. The Monte Carlo Neutral Particle code (MCNP) developed by Los Alamos National...

Urashkin, Alexander

2007-04-25

359

Organic aerogel microspheres and fabrication method therefor  

DOEpatents

Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

360

Development and evaluation of controlled-release diclofenac microspheres and tabletted microspheres.  

PubMed

Diclofenac wax microspheres were prepared using the congealable dispersephase encapsulation method. Emulsifiers, glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and stearic acid, were added to improve the efficiency of emulsification. Microspheres containing either of the emulsifiers or both showed a high drug content (80-90%) and the particle size distribution was log-normal compared with microspheres without the emulsifiers. Increase in GMS concentration decreased the drug release and, in contrast, stearic acid appeared to channel the drug from the wax matrix. The addition of both emulsifiers at different concentrations modified drug release. Increase in dispersant (PVP) concentration, and decrease in microsphere size accelerated the rate of drug release. Higuchi/Baker Londsdale spherical matrix dissolution kinetics was followed. Disintegrating tableted microspheres were prepared with Avicel and Explotab. With the increase in compression pressure the crushing force and disintegrating time increased, but the thickness decreased, and the dissolution profile did not appear to be affected. Slightly faster release was noticed with tableted microspheres compared with that of uncompressed microspheres. Tablets containing 40 and 60% microsphere loadings had disintegration times of 5.12 +/- 0.63 and 57.73 +/- 3.53 min, respectively. In contrast, tablet formulation containing 80% microsphere load had a significant increase in disintegration time (130.83 +/- 4.26 min). The dissolution from this formulation also showed a lag time of 30 min in contrast with the other two formulations, which showed no lag time. Increased microsphere size from 215 to 630 microns had no effect on tableting properties (such as hardness and thickness); and only very little effect on dissolution. The microspheres appeared deformed but intact irrespective of compression pressures on scanning electron micrographs. PMID:7931945

Vilivalam, V D; Adeyeye, C M

1994-01-01

361

In vivo study of ALA PLGA nanoparticles-mediated PDT for treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer and its treatment is still a challenge. Although topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for treating in situ and superficial SCC, the effectiveness of topical ALA delivery to thick SCC can be limited by its bioavailability. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanopartieles (PLGA NPs) might provide a promising ALA delivery strategy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ALA PLGA NPs PDT for the treatment of cutaneous SCC in a mouse model. Methods: ALA loaded PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized. The therapeutic efficacy of ALA PLGA NP mediated PDT in treating UV-induced cutaneous SCC in the mice model were examined. Results: In vivo study showed that ALA PLGA NPs PDT were more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating mouse cutaneous SCC. Conclusion: ALA PLGA NPs provides a promising strategy for delivering ALA and treating cutaneous SCC.

Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Xiuli

2014-09-01

362

Effect of excipients on PLGA film degradation and the stability of an incorporated peptide.  

PubMed

The effect of pH modifying excipients on the chemical stability of a model peptide (VYPNGA) and the degradation of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA) was studied in PLGA films under accelerated storage conditions. pH modifiers included a basic amine (proton sponge), a basic salt (magnesium hydroxide) and two pH buffers (ammonium acetate and magnesium acetate). Changes in film pH were monitored using (13)C NMR, peptide degradation products were quantified by LC/MS/MS and PLGA degradation was analyzed by TGA, DSC and SEC. Inclusion of pH modifiers had little impact on PLGA degradation. The proton sponge affected an initial decrease in pH but reduced peptide deamidation and chain cleavage relative to an unbuffered control. Magnesium hydroxide produced an initial increase in pH but also showed increased peptide deamidation. Ammonium acetate decreased pH and increased peptide chain cleavage, presumably due to increased PLGA hydrolysis. Magnesium acetate buffer increased the initial pH but resulted in increased peptide loss. The extent of peptide acylation increased in all formulations, most notably in the proton sponge modified films. The effectiveness of pH modifiers in PLGA formulations under storage conditions is dependant on both the mechanism of pH alteration and the peptide degradation reaction of interest. PMID:17207882

Houchin, M L; Neuenswander, S A; Topp, E M

2007-02-26

363

Effect of Excipients on PLGA Film Degradation and the Stability of an Incorporated Peptide  

PubMed Central

The effect of pH modifying excipients on the chemical stability of a model peptide (VYPNGA) and the degradation of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA) was studied in PLGA films under accelerated storage conditions. pH modifiers included a basic amine (proton sponge), a basic salt (magnesium hydroxide) and two pH buffers (ammonium acetate and magnesium acetate). Changes in film pH were monitored using 13C NMR, peptide degradation products were quantified by LC/MS/MS and PLGA degradation was analyzed by TGA, DSC and SEC. Inclusion of pH modifiers had little impact on PLGA degradation. The proton sponge affected an initial decrease in pH but reduced peptide deamidation and chain cleavage relative to an unbuffered control. Magnesium hydroxide produced an initial increase in pH but also showed increased peptide deamidation. Ammonium acetate decreased pH and increased peptide chain cleavage, presumably due to increased PLGA hydrolysis. Magnesium acetate buffer increased the initial pH but resulted in increased peptide loss. The extent of peptide acylation increased in all formulations, most notably in the proton sponge modified films. The effectiveness of pH modifiers in PLGA formulations under storage conditions is dependant on both the mechanism of pH alteration and the peptide degradation reaction of interest. PMID:17207882

Houchin, M.L.; Neuenswander, S.A.; Topp, E.M.

2007-01-01

364

Mapping force of interaction between PLGA nanoparticle with cell membrane using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drug delivery using magnetic (Fe3O4) Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) nanoparticles is finding increasing usage in therapeutic applications due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility and targeted localization. Since optical tweezers allow non-contact, highly sensitive force measurement, we utilized optical tweezers for studying interaction forces between the Fe3O4-PLGA nanoparticles with prostate cancer PC3 cells. Presence of Fe3O4 within the PLGA shell allowed efficient trapping of these nanoparticles in near-IR optical tweezers. The conglomerated PLGA nanoparticles could be dispersed by use of the optical tweezers. Calibration of trapping stiffness as a function of laser beam power was carried out using equipartition theorem method, where the mean square displacement was measured with high precision using time-lapse fluorescence imaging of the nanoparticles. After the trapped PLGA nanoparticle was brought in close vicinity of the PC3 cell membrane, displacement of the nanoparticle from trap center was measured as a function of time. In short time scale (< 30sec), while the force of interaction was within 0.2 pN, the force increased beyond 1pN at longer time scales (˜ 10 min). We will present the results of the time-varying force of interactions between PLGA nanoparticles with PC3 cells using optical tweezers.

Chhajed, Suyash; Gu, Ling; Homayoni, Homa; Nguyen, Kytai; Mohanty, Samarendra

2011-03-01

365

Nasal delivery of insulin using chitosan microspheres.  

PubMed

Nasal delivery of insulin is an alternative route for administration of this drug. The objective of this study was preparation of chitosan microspheres for insulin nasal delivery. After preparation of insulin chitosan microspheres by emulsification-cross linking process, the effect of chitosan quantity (200-400mg), cross-linker type (ascorbic acid or ascorbyl palmitate) and amount (70-140 mg) were studied on the morphology, particle size, loading efficiency, flow and release of insulin from the microspheres by a factorial design. Optimized formulation was administered nasally in four groups of diabetic rats and their serum insulin levels were analysed by the insulin enzyme immunoassay kit and the serum glucose by the glucose oxidase kits. Insulin loading in microspheres was between 4.7-6.4% w/w, preparation efficiency more than 65% and mean particle size was 20-45 microm. In most cases, drug released followed a Higuchi model. Ascorbic acid caused an increase in stability, particle size and T50%, while decreased the loading efficiency and production efficiency. Increasing the chitosan content, increased particle size, flow and insulin release rate form the microspheres. The increase of cross-linking percentage decreased the flow and size of the microspheres while increase of cross-linking percentage promoted the stability and decreased DE8% of insulin. Microspheres containing 400mg of chitosan and 70mg ascorbyl palmitate caused a 67% reduction of blood glucose compared to i.v. route and absolute bioavaliability of insulin was 44%. The results showed that chitosan microspheres of insulin are absorbable from nasal route. PMID:15799226

Varshosaz, J; Sadrai, H; Alinagari, R

2004-11-01

366

Carbon microsphere-filled Pyrrone foams.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Syntactic foam formulations were prepared from mixtures of Pyrrone prepolymers and hollow carbon microspheres. Very low curing shrinkages were obtained for high volume loadings of microspheres. The resulting syntactic foams were found to be remarkably stable over a wide range in temperature. A technique was developed for the emplacement of these foam formulations in polyimide-fiberglass, titanium alloy and stainless steel honeycomb without sacrificing low curing shrinkage or thermal stability.

Kimmel, B. G.

1973-01-01

367

Design and Optimization of PLGA-Based Diclofenac Loaded Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Drug based nanoparticle (NP) formulations have gained considerable attention over the past decade for their use in various drug formulations. NPs have been shown to increase bioavailability, decrease side effects of highly toxic drugs, and prolong drug release. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac block cyclooxygenase expression and reduce prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to several side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize diclofenac entrapped poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were formulated using an emulsion-diffusion-evaporation technique with varying concentrations of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) or didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1%) stabilizers centrifuged at 8,800 rpm or 12,000 rpm. The resultant nanoparticles were evaluated based on particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficacy. DMAB formulated NPs showed the lowest particle size (108±2.1 nm) and highest zeta potential (?27.71±0.6 mV) at 0.1 and 0.25% respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Results of the PVA based NP formulation showed the smallest particle size (92.4±7.6 nm) and highest zeta potential (?11.14±0.5 mV) at 0.25% and 1% w/v, respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Drug entrapment reached 77.3±3.5% and 80.2±1.2% efficiency with DMAB and PVA formulations, respectively. The results of our study indicate the use of DMAB for increased nanoparticle stability during formulation. Our study supports the effective utilization of PLGA based nanoparticle formulation for diclofenac. PMID:24489896

Cooper, Dustin L.; Harirforoosh, Sam

2014-01-01

368

Demonstration of Microsphere Insulation in Cryogenic Vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual use in full-scale cryogenic storage tanks has not been demonstrated until now. The performance and life-cycle-cost advantages previously predicted have now been proven. Most bulk cryogenic storage tanks are insulated with either multilayer insulation (MLI) or perlite. Microsphere insulation, consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncomb