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Sample records for long-lived radioactive wastes

  1. Accelerator-driven destruction of long-lived radioactive waste and energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Schriber, S.O.

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear waste management involves many issues. ATW is an option that can assist a repository by enhancing its capability and thereby assist nuclear waste management. Technology advances and the recent release of liquid metal coolant information from Russia has had an enormous impact on the viability of an ATW system. It now appears economic with many repository enhancing attributes. In time, an ATW option added to present repository activities will provide the public with a nuclear fuel cycle that is acceptable from economic and environmental points of view.

  2. Studies on important radionuclides for the safety of a radioactive waste disposal site: Correlation between easily measurable gamma emitters and long-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, A.; Lagarde, B.; Pitiot, A.

    1996-08-01

    To comply with the regulations laid down by the French safety authorities for a national surface disposal site, one must obtain a good evaluation of the activity of the long-lived nuclides in each individual package. Because this cannot be done on a routine basis by direct nondestructive measurements, experiments are being conducted in France to calculate the activity of long-lived nuclides from the measured activity of key nuclides ({sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs). This is achieved through the use of scaling factors and correlation functions that are calculated from the analysis of a limited number of representative waste samples. The first results obtained for some typical French pressurized water reactor radioactive wastes, including ion-exchange resins, evaporator concentrates, and filter cartridges, are presented. Significant correlations are observed for the {sup 63}Ni/{sup 60}Co and {sup 94}Nb/{sup 60}Co nuclide pairs, while {sup 14}C does not seem to correlate with {sup 60}Co. A good correlation between {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr is established for resins, while in the case of filters, only a tendency to correlation appears. This evaluation work is only at a preliminary stage, and much improvement of the results presented here is expected from research programs being carried out in this field by Electricite de France, commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, and the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities.

  3. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cotthem, Alain; Van Humbeeck, Hughes

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  4. Radiation protection recommendations as applied to the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. A report of The International Commission on Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    (79) Waste, by definition, has no benefit. It should be viewed as one aspect of the beneficial practice that gave rise to it. Furthermore, radioactive waste management should be placed in the context of the management of society's waste in general. (80) A major issue in evaluating the acceptability of a disposal system for long-lived solid radioactive waste is that doses or risks may arise from exposures in the distant future. There is uncertainty surrounding any estimate of these doses or risks due to lack of knowledge about future conditions. Such exposures are treated as potential exposures as their magnitude depends on future processes and conditions that have probabilities associated with them. (81) Nevertheless, the Commission recognises a basic principle that individuals and populations in the future should be afforded at least the same level of protection from the action of disposing of radioactive waste today as is the current generation. This implies use of the current quantitative dose and risk criteria derived from considering associated health detriment. Therefore, protection of future generations should be achieved by applying these dose or risk criteria to the estimated future doses or risks in appropriately defined critical groups. These estimates should not be regarded as measures of health detriment beyond times of around several hundreds of years into the future. In the case of these longer time periods, they represent indicators of the protection afforded by the disposal system. (82 Constrained optimisation is the central approach to evaluating the radiological acceptability of a waste disposal system; dose or risk constraints are used rather than dose or risk limits. By this transition from limitation to optimisation, the needs of practical application of the radiological protection system to the disposal of long-lived solid waste disposal are met: determination of acceptability now for exposures that may occur in the distant future

  5. Transmutation of Long-Lived Nuclear Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    JAEA is conducting research and development on an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), aiming at reduction of burden for high-level radioactive wastes. To tackle technical challenges on ADS, JAEA is planning to build the Transmutation Experimental Facility as the Phase-2 program of J-PARC. Moreover, JAEA is considering the collaboration with the MYRRHA project proposed by Belgian Nuclear Research Center.

  6. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Proposed partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J. ); Rawlins, J.A. )

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW{sub e}. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Two Approaches to the Geologic Disposal of Long-Lived Nuclear Waste: Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Levich, R. A.; Patterson, R. L.; Linden, R. M.

    2002-02-26

    A key component of the US energy program is to provide for the safe and permanent isolation of spent nuclear fuel and long-lived radioactive waste produced through programs related to national defense and the generation of electric power by nuclear utilities. To meet this challenge, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a multi-faceted approach to the geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes. Two sites are being developed or studied as current or potential deep geologic repositories for long lived radioactive wastes, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico and Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  9. The specific research and development contribution of Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique for the disposal of radioactive waste containing long-lived elements

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, J.C.

    1996-08-01

    An overview is given of the research carried out by the French Atomic Energy Commission on the geological disposal of nuclear waste. Recalling the new legal framework of these studies, the specific methodology of this field, which relies on the association of laboratory and in situ experiments, natural analogues, and modeling is emphasized. Next are underlined the basic questions, which have to be reliably answered when one wants to predict the behavior of the repository and the fate of the most radiotoxic nuclides, in particular over very long time spans: What parameters govern the hydrodynamics and the geochemistry of the system? What are the processes controlling the degradation of the different technological and natural barriers, as well as the release, migration, and retardation of radionuclides through the geosphere? For each of these issues, the current programs of research are described and indications are given about significant achievements.

  10. Determination of stable and long-lived radioactive halides using high resolution ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kerl, W.; Hoppstock, K.; Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1996-09-01

    Routine control of radioactive waste demands efficient techniques which allow many samples to be analyzed per day with high precision and accuracy. ICP-MS is well established as a trace analytical method and permits the extremely sensitive and fast detection of stable and long-lived radioactive nuclides. Though ICP-MS is rarely used for the determination of halides, the author`s investigation shows that a sufficient low detection limit can be achieved (e.g., for the declaration of {sup 129}I in radioactive waste samples.). In this work, a double focusing mass spectrometer with an ICP ion source ({open_quotes}ELEMENT{close_quotes}, Finnigan MAT) is used for the determination of halides (Cl, Br and I) in biological standard reference materials as well as {sup 129}I in low-activity radioactive waste samples. A method was developed for the determination of halides in the {mu}g/mL-range for bromine and chlorine and the ng/mL-range for iodine including isotopic analysis of stable and radioactive halides. Possible interferences of atomic ions with other ions (e.g., {sup 129}I{sup +} with {sup 129}Xe{sup +}) were investigated and possibilities for correction of these interferences will be discussed. To achieve a lower detection limit a new method for iodine sample introduction was developed. The iodide ion in an aqueous sample is oxidized to elemental iodine and introduced directly into the ICP by a special introduction system. Iodine ({sup 127}I or {sup 129}I) can be measured by this new method even in the lower ng/mL-range. The studies were extended to include the determination of bromine and chlorine.

  11. Determination of long-lived Nb isotopes in nuclear power plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Osváth, Szabolcs; Vajda, Nóra; Molnár, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    (94)Nb and (93m)Nb are long-lived radionuclides, produced by thermal and fast neutrons from (93)Nb that is a major component of the Zr alloys used in nuclear reactors. A radiochemical method for the determination of these nuclides has been developed. The separation is based on the insolubility of Nb oxides and the retention of the fluoric complexes on anion exchange resin. The Nb sources are detected by gamma- and X-ray spectrometries. Activity concentrations determined in radioactive waste samples of a nuclear power plant are presented. PMID:17716901

  12. A HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR DISPOSITION OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.; Parker, Frank L.

    2003-02-27

    During the past 45 years, one of the most challenging scientific, engineering, socio-economic, and political tasks and obligations of our time has been to site and develop technical, politically acceptable, solutions to the safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). However, at the end of the year 2002, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in the United States of America (USA) hosts the world's only operating LLRM-disposal system, which (1) is based on the LLRM-disposal principles recommended by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1957, i.e., deep geological disposal in a ''stable'' salt vault/repository, (2) complies with the nation's ''Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'', and (3) may receive 175,584 cubic meters (m3) of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW)a. Pending the scheduled opening of repositories for once-used nuclear fuel (OUNF) in the USA, Sweden, and Finland in the years 2010, 2015, and 2017, respectively, LLRM-disposal solutions remain the missing link in all national LLRM-disposition programs. Furthermore, for a variety of reasons, many nations with nuclear programs have chosen a ''spectator'' stance in terms of enhancing the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, and have either ''slow-tracked'' or deferred their LLRM-disposal programs to allow time for an informed national consensus to evolve based on LLRM-disposition experiences and solutions gained elsewhere. In the meantime, LLRMs will continue to amass in different types and levels of safeguarded storage facilities around the world. In an attempt to contribute to the enhancement of the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, the authors developed the sample holistic approach for synergistic disposition of LLRMs comprising LLRM-disposition components considered either ''proven'' or ''promising'' by the authors. The

  13. Distributions of Long-lived Radioactive Nuclei Provided by Star-forming Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary—but not sufficient—for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This paper calculates the distribution of additional enrichment for 40K, the most abundant of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. We find that distributed enrichment is more effective than direct enrichment. For the latter mechanism, ideal conditions lead to about 1 in 200 solar systems being directly enriched in 40K at the level inferred for the early solar nebula (thereby doubling the abundance). For distributed enrichment from adjacent clusters, about 1 in 80 solar systems are enriched at the same level. Distributed enrichment over the entire molecular cloud is more uncertain, but can be even more effective.

  14. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  15. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  16. Characterization of long-lived radioactive dust in uranium mill operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bigu, J.; DuPort, P. )

    1992-09-01

    The characteristics of long-lived radioactive dust clouds generated in several mechanical and physiochemical operations in a uranium mill have been investigated. The study consisted of the determination of dust size distribution and of the size distribution of radionuclides associated with particulate matter in the size range less than 0.1 to 26 microns. Experiments were conducted by using two different types of cascade impactors operating at different sampling flow rates. Radionuclide identification was done by using alpha-spectrometry. Long- and short-lived radionuclides were identified in dust samples. The characteristics of the dust clouds depended on the mill operation, such as crushing (vibrating grizzly, jaw crusher, cone crusher); screening; ore transportation; grinding; acid leaching; counter-current decantation; yellow cake precipitation and drying; and yellow cake packaging. In addition, other dust and radioactivity measurements have been carried out.

  17. Characterization of long-lived radioactive dust in uranium mill operations.

    PubMed

    Bigu, J; DuPort, P

    1992-09-01

    The characteristics of long-lived radioactive dust clouds generated in several mechanical and physiochemical operations in a uranium mill have been investigated. The study consisted of the determination of dust size distribution and of the size distribution of radionuclides associated with particulate matter in the size range less than 0.1 to 26 microns. Experiments were conducted by using two different types of cascade impactors operating at different sampling flow rates. Radionuclide identification was done by using alpha-spectrometry. Long- and short-lived radionuclides were identified in dust samples. The characteristics of the dust clouds depended on the mill operation, such as crushing (vibrating grizzly, jaw crusher, cone crusher); screening; ore transportation; grinding; acid leaching; counter-current decantation; yellow cake precipitation and drying; and yellow cake packaging. In addition, other dust and radioactivity measurements have been carried out. PMID:1524034

  18. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  19. Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W.

    2008-08-01

    MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time. Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation—but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications. The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above. Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

  20. Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release

    SciTech Connect

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W.

    2008-08-07

    MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time.Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation--but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications.The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above.Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

  1. Determination of long-lived beta emitters in nuclear waste by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bienvenu, P.G.; Brochard, E.A.; Excoffier, E.A.

    1998-12-31

    Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) constitutes a very attractive alternative to radiochemical techniques for the determination of long-lived radionuclides considered critical for the safety of nuclear waste repositories. By measuring isotopic abundance instead of ionizing radiation, it is shown that ICP-MS should exhibit lower detection limits than liquid scintillation counting for the measurement of {beta} emitters with half-lives longer than {approximately} 10{sup 4} years. However, a specific preparative chemistry is generally required prior to measurement in order to separate the analyte from major radioactive contaminants and potentially interfering isotopes. Original methods have recently developed for the determination of three long-lived {beta} emitters: {sup 93}Zr, {sup 107}Pd and {sup 135}Cs in radioactive waste are described in this paper. The procedures involve various separative measurement strategies, such as liquid-liquid extraction, chromatographic separation as well as electrothermal vaporization coupled with ICP-MS. The performances are discussed in terms of selectivity and detection capabilities.

  2. Radioactive Waste Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, P. A.; Atkins-Duffin, C. E.

    Issues related to the management of radioactive wastes are presented with specific emphasis on high-level wastes generated as a result of energy and materials production using nuclear reactors. The final disposition of these high-level wastes depends on which nuclear fuel cycle is pursued, and range from once-through burning of fuel in a light water reactor followed by direct disposal in a geologic repository to more advanced fuel cycles (AFCs) where the spent fuel is reprocessed or partitioned to recover the fissile material (primarily 235U and 239Pu) as well as the minor actinides (MAs) (neptunium, americium, and curium) and some long-lived fission products (e.g., 99Tc and 129I). In the latter fuel cycle, the fissile materials are recycled through a reactor to produce more energy, the short-lived fission products are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository, and the minor actinides and long-lived fission products are converted to less radiotoxic or otherwise stable nuclides by a process called transmutation. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fuel cycle options and the challenges to the management of nuclear wastes they represent are discussed.

  3. Extraction of long-lived radionuclides from caustic Hanford tank waste supernatants

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mertz, C.J.; Vojta, Y.

    1995-07-01

    A series of polymer-based extraction systems, based on the use of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or polypropylene glycols (PPGs), was demonstrated to be capable of selective extraction and recovery of long-lived radionuclides, such as {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I, from Hanford SY-101 tank waste, neutralized current acid waste, and single-shell tank waste simulants. During the extraction process, anionic species like TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} are selectively transferred to the less dense PEG-rich aqueous phase. The partition coefficients for a wide range of inorganic cations and anions, such as sodium, potassium, aluminum, nitrate, nitrite, and carbonate, are all less than one. The partition coefficients for pertechnetate ranged from 12 to 50, depending on the choice of waste simulant and temperature. The partition coefficient for iodide was about 5, while that of iodate was about 0.25. Irradiation of the PEG phase with gamma-ray doses up to 20 Mrad had no detectable effect on the partition coefficients. The most selective extraction systems examined were those based on PPGs, which exhibited separation factors in excess of 3000 between TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 2}{sub {minus}}. An advantage of the PPG-based system is minimization of secondary waste production. These studies also highlighted the need for exercising great care in extrapolating the partitioning behavior with tank waste simulants to actual tank waste.

  4. Impact of long-lived radionuclides on waste classification for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maninger, R. C.

    1985-05-01

    A major goal for commercial applications of fusion reactors is to minimize radioactive wastes and to dispose of them by near surface burial. There currently are no regulations specifically applicable to fusion wastes but those in force for fission wastes furnish a framework for expected fusion regulations. It is recommended that all nuclides with half lives greater than five years be assigned concentration limits as done in 10CFR61 for fission wastes. Approximate limits for all the significant long half life sources of gamma radiation in the currently known periodic table are given. In the absence of working fusion reactors, computer models must be used to estimate the expected actual concentrations of radioactive nuclides. These estimates are needed to guide design parameters to achieve minimum radioactivity in fusion reactors. It is believed that the computer models and nuclear libraries must be much more comprehensive than ordinarily used today to do activation calculations.

  5. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. CONCRETE CONTAINERS FOR LONG TERM STORAGE AND FINAL DISPOSAL OF TRU WASTE AND LONG LIVED ILW

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, H.; Asano, H.; Tunaboylu, K.; Mayer, G.; Klubertanz, G.; Kobayashi, S.; Komuro, T.; Wagner, E.

    2003-02-27

    Transuranic (TRU) waste packaging development has been conducted since 1998 by the Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Centre (RWMC) to support the TRU waste disposal concept in Japan. In this paper, the overview of development status of the reinforced concrete package is introduced. This package has been developed in order to satisfy the Japanese TRU waste disposal concept based on current technology and to provide a low cost package. Since 1998, the basic design work (safety evaluation, manufacturing and handling procedure, economic evaluation, elemental tests etc.) have been carried out. As a result, the basic specification of the package was decided. This report presents the concept as well as the results of basic design, focused on safety analysis and handling procedure of the package. Two types of the packages exist: - Package-A: for non-heat generating TRU waste from reprocessing in 200 l drums and - Package-B: for heat generating TRU-waste from reprocessing.

  7. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  8. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  9. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  10. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  12. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  13. A New Approach for the Permanent Disposal of Long Lived Fission Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L J

    2007-03-27

    Nuclear fission can meet humanity's disparate requirements for carbon-free energy throughout this century and for millennia to come - not only for electricity but also as a source of hydrogen for transportation fuels and a heat source for desalination. However, most countries are not pursuing fission as an option for future energy and global climate needs. One paramount reason is diminished public acceptance over concerns of waste disposal. We would also add 'fuel resources' as a major future concern, because fission is not sustainable in the long term with the present 'once-through' fuel that utilizes less than 1% of the mined uranium and consigns its fertile potential to a permanent waste repository. Accordingly, global scale fission will become attainable (i.e., doable) if and when an integrated solution to this overall 'fuel-cycle' problem is realized. It is the back-end of the fuel cycle - i.e., the need for permanent storage of spent fuel and high-level waste - that has become the focus of much of the criticism. In particular, the construction and implementation of permanent waste repositories such as Yucca Mountain is becoming increasingly problematic from a financial and political perspective. The major shortcoming of these conventional repositories is that they must accommodate the whole spent fuel output from once-through fuel cycles. They are thus burdened with very large masses of material but where less than 1% is long-term, hazardous waste and where only a small fraction of the potential nuclear energy has been extracted. Second, such facilities must ensure integrity of waste containment for tens of thousands of years. Given that anything more than a few hundred years hence is unknowable and wholly unpredictable as far as future civilizations are concerned, public perception is that such facilities cannot be guaranteed to be absolutely secure for their envisaged lifetimes of tens of millennia.

  14. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.; McElroy, Jack L.; Mendel, John E.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form by calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix.

  15. The Potential Role of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in Reducing the Radiotoxicity of Long-Lived Waste - 13477

    SciTech Connect

    Hesketh, Kevin; Thomas, Mike

    2013-07-01

    The thorium (or more accurately the Th-232/U-233) fuel cycle is attracting growing interest world wide and one reason for this is the reduced radiotoxicity of long-lived waste, with the Th- 232/U-233 fuel cycle often being justified partly on the grounds of low radiotoxicity for long cooling times. This paper considers the evolution of heavy metal radiotoxicity in a Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) operating a closed Th-232/U-233 cycle during different operational phases. The paper shows that even in the MSFR core, the equilibrium radiotoxicity of the thorium fuel cycle is only reached after almost 100 years of operation. MSFR was chosen because it has many theoretical advantages that favour the Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle. Conventional solid fuel systems would be expected to behave similarly, but with even longer timescales and therefore the MSFR cycle can be used to define the limits of what is practically achievable. The results are used to argue the case that a fair approach to justifying the Th-232/U-233 breeder cycle should not quote the long term equilibrium radiotoxicity, but rather the somewhat less favourable radiotoxicity that could be achieved within the operational lifetime of the first generation of Th-232/U-233 breeder reactors. (authors)

  16. Content of long-lived radionuclides in the moss cover of the eastern-Ural radioactive trace region

    SciTech Connect

    Nifontova, M.G.

    1995-07-01

    This study examines the extent of radioactive pollution of moss cover of forest communities of the Kamenskii district of the Sverdlovsk region. This area contains the periphery section of the Eastern-Ural Radioactive Trace, formed as a result of the Kyshtymskii accident. Mosses do not release radionuclides for a long time, making them a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution and making them useful for radioecological monitoring. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  18. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  19. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  20. Current assessment of integrated content of long-lived radionuclides in soils of the head part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, I; Mikhailovskaya, L; Antonov, K; Pozolotina, V; Antonova, E

    2014-12-01

    Based on the datasets obtained during investigations from 2003 to 2012, the spatial distributions of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (239,240)Pu content in the soils of the head part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) were mapped using the geographic information system ArcGIS. Taking into account the presence of spatial autocorrelation and anisotropy in the source data, an ordinary kriging method was applied to interpolate values of radionuclide contamination density at unsampled places. Further geostatistical data analysis was performed to determine the basic parameters of spatial dependencies and to integrally assess the contamination by long-lived radionuclides in soils of the central, east peripheral, and west peripheral parts of the trace. This analysis was based on simplified geometric models (sector- and rectangle-shaped areas). The Monte Carlo method was used to quantitatively assess the uncertainty of the values for the integrated quantities resulting from the statistical errors of the source data approximation. PMID:25262151

  1. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  2. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Robert E.; Ziegler, Anton A.; Serino, David F.; Basnar, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  3. Long-lived impurities of 90Y-labeled microspheres, TheraSphere and SIR-spheres, and the impact on patient dose and waste management.

    PubMed

    Metyko, John; Williford, John M; Erwin, William; Poston, John; Jimenez, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Yittrium-90 microsphere brachytherapy procedures have increased in number due to their efficacy in treating some unresectable metastatic liver tumors. The discovery of long-lived impurities in two microsphere products, first reported between 2006 and 2007, has resulted in some radiation safety concerns. Since then, microsphere production processes have been refined, which reportedly lead to a reduction in detectable by-products. In this study unused vials of TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres, manufactured in early January 2011, were analyzed to identify and quantify the low-level radioactive impurities. Absorbed dose calculations were performed to assess the potential increased dose to the patient due to long-lived impurities. Results showed that while the SIR-Spheres vials contained no detectable impurities (contrary to other published results in the literature), the TheraSphere vials contained 17 radionuclides in one sample and 15 in the other. The dominant impurities were Y and Y, with specific activities ranging from 0.99 ± 3.40 × 10 kBq mg to 6.30 ± 0.40 kBq mg at vendor assay date. Other impurities were on the order of Bq mg. Based on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) liver and lung dose estimates, the long-lived impurities would be expected to increase an administered dose by less than 0.1% from the prescribed dose. PMID:23026974

  4. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  5. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  6. Sorting of solid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.; Pecival, I.; Hejtman, J.; Wildman, J.; Cechak, T.

    1993-12-31

    In the nuclear power plants solid radioactive wastes are produced during regular operation and during small repairs. It is necessary to sort them into the highly contaminated wastes for which a special procedure for storage is necessary and waste that is not radioactive and can be stored in the environment under specific regulations. The aim of the project was to propose and to construct equipment, which is able to sort the waste with a high degree of reliability and to distinguish highly contaminated wastes from wastes which are less dangerous to the environment. The sensitivity of the detection system was tested by a mathematical model. The radioactive wastes from the primary part of the nuclear power plant can have three composition types. Details of the composition of the radioisotopes mixture are presented.

  7. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  8. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  9. The Constitution, waste facility performance standards, and radioactive waste classification: Is equal protection possible?

    SciTech Connect

    Eye, R.V.

    1993-03-01

    The process for disposal of so-called low-level radioactive waste is deadlocked at present. Supporters of the proposed near-surface facilities assert that their designs will meet minimum legal and regulatory standards currently in effect. Among opponents there is an overarching concern that the proposed waste management facilities will not isolate radiation from the biosphere for an adequate length of time. This clash between legal acceptability and a perceived need to protect the environment and public health by requiring more than the law demand sis one of the underlying reasons why the process is deadlocked. Perhaps the most exhaustive public hearing yet conducted on low-level radioactive waste management has recently concluded in Illinois. The Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Sitting Commission conducted 71 days of fact-finding hearings on the safety and suitability of a site near Martinsville, Illinois, to serve as a location for disposition of low-level radioactive waste. Ultimately, the siting commission rejected the proposed facility site for several reasons. However, almost all the reasons were related, to the prospect that, as currently conceived, the concrete barrier/shallow-land burial method will not isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. This paper reviews the relevant legal framework of the radioactive waste classification system and will argue that it is inadequate for long-lived radionuclides. Next, the paper will present a case for altering the classification system based on high-level waste regulatory considerations.

  10. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    DOEpatents

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  11. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  12. Radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Flax, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    This article examines the technical and legal considerations of nuclear waste management. The first three sections describe the technical aspects of spent-fuel-rod production, reprocessing, and temporary storage. The next two sections discuss permanent disposal of high-level wastes and spent-fuel rods. Finally, legislative and judicial responses to the nuclear-waste crisis.

  13. Vitrification of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, T.; Bibler, N.; Weber, T.

    1993-12-31

    The United States and Russia are conducting joint technology exchanges on the vitrification of high-level wastes at the Chelyabinsk-65 site in Russia and the Savannah River site in the United States. These activities are part of a larger program of exchanges provided for by a Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) between the US and the USSR in the fields of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management that was signed in the fall of 1990. An agreement to exchange information in the vitrification area was concluded during a visit by a DOE delegation to Chelyabinsk-65 in the fall of 1991. Samples of simulated high-level waste glass and the leach test procedures used by each country were to be exchanged. The results of studies based on leaching the simulated high-level waste glasses, and potential future work in the area of vitrification, to include advanced concepts, will be discussed.

  14. Public attitudes about radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-12-31

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public`s changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I`d like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  16. Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment

    SciTech Connect

    HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

  17. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Allemann, R.T.; Johnson, B.M. Jr.

    1961-10-31

    A process for concentrating fission-product-containing waste solutions from fuel element processing is described. The process comprises the addition of sugar to the solution, preferably after it is made alkaline; spraying the solution into a heated space whereby a dry powder is formed; heating the powder to at least 220 deg C in the presence of oxygen whereby the powder ignites, the sugar is converted to carbon, and the salts are decomposed by the carbon; melting the powder at between 800 and 900 deg C; and cooling the melt. (AEC) antidiuretic hormone from the blood by the liver. Data are summarized from the following: tracer studies on cardiovascular functions; the determination of serum protein-bound iodine; urinary estrogen excretion in patients with arvanced metastatic mammary carcinoma; the relationship between alheroclerosis aad lipoproteins; the physical chemistry of lipoproteins; and factors that modify the effects of densely ionizing radia

  18. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  19. Feasibility of space disposal of radioactive nuclear waste. 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This NASA study, performed at the request of the AEC, concludes that transporting radioactive waste (primarily long-lived isotopes) into space is feasible. Tentative solutions are presented for technical problems involving safe packaging. Launch systems (existing and planned), trajectories, potential hazards, and various destinations were evaluated. Solar system escape is possible and would have the advantage of ultimate removal of the radioactive waste from man's environment. Transportation costs would be low (comparable to less than a 5 percent increase in the cost of electricity) even though more than 100 space shuttle launches per year would be required by the year 2000.

  20. Radioactive Waste Management BasisSept 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, S S

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  1. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  2. System for radioactive waste cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S.A.; Barinov, A.S.; Varlakov, A.P.; Volkov, A.S.; Karlin, S.V.

    1995-12-31

    NPP, research reactors and radiochemical enterprises produce a great amount of liquid radioactive waste (LRW). One of the methods of LRW solidification is cementation. The recent investigations demonstrated possible inclusion of sufficient amount of waste in the cement matrix (up to 20--30 mass% on dry residue). In this case the cementation process becomes competitive with bituminization process, where the matrix can include 40--50 mass% and the solidified product volume is equal to the volume, obtained by cementation. Additionally, the cement matrix in contrast with the bituminous one is unburnable. Many countries are investigating the cementation process. The main idea governing technological process is the waste and cement mixing method and type of mixer. In world practice some principal types of cementation systems are used. The paper describes the SIA Radon industrial plant in Moscow.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies used outside the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Leigh, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal technologies are an integral part of the waste management process. In the United States, commercial LLW disposal is the responsibility of the State or groups of States (compact regions). The United States defines LLW as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high- level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material as defined in Section II(e)(2) of the Atomic Energy Act. LLW may contain some long-lived components in very low concentrations. Countries outside the United States, however, may define LLW differently and may use different disposal technologies. This paper outlines the LLW disposal technologies that are planned or being used in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom (UK).

  4. A Challenge for Radioactive Waste Management: Memory Preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Charton, P.; Ouzounian, G.

    2008-07-01

    ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is responsible for managing all radioactive waste in France over the long term. In the case of short-lived waste for which disposal facilities have a life expectancy of a few centuries, the Agency has set up a system for preserving the memory of those sites. Based on the historical analysis on a comparable timescale and on an appraisal of information-conservation means, a series of regulatory as well as technical provisions was made in order to ensure that sound information be transmitted to future generations. Requirements associated to the provisions deal mostly with legibility and a clear understanding of the information that must be decrypted and understood at least during the lifetime of the facilities (i.e., a few centuries). It must therefore be preserved throughout the same period. Responses to the requirements will be presented notably on various information-recording media, together with the information-diffusion strategy to the different authorities and structures within French society. A concrete illustration of the achievements made so far is the Centre de la Manche Disposal Facility, which was closed down in 1994 and is currently in its post-closure monitoring phase since 2003. In the case of deep geological repositories for long-lived radioactive waste, preserving memory takes a different aspect. First of all, timescales are much longer and are counted in hundreds of thousands of years. It is therefore much more difficult to consider how to maintain the richness of the information over such time periods than it is for short-lived waste. Both the nature and the form of the information to be transmitted must be revised. It would be risky indeed to base memory preservation over the long term on similar mechanisms beyond 1,000 years. Based on the heritage of a much more ancient history, we must seek to find appropriate means in order to develop surface markers and even more to ensure their

  5. Method for solidifying radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dippel, T.; Loida, A.

    1985-08-13

    A process is claimed for solidifying radioactive wastes by producing compact blocks which are to be disposed in transporting or permanent storage containers. The compact blocks are produced from prefabricated ceramic tablets which contain radioactive substances and a matrix which continuously surrounds these ceramic tablets and is solid in its final state. Glass powder or a mixture of oxidic non-clay minerals or a mixture of both is used as the matrix material. The ceramic tablets and the matrix material are filled into the container and are compressed. The resulting compressed mixture is heated to a temperature in the range from 1423/sup 0/ K. to 1623/sup 0/ K., is held at this temperate range for one to three hours, and is finally gradually cooled to room temperature.

  6. Confinement matrices for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2012-02-01

    Mining of uranium for nuclear fuel production inevitably leads to the exhaustion of natural uranium resources and an increase in market price of uranium. As an alternative, it is possible to provide nuclear power plants with reprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF), which retains 90% of its energy resource. The main obstacle to this solution is related to the formation in the course of the reprocessing of SNF of a large volume of liquid waste, and the necessity to concentrate, solidify, and dispose of this waste. Radioactive waste is classified into three categories: low-, intermediate-, and high-level (LLW, ILW, and HLW); 95, 4.4, and 0.6% of the total waste are LLW, ILW, and HLW, respectively. Despite its small relative volume, the radioactivity of HLW is approximately equal to the combined radioactivity of LLW + ILW (LILW). The main hazard of HLW is related to its extremely high radioactivity, the occurrence of long-living radionuclides, heat release, and the necessity to confine HLW for an effectively unlimited time period. The problems of handling LILW are caused by the enormous volume of such waste. The available technology for LILW confinement is considered, and conclusion is drawn that its concentration, vitrification, and disposal in shallow-seated repositories is a necessary condition of large-scale reprocessing of SNF derived from VVER-1000 reactors. The significantly reduced volume of the vitrified LILW and its very low dissolution rate at low temperatures makes borosilicate glass an ideal confinement matrix for immobilization of LILW. At the same time, the high corrosion rate of the glass matrix at elevated temperatures casts doubt on its efficient use for immobilization of heat-releasing HLW. The higher cost of LILW vitrification compared to cementation and bitumen impregnation is compensated for by reduced expenditure for construction of additional engineering barriers, as well as by substantial decrease in LLW and ILW volume, localization of shallow

  7. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage].

    PubMed

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N

    2015-01-01

    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix). PMID:26310021

  8. Radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of testing and recent operations indicate that evaporation rates of 2 to 6 gph (8 to 23 L/h) can be achieved with a single unit housed in a standard 30-gal (114-L) drum container. The operating experience has confirmed the design evaporation rate of 60,000 gal (227,000 L) per year, using six SHADE's. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment.

  10. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, Donald K.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  11. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  12. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  13. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  14. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (< 0.7) and the lack of space, respectively. The most probable zones of microbial activity, those likely to develop sustainable biofilms are within the interface zones. A major restriction

  15. Phosphate bonded solidification of radioactive incinerator wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B. W.; Langton, C. A.; Singh, D.

    1999-12-03

    The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  18. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  19. Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1999-06-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes have been developed and demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for the separation of transuranic element (TRUs), {sup 90}Sr, and/or {sup 137}Cs from acidic radioactive waste solutions. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) and phosphine oxide (POR) processes for the separation of TRUs, the Strontium Extraction (SREX) process for the separation of {sup 90}Sr, the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) process for the separation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, and a universal solvent extraction process for the simultaneous separation of TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs have all been demonstrated in centrifugal contactors using actual radioactive waste solutions. This article summarizes the most recent results of each of the flowsheet demonstrations and allows for comparison of the technologies. The successful demonstration of these solvent extraction processes indicates that they are all viable for the treatment of acidic radioactive waste solutions.

  20. Evaluation of Terrorist Interest in Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.N.; Langsted, J.M.; Young, M.E.; Day, J.E.

    2006-07-01

    Since September 11, 2001, intelligence gathered from Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, and the ensuing terrorist activities, indicates nuclear material security concerns are valid. This paper reviews available information on sealed radioactive sources thought to be of interest to terrorists, and then examines typical wastes generated during environmental management activities to compare their comparative 'attractiveness' for terrorist diversion. Sealed radioactive sources have been evaluated in numerous studies to assess their security and attractiveness for use as a terrorist weapon. The studies conclude that tens of thousands of curies in sealed radioactive sources are available for potential use in a terrorist attack. This risk is mitigated by international efforts to find lost and abandoned sources and bring them under adequate security. However, radioactive waste has not received the same level of scrutiny to ensure security. This paper summarizes the activity and nature of radioactive sources potentially available to international terrorists. The paper then estimates radiation doses from use of radioactive sources as well as typical environmental restoration or decontamination and decommissioning wastes in a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) attack. These calculated doses indicate that radioactive wastes are, as expected, much less of a health risk than radioactive sources. The difference in radiation doses from wastes used in an RDD are four to nine orders of magnitude less than from sealed sources. We then review the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) definition of 'dangerous source' in an adjusted comparison to common radioactive waste shipments generated in environmental management activities. The highest waste dispersion was found to meet only category 1-3.2 of the five step IAEA scale. A category '3' source by the IAEA standard 'is extremely unlikely, to cause injury to a person in the immediate vicinity'. The obvious conclusion of the

  1. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

  2. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Deep Geological Repository: A Domestic and Global Blueprint for Safe Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste - 12081

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.

    2012-07-01

    At the end of 2011, the world's first used/spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is projected to open in 2020, followed by two more in 2025. The related pre-opening periods will be at least 40 years, as it also would be if USA's candidate HLW-repository is resurrected by 2013. If abandoned, a new HLW-repository site would be needed. On 26 March 1999, USA began disposing long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological repository in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The related pre-opening period was less than 30 years. WIPP has since been re-certified twice. It thus stands to reason the WIPP repository is the global proof of principle for safe deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also stands to reason that the lessons learned since 1971 at the WIPP site provide a unique, continually-updated, blueprint for how the pre-opening period for a new HLW repository could be shortened both in the USA and abroad. (authors)

  3. Microwave remediation of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    2000-04-28

    A team from the Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (WSRC - a DOE Laboratory), and the University of Florida (UF - academia), has been active for about a decade in development of microwave technology for specialized waste management applications. This interaction has resulted in the development of unique equipment and uses of microwave energy for a variety of important applications for remediation of hazardous and radioactive wastes. Discussed are results of this unique technology for processing of electronic circuitry and components, medical wastes, discarded tires, and transuranic radioactive wastes.

  4. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  5. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  6. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  7. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A.; Ajaz, M; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations. PMID:21475524

  8. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  9. Method for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Berreth, Julius R.

    1976-01-01

    The quantity of nitrous oxides produced during the solidification of liquid radioactive wastes containing nitrates and nitrites can be substantially reduced by the addition to the wastes of a stoichiometric amount of urea which, upon heating, destroys the nitrates and nitrites, liberating nontoxic N.sub.2, CO.sub.2 and NH.sub.3.

  10. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2009-06-11

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  11. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described.

  12. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  13. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Virgil James; Hu, Jian Sheng; Chambers, Andrea

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn of methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in use in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  14. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Johnson; J. S. Hu; A. G. Chambers

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn the methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in used in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  15. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  16. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavruska, J. S.; Stretz, L. A.; Borduin, L. C.

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology was modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood.

  17. Optimisation of the neutron source based on gas dynamic trap for transmutation of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikeev, Andrey V.

    2012-06-01

    The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in collaboration with the Russian and foreign organizations develop the project of 14 MeV neutron source, which can be used for fusion material studies and for other application. The projected neutron source of plasma type is based on the plasma Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT), which is a special magnetic mirror system for plasma confinement. Presented work continues the subject of development the GDT-based neutron source (GDT-NS) for hybrid fusion-fission reactors. The paper presents the results of recent numerical optimization of such neutron source for transmutation of the long-lives radioactive wastes in spent nuclear fuel.

  18. Visiatome: The French Discovery and Information Center on Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brunel, G.; Rabbe, C.; Moncouyoux, J.P.

    2006-07-01

    The French radioactive waste management act of December 30, 1991, included two key provisions. It initiated a major research program with three areas of investigation concerning high-level long-lived radioactive waste management routes, and called for the Government to submit a legislative proposal to Parliament within 15 years (by 2006) specifying the policy guidelines adopted. Considering the sensitive nature of the subject, the questions surrounding the issue of radioactive waste, and the social, economic and environmental concerns for present and future generations, the Government has inaugurated, in 2005, a nationwide public debate on these issues between the submittal of the research reports and the parliamentary discussion of the proposed law. In this context, the CEA has decided to concentrate at Marcoule the expertise and experience acquired in the area of radioactive waste management and to make it available to stakeholders and to the public. A scientific cultural center, Visiatome, has been built to inform the public and facilitate the acceptance of nuclear energy and radioactive waste management by presenting the subject in a manner adapted to the level of knowledge of the visitors. A modern, fun and interactive exhibition of 600 m{sup 2} allows visitors to find out more about energy, waste products, sources of radioactive waste, their treatment and where they are stored, natural and artificial radioactivity, effects of radiation on mankind. It also offers a media library, an auditorium for group discussions and teaching rooms for school groups with the aim of encouraging students to discover science through enjoyment. Visiatome has received several thousand visitors since it was opened to the public on April 10, 2005, and the initial results of this experience can now be reviewed: the design principles of the center and its permanent exhibits, the characteristics of the visitors and their perception of the subjects presented. (authors)

  19. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  20. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  1. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  2. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  3. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  4. Geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Brookins, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The book addresses various topics related to the geochemistry of waste disposal: natural radioactivity, kinds of radioactive waste, details of possible disposal sites, low-level waste, uranium mill tailing, natural analogs, waste forms, and engineered barriers. Emphasis throughout is on the importance of natural analogs, the behavior of elements resembling those to be put in a waste repository as they occur in natural situations where the temperature, pressure, and movement of ground water are similar to those expected near a repository. The author is convinced that conclusions drawn from the study of analog elements are directly applicable to predictions about radionuclide behavior, and that the observed near-immobility of most of these elements in comparable geologic environments is good evidence that radioactive waste can be disposed of underground with negligible effects on the biosphere. Much of his own research has been in this area, and the best parts of the book are the descriptions of his work on trace elements in the salt minerals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico, on the movement of radionuclides and their daughter elements from the famous Precambrian reactor at Oklahoma in Gabon, and on the distribution of analog elements in rocks near the contacts of igneous intrusions.

  5. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  6. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    DOEpatents

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  7. Collection and Segregation of Radioactive Waste. Principals for Characterization and Classification of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinska, K.M.

    1998-09-28

    Radioactive wastes are generated by all activities which utilize radioactive materials as part of their processes. Generally such activities include all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle (for power generation) and non-fuel cycle activities. The increasing production of radioisotopes in a Member State without nuclear power must be accompanied by a corresponding development of a waste management system. An overall waste management scheme consists of the following steps: segregation, minimization, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport, and disposal. To achieve a satisfactory overall management strategy, all steps have to be complementary and compatible. Waste segregation and minimization are of great importance mainly because they lead to cost reduction and reduction of dose commitments to the personnel that handle the waste. Waste characterization plays a significant part in the waste segregation and waste classification processes, it implicates required waste treatment process including the need for the safety assessment of treatment conditioning and storage facilities.

  8. Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1990-10-01

    Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the historical work, update the analysis of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Crystallization of sodium nitrate from radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Krapukhin, V.B.; Krasavina, E.P. Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    From the 1940s to the 1980s, the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) conducted research and development on processes to separate acetate and nitrate salts and acetic acid from radioactive wastes by crystallization. The research objective was to decrease waste volumes and produce the separated decontaminated materials for recycle. This report presents an account of the IPC/RAS experience in this field. Details on operating conditions, waste and product compositions, decontamination factors, and process equipment are described. The research and development was generally related to the management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The waste solutions resulted from recovery and processing of uranium, plutonium, and other products from irradiated nuclear fuel, neutralization of nuclear process solutions after extractant recovery, regeneration of process nitric acid, equipment decontamination, and other radiochemical processes. Waste components include nitric acid, metal nitrate and acetate salts, organic impurities, and surfactants. Waste management operations generally consist of two stages: volume reduction and processing of the concentrates for storage, solidification, and disposal. Filtration, coprecipitation, coagulation, evaporation, and sorption were used to reduce waste volume. 28 figs., 40 tabs.

  10. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1992-12-31

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1992 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  11. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1995-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1994 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  12. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  13. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1998-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1997 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  14. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.J.

    2000-04-14

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  15. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1999-10-27

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1998 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances, along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  16. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1997-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  17. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program: 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1995 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  18. Method of treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, W.; Mallek, H.; Plum, W.

    1981-07-07

    A method of and apparatus for treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste are claimed. The solvent waste is supplied to material such as peat, vermiculite, diaton, etc. This material effects the distribution or dispersion of the solvent and absorbs the foreign substances found in the solvent waste. Air or an inert gas flows through the material in order to pick up the solvent portions which are volatile as a consequence of their vapor pressure. The thus formed gas mixture, which includes air or inert gas and solvent portions, is purified in a known manner by thermal, electrical, or catalytic combustion of the solvent portions.

  19. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so

  20. Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  1. Utilization of natural hematite as reactive barrier for immobilization of radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste.

    PubMed

    El Afifi, E M; Attallah, M F; Borai, E H

    2016-01-01

    Potential utilization of hematite as a natural material for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste was investigated. Hematite ore has been characterized by different analytical tools such as Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal (DT) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET-surface area. In this study, europium was used as REEs(III) and as a homolog of Am(III)-isotopes (such as (241)Am of 432.6 y, (242m)Am of 141 y and (243)Am of 7370 y). Micro particles of the hematite ore were used for treatment of radioactive waste containing (152+154)Eu(III). The results indicated that 96% (4.1 × 10(4) Bq) of (152+154)Eu(III) was efficiently retained onto hematite ore. Kinetic experiments indicated that the processes could be simulated by a pseudo-second-order model and suggested that the process may be chemisorption in nature. The applicability of Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models was investigated. It was found that Langmuir isotherm exhibited the best fit with the experimental results. It can be concluded that hematite is an economic and efficient reactive barrier for immobilization of long-lived radio isotopes of actinides and REEs(III). PMID:26465672

  2. Soluble pig for radioactive waste transfer lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohl, P.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) materials research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs.

  3. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  4. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

  5. Control of radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F. ); Hrma, P. ); Bowan, B.W. II )

    1990-01-01

    Slurries of simulated high level radioactive waste and glass formers have been isothermally reacted and analyzed to identify the sequence of the major chemical reactions in waste vitrification, their effect on glass production rate, and the development of leach resistance. Melting rates of waste batches have been increased by the addition of reducing agents (formic acid, sucrose) and nitrates. The rate increases are attributable in part to exothermic reactions which occur at critical stages in the vitrification process. Nitrates must be balanced by adequate reducing agents to avoid the formation of persistent foam, which would destabilize the melting process. The effect of foaming on waste glass production rates is analyzed, and melt rate limitations defined for waste-glass melters, based upon measurable thermophysical properties. Minimum melter residence times required to homogenize glass and assure glass quality are much smaller than those used in current practice. Thus, melter size can be reduced without adversely affecting glass quality. Physical chemistry and localized heat transfer of the waste-glass melting process are examined, to refine the available models for predicting and assuring glass production rate. It is concluded that the size of replacement melters and future waste processing facilities can be significantly decreased if minimum heat transfer requirements for effective melting are met by mechanical agitation. A new class of waste glass melters has been designed, and proof of concept tests completed on simulated High Level Radioactive Waste slurry. Melt rates have exceeded 155 kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with slurry feeds (32 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}), and 229 kg kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with dry feed (47 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}). This is about 8 times the melt rate possible in conventional waste- glass melters of the same size. 39 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  7. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. ); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  8. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  9. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  10. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

    1982-07-19

    A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  11. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, John K.; Lindemann, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  12. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of toxic elements in radioactive waste packages.

    PubMed

    Ma, J-L; Carasco, C; Perot, B; Mauerhofer, E; Kettler, J; Havenith, A

    2012-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R&D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages. In particular, the amount of toxic elements present in radioactive waste packages must be assessed before they can be accepted in repository facilities in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To this aim, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA-Cadarache has started to study the performances of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for elements showing large capture cross sections such as mercury, cadmium, boron, and chromium. This paper reports a comparison between Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX computer code using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library and experimental gamma rays measured in the REGAIN PGNAA cell with small samples of nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, magnesium, zinc, boron, and lithium to verify the validity of a numerical model and gamma-ray production data. The measurement of a ∼20kg test sample of concrete containing toxic elements has also been performed, in collaboration with Forschungszentrum Jülich, to validate the model in view of future performance studies for dense and large LL-MA waste packages. PMID:22406218

  13. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense

  14. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  15. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  16. Source term evaluation model for high-level radioactive waste repository with decay chain build-up.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Manish; Sunny, Faby; Oza, R B

    2016-09-18

    A source term model based on two-component leach flux concept is developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The long-lived radionuclides associated with high-level waste may give rise to the build-up of activity because of radioactive decay chains. The ingrowths of progeny are incorporated in the model using Bateman decay chain build-up equations. The model is applied to different radionuclides present in the high-level radioactive waste, which form a part of decay chains (4n to 4n + 3 series), and the activity of the parent and daughter radionuclides leaching out of the waste matrix is estimated. Two cases are considered: one when only parent is present initially in the waste and another where daughters are also initially present in the waste matrix. The incorporation of in situ production of daughter radionuclides in the source is important to carry out realistic estimates. It is shown that the inclusion of decay chain build-up is essential to avoid underestimation of the radiological impact assessment of the repository. The model can be a useful tool for evaluating the source term of the radionuclide transport models used for the radiological impact assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories. PMID:27337157

  17. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program -- 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1994-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1993 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report. The 1993 inspection program revealed that the condition of the Savannah River Site waste tanks had not changed significantly from that reported in the previous annual report. No new leaksites were observed. No evidence of corrosion or materials degradation was observed in the waste tanks. However, degradation was observed on covers of the concrete encasements for the out-of-service transfer lines to Tanks 1 through 8.

  18. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2010

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2011-06-23

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2010 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2010 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2009-00138, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2010, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2010 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 30, 31 and 32 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2010-00533, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2010, Waste Tanks 30, 31 and 32. A total of 5824 photographs were made and 1087 visual and video inspections were performed during 2010. Ten new leaksites at Tank 5 were identified in 2010. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.5. Ten leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. None of these new leaksites resulted in a release to the environment. The leaksites were documented during wall cleaning activities and the waste nodules associated with the leaksites were washed away. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tank 12 during waste removal activities.

  19. 40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR part 20, appendix B, table II, but not including high level and transuranic waste and spent nuclear fuel covered by 40 CFR part 191) shall comply with the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells....

  20. 40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR part 20, appendix B, table II, but not including high level and transuranic waste and spent nuclear fuel covered by 40 CFR part 191) shall comply with the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells....

  1. 40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR part 20, appendix B, table II, but not including high level and transuranic waste and spent nuclear fuel covered by 40 CFR part 191) shall comply with the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells....

  2. 40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR part 20, appendix B, table II, but not including high level and transuranic waste and spent nuclear fuel covered by 40 CFR part 191) shall comply with the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells....

  3. 40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR part 20, appendix B, table II, but not including high level and transuranic waste and spent nuclear fuel covered by 40 CFR part 191) shall comply with the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells....

  4. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  5. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  6. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders.

  7. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  8. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM- 2007

    SciTech Connect

    West, B; Ruel Waltz, R

    2008-06-05

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. The 2007 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. A very small amount of material had seeped from Tank 12 from a previously identified leaksite. The material observed had dried on the tank wall and did not reach the annulus floor. A total of 5945 photographs were made and 1221 visual and video inspections were performed during 2007. Additionally, ultrasonic testing was performed on four Waste Tanks (15, 36, 37 and 38) in accordance with approved inspection plans that met the requirements of WSRC-TR-2002- 00061, Revision 2 'In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks'. The Ultrasonic Testing (UT) In-Service Inspections (ISI) are documented in a separate report that is prepared by the ISI programmatic Level III UT Analyst. Tanks 15, 36, 37 and 38 are documented in 'Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2007'; WSRC-TR-2007-00064.

  9. Radioactive waste disposal via electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that space transportation is a feasible method of removal of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The high decay heat of the isotopes powers a thermionic generator which provides electrical power for ion thrust engines. The massive shields (used to protect ground and flight personnel) are removed in orbit for subsequent reuse; the metallic fuel provides a shield for the avionics that guides the orbital stage to solar system escape. Performance calculations indicate that 4000 kg. of actinides may be removed per Shuttle flight. Subsidiary problems - such as cooling during ascent - are discussed.

  10. Elemental characterization of LL-MA radioactive waste packages with the associated particle technique

    SciTech Connect

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Toure, M.; El Kanawati, W.; Eleon, C.

    2011-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R and D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages with analytical methods and with non-destructive nuclear measurements. This paper concerns fast neutron interrogation with the associated particle technique (APT), which brings 3D information about the waste material composition. The characterization of volume elements filled with iron, water, aluminium, and PVC in bituminized and fibre concrete LL-MA waste packages has been investigated with MCNP [1] and MODAR data analysis software [2]. APT provides usable information about major elements presents in the volumes of interest. However, neutron scattering on hydrogen nuclei spreads the tagged neutron beam out of the targeted volume towards surrounding materials, reducing spatial selectivity. Simulation shows that small less than 1 L targets can be characterised up to the half-radius of a 225 L bituminized drum, the matrix of which is very rich in hydrogen. Deeper characterization in concrete is possible but limited by counting statistics due to photon attenuation in this dense matrix and, unless large inspection volumes are considered, by the lack of spatial selectivity of the tagged neutron beam due to neutron scattering. (authors)

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  12. Radioactive waste management and environmental contamination issues at the Chernobyl site.

    PubMed

    Napier, B A; Schmieman, E A; Voitsekovitch, O

    2007-11-01

    management at the reactor site and in the Exclusion Zone, and especially for high level and long-lived waste, has not been developed. PMID:18049220

  13. Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Contamination Issues at the Chernobyl Site

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Schmieman, Eric A.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01

    management at the reactor site and in the Exclusion Zone, and especially for high-level and long-lived waste, has not been developed.

  14. Radioactive Waste Packaging of Conditioned Waste at Kozloduy NPP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Genchev, G.; Dimov, D.; Russev, K.

    2006-07-01

    An important part of Safety Management of conditioned low and intermediate level Radioactive Waste (RAW) is their packaging and containers for transport, storage and final disposal. A reinforced concrete container (RCC) has been developed to take cemented super compacted dry waste and cement solidified liquid waste at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The container is to be used as a packaging of transportation, storage and final disposal of RAW conditioned by cementation KNPP specialists constructed and performed tests on the container. These tests were possible thanks to a review of European Community States experience, USA experience and IAEA documents. The container was tested by a team of specialists from KNPP, project specialists, fabricator of the containers and from Bulgarian Regulatory Body under IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series, TECDOC, TRS and Bulgarian Standards. An expert from IAEA was a member of the testing group for RCC examinations. (authors)

  15. The Current Status of Radioactive Waste Management and Planning for Near Surface Disposal in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Purnomo, A. S.

    2003-02-24

    Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. Near surface disposal also rely on active institutional controls, such as monitoring and maintenance. The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods, of which near surface disposal represents an option commonly used and demonstrated in several countries. In near surface disposal, the disposal facility is located on or below the ground surface, where the protective covering is generally a few meters thick. The se facilities are intended to contain low and intermediate level waste without appreciable quantities of long-lived radionuclides.

  16. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management.

  17. HANDBOOK: VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The applications and limitations of vitrification technologies for treating hazardous and radioactive waste are presented. everal subgroups of vitrifications technologies exist. iscussions of glass structure, applicable waste types, off gas treatment, testing and evaluation proce...

  18. Closing Radioactive Waste Tanks in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L.

    2000-08-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Since the early 1950s, the primary mission of the site has been to produce nuclear materials for national defense. The chemical separations processes used to recover uranium and plutonium from production reactor fuel and target assemblies in the chemical separations area at SRS generated liquid high-level radioactive waste. This waste, which now amounts to approximately 34 million gallons, is stored in underground tanks in the F- and H-Areas near the center of the site. DOE is closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tank systems, which are permitted by SCDHEC under authority of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act (SCPCA) as wastewater treatment facilities, in accordance with South Carolina Regulation R.61-82, ''Proper Closeout of Wastewater Treatment Facilities''. To date, two HLW tank systems have been closed in place. Closure of these tanks is the first of its kind in the US. This paper describes the waste tank closure methodologies, standards and regulatory background.

  19. The political science of radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don`t overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don`t forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn`t said in 1984? Nothing. {open_quotes}It`s deja vu all over again.{close_quotes}

  20. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

  1. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    SciTech Connect

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  2. Legislative and regulatory aspects of radioactive waste management in France

    SciTech Connect

    Niel, J.C.

    1996-08-01

    The French legislative and regulatory framework for safe management of radioactive waste is presented. Emphasis is put on legislative aspects for the management of high-level waste and on the operation of surface disposal for low-level waste. Other topics such as policy and issues for very low-level waste or dismantling are also briefly developed.

  3. Controlled Containment, Radioactive Waste Management in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Codee, H.

    2002-02-26

    All radioactive waste produced in The Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the central organization for radioactive waste. The Netherlands forms a good example of a country with a small nuclear power program which will end in the near future. However, radioisotope production, nuclear research and other industrial activities will continue to produce radioactive waste. For the small volume, but broad spectrum of radioactive waste, including TENORM, The Netherlands has developed a management system based on the principles to isolate, to control and to monitor the waste. Long term storage is an essential element of the management system and forms a necessary step in the strategy of controlled containment that will ultimately result in final removal of the waste. Since the waste will remain retrievable for long time new technologies and new disposal options can be applied when available and feasible.

  4. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  6. Radioactive Waste Information for 1998 and Record-To-Date

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. French; R. E. Tallman; K. A. Taylor

    1999-07-01

    This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity; isotopic identity, origin, and status of radioactive waste for calendar year 1998 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The data presented are from the INEEL Integrated Waste Information System.

  7. Scenario for the safety assessment of near surface radioactive waste disposal in Serpong, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Purnomo, A.S.

    2007-07-01

    Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. In near surface disposal, the disposal facility is located on or below the ground surface, where the protective covering is generally a few meters thick. These facilities are intended to contain low and intermediate level waste without appreciable quantities of long-lived radionuclides. Safety is the most important aspect in the applications of nuclear technology and the implementation of nuclear activities in Indonesia. This aspect is reflected by a statement in the Act Number 10 Year 1997, that 'The Development and use of nuclear energy in Indonesia has to be carried out in such away to assure the safety and health of workers, the public and the protection of the environment'. Serpong are one of the sites for a nuclear research center facility, it is the biggest one in Indonesia. In the future will be developed the first near surface disposal on site of the nuclear research facility in Serpong. The paper will mainly focus on scenario of the safety assessments of near-surface radioactive waste disposal is often important to evaluate the performance of the disposal system (disposal facility, geosphere and biosphere). It will give detail, how at the present and future conditions, including anticipated and less probable events in order to prevent radionuclide migration to human and environment. Refer to the geology characteristic and ground water table is enable to place something Near Surface Disposal on unsaturated zone in Serpong site

  8. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Worl, L.A.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.; Le, L.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1998-09-01

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, with 30 wt.% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture.

  9. Taipower`s radioactive waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.C.C.

    1996-09-01

    Nuclear safety and radioactive waste management are the two major concerns of nuclear power in Taiwan. Recognizing that it is an issue imbued with political and social-economic concerns, Taipower has established an integrated nuclear backend management system and its associated financial and mechanism. For LLW, the Orchid Island storage facility will play an important role in bridging the gap between on-site storage and final disposal of LLW. Also, on-site interim storage of spent fuel for 40 years or longer will provide Taipower with ample time and flexibility to adopt the suitable alternative of direct disposal or reprocessing. In other words, by so exercising interim storage option, Taipower will be in a comfortable position to safely and permanently dispose of radwaste without unduly forgoing the opportunities of adopting better technologies or alternatives. Furthermore, Taipower will spare no efforts to communicate with the general public and make her nuclear backend management activities accountable to them.

  10. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  11. Management and disposal of waste from sites contaminated by radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Carlyle J.

    1998-06-01

    Various methods of managing and disposing of wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) activities are described. This review of current waste management practices includes a description of waste minimization and volume reduction techniques and their applicability to various categories of radwaste. The importance of the physical properties of the radiation and radioactivity in determining the methodology of choice throughout the D & D process is stressed. The subject is introduced by a survey of the common types of radioactive contamination that must be managed and the more important hazards associated with each type. Comparisons are made among high level, transuranic, low level, and radioactive mixed waste, and technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM). The development of appropriate clean-up criteria for each category of contaminated waste is described with the aid of examples drawn from actual practice. This includes a discussion of the application of pathway analysis to the derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines. The choice between interim storage and permanent disposal of radioactive wastes is addressed. Approaches to permanent disposal of each category of radioactive waste are described and illustrated with examples of facilities that have been constructed or are planned for implementation in the near future. Actual experience at older, existing, low-level waste disposal facilities is discussed briefly.

  12. Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found.

  13. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  14. Assessment of public perception of radioactive waste management in Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Trone, Janis R.; Cho, SeongKyung; Whang, Jooho; Lee, Moo Yul

    2011-11-01

    The essential characteristics of the issue of radioactive waste management can be conceptualized as complex, with a variety of facets and uncertainty. These characteristics tend to cause people to perceive the issue of radioactive waste management as a 'risk'. This study was initiated in response to a desire to understand the perceptions of risk that the Korean public holds towards radioactive waste and the relevant policies and policy-making processes. The study further attempts to identify the factors influencing risk perceptions and the relationships between risk perception and social acceptance.

  15. Solidification of radioactive waste in a cement/lime mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of a cement/lime mixture for use as a solidification agent for different types of wastes was investigated. This work includes studies directed towards determining the wasted/binder compositional field over which successful solidification occurs with various wastes and the measurement of some of the waste from properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment. In this study, four types of low-level radioactive wastes were simulated for incorporation into a cement/lime mixture. These were boric acid waste, sodium sulfate wastes, aion exchange resins and incinerator ash. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Health physics fundamentals, radiation protection, and radioactive waste treatment. Volume ten

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics include health physics fundamentals (is radiation dangerous, what is health physics, federal regulations, presence of radiation, sources of radiation, types of radiation), radiation protection (amounts of radiation, radiation measurement, individual radiation exposure measurements, reducing the effects of radiation), and radioactive waste treatment (what are radioactive wastes, gaseous radioactive waste, liquid radioactive waste, solid radioactive waste, methods of rad-waste treatment, PWR and BWR radwaste treatment.

  17. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  18. Radioactive-waste container with leak monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Janberg, K.G.; Methling, D.

    1985-01-22

    A container has a massive metallic vessel whose interior is adapted to receive radioactive waste and whose mouth is formed with inner and outer spaced generally planar and annular vessel shoulders and formed there-between with a nonplanar intermediate annular vessel surface. A massive metallic cover formed with a plug fits in the mouth and has respective inner and outer plug shoulders closely juxtaposed with the vessel shoulders and a nonplanar intermediate annular plug surface complementary to the intermediate vessel surface. An inner ring seal engages snugly between the inner shoulders. A pair of generally concentric and spaced outer ring seals engage snugly between the outer shoulders and forming an annular outer chamber therebetween. An intermediate ring seal engages snugly between the intermediate surfaces and forms therebetween and with the inner ring seal an annular inner chamber and therebetween and with the outer ring seals an intermediate chamber. The cover is formed with respective inner, intermediate, and outer passages each having one end opening into the respective chamber and another end. Valves are provided on the cover at the other ends of the passages for sampling gases therein and in the respective chambers.

  19. Radioactive Waste Partitioning and Transmutation within Advanced Fuel Cycles: Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

    2011-01-01

    If nuclear power should become a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the last two decades has been made in the field of geological disposal. Some countries have reached important milestones and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden and in fact the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into their final phases. In France disposal of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and vitrified High Level Wastes (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by a Parliament Act in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, has the potential of reducing the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of P&T (Partitioning and Transmutation). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the High Level Waste definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository, i.e. increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion.

  20. Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-10-28

    Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex begins with a global to regional perspective regarding the location of low-level and mixed low-level waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site. For decades, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has served as a vital disposal resource in the nation-wide cleanup of former nuclear research and testing facilities. State-of-the-art waste management sites at the NNSS offer a safe, permanent disposal option for U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Department of Defense facilities generating cleanup-related radioactive waste.

  1. Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-01

    Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex begins with a global to regional perspective regarding the location of low-level and mixed low-level waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site. For decades, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has served as a vital disposal resource in the nation-wide cleanup of former nuclear research and testing facilities. State-of-the-art waste management sites at the NNSS offer a safe, permanent disposal option for U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Department of Defense facilities generating cleanup-related radioactive waste.

  2. Characterization of a ceramic waste form encapsulating radioactive electrorefiner salt

    SciTech Connect

    Moschetti, T. L.; Sinkler, W.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.; Warren, A. R.; Cummings, D. G.; Johnson, S. G.; Goff, K. M.; Bateman, K. J.; Frank, S. M.

    1999-11-11

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste salt produced during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel. This study presents the first results from electron microscopy and durability testing of a ceramic waste form produced from that radioactive electrorefiner salt. The waste form consists of two primary phases: sodalite and glass. The sodalite phase appears to incorporate most of the alkali and alkaline earth fission products. Other fission products (rare earths and yttrium) tend to form a separate phase and are frequently associated with the actinides, which form mixed oxides. Seven-day leach test results are also presented.

  3. Radioactive Waste Management in Non-Nuclear Countries - 13070

    SciTech Connect

    Kubelka, Dragan; Trifunovic, Dejan

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges internationally accepted concepts of dissemination of responsibilities between all stakeholders involved in national radioactive waste management infrastructure in the countries without nuclear power program. Mainly it concerns countries classified as class A and potentially B countries according to International Atomic Energy Agency. It will be shown that in such countries long term sustainability of national radioactive waste management infrastructure is very sensitive issue that can be addressed by involving regulatory body in more active way in the infrastructure. In that way countries can mitigate possible consequences on the very sensitive open market of radioactive waste management services, comprised mainly of radioactive waste generators, operators of end-life management facilities and regulatory body. (authors)

  4. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am - the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting ...

  5. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite. PMID:17049259

  6. Bibliographic Data on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Documents

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-11-10

    The purpose of the system is to allow users (researchers, policy makers, etc) to identify existing documents on a range of subjects related to low-level radioactive waste management. The software is menu driven.

  7. Commentary: Radioactive Wastes and Damage to Marine Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Bruce

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the effects of radioactive wastes on marine communities, with particular reference to the fitness of populations and the need for field and laboratory studies to provide evidence of ecological change. (JR)

  8. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, Darsh T.; Nikolov, Alex; Lambert, Dan; Calloway, T. Bond, Jr.

    2003-06-05

    The objective of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that cause foaminess in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity radioactive waste separation processes and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming agents. Antifoams developed for this research will be tested using simulated defense HLW radioactive wastes obtained from the Hanford and Savannah River sites.

  9. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2002-08-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that cause foaminess in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity radioactive waste separation processes and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming agents. Antifoams developed for this research will be tested using simulated defense HLW radioactive wastes obtained from the Hanford and Savannah River sites.

  10. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  11. Requirements for shipment of DOE radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gablin, K.; No, Hyo; Herman, J.

    1993-08-01

    There are several sources of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the past, were collected at waste tanks and/or sludge tanks. They were eventually pumped out by special pumps and processed in an evaporator located in the waste operations area in Building No. 306. Some of this radioactive mixed waste represents pure elementary mercury. These cleaning tanks must be manually cleaned up because the RMW material was too dense to pump with the equipment in use. The four tanks being discussed in this report are located in Building No. 306. They are the Acid Waste Tank, IMOX/FLOC Tanks, Evaporation Feed Tanks, and Waste Storage Tanks. All of these tanks are characterized and handled separately. This paper discusses the process and the requirements for characterization and the associated paperwork for Argonne Waste to be shipped to Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage.

  12. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    This seventh Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal years (FY) 1989 and 1990. In November 1989, OCRWM is responsible for disposing of the Nation`s spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. To direct the implementation of its mission, OCRWM has established the following objectives: (1) Safe and timely disposal: to establish as soon as practicable the ability to dispose of radioactive waste in a geologic repository licensed by the NRC. (2) Timely and adequate waste acceptance: to begin the operation of the waste management system as soon as practicable in order to obtain the system development and operational benefits that have been identified for the MRS facility. (3) Schedule confidence: to establish confidence in the schedule for waste acceptance and disposal such that the management of radioactive waste is not an obstacle to the nuclear energy option. (4) System flexibility: to ensure that the program has the flexibility necessary for adapting to future circumstances while fulfilling established commitments. To achieve these objectives, OCRWM is developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposed deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for MRS, and a system for transporting the waste.

  13. In situ electrochemical characterization of grouted radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Jingyan; Shen, Wu-Mian; Tomkiewicz, Micha; Kruger, A.A.

    1993-04-01

    At the Hanford Site, twenty-eight double-shell tanks (DST) and one hundred and forty nine single-shell tanks (SST) are used for storage of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes and sat cake. A fundamental goal of the Westinghouse Hanford Company is to end the current storage practice for liquid wastes and to permanently dispose of the waste. The Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement and subsequent record of decision has identified a cement-based waste form for disposal of DST low-level liquid waste. The low level radioactive fractions of these wastes will be immobilized in a cementitious grout at the Hanford Grout Processing Facility and disposed of in concrete vaults of the Grout Disposal Facility. Prior to closing each vault, postcuring verification will show that the final product meets the performance requirements. Any long term disposal system of radioactive waste will require monitoring to warn against structural deterioration and/or leach of the radioactive or hazardous components into the environment. We are investigating the possibility of monitoring the degree of immobilization of the waste by embedding a grid of long-lasting electrodes in grout. This work describes our ongoing attempts to understand the physics and chemistry of charge carriers in the grout under various load conditions.

  14. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  15. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  16. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS for isotope analysis of long-lived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. Sabine

    2005-04-01

    For a few years now inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been increasingly used for precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived radionuclides at the trace and ultratrace level due to its excellent sensitivity, good precision and accuracy. At present, ICP-MS and also laser ablation ICP-MS are applied as powerful analytical techniques in different fields such as the characterization of nuclear materials, recycled and by-products (e.g., spent nuclear fuel or depleted uranium ammunitions), radioactive waste control, in environmental monitoring and in bioassay measurements, in health control, in geochemistry and geochronology. Especially double-focusing sector field ICP mass spectrometers with single ion detector or with multiple ion collector device have been used for the precise determination of long-lived radionuclides isotope ratios at very low concentration levels. Progress has been achieved by the combination of ultrasensitive mass spectrometric techniques with effective separation and enrichment procedures in order to improve detection limits or by the introduction of the collision cell in ICP-MS for reducing disturbing interfering ions (e.g., of 129Xe+ for the determination of 129I). This review describes the state of the art and the progress of ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS for isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in different sample types, especially in the main application fields of characterization of nuclear and radioactive waste material, environmental research and health controls.

  17. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.

    2011-01-01

    If nuclear power becomes a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust, and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the field of geological disposal has been made in the last two decades. Some countries have reached important milestones, and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden. In fact, the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into its final phase. In France, disposal of intermediate-level waste (ILW) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by an Act of Parliament in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, can reduce the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of partitioning and transmutation (P&T). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production, a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the HLW definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository (i.e., an increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion).

  18. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

    2005-04-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long

  19. Annual Report - FY 2000, Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site, March 2001

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2001-03-01

    This document reports the low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and Polychlorinated Biphenyl contaminated low-level waste transported to or from the Nevada Test Site during fiscal year 2000.

  20. Waste characterization for radioactive liquid waste evaporators at Argonne National Laboratory - West.

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B. D.

    1999-02-15

    Several facilities at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) generate many thousand gallons of radioactive liquid waste per year. These waste streams are sent to the AFL-W Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) where they are processed through hot air evaporators. These evaporators remove the liquid portion of the waste and leave a relatively small volume of solids in a shielded container. The ANL-W sampling, characterization and tracking programs ensure that these solids ultimately meet the disposal requirements of a low-level radioactive waste landfill. One set of evaporators will process an average 25,000 gallons of radioactive liquid waste, provide shielding, and reduce it to a volume of six cubic meters (container volume) for disposal. Waste characterization of the shielded evaporators poses some challenges. The process of evaporating the liquid and reducing the volume of waste increases the concentrations of RCIU regulated metals and radionuclides in the final waste form. Also, once the liquid waste has been processed through the evaporators it is not possible to obtain sample material for characterization. The process for tracking and assessing the final radioactive waste concentrations is described in this paper, The structural components of the evaporator are an approved and integral part of the final waste stream and they are included in the final waste characterization.

  1. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. E-mail: martinez@astro.unam.mx

    2013-03-10

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L){sub J}, as a function of (g - i) versus (i - J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  2. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1986-06-17

    A method is described for immobilizing radioactive boric acid waste solutions comprising: neutralizing a boric acid waste solution containing radionuclides with calcium hydroxide and forming a precipitate, evaporating the precipitate to near dryness, and firing the dry precipitate to form a calcium borate glass product containing the radionuclides.

  3. FOAMING IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical mechanisms of the formation of foam in radioactive waste treatment and waste immobilization processes are poorly understood. The objective of this research is to develop a basic understanding of the mechanisms that produce foaming, to identify the key parameters whic...

  4. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  5. Discussions about safety criteria and guidelines for radioactive waste management.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the clearance levels for uranium-bearing waste have been established by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). The criteria for uranium-bearing waste disposal are also necessary; however, the NSC has not concluded the discussion on this subject. Meanwhile, the General Administrative Group of the Radiation Council has concluded the revision of its former recommendation 'Regulatory exemption dose for radioactive solid waste disposal', the dose criteria after the institutional control period for a repository. The Standardization Committee on Radiation Protection in the Japan Health Physics Society (The Committee) also has developed the relevant safety criteria and guidelines for existing exposure situations, which are potentially applicable to uranium-bearing waste disposal. A new working group established by The Committee was initially aimed at developing criteria and guidelines specifically for uranium-bearing waste disposal; however, the aim has been shifted to broader criteria applicable to any radioactive wastes. PMID:21531746

  6. Issues in radioactive-waste management for fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Maninger, R.C.; Dorn, D.W.

    1982-10-12

    Analysis of recent conceptual designs reveals that commercial fusion power systems will raise issues of occupational and public health and safety. This paper focuses on radioactive wastes from fusion reactor materials activated by neutrons. The analysis shows that different selections of materials and neutronic designs can make differences in orders-of-magnitude of the kinds and amounts of radioactivity to be expected. By careful and early evaluation of the impacts of the selections on waste management, designers can produce fusion power systems with radiation from waste well below today's limits for occupational and public health and safety.

  7. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  8. Educational support programs: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) currently sponsors two educationally related programs: the Radioactive Waste Management Fellowship Program and the Radioactive Waste Management Research Program for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU). The graduate fellowship program was implemented in 1985 to meet the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) expected manpower needs for trained scientists and engineers to assist in carrying out the activities of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It is recognized that a shortage of master's and doctoral level scientists and engineers in disciplines supportive of the nation's high-level radioactive waste management (RWM) program may impede the DOE's ability to properly carry out its mission under the act. The fellowship program encourages talented undergraduate students to enter graduate programs designed to educate and train them in fields directly related to RWM. The program supports graduate students in various disciplines, including nuclear science and engineering, health physics, and certain area of geology and chemical engineering. It also encourages universities to support and improve research activities and academic programs related to the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

  9. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Darsh T. Wasan; Alex D. Nikolov; D.P. Lamber; T. Bond Calloway; M.E. Stone

    2005-03-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has reported severe foaminess in the bench scale evaporation of the Hanford River Protection - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WPT) envelope C waste. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. The antifoams used at Hanford and tested by SRNL are believed to degrade and become inactive in high pH solutions. Hanford wastes have been known to foam during evaporation causing excessive down time and processing delays.

  10. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  11. Flowsheets and source terms for radioactive waste projections

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Flowsheets and source terms used to generate radioactive waste projections in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program are given. Volumes of each waste type generated per unit product throughput have been determined for the following facilities: uranium mining, UF/sub 6/ conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, boiling-water reactors (BWRs), pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and fuel reprocessing. Source terms for DOE/defense wastes have been developed. Expected wastes from typical decommissioning operations for each facility type have been determined. All wastes are also characterized by isotopic composition at time of generation and by general chemical composition. 70 references, 21 figures, 53 tables.

  12. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  13. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Todd, Terry A.; Burchfield, Larry A.; Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  14. Radioactive waste from transmutation of technetium: a model for anticipating characteristics of high level waste from transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, M.G.

    2007-07-01

    At this early stage in the conceptualization of fuel treatment and radioisotope transmutation for the disposition of nuclear wastes, it is possible to anticipate some characteristics of the waste stream resulting from the deployment of advanced technologies. Fission products and actinides cannot be completely destroyed by transmutation even with continuous purification and recycle. This is demonstrated for technetium in this analysis, but is true for all radioisotopes. Also, some of the reaction products are themselves long-lived radioactive isotopes. The purification and recycle steps produce nuclear wastes that must be planned for geologic disposal. Five radioisotopes have been identified to be produced in abundance by transmutation of technetium using fast neutrons. Four of these isotopes may be more benign than the original technetium-99 because of their longer half lives. However, one isotope, molybdenum-93 with a half life of four thousand years, may be troublesome. All of the isotopes arising from the transmutation process that end up in high level waste must be examined in terms of their behavior in geologic disposal. In selecting goals for chemical separations, the technologists must consider the entire cycle of separation and transmutation before applying the performance expected in a single separation to implications concerning a repository. A separation efficiency of 0.95 can translate into the disposal of as much as 30 to 60 percent of the technetium in the repository if down stream losses are not controlled. In this case, the treatment may have little impact on anticipated off site radiation from technetium. The destruction of technetium through continuous recycle requires the cost of increased neutron dose and increased space in reactors that must be considered in design of fuel treatment systems. (authors)

  15. Governing Long-Term Risks in Radioactive Waste Management: Reversibility and Knowledge Transfer Across Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Safe management of the long-lived and high-level radioactive waste originating primarily from nuclear power stations requires isolating and confining the waste for periods up to 100 000 years. Disposal in deep geological formations is currently the solution advocated by international organisations (e.g. the IAEA and the OECD-NEA) and governments, but nowhere in the world is such repository for civilian nuclear waste in operation yet. Concerns about the governance of the involved risks and uncertainties for such long periods lie at the heart of the controversies that have slowed down the identification of a solution. In order to draw lessons potentially relevant for the governance of long-term climate risks, this paper examines the ways in which two interrelated aspects have been addressed in nuclear waste management in France, the US, and the Nordic countries. The first issue concerns "reversibility" - i.e. the possibility on one hand to retrieve the waste once it has been disposed of in a repository, and on the other to return at any point in time along the decision-making process to the previous decision-making phase. Reversibility constitutes today a fundamental, legally binding requirement in French radioactive waste policy. A strategy for managing risk and uncertainty as such, reversibility nevertheless also poses significant safety challenges of its own. The second topic goes beyond the timescales (max. 300 years) in which reversibility is usually considered applicable, addressing the question of intergenerational knowledge transfer, comparing the Nordic and the American approaches to the issue. The key challenge here is ensuring the transfer to the future generations - for periods up to 100 000 years - of sufficient knowledge concerning the siting, characteristics and management of the waste deposited in a repository. Even more fundamentally, instead of knowledge transfer, should we rather aim at "active forgetting", in order to prevent the curious in the

  16. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Analysis of source term modeling for low-level radioactive waste performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.

    1995-03-01

    Site-specific radiological performance assessments are required for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at both commercial and US Department of Energy facilities. This work explores source term modeling of LLW disposal facilities by using two state-of-the-art computer codes, SOURCEI and SOURCE2. An overview of the performance assessment methodology is presented, and the basic processes modeled in the SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes are described. Comparisons are made between the two advective models for a variety of radionuclides, transport parameters, and waste-disposal technologies. These comparisons show that, in general, the zero-order model predicts undecayed cumulative fractions leached that are slightly greater than or equal to those of the first-order model. For long-lived radionuclides, results from the two models eventually reach the same value. By contrast, for short-lived radionuclides, the zero-order model predicts a slightly higher undecayed cumulative fraction leached than does the first-order model. A new methodology, based on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, is developed for predicting intruder scenarios. This method is demonstrated for {sup 137}Cs in a tumulus-type disposal facility. The sensitivity and uncertainty analyses incorporate input-parameter uncertainty into the evaluation of a potential time of intrusion and the remaining radionuclide inventory. Finally, conclusions from this study are presented, and recommendations for continuing work are made.

  18. 'CATT' A project on Co-operation and Technology Transfer on Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management for EU Member States with Small Nuclear Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieson, J.; Lindberg, C.

    2006-07-01

    Many of the European Union's (EU) 25 countries have considerable inventories of long-lived radioactive waste that will remain potentially hazardous for many thousands of years. Of these, several have advanced concepts and programmes for the treatment and disposal (and other long - term management options) for spent fuel and long-lived radioactive waste. Collectively, these Member States have spent the equivalent of many billions of euros in developing such concepts and some have further developed the concepts into proposed operational facilities. Member States with small nuclear programmes, face the expensive and daunting prospect o f developing their own concepts for dealing with their spent fuel and high level waste. One answer would be to seek solutions which could take advantage of the investment costs in the technology and underpinning science already incurred in the more established programmes. Thus technology transfer between Member States in areas of high level waste and spent fuel encapsulation, repository development etc. would allow the establishment of disposal facilities within any Member State for it to deal with its own wastes. The national waste management organisations of the UK (Mirex), Sweden (SKB), German y (DBE), Lithuania (RATA), Bulgaria (DPRAO) and Slovenia (ARAO), together with JRC of the Netherlands, are to undertake a project under the auspices of the EU's 6. R and D Framework Programme (FP6). The 18 month project will examine the technical, intellectual property, legal, financial and societal implications of the idea. It goes by the acronym 'CATT' - 'Cooperation and technology transfer on long term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes'. This paper describes the CATT project which will look at technology transfer methodologies by which Member States could co-operate. It covers the potential issues which may arise and ho w these may be addressed. (authors)

  19. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  20. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Burger, Leland L.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  1. Radioactive waste management information for 1996 and record-to-date

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.L.; Lisee, D.J.; Taylor, K.A.

    1997-07-01

    This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity, isotopic identity, origin, and status of radioactive waste for calendar year 1996. It also summarizes the radioactive waste data records compiled from 1952 to present for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The data presented are from the INEEL Radioactive Waste Management Information System.

  2. Radioactive waste management information for 1993 and record-to-date

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.A.

    1994-07-01

    This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity, isotopic identity, origin, and decay status of radioactive waste for the calendar year 1993. It also summarizes the radioactive waste data records compiled from 1952 to present for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Information System.

  3. Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Kouts

    2006-05-10

    The CRD addresses the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3-Change 1, ''Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets'', by providing the Secretarial Acquisition Executive (Level 0) scope baseline and the Program-level (Level 1) technical baseline. The Secretarial Acquisition Executive approves the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) critical decisions and changes against the Level 0 baseline; and in turn, the OCRWM Director approves all changes against the Level 1 baseline. This baseline establishes the top-level technical scope of the CRMWS and its three system elements, as described in section 1.3.2. The organizations responsible for design, development, and operation of system elements described in this document must therefore prepare subordinate project-level documents that are consistent with the CRD. Changes to requirements will be managed in accordance with established change and configuration control procedures. The CRD establishes requirements for the design, development, and operation of the CRWMS. It specifically addresses the top-level governing laws and regulations (e.g., ''Nuclear Waste Policy Act'' (NWPA), 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 63, 10 CFR Part 71, etc.) along with specific policy, performance requirements, interface requirements, and system architecture. The CRD shall be used as a vehicle to incorporate specific changes in technical scope or performance requirements that may have significant program implications. Such may include changes to the program mission, changes to operational capability, and high visibility stakeholder issues. The CRD uses a systems approach to: (1) identify key functions that the CRWMS must perform, (2) allocate top-level requirements derived from statutory, regulatory, and programmatic sources, and (3) define the basic elements of the system architecture and operational concept. Project-level documents address CRD requirements by further

  4. Determination of Long-Lived Neutron Activation Products in Reactor Shielding Concrete Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2002-10-15

    The results of activation studies of TRIGA research reactor concrete shielding are given. Samples made of ordinary and barytes concrete were irradiated in the reactor to simulate neutron activation in the shielding concrete. Long-lived neutron-induced gamma-ray-emitting radioactive nuclides were measured in the samples with a high-purity germanium detector. The most active long-lived radioactive nuclides in the ordinary concrete samples were found to be {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu. In the barytes concrete samples, the most active long-lived radioactive nuclides were {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba, and {sup 152}Eu. Activation in the concrete was also calculated using the ORIGEN2 code and compared to experimental results. Simple radioactive nuclide generation and depletion calculation using one-group cross-section libraries provided together with the ORIGEN2 code did not give conservative results. Significant discrepancies were observed for some nuclides. For accurate long-lived radioactive nuclide generation in reactor shielding, material-specific cross-section libraries should be generated and verified by measurement.

  5. A New Storage Facility for Institutional Radioactive Wastes at IPEN.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Roberto; Dellamano, José Claudio; Potiens, Ademar José

    2015-08-01

    IPEN, the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been managing the radioactive wastes generated in its own activities of research and radioisotope production as well as those received from many radioisotope users in the country since its start up in 1958. Final disposal options are presently unavailable for the wastes that cannot be managed by release after decay. Treated and untreated wastes including disused sealed radioactive sources and solid and liquid wastes containing radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series or fission and activation products are among the categories that are under safe and secure storage. This paper discusses the aspects considered in the design and describes the startup of a new storage facility for these wastes. PMID:26102323

  6. Radioactive waste disposal in simulated peat bog repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, W.R.; Massey, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 have required state governments to be responsible for providing low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities in their respective areas. Questions are (a) is the technology sufficiently advanced to ensure that radioactive wastes can be stored for 300 to 1000 yr without entering into any uncontrolled area. (b) since actual experience does not exist for nuclear waste disposal over this time period, can the mathematical models developed be tested and verified using unequivocal data. (c) how can the public perception of the problem be addressed and the potential risk assessment of the hazards be communicated. To address the technical problems of nuclear waste disposal in the acid precipitation regions of the Northern Hemisphere, a project was initiated in 1984 to evaluate an alternative method of nuclear waste disposal that may not rely completely on engineered barriers to protect the public. Certain natural biogeochemical systems have been retaining deposited materials since the last Ice Age (12,000 to 15,000 yr). It is the authors belief that the biogeochemical system of wetlands and peat bogs may provide an example of an analogue for a nuclear waste repository system that can be tested and verified over a sufficient time period, at least for the LLW disposal problem.

  7. Results of a radioactive waste course for high school teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Binney, S.E.; Dodd, B.; Ringle, J.C. )

    1992-01-01

    A week-long three-credit graduate-level course was taught in the summer of 1991 for high school science and social science teachers. Instruction was at the layperson's level, and no prior knowledge was presumed. The objectives of the course were to present factual information about radioactive waste, measure recipient's changes in perception about this topic, and measure the effect of the course on others. The technical half of the course involved discussions of basic nuclear physics, radiation control, biological effects of radiation, nuclear fuel cycle, waste management principles, Hanford waste issues, and transport of radioactive waste. The social half of the course included a discussion of values and attitudes, risk perception and communication, and public participation in a decision-making role-playing session. Discussions about radioactive-waste issues with high school teachers, especially of an extended nature such as discussed in this paper, are an effective tool because high school teachers are a critical link to reaching the next generation. Armed with facts presented in an open, nonconfrontational format, these teachers tend to become more understanding and accepting of radioactive-waste issues.

  8. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    SciTech Connect

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-12-31

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan`s radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan`s population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California`s. If everyone`s backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan`s contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R&D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC.

  9. 78 FR 7818 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... radioactive The total Amend to: 1) Remove Mexico. December 28, 2012; January waste as slightly quantity... the (ETI) facility, the Class A radioactive secondary waste will waste imported in either be...

  10. Thermochemical Processing of Radioactive Waste Using Powder Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Panteleev, V. I.; Karlina, O. K.; Klimov. V. L.

    2003-02-25

    Problematic radioactive wastes were generated during various activities of both industrial facilities and research institutions usually in relative small amounts. These can be spent ion exchange resins, inorganic absorbents, wastes from research nuclear reactors, irradiated graphite, mixed, organic or chlorine-containing radioactive waste, contaminated soils, un-burnable heavily surface-contaminated materials, etc. Conventional treatment methods encounter serious problems concerning processing efficiency of such waste, e.g. complete destruction of organic molecules and avoiding of possible emissions of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemically hazardous species. Some contaminations cannot be removed from surface using common decontamination methods. Conditioning of ash residues obtained after treatment of solid radioactive waste including ashes received from treating problematic wastes also is a complicated task. Moreover due to relative small volume of specific type radioactive waste the development of target treatment procedures and facilities to conduct technological processes and their deployment could be economically unexpedient and ecologically no justified. Thermochemical processing technologies are used for treating and conditioning problematic radioactive wastes. The thermochemical processing uses powdered metal fuels (PMF) that are specifically formulated for the waste composition and react chemically with the waste components. The composition of the PMF is designed in such a way as to minimize the release of hazardous components and radionuclides in the off gas and to confine the contaminants in the ash residue. The thermochemical procedures allow decomposition of organic matter and capturing hazardous radionuclides and chemical species simultaneously. A significant advantage of thermochemical processing is its autonomy. Thermochemical treatment technologies use the energy of exothermic reactions in the mixture of radioactive or hazardous waste with PMF

  11. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  12. Commission operation. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-09-01

    Since Congress enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the states have prepared to meet their responsibilities for management of low-level radioactive waste by entering into regional compacts. This option document is intended to provide a framework for the operation of a compact commission formed as the governing body of a low-level radioactive waste compact. The document is designed to be easily modified to meet the needs of various regional compacts. The ideas and format presented were taken in general from the Federal Administrative procedures Act, various state administrative procedures, and the state regulatory agencies' rules of procedure. Requirements of filing, time frames, and standard language are written from a legal perspective.

  13. Radioactive solid waste handling at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Manthos, E.J.

    1990-05-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located on the Hanford Site in the southeast section of Washington State. It has been in operation since 1949. The mission of the plant is to produce plutonium metal and related products for the US Department of Energy defense programs. Solid transuranic, low-level, and mixed wastes are generated at the plant, the radioactive contaminants in the waste being primarily alpha emitting. This paper discusses present waste-handling methods at the plant and recent changes that were made to improve waste characterization. 2 refs.

  14. Long-lived coherence in carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Cannon, E.; Van Dao, L.; Hannaford, P.; Quiney, H. M.; Nugent, K. A.

    2010-08-01

    We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the langS2|S0rang superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.

  15. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world`s largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  16. FINAL REPORT. POLYOXOMETALATES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research was directed primarily towards the use of polyoxometalate complexes for separationof lanthanide, actinide, and technetium species from aqueous waste solutions, such as the HanfordTank Wastes. Selective binding of these species responsible for much of the high level...

  17. THE LONG-LIVED UV ''PLATEAU'' OF SN 2012aw

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, Amanda J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Kuin, Paul; Brown, Peter J.; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Frey, Lucille H.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Maund, Justyn R.; Fraser, Morgan

    2013-02-10

    Observations with the Swift UV Optical Telescope have unambiguously uncovered for the first time a long-lived, UV ''plateau'' in a Type II-P supernova (SN). Although this flattening in slope is hinted at in a few other SNe, due to its proximity and minimal line-of-sight extinction, SN 2012aw has afforded the first opportunity to clearly observe this UV plateau. The observations of SN 2012aw revealed all Swift UV and u-band light curves initially declined rapidly, but 27 days after the explosion the light curves flattened. Some possible sources of the UV plateau are the same thermal process that causes the optical plateau, heating from radioactive decay, or a combination of both processes.

  18. Potential of pottery materials in manufacturing radioactive waste containers.

    PubMed

    Helal, A A; Alian, A M; Aly, H M; Khalifa, S M

    2003-07-01

    Various pottery materials were evaluated for possible use in manufacturing containers for radioactive waste. Their potential was examined from the viewpoints of the effectiveness of disposal and the changes induced in them by gamma rays. Samples of these materials were irradiated with high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a reactor near its core. the physical and mechanical properties of the materials before and after gamma irradiation (in a 60Co gamma cell) were compared. The study showed that pottery materials are resistant to radiation. Therefore, they were proposed for manufacturing drums for disposal of radioactive waste of high gamma activity. PMID:12878117

  19. What a public-relations-model regarding radioactive waste implicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Teruaki |

    1996-12-31

    The behavior of public attitude to radioactive waste with time was investigated by using a mathematical model which was developed for estimating the extent of attitude change, being based on the assumption that the change of public attitude to a certain subject is caused by the information environment mainly formed by the newsmedia. Investigations were also made on the extent the public relations activity can contribute to the change of public opinion for the radioactive waste, and on the method of assortment and execution of various types of activity which brings the maximum change of attitude under a given condition of budget.

  20. In-Situ Chemical Precipitation of Radioactive Liquid Waste - 12492

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2012-07-01

    This paper presented in-situ chemical precipitation for radioactive liquid waste by using chemical agents. Results are reported on large-scale implementation on the removal of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co from liquid radioactive waste generating from Nuclear Research and Training Centre. Total amount of liquid radioactive waste was 35 m{sup 3} and main radionuclides were Cs-137, Cs- 134 and Co-60. Initial radioactivity concentration of the liquid waste was 2264, 17 and 9 Bq/liter for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. Potassium ferro cyanide was selected as chemical agent at high pH levels 8-10 according to laboratory tests. After the process, radioactive sludge precipitated at the bottom of the tank and decontaminated clean liquid was evaluated depending on discharge limits. By this precipitation method decontamination factors were determined as 60, 9 and 17 for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. At the bottom of the tank radioactive sludge amount was 0.98 m{sup 3}. It was transferred by sludge pumps to cementation unit for solidification. By in situ chemical processing 97% of volume reduction was achieved. Using the optimal concentration of 0.75 M potassium ferro cyanide about 98% of the {sup 137}Cs can be removed at pH 8. The Potassium ferro cyanide precipitation method could be used successfully in large scale applications with nickel and ferrum agents for removal of Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co- 60. Although DF values of laboratory test were much higher than in-situ implementation, liquid radioactive waste was decontaminated successfully by using potassium ferro cyanide. Majority of liquid waste were discharged as clean liquid. %97.2 volumetric amount of liquid waste was cleaned and discharged at the original site. Reduced amount of sludge transportation in drums is more economical and safer method than liquid transportation. Although DF values could be different for each of applications related to main specifications of original liquid waste, this

  1. The Defense Waste Processing Facility: Two Years of Radioactive Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, S.L.; Gee, J.T.; Sproull, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC is currently immobilizing high level radioactive sludge waste in borosilicate glass. The DWPF began vitrification of radioactive waste in May, 1996. Prior to that time, an extensive startup test program was completed with simulated waste. The DWPF is a first of its kind facility. The experience gained and data collected during the startup program and early years of operation can provide valuable information to other similar facilities. This experience involves many areas such as process enhancements, analytical improvements, glass pouring issues, and documentation/data collection and tracking. A summary of this experience and the results of the first two years of operation will be presented.

  2. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial.

  3. Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous recovery of Radioactive Nuclides from Liquid Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Lgor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    1999-10-07

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  4. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Lee Roy; Bates, J. Lambert

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation.

  5. Automated NDT techniques in radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Barna, B.A.; Brown, B.W.; Anderson, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    The prime NDT method selected for characterization of the waste is real-time x-radiography (RTR). An RTR system specifically designed for the TRU waste inspection is currently being used to develop the best techniques for waste certification. It is based on a standard 420 kV constant potential x-ray machine with a rare-earth fluorescing screen (gadolinium oxysulfide) functioning as an image converter. The low-light-level image produced on the screen is picked up by a CCTV camera with an image intensifier coupled to a plumbicon imaging tube. The system was designed for automated waste container handling and translation. Image analysis is not currently automated, although the CCTV image is digitized to allow signal averaging and edge enhancement through digital filtering. The digitized image is available through an IEEE 488 I/O port for more sophisticated computerized analysis.

  6. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG&G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG&G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  7. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  9. Long-Lived Gluinos and Stable Axinos.

    PubMed

    Raby, Stuart

    2015-12-01

    In this Letter we present a novel version of "long-lived" gluinos in supersymmetric models with the gluino lightest ordinary supersymmetric particle (LOSP) and the axino lightest supersymmetric particle. Within certain ranges of the axion decay constant f_{a}<1×10^{10}  GeV, the gluino mass bounds are reduced to less than 1000 GeV. The best limits can be obtained by looking for decaying R hadrons in the detector where the gluino decays to a gluon and axino in the calorimeters. Supersymmetry (SUSY) models with a gluino LOSP can occur over a significant region of parameter space in either mirage mediation or general gauge-mediated SUSY breaking models. The gluino LOSP is not constrained by cosmology, but in this scenario the axion or axino may be a good dark matter candidate. PMID:26684110

  10. Long-Lived Gluinos and Stable Axinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raby, Stuart

    2015-12-01

    In this Letter we present a novel version of "long-lived" gluinos in supersymmetric models with the gluino lightest ordinary supersymmetric particle (LOSP) and the axino lightest supersymmetric particle. Within certain ranges of the axion decay constant fa<1 ×1 010 GeV , the gluino mass bounds are reduced to less than 1000 GeV. The best limits can be obtained by looking for decaying R hadrons in the detector where the gluino decays to a gluon and axino in the calorimeters. Supersymmetry (SUSY) models with a gluino LOSP can occur over a significant region of parameter space in either mirage mediation or general gauge-mediated SUSY breaking models. The gluino LOSP is not constrained by cosmology, but in this scenario the axion or axino may be a good dark matter candidate.