Science.gov

Sample records for long-range apparent motion

  1. Motion planning in unstructured road for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chaoxia; Wang, Yanqing; Yang, Jingyu; Liu, Hanxiang

    2011-10-01

    We present a novel motion planning method for intelligent vehicle with long-range perception under the uncertain constraints of unstructured road boundary on the basis of obstacle roadside fusion strategy and beam curvature method . Not only does this method inherit the advantages of reliability, smoothness and speediness from LCM, but also it can produce more reasonable path than traditional LCM does by virtue of the global information acquired by long-range sensors.

  2. The apparent anomalous, weak, long-range acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Turyshev, S.G.; Laing, P.A.; Liu, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1999-07-01

    Recently the authors reported that radio Doppler data generated by NASA`s Deep Space Network (DSN) with the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, spacecraft acceleration with a magnitude {approximately}8.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm s{sup {minus}2}, directed towards the Sun. Analysis of similar Doppler and ranging data from the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft yielded ambiguous results for the anomalous acceleration, but the analysis was useful in that it ruled out the possibility of a systematic error in the DSN Doppler system that could easily be mistaken as a spacecraft acceleration. Here they present some new results, including a critique of the suggestion that the anomalous acceleration could be caused by collimated thermal emission. Based on upgraded JPL software for the Pioneer 10 orbit determination, and on a new data interval from January 1987 to July 1998, their best estimate of the average Pioneer 10 acceleration directed towards the Sun is 7.20 {sup {minus}} 0.11 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm s{sup {minus}2}.

  3. Long-Range Motion Trajectories Extraction of Articulated Human Using Mesh Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; He, Xiaohai; Kang, Byeongkeun; Song, Haiying; Nguyen, Truong Q.

    2016-04-01

    This letter presents a novel approach to extract reliable dense and long-range motion trajectories of articulated human in a video sequence. Compared with existing approaches that emphasize temporal consistency of each tracked point, we also consider the spatial structure of tracked points on the articulated human. We treat points as a set of vertices, and build a triangle mesh to join them in image space. The problem of extracting long-range motion trajectories is changed to the issue of consistency of mesh evolution over time. First, self-occlusion is detected by a novel mesh-based method and an adaptive motion estimation method is proposed to initialize mesh between successive frames. Furthermore, we propose an iterative algorithm to efficiently adjust vertices of mesh for a physically plausible deformation, which can meet the local rigidity of mesh and silhouette constraints. Finally, we compare the proposed method with the state-of-the-art methods on a set of challenging sequences. Evaluations demonstrate that our method achieves favorable performance in terms of both accuracy and integrity of extracted trajectories.

  4. Light-induced long-range hydrogen motion in a-Si:H at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Hyeonsik M.; Lee, S.-H.; Nelson, B. P.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S. K.

    2001-03-01

    We demonstrate that one can detect minuscule amounts of hydrogen diffusion out of a-Si:H under illumination at room temperature, by monitoring the changes in the Raman spectrum of a-WO3 as a function of illumination. The Staebler-Wronski effect, the light-induce creation of metastable defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), has been one of the major problems that has limited the performance of solar cells based on this material. The recently suggested ¡®hydrogen collision model¡¯ can explain many aspects of the Staebler-Wronski effect, but assumes that the photogenerated mobile hydrogen atoms can move a long distance at room temperature. However, light-induced hydrogen motion in a-Si:H has not been experimentally observed at room temperature. We utilized the high sensitivity of the Raman spectrum of electrochromic a-WO3 to hydrogen insertion to probe the long-range motion of hydrogen at room temperature. We deposited a thin (200 nm) layer of a-WO3 on top of a-Si:H, and under illumination, a change in the Raman spectrum was detected. By comparing the Raman signal changes with those for control experiments where hydrogen is electrochemically inserted into a-WO_3, we can estimate semiquantitatively the amount of hydrogen that diffuses out of the a-Si:H layer.

  5. Spatiotemporal averaging of perceived brightness along an apparent motion trajectory.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Beer, R Dirk; Krizay, Erin A; Macleod, Donald I A

    2011-01-01

    Objects are critical functional units for many aspects of visual perception and recognition. Many psychophysical experiments support the concept of an "object file" consisting of characteristics attributed to a single object on the basis of successive views of it, but there has been little evidence that object identity influences apparent brightness and color. In this study, we investigated whether the perceptual identification of successive flashed stimuli as views of a single moving object could affect brightness perception. Our target stimulus was composed of eight wedge-shaped sectors. The sectors were presented successively at different inter-flash intervals along an annular trajectory. At inter-flash intervals of around 100 ms, the impression was of a single moving object undergoing long-range apparent motion. By modulating the luminance between successive views, we measured the perception of luminance modulation along the trajectory of this long-range apparent motion. At the inter-flash intervals where the motion perception was strongest, the luminance difference was perceptually underestimated, and forced-choice luminance discrimination thresholds were elevated. Moreover, under such conditions, it became difficult for the observer to correctly associate or "bind" spatial positions and wedge luminances. These results indicate that the different luminances of wedges that were perceived as a single object were averaged along its apparent motion trajectory. The large spatial step size of our stimulus makes it unlikely that the results could be explained by averaging in a low-level mechanism that has a compact spatiotemporal receptive field (such as V1 and V2 neurons); higher level global motion or object mechanisms must be invoked to account for the averaging effect. The luminance averaging and the ambiguity of position-luminance "binding" suggest that the visual system may evade some of the costs of rapidly computing apparent brightness by adopting the

  6. Apparent extended body motions in depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Heiko; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    Five experiments were designed to investigate the influence of three-dimensional (3-D) orientation change on apparent motion. Projections of an orientation-specific 3-D object were sequentially flashed in different locations and at different orientations. Such an occurrence could be resolved by perceiving a rotational motion in depth around an axis external to the object. Consistent with this proposal, it was found that observers perceived curved paths in depth. Although the magnitude of perceived trajectory curvature often fell short of that required for rotational motions in depth (3-D circularity), judgments of the slant of the virtual plane on which apparent motions occurred were quite close to the predictions of a model that proposes circular paths in depth.

  7. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Liaci, Emanuela; Bach, Michael; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Heinrich, Sven P.; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background In von Schiller’s Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM) stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio (“AR”, i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances). Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1) perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion. Methods We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants’ forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames. Results Increasing the tactile SAM’s AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias. Discussion Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual

  8. Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Turyshev, S.G.; Laing, P.A.; Liu, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1998-10-01

    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude {approximately}8.5{times}10{sup {minus}8} cm/s{sup 2} , directed towards the Sun. Two independent codes and physical strategies have been used to analyze the data. A number of potential causes have been ruled out. We discuss future kinematic tests and possible origins of the signal. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Global Low Frequency Protein Motions in Long-Range Allosteric Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeish, Tom; Rogers, Thomas; Townsend, Philip; Burnell, David; Pohl, Ehmke; Wilson, Mark; Cann, Martin; Richards, Shane; Jones, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    We present a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low frequency dynamics without a change in protein structure. Elastic inhomogeneities allow entropic ``signalling at a distance.'' Remarkably, many globular proteins display just this class of elastic structure, in particular those that support allosteric binding of substrates (long-range co-operative effects between the binding sites of small molecules). Through multi-scale modelling of global normal modes we demonstrate negative co-operativity between the two cAMP ligands without change to the mean structure. Crucially, the value of the co-operativity is itself controlled by the interactions around a set of third allosteric ``control sites.'' The theory makes key experimental predictions, validated by analysis of variant proteins by a combination of structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. A quantitative description of allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein ``design space'' that identified the key inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, by analyzing naturally occurring CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. The methodology establishes the means to engineer allosteric mechanisms that are driven by low frequency dynamics.

  10. Image statistics and the perception of apparent motion.

    PubMed

    Gilden, D L; Bertenthal, B I; Othman, S

    1990-11-01

    The short- and long-range apparent motion processes are discussed in terms of the statistical properties of images. It is argued that the short-range process, exemplified by the random-dot kinematogram, is primarily sensitive to the dipole statistics, whereas the long-range process, exemplified by illusory occlusion, is treated by the visual system primarily in terms of the tripole and higher statistical correlation functions. The studies incorporate the balanced dot, which is a unique stimulus element that permits high pass filtering while preserving detailed positional information. Low spatial frequencies are shown to be critical for texture segregation in random-dot kinematograms, independent of the grain size or number density of texture elements. Illusory path perception in the long-range process is shown not to require low spatial frequencies, but is sensitive rather to global temporal phase coherency. These results are interpreted in terms of the respective roles of the power and phase spectra in perceptual organization. The construction of balanced dots is discussed in detail. PMID:2148586

  11. Coupled quantum-classical method for long range charge transfer: relevance of the nuclear motion to the quantum electron dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Robson; Hoff, Diego A.; Rego, Luis G. C.

    2015-04-01

    Charge and excitonic-energy transfer phenomena are fundamental for energy conversion in solar cells as well as artificial photosynthesis. Currently, much interest is being paid to light-harvesting and energy transduction processes in supramolecular structures, where nuclear dynamics has a major influence on electronic quantum dynamics. For this reason, the simulation of long range electron transfer in supramolecular structures, under environmental conditions described within an atomistic framework, has been a difficult problem to study. This work describes a coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method that aims at describing long range charge transfer processes in supramolecular systems, taking into account the atomistic details of large molecular structures, the underlying nuclear motion, and environmental effects. The method is applied to investigate the relevance of electron-nuclei interaction on the mechanisms for photo-induced electron-hole pair separation in dye-sensitized interfaces as well as electronic dynamics in molecular structures.

  12. Center motions of nonoverlapping condensates coupled by long-range dipolar interaction in bilayer and multilayer stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Chun; Wu, Wen-Chin

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effect of anisotropic and long-range dipole-dipole interaction (DDI) on the center motions of nonoverlapping Bose-Einstein condensates in bilayer and multilayer stacks. In the bilayer, it is shown analytically that while DDI plays no role in the in-phase modes of center motions of condensates, out-of-phase mode frequency (ωo) depends crucially on the strength of DDI (ad). At the small-ad limit, ωo2(ad)-ωo2(0)∝ad. In the multilayer stack, transverse modes associated with center motions of coupled condensates are found to be optical-phonon-like. At the long-wavelength limit, phonon velocity is proportional to ad.

  13. iRED analysis of TAR RNA reveals motional coupling, long-range correlations, and a dynamical hinge.

    PubMed

    Musselman, Catherine; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2007-07-15

    The HIV-1 transactivation response RNA element (TAR), which is essential to the lifecycle of the virus, has been suggested, based on NMR and hydrodynamic measurements, to undergo substantial, collective, structural dynamics that are important for its function. To deal with the significant coupling between overall diffusional rotation and internal motion expected to exist in TAR, here we utilize an isotropic reorientational eigenmode dynamics analysis of simulated molecular trajectories to obtain a detailed description of TAR dynamics and an accurately quantified pattern of dynamical correlations. The analysis demonstrates the inseparability of internal and overall motional modes, confirms the existence and reveals the nature of collective domain dynamics, and additionally reveals that the hinge for these motions is centered on residues U23, C24, and C41. Results also indicate the existence of long-range communication between the loop and the core of the RNA, and between the loop and the bulge. Additionally, the isotropic reorientational eigenmode dynamics analysis explains, from a dynamical perspective, several existing biochemical mutational studies and suggests new mutations for future structural dynamics studies. PMID:17449677

  14. Spatial Attention and Audiovisual Interactions in Apparent Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Daniel; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Spence, Charles

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors combined the cross-modal dynamic capture task (involving the horizontal apparent movement of visual and auditory stimuli) with spatial cuing in the vertical dimension to investigate the role of spatial attention in cross-modal interactions during motion perception. Spatial attention was manipulated endogenously, either…

  15. Priming with real motion biases visual cortical response to bistable apparent motion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-fang; Wen, Yunqing; Zhang, Deng; She, Liang; Wu, Jian-young; Dan, Yang; Poo, Mu-ming

    2012-12-11

    Apparent motion quartet is an ambiguous stimulus that elicits bistable perception, with the perceived motion alternating between two orthogonal paths. In human psychophysical experiments, the probability of perceiving motion in each path is greatly enhanced by a brief exposure to real motion along that path. To examine the neural mechanism underlying this priming effect, we used voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to measure the spatiotemporal activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of awake mice. We found that a brief real motion stimulus transiently biased the cortical response to subsequent apparent motion toward the spatiotemporal pattern representing the real motion. Furthermore, intracellular recording from V1 neurons in anesthetized mice showed a similar increase in subthreshold depolarization in the neurons representing the path of real motion. Such short-term plasticity in early visual circuits may contribute to the priming effect in bistable visual perception. PMID:23188797

  16. Infants' perception of subjective contours from apparent motion.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kanazawa, So; Okamura, Hiromi

    2008-01-01

    We examined infants' perception of subjective contours in Subjective-Contour-from-Apparent-Motion (SCAM) stimuli [e.g., Cicerone, C. M., Hoffman, D. D., Gowdy, P. D., & Kim, J. S. (1995). The perception of color from motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 57, 761-777] using the preferential looking technique. The SCAM stimulus is composed of random dots which are assigned two different colors. Circular region assigned one color moved apparently, keeping all dots' location unchanged. In the SCAM stimulus, adults can perceive subjective color spreading and subjective contours in apparent motion (http://c-faculty.chuo-u.ac.jp/ approximately ymasa/okamura/ibd_demo.html). In the present study, we conducted two experiments by using this type of SCAM stimulus. A total of thirty-six 3-8-month-olds participated. In experiment 1, we presented two stimuli to the infants side by side: a SCAM stimulus consisting of different luminance, and a non-SCAM stimulus consisting of isoluminance dots. The results indicated that the 5-8-month-olds showed preference for the SCAM stimuli. In experiments 2 and 3, we confirmed that the infants' preference for the SCAM stimulus was not generated by the local difference and local change made by luminance of dots but by the subjective contours. These results suggest that 5-8-month-olds were able to perceive subjective contours in the SCAM stimuli. PMID:17727955

  17. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  18. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    PubMed

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-01

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval. PMID:17461670

  19. Spatial and temporal context affects correspondences in apparent motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anstis, Stuart

    1989-01-01

    Apparent motion (AM) is seen when two patterns (such as movie frames) are exposed in succession in nearby positions. How does the visual system solve the "correspondence problem", that is, decide which item in the second frame is to be paired off with a given item in the first frame? We used a four-spot ambiguous AM display to reveal the influence of additional spots exposed nearby in space or in time. Spots that are close to each other tend to be paired off by proximity. AM is seen preferentially within the same hemiretina, that is within the same half of the brain, rather than across the retinal midline. AM in a straight line is strongly preferred over a bent path. Unambiguous AM drags an ambiguous nearby AM with it. An array of identical ambiguous AMs all move together, not independently. We also describe entrained AM, and perceptual suppression of the spurious motion signals originating in static background items that are covered and uncovered by an object moving in front of them. All these phenomena demonstrate the role of parsimony and of minimum principles in motion perception.

  20. Altered perception of apparent motion in schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Dubouloz, Priscilla; Meier, Rahel; Junghan, Uli

    2008-06-30

    Apparent motion (AM), the Gestalt perception of motion in the absence of physical motion, was used to study perceptual organization and neurocognitive binding in schizophrenia. Associations between AM perception and psychopathology as well as meaningful subgroups were sought. Circular and stroboscopic AM stimuli were presented to 68 schizophrenia spectrum patients and healthy participants. Psychopathology was measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Psychopathology was related to AM perception differentially: Positive and disorganization symptoms were linked to reduced gestalt stability; negative symptoms, excitement and depression had opposite regression weights. Dimensions of psychopathology thus have opposing effects on gestalt perception. It was generally found that AM perception was closely associated with psychopathology. No difference existed between patients and controls, but two latent classes were found. Class A members who had low levels of AM stability made up the majority of inpatients and control subjects; such participants were generally young and male, with short reaction times. Class B typically contained outpatients and some control subjects; participants in class B were older and showed longer reaction times. Hence AM perceptual dysfunctions are not specific for schizophrenia, yet AM may be a promising stage marker. PMID:18471894

  1. Long range fast tool servo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorefield, G. M., II; Dow, Thomas A.; Falter, Karl J.; Ro, Paul I.

    1993-05-01

    The PEC's MAC 100 Fast Tool Servo (FTS) System has demonstrated the efficacy of fabricating off-axis parabolic segments on axis by utilizing a fast tool motion to machine non-rotationally symmetric surfaces. The key to this technique was a servo for the tool motion that had a high-bandwidth coupled with a small range of motion. The Keck telescope, with its thirty-six (36) 1-meter diameter segments, would have been an excellent application for this technology. Since this technology was not available at the time of construction, each mirror segment was fabricated to its desired shape by loading it to a specified deformed shape and polishing it to a spherical contour, then removing the bending loads to allow the segment to relax to the desired asymmetric shape. If the segments of this optic had been constructed on axis with an FTS, the fabrication of the most extreme segment would have required only about 200 micrometers of non-rotational symmetry. However, the demand for larger displacement actuators is being driven by new applications with nonrotationally symmetric components in the millimeter range. This report describes the search for a suitable actuator for a long range fast tool servo system that would allow the fabrication of non-rotationally symmetric optical surfaces with a 1 mm range of servo motion. To allow cost-effective machining of these surfaces, the actuator must also possess a 50 Hz bandwidth (minimum) and 25 nanometer resolution.

  2. Long range global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

  3. Processing of targets in smooth or apparent motion along the vertical in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Vincenzo; Macaluso, Emiliano; Indovina, Iole; Orban, Guy; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Neural substrates for processing constant speed visual motion have been extensively studied. Less is known about the brain activity patterns when the target speed changes continuously, for instance under the influence of gravity. Using functional MRI (fMRI), here we compared brain responses to accelerating/decelerating targets with the responses to constant speed targets. The target could move along the vertical under gravity (1g), under reversed gravity (-1g), or at constant speed (0g). In the first experiment, subjects observed targets moving in smooth motion and responded to a GO signal delivered at a random time after target arrival. As expected, we found that the timing of the motor responses did not depend significantly on the specific motion law. Therefore brain activity in the contrast between different motion laws was not related to motor timing responses. Average BOLD signals were significantly greater for 1g targets than either 0g or -1g targets in a distributed network including bilateral insulae, left lingual gyrus, and brain stem. Moreover, in these regions, the mean activity decreased monotonically from 1g to 0g and to -1g. In the second experiment, subjects intercepted 1g, 0g, and -1g targets either in smooth motion (RM) or in long-range apparent motion (LAM). We found that the sites in the right insula and left lingual gyrus, which were selectively engaged by 1g targets in the first experiment, were also significantly more active during 1g trials than during -1g trials both in RM and LAM. The activity in 0g trials was again intermediate between that in 1g trials and that in -1g trials. Therefore in these regions the global activity modulation with the law of vertical motion appears to hold for both RM and LAM. Instead, a region in the inferior parietal lobule showed a preference for visual gravitational motion only in LAM but not RM. PMID:19889846

  4. Design improvement of the three-beam detector towards a precise long-range 6-degree of freedom motion sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun; Jang, In Gwun

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents performance enhancement of the three beam detector through design improvement based on the error analysis. The three-beam detector is a novel sensor system that measures six motions (i.e., 3 translations and 3 rotations) of a remote object with high accuracy by implementing three laser distance sensors and a vision sensor. In this paper, finite element analysis and parameter analysis are applied to the three-beam detector to analyze its structural frames and sensor configuration, respectively, in terms of sensing error. By virtue of such a systematic, quantitative error analysis, this research has successfully improved the performance of the three-beam detector and thoroughly validated through field tests that it can detect the 6-degree of freedom motions of a remote target at 30 m with an accuracy of 1.51 mm and 0.18° and precision of 0.38 mm and 0.13°.

  5. Institutional Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, John G.

    This booklet presents a general outline for conducting a long-range planning study that can be adapted for use by any institution of higher education. The basic components of an effective long-range plan should include: (1) purposes of the plan, which define the scope of the study and provide the setting in which it will be initiated; (2) a set of…

  6. Ring opening of cyclopropylidenes to allenes: reactions with bifurcating transition regions, free internal motions, steric hindrances, and long-range dipolar interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Valtazanos, P.; Elbert, S.T.; Ruedenberg, K.

    1986-05-28

    The mechanism of the ring opening of cyclopropylidene to allene, the prototype bond fission of a cyclic carbene due to ring strain, has implications for many organic reactions. We have mapped out the energy surface E(phi,delta/sub 1/,delta/sub 2/) in its entirety where, for each triple of (phi,delta/sub 1/,delta/sub 2/) values, the molecular geometry was optimized with respect to 12 internal coordinates. An examination of the energy surface reveals the following features of the cyclopropylidene ring opening: (i) singlet cyclopropylidene is stable at phi = 59.5/sup 0/ and about 9 kcal/mol lower than the triplet (stable at 65.5/sup 0/). (ii) The CH/sub 2/ planes are perpendicular to the CCC plane (C/sub 2nu/) and approximately remain so during the initial stages of the ring opening. (iii) Shortly before phi reaches 70/sup 0/ the CH/sub 2/ groups begin a disrotatory motion, preserving C/sub s/ symmetry. (iv) Around phi approx. 81/sup 0/, with a disrotatory inclination of about 35/sup 0/, a conrotatory component admixes to the reaction path advance and C/sub s/ symmetry is lost. (v) No inherent preference exists between the two branches. (vi) The bifurcation occurs before the transition states (which are located around (phi,delta/sub 1/,delta/sub 2/) = (81/sup 0/, 50/sup 0/, 120/sup 0/) and (81/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/, 130/sup 0/)) and extremely close to it. (vii) The downhill path from the transition state to the product with phi opening to 180/sup 0/, while conrotatory in a general way, leads across slopes of isoenergetic valleys. (viii) The allene stereoisomerization requires a concerted twisting and bending, the transition state occurring at phi = 133/sup 0/.

  7. Deciding what to see: the role of intention and attention in the perception of apparent motion.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Axel; Haddad, Leila; Singer, Wolf; Muckli, Lars

    2008-03-01

    Apparent motion is an illusory perception of movement that can be induced by alternating presentations of static objects. Already in Wertheimer's early investigation of the phenomenon [Wertheimer, M. (1912). Experimentelle Studien über das Sehen von Bewegung. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie, 61, 161-265], he mentions that voluntary attention can influence the way in which an ambiguous apparent motion display is perceived. But until now, few studies have investigated how strong the modulation of apparent motion through attention can be under different stimulus and task conditions. We used bistable motion quartets of two different sizes, where the perception of vertical and horizontal motion is equally likely. Eleven observers participated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to either (a) hold the current movement direction as long as possible, (b) passively view the stimulus, or (c) switch the movement directions as quickly as possible. With the respective instructions, observers could almost double phase durations in (a) and more than halve durations in (c) relative to the passive condition. This modulation effect was stronger for the large quartets. In Experiment 2, observers' attention was diverted from the stimulus by a detection task at fixation while they still had to report their conscious perception. This manipulation prolonged dominance durations for up to 100%. The experiments reveal a high susceptibility of ambiguous apparent motion to attentional modulation. We discuss how feature- and space-based attention mechanisms might contribute to those effects. PMID:18279907

  8. Detection of Counter-Changing Contrast: Second-Order Apparent Motion Without Postrectification Motion-Energy Analysis or Salience Mapping/Feature Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Lee A.; Hock, Howard S.

    2004-01-01

    The perception of 2nd-order, texture-contrast-defined motion was studied for apparent-motion stimuli composed of a pair of spatially displaced, simultaneously visible checkerboards. It was found that background-relative, counter-changing contrast provided the informational basis for the perception of 2nd-order apparent motion; motion began where…

  9. A Self-Alignment Algorithm for SINS Based on Gravitational Apparent Motion and Sensor Data Denoising

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiting; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Xixiang; Yao, Yiqing; Wu, Liang; Sun, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Initial alignment is always a key topic and difficult to achieve in an inertial navigation system (INS). In this paper a novel self-initial alignment algorithm is proposed using gravitational apparent motion vectors at three different moments and vector-operation. Simulation and analysis showed that this method easily suffers from the random noise contained in accelerometer measurements which are used to construct apparent motion directly. Aiming to resolve this problem, an online sensor data denoising method based on a Kalman filter is proposed and a novel reconstruction method for apparent motion is designed to avoid the collinearity among vectors participating in the alignment solution. Simulation, turntable tests and vehicle tests indicate that the proposed alignment algorithm can fulfill initial alignment of strapdown INS (SINS) under both static and swinging conditions. The accuracy can either reach or approach the theoretical values determined by sensor precision under static or swinging conditions. PMID:25923932

  10. A Self-Alignment Algorithm for SINS Based on Gravitational Apparent Motion and Sensor Data Denoising.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiting; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Xixiang; Yao, Yiqing; Wu, Liang; Sun, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Initial alignment is always a key topic and difficult to achieve in an inertial navigation system (INS). In this paper a novel self-initial alignment algorithm is proposed using gravitational apparent motion vectors at three different moments and vector-operation. Simulation and analysis showed that this method easily suffers from the random noise contained in accelerometer measurements which are used to construct apparent motion directly. Aiming to resolve this problem, an online sensor data denoising method based on a Kalman filter is proposed and a novel reconstruction method for apparent motion is designed to avoid the collinearity among vectors participating in the alignment solution. Simulation, turntable tests and vehicle tests indicate that the proposed alignment algorithm can fulfill initial alignment of strapdown INS (SINS) under both static and swinging conditions. The accuracy can either reach or approach the theoretical values determined by sensor precision under static or swinging conditions. PMID:25923932

  11. Visual apparent motion can be modulated by task-irrelevant lexical information.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly demonstrated the impact of Gestalt structural grouping principles upon the parsing of motion correspondence in ambiguous apparent motion. Here, by embedding Chinese characters in a visual Ternus display that comprised two stimulus frames, we showed that the perception of visual apparent motion can be modulated by activation of task-irrelevant lexical representations. Each frame had two disks, with the second disk of the first frame and the first disk of the second frame being presented at the same location. Observers could perceive either "element motion," in which the endmost disk is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disk at the central position remains stationary, or "group motion," in which both disks appear to move laterally as a whole. More reports of group motion, as opposed to element motion, were obtained when the embedded characters formed two-character compound words than when they formed nonwords, although this lexicality effect appeared to be attenuated by the use of the same characters at the overlapping position across the two frames. Thus, grouping of visual elements in a changing world can be guided by both structural principles and prior world knowledge, including lexical information. PMID:21264743

  12. Visual Benefits in Apparent Motion Displays: Automatically Driven Spatial and Temporal Anticipation Are Partially Dissociated

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Merle-Marie; Veniero, Domenica; Gross, Joachim; Harvey, Monika; Thut, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Many behaviourally relevant sensory events such as motion stimuli and speech have an intrinsic spatio-temporal structure. This will engage intentional and most likely unintentional (automatic) prediction mechanisms enhancing the perception of upcoming stimuli in the event stream. Here we sought to probe the anticipatory processes that are automatically driven by rhythmic input streams in terms of their spatial and temporal components. To this end, we employed an apparent visual motion paradigm testing the effects of pre-target motion on lateralized visual target discrimination. The motion stimuli either moved towards or away from peripheral target positions (valid vs. invalid spatial motion cueing) at a rhythmic or arrhythmic pace (valid vs. invalid temporal motion cueing). Crucially, we emphasized automatic motion-induced anticipatory processes by rendering the motion stimuli non-predictive of upcoming target position (by design) and task-irrelevant (by instruction), and by creating instead endogenous (orthogonal) expectations using symbolic cueing. Our data revealed that the apparent motion cues automatically engaged both spatial and temporal anticipatory processes, but that these processes were dissociated. We further found evidence for lateralisation of anticipatory temporal but not spatial processes. This indicates that distinct mechanisms may drive automatic spatial and temporal extrapolation of upcoming events from rhythmic event streams. This contrasts with previous findings that instead suggest an interaction between spatial and temporal attention processes when endogenously driven. Our results further highlight the need for isolating intentional from unintentional processes for better understanding the various anticipatory mechanisms engaged in processing behaviourally relevant stimuli with predictable spatio-temporal structure such as motion and speech. PMID:26623650

  13. Application of Powder Diffraction Methods to the Analysis of Short- and Long-Range Atomic Order in Nanocrystalline Diamond and SiC: The Concept of the Apparent Lattice Parameter (alp)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, B.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Stelmakh, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Weber, H.-P.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Two methods of the analysis of powder diffraction patterns of diamond and SiC nanocrystals are presented: (a) examination of changes of the lattice parameters with diffraction vector Q ('apparent lattice parameter', alp) which refers to Bragg scattering, and (b), examination of changes of inter-atomic distances based on the analysis of the atomic Pair Distribution Function, PDF. Application of these methods was studied based on the theoretical diffraction patterns computed for models of nanocrystals having (i) a perfect crystal lattice, and (ii), a core-shell structure, i.e. constituting a two-phase system. The models are defined by the lattice parameter of the grain core, thickness of the surface shell, and the magnitude and distribution of the strain field in the shell. X-ray and neutron experimental diffraction data of nanocrystalline SiC and diamond powders of the grain diameter from 4 nm up to micrometers were used. The effects of the internal pressure and strain at the grain surface on the structure are discussed based on the experimentally determined dependence of the alp values on the Q-vector, and changes of the interatomic distances with the grain size determined experimentally by the atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis. The experimental results lend a strong support to the concept of a two-phase, core and the surface shell structure of nanocrystalline diamond and SiC.

  14. Interaction of perceptual grouping and crossmodal temporal capture in tactile apparent-motion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihan; Shi, Zhuanghua; Müller, Hermann J

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in tasks requiring participants to report the direction of apparent motion, task-irrelevant mono-beeps can "capture" visual motion perception when the beeps occur temporally close to the visual stimuli. However, the contributions of the relative timing of multimodal events and the event structure, modulating uni- and/or crossmodal perceptual grouping, remain unclear. To examine this question and extend the investigation to the tactile modality, the current experiments presented tactile two-tap apparent-motion streams, with an SOA of 400 ms between successive, left-/right-hand middle-finger taps, accompanied by task-irrelevant, non-spatial auditory stimuli. The streams were shown for 90 seconds, and participants' task was to continuously report the perceived (left- or rightward) direction of tactile motion. In Experiment 1, each tactile stimulus was paired with an auditory beep, though odd-numbered taps were paired with an asynchronous beep, with audiotactile SOAs ranging from -75 ms to 75 ms. Perceived direction of tactile motion varied systematically with audiotactile SOA, indicative of a temporal-capture effect. In Experiment 2, two audiotactile SOAs--one short (75 ms), one long (325 ms)--were compared. The long-SOA condition preserved the crossmodal event structure (so the temporal-capture dynamics should have been similar to that in Experiment 1), but both beeps now occurred temporally close to the taps on one side (even-numbered taps). The two SOAs were found to produce opposite modulations of apparent motion, indicative of an influence of crossmodal grouping. In Experiment 3, only odd-numbered, but not even-numbered, taps were paired with auditory beeps. This abolished the temporal-capture effect and, instead, a dominant percept of apparent motion from the audiotactile side to the tactile-only side was observed independently of the SOA variation. These findings suggest that asymmetric crossmodal grouping leads to an

  15. Interaction of Perceptual Grouping and Crossmodal Temporal Capture in Tactile Apparent-Motion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihan; Shi, Zhuanghua; Müller, Hermann J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in tasks requiring participants to report the direction of apparent motion, task-irrelevant mono-beeps can “capture” visual motion perception when the beeps occur temporally close to the visual stimuli. However, the contributions of the relative timing of multimodal events and the event structure, modulating uni- and/or crossmodal perceptual grouping, remain unclear. To examine this question and extend the investigation to the tactile modality, the current experiments presented tactile two-tap apparent-motion streams, with an SOA of 400 ms between successive, left-/right-hand middle-finger taps, accompanied by task-irrelevant, non-spatial auditory stimuli. The streams were shown for 90 seconds, and participants' task was to continuously report the perceived (left- or rightward) direction of tactile motion. In Experiment 1, each tactile stimulus was paired with an auditory beep, though odd-numbered taps were paired with an asynchronous beep, with audiotactile SOAs ranging from −75 ms to 75 ms. Perceived direction of tactile motion varied systematically with audiotactile SOA, indicative of a temporal-capture effect. In Experiment 2, two audiotactile SOAs—one short (75 ms), one long (325 ms)—were compared. The long-SOA condition preserved the crossmodal event structure (so the temporal-capture dynamics should have been similar to that in Experiment 1), but both beeps now occurred temporally close to the taps on one side (even-numbered taps). The two SOAs were found to produce opposite modulations of apparent motion, indicative of an influence of crossmodal grouping. In Experiment 3, only odd-numbered, but not even-numbered, taps were paired with auditory beeps. This abolished the temporal-capture effect and, instead, a dominant percept of apparent motion from the audiotactile side to the tactile-only side was observed independently of the SOA variation. These findings suggest that asymmetric crossmodal grouping leads to an

  16. BOLD responses in the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat viewing an apparent motion stimulus.

    PubMed

    Lau, Condon; Zhang, Jevin W; Xing, Kyle K; Zhou, Iris Y; Cheung, Matthew M; Chan, Kevin C; Wu, Ed X

    2011-10-01

    In rats, the superior colliculus (SC) is a main destination for retinal ganglion cells and is an important subcortical structure for vision. Electrophysiology studies have observed that many SC neurons are highly sensitive to moving objects, but complementary non-invasive functional imaging studies with larger fields of view have been rarely conducted. In this study, BOLD fMRI is used to measure the SC and nearby lateral geniculate nucleus' (LGN) hemodynamic responses, in normal adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, during a dynamic visual stimulus similar to those used in long-range apparent motion studies. The stimulation paradigm consists of four light spots arranged in a linear array and turned on and off sequentially at different rates to create five effective speeds of motion (7, 14, 41, 82, and 164°/s across the visual field). Stationary periods (same light spot always on) are interleaved between the moving periods. The speed response function (SRF), the hemodynamic response amplitude at each speed tested, is measured. Significant responses are observed in the SC and LGN at all speeds. In the SC, the SRF increases monotonically from 7 to 82°/s. The minimum response amplitude occurs at 164°/s. The results suggest that the SC is sensitive to slow moving visual stimuli but the hemodynamic response is reduced at higher speeds. In the LGN, the SRF exhibits a similar trend to that of the SC, but response amplitude during 7°/s stimulation is comparable to that during 164°/s stimulation. These findings are in good agreement with previous electrophysiology studies conducted on albino rats like the SD strain. This work represents the first fMRI study of stimulus speed dependence in the SC and is also the first fMRI study of motion responsiveness in the rat. PMID:21741483

  17. Apparent diffusive motion of centrin foci in living cells: implications for diffusion-based motion in centriole duplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Susanne M.; Keller, Lani C.; Alberts, Jonathan B.; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2011-04-01

    The degree to which diffusion contributes to positioning cellular structures is an open question. Here we investigate the question of whether diffusive motion of centrin granules would allow them to interact with the mother centriole. The role of centrin granules in centriole duplication remains unclear, but some proposed functions of these granules, for example, in providing pre-assembled centriole subunits, or by acting as unstable 'pre-centrioles' that need to be captured by the mother centriole (La Terra et al 2005 J. Cell Biol. 168 713-22), require the centrin foci to reach the mother. To test whether diffusive motion could permit such interactions in the necessary time scale, we measured the motion of centrin-containing foci in living human U2OS cells. We found that these centrin foci display apparently diffusive undirected motion. Using the apparent diffusion constant obtained from these measurements, we calculated the time scale required for diffusion to capture by the mother centrioles and found that it would greatly exceed the time available in the cell cycle. We conclude that mechanisms invoking centrin foci capture by the mother, whether as a pre-centriole or as a source of components to support later assembly, would require a form of directed motility of centrin foci that has not yet been observed.

  18. Elastic network models capture the motions apparent within ensembles of RNA structures

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Michael T.; Jernigan, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of structure and dynamics in mechanisms for RNA becomes increasingly important. Computational approaches using simple dynamics models have been successful at predicting the motions of proteins and are often applied to ribonucleo-protein complexes but have not been thoroughly tested for well-packed nucleic acid structures. In order to characterize a true set of motions, we investigate the apparent motions from 16 ensembles of experimentally determined RNA structures. These indicate a relatively limited set of motions that are captured by a small set of principal components (PCs). These limited motions closely resemble the motions computed from low frequency normal modes from elastic network models (ENMs), either at atomic or coarse-grained resolution. Various ENM model types, parameters, and structure representations are tested here against the experimental RNA structural ensembles, exposing differences between models for proteins and for folded RNAs. Differences in performance are seen, depending on the structure alignment algorithm used to generate PCs, modulating the apparent utility of ENMs but not significantly impacting their ability to generate functional motions. The loss of dynamical information upon coarse-graining is somewhat larger for RNAs than for globular proteins, indicating, perhaps, the lower cooperativity of the less densely packed RNA. However, the RNA structures show less sensitivity to the elastic network model parameters than do proteins. These findings further demonstrate the utility of ENMs and the appropriateness of their application to well-packed RNA-only structures, justifying their use for studying the dynamics of ribonucleo-proteins, such as the ribosome and regulatory RNAs. PMID:24759093

  19. The representation of moving 3-D objects in apparent motion perception.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Souta; Kawachi, Yousuke; Gyoba, Jiro

    2009-08-01

    In the present research, we investigated the depth information contained in the representations of apparently moving 3-D objects. By conducting three experiments, we measured the magnitude of representational momentum (RM) as an index of the consistency of an object's representation. Experiment 1A revealed that RM magnitude was greater when shaded, convex, apparently moving objects shifted to a flat circle than when they shifted to a shaded, concave, hemisphere. The difference diminished when the apparently moving objects were concave hemispheres (Experiment 1B). Using luminance-polarized circles, Experiment 2 confirmed that these results were not due to the luminance information of shading. Experiment 3 demonstrated that RM magnitude was greater when convex apparently moving objects shifted to particular blurred convex hemispheres with low-pass filtering than when they shifted to concave hemispheres. These results suggest that the internal object's representation in apparent motion contains incomplete depth information intermediate between that of 2-D and 3-D objects, particularly with regard to convexity information with low-spatial-frequency components. PMID:19633345

  20. Long-range electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations have shed much light on the nuclear and electronic factors that control the rates of long-range electron tunneling through molecules in aqueous and organic glasses as well as through bonds in donor–bridge–acceptor complexes. Couplings through covalent and hydrogen bonds are much stronger than those across van der Waals gaps, and these differences in coupling between bonded and nonbonded atoms account for the dependence of tunneling rates on the structure of the media between redox sites in Ru-modified proteins and protein–protein complexes. PMID:15738403

  1. On the Connection of the Apparent Proper Motion and the VLBI Structure of Compact Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, A.; Frey, S.; Lambert, S. B.; Titov, O. A.; Bakos, J.

    2011-06-01

    Many of the compact extragalactic radio sources that are used as fiducial points to define the celestial reference frame are known to have proper motions detectable with long-term geodetic/astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. These changes can be as high as several hundred microarcseconds per year for certain objects. When imaged with VLBI at milliarcsecond (mas) angular resolution, these sources (radio-loud active galactic nuclei) typically show structures dominated by a compact, often unresolved "core" and a one-sided "jet." The positional instability of compact radio sources is believed to be connected with changes in their brightness distribution structure. For the first time, we test this assumption in a statistical sense on a large sample rather than on only individual objects. We investigate a sample of 62 radio sources for which reliable long-term time series of astrometric positions as well as detailed 8 GHz VLBI brightness distribution models are available. We compare the characteristic direction of their extended jet structure and the direction of their apparent proper motion. We present our data and analysis method, and conclude that there is indeed a correlation between the two characteristic directions. However, there are cases where the ~1-10 mas scale VLBI jet directions are significantly misaligned with respect to the apparent proper motion direction.

  2. Long-range atmospheric predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichler, Thomas Josef

    This study investigated the prospects and limits of global atmospheric predictability on the long range (beyond 2 weeks). Forecasting the atmosphere at this range is very challenging since elements of both weather and climate prediction enter the problem. The basic questions were: (1) how large is long-range predictability with perfect model and data; (2) how sensitive is such predictability to uncertainties in model and data; (3) which atmospheric processes are related to this predictability? These questions were answered through numerical experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model which is forced with different combinations of initial and boundary conditions. In particular, four tasks were accomplished: First, temporal variations of predictability and its relationship to initial and boundary conditions were examined. On average, initial conditions dominated predictability for the first 4 weeks, improved predictability for 6 weeks, and influenced predictability for 8 weeks. These time scales varied with season, region, and strength of the external forcing. Second, the global 3-dimensional structure of predictability was examined. Boundary forcing dominated over the tropics, and over the two main teleconnection regions in the North and South Pacific. Initial conditions influenced predictability almost everywhere, in particular when the external forcing was weak. This was mostly related to atmospheric persistence, which in turn was linked to low-frequency variability of major atmospheric modes. Third, predictability in the tropics was investigated for monthly means. Boundary forcing is generally dominating for this time scale, and its quality is crucial. The atmospheric response was strongly asymmetric to SST forcing, which suggests that tropical convection has a positive self-amplifying feedback. Initial conditions were also important, in particular over the Eastern Hemisphere. This was related to strong persistence of the divergent circulation and

  3. Space - The long range future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Space exploration goals for NASA in the year 2000 time frame are examined. A lunar base would offer the opportunity for continuous earth viewing, further cosmogeochemical exploration and rudimentary steps at self-sufficiency in space. The latter two factors are also compelling reasons to plan a manned Mars base. Furthermore, competition and cooperation in a Mars mission and further interplanetary exploration is an attractive substitute for war. The hardware requirements for various configurations of Mars missions are briefly addressed, along with other, unmanned missions to the asteroid belt, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, long-range technological requirements for providing adequate living/working facilities for larger human populations in Space Station environments are summarized.

  4. Masking of low frequency information in short-range apparent motion.

    PubMed

    Cleary, R; Braddick, O J

    1990-01-01

    When an array of random dots is displaced, the ability to report the direction of apparent motion is subject to an upper spatial limit (dmax). Using spatially low-pass filtered random dot kinematograms we show that dmax is dependent on the upper cut-off frequency of the stimulus (Fh). The extent of this dependence is critically dependent on the size of the stimulus. Our results suggest a process whereby low spatial frequency motion information is masked by the presence of high spatial frequencies in the same region of the field, analogous to phenomena occurring in the perception of static form (e.g. the Abraham Lincoln effect). The effects of stimulus size on dmax, found for broad-band stimuli by ourselves and others, result from a loss of high frequency sensitivity at increased retinal eccentricities; this loss reduces the masking effect of high frequencies, as stimulus size increases. PMID:2309465

  5. The sopite syndrome revisited: Drowsiness and mood changes during real or apparent motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, B. D.; Mead, A. M.

    The sopite syndrome is a poorly understood response to motion. Drowsiness and mood changes are the primary characteristics of the syndrome. The sopite syndrome can exist in isolation from more apparent symptoms such as nausea, can last long; after nausea has subsided, and can debilitate some individuals. It is most likely a distinct syndrome from "regular" motion sickness or common fatigue, and is of potential concern in a variety of situations. The syndrome may be particularly hazardous in transportation settings where other performance challenges (e.g., sleep deprivation) are already present. It is also a potential concern in cases where illnesses such as sleep disorders or depression may interact with the syndrome and confuse diagnosis.

  6. On the systematics in apparent proper motions of radio sources observed by VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo-Pulido, V.; Lambert, S.; Capitaine, N.; Nilsson, T.; Heinkelmann, R.; Schuh, H.

    2015-08-01

    For about twenty years, several authors have been investigating the systematics in the apparent proper motions of radio source positions. In some cases, the theoretical work developed (Pyne et al., 1996) could not be assessed due to the few number of VLBI observations. In other cases, the effects attributed to apparent proper motion could not be related successfully because there were no significant evidences from a statistical point of view (MacMillan, 2005). In this work we provide considerations about the estimation of the coefficients of spherical harmonics, based on a three-step procedure used by Titov et al. (2011) and Titov and Lambert (2013). The early stage of this work has been to compare step by step the computations and estimation processes between the Calc/Solve (http://gemini.gsfc.nasa.gov/solve/) and VieVS software (Böhm et al., 2012). To achieve this, the results were analyzed and compared with the previous study done by Titov and Lambert (2013).

  7. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5–7, 8–10, and 11–15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  8. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5-7, 8-10, and 11-15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  9. Adaptation to visual or auditory time intervals modulates the perception of visual apparent motion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihui; Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    It is debated whether sub-second timing is subserved by a centralized mechanism or by the intrinsic properties of task-related neural activity in specific modalities (Ivry and Schlerf, 2008). By using a temporal adaptation task, we investigated whether adapting to different time intervals conveyed through stimuli in different modalities (i.e., frames of a visual Ternus display, visual blinking discs, or auditory beeps) would affect the subsequent implicit perception of visual timing, i.e., inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between two frames in a Ternus display. The Ternus display can induce two percepts of apparent motion (AM), depending on the ISI between the two frames: “element motion” for short ISIs, in which the endmost disc is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disc at the overlapping or central position remains stationary; “group motion” for longer ISIs, in which both discs appear to move in a manner of lateral displacement as a whole. In Experiment 1, participants adapted to either the typical “element motion” (ISI = 50 ms) or the typical “group motion” (ISI = 200 ms). In Experiments 2 and 3, participants adapted to a time interval of 50 or 200 ms through observing a series of two paired blinking discs at the center of the screen (Experiment 2) or hearing a sequence of two paired beeps (with pitch 1000 Hz). In Experiment 4, participants adapted to sequences of paired beeps with either low pitches (500 Hz) or high pitches (5000 Hz). After adaptation in each trial, participants were presented with a Ternus probe in which the ISI between the two frames was equal to the transitional threshold of the two types of motions, as determined by a pretest. Results showed that adapting to the short time interval in all the situations led to more reports of “group motion” in the subsequent Ternus probes; adapting to the long time interval, however, caused no aftereffect for visual adaptation but significantly more reports of group motion for

  10. Long-range neural synchrony in behavior.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexander Z; Gordon, Joshua A

    2015-07-01

    Long-range synchrony between distant brain regions accompanies multiple forms of behavior. This review compares and contrasts the methods by which long-range synchrony is evaluated in both humans and model animals. Three examples of behaviorally relevant long-range synchrony are discussed in detail: gamma-frequency synchrony during visual perception, hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony during working memory, and prefrontal-amygdala synchrony during anxiety. Implications for circuit mechanism, translation, and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:25897876

  11. Long-range neural synchrony in behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Alexander Z.; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-range synchrony between distant brain regions accompanies multiple forms of behavior. This review compares and contrasts the methods by which long-range synchrony is evaluated in both humans and model animals. Three examples of behaviorally-relevant long-range synchrony are discussed in detail: gamma-frequency synchrony during visual perception; hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony during working memory; and prefrontal-amygdala synchrony during anxiety. Implications for circuit mechanism, translation, and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:25897876

  12. 1995-1998 Long Range Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), in Williamsport, long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1995-98 in three parts. Following an…

  13. Long Range Plan: 1992-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    Intended to enhance strategic planning and enable staff to work as a team toward a shared vision and common goals, this report presents the 1992-95 long-range plan of the Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT). Part I defines long-range planning; describes the structure and use of the plan at PCT; presents PCT's philosophy, mission, and vision…

  14. Long Range Plan, 1991-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    This long-range plan for the Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT) is divided into three main sections. Part I provides an overview of planning at PCT, including a definition of long-range planning, the college philosophy, mission, and vision statements, major institutional initiatives for 1991-92, and accreditation agency recommendations…

  15. Long Range Plan, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport. Office of Strategic Planning and Research.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1997-2000 in three parts. The first part describes long…

  16. Topological defects with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, B. A.; González, J. A.; Guerrero, L. E.; López-Atencio, E.

    1998-07-01

    We investigate a modified sine-Gordon equation which possesses soliton solutions with long-range interaction. We introduce a generalized version of the Ginzburg-Landau equation which supports long-range topological defects in D = 1 and D > 1. The interaction force between the defects decays so slowly that it is possible to enter the non-extensivity regime. These results can be applied to non-equilibrium systems, pattern formation and growth models.

  17. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  18. Photon assisted long-range tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez, Rafael; Platero, Gloria

    2015-03-21

    We analyze long-range transport through an ac driven triple quantum dot with a single electron. Resonant transitions between separated and detuned dots are mediated by the exchange of n photons with the time-dependent field. An effective model is proposed in terms of second order (cotunneling) processes which dominate the long-range transport between the edge quantum dots. The ac field renormalizes the inter dot hopping, modifying the level hybridization. It results in a non-trivial behavior of the current with the frequency and amplitude of the external ac field.

  19. Photon assisted long-range tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez, Rafael; Platero, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    We analyze long-range transport through an ac driven triple quantum dot with a single electron. Resonant transitions between separated and detuned dots are mediated by the exchange of n photons with the time-dependent field. An effective model is proposed in terms of second order (cotunneling) processes which dominate the long-range transport between the edge quantum dots. The ac field renormalizes the inter dot hopping, modifying the level hybridization. It results in a non-trivial behavior of the current with the frequency and amplitude of the external ac field.

  20. How visual illusions illuminate complementary brain processes: illusory depth from brightness and apparent motion of illusory contours

    PubMed Central

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Neural models of perception clarify how visual illusions arise from adaptive neural processes. Illusions also provide important insights into how adaptive neural processes work. This article focuses on two illusions that illustrate a fundamental property of global brain organization; namely, that advanced brains are organized into parallel cortical processing streams with computationally complementary properties. That is, in order to process certain combinations of properties, each cortical stream cannot process complementary properties. Interactions between these streams, across multiple processing stages, overcome their complementary deficiencies to compute effective representations of the world, and to thereby achieve the property of complementary consistency. The two illusions concern how illusory depth can vary with brightness, and how apparent motion of illusory contours can occur. Illusory depth from brightness arises from the complementary properties of boundary and surface processes, notably boundary completion and surface-filling in, within the parvocellular form processing cortical stream. This illusion depends upon how surface contour signals from the V2 thin stripes to the V2 interstripes ensure complementary consistency of a unified boundary/surface percept. Apparent motion of illusory contours arises from the complementary properties of form and motion processes across the parvocellular and magnocellular cortical processing streams. This illusion depends upon how illusory contours help to complete boundary representations for object recognition, how apparent motion signals can help to form continuous trajectories for target tracking and prediction, and how formotion interactions from V2-to-MT enable completed object representations to be continuously tracked even when they move behind intermittently occluding objects through time. PMID:25389399

  1. Crossmodal Statistical Binding of Temporal Information and Stimuli Properties Recalibrates Perception of Visual Apparent Motion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lihan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of brain plasticity that pertain to time perception have shown that fast training of temporal discrimination in one modality, for example, the auditory modality, can improve performance of temporal discrimination in another modality, such as the visual modality. We here examined whether the perception of visual Ternus motion could be recalibrated through fast crossmodal statistical binding of temporal information and stimuli properties binding. We conducted two experiments, composed of three sessions each: pre-test, learning, and post-test. In both the pre-test and the post-test, participants classified the Ternus display as either "element motion" or "group motion." For the training session in Experiment 1, we constructed two types of temporal structures, in which two consecutively presented sound beeps were dominantly (80%) flanked by one leading visual Ternus frame and by one lagging visual Ternus frame (VAAV) or dominantly inserted by two Ternus visual frames (AVVA). Participants were required to respond which interval (auditory vs. visual) was longer. In Experiment 2, we presented only a single auditory-visual pair but with similar temporal configurations as in Experiment 1, and asked participants to perform an audio-visual temporal order judgment. The results of these two experiments support that statistical binding of temporal information and stimuli properties can quickly and selectively recalibrate the sensitivity of perceiving visual motion, according to the protocols of the specific bindings. PMID:27065910

  2. Effects of environmental context on temporal perception bias in apparent motion.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Atsushi; Dan, Ippeita; Wada, Yuji

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether the directional effect on the kappa effect can be attributed to the directional anisotropy of retinotopical space or to the representation of forces provided by environmental contexts (e.g., gravity) in an observed event. We examined whether different contexts with similar directional changes (straight vs. reversed motion) influence the kappa effect in four experiments. The object's motion appeared to depict only forces under the natural laws of physics on a slope (Experiment 1) or on a horizontal plane (Experiment 2) in virtual 3D space. In Experiments 3 and 4, the motion appeared to be subjected to external or self-driving forces additionally influenced by internal forces on a slope (Experiment 3) or a horizontal plane (Experiment 4). The results demonstrated that the directional effect on the kappa effect was observed only in Experiment 1, and not in Experiments 2 and 3, while the kappa effect was preserved. Furthermore, not even the kappa effect was observed in the reversed motion of Experiment 4. The results of the present study suggest that the determining factor of direction in the kappa effect is not a simple anisotropy, but rather the context of observed events. PMID:21704060

  3. College and University Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Raymond M.

    The system for long-range planning at West Virginia University is described, with emphasis on how it relates to short-range planning and how it is carried out operationally. Planning tools used include (1) an inventory of the past and present of the institution, (2) a statement of the division of labor within the institution and the objectives of…

  4. Long-Range Plan, 1978-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Stephen

    This nine-part, long-range plan discusses the internal and external factors that will affect Lorain County Community College's (LCCC's) development from 1978 to 1983 and presents a forecast of LCCC's future needs. Part I traces the history of LCCC, provides a conceptual framework for college planning, and discusses the plan development process…

  5. Discussion of long-range weather prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-09-10

    A group of scientists at Los Alamos have held a series of discussions of the issues in and prospects for improvements in Long-range Weather Predictions Enabled by Proving of the Atmosphere at High Space-Time Resolution. The group contained the requisite skills for a full evaluation, although this report presents only an informal discussion of the main technical issues. The group discussed all aspects of the proposal, which are grouped below into the headings: (1) predictability; (2) sensors and satellites, (3) DIAL and atmospheric sensing; (4) localized transponders; and (5) summary and integration. Briefly, the group agreed that the relative paucity of observations of the state of the atmosphere severely inhibits the accuracy of weather forecasts, and any program that leads to a more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather Predictions, the pay-back of accurate long-range forecasts should more than justify the expenditure associated with improved observations and forecast models required. The essential step is to show that the needed technologies are available for field test and space qualification.

  6. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  7. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  8. Crossmodal Statistical Binding of Temporal Information and Stimuli Properties Recalibrates Perception of Visual Apparent Motion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lihan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of brain plasticity that pertain to time perception have shown that fast training of temporal discrimination in one modality, for example, the auditory modality, can improve performance of temporal discrimination in another modality, such as the visual modality. We here examined whether the perception of visual Ternus motion could be recalibrated through fast crossmodal statistical binding of temporal information and stimuli properties binding. We conducted two experiments, composed of three sessions each: pre-test, learning, and post-test. In both the pre-test and the post-test, participants classified the Ternus display as either “element motion” or “group motion.” For the training session in Experiment 1, we constructed two types of temporal structures, in which two consecutively presented sound beeps were dominantly (80%) flanked by one leading visual Ternus frame and by one lagging visual Ternus frame (VAAV) or dominantly inserted by two Ternus visual frames (AVVA). Participants were required to respond which interval (auditory vs. visual) was longer. In Experiment 2, we presented only a single auditory–visual pair but with similar temporal configurations as in Experiment 1, and asked participants to perform an audio–visual temporal order judgment. The results of these two experiments support that statistical binding of temporal information and stimuli properties can quickly and selectively recalibrate the sensitivity of perceiving visual motion, according to the protocols of the specific bindings. PMID:27065910

  9. Difference in perceptual and oculomotor responses revealed by apparent motion stimuli presented with an interstimulus interval.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Shizuka; Kawano, Kenji; Miura, Kenichiro

    2015-05-01

    To understand the mechanisms underlying visual motion analyses for perceptual and oculomotor responses and their similarities/differences, we analyzed eye movement responses to two-frame animations of dual-grating 3f5f stimuli while subjects performed direction discrimination tasks. The 3f5f stimulus was composed of two sinusoids with a spatial frequency ratio of 3:5 (3f and 5f), creating a pattern with fundamental frequency f. When this stimulus was shifted by 1/4 of the wavelength, the two components shifted 1/4 of their wavelengths and had opposite directions: the 5f forward and the 3f backward. By presenting the 3f5f stimulus with various interstimulus intervals (ISIs), two visual-motion-analysis mechanisms, low-level energy-based and high-level feature-based, could be effectively distinguished. This is because response direction depends on the relative contrast between the components when the energy-based mechanism operates, but not when the feature-based mechanism works. We found that when the 3f5f stimuli were presented with shorter ISIs (<100 ms), and 3f component had higher contrast, both perceptual and ocular responses were in the direction of the pattern shift, whereas the responses were reversed when the 5f had higher contrast, suggesting operation of the energy-based mechanism. On the other hand, the ocular responses were almost negligible with longer ISIs (>100 ms), whereas perceived directions were biased toward the direction of pattern shift. These results suggest that the energy-based mechanism is dominant in oculomotor responses throughout ISIs; however, there is a transition from energy-based to feature-tracking mechanisms when we perceive visual motion. PMID:25810485

  10. Critical Hamiltonians with long range hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitov, L. S.

    1999-11-01

    Critical states are studied by a real space RG in the problem with strong diagonal disorder and long range power law hopping. The RG ow of the distribution of coupling parameters is characterized by a family of non-trivial fix points. We consider the RG flow of the distribution of participation ratios of eigenstates. Scaling of participation ratios is sensitive to the nature of the RG fix point. For some fix points, scaling of participation ratios is characterized by a distribution of exponents, rather than by a single exponent.The RG method can be generalized to treat certain fermionic Hamiltonians with disorder and long range hopping. We derive the RG for a model of interacting two-level systems. Besides couplings, in this problem the RG includes the density of states. The density of states is renormalized so that it develops a singularity near zero energy.

  11. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-03-01

    DNA SEQUENCES have been analysed using models, such as an it-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations1. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  12. Gemini: A long-range cargo transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed Gemini, a long-range cargo transport, is designed as a high capacity, dedicated cargo transporter of 8'x8'x20' inter-modal containers, and long-range design. These requirements will result in a design that is larger than any existing aircraft. Due to the size, a conventional configuration would result in an aircraft unable to operate economically at existing airports. It is necessary to design for a minimum possible empty weight, wingspan, and landing gear track. After considering both a single fuselage biplane and a double fuselage biplane configuration, the design team choose the double fuselage biplane configuration. Both of these configuration choices result in a reduced wing root bending moment and subsequently in substantial savings in the wing weight. An overall decrease in the weight of the airplane, its systems, and fuel will be a direct result of the wing weight savings.

  13. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3 -Vaidya background. We gave a prescription for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator ⟨ O (v ,x )O (v ,0 )⟩ , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. We found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlator and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.

  14. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3-Vaidya background. A prescription was given for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. Moreover, we found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlatormore » and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.« less

  15. Long-range charge transfer in biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhova, T. Yu; Likhachev, V. N.; Vinogradov, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the charge transfer in biopolymers, namely, DNA and peptides, are presented. Conditions that ensure the efficient long-range charge transport (by several tens of nanometres) are considered. The known theoretical models of charge transfer mechanisms are discussed and the scopes of their application are analyzed. Attention is focused on the charge transport by the polaron mechanism. The bibliography includes 262 references.

  16. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:25362900

  17. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:25362900

  18. The apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis - An apparent discrepancy with general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Maloney, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis (HD 175227) is determined from an analysis of the available observations and eclipse timings from 1959 to 1984. Least squares solutions to the primary and secondary minima extending over an 84-yr interval yielded a small advance of periastron omega dot of 0.65 deg/100 yr + or - 0.18/100 yr. The observed advance of the periastron is about one seventh of the theoretical value of 4.27 deg/100 yr that is expected from the combined relativistic and classical effects. The discrepancy is about -3.62 deg/100 yr, or a magnitude of about 20 sigma. Classical mechanisms which explain the discrepancy are discussed, together with the possibility that there may be problems with general relativity itself.

  19. POSSIBLE DETECTION OF APPARENT SUPERLUMINAL INWARD MOTION IN MARKARIAN 421 AFTER THE GIANT X-RAY FLARE IN 2010 FEBRUARY

    SciTech Connect

    Niinuma, K.; Kino, M.; Oyama, T.; Nagai, H.; Isobe, N.; Gabanyi, K. E.; Hada, K.; Koyama, S.; Asada, K.; Fujisawa, K.

    2012-11-10

    We report on the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) follow-up observations using the Japanese VLBI Network array at 22 GHz for the largest X-ray flare of TeV blazar Mrk 421 that occurred in 2010 mid-February. The total of five epochs of observations were performed at intervals of about 20 days between 2010 March 7 and May 31. No newborn component associated with the flare was seen directly in the total intensity images obtained by our multi-epoch VLBI observations. However, one jet component located at {approx}1 mas northwest from the core was able to be identified, and its proper motion can be measured as -1.66 {+-} 0.46 mas yr{sup -1}, which corresponds to an apparent velocity of -3.48 {+-} 0.97c. Here, this negative velocity indicates that the jet component was apparently moving toward the core. As the most plausible explanation, we discuss that the apparent negative velocity was possibly caused by the ejection of a new component, which could not be resolved with our observations. In this case, the obtained Doppler factor of the new component is around 10-20, which is consistent with the ones typically estimated by model fittings of spectral energy distribution for this source.

  20. Paleomagnetic Euler Poles and the Apparent Polar Wander and Absolute Motion of North America Since the Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Richard G.; Cox, Allan; O'Hare, Scott

    1984-10-01

    The apparent polar wander path for a plate is determined from paleomagnetic data by plotting a time sequence of paleomagnetic poles, each representing the location of the earth's spin axis as seen from the plate. Apparent polar wander paths consist of long, gently curved segments termed tracks linked by short segments with sharp curvature termed cusps. The tracks correspond to time intervals when the direction of plate motion was constant, and the cusps correspond to time intervals when the direction of plate motion was changing. Apparent polar wander tracks, like hot spot tracks, tend to lie along small circles. The center of a circle is called a hot spot Euler pole in the case of hot spot tracks and a paleomagnetic Euler pole in the case of paleomagnetic apparent polar wander paths. Both types of tracks mark the motion of a plate with respect to a point, a rising mantle plume in the case of hot spot tracks and the earth's paleomagnetic axis in the case of apparent polar wander paths. Unlike approaches uced in previous studies, paleomagnetic Euler pole analysis yields all three components of motion—including the east-west motion—of a plate with respect to the paleomagnetic axis. A new method for analyzing paleomagnetic poles along a track by using a maximum likelihood criterion gives the best fit paleomagnetic Euler pole and an ellipsoid of 95% confidence about the paleomagnetic Euler pole. In analyzing synthetic and real data, we found that the ellipsoids are elongate, the long axes being aligned with a great circle drawn from the paleomagnetic Euler pole to the center of the apparent polar wander track. This elongation is caused by the azimuths of circular tracks being better defined than their radii of curvature. A Jurassic-Cretaceous paleomagnetic Euler pole for North America was determined from 13 paleomagnetic poles. This track begins with the Wingate and Kayenta formations (about 200 Ma) and ends with the Niobrara Formation (about 87 Ma). Morgan's hot

  1. Perception of visual apparent motion is modulated by a gap within concurrent auditory glides, even when it is illusory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingcui; Guo, Lu; Bao, Ming; Chen, Lihan

    2015-01-01

    Auditory and visual events often happen concurrently, and how they group together can have a strong effect on what is perceived. We investigated whether/how intra- or cross-modal temporal grouping influenced the perceptual decision of otherwise ambiguous visual apparent motion. To achieve this, we juxtaposed auditory gap transfer illusion with visual Ternus display. The Ternus display involves a multi-element stimulus that can induce either of two different percepts of apparent motion: ‘element motion’ (EM) or ‘group motion’ (GM). In “EM,” the endmost disk is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disk at the central position remains stationary; while in “GM,” both disks appear to move laterally as a whole. The gap transfer illusion refers to the illusory subjective transfer of a short gap (around 100 ms) from the long glide to the short continuous glide when the two glides intercede at the temporal middle point. In our experiments, observers were required to make a perceptual discrimination of Ternus motion in the presence of concurrent auditory glides (with or without a gap inside). Results showed that a gap within a short glide imposed a remarkable effect on separating visual events, and led to a dominant perception of GM as well. The auditory configuration with gap transfer illusion triggered the same auditory capture effect. Further investigations showed that visual interval which coincided with the gap interval (50–230 ms) in the long glide was perceived to be shorter than that within both the short glide and the ‘gap-transfer’ auditory configurations in the same physical intervals (gaps). The results indicated that auditory temporal perceptual grouping takes priority over the cross-modal interaction in determining the final readout of the visual perception, and the mechanism of selective attention on auditory events also plays a role. PMID:26042055

  2. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  3. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  4. A criterion autoscheduler for long range planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sponsler, Jeffrey L.

    1994-01-01

    A constraint-based scheduling system called SPIKE is used to create long-term schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. A meta-level scheduler called the Criterion Autoscheduler for Long range planning (CASL) was created to guide SPIKE's schedule generation according to the agenda of the planning scientists. It is proposed that sufficient flexibility exists in a schedule to allow high level planning heuristics to be applied without adversely affected crucial constraints such as spacecraft efficiency. This hypothesis is supported by test data which is described.

  5. NASA's Long-range Technology Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is part of the Final Report performed under contract NASW-3864, titled "NASA's Long-Range Technology Goals". The objectives of the effort were: To identify technologies whose development falls within NASA's capability and purview, and which have high potential for leapfrog advances in the national industrial posture in the 2005-2010 era. To define which of these technologies can also enable quantum jumps in the national space program. To assess mechanisms of interaction between NASA and industry constituencies for realizing the leapfrog technologies. This Volume details the findings pertaining to the advanced space-enabling technologies.

  6. Long-range imaging ladar flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, James; Steiner, Todd D.; Mandeville, William J.; Dinndorf, Kenneth M.; Krasutsky, Nick J.; Minor, John L.

    1995-06-01

    Wright Laboratory and Loral Vought Systems (LVS) have been involved for the last nine years in the research and development of high power diode pumped solid state lasers for medium to long range laser radar (LADAR) seekers for tactical air-to-ground munitions. LVS provided the lead in three key LADAR programs at Wright Lab; the Submunition Guidance Program (Subguide), the Low Cost Anti-Armor Submunition Program (LOCAAS) and the Diode Laser and Detector Array Development Program (3-D). This paper discusses recent advances through the 3-D program that provide the opportunity to obtain three dimensional laser radar imagery in captive flight at a range of 5 km.

  7. Reconfigurable long-range phonon dynamics in optomechanical arrays.

    PubMed

    Xuereb, André; Genes, Claudiu; Pupillo, Guido; Paternostro, Mauro; Dantan, Aurélien

    2014-04-01

    We investigate periodic optomechanical arrays as reconfigurable platforms for engineering the coupling between multiple mechanical and electromagnetic modes and for exploring many-body phonon dynamics. Exploiting structural resonances in the coupling between light fields and collective motional modes of the array, we show that tunable effective long-range interactions between mechanical modes can be achieved. This paves the way towards the implementation of controlled phononic walks and heat transfer on densely connected graphs as well as the coherent transfer of excitations between distant elements of optomechanical arrays. PMID:24745417

  8. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-3-O(D-4) , is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-4 .

  9. Long-range polarimetric imaging through fog.

    PubMed

    Fade, Julien; Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Carré, Anthony; Frein, Ludovic; Hamel, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien; Ramachandran, Hema; Alouini, Mehdi

    2014-06-20

    We report an experimental implementation of long-range polarimetric imaging through fog over kilometric distance in real field atmospheric conditions. An incoherent polarized light source settled on a telecommunication tower is imaged at a distance of 1.3 km with a snapshot polarimetric camera including a birefringent Wollaston prism, allowing simultaneous acquisition of two images along orthogonal polarization directions. From a large number of acquisitions datasets and under various environmental conditions (clear sky/fog/haze, day/night), we compare the efficiency of using polarized light for source contrast increase with different signal representations (intensity, polarimetric difference, polarimetric contrast, etc.). With the limited-dynamics detector used, a maximum fourfold increase in contrast was demonstrated under bright background illumination using polarimetric difference image. PMID:24979415

  10. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    Malleable long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe)/sub 3/ and V(Co,Fe,Ni)/sub 3/ system. The composition comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 50% Fe, 0 to 22% Co and 19 to 40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 45% Fe, 0 to 10% Co, 25 to 35% Ni; 22 to 23% V, 28 to 33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22 to 23% V, 19 to 22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  11. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1980-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe).sub.3 and V(Co,Fe,Ni).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-50% Fe, 0-22% Co and 19-40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-45% Fe, 0-10% Co, 25-35% Ni; 22-23% V, 28-33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22-23% V, 19-22% Ni, 19-22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  12. A Long-Range Video Observation Post

    SciTech Connect

    Arlowe, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Long Range Video Observation Post (LRVOP) Project is a cooperative effort between the US and a Middle Eastern country to develop an improved version of their current video observation post. This project is part of a larger effort to cooperatively develop anti-terrorist technology. This particular equipment is required to facilitate the recording and identification of humans at a range of 1000 meters in day-light and 500 meters at night. The project objective was to take advantage of recent advances in camera technology, recorders, and image processing to provide an significant increase in performance with only a minimum increase in size, weight, and cost. The goal of the project was to convert the users general needs and desires into specific requirements that could be bid on by several companies. This paper covers the specific performance requirements, generally describe the components that might be used, and concentrate on describing the more difficult issues and technical challenges.

  13. Long range inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

  14. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009{degrees}(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions.

  15. A long-range laser velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinath, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    A long-range laser velocimeter (LV) developed for remote operation from within the flow fields of large wind tunnels is described. Emphasis is placed on recent improvements in optical hardware as well as recent additions to data acquisition and processing techniques. The method used for data reduction of photon resolved signals is outlined in detail, and measurement accuracy is discussed. To study the performance of the LV and verify the measurement accuracy, laboratory measurements were made in the flow field of a 10-cm-diameter, 30-m/s axisymetric jet. The measured velocity and turbulence intensity surveys are compared with measurements made with a hot-wire anemometer. Additionally, the LV was used during the flow calibration of the 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel to measure the test-section boundary-layer thickness at the maximum wind tunnel speed of 51.5 m/s. The requirements and techniques used to seed the flow are discussed, and boundary-layer surveys of mean velocity and turbulence intensity of the streamwise component and the component normal to the surface are presented. The streamwise component of mean velocity is compared with data obtained with a total pressure rake.

  16. Long range position and orientation tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The long range position and orientation tracking system (LRPOTS) will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the man-ways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the Content Mobilization System (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation.

  17. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  18. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  19. Long-range dismount activity classification: LODAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garagic, Denis; Peskoe, Jacob; Liu, Fang; Cuevas, Manuel; Freeman, Andrew M.; Rhodes, Bradley J.

    2014-06-01

    Continuous classification of dismount types (including gender, age, ethnicity) and their activities (such as walking, running) evolving over space and time is challenging. Limited sensor resolution (often exacerbated as a function of platform standoff distance) and clutter from shadows in dense target environments, unfavorable environmental conditions, and the normal properties of real data all contribute to the challenge. The unique and innovative aspect of our approach is a synthesis of multimodal signal processing with incremental non-parametric, hierarchical Bayesian machine learning methods to create a new kind of target classification architecture. This architecture is designed from the ground up to optimally exploit correlations among the multiple sensing modalities (multimodal data fusion) and rapidly and continuously learns (online self-tuning) patterns of distinct classes of dismounts given little a priori information. This increases classification performance in the presence of challenges posed by anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) sensing. To fuse multimodal features, Long-range Dismount Activity Classification (LODAC) develops a novel statistical information theoretic approach for multimodal data fusion that jointly models multimodal data (i.e., a probabilistic model for cross-modal signal generation) and discovers the critical cross-modal correlations by identifying components (features) with maximal mutual information (MI) which is efficiently estimated using non-parametric entropy models. LODAC develops a generic probabilistic pattern learning and classification framework based on a new class of hierarchical Bayesian learning algorithms for efficiently discovering recurring patterns (classes of dismounts) in multiple simultaneous time series (sensor modalities) at multiple levels of feature granularity.

  20. Ratchetaxis: Long-Range Directed Cell Migration by Local Cues.

    PubMed

    Caballero, David; Comelles, Jordi; Piel, Matthieu; Voituriez, Raphaël; Riveline, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Directed cell migration is usually thought to depend on the presence of long-range gradients of either chemoattractants or physical properties such as stiffness or adhesion. However, in vivo, chemical or mechanical gradients have not systematically been observed. Here we review recent in vitro experiments, which show that other types of spatial guidance cues can bias cell motility. Introducing local geometrical or mechanical anisotropy in the cell environment, such as adhesive/topographical microratchets or tilted micropillars, show that local and periodic external cues can direct cell motion. Together with modeling, these experiments suggest that cell motility can be viewed as a stochastic phenomenon, which can be biased by various types of local cues, leading to directional migration. PMID:26615123

  1. A long-range polarization-controlled optical tractor beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvedov, Vladlen; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Hnatovsky, Cyril; Engheta, Nader; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2014-11-01

    The laser beam has become an indispensable tool for the controllable manipulation and transport of microscopic objects in biology, physical chemistry and condensed matter physics. In particular, ‘tractor’ laser beams can draw matter towards a laser source and perform, for instance, all-optical remote sampling. Recent advances in lightwave technology have already led to small-scale experimental demonstrations of tractor beams. However, the realization of long-range tractor beams has not gone beyond the realm of theoretical investigations. Here, we demonstrate the stable transfer of gold-coated hollow glass spheres against the power flow of a single inhomogeneously polarized laser beam over tens of centimetres. Additionally, by varying the polarization state of the beam we can stop the spheres or reverse the direction of their motion at will.

  2. Fractional dynamics of coupled oscillators with long-range interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.; Zaslavsky, George M.

    2006-06-15

    We consider a one-dimensional chain of coupled linear and nonlinear oscillators with long-range powerwise interaction. The corresponding term in dynamical equations is proportional to 1/|n-m|{sup {alpha}}{sup +1}. It is shown that the equation of motion in the infrared limit can be transformed into the medium equation with the Riesz fractional derivative of order {alpha}, when 0<{alpha}<2. We consider a few models of coupled oscillators and show how their synchronization can appear as a result of bifurcation, and how the corresponding solutions depend on {alpha}. The presence of a fractional derivative also leads to the occurrence of localized structures. Particular solutions for fractional time-dependent complex Ginzburg-Landau (or nonlinear Schroedinger) equation are derived. These solutions are interpreted as synchronized states and localized structures of the oscillatory medium.

  3. Lightweight, Compact, Long Range Camera Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Donald V.

    1983-08-01

    The model 700 camera is the latest in a 30-year series of LOROP cameras developed by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) and their predecessor companies. The design achieves minimum size and weight and is optimized for low-contrast performance. The optical system includes a 66-inch focal length, f/5.6, apochromatic lens and three folding mirrors imaging on a 4.5-inch square format. A three-axis active stabilization system provides the capability for long exposure time and, hence, fine grain films can be used. The optical path forms a figure "4" behind the lens. In front of the lens is a 45° pointing mirror. This folded configuration contributed greatly to the lightweight and compact design. This sequential autocycle frame camera has three modes of operation with one, two, and three step positions to provide a choice of swath widths within the range of lateral coverage. The magazine/shutter assembly rotates in relationship with the pointing mirror and aircraft drift angle to maintain film format alignment with the flight path. The entire camera is angular rate stabilized in roll, pitch, and yaw. It also employs a lightweight, electro-magnetically damped, low-natural-frequency spring suspension for passive isolation from aircraft vibration inputs. The combined film transport and forward motion compensation (FMC) mechanism, which is operated by a single motor, is contained in a magazine that can, depending on accessibility which is installation dependent, be changed in flight. The design also stresses thermal control, focus control, structural stiffness, and maintainability. The camera is operated from a remote control panel. This paper describes the leading particulars and features of the camera as related to weight and configuration.

  4. Nonlinear Behaviour in Long Range Integrable Models with Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Manas; Franchini, Fabio; Abanov, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    We study nonlinear aspects of long range integrable models with spin by going beyond the Luttinger Liquid theory. We present here [1], the fully nonlinear dynamics of spin and charge in spin-Calogero model (sCM), an integrable 1D model of quantum spin-1/2 particles interacting through inverse square interaction and exchange. Hydrodynamic equations of motion are written for this model in the regime where gradient corrections to the exact theory may be neglected. In this approximation, variables separate in terms of dressed Fermi momenta of the model. Hydrodynamic equations reduce to a set of decoupled Riemann-Hopf equations for the dressed Fermi momenta. We study the dynamics of some non-equilibrium spin-charge configurations for times smaller than the time-scale of gradient catastrophe. We then show [2] how this field theory allows to calculate correlation functions that cannot be considered with conventional bosonization. We also highlight the connections between sCM, Haldane-Shastry model and λ=2 spin-less Calogero model. [1] M. Kulkarni, F. Franchini, A. G. Abanov, Phys. Rev. B 80, 165105 (2009) [2] F. Franchini, M. Kulkarni, Nucl. Phys. B, 825, 320 (2010)

  5. Dynamic simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions with screened long-range hydrodynamic interactions: Algorithm and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Tadashi; Chow, Edmond; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions exert a critical effect on the dynamics of macromolecules. As the concentration of macromolecules increases, by analogy to the behavior of semidilute polymer solutions or the flow in porous media, one might expect hydrodynamic screening to occur. Hydrodynamic screening would have implications both for the understanding of macromolecular dynamics as well as practical implications for the simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions, e.g., in cells. Stokesian dynamics (SD) is one of the most accurate methods for simulating the motions of N particles suspended in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number, in that it considers both far-field and near-field hydrodynamic interactions. This algorithm traditionally involves an O(N3) operation to compute Brownian forces at each time step, although asymptotically faster but more complex SD methods are now available. Motivated by the idea of hydrodynamic screening, the far-field part of the hydrodynamic matrix in SD may be approximated by a diagonal matrix, which is equivalent to assuming that long range hydrodynamic interactions are completely screened. This approximation allows sparse matrix methods to be used, which can reduce the apparent computational scaling to O(N). Previously there were several simulation studies using this approximation for monodisperse suspensions. Here, we employ newly designed preconditioned iterative methods for both the computation of Brownian forces and the solution of linear systems, and consider the validity of this approximation in polydisperse suspensions. We evaluate the accuracy of the diagonal approximation method using an intracellular-like suspension. The diffusivities of particles obtained with this approximation are close to those with the original method. However, this approximation underestimates intermolecular correlated motions, which is a trade-off between accuracy and computing efficiency. The new method makes it possible to perform large-scale and

  6. Dynamic simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions with screened long-range hydrodynamic interactions: Algorithm and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Tadashi; Chow, Edmond; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions exert a critical effect on the dynamics of macromolecules. As the concentration of macromolecules increases, by analogy to the behavior of semidilute polymer solutions or the flow in porous media, one might expect hydrodynamic screening to occur. Hydrodynamic screening would have implications both for the understanding of macromolecular dynamics as well as practical implications for the simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions, e.g., in cells. Stokesian dynamics (SD) is one of the most accurate methods for simulating the motions of N particles suspended in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number, in that it considers both far-field and near-field hydrodynamic interactions. This algorithm traditionally involves an O(N3) operation to compute Brownian forces at each time step, although asymptotically faster but more complex SD methods are now available. Motivated by the idea of hydrodynamic screening, the far-field part of the hydrodynamic matrix in SD may be approximated by a diagonal matrix, which is equivalent to assuming that long range hydrodynamic interactions are completely screened. This approximation allows sparse matrix methods to be used, which can reduce the apparent computational scaling to O(N). Previously there were several simulation studies using this approximation for monodisperse suspensions. Here, we employ newly designed preconditioned iterative methods for both the computation of Brownian forces and the solution of linear systems, and consider the validity of this approximation in polydisperse suspensions. We evaluate the accuracy of the diagonal approximation method using an intracellular-like suspension. The diffusivities of particles obtained with this approximation are close to those with the original method. However, this approximation underestimates intermolecular correlated motions, which is a trade-off between accuracy and computing efficiency. The new method makes it possible to perform large-scale and

  7. Long Range Plan, 1993-1996. Pennsylvania College of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Sandra; And Others

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), in Williamsport, long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1993-96 in three parts. Following an…

  8. 77 FR 13683 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway..., announced the availability of the draft Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for..., 2011, at 76 FR 77300, the FHWA published a notice in the Federal Register inviting comments to...

  9. 76 FR 77300 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway... Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for public review and comment. The draft plans outline a... United States Code Section 204 requires all Federal land management agencies to conduct long...

  10. Long-Range Planning and the Enrollment Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, John H.

    The current period of enrollment decline offers school districts an ideal opportunity for program and facility reevaluation and long-range planning. Any long-range plan should evaluate current programs in light of statutory and educational trends, estimate existing facilities' ability to accommodate change, determine the community's potential…

  11. A Model for Long Range Planning for Seminole Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    A model for long-range planning designed to maximize involvement of college personnel, to improve communication among various areas of the college, to provide a process for evaluation of long-range plans and the planning process, to adjust to changing conditions, to utilize data developed at a level useful for actual operations, and to have…

  12. Report of the Long-Range Planning Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    This is the final report of the Long-Range Planning Committee of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It describes the make-up, purpose, working assumptions, and activities of the Committee and discusses the work done by the Committee on defense matters, energy, a number of additional topics, and future long-range planning activities.

  13. Quench dynamics in long-range interacting quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhexuan

    2016-05-01

    A distinctive feature of atomic, molecular, and optical systems is that interactions between particles are often long-ranged. Control techniques from quantum optics often allow one to tune the pattern of these long-range interactions, creating an entirely new degree of freedom, absent in typical condensed matter systems. These tunable long-range interactions can result in very different far-from-equilibrium dynamics compared to systems with only short-range interactions. In the first half of the talk, I will describe how very general types of long-range interactions can qualitatively change the entanglement and correlation growth shortly after a quantum quench. In the second half of the talk I will show that, at longer times, long-range interactions can lead to exotic quasi-stationary states and dynamical phase transitions. These theoretical ideas have been explored in recent trapped-ion experiments, and connections to these experiments will be emphasized in both parts of the talk.

  14. Detection of apparent skin motion using optical flow analysis: Blood pulsation signal obtained from optical flow sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kazuki; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    1997-02-01

    A skin motion imaging system with two modes of operation, diffusive and specular reflections, was developed. The system consists of image capturing and processing elements. Using optical flow analyses of skin motion at the wrist, we have detected successfully a blood pulsation signal that concurs with the electrocardiogram. The signal provides information not only about blood pulsation, but also about blood circulation and the biomechanical properties of the skin. This system may have other applications in the future, such as noncontact blood pulsation detection and evaluation of the biomechanical properties of skin, for example.

  15. Truncated Long-Range Percolation on Oriented Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Enter, A. C. D.; de Lima, B. N. B.; Valesin, D.

    2016-07-01

    We consider different problems within the general theme of long-range percolation on oriented graphs. Our aim is to settle the so-called truncation question, described as follows. We are given probabilities that certain long-range oriented bonds are open; assuming that the sum of these probabilities is infinite, we ask if the probability of percolation is positive when we truncate the graph, disallowing bonds of range above a possibly large but finite threshold. We give some conditions in which the answer is affirmative. We also translate some of our results on oriented percolation to the context of a long-range contact process.

  16. Hyperfine-structure-induced purely long-range molecules.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Katsunari; Kitagawa, Masaaki; Tojo, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2008-03-28

    We have experimentally observed and theoretically identified a novel class of purely long-range molecules. This novel purely long-range state is formed due to a very weak hyperfine interaction that is usually treated only as a small perturbation in molecular spectra. Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold ytterbium (171Yb) atoms with the 1S0-3P1 intercombination transition presents clear identification of molecular states and the shallowest molecular potential depth of about 750 MHz among the purely long-range molecules ever observed. PMID:18517858

  17. Assessment of a long-range corrected hybrid functional

    SciTech Connect

    Vydrov, Oleg A.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2006-12-21

    Common approximate exchange-correlation functionals suffer from self-interaction error, and as a result, their corresponding potentials have incorrect asymptotic behavior. The exact asymptote can be imposed by introducing range separation into the exchange component and replacing the long-range portion of the approximate exchange by the Hartree-Fock counterpart. The authors show that this long-range correction works particularly well in combination with the short-range variant of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange functional. This long-range-corrected hybrid, here denoted LC-{omega}PBE, is remarkably accurate for a broad range of molecular properties, such as thermochemistry, barrier heights of chemical reactions, bond lengths, and most notably, description of processes involving long-range charge transfer.

  18. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  19. Dynamic modeling of seated human body based on measurements of apparent inertia matrix for fore-and-aft/vertical/pitch motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Sun; Kim, Jongwan; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2011-11-01

    Various models of a seated human body have been developed in the literature so far based on measurements of apparent mass in the vertical Z-direction alone or fore-and-aft X-direction alone. As the authors observed that accelerations in both X and Z directions are equally significant in tests on an excavator working in a quarry, 3×3 apparent inertia matrix was experimentally obtained as functions of frequency by exciting the seated human body in the Z- X plane, i.e. providing two translational motions in the Z and X axes and one angular motion about the Y-axis. A subject in slightly slouched posture was sitting on a seat without backrest and the hands were on lap. Five resonances were found in the frequency range of interest, i.e. up to 20 Hz, below 1 Hz and at 3, 5.25, 8, 9.5 Hz, which is one more than four resonances found in previous researches. The resonance at 8 Hz was newly found in only pitch component of the apparent inertia matrix. Since the experiment was carried out only for one subject, it may not be guaranteed that the new resonance is generally applicable. A 5-degree-of-freedom (dof) model with 23 parameters is proposed for the description of the apparent inertia matrix of a seated human body. The 8 geometric parameters were included in the model in order to describe the couplings between coordinates. The model yielded the resonances at 0.61, 3.3, 5.1, 8.8 and 9.8 Hz, which are near to observations of the experiment. The parameters of the models may not necessarily represent the physical values of a human body because only the apparent inertia matrix at human body-seat interface was reflected. The model may not be perfect because the apparent inertia matrix was obtained from only one subject. Yet, the observations and the model in this research could be a guideline or reference in future researches to obtain more perfect models. Since the vibration responses in the Z- X plane at the human-seat interface can be predicted using the proposed 5-dof model

  20. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and structure-from-motion photogrammetry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A.; Hilley, G. E.; Lewicki, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the structure-from-motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 °C and 450 W m- 2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  1. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and Structure-from-Motion photogrametry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aaron Lewis; George Hilley; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 oC and 450 W m-2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  2. Tethered particle motion reveals that LacI·DNA loops coexist with a competitor-resistant but apparently unlooped conformation.

    PubMed

    Revalee, Joel D; Blab, Gerhard A; Wilson, Henry D; Kahn, Jason D; Meiners, Jens-Christian

    2014-02-01

    The lac repressor protein (LacI) efficiently represses transcription of the lac operon in Escherichia coli by binding to two distant operator sites on the bacterial DNA and causing the intervening DNA to form a loop. We employed single-molecule tethered particle motion to observe LacI-mediated loop formation and breakdown in DNA constructs that incorporate optimized operator binding sites and intrinsic curvature favorable to loop formation. Previous bulk competition assays indirectly measured the loop lifetimes in these optimized DNA constructs as being on the order of days; however, we measured these same lifetimes to be on the order of minutes for both looped and unlooped states. In a range of single-molecule DNA competition experiments, we found that the resistance of the LacI-DNA complex to competitive binding is a function of both the operator strength and the interoperator sequence. To explain these findings, we present what we believe to be a new kinetic model of loop formation and DNA competition. In this proposed new model, we hypothesize a new unlooped state in which the unbound DNA-binding domain of the LacI protein interacts nonspecifically with nonoperator DNA adjacent to the operator site at which the second LacI DNA-binding domain is bound. PMID:24507611

  3. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview assessment of three separate programs at Langley Research Center that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of an span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. This concept has the potential for reduced structural weights. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The use of LFC can reduce the fuel requirements during long-range cruise. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel. Coal-derived hydrogen as an aircraft fuel offers both the prospect for reduced dependence on petroleum fuels and improved performance for long-range aircraft.

  4. Fourth International Symposium on Long-Range Sound Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Long range sound propagation is an aspect of many acoustical problems ranging from en route aircraft noise to the acoustic detection of aircraft. Over the past decade, the University of Mississippi and the Open University of England, together with a third institution, have held a symposium approx. every 2 years so that experts in the field of long range propagation could exchange information on current research, identify areas needing additional work, and coordinate activities as much as possible. The Fourth International Symposium on Long Range Sound Propagation was jointly sponsored by the University of Mississippi, the Open University of England, and NASA. Papers were given in the following areas: ground effects on propagation; infrasound propagation; and meteorological effects on sound propagation. A compilation of the presentations made at the symposium is presented along with a list of attendees, and the agenda.

  5. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short- and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species. PMID:27118164

  6. Entanglement area law for long-range interacting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhexuan; Foss-Feig, Michael; Brandao, Fernando G. S. L.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    Area laws for entanglement provide crucial insight into the low-energy behavior of many-body systems and are intimately connected to the efficiency of classical computational methods. For 1D systems, an area law was rigorously proven for ground states of gapped Hamiltonians with local interactions and for states with exponentially decaying correlations. In the presence of long-range interactions, the proof of an area law for gapped ground states becomes much more challenging because long-range interactions can change the effective dimensionality of the system and introduce correlations decaying slower than an exponential. Based on recent theoretical advances that reveal strong remnants of locality in quenched systems with power-law decaying interactions, we prove an area law for a large class of gapped Hamiltonians with long-range interactions. As an intermediate step, we prove tight bounds on the decay of ground-state correlations.

  7. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    PubMed Central

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short- and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species. PMID:27118164

  8. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations.

  9. Long-range oil and gas forecasting methodologies: literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cherniavsky, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    Performance of long-range energy system analyses requires the capability to project conventional domestic oil and gas supplies in the long term. The objective of the Long-range Forecasting Methodology project is to formulate an approach to this problem which will be compatible with the principal tool employed by the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy for long-range energy system analyses, the Long-term Energy Analysis Package (LEAP). This paper reports on projection methodologies that have appeared in the literature, evaluates them in terms of their applicability to the LEAP framework, and discusses the principal determinants of conventional domestic oil and gas supply in the long run.

  10. Memory and long-range correlations in chess games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaigorodsky, Ana L.; Perotti, Juan I.; Billoni, Orlando V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report the existence of long-range memory in the opening moves of a chronologically ordered set of chess games using an extensive chess database. We used two mapping rules to build discrete time series and analyzed them using two methods for detecting long-range correlations; rescaled range analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis. We found that long-range memory is related to the level of the players. When the database is filtered according to player levels we found differences in the persistence of the different subsets. For high level players, correlations are stronger at long time scales; whereas in intermediate and low level players they reach the maximum value at shorter time scales. This can be interpreted as a signature of the different strategies used by players with different levels of expertise. These results are robust against the assignation rules and the method employed in the analysis of the time series.

  11. Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation Using Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Schmickler, H.

    At the LHC, the effect of unavoidable long-range beam-beam collisions reduces the dynamic aperture, calling for a minimum crossing angle. A wire compensator partially cancels the effect of the long-range collisions, and may allow operation with reduced crossing angle or decreased beta function at the interaction point, thereby increasing the (virtual) peak luminosity. In this chapter, we describe the proposed compensation scheme, previous validation experiments with a single beam and multiple wires at the SPS, simulations for the LHC high-luminosity upgrade, a demonstrator project with real long-range encounters foreseen in the LHC proper, and the possible use of a low-energy electron beam as a future ultimate "wire".

  12. Long-range correction for dipolar fluids at planar interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Stephan; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans

    2015-12-01

    A slab-based long-range correction for dipolar interactions in molecular dynamics simulation of systems with a planar geometry is presented and applied to simulate vapour-liquid interfaces. The present approach is validated with respect to the saturated liquid density and the surface tension of the Stockmayer fluid and a molecular model for ethylene oxide. The simulation results exhibit no dependence on the cut-off radius for radii down to 1 nm, proving that the long-range correction accurately captures the influence of the dipole moment on the intermolecular interaction energies and forces as well as the virial and the surface tension.

  13. Long-range dependence in interest rates and monetary policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    This Letter studies the dynamics of Brazilian interest rates for short-term maturities. The Letter employs developed techniques in the econophysics literature and tests for long-range dependence in the term structure of these interest rates for the last decade. Empirical results suggest that the degree of long-range dependence has changed over time due to changes in monetary policy, specially in the short-end of the term structure of interest rates. Therefore, we show that it is possible to identify monetary arrangements using these techniques from econophysics.

  14. Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Sen, Tanaji; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2010-05-01

    In order to avoid the effects of long-range beam-beam interactions which produce beam blow-up and deteriorate beam life time, a compensation scheme with current carrying wires has been proposed. Two long-range beam-beam compensators were installed in RHIC rings in 2006. The effects of the compensators have been experimentally investigated. An indication was observed that the compensators are beneficial to beam life time in measurements performed in RHIC during 2009. In this paper, we report the effects of wire compensator on beam loss and emittance for proton-proton beams at collision energy.

  15. Small long-range alpha detector (LRAD) with computer readout

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1991-10-01

    The small long-range alpha detector developed by N-2 was described in detail in the Los Alamos publication LA-12073-MS, Long-Range Alpha Detector,'' published in 1991. Since publication of that report, a computerized data acquisition system has been added to the LRAD detector. In addition to detailing the new data acquisition system, we discuss new data generated with the enhanced system, including measurements of (1) ultimate sensitivity; (2) detector linearity; (3) ion lifetime; and (4) characteristics. Furthermore, we have expanded our understanding of ion recombination and statistical noise effects in the LRAD and have addressed them here as well as several proposed applications. 6 refs., 30 figs.

  16. Design of a high capacity long range cargo aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.

    1994-01-01

    This report examines the design of a long range cargo transport to attempt to reduce ton-mile shipping costs and to stimulate the air cargo market. This design effort involves the usual issues but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; cargo loading and unloading; and defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This report reviews the long range transport design problem and several solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University. The results show that it will be difficult to build large transports unless the infrastructure is changed and unless the basic form of the airplane changes so that aerodynamic and structural efficiencies are employed.

  17. Long-range correlation in cosmic microwave background radiation.

    PubMed

    Movahed, M Sadegh; Ghasemi, F; Rahvar, Sohrab; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the statistical anisotropy and gaussianity of temperature fluctuations of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe survey, using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Rescaled Range, and Scaled Windowed Variance methods. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis shows that CMB fluctuations has a long-range correlation function with a multifractal behavior. By comparing the shuffled and surrogate series of CMB data, we conclude that the multifractality nature of the temperature fluctuation of CMB radiation is mainly due to the long-range correlations, and the map is consistent with a gaussian distribution. PMID:21928945

  18. RESIDENCE TIME OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AND LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lagrangian trajectory model which is suitable for the study of long-range transport of pollutants, is developed. The computer program is capable of calculating trajectories over the region of the U.S. using routine sounding data. The output consists of tables of locations of ...

  19. Long-range correlation analysis of economic news flow intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, S. P.; Faizliev, A. R.; Balash, V. A.; Korobov, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the paper is to examine the auto-correlation properties for time series of the news flow intensity using different methods, such as the fluctuation analysis, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the detrending moving average analysis. Empirical findings for news analytics data show the presence of long-range correlations for the time series of news intensity data.

  20. LONG RANGE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR HONOLULU COMMUNITY COLLEGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KILIAN, OTTO H.

    THE LONG RANGE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR HONOLULU COMMUNITY COLLEGE DESCRIBES VERY BRIEFLY A WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS AS FOLLOWS--(1) SITE CONDITIONS--VICINITY MAP, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, ZONING AND LAND USE, ASSESSED VALUATIONS, TRAFFIC ANALYSIS, (2) EXISTING CAMPUS--TYPE, AGE AND CONDITION OF NEIGHBORHOOD AND CAMPUS STRUCTURES, CAMPUS PLAN, CAMPUS…

  1. "MAPseq"-uencing Long-Range Neuronal Projections.

    PubMed

    Yonehara, Keisuke; Roska, Botond

    2016-09-01

    Kebschull et al. (2016a) describe "MAPseq," which tags individual neurons from a specific brain region with individual mRNA barcodes and sequences these barcodes in other brain regions. This allows the simultaneous mapping of long-range neuronal projections at single-cell resolution. PMID:27608754

  2. New Long-Range Interaction between Dipolar Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Mark; Kiskamp, Stephen

    1997-09-01

    The interaction between two finite chains of dipoles is treated in a systematic fashion by considering perturbations from the idealized case of two infinite, uniform, parallel chains. A long-range attractive interaction is obtained which survives the zero-temperature limit. Thermal effects increase the range of attraction. Applications to magnetorheological fluids are discussed.

  3. Long-Range Strategic Planning: The Rochester Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, John M.; Anthony, Deborah L.

    The administration of Rochester Community Schools (Michigan) initiated a process for long-range strategic planning in 1984, described in this synopsis. Strategic planning is an ongoing, evolutionary process of defining the business one is in or should be in; establishing organizational goals and objectives; and developing and implementing…

  4. Long Range Development Plan, University of California, Riverside.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell (George Vernon) and Associates, Architects and Planners.

    A long range development plan, conceived as a general guide to final objectives, uses many diagrams and maps to illustrate the text. The plan is predicated on the assumption that orderly and efficient development of site possibilities is subject to ever-changing influences. The following areas are examined--(1) campus environment, (2) academic…

  5. Microcanonical Analysis on a System with Long-Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Yu, Xu-Chen; Hou, Jing-Min

    2016-09-01

    We study a long-range interacting spin chain placed in a staggered magnetic field using microcanonical approach and obtain the global phase diagram. We find that this model exhibits both first order phase transition and second order phase transition separated by a tricritical point, and temperature jump can be observed in the first order phase transition.

  6. Strategic Long Range Planning for Universities. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael E.

    The use of strategic long-range planning at Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) is discussed. A structure for strategic planning analysis that integrates existing techniques is presented, and examples of planning activities at CMU are included. The key concept in strategic planning is competitive advantage: if a university has a competitive…

  7. Long-range contributions to double beta decay revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helo, J. C.; Hirsch, M.; Ota, T.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the systematic decomposition of all dimension-7 ( d = 7) lepton number violating operators. These d = 7 operators produce momentum enhanced contributions to the long-range part of the 0νββ decay amplitude and thus are severely constrained by existing half-live limits. In our list of possible models one can find contributions to the long-range amplitude discussed previously in the literature, such as the left-right symmetric model or scalar leptoquarks, as well as some new models not considered before. The d = 7 operators generate Majorana neutrino mass terms either at tree-level, 1-loop or 2-loop level. We systematically compare constraints derived from the mass mechanism to those derived from the long-range 0 νββ decay amplitude and classify our list of models accordingly. We also study one particular example decomposition, which produces neutrino masses at 2-loop level, can fit oscillation data and yields a large contribution to the long-range 0 νββ decay amplitude, in some detail.

  8. Causality and quantum criticality in long-range lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Foss-Feig, Michael; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2016-03-01

    Long-range quantum lattice systems often exhibit drastically different behavior than their short-range counterparts. In particular, because they do not satisfy the conditions for the Lieb-Robinson theorem, they need not have an emergent relativistic structure in the form of a light cone. Adopting a field-theoretic approach, we study the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with long-range interactions, and a fermionic model with long-range hopping and pairing terms, explore their critical and near-critical behavior, and characterize their response to local perturbations. We deduce the dynamic critical exponent, up to the two-loop order within the renormalization group theory, which we then use to characterize the emergent causal behavior. We show that beyond a critical value of the power-law exponent of the long-range couplings, the dynamics effectively becomes relativistic. Various other critical exponents describing correlations in the ground state, as well as deviations from a linear causal cone, are deduced for a wide range of the power-law exponent.

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF A LONG RANGE TRACER SYSTEM USING PERFLUOROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional-scale tracer experiments are needed to validate atmospheric dispersion aspects of air pollution models. The capability of a new system, using perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), for long-range dispersion experiments at reasonable cost, was demonstrated in two experiments. Tw...

  10. Robustness of Estimators of Long-Range Dependence and Self-Similarity under non-Gaussianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzke, C.; Watkins, N. W.; Graves, T.; Gramacy, R.; Hughes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Long-range dependence and non-Gaussianity are ubiquitous in many natural systems like ecosystems, biological systems and climate. However, it is not always appreciated that both phenomena may occur together in natural systems and that self-similarity in a system can be a superposition of both phenomena. These features, which are common in complex systems, impact the attribution of trends and the occurrence and clustering of extremes. The risk assessment of systems with these properties will lead to different outcomes (e.g. return periods) than the more common assumption of independence of extremes. Two paradigmatic models are discussed which can simultaneously account for long-range dependence and non-Gaussianity: Autoregressive Fractional Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) and Linear Fractional Stable Motion (LFSM). Statistical properties of estimators for long-range dependence and self-similarity are critically assessed. It is found that the most popular estimators can be biased in the presence of important features of many natural systems like trends and multiplicative noise. Also the long-range dependence and non-Gaussianity of two typical natural time series are discussed.

  11. The long-range interaction landscape of gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Amartya; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Dekker, Job

    2012-09-01

    The vast non-coding portion of the human genome is full of functional elements and disease-causing regulatory variants. The principles defining the relationships between these elements and distal target genes remain unknown. Promoters and distal elements can engage in looping interactions that have been implicated in gene regulation. Here we have applied chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C) to interrogate comprehensively interactions between transcription start sites (TSSs) and distal elements in 1% of the human genome representing the ENCODE pilot project regions. 5C maps were generated for GM12878, K562 and HeLa-S3 cells and results were integrated with data from the ENCODE consortium. In each cell line we discovered >1,000 long-range interactions between promoters and distal sites that include elements resembling enhancers, promoters and CTCF-bound sites. We observed significant correlations between gene expression, promoter-enhancer interactions and the presence of enhancer RNAs. Long-range interactions show marked asymmetry with a bias for interactions with elements located ∼120 kilobases upstream of the TSS. Long-range interactions are often not blocked by sites bound by CTCF and cohesin, indicating that many of these sites do not demarcate physically insulated gene domains. Furthermore, only ∼7% of looping interactions are with the nearest gene, indicating that genomic proximity is not a simple predictor for long-range interactions. Finally, promoters and distal elements are engaged in multiple long-range interactions to form complex networks. Our results start to place genes and regulatory elements in three-dimensional context, revealing their functional relationships. PMID:22955621

  12. Long-range order and pinning of charge-density waves in competition with superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Yosef; Wachtel, Gideon; Orgad, Dror

    2015-12-01

    Recent experiments show that charge-density-wave correlations are prevalent in underdoped cuprate superconductors. The correlations are short ranged at weak magnetic fields but their intensity and spatial extent increase rapidly at low temperatures beyond a crossover field. Here we consider the possibility of long-range charge-density-wave order in a model of a layered system where such order competes with superconductivity. We show that in the clean limit, low-temperature long-range order is stabilized by arbitrarily weak magnetic fields. This apparent discrepancy with the experiments is resolved by the presence of disorder. Like the field, disorder nucleates halos of charge-density wave, but unlike the former it also disrupts interhalo coherence, leading to a correlation length that is always finite. Our results are compatible with various experimental trends, including the onset of longer range correlations induced by interlayer coupling above a characteristic field scale.

  13. The design of a long-range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Allen, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are examining the market and feasibility of long-range passenger aircraft carrying more than 600 passengers. These aircraft would carry travelers at reduced cost and, at the same time, reduce congestion around major airports. The design of a large, long-range transport involves broad issues such as: the integration of airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; trade-offs between aircraft size and the cost to reconfigure these existing facilities; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law. Thirteen Purdue design teams generated RFP's that defined passenger capability and range, based upon team perception of market needs and infrastructure constraints. Turbofan engines were designed by each group to power these aircraft. The design problem and the variety of solutions developed are reviewed.

  14. Travel: a long-range goal of retired women.

    PubMed

    Staats, Sara; Pierfelice, Loretta

    2003-09-01

    The authors surveyed retired persons (predominately women) with regard to their immediate, intermediate, and long-range activities following retirement. As predicted, leisure travel emerged as a frequent long-range goal for persons retired more than 5 years. The travel activity preferences of long-retired older women present challenges and opportunities to both researchers and marketers. Length of trips and frequency of trips have been predicted from regression models, with trip length in particular being well predicted by the problem of daily life hassles. A theoretical model of continued post-retirement travel is presented as a variant of Solomon's opponent process theory of affect (R. L. Solomon, 1980). The authors suggest that to the degree that places traveled to are varied and different, older people may remain stimulated and continue to enjoy retirement. PMID:14629078

  15. Long-range correlation analysis of urban traffic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Peng; Wang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Zhao, Shu-Long

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates urban traffic data by analysing the long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis. Through a large number of real data collected by the travel time detection system in Beijing, the variation of flow in different time periods and intersections is studied. According to the long-range correlation in different time scales, it mainly discusses the effect of intersection location in road net, people activity customs and special traffic controls on urban traffic flow. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the urban traffic flow represents three-phase characters similar to highway traffic. Moreover, compared by the two groups of data obtained before and after the special traffic restrictions (vehicles with special numbered plates only run in a special workday) enforcement, it indicates that the rules not only reduce the flow but also avoid irregular fluctuation.

  16. Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.

    2014-12-01

    We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

  17. Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles, Tarcísio N.; Gupta, Shamik; Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Casetti, Lapo

    2015-08-01

    Temperature inversions occur in nature, e.g., in the solar corona and in interstellar molecular clouds: Somewhat counterintuitively, denser parts of the system are colder than dilute ones. We propose a simple and appealing way to spontaneously generate temperature inversions in systems with long-range interactions, by preparing them in inhomogeneous thermal equilibrium states and then applying an impulsive perturbation. In similar situations, short-range systems would typically relax to another thermal equilibrium, with a uniform temperature profile. By contrast, in long-range systems, the interplay between wave-particle interaction and spatial inhomogeneity drives the system to nonequilibrium stationary states that generically exhibit temperature inversion. We demonstrate this mechanism in a simple mean-field model and in a two-dimensional self-gravitating system. Our work underlines the crucial role the range of interparticle interaction plays in determining the nature of steady states out of thermal equilibrium.

  18. Sirius: a long-range infrared search and track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepper, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sirius is a long range infra red search and track system (LR- IRST) and intended to be used in an anti air warfare (AAW) multisensor suite on board of modern frigates. This Dutch/Canadian development program started 1/1/95 and includes also the evaluation of the system in warm and cold water scenarios. The operational requirements were drafted by both the national navies. The primary task is automatic detection, tracking and reporting of seaskimming missiles at long range. The design is based on recent experiences with IRSTs and the latest technological achievements in the areas of processing capabilities and IR-detectors. In this presentation design drivers and main technical choices are discussed.

  19. Preservation of long range temporal correlations under extreme random dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzayof, Dror; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2010-12-01

    Many natural time series exhibit long range temporal correlations that may be characterized by power-law scaling exponents. However, in many cases, the time series have uneven time intervals due to, for example, missing data points, noisy data, and outliers. Here we study the effect of randomly missing data points on the power-law scaling exponents of time series that are long range temporally correlated. The Fourier transform and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) techniques are used for scaling exponent estimation. We find that even under extreme dilution of more than 50%, the value of the scaling exponent remains almost unaffected. Random dilution is also applied on heart interbeat interval time series. It is found that dilution of 70%-80% of the data points leads to a reduction of only 8% in the scaling exponent; it is also found that it is possible to discriminate between healthy and heart failure subjects even under extreme dilution of more than 90%.

  20. Quantum Defect Theory for Long-range Anisotropic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzic, Brandon P.; Bohn, John L.; Greene, Chris H.

    2014-05-01

    Quantum Defect Theory (QDT) is a numerically efficient and accurate tool for studying a wide variety of ultracold atomic collisions, where the asymptotic behavior of the atoms is well described by a set of simple parameters. However, analytic formulas for these parameters only exist for the pure - 1 /R6 potential. The long-range parameters are given by simple power law equations in the collision energy, and the bound state energies of different partial waves are simply related. We extend these formulas to encompass all potentials of the form - 1 /Rn , where n > 2 . Moreover, the accuracy of QDT is limited by long-range anisotropic interactions, which, for example, play an important role in collisions of dysprosium or erbium atoms. We present our recent developments on numerically treating this type of interaction within perturbation theory. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy.

  1. Long-range nuclear cruise missiles and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.N.; Postol, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles are highly accurate and are capable of reaching most targets within the United States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) from launch points beyond their borders. Neither the United States nor the CIS has air surveillance systems capable of providing reliable warning against cruise missiles. Thus it is possible that a small-scale cruise missile attack could go entirely undetected until the nuclear weapons arrived over their targets. Such an attack could destroy the other country's entire strategic bomber force on the ground and severely damage its strategic command and control system, perhaps to the point of endangering the ability of its ICBM force to be launched on warning. This capability makes long-range nuclear cruise missiles potentially one of the most destabilizing of all nuclear weapons.

  2. Long-range mutual information and topological uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Chao-Ming; Kim, Isaac; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    Ordered phases in Landau paradigm can be diagnosed by a local order parameter, whereas topologically ordered phases cannot be detected in such a way. In this paper, we propose long-range mutual information (LRMI) as a unified diagnostic for both conventional long-range order and topological order. Using the LRMI, we characterize orders in n +1D gapped systems as m-membrane condensates with 0 <= m <= n-1. The familiar conventional order and 2 +1D topological orders are respectively identified as 0-membrane and 1-membrane condensates. We propose and study the topological uncertainty principle, which describes the non-commuting nature of non-local order parameters in topological orders.

  3. Information propagation and equilibration in long-range Kitaev chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Regemortel, Mathias; Sels, Dries; Wouters, Michiel

    2016-03-01

    We study the propagation of information through a Kitaev chain with long-range pairing interactions. Although the Lieb-Robinson bound is violated in the strict sense for long-range interacting systems, we illustrate that a major amount of information in this model still propagates ballistically on a light cone. We find a pronounced effect of the interaction range on the decay of the mutual information between spatially disconnected subsystems. A significant amount of information is shared at timelike separations. This regime is accompanied by very slow equilibration of local observables. As the Kitaev model is quasifree, we illustrate how the distribution of quasiparticle group velocities explains the physics of this system qualitatively.

  4. Long-range Coulomb interaction in nodal-ring semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Yejin; Moon, Eun-Gook; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-01-01

    Recently there have been several proposals of materials predicted to be nodal-ring semimetals, where zero energy excitations are characterized by a nodal ring in the momentum space. This class of materials falls between the Dirac-like semimetals and the more conventional Fermi-surface systems. As a step towards understanding this unconventional system, we explore the effects of the long-range Coulomb interaction. Due to the vanishing density of states at the Fermi level, Coulomb interaction is only partially screened and remains long-ranged. Through renormalization group and large-Nf computations, we have identified a nontrivial interacting fixed point. The screened Coulomb interaction at the interacting fixed point is an irrelevant perturbation, allowing controlled perturbative evaluations of physical properties of quasiparticles. We discuss unique experimental consequences of such quasiparticles: acoustic wave propagation, anisotropic dc conductivity, and renormalized phonon dispersion as well as energy dependence of quasiparticle lifetime.

  5. Reaching for the Horizon: The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geesaman, Donald

    2015-10-01

    In April 2014, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee was charged to conduct a new study of the opportunities and priorities for United States nuclear physics research and to recommend a long range plan for the coordinated advancement of the Nation's nuclear science program over the next decade. The entire community actively contributed to developing this plan. Ideas and goals, new and old, were examined and community priorities were established. The Long Range Plan Working Group gathered at Kitty Hawk, NC to converge on the recommendations. In this talk I will discuss the vision for the future that has emerged from this process. The new plan, ``Reaching for the Horizon,'' offers the promise of great leaps forward in our understanding of nuclear science and new opportunities for nuclear science to serve society. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Integrabilities of the long-range t-J models with twisted boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.T.; Wang, D.F.

    1997-02-01

    The integrability of the one-dimensional long-range supersymmetric t-J model has previously been established for both open systems and those closed by periodic boundary conditions through explicit construction of its integrals of motion. Recently the system has been extended to include the effect of magnetic flux, which gives rise to a closed chain with twisted boundary conditions. While the t-J model with twisted boundary conditions has been solved for the ground state and full energy spectrum, proof of its integrability has so far been lacking. In this paper we extend the proof of integrability of the long-range supersymmetric t-J model and its SU(m{vert_bar}n) generalization to include the case of twisted boundary conditions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Assessment of long-range correlation in time series: how to avoid pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianbo; Hu, Jing; Tung, Wen-Wen; Cao, Yinhe; Sarshar, N; Roychowdhury, Vwani P

    2006-01-01

    Due to the ubiquity of time series with long-range correlation in many areas of science and engineering, analysis and modeling of such data is an important problem. While the field seems to be mature, three major issues have not been satisfactorily resolved. (i) Many methods have been proposed to assess long-range correlation in time series. Under what circumstances do they yield consistent results? (ii) The mathematical theory of long-range correlation concerns the behavior of the correlation of the time series for very large times. A measured time series is finite, however. How can we relate the fractal scaling break at a specific time scale to important parameters of the data? (iii) An important technique in assessing long-range correlation in a time series is to construct a random walk process from the data, under the assumption that the data are like a stationary noise process. Due to the difficulty in determining whether a time series is stationary or not, however, one cannot be 100% sure whether the data should be treated as a noise or a random walk process. Is there any penalty if the data are interpreted as a noise process while in fact they are a random walk process, and vice versa? In this paper, we seek to gain important insights into these issues by examining three model systems, the autoregressive process of order 1, on-off intermittency, and Lévy motions, and considering an important engineering problem, target detection within sea-clutter radar returns. We also provide a few rules of thumb to safeguard against misinterpretations of long-range correlation in a time series, and discuss relevance of this study to pattern recognition. PMID:16486226

  8. The design of a long range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Allen, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    During the period from August 1991 - June 1992 two design classes at Purdue University participated in the design of a long range, high capacity transport aircraft, dubbed the megatransport. Thirteen Purdue design teams generated RFP's that defined passenger capability and range, based upon team perception of market needs and infrastructure constraints. Turbofan engines were designed by each group to power these aircraft. The design problem and the variety of solutions developed are described in an attached paper.

  9. Long Range Interactions With Laser Cooled Neutral Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gattobigio, Giovanni Luca; Michaud, Franck; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Kaiser, Robin; Loureiro, Jorge; Mendonca, Jose Tito; Tercas, Hugo; Pohl, Thomas

    2008-09-07

    Multiple scattering of light in a trap of laser cooled neutral atoms leads to repulsion forces between the atoms. The corresponding interactions have long range behavior in 1/r{sup 2} and are thus similar to Coulomb interaction in an one component confined plasma. Consequences of these interactions will be described in this paper, including the limitation of the spatial density one can obtain in such systems and self-sustained oscillations of the cloud.

  10. Emergent long-range couplings in arrays of fluid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Douglas Bruce

    2014-08-07

    We present a system exhibiting extraordinarily long-range cooperative effects, on a length scale far exceeding the bulk correlation length. We give a theoretical explanation of these phenomena based on the mesoscopic picture of phase coexistence in finite systems, which is confirmedly Monte Carlo (MC) simulation studies. Our work demonstrates that such action-at-a-distance can occur in classical systems involving simple or complex fluids, such as colloid-polymer mixtures, or ferromagnets.

  11. Long-range substantially nonradiative metallo-dielectric waveguide.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Robin; Berini, Pierre

    2009-01-15

    A waveguide structure capable of aggressive bends (r(0)-->0) and long-range propagation (approximately 1.2 dB/mm) is described here. The structure uses a step-index slab to create the vertical confinement and a pair of metallic parallel plates on either side of the core for lateral confinement. The parallel plates are dimensioned to ensure that all modes that would cause radiation loss in a bend are cut off. PMID:19148262

  12. Long-range quantum entanglement in noisy cluster states

    SciTech Connect

    Raussendorf, Robert; Bravyi, Sergey; Harrington, Jim

    2005-06-15

    We describe a phase transition for long-range entanglement in a three-dimensional cluster state affected by noise. The partially decohered state is modeled by the thermal state of a short-range translation-invariant Hamiltonian. We find that the temperature at which the entanglement length changes from infinite to finite is nonzero. We give an upper and lower bound to this transition temperature.

  13. Long range Ising model for credit risk modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, Jordi; Vives, Eduard

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of maximum entropy principle we show that the finite-size long-range Ising model is the adequate model for the description of homogeneous credit portfolios and the computation of credit risk when default correlations between the borrowers are included. The exact analysis of the model suggest that when the correlation increases a first-order-like transition may occur inducing a sudden risk increase.

  14. Long range science scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are scheduled with the assistance of a long-range scheduling system (SPIKE) that was developed using artificial intelligence techniques. In earlier papers, the system architecture and the constraint representation and propagation mechanisms were described. The development of high-level automated scheduling tools, including tools based on constraint satisfaction techniques and neural networks is described. The performance of these tools in scheduling HST observations is discussed.

  15. Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Dobbs, Howard A; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-06-16

    Electrolyte solutions with high concentrations of ions are prevalent in biological systems and energy storage technologies. Nevertheless, the high interaction free energy and long-range nature of electrostatic interactions makes the development of a general conceptual picture of concentrated electrolytes a significant challenge. In this work, we study ionic liquids, single-component liquids composed solely of ions, in an attempt to provide a novel perspective on electrostatic screening in very high concentration (nonideal) electrolytes. We use temperature-dependent surface force measurements to demonstrate that the long-range, exponentially decaying diffuse double-layer forces observed across ionic liquids exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence: Increasing the temperature decreases the measured exponential (Debye) decay length, implying an increase in the thermally driven effective free-ion concentration in the bulk ionic liquids. We use our quantitative results to propose a general model of long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids, where thermally activated charge fluctuations, either free ions or correlated domains (quasiparticles), take on the role of ions in traditional dilute electrolyte solutions. This picture represents a crucial step toward resolving several inconsistencies surrounding electrostatic screening and charge transport in ionic liquids that have impeded progress within the interdisciplinary ionic liquids community. More broadly, our work provides a previously unidentified way of envisioning highly concentrated electrolytes, with implications for diverse areas of inquiry, ranging from designing electrochemical devices to rationalizing electrostatic interactions in biological systems. PMID:26040001

  16. Long-range infrasound monitoring of eruptive volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Emanuele; Innocenti, Lorenzo; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Lacanna, Giorgio; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The efficient long-range propagation in the atmosphere makes infrasound of active volcanoes extremely promising and opens new perspectives for volcano monitoring at large scale. In favourable propagation conditions, long-range infrasound observations can be used to track the occurrence and the duration of volcanic eruptions also at remote non-monitored volcanoes, but its potential to infer volcanic eruptive source term is still debated. We present results of comparing five years of infrasound of eruptive activity at Mt.Etna volcano (Italy) recorded both at local (~5 km) and at regional distances (~600 km) from the source. Infrasound of lava fountains at Etna volcano, occurring in between 2010 and 2015, are analysed in terms of the local and regional wavefield record, and by comparing to all available volcanic source terms (i.e. plume height and mass eruption rates). Besides, the potential of near real-time notification of ongoing volcanic activity at Etna volcano at a regional scale is investigated. In particular we show how long range infrasound, in the case of Etna volcano, can be used to promptly deliver eruption notification and reliability is constrained by the results of the local array. This work is performed in the framework of the H2020 ARISE2 project funded by the EU in the period 2015-2018.

  17. Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Dobbs, Howard A.; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    Electrolyte solutions with high concentrations of ions are prevalent in biological systems and energy storage technologies. Nevertheless, the high interaction free energy and long-range nature of electrostatic interactions makes the development of a general conceptual picture of concentrated electrolytes a significant challenge. In this work, we study ionic liquids, single-component liquids composed solely of ions, in an attempt to provide a novel perspective on electrostatic screening in very high concentration (nonideal) electrolytes. We use temperature-dependent surface force measurements to demonstrate that the long-range, exponentially decaying diffuse double-layer forces observed across ionic liquids exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence: Increasing the temperature decreases the measured exponential (Debye) decay length, implying an increase in the thermally driven effective free-ion concentration in the bulk ionic liquids. We use our quantitative results to propose a general model of long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids, where thermally activated charge fluctuations, either free ions or correlated domains (quasiparticles), take on the role of ions in traditional dilute electrolyte solutions. This picture represents a crucial step toward resolving several inconsistencies surrounding electrostatic screening and charge transport in ionic liquids that have impeded progress within the interdisciplinary ionic liquids community. More broadly, our work provides a previously unidentified way of envisioning highly concentrated electrolytes, with implications for diverse areas of inquiry, ranging from designing electrochemical devices to rationalizing electrostatic interactions in biological systems. PMID:26040001

  18. Long-range intercellular Ca2+ wave patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi, C. B.; Maïna, I.; Mohamadou, A.; Ekobena, H. P. F.; Kofané, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    Modulational instability is utilized to investigate intercellular Ca2+ wave propagation in an array of diffusively coupled cells. Cells are supposed to be connected via paracrine signaling, where long-range effects, due to the presence of extracellular messengers, are included. The multiple-scale expansion is used to show that the whole dynamics of Ca2+ waves, from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, can be reduced to a single differential-difference nonlinear equation whose solutions are assumed to be plane waves. Their linear stability analysis is studied, with emphasis on the impact of long-range coupling, via the range parameter s. It is shown that s, as well as the number of interacting cells, importantly modifies the features of modulational instability, as small values of s imply a strong coupling, and increasing its value rather reduces the problem to a first-neighbor one. Our theoretical findings are numerically tested, as the generic equations are fully integrated, leading to the emergence of nonlinear patterns of Ca2+ waves. Strong long-range coupling is pictured by extended trains of breather-like structures whose frequency decreases with increasing s. We also show numerically that the number of interacting cells plays on the spatio-temporal formation of Ca2+ patterns, whilst the quasi-perfect intercellular communication depends on the paracrine coupling parameter.

  19. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations

    PubMed Central

    Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J.L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A.V.; Ivanov, P.Ch.; Carpena, P.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome. PMID:23645997

  20. Long-Range Weather Forecasting In The Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martazinova, V. F.; Ivanova, E. K.

    2004-12-01

    The operational system for long range weather forecasting (LRF) was developed by Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute (UHMI) in the result of studies of general circulation and on the long-range weather forecasting which were began in 1975 by research group leaded by Prof. V. Martazinova. Three key approaches are used in the operational system LRF of UHMI: (1) Floating analog method (FAM); (2) Two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes in the troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere; (3)Ethalon-field approach. The based on the pattern recognition technique FAM is the continuation of the ideas of former Soviet Union school of long-range forecasting. The traditional method of analog was generalized and advanced as the method of "floating analog" (Martazinova and Sologub, 1986; Martazinova, 1989; 2001). FAM requires only geometrical similarity of the planetary high-level frontal zone and surface pressure on the Northern Hemisphere. The limiting conditions of the coincidence in time and space are lifted. The use of FAM made it possible to reveal the two-month quasi-periodicity of synoptic situation in the Northern Hemisphere. The strong changes of weather within month are predicted using statistical "ethalon field" approach that was developed for classification of meteorological fields in the climate research and the long-range forecasting (Martazinova and Prokhorenko, 1991). The meteorological information for the forecast is used only for the last two months before the target month. The fields of geopotential and pressure are recognized by the "ethalon-field-analog" which corresponds to two-month quasi-periodicity of the ethalon-fields. The forecast for days the strong changes of weather over the territory of Ukraine in next two months. Recognition of daily synoptic situations of last two months by the synoptic situation of two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes for ethalons when there are waves of cold and heat, strong precipitation, strong

  1. Cooperative Shielding in Many-Body Systems with Long-Range Interaction.

    PubMed

    Santos, Lea F; Borgonovi, Fausto; Celardo, Giuseppe Luca

    2016-06-24

    In recent experiments with ion traps, long-range interactions were associated with the exceptionally fast propagation of perturbation, while in some theoretical works they have also been related with the suppression of propagation. Here, we show that such apparently contradictory behavior is caused by a general property of long-range interacting systems, which we name cooperative shielding. It refers to shielded subspaces that emerge as the system size increases and inside of which the evolution is unaffected by long-range interactions for a long time. As a result, the dynamics strongly depends on the initial state: if it belongs to a shielded subspace, the spreading of perturbation satisfies the Lieb-Robinson bound and may even be suppressed, while for initial states with components in various subspaces, the propagation may be quasi-instantaneous. We establish an analogy between the shielding effect and the onset of quantum Zeno subspaces. The derived effective Zeno Hamiltonian successfully describes the short-ranged dynamics inside the subspaces up to a time scale that increases with system size. Cooperative shielding can be tested in current experiments with trapped ions. PMID:27391705

  2. Long-ranged contributions to solvation free energies from theory and short-ranged models.

    PubMed

    Remsing, Richard C; Liu, Shule; Weeks, John D

    2016-03-15

    Long-standing problems associated with long-ranged electrostatic interactions have plagued theory and simulation alike. Traditional lattice sum (Ewald-like) treatments of Coulomb interactions add significant overhead to computer simulations and can produce artifacts from spurious interactions between simulation cell images. These subtle issues become particularly apparent when estimating thermodynamic quantities, such as free energies of solvation in charged and polar systems, to which long-ranged Coulomb interactions typically make a large contribution. In this paper, we develop a framework for determining very accurate solvation free energies of systems with long-ranged interactions from models that interact with purely short-ranged potentials. Our approach is generally applicable and can be combined with existing computational and theoretical techniques for estimating solvation thermodynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by examining the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic and ionic solutes and the solvation of a large, highly charged colloid that exhibits overcharging, a complex nonlinear electrostatic phenomenon whereby counterions from the solvent effectively overscreen and locally invert the integrated charge of the solvated object. PMID:26929375

  3. Long-ranged contributions to solvation free energies from theory and short-ranged models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsing, Richard C.; Liu, Shule; Weeks, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Long-standing problems associated with long-ranged electrostatic interactions have plagued theory and simulation alike. Traditional lattice sum (Ewald-like) treatments of Coulomb interactions add significant overhead to computer simulations and can produce artifacts from spurious interactions between simulation cell images. These subtle issues become particularly apparent when estimating thermodynamic quantities, such as free energies of solvation in charged and polar systems, to which long-ranged Coulomb interactions typically make a large contribution. In this paper, we develop a framework for determining very accurate solvation free energies of systems with long-ranged interactions from models that interact with purely short-ranged potentials. Our approach is generally applicable and can be combined with existing computational and theoretical techniques for estimating solvation thermodynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by examining the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic and ionic solutes and the solvation of a large, highly charged colloid that exhibits overcharging, a complex nonlinear electrostatic phenomenon whereby counterions from the solvent effectively overscreen and locally invert the integrated charge of the solvated object.

  4. Cooperative Shielding in Many-Body Systems with Long-Range Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Lea F.; Borgonovi, Fausto; Celardo, Giuseppe Luca

    2016-06-01

    In recent experiments with ion traps, long-range interactions were associated with the exceptionally fast propagation of perturbation, while in some theoretical works they have also been related with the suppression of propagation. Here, we show that such apparently contradictory behavior is caused by a general property of long-range interacting systems, which we name cooperative shielding. It refers to shielded subspaces that emerge as the system size increases and inside of which the evolution is unaffected by long-range interactions for a long time. As a result, the dynamics strongly depends on the initial state: if it belongs to a shielded subspace, the spreading of perturbation satisfies the Lieb-Robinson bound and may even be suppressed, while for initial states with components in various subspaces, the propagation may be quasi-instantaneous. We establish an analogy between the shielding effect and the onset of quantum Zeno subspaces. The derived effective Zeno Hamiltonian successfully describes the short-ranged dynamics inside the subspaces up to a time scale that increases with system size. Cooperative shielding can be tested in current experiments with trapped ions.

  5. Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal.

    PubMed

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Fisher, Daniel S

    2014-11-18

    The spreading of evolutionary novelties across populations is the central element of adaptation. Unless populations are well mixed (like bacteria in a shaken test tube), the spreading dynamics depend not only on fitness differences but also on the dispersal behavior of the species. Spreading at a constant speed is generally predicted when dispersal is sufficiently short ranged, specifically when the dispersal kernel falls off exponentially or faster. However, the case of long-range dispersal is unresolved: Although it is clear that even rare long-range jumps can lead to a drastic speedup--as air-traffic-mediated epidemics show--it has been difficult to quantify the ensuing stochastic dynamical process. However, such knowledge is indispensable for a predictive understanding of many spreading processes in natural populations. We present a simple iterative scaling approximation supported by simulations and rigorous bounds that accurately predicts evolutionary spread, which is determined by a trade-off between frequency and potential effectiveness of long-distance jumps. In contrast to the exponential laws predicted by deterministic "mean-field" approximations, we show that the asymptotic spatial growth is according to either a power law or a stretched exponential, depending on the tails of the dispersal kernel. More importantly, we provide a full time-dependent description of the convergence to the asymptotic behavior, which can be anomalously slow and is relevant even for long times. Our results also apply to spreading dynamics on networks with a spectrum of long-range links under certain conditions on the probabilities of long-distance travel: These are relevant for the spread of epidemics. PMID:25368183

  6. Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Fisher, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The spreading of evolutionary novelties across populations is the central element of adaptation. Unless populations are well mixed (like bacteria in a shaken test tube), the spreading dynamics depend not only on fitness differences but also on the dispersal behavior of the species. Spreading at a constant speed is generally predicted when dispersal is sufficiently short ranged, specifically when the dispersal kernel falls off exponentially or faster. However, the case of long-range dispersal is unresolved: Although it is clear that even rare long-range jumps can lead to a drastic speedup—as air-traffic–mediated epidemics show—it has been difficult to quantify the ensuing stochastic dynamical process. However, such knowledge is indispensable for a predictive understanding of many spreading processes in natural populations. We present a simple iterative scaling approximation supported by simulations and rigorous bounds that accurately predicts evolutionary spread, which is determined by a trade-off between frequency and potential effectiveness of long-distance jumps. In contrast to the exponential laws predicted by deterministic “mean-field” approximations, we show that the asymptotic spatial growth is according to either a power law or a stretched exponential, depending on the tails of the dispersal kernel. More importantly, we provide a full time-dependent description of the convergence to the asymptotic behavior, which can be anomalously slow and is relevant even for long times. Our results also apply to spreading dynamics on networks with a spectrum of long-range links under certain conditions on the probabilities of long-distance travel: These are relevant for the spread of epidemics. PMID:25368183

  7. Long-range attraction of particles adhered to lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfati, Raphael; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2016-07-01

    Many biological systems fold thin sheets of lipid membrane into complex three-dimensional structures. This microscopic origami is often mediated by the adsorption and self-assembly of proteins on a membrane. As a model system to study adsorption-mediated interactions, we study the collective behavior of micrometric particles adhered to a lipid vesicle. We estimate the colloidal interactions using a maximum likelihood analysis of particle trajectories. When the particles are highly wrapped by a tense membrane, we observe strong long-range attractions with a typical binding energy of 150 kBT and significant forces extending a few microns.

  8. DIII-D tokamak long range plan. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1992-08-01

    The DIII-D Tokamak Long Range Plan for controlled thermonuclear magnetic fusion research will be carried out with broad national and international participation. The plan covers: (1) operation of the DIII-D tokamak to conduct research experiments to address needs of the US Magnetic Fusion Program; (2) facility modifications to allow these new experiments to be conducted; and (3) collaborations with other laboratories to integrate DIII-D research into the national and international fusion programs. The period covered by this plan is 1 November 19983 through 31 October 1998.

  9. A Long Range Science Rover For Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation currently underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of a long range science rover for future missions to Mars. The small rover prototype, called Rocky 7, is capable of long traverse. autonomous navigation. and science instrument control, carries three science instruments, and can be commanded from any computer platform and any location using the World Wide Web. In this paper we describe the mobility system, the sampling system, the sensor suite, navigation and control, onboard science instruments. and the ground command and control system.

  10. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is presented of three separate programs that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of a span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel.

  11. Impact of atmospheric aerosols on long range image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeMaster, Daniel A.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Image quality in high altitude long range imaging systems can be severely limited by atmospheric absorption, scattering, and turbulence. Atmospheric aerosols contribute to this problem by scattering target signal out of the optical path and by scattering in unwanted light from the surroundings. Target signal scattering may also lead to image blurring though, in conventional modeling, this effect is ignored. The validity of this choice is tested in this paper by developing an aerosol modulation transfer function (MTF) model for an inhomogeneous atmosphere and then applying it to real-world scenarios using MODTRAN derived scattering parameters. The resulting calculations show that aerosol blurring can be effectively ignored.

  12. INEL D&D Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility.

  13. Comment on "Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems".

    PubMed

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2016-06-01

    In the recent paper by Teles et al. [Phys. Rev. E 92, 020101 (2015)]PRESCM1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.020101, it was suggested that the inversed temperature profiles in various astrophysical objects-ranging from the solar corona to the interstellar molecular clouds-can be explained by the specific features of relaxation in the long-range interacting systems. Here, we show that this mechanism can really work in the self-gravitating interstellar gaseous clouds; but it is irrelevant in the solar (and stellar) coronas where stratification of density is produced by the external gravitational field. PMID:27415395

  14. INEL D&D long-range plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  15. The design of a long range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Layton, J. B.; Allen, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Megatransport objectives and constraints are briefly reviewed, and certain solutions developed by student design teams at Perdue University are summarized. Particular attention is given to the market needs and the economic risks involved in such a project; and the different approaches taken to solve the problem and difficulties faced by the design teams. A long range megatransport aircraft is aimed at carrying more than 600 passengers at reduced cost, and at the same time, reducing airport and airway congestion. The design effort must take into account airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures.

  16. Comment on "Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumin, Yurii V.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent paper by Teles et al. [Phys. Rev. E 92, 020101 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.020101, it was suggested that the inversed temperature profiles in various astrophysical objects—ranging from the solar corona to the interstellar molecular clouds—can be explained by the specific features of relaxation in the long-range interacting systems. Here, we show that this mechanism can really work in the self-gravitating interstellar gaseous clouds; but it is irrelevant in the solar (and stellar) coronas where stratification of density is produced by the external gravitational field.

  17. Political Mechanisms for Long-Range Survival and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.

    As the first species aware of extinction and capable of proactively ensuring our long-term survival and development, it is striking that we do not do so with the rigor, formality, and foresight it requires. Only from a reactive posture have we responded to the challenges of global warfare, human rights, environmental concerns, and sustainable development. Despite our awareness of the possibility for extinction and apocalyptic set-backs to our evolution, and despite the existence of long-range studies-which must still be dramatically increased-proactive global policy implementation regarding our long-term survival and development is arguably non-existent. This lack of long-term policy making can be attributed in part to the lack of formal political mechanisms to facilitate longer-range policy making that extends 30 years or more into the future. Political mechanisms for infusing long-range thinking, research, and strategic planning into the policy-making process can help correct this shortcoming and provide the motivation needed to adequately address long-term challenges with the political rigor required to effectively establish and implement long-term policies. There are some efforts that attempt to address longer-range issues, but those efforts often do not connect to the political process, do not extend 30 or more years into the future, are not well-funded, and are not sufficiently systemic. Political mechanisms for long-range survival and prosperity could correct these inadequacies by raising awareness, providing funding, and most importantly, leveraging political rigor to establish and enforce long-range strategic planning and policies. The feasibility of such mechanisms should first be rigorously studied and assessed in a feasibility study, which could then inform implementation. This paper will present the case for such a study and suggest some possible political mechanisms that should be investigated further in the proposed study. This work is being further

  18. Immiscible Lattice Gas with Long-Range Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumaya, Akira; Ohashi, Hirotada

    We developed a new LGA model which has the applicability for simulation of immiscible two phases with wide difference in density. We introduced long-range interparticle forces into the Rothman and Keller's ILG model to represent density difference between phases. We attempted some simulations of phase separation using our new model. Two-phase interfaces are stably made with density distribution coinciding with particle color distribution. Furthermore, the two-phase interface is clearer than that obtained by the Appert and Zaleski's LG model.

  19. Induced Long-Range Attractive Potentials of Human Serum Albumin by Ligand Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Takaaki; Komatsu, Teruyuki; Nakagawa, Akito; Tsuchida, Eishun

    2007-05-18

    Small-angle x-ray scattering and dielectric spectroscopy investigation on the solutions of recombinant human serum albumin and its heme hybrid revealed that heme incorporation induces a specific long-range attractive potential between protein molecules. This is evidenced by the enhanced forward intensity upon heme binding, despite no hindrance to rotatory Brownian motion, unbiased colloid osmotic pressure, and discontiguous nearest-neighbor distance, confirming monodispersity of the proteins. The heme-induced potential may play a trigger role in recognition of the ligand-filled human serum albumins in the circulatory system.

  20. Dissipation-Assisted Prethermalization in Long-Range Interacting Atomic Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Stefan; Jäger, Simon B; Morigi, Giovanna

    2016-08-19

    We theoretically characterize the semiclassical dynamics of an ensemble of atoms after a sudden quench across a driven-dissipative second-order phase transition. The atoms are driven by a laser and interact via conservative and dissipative long-range forces mediated by the photons of a single-mode cavity. These forces can cool the motion and, above a threshold value of the laser intensity, induce spatial ordering. We show that the relaxation dynamics following the quench exhibits a long prethermalizing behavior which is first dominated by coherent long-range forces and then by their interplay with dissipation. Remarkably, dissipation-assisted prethermalization is orders of magnitude longer than prethermalization due to the coherent dynamics. We show that it is associated with the creation of momentum-position correlations, which remain nonzero for even longer times than mean-field predicts. This implies that cavity cooling of an atomic ensemble into the self-organized phase can require longer time scales than the typical experimental duration. In general, these results demonstrate that noise and dissipation can substantially slow down the onset of thermalization in long-range interacting many-body systems. PMID:27588853

  1. Dissipation-Assisted Prethermalization in Long-Range Interacting Atomic Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, Stefan; Jäger, Simon B.; Morigi, Giovanna

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically characterize the semiclassical dynamics of an ensemble of atoms after a sudden quench across a driven-dissipative second-order phase transition. The atoms are driven by a laser and interact via conservative and dissipative long-range forces mediated by the photons of a single-mode cavity. These forces can cool the motion and, above a threshold value of the laser intensity, induce spatial ordering. We show that the relaxation dynamics following the quench exhibits a long prethermalizing behavior which is first dominated by coherent long-range forces and then by their interplay with dissipation. Remarkably, dissipation-assisted prethermalization is orders of magnitude longer than prethermalization due to the coherent dynamics. We show that it is associated with the creation of momentum-position correlations, which remain nonzero for even longer times than mean-field predicts. This implies that cavity cooling of an atomic ensemble into the self-organized phase can require longer time scales than the typical experimental duration. In general, these results demonstrate that noise and dissipation can substantially slow down the onset of thermalization in long-range interacting many-body systems.

  2. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bourasseau, E.; Ghoufi, A.

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  3. Long-range response in ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013)EPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology-for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions-a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014)1951-635510.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found. PMID:27575148

  4. Slow and long-ranged dynamical heterogeneities in dissipative fluids.

    PubMed

    Avila, Karina E; Castillo, Horacio E; Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Zippelius, Annette

    2016-06-28

    A two-dimensional bidisperse granular fluid is shown to exhibit pronounced long-ranged dynamical heterogeneities as dynamical arrest is approached. Here we focus on the most direct approach to study these heterogeneities: we identify clusters of slow particles and determine their size, Nc, and their radius of gyration, RG. We show that , providing direct evidence that the most immobile particles arrange in fractal objects with a fractal dimension, df, that is observed to increase with packing fraction ϕ. The cluster size distribution obeys scaling, approaching an algebraic decay in the limit of structural arrest, i.e., ϕ→ϕc. Alternatively, dynamical heterogeneities are analyzed via the four-point structure factor S4(q,t) and the dynamical susceptibility χ4(t). S4(q,t) is shown to obey scaling in the full range of packing fractions, 0.6 ≤ϕ≤ 0.805, and to become increasingly long-ranged as ϕ→ϕc. Finite size scaling of χ4(t) provides a consistency check for the previously analyzed divergences of χ4(t) ∝ (ϕ-ϕc)(-γχ) and the correlation length ξ∝ (ϕ-ϕc)(-γξ). We check the robustness of our results with respect to our definition of mobility. The divergences and the scaling for ϕ→ϕc suggest a non-equilibrium glass transition which seems qualitatively independent of the coefficient of restitution. PMID:27230572

  5. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Panci, Paolo; Silk, Joseph E-mail: panci@iap.fr

    2014-11-10

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from helioseismology. Thanks to the explicit dependence on the exchanged momenta in the differential cross section (Rutherford-like scattering), we find that DM particles with a mass of ∼10 GeV, kinetic mixing parameter of the order of 10{sup –9}, and a mediator with a mass smaller than a few MeV improve the agreement between the best solar model and the helioseismic data without being excluded by direct detection experiments. In particular, the LUX detector will soon be able to either constrain or confirm our best-fit solar model in the presence of a dark sector with long-range interactions that reconcile helioseismology with thermal neutrino results.

  6. Dolphin "packet" use during long-range echolocation tasks.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J

    2013-03-01

    When echolocating, dolphins typically emit a single broadband "click," then wait to receive the echo before emitting another click. However, previous studies have shown that during long-range echolocation tasks, they may instead emit a burst, or "packet," of several clicks, then wait for the packet of echoes to return before emitting another packet of clicks. The reasons for the use of packets are unknown. In this study, packet use was examined by having trained bottlenose dolphins perform long-range echolocation tasks. The tasks featured "phantom" echoes produced by capturing the dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks, convolving the clicks with an impulse response to create an echo waveform, and then broadcasting the delayed, scaled echo to the dolphin. Dolphins were trained to report the presence of phantom echoes or a change in phantom echoes. Target range varied from 25 to 800 m. At ranges below 75 m, the dolphins rarely used packets. As the range increased beyond 75 m, two of the three dolphins increasingly produced packets, while the third dolphin instead utilized very high click repetition rates. The use of click packets appeared to be governed more by echo delay (target range) than echo amplitude. PMID:23464048

  7. Emergent long-range magnetic ordering in manganite superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burganov, Bulat; Macke, Sebastian; Monkman, Eric; Adamo, Carolina; Shai, Daniel; Schlom, Darrell; Sawatzky, George; Shen, Kyle

    2015-03-01

    Complex oxides composed into atomically precise heterostructures host a plethora of new phenomena driven by interface effects, dimensionality, correlations and strain. An example is emergent ferromagnetism in the superlattices (SL) of LaMnO3/SrMnO3 and the dimensionality-driven metal insulator transition, still not well understood theoretically. We use soft x-ray scattering combined with SQUID magnetometry to determine the magnetic and orbital ordering in the (LaMnO3)2n /(SrMnO3)n SL for n =1,2,3,4. By composition this system is close to colossal-magnetoresistive La2/3Sr1/3MnO3, an FM metal below 400K. The system undergoes a metal-insulator transition with higher n and is believed to have a complex magnetic ordering. We observe an unexpected long-range order in the n =4 sample where the magnetic period is equal to two chemical periods. The observed half-order Bragg peaks show strong linear and no circular dichroism. The temperature and polarization dependence of reflectometry points towards alignment between A-type AFM orders in the neighboring LaMnO3 layers, which is very unusual and indicates a long range interaction acting across the thick SrMnO3 layers with nominally G-type spin configuration. We simulate the reflectometry data for several model spin configurations to further elucidate the nature of this ordering.

  8. Long-range response in ac electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013), 10.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology—for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions—a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014), 10.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found.

  9. Helioseismology with Long-range Dark Matter-Baryon Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Ilídio; Panci, Paolo; Silk, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from helioseismology. Thanks to the explicit dependence on the exchanged momenta in the differential cross section (Rutherford-like scattering), we find that DM particles with a mass of ~10 GeV, kinetic mixing parameter of the order of 10-9, and a mediator with a mass smaller than a few MeV improve the agreement between the best solar model and the helioseismic data without being excluded by direct detection experiments. In particular, the LUX detector will soon be able to either constrain or confirm our best-fit solar model in the presence of a dark sector with long-range interactions that reconcile helioseismology with thermal neutrino results.

  10. The ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program Long Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 76 individual surplus facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. The ORNL SFMP has prepared this Long Range Plan to outline the long-term management strategy for those facilities included in the program. The primary objective of this plan are to: (1) develop a base of information for each ORNL SFMP facility, (2) conduct preliminary decommissioning analyses to identify feasible alternatives, (3) assess the current and future risk of each facility, (4) establish a priority list for the decommissioning projects, and (5) integrate the individual project costs and schedules into an overall program schedule and cost estimate for the ORNL site. The Long Range Plan also provides an overview of the ORNL SFMP management structure, specifies the decommissioning criteria to be employed, and identifies special technical problems, research and development needs, and special facilities and equipment that may be required for decommissioning operations.

  11. Advanced 3D imaging lidar concepts for long range sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K. J.; Hiskett, P. A.; Lamb, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Recent developments in 3D imaging lidar are presented. Long range 3D imaging using photon counting is now a possibility, offering a low-cost approach to integrated remote sensing with step changing advantages in size, weight and power compared to conventional analogue active imaging technology. We report results using a Geiger-mode array for time-of-flight, single photon counting lidar for depth profiling and determination of the shape and size of tree canopies and distributed surface reflections at a range of 9km, with 4μJ pulses with a frame rate of 100kHz using a low-cost fibre laser operating at a wavelength of λ=1.5 μm. The range resolution is less than 4cm providing very high depth resolution for target identification. This specification opens up several additional functionalities for advanced lidar, for example: absolute rangefinding and depth profiling for long range identification, optical communications, turbulence sensing and time-of-flight spectroscopy. Future concepts for 3D time-of-flight polarimetric and multispectral imaging lidar, with optical communications in a single integrated system are also proposed.

  12. First hyperpolarizability of polymethineimine with long-range corrected functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A.; Medved', Miroslav; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Kobayashi, Rika; Adamo, Carlo

    2007-05-01

    Using the long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory (DFT) scheme introduced by Iikura et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3540 (2001)] and the Coulomb-attenuating model (CAM-B3LYP) of Yanai et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 393, 51 (2004)], we have calculated the longitudinal dipole moments and static electronic first hyperpolarizabilities of increasingly long polymehtineimine oligomers. For comparison purposes Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and conventional pure and hybrid functionals have been considered as well. HF, generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and conventional hybrids provide too large dipole moments for long oligomers, while LC-DFT allows to reduce the discrepancy with respect to MP2 by a factor of 3. For the first hyperpolarizability, the incorrect evolution with the chain length predicted by HF is strongly worsened by BLYP, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), and also by B3LYP and PBE0. On the reverse, LC-BLYP and LC-PBE hyperpolarizabilities are correctly predicted to be positive (but for the two smallest chains). Indeed, for medium and long oligomers LC hyperpolarizabilities are slightly smaller than MP2 hyperpolarizabilities, as it should be. CAM-B3LYP also strongly improves the B3LYP results, though a bit less impressively for small chain lengths. The present study demonstrates the efficiency of long-range DFT, even in very pathological cases.

  13. Long Range Memory and Trends in Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestvand, L.; Nilsen, T.; Rypdal, K.; Rypdal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Local and global observed temperature records have previously been found to have the property of long range memory (LRM). Some model data sets have also been analyzed, with various results. In this work, new model data for the Northern Hemisphere are analyzed with the wavelet variance analysis (WVA) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method to look for long range memory. The data have a monthly resolution over approximately the last 2000 years. Reconstructed temperature records for the same time period seem to have an oscillation, but it is not yet decided if this oscillation is a significant trend or a natural part of an LRM record. In some of the model data used here, an oscillatory trend seems to be present, and the significance of the amplitude is tested against a null hypothesis that the data are an LRM stochastic process with no trend. In the cases where the trends are significant, the data are detrended by subtracting the estimated trend. The detrended data are then analyzed with WVA and MLE to test for LRM. The method is applied to temperature reconstructions by Mann and Moberg, for comparing the results of the model data to those of the reconstructions.

  14. Long-Range Lepton Flavor Interactions and Neutrino Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, H.; Lee, H-S; Marciano, W.

    2011-03-31

    Recent results from the MINOS accelerator neutrino experiment suggest a possible difference between {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance oscillation parameters, which one may ascribe to a new long distance potential acting on neutrinos. As a specific example, we consider a model with gauged B - L{sub e} - 2L{sub {tau}} number which contains an extremely light new vector boson, m{sub Z}, < 10{sup -18} eV and extraordinarily weak coupling {alpha}{prime} {approx}< 10{sup -52}. In that case, differences between {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}} oscillations can result from a long-range potential due to neutrons in the Earth and the Sun that distinguishes {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} on Earth, with a potential difference of {approx} 6 x 10{sup -14} eV, and changes sign for anti-neutrinos. We show that existing solar, reactor, accelerator, and atmospheric neutrino oscillation constraints can be largely accommodated for values of parameters that help explain the possible MINOS anomaly by this new physics, although there is some tension with atmospheric constraints. A long-range interaction, consistent with current bounds, could have very pronounced effects on atmospheric neutrino disappearance in the 20-50 GeV range that will be studied with the IceCube DeepCore array, currently in operation, and can have a significant effect on future high-precision long-baseline oscillation experiments which aim for {+-}1% sensitivity, in {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance, separately. Together, these experiments can extend the reach for new long-distance effects well beyond current bounds and test their relevance to the aforementioned MINOS anomaly. We also point out that long-range potentials originating from the Sun could lead to annual modulations of neutrino data at the percent level, due to the variation of the Earth-Sun distance. A similar phenomenology is shown to apply to

  15. Reservoir shore development in long range terrestrial laser scanning monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Shore zones of reservoirs are in most cases very active, getting transformed as a result of coastal processes and mass movements initiated on the slopes surrounding the reservoir. From the point of view of the users of water reservoirs shore recession strongly undesirable as it causes destruction to infrastructure and buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. For this reason, reservoir shores require continuous geodetic monitoring. Fast and accurate geodetic measurements covering shore sections several kilometers long, often in poorly accessible areas, are available using long range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The possibilities of using long range terrestrial laser scanning are shown on the example of the reservoir Jeziorsko on the Warta River (Central Poland). This reservoir, created in the years 1986-1992, is a typical retention reservoir, the annual fluctuations of which reach 5 m. Depending on the water level its surface area ranges from 42.3 to 19.6 km2. The width of the reservoir is 2.5 km. The total shore length of the reservoir, developed in Quaternary till and sand-till sediments, is 44.3 km, including 30.1 km of the unreinforced shore. Out of the unreinforced shore 27% is subject to coastal erosion. The cliff heights vary from a few cm to 12.5 meters, and the current rate of the cliff recession ranges from 0 to 1.12 m/y. The study used a terrestrial long range laser scanner Riegl VZ-4000 of a range of up to 4000 m. It enabled conducting the measurements of the cliff recession from the opposite shore of the reservoir, with an angular resolution of 0.002°, which gives about 50 measurement points per 1 m2. The measurements were carried out in the years 2014-2015, twice a year, in early spring before high water level, and in late autumn at a dropping water level. This allowed the separation of the impact of coastal processes and frost weathering on the cliff recession and their quantitative determination. The size and nature of

  16. DNA Structural Correlation in Short and Long Ranges.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chan; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Y Isaac; Chen, Xi; Ge, Hao; Sun, Yujie; Su, Xiaodong; Yang, Lijiang; Xie, Sunney; Gao, Yi Qin

    2015-11-01

    Recent single-molecule measurements have revealed the DNA allostery in protein/DNA binding. MD simulations showed that this allosteric effect is associated with the deformation properties of DNA. In this study, we used MD simulations to further investigate the mechanism of DNA structural correlation, its dependence on DNA sequence, and the chemical modification of the bases. Besides a random sequence, poly d(AT) and poly d(GC) are also used as simpler model systems, which show the different bending and twisting flexibilities. The base-stacking interactions and the methyl group on the 5-carbon site of thymine causes local structures and flexibility to be very different for the two model systems, which further lead to obviously different tendencies of the conformational deformations, including the long-range allosteric effects. PMID:26439165

  17. Theory of Long-Range Ultracold Atom-Molecule Photoassociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Lepers, Maxence; Dulieu, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    The creation of ultracold molecules is currently limited to diatomic species. In this Letter, we present a theoretical description of the photoassociation of ultracold atoms and molecules to create ultracold excited triatomic molecules, thus being a novel example of a light-assisted ultracold chemical reaction. The calculation of the photoassociation rate of an ultracold Cs2 molecule in its rovibrational ground state with an ultracold Cs atom at frequencies close to its resonant excitation is reported, based on the solution of the quantum dynamics involving the atom-molecule long-range interactions and assuming a model potential for the short-range physics. The rate for the formation of excited Cs3 molecules is predicted to be comparable with currently observed atom-atom photoassociation rates. We formulate an experimental proposal to observe this process relying on the available techniques of optical lattices and standard photoassociation spectroscopy.

  18. Long-range properties of 1 S bottomonium states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Nora; Krein, Gastão; Tarrús Castellà, Jaume; Vairo, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    In the framework of weakly coupled potential nonrelativistic QCD, we derive, first, an analytical expression for the chromopolarizability of 1 S bottomonium states in agreement with previous determinations. Then we use the QCD trace anomaly to obtain the two-pion production amplitude for the chromopolarizability operator and match the result to a chiral effective field theory with 1 S bottomonium states and pions as degrees of freedom. In this chiral effective field theory we compute some long-range properties of the 1 S bottomonium generated by the pion coupling such as the leading chiral logarithm to the 1 S bottomonium mass and the van der Waals potential between two 1 S bottomonium states. Both results improve on previously known expressions.

  19. Sparse Labeling of Proteins: Structural Characterization from Long Range Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Prestegard, James H.; Agard, David A.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Lavery, Laura A.; Morris, Laura C.; Pederson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Structural characterization of biologically important proteins faces many challenges associated with degradation of resolution as molecular size increases and loss of resolution improving tools such as perdeuteration when non-bacterial hosts must be used for expression. In these cases, sparse isotopic labeling (single or small subsets of amino acids) combined with long range paramagnetic constraints and improved computational modeling offer an alternative. This perspective provides a brief overview of this approach and two discussions of potential applications; one involving a very large system (an Hsp90 homolog) in which perdeuteration is possible and methyl-TROSY sequences can potentially be used to improve resolution, and one involving ligand placement in a glycosylated protein where resolution is achieved by single amino acid labeling (the sialyltransferase, ST6Gal1). This is not intended as a comprehensive review, but as a discussion of future prospects that promise impact on important questions in the structural biology area. PMID:24656078

  20. Sparse labeling of proteins: Structural characterization from long range constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegard, James H.; Agard, David A.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Lavery, Laura A.; Morris, Laura C.; Pederson, Kari

    2014-04-01

    Structural characterization of biologically important proteins faces many challenges associated with degradation of resolution as molecular size increases and loss of resolution improving tools such as perdeuteration when non-bacterial hosts must be used for expression. In these cases, sparse isotopic labeling (single or small subsets of amino acids) combined with long range paramagnetic constraints and improved computational modeling offer an alternative. This perspective provides a brief overview of this approach and two discussions of potential applications; one involving a very large system (an Hsp90 homolog) in which perdeuteration is possible and methyl-TROSY sequences can potentially be used to improve resolution, and one involving ligand placement in a glycosylated protein where resolution is achieved by single amino acid labeling (the sialyltransferase, ST6Gal1). This is not intended as a comprehensive review, but as a discussion of future prospects that promise impact on important questions in the structural biology area.

  1. Superconductivity from a Long-Range Repulsive Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onari, S.; Arita, R.; Kuroki, K.; Aoki, H.

    2006-09-01

    The lattice model with short-range interactions (exemplified by the Hubbard model) is known to exhibit quite different features from those in the electron gas with the long-range Coulomb interaction. In order to explore how they cross over to each other, we have studied an extended Hubbard model which includes repulsions up to the 12th neighbors with the simplified fluctuation exchange (FLEX) approximation for the square lattice. We have found that (i) in the most dilute density region, spin and charge fluctuations become comparable, and s- and p-waves superconductivity become dominant, in agreement with the result for the electron gas by Takada, while (ii) the dominant spin fluctuation and its reflection on dx2-y2 and dxy pairing, both the effect of lattice structure, persists well away (n ≳ 0.2) from the half filling. 2006 American Institute of Physics

  2. Phantom energy mediates a long-range repulsive force.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Luca

    2004-10-29

    Scalar field models with nonstandard kinetic terms have been proposed in the context of k inflation, of Born-Infeld Lagrangians, of phantom energy and, more in general, of low-energy string theory. In general, scalar fields are expected to couple to matter inducing a new interaction. In this Letter I derive the cosmological perturbation equations and the Yukawa correction to gravity for such general models. I find three interesting results: first, when the field behaves as phantom energy (equation of state less than -1), then the coupling strength is negative, inducing a long-range repulsive force; second, the dark-energy field might cluster on astrophysical scales; third, applying the formalism to a Brans-Dicke theory with a general kinetic term it is shown that its Newtonian effects depend on a single parameter that generalizes the Brans-Dicke constant. PMID:15525149

  3. Disrupting long-range polar order with an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Xue, Fei; Chen, Long-Qing; Hong, Wei; Tan, Xiaoli

    2016-05-01

    Electric fields are known to favor long-range polar order through the aligning of electric dipoles in relation to Coulomb's force. Therefore, it would be surprising to observe a disordered polar state induced from an ordered state by electric fields. Here we show such an unusual phenomenon in a polycrystalline oxide where electric fields induce a ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition. The nonergodic relaxor phase with disordered dipoles appears as an intermediate state under electric fields during polarization reversal of the ferroelectric phase. Using the phenomenological theory, the underlying mechanism for this unexpected behavior can be attributed to the slow kinetics of the ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition, as well as its competition against domain switching during electric reversal. The demonstrated material could also serve as a model system to study the transient stages in first-order phase transitions; the slow kinetics does not require the use of sophisticated ultrafast tools.

  4. Mechanism of long-range proton translocation along biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Medvedev, Emile S.; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments suggest that protons can travel along biological membranes up to tens of micrometers, but the mechanism of transport is unknown. To explain such a long-range proton translocation we describe a model that takes into account the coupled bulk diffusion that accompanies the migration of protons on the surface. We show that protons diffusing at or near the surface before equilibrating with the bulk desorb and re-adsorb at the surface thousands of times, giving rise to a power-law desorption kinetics. As a result, the decay of the surface protons occurs very slowly, allowing for establishing local gradient and local exchange, as was envisioned in the early local models of biological energy transduction. PMID:23268201

  5. Modeling of long range frequency sweeping for energetic particle modes

    SciTech Connect

    Nyqvist, R. M.; Breizman, B. N.

    2013-04-15

    Long range frequency sweeping events are simulated numerically within a one-dimensional, electrostatic bump-on-tail model with fast particle sources and collisions. The numerical solution accounts for fast particle trapping and detrapping in an evolving wave field with a fixed wavelength, and it includes three distinct collisions operators: Drag (dynamical friction on the background electrons), Krook-type collisions, and velocity space diffusion. The effects of particle trapping and diffusion on the evolution of holes and clumps are investigated, and the occurrence of non-monotonic (hooked) frequency sweeping and asymptotically steady holes is discussed. The presented solution constitutes a step towards predictive modeling of frequency sweeping events in more realistic geometries.

  6. Chromatin and epigenetic features of long-range gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Harmston, Nathan; Lenhard, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The precise regulation of gene transcription during metazoan development is controlled by a complex system of interactions between transcription factors, histone modifications and modifying enzymes and chromatin conformation. Developments in chromosome conformation capture technologies have revealed that interactions between regions of chromatin are pervasive and highly cell-type specific. The movement of enhancers and promoters in and out of higher-order chromatin structures within the nucleus are associated with changes in expression and histone modifications. However, the factors responsible for mediating these changes and determining enhancer:promoter specificity are still not completely known. In this review, we summarize what is known about the patterns of epigenetic and chromatin features characteristic of elements involved in long-range interactions. In addition, we review the insights into both local and global patterns of chromatin interactions that have been revealed by the latest experimental and computational methods. PMID:23766291

  7. Transuranic waste projections at SRS for long range planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.E.; Cook, J.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report predicts 30 year receipts of solid transuranic (TRU) wastes from eventual plutonium facility deactivation and cleanup, and combines them with the existing TRU waste holdings to provide a technical and quantitative basis for interim and long range TRU waste management planning. The current TRU waste holdings have been characterized based on data from the Computerized Radioactive Waste Burial Records Analysis (COBRA) system. Six TRU waste disposition categories have been identified for existing TRU waste as shown in Table 1. An additional category has been quantified that includes projected waste volumes from the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of TRU waste generating facilities. These projections are based on COBRA data from D&D of the original plutonium finishing facilities in F and H Areas that were replaced in the 1970`s and 80`s.

  8. Parallelized Stochastic Cutoff Method for Long-Range Interacting Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Eishin; Toga, Yuta; Sasaki, Munetaka

    2015-07-01

    We present a method of parallelizing the stochastic cutoff (SCO) method, which is a Monte-Carlo method for long-range interacting systems. After interactions are eliminated by the SCO method, we subdivide a lattice into noninteracting interpenetrating sublattices. This subdivision enables us to parallelize the Monte-Carlo calculation in the SCO method. Such subdivision is found by numerically solving the vertex coloring of a graph created by the SCO method. We use an algorithm proposed by Kuhn and Wattenhofer to solve the vertex coloring by parallel computation. This method was applied to a two-dimensional magnetic dipolar system on an L × L square lattice to examine its parallelization efficiency. The result showed that, in the case of L = 2304, the speed of computation increased about 102 times by parallel computation with 288 processors.

  9. Position-insensitive long range inductive power transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Christopher H.; Lawson, James; Yates, David C.; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents results of an improved inductive wireless power transfer system for reliable long range powering of sensors with milliwatt-level consumption. An ultra-low power flyback impedance emulator operating in open loop is used to present the optimal load to the receiver's resonant tank. Transmitter power modulation is implemented in order to maintain constant receiver power and to prevent damage to the receiver electronics caused by excessive received voltage. Received power is steady up to 3 m at around 30 mW. The receiver electronics and feedback system consumes 3.1 mW and so with a transmitter input power of 163.3 W the receiver becomes power neutral at 4.75 m. Such an IPT system can provide a reliable alternative to energy harvesters for supplying power concurrently to multiple remote sensors.

  10. Protein lethality investigated in terms of long range dynamical interactions.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Francisco A; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between network structure/dynamics and biological function constitutes a fundamental issue in systems biology. However, despite many related investigations, the correspondence between structure and biological functions is not yet fully understood. A related subject that has deserved particular attention recently concerns how essentiality is related to the structure and dynamics of protein interactions. In the current work, protein essentiality is investigated in terms of long range influences in protein-protein interaction networks by considering simulated dynamical aspects. This analysis is performed with respect to outward activations, an approach which models the propagation of interactions between proteins by considering self-avoiding random walks. The obtained results are compared to protein local connectivity. Both the connectivity and the outward activations were found to be strongly related to protein essentiality. PMID:19396375

  11. Long-Range Spin Transfer in Triple Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Granger, G.; Gaudreau, L.; Kam, A.; Pioro-Ladrière, M.; Studenikin, S. A.; Zawadzki, P.; Sachrajda, A. S.; Platero, G.

    2014-05-01

    Tunneling in a quantum coherent structure is not restricted to only nearest neighbors. Hopping between distant sites is possible via the virtual occupation of otherwise avoided intermediate states. Here we report the observation of long-range transitions in the transport through three quantum dots coupled in series. A single electron is delocalized between the left and right quantum dots, while the center one remains always empty. Superpositions are formed, and both charge and spin are exchanged between the outermost dots. The delocalized electron acts as a quantum bus transferring the spin state from one end to the other. Spin selection is enabled by spin correlations. The process is detected via the observation of narrow resonances which are insensitive to Pauli spin blockade.

  12. Long-range spin transfer in triple quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Granger, G; Gaudreau, L; Kam, A; Pioro-Ladrière, M; Studenikin, S A; Zawadzki, P; Sachrajda, A S; Platero, G

    2014-05-01

    Tunneling in a quantum coherent structure is not restricted to only nearest neighbors. Hopping between distant sites is possible via the virtual occupation of otherwise avoided intermediate states. Here we report the observation of long-range transitions in the transport through three quantum dots coupled in series. A single electron is delocalized between the left and right quantum dots, while the center one remains always empty. Superpositions are formed, and both charge and spin are exchanged between the outermost dots. The delocalized electron acts as a quantum bus transferring the spin state from one end to the other. Spin selection is enabled by spin correlations. The process is detected via the observation of narrow resonances which are insensitive to Pauli spin blockade. PMID:24836266

  13. Long-range Acoustic Interactions in Insect Swarms: An Adaptive Gravity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbonos, Dan; Ianconescu, Reuven; Puckett, James G.; Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Gov, Nir S.

    The collective motion of groups of animals emerges from the net effect of the interactions between individual members of the group. In many cases, such as birds, fish, or ungulates, these interactions are mediated by sensory stimuli that predominantly arise from nearby neighbors. But not all stimuli in animal groups are short range. Here, we consider mating swarms of midges, which interact primarily via long-range acoustic stimuli. We exploit the similarity in form between the decay of acoustic and gravitational sources to build a model for swarm behavior. By accounting for the adaptive nature of the midges' acoustic sensing, we show that our ``adaptive gravity'' model makes mean-field predictions that agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. Our results highlight the role of sensory mechanisms and interaction range in collective animal behavior. The adaptive interactions that we present here open a new class of equations of motion, which may appear in other biological contexts.

  14. Experiences from long range passive and active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönwall, Christina; Gustafsson, David; Steinvall, Ove; Tolt, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    We present algorithm evaluations for ATR of small sea vessels. The targets are at km distance from the sensors, which means that the algorithms have to deal with images affected by turbulence and mirage phenomena. We evaluate previously developed algorithms for registration of 3D-generating laser radar data. The evaluations indicate that some robustness to turbulence and mirage induced uncertainties can be handled by our probabilistic-based registration method. We also assess methods for target classification and target recognition on these new 3D data. An algorithm for detecting moving vessels in infrared image sequences is presented; it is based on optical flow estimation. Detection of moving target with an unknown spectral signature in a maritime environment is a challenging problem due to camera motion, background clutter, turbulence and the presence of mirage. First, the optical flow caused by the camera motion is eliminated by estimating the global flow in the image. Second, connected regions containing significant motions that differ from camera motion is extracted. It is assumed that motion caused by a moving vessel is more temporally stable than motion caused by mirage or turbulence. Furthermore, it is assumed that the motion caused by the vessel is more homogenous with respect to both magnitude and orientation, than motion caused by mirage and turbulence. Sufficiently large connected regions with a flow of acceptable magnitude and orientation are considered target regions. The method is evaluated on newly collected sequences of SWIR and MWIR images, with varying targets, target ranges and background clutter. Finally we discuss a concept for combining passive and active imaging in an ATR process. The main steps are passive imaging for target detection, active imaging for target/background segmentation and a fusion of passive and active imaging for target recognition.

  15. Long-Range Correlations of Global Sea Surface Temperature.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface temperature (SST) derived from 1870-2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively long-range correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller long-range correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities. PMID:27100397

  16. Long-range energy transport in photosystem II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Jan J. J.; Bennett, Doran I. G.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2016-06-01

    We simulate the long-range inter-complex electronic energy transfer in photosystem II - from the antenna complex, via a core complex, to the reaction center - using a non-Markovian (ZOFE) quantum master equation description that allows the electronic coherence involved in the energy transfer to be explicitly included at all length scales. This allows us to identify all locations where coherence is manifested and to further identify the pathways of the energy transfer in the full network of coupled chromophores using a description based on excitation probability currents. We investigate how the energy transfer depends on the initial excitation - localized, coherent initial excitation versus delocalized, incoherent initial excitation - and find that the overall energy transfer is remarkably robust with respect to such strong variations of the initial condition. To explore the importance of vibrationally enhanced transfer and to address the question of optimization in the system parameters, we systematically vary the strength of the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational degrees of freedom. We find that the natural parameters lie in a (broad) region that enables optimal transfer efficiency and that the overall long-range energy transfer on a ns time scale appears to be very robust with respect to variations in the vibronic coupling of up to an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, vibrationally enhanced transfer appears to be crucial to obtain a high transfer efficiency, with the latter falling sharply for couplings outside the optimal range. Comparison of our full quantum simulations to results obtained with a "classical" rate equation based on a modified-Redfield/generalized-Förster description previously used to simulate energy transfer dynamics in the entire photosystem II complex shows good agreement for the overall time scales of excitation energy transport.

  17. Photoassociation of long-range nD Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raithel, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Cold atomic systems have opened new frontiers at the interface of atomic and molecular physics. Of particular interest are a recently discovered class of long-range, homonuclear Rydberg molecules first predicted in and observed in. In rubidium, these molecules are formed via low-energy electron scattering of the Rydberg electron from a 5S1/2 ground-state atom that is present within the Rydberg atom's volume. The binding mostly arises from S-wave and P-wave triplet scattering. In recent work, we have observed long-range homonuclear diatomic nD Rydberg molecules photoassociated out of an ultracold gas of 87Rb atoms for principal quantum numbers 34 <= n <= 40. Related results have also been reported in. The measured ground-state binding energies of 87Rb(nD + 5S1 / 2) molecular states are larger than those of their 87Rb(nS + 5S1 / 2) counterparts, showing the dependence of the molecular bond on the angular momentum of the Rydberg atom. We have exhibited the transition of 87Rb(nD + 5S1 / 2) molecules from a molecular-binding-dominant regime at low n to a fine-structure-dominant regime at high n [akin to Hund's cases (a) and (c), respectively]. In our analysis, we use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering, the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S1/2 atom. The hyperfine structure is important because it gives rise to mixed singlet-triplet potentials. This work was supported by the AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0453) and the NSF (PHY-1205559).

  18. Long-Range Correlations of Global Sea Surface Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface temperature (SST) derived from 1870–2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively long-range correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller long-range correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities. PMID:27100397

  19. Flow effects in long-range dipolar field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro de Sousa, Paulo; Gounot, Daniel; Grucker, Daniel

    2003-06-01

    Incoherent spin motion, such as diffusion, can lead to significant signal loss in multiple spin echoes (MSE) experiments, sometimes to its complete extinction. Coherent spin motion, such as laminar flow, can also modify the magnetization in MSE imaging and yield additional contrast. Our experimental results indicate that MSE is flow-sensitive. Our theoretical analysis and experimental results show how the effect of the distant dipolar field can be annihilated by flow. This effect can be quantified by directly solving the nonlinear Bloch equation, taking into account the deformation of the dipolar field by motion. Unexpected results have been observed, such as a recovery of the dipolar interaction due to flow in the "magic angle" condition.

  20. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. PMID:23889686

  1. Neural network analysis of long-range precipitation forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, David I.

    The object of this research is to show that long range forecasts of precipitation for California is possible using large-scale climatological indexes and that artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a viable tool for modeling and data extraction. For each of California's seven climate zones, ANNs were trained using a calendar year's input of parameters to predict the coming water year's total precipitation and to predict the following water year's. Activity by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the east Pacific and the 700 mb height anomaly over the northern hemisphere is known to be related to various phenomena in specific regions of California. These large-scale climatological parameters represent the global atmospheric circulation that, in a sense, bring the weather to a region. By determining how these parameters interact over time, we can determine the general weather conditions that will arrive in a region. Because of the large amount of data, the short time period the data covers, the unknown type of relationships involved, and the possibly extraneous data, common statistical methods are not easily applied. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful and useful tools, especially in cases where the complex relationship between the inputs and outputs cannot easily be determined by common modeling methods. 0It was found that the pattern of rainfall predicted by the ANN model matched closely the observed rainfall with the nine month time lag for most California climate zones and for most years. This portion of the research shows the possibility of making long range forecasts using ANNs and large scale climatological parameters. These artificial ``brains'' were then analyzed by two different methods to reveal their methods of forecasting. One method produced for each climate zone a reduced set of important global parameters that were used in a simple linear regression model with good results. The second method gave information about how the individual

  2. Long Range Chiral Imprinting of Cu(110) by Tartaric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, T J; Pushkarev, V; Wei, D; Lucci, F R; Sholl, D S; Gellman, A J; Sykes, E C. H.

    2013-10-31

    Restructuring of metals by chiral molecules represents an important route to inducing and controlling enantioselective surface chemistry. Tartaric acid adsorption on Cu(110) has served as a useful system for understanding many aspects of chiral molecule adsorption and ordering on a metal surface, and a number of chiral and achiral unit cells have been reported. Herein, we show that given the appropriate annealing treatment, singly deprotonated tartaric acid monolayers can restructure the Cu metal itself, and that the resulting structure is both highly ordered and chiral. Molecular resolution scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that singly deprotonated tartaric acid extracts Cu atoms from the Cu(110) surface layer and incorporates them into highly ordered, chiral adatom arrays capped by a continuous molecular layer. Further evidence for surface restructuring comes from images of atom-deep trenches formed in the Cu(110) surface during the process. These trenches also run in low symmetry directions and are themselves chiral. Simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images are consistent with the appearance of the added atom rows and etched trenches. The chiral imprinting results in a long-range, highly ordered unit cell covering the whole surface as confirmed by low energy electron diffraction. Details of the restructuring mechanism were further investigated via time-lapse imaging at elevated temperature. This work reveals the stages of nanoscale surface restructuring and offers an interesting method for chiral modification of an achiral metal surface.

  3. Ultracold Long-Range Rydberg Molecules with Complex Multichannel Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiles, Matthew; Greene, Chris

    2016-05-01

    A generalized class of exotic long-range Rydberg molecules consisting of a multichannel Rydberg atom bound to a distant ground state atom by the Rydberg electron is predicted. These molecules are characterized by the rich physics provided by the strongly perturbed multichannel Rydberg spectra of divalent atoms, in contrast to the regular Rydberg series of the alkali atoms used to form Rydberg molecules to date. These multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number n. In particular, the nd Rydberg state of calcium becomes nearly degenerate with states of high orbital angular momentum over the range 17 < n < 22 , promoting its admixture into the high l deeply bound ``trilobite'' molecule states and thereby circumventing the usual difficulty posed by electric dipole selection rules. Further novel molecular states are predicted to occur in the low- J states of silicon, which are strongly perturbed due to channel interactions between Rydberg series leading to the spin-orbit split ionization thresholds. These interactions manifest themselves in potential curves exhibiting two distinct length scales, providing novel opportunities for quantum manipulation. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306905.

  4. Metrological capabilities of Scanning Long Range Doppler Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaec, Sophie; Boquet, Matthieu; Cariou, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Many application areas are interested in getting wind measurements within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height, and with a relatively high accuracy. These applications include meteorology like PBL studies, air traffic safety like aircraft induced wake vortices and wind shears detection or wind farming like wind resources assessment. In order to answer these demands there are recent developments and deployments of long-range vertical profiler or fully hemispherical scanning wind lidars. To validate the measurements provided by such a system, it is possible to make inter-comparisons with a met mast at short distance and with wind profilers radar or sodar at longer distance. But, there are difficulties that may arise from the implementation of this kind of methodology because of the uncertainty related to the campaign set-up and the instruments used as reference. In that perspective Leosphere is developing a method to assess the accuracy of the Leosphere's lidars. In this presentation, we will give a detail description of the method and its results.

  5. Long-range forecasts of UK winter hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C.; Brookshaw, A.; Scaife, A. A.; Bell, V. A.; Mackay, J. D.; Jackson, C. R.; Hannaford, J.; Davies, H. N.; Arribas, A.; Stanley, S.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal river flow forecasts are beneficial for planning agricultural activities, river navigation, and for management of reservoirs for public water supply and hydropower generation. In the United Kingdom (UK), skilful seasonal river flow predictions have previously been limited to catchments in lowland (southern and eastern) regions. Here we show that skilful long-range forecasts of winter flows can now be achieved across the whole of the UK. This is due to a remarkable geographical complementarity between the regional geological and meteorological sources of predictability for river flows. Forecast skill derives from the hydrogeological memory of antecedent conditions in southern and eastern parts of the UK and from meteorological predictability in northern and western areas. Specifically, it is the predictions of the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic that provides the skill at the seasonal timescale. In addition, significant levels of skill in predicting the frequency of winter high flow events is demonstrated, which has the potential to allow flood adaptation measures to be put in place.

  6. Long range metrological atomic force microscope with versatile measuring head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingzhen; Gao, Sitian; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Shi, Yushu; Tao, Xingfu

    2013-01-01

    A long range metrological atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed at NIM. It aims to realize a maximum measurement volume of 50mm×50mm×2mm with an uncertainty of a few tens of nanometers in the whole range. In compliance with Abbe Principle, the instrument is designed as a sample-scanning type. The sample is moved by a 6-DOF piezostage in combination with a hybrid slide-air bearing stage for long scanning range. Homodyne interferometers with four passes attached to a metrological frame measure relative displacement between the probe and sample thus the instrument is directly traceable to the SI. An AFM head is developed as the measuring head for the instrument. Considering accuracy and dynamic performance of the instrument, it is designed to be capable of scanning perpendicularly in a range of 5μm×5μm×5μm with a 3-DOF piezostage. Optical beam deflection method is used and a minimum of components are mounted on the moving part. A novel design is devised so that the photodetector is only sensitive to the deflection of cantilever, but not the displacement of the head. Moving manner of the head varies with scanning range and mode of the instrument. Results of different measurements are demonstrated, showing the excellent performance of the instrument.

  7. Stochastic Kinetic Monte Carlo algorithms for long-range Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, D R; Rudd, R E; Sutton, A P

    2003-10-13

    We present a higher order kinetic Monte Carlo methodology suitable to model the evolution of systems in which the transition rates are non- trivial to calculate or in which Monte Carlo moves are likely to be non- productive flicker events. The second order residence time algorithm first introduced by Athenes et al.[1] is rederived from the n-fold way algorithm of Bortz et al.[2] as a fully stochastic algorithm. The second order algorithm can be dynamically called when necessary to eliminate unproductive flickering between a metastable state and its neighbors. An algorithm combining elements of the first order and second order methods is shown to be more efficient, in terms of the number of rate calculations, than the first order or second order methods alone while remaining statistically identical. This efficiency is of prime importance when dealing with computationally expensive rate functions such as those arising from long- range Hamiltonians. Our algorithm has been developed for use when considering simulations of vacancy diffusion under the influence of elastic stress fields. We demonstrate the improved efficiency of the method over that of the n-fold way in simulations of vacancy diffusion in alloys. Our algorithm is seen to be an order of magnitude more efficient than the n-fold way in these simulations. We show that when magnesium is added to an Al-2at.%Cu alloy, this has the effect of trapping vacancies. When trapping occurs, we see that our algorithm performs thousands of events for each rate calculation performed.

  8. Long-range magnetic coupling across a polar insulating layer.

    PubMed

    Lü, W M; Saha, Surajit; Wang, X Renshaw; Liu, Z Q; Gopinadhan, K; Annadi, A; Zeng, S W; Huang, Z; Bao, B C; Cong, C X; Venkatesan, M; Yu, T; Coey, J M D; Ariando; Venkatesan, T

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic interactions in solids are normally mediated by short-range exchange or weak dipole fields. Here we report a magnetic interaction that can propagate over long distances (∼10 nm) across a polar insulating oxide spacer. Evidence includes oscillations of magnetization, coercivity and field-cooled loop shift with the thickness of LaAlO3 in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Similar modifications of the hysteresis loop appear when two coupled films of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 are separated by LaAlO3, or another polar insulator, but they are absent when the oxide spacer layer is nonpolar. The loop shift is attributed to strong spin-orbit coupling and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the interfaces. There is evidence from inelastic light scattering that the polar spacer mediates long-range transmission of orbital magnetization. This coupling mechanism is expected to apply for any conducting ferromagnetic oxide with mixed valence; in view of electron hopping frequency involved, it raises the prospect of terahertz tunability of magnetic coupling. PMID:26980456

  9. On long-range forces of repulsion between biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Golovanov, M. V.

    1992-05-01

    We have established experimentally that when biological cells, for example, blood, are suspended in concentrated solutions of inorganic electrolytes (for instance, in a 15% solution of sodium chloride) then around some cells (leucocytes, especially tumour cells) there form haloes, i.e., circular spaces free from background cells (erythrocytes, yeast cells, colloidal particles of Indian ink). In the medium made up of erythrocytes the haloes form during 5-10 min as a result of the background cells drawing apart from the central halo-forming cell (HFC) at a distance of 10-100 μm and more. In the medium made of the Indian ink particles, the haloes form during 2-4 s and attain a thickness of about 10-20 μm. The erythrocytes and the haloes forming in their medium can be preserved for about three to five days at room temperature. It has been established that, when tumour HFCs are present at sufficient concentrations, they form hexagonal periodic structures having a mean spacing between cells of up to 60 μm. The authors put forward as one probable suggestion that the formation of haloes is largely determined by long-range repulsive forces arising from the phenomenon of diffusiophoresis generated by the diffusion currents that emerge from the surface of halo-forming cells.

  10. Functional Sites Induce Long-Range Evolutionary Constraints in Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Austin G.; Echave, Julian; Wilke, Claus O.

    2016-01-01

    Functional residues in proteins tend to be highly conserved over evolutionary time. However, to what extent functional sites impose evolutionary constraints on nearby or even more distant residues is not known. Here, we report pervasive conservation gradients toward catalytic residues in a dataset of 524 distinct enzymes: evolutionary conservation decreases approximately linearly with increasing distance to the nearest catalytic residue in the protein structure. This trend encompasses, on average, 80% of the residues in any enzyme, and it is independent of known structural constraints on protein evolution such as residue packing or solvent accessibility. Further, the trend exists in both monomeric and multimeric enzymes and irrespective of enzyme size and/or location of the active site in the enzyme structure. By contrast, sites in protein–protein interfaces, unlike catalytic residues, are only weakly conserved and induce only minor rate gradients. In aggregate, these observations show that functional sites, and in particular catalytic residues, induce long-range evolutionary constraints in enzymes. PMID:27138088

  11. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.

  12. Long-range magnetic coupling across a polar insulating layer

    PubMed Central

    Lü, W. M.; Saha, Surajit; Wang, X. Renshaw; Liu, Z. Q.; Gopinadhan, K.; Annadi, A.; Zeng, S. W.; Huang, Z.; Bao, B. C.; Cong, C. X.; Venkatesan, M.; Yu, T.; Coey, J. M. D.; Ariando; Venkatesan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic interactions in solids are normally mediated by short-range exchange or weak dipole fields. Here we report a magnetic interaction that can propagate over long distances (∼10 nm) across a polar insulating oxide spacer. Evidence includes oscillations of magnetization, coercivity and field-cooled loop shift with the thickness of LaAlO3 in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Similar modifications of the hysteresis loop appear when two coupled films of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 are separated by LaAlO3, or another polar insulator, but they are absent when the oxide spacer layer is nonpolar. The loop shift is attributed to strong spin–orbit coupling and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction at the interfaces. There is evidence from inelastic light scattering that the polar spacer mediates long-range transmission of orbital magnetization. This coupling mechanism is expected to apply for any conducting ferromagnetic oxide with mixed valence; in view of electron hopping frequency involved, it raises the prospect of terahertz tunability of magnetic coupling. PMID:26980456

  13. Two general models that generate long range correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiaocong; Han, Zhangang

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we study two models that generate sequences with LRC (long range correlation). For the IFT (inverse Fourier transform) model, our conclusion is the low frequency part leads to LRC, while the high frequency part tends to eliminate it. Therefore, a typical method to generate a sequence with LRC is multiplying the spectrum of a white noise sequence by a decaying function. A special case is analyzed: the linear combination of a smooth curve and a white noise sequence, in which the DFA plot consists of two line segments. For the patch model, our conclusion is long subsequences leads to LRC, while short subsequences tend to eliminate it. Therefore, we can generate a sequence with LRC by using a fat-tailed PDF (probability distribution function) of the length of the subsequences. A special case is also analyzed: if a patch model with long subsequences is mixed with a white noise sequence, the DFA plot will consist of two line segments. We have checked known models and actual data, and found they are all consistent with this study.

  14. Long range transport of colloids in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, Daniel; Musa, Sami; Huyghe, Jacques M. R. J.; Wyss, Hans M.

    2013-03-01

    Colloids in aqueous suspensions can experience strong, extremely long range repulsive forces near interfaces such as biological tissues, gels, ion exchange resins or metals. As a result exclusion zones extending over several millimeters can be formed. While this phenomenon has been previously described, a physical understanding of this process is still lacking. This exclusion zone formation is puzzling because the typical forces acting on colloidal particles are limited to much shorter distances and external fields that could drive the particles are absent. Here we study the exclusion zone formation in detail by following the time and distance-dependent forces acting on the particles. We present a simple model that accounts for our experimental data and directly links the exclusion zone formation to an already known physical transport phenomenon. We show that the effect can be tuned by changing the zeta potential of the particles or by varying the species present in the aqueous solution. We thus provide a direct physical explanation for the intriguing exclusion zone formation and we illustrate how this effect can be exploited in a range of industrial applications.

  15. Long-range position and orientation tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    The long-range position and orientation tracking system will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the manways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the content mobilization system (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation.

  16. Measured long-range repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces

    PubMed Central

    Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies1–3. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces4. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz5–7, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long-range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies8–11. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction12, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction13–15. PMID:19129843

  17. Precise long-range migration results from short-range stepwise migration during ring gland organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Higueras, Carlos; Hombría, James Castelli-Gair

    2016-06-01

    Many organs are specified far from the location they occupy when functional, having to migrate long distances through the heterogeneous and dynamic environment of the early embryo. We study the formation of the main Drosophila endocrine organ, the ring gland, as a new model to investigate in vivo the genetic regulation of collective cell migration. The ring gland results from the fusion of three independent gland primordia that migrate from the head towards the anterior aorta as the embryo is experiencing major morphogenetic movements. To complete their long-range migration, the glands extend filopodia moving sequentially towards a nearby intermediate target and from there to more distal ones. Thus, the apparent long-range migration is composed of several short-range migratory steps that facilitate reaching the final destination. We find that the target tissues react to the gland's proximity by sending filopodia towards it. Our finding of a succession of independent migration stages is consistent with the stepwise evolution of ring gland assembly and fits with the observed gland locations found in extant crustaceans, basal insects and flies. PMID:27063193

  18. Roles of Long-Range Tertiary Interactions in Limiting Dynamics of the Tetrahymena Group I Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of mutating the long-range tertiary contacts of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme on the dynamics of its substrate helix (referred to as P1) and on catalytic activity. Dynamics were assayed by fluorescence anisotropy of the fluorescent base analogue, 6-methyl isoxanthopterin, incorporated into the P1 helix, and fluorescence anisotropy and catalytic activity were measured for wild type and mutant ribozymes over a range of conditions. Remarkably, catalytic activity correlated with P1 anisotropy over 5 orders of magnitude of activity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The functional and dynamic effects from simultaneous mutation of the two long-range contacts that weaken P1 docking are cumulative and, based on this RNA’s topology, suggest distinct underlying origins for the mutant effects. Tests of mechanistic predictions via single molecule FRET measurements of rate constants for P1 docking and undocking suggest that ablation of the P14 tertiary interaction frees P2 and thereby enhances the conformational space explored by the undocked attached P1 helix. In contrast, mutation of the metal core tertiary interaction disrupts the conserved core into which the P1 helix docks. Thus, despite following a single correlation, the two long-range tertiary contacts facilitate P1 helix docking by distinct mechanisms. These results also demonstrate that a fluorescence anisotropy probe incorporated into a specific helix within a larger RNA can report on changes in local helical motions as well as differences in more global dynamics. This ability will help uncover the physical properties and behaviors that underlie the function of RNAs and RNA/protein complexes. PMID:24738560

  19. Long range laser propagation: power scaling and beam quality issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper will address long range laser propagation applications where power and, in particular beam quality issues play a major role. Hereby the power level is defined by the specific mission under consideration. I restrict myself to the following application areas: (1)Remote sensing/Space based LIDAR, (2) Space debris removal (3)Energy transmission, and (4)Directed energy weapons Typical examples for space based LIDARs are the ADM Aeolus ESA mission using the ALADIN Nd:YAG laser with its third harmonic at 355 nm and the NASA 2 μm Tm:Ho:LuLiF convectively cooled solid state laser. Space debris removal has attracted more attention in the last years due to the dangerous accumulation of debris in orbit which become a threat to the satellites and the ISS space station. High power high brightness lasers may contribute to this problem by partially ablating the debris material and hence generating an impulse which will eventually de-orbit the debris with their subsequent disintegration in the lower atmosphere. Energy transmission via laser beam from space to earth has long been discussed as a novel long term approach to solve the energy problem on earth. In addition orbital transfer and stationkeeping are among the more mid-term applications of high power laser beams. Finally, directed energy weapons are becoming closer to reality as corresponding laser sources have matured due to recent efforts in the JHPSSL program. All of this can only be realized if he laser sources fulfill the necessary power requirements while keeping the beam quality as close as possible to the diffraction limited value. And this is the rationale and motivation of this paper.

  20. Epidemic spreading in networks with nonrandom long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Kalala-Mutombo, Franck; Valverde-Colmeiro, Alba

    2011-09-01

    An “infection,” understood here in a very broad sense, can be propagated through the network of social contacts among individuals. These social contacts include both “close” contacts and “casual” encounters among individuals in transport, leisure, shopping, etc. Knowing the first through the study of the social networks is not a difficult task, but having a clear picture of the network of casual contacts is a very hard problem in a society of increasing mobility. Here we assume, on the basis of several pieces of empirical evidence, that the casual contacts between two individuals are a function of their social distance in the network of close contacts. Then, we assume that we know the network of close contacts and infer the casual encounters by means of nonrandom long-range (LR) interactions determined by the social proximity of the two individuals. This approach is then implemented in a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model accounting for the spread of infections in complex networks. A parameter called “conductance” controls the feasibility of those casual encounters. In a zero conductance network only contagion through close contacts is allowed. As the conductance increases the probability of having casual encounters also increases. We show here that as the conductance parameter increases, the rate of propagation increases dramatically and the infection is less likely to die out. This increment is particularly marked in networks with scale-free degree distributions, where infections easily become epidemics. Our model provides a general framework for studying epidemic spreading in networks with arbitrary topology with and without casual contacts accounted for by means of LR interactions.

  1. Long-range Plans for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, A. T.; Bus, S. J.; Rayner, J.; Tollestrup, E. V.

    2004-11-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a 3-meter optical/IR telescope dedicated to NASA-related programs of mission support and basic solar system research. All of the funding for IRTF operations comes from the Planetary Astronomy Program. The IRTF is unique in providing NASA with a dedicated telescope for mission support. Its aperture is sufficient for many kinds of solar system observations. While large telescopes like the Keck allow astronomers to push the limits of sensitivity, the IRTF provides the ability to carry out complementary studies on brighter objects. In addition, the IRTF provides the planetary community with access to one of the world's best observing sites, the summit of Mauna Kea. The user base of the telescope has been expanding in recent years due to new instrumentation, visible imaging capability, and remote observing. The IRTF also provides opportunities for instrument development and training of students and post-docs, thus helping ensure a solid foundation for the next generation of planetary scientists. A long-range plan is being developed that will position the IRTF to be a powerful facility for mission support well beyond the Cassini mission. A refurbished IRTF would have: (1) Optimized instruments for planetary science that provide high-spectral resolution, wide wavelength coverage, and diffraction-limited imaging capabilities. (2) An adaptive optics system that produces extremely high Strehl ratio images, and includes an extended object wave-front sensor. (3) Focused programs on mission support, NEOs, asteroids, and comets. (4) Remote observing. (5) Rapid response to needs of the planetary community. (6) Flexible scheduling. (7) Daytime observing close to the Sun. We acknowledge the support of NASA Cooperative Agreement no. NCC 5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Planetary Astronomy Program.

  2. Short-range interactions versus long-range correlations in bird flocks.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Dey, Supravat; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    Bird flocks are a paradigmatic example of collective motion. One of the prominent traits of flocking is the presence of long range velocity correlations between individuals, which allow them to influence each other over the large scales, keeping a high level of group coordination. A crucial question is to understand what is the mutual interaction between birds generating such nontrivial correlations. Here we use the maximum entropy (ME) approach to infer from experimental data of natural flocks the effective interactions between individuals. Compared to previous studies, we make a significant step forward as we retrieve the full functional dependence of the interaction on distance, and find that it decays exponentially over a range of a few individuals. The fact that ME gives a short-range interaction even though its experimental input is the long-range correlation function, shows that the method is able to discriminate the relevant information encoded in such correlations and single out a minimal number of effective parameters. Finally, we show how the method can be used to capture the degree of anisotropy of mutual interactions. PMID:26274201

  3. Short-range interactions versus long-range correlations in bird flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Dey, Supravat; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    Bird flocks are a paradigmatic example of collective motion. One of the prominent traits of flocking is the presence of long range velocity correlations between individuals, which allow them to influence each other over the large scales, keeping a high level of group coordination. A crucial question is to understand what is the mutual interaction between birds generating such nontrivial correlations. Here we use the maximum entropy (ME) approach to infer from experimental data of natural flocks the effective interactions between individuals. Compared to previous studies, we make a significant step forward as we retrieve the full functional dependence of the interaction on distance, and find that it decays exponentially over a range of a few individuals. The fact that ME gives a short-range interaction even though its experimental input is the long-range correlation function, shows that the method is able to discriminate the relevant information encoded in such correlations and single out a minimal number of effective parameters. Finally, we show how the method can be used to capture the degree of anisotropy of mutual interactions.

  4. Development and investigation of a long-range time-of-flight and color imaging system.

    PubMed

    Langmann, Benjamin; Weihs, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Klaus; Loffeld, Otmar

    2014-08-01

    Time-of-flight (Tof) imaging based on the photonic mixer device (PMD) or similar ToF imaging solutions has been limited to short distances in the past, due to limited lighting devices and low sensitivity of ToF imaging chips. Long-range distance measurements are typically the domain of laser scanning systems. In this paper, PMD based medium- and long-range lighting devices working together with a 2-D/3-D camera are presented and several measurement results are discussed. The proposed imaging systems suffer from two systematic limitations in addition to problems due to wind and insufficient lighting: a low lateral resolution of the depth imaging chip and ambiguities in the distance measurements. In order to provide a robust and flexible system, we introduce algorithms to obtain unambiguous depth values (phase unwrapping) and to perform a joint motion compensation and super-resolution. Several experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the components of the multimodal imaging system. PMID:24235261

  5. Quantum phases from competing short- and long-range interactions in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landig, Renate; Hruby, Lorenz; Dogra, Nishant; Landini, Manuele; Mottl, Rafael; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman

    2016-04-01

    Insights into complex phenomena in quantum matter can be gained from simulation experiments with ultracold atoms, especially in cases where theoretical characterization is challenging. However, these experiments are mostly limited to short-range collisional interactions; recently observed perturbative effects of long-range interactions were too weak to reach new quantum phases. Here we experimentally realize a bosonic lattice model with competing short- and long-range interactions, and observe the appearance of four distinct quantum phases—a superfluid, a supersolid, a Mott insulator and a charge density wave. Our system is based on an atomic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The strength of the short-range on-site interactions is controlled by means of the optical lattice depth. The long (infinite)-range interaction potential is mediated by a vacuum mode of the cavity and is independently controlled by tuning the cavity resonance. When probing the phase transition between the Mott insulator and the charge density wave in real time, we observed a behaviour characteristic of a first-order phase transition. Our measurements have accessed a regime for quantum simulation of many-body systems where the physics is determined by the intricate competition between two different types of interactions and the zero point motion of the particles.

  6. Amplitude equation and long-range interactions in underwater sand ripples in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnipper, Teis; Mertens, Keith; Ellegaard, Clive; Bohr, Tomas

    2008-10-01

    We present an amplitude equation for sand ripples under oscillatory flow in a situation where the sand is moving in a narrow channel and the height profile is practically one dimensional. The equation has the form ht=-γ(h- hmacr )+((hx)2-1)hxx-hxxxx+δ((hx)2)xx which, due to the first term, is neither completely local (it has long-range coupling through the average height hmacr ) nor has local sand conservation. We argue that this is reasonable and show that the equation compares well with experimental observations in narrow channels. We focus in particular on the so-called doubling transition, a secondary instability caused by the sudden decrease in the amplitude of the water motion, leading to the appearance of a new ripple in each trough. This transition is well reproduced for sufficiently large δ (asymmetry between trough and crest). We finally present surprising experimental results showing that long-range coupling is indeed seen in the initial details of the doubling transition, where in fact two small ripples are initially formed, followed by global symmetry breaking removing one of them.

  7. Quantum phases from competing short- and long-range interactions in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Landig, Renate; Hruby, Lorenz; Dogra, Nishant; Landini, Manuele; Mottl, Rafael; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman

    2016-04-28

    Insights into complex phenomena in quantum matter can be gained from simulation experiments with ultracold atoms, especially in cases where theoretical characterization is challenging. However, these experiments are mostly limited to short-range collisional interactions; recently observed perturbative effects of long-range interactions were too weak to reach new quantum phases. Here we experimentally realize a bosonic lattice model with competing short- and long-range interactions, and observe the appearance of four distinct quantum phases--a superfluid, a supersolid, a Mott insulator and a charge density wave. Our system is based on an atomic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The strength of the short-range on-site interactions is controlled by means of the optical lattice depth. The long (infinite)-range interaction potential is mediated by a vacuum mode of the cavity and is independently controlled by tuning the cavity resonance. When probing the phase transition between the Mott insulator and the charge density wave in real time, we observed a behaviour characteristic of a first-order phase transition. Our measurements have accessed a regime for quantum simulation of many-body systems where the physics is determined by the intricate competition between two different types of interactions and the zero point motion of the particles. PMID:27064902

  8. Amplitude equation and long-range interactions in underwater sand ripples in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Schnipper, Teis; Mertens, Keith; Ellegaard, Clive; Bohr, Tomas

    2008-10-01

    We present an amplitude equation for sand ripples under oscillatory flow in a situation where the sand is moving in a narrow channel and the height profile is practically one dimensional. The equation has the form ht = - epsilon(h-h)+((hx)2-1)hxx-hxxxx+delta((hx)2)xx which, due to the first term, is neither completely local (it has long-range coupling through the average height h) nor has local sand conservation. We argue that this is reasonable and show that the equation compares well with experimental observations in narrow channels. We focus in particular on the so-called doubling transition, a secondary instability caused by the sudden decrease in the amplitude of the water motion, leading to the appearance of a new ripple in each trough. This transition is well reproduced for sufficiently large delta (asymmetry between trough and crest). We finally present surprising experimental results showing that long-range coupling is indeed seen in the initial details of the doubling transition, where in fact two small ripples are initially formed, followed by global symmetry breaking removing one of them. PMID:18999572

  9. A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Long-Range Hypervelocity Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggers, Alfred J , Jr; Allen, H Julian; Neice, Stanford E

    1958-01-01

    Long-range hypervelocity vehicles are studied in terms of their motion in powered flight. Powered flight is analyzed for an idealized propulsion system which approximates rocket motors. Unpowered flight is characterized by a return to earth along a ballistic, skip, or glide trajectory. Only those trajectories are treated which yield the maximum range for a given velocity at the end of powered flight. Aerodynamic heating is treated in a manner similar to that employed previously by the senior authors in studying ballistic missiles (NACA rep. 1381), with the exception that radiant as well as convective heat transfer is considered in connection with glide and skip vehicles. As a final performance consideration, it is shown that on the basis of equal ratios of mass at take-off to mass at the end of powered flight, the hypervelocity vehicle compares favorably with the supersonic airplane for ranges in the neighborhood of and greater than one half the circumference of the earth. In the light of this and previous findings, it is concluded that the ballistic and glide vehicles have, in addition to the advantages usually ascribed to great speed, the attractive possibility of providing relatively efficient long-range flight.

  10. Long-range vibration detection system using heterodyne interferometry.

    PubMed

    Rzasa, John R; Cho, Kyuman; Davis, Christopher C

    2015-07-10

    We present the design and performance of an extremely sensitive coherent remote vibration detection system using optical heterodyne vibration of phase shifts produced by laser light scattered off a remote target. The resulting phase-modulated intermediate RF of 200 MHz, which carries the vibrational motion of the target, is demodulated down to baseband using an RF in-phase and quadrature demodulator. Acquisition and calculation of the target phase angle is carried out on a custom-made control board which utilizes high-resolution A/D converters, variable gain amplifiers, and a Spartan-6 field programmable gate array. PMID:26193398

  11. Multifractal Geophysical Extremes: Nonstationarity and Long Range Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    Throughout the world, extremes in environmental sciences are of prime importance. They are key variables not only for risk assessments and engineering designs (e.g. of dams and bridges), but also for resource management (e.g. water and energy) and for land use. A better understanding of them is more and more indispensable in settling the debate on their possible climatological evolution. Whereas it took decades before a uniform technique for estimating flow frequencies within a stationary framework, it is often claimed that « stationarity is dead ! ». The fact that geophysical and environmental fields are variable over a wider range of scales than previously thought require to go beyond the limits of the (classical) Extreme Value Theory (EVT). Indeed, long-range correlations are beyond the scope of the classical EVT theory. We show that multifractal concepts and techniques are particularly appealing because they can effectively deal with a cascade of interactions concentrating for instance energy, liquid water, etc. into smaller and smaller space-time domains. Furthermore, a general outcome of these cascade processes -which surprisingly was realized only rather recently- is that rather independently of their details they yield probability distributions with power-law fall-offs, often called (asymptotic) Pareto or Zipf laws. We discuss the corresponding probability distributions of their maxima and its relationship with the Frechet law. We use these multifractal techniques to investigate the possibility of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we assess the multifractal parameter uncertainty with the help of long synthetic multifractal series and their sub-samples, in particular to obtain an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of this approach with its application to

  12. Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on

  13. A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggers, A J , Jr

    1958-01-01

    It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory. Since both the motion and aerodynamic heating of a missile tend to be simulated in the model tests, this combination of hypervelocity gun and supersonic nozzle is termed an atmosphere entry simulator.

  14. Long Range Order of Motile Defects in Active Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-03-01

    Active 2D nematic liquid crystals exist in a dynamical steady state in which +1/2 and -1/2 defects are spontaneously generated and annihilated at a constant rate. Active stresses in the material are thought to destroy nematic order through the generation of these defects. We present an active nematic mesophase in which motile defects of charge +1/2 spontaneously acquire long range order. The system is composed of microtubule filaments and kinesin motor protein clusters which are confined to a flat, 2D oil-water interface. The addition of ATP results in microtubule bundles which exhibit kinesin-driven extensile motion. By tuning the density of the nematic material at the 2D interface, we can tune the order parameter of the +1/2 defect ordered mesophase. Additionally, the defect alignment persists over samples at the centimeter scale.

  15. Superfluidity or supersolidity as a consequence of off-diagonal long-range order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2005-07-01

    We present a general derivation of Hess-Fairbank effect or nonclassical rotational inertial (NCRI), i.e., the refusal to rotate with its container, as well as the quantization of angular momentum, as consequences of off-diagonal long-range order (ODLRO) in an interacting Bose system. Afterwards, the path integral formulation of superfluid density is rederived without ignoring the centrifugal potential. Finally and in particular, for a class of variational wave functions used for solid helium, treating the constraint of single-valuedness boundary condition carefully, we show that there is no ODLRO and, especially, demonstrate explicitly that NCRI cannot be possessed in absence of defects, even though there exist zero-point motion and exchange effect.

  16. Elimination of the coffee-ring effect by promoting particle adsorption and long-range interaction.

    PubMed

    Crivoi, A; Duan, Fei

    2013-10-01

    A Monte Carlo model has been developed to investigate the transition from the coffee-ring deposition to the uniform coverage in drying pinned sessile colloidal droplets. The model applies the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) approach coupled with the biased random walk (BRW) to simulate the particle migration and agglomeration during the droplet drying process. It is shown that the simultaneous presence of the particle adsorption, long-range attraction, and circulatory motion processes is important for the transition from the coffee-ring effect to the uniform deposition of finally dried particles. The absence of one of the specified factors favors the coffee-ring deposition near the droplet boundary. The strong outward capillary flow on the latest evaporation stage can easily destroy the entire particle pre-ordering at the early drying stages. The formation of a robust particle structure is required to resist the outward flow and alter the coffee-ring effect. PMID:24015843

  17. Transient Superdiffusion and Long-Range Correlations in the Motility Patterns of Trypanosomatid Flagellate Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Scariot, Débora B.; Guimarães, Renato R.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Mendes, Renio S.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a diffusive analysis of the motion of flagellate protozoa species. These parasites are the etiological agents of neglected tropical diseases: leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis, African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei, and Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. By tracking the positions of these parasites and evaluating the variance related to the radial positions, we find that their motions are characterized by a short-time transient superdiffusive behavior. Also, the probability distributions of the radial positions are self-similar and can be approximated by a stretched Gaussian distribution. We further investigate the probability distributions of the radial velocities of individual trajectories. Among several candidates, we find that the generalized gamma distribution shows a good agreement with these distributions. The velocity time series have long-range correlations, displaying a strong persistent behavior (Hurst exponents close to one). The prevalence of “universal” patterns across all analyzed species indicates that similar mechanisms may be ruling the motion of these parasites, despite their differences in morphological traits. In addition, further analysis of these patterns could become a useful tool for investigating the activity of new candidate drugs against these and others neglected tropical diseases. PMID:27007779

  18. Transient Superdiffusion and Long-Range Correlations in the Motility Patterns of Trypanosomatid Flagellate Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luiz G A; Scariot, Débora B; Guimarães, Renato R; Nakamura, Celso V; Mendes, Renio S; Ribeiro, Haroldo V

    2016-01-01

    We report on a diffusive analysis of the motion of flagellate protozoa species. These parasites are the etiological agents of neglected tropical diseases: leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis, African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei, and Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. By tracking the positions of these parasites and evaluating the variance related to the radial positions, we find that their motions are characterized by a short-time transient superdiffusive behavior. Also, the probability distributions of the radial positions are self-similar and can be approximated by a stretched Gaussian distribution. We further investigate the probability distributions of the radial velocities of individual trajectories. Among several candidates, we find that the generalized gamma distribution shows a good agreement with these distributions. The velocity time series have long-range correlations, displaying a strong persistent behavior (Hurst exponents close to one). The prevalence of "universal" patterns across all analyzed species indicates that similar mechanisms may be ruling the motion of these parasites, despite their differences in morphological traits. In addition, further analysis of these patterns could become a useful tool for investigating the activity of new candidate drugs against these and others neglected tropical diseases. PMID:27007779

  19. The long range voice coil atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, H.; Randall, C.; Bridges, D.; Hansma, P. K.

    2012-02-15

    Most current atomic force microscopes (AFMs) use piezoelectric ceramics for scan actuation. Piezoelectric ceramics provide precision motion with fast response to applied voltage potential. A drawback to piezoelectric ceramics is their inherently limited ranges. For many samples this is a nonissue, as imaging the nanoscale details is the goal. However, a key advantage of AFM over other microscopy techniques is its ability to image biological samples in aqueous buffer. Many biological specimens have topography for which the range of piezoactuated stages is limiting, a notable example of which is bone. In this article, we present the use of voice coils in scan actuation for an actuation range in the Z-axis an order of magnitude larger than any AFM commercially available today. The increased scan size will allow for imaging an important new variety of samples, including bone fractures.

  20. Towards Long Range Spin-Spin Interactions via Mechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabcenell, Aaron; Gieseler, Jan; Safira, Arthur; Kolkowitz, Shimon; Zibrov, Alexander; Harris, Jack; Lukin, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen vacancy centers (NVs) are promising candidates for quantum computation, with room temperature optical spin read-out and initialization, microwave manipulability, and weak coupling to the environment resulting in long spin coherence times. The major outstanding challenge involves engineering coherent interactions between the spin states of spatially separated NV centers. To address this challenge, we are working towards the experimental realization of mechanical spin transducers. We have successfully fabricated magnetized high quality factor (Q> 105) , doubly-clamped silicon nitride mechanical resonators integrated close to a diamond surface, and report on experimental progress towards achieving the coherent coupling of the motion of these resonators with the electronic spin states of individual NV centers under cryogenic conditions. Such a system is expected to provide a scalable platform for mediating effective interactions between isolated spin qubits.

  1. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    SciTech Connect

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-22

    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been reduced since the Notice of Preparation for

  2. Controlled long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secker, T.; Gerritsma, R.; Glaetzle, A. W.; Negretti, A.

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate trapped ions interacting with atoms that are coupled to Rydberg states. The strong polarizabilities of the Rydberg levels increase the interaction strength between atoms and ions by many orders of magnitude, as compared to the case of ground-state atoms, and may be mediated over micrometers. We calculate that such interactions can be used to generate entanglement between an atom and the motion or internal state of an ion. Furthermore, the ion could be used as a bus for mediating spin-spin interactions between atomic spins in analogy to much employed techniques in ion-trap quantum simulation. The proposed scheme comes with attractive features as it maps the benefits of the trapped-ion quantum system onto the atomic one without obviously impeding its intrinsic scalability. No ground-state cooling of the ion or atom is required and the setup allows for full dynamical control. Moreover, the scheme is to a large extent immune to the micromotion of the ion. Our findings are of interest for developing hybrid quantum information platforms and for implementing quantum simulations of solid-state physics.

  3. A comparative analysis of the performance of long-range hypervelocity vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggers, Alfred J , Jr; Allen, H Julian; Neice, Stanford E

    1955-01-01

    Long-range hypervelocity vehicles are studied in terms of their motion in powered flight, and their motion and aerodynamic heating in unpowered flight. Powered flight is analyzed for an idealized propulsion system which rather closely approaches present-day rocket motors. Unpowered flight is characterized by a return to earth along a ballistic, skip, or glide trajectory. Only those trajectories are treated which yield the maximum range for a given velocity at the end of powered flight. Aerodynamic heating is treated in a manner similar to that employed previously by the senior authors is studying ballistic missiles (NACA RM A53D28), with the exception that radiant as well as convective heat transfer is considered in connection with glide and skip vehicles. The ballistic vehicle is found to be the least efficient of the several types studied in the sense that it generally requires the highest velocity at the end of powered flight in order to attain a given range. This disadvantage may be offset, however, by reducing convective heat transfer to the re-entry body through the artifice of increasing pressure drag in relation to friction drag - that is, by using a blunt body. Thus the kinetic energy required by the vehicle at the end of powered flight may be reduced by minimizing the mass of coolant material involved.

  4. Long-range and rapid transport of individual nano-objects by a hybrid electrothermoplasmonic nanotweezer.

    PubMed

    Ndukaife, Justus C; Kildishev, Alexander V; Nnanna, Agbai George Agwu; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Wereley, Steven T; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical trapping is being actively studied to provide efficient manipulation of nanometre-sized objects. However, a long-standing issue with previously proposed solutions is how to controllably load the trap on-demand without relying on Brownian diffusion. Here, we show that the photo-induced heating of a nanoantenna in conjunction with an applied a.c. electric field can initiate rapid microscale fluid motion and particle transport with a velocity exceeding 10 μm s(-1), which is over two orders of magnitude faster than previously predicted. Our electrothermoplasmonic device enables on-demand long-range and rapid delivery of single nano-objects to specific plasmonic nanoantennas, where they can be trapped and even locked in place. We also present a physical model that elucidates the role of both heat-induced fluidic motion and plasmonic field enhancement in the plasmon-assisted optical trapping process. Finally, by applying a d.c. field or low-frequency a.c. field (below 10 Hz) while the particle is held in the trap by the gradient force, the trapped nano-objects can be immobilized into plasmonic hotspots, thereby providing the potential for effective low-power nanomanufacturing on-chip. PMID:26524398

  5. Long-range and rapid transport of individual nano-objects by a hybrid electrothermoplasmonic nanotweezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndukaife, Justus C.; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Nnanna, Agbai George Agwu; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Wereley, Steven T.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical trapping is being actively studied to provide efficient manipulation of nanometre-sized objects. However, a long-standing issue with previously proposed solutions is how to controllably load the trap on-demand without relying on Brownian diffusion. Here, we show that the photo-induced heating of a nanoantenna in conjunction with an applied a.c. electric field can initiate rapid microscale fluid motion and particle transport with a velocity exceeding 10 μm s-1, which is over two orders of magnitude faster than previously predicted. Our electrothermoplasmonic device enables on-demand long-range and rapid delivery of single nano-objects to specific plasmonic nanoantennas, where they can be trapped and even locked in place. We also present a physical model that elucidates the role of both heat-induced fluidic motion and plasmonic field enhancement in the plasmon-assisted optical trapping process. Finally, by applying a d.c. field or low-frequency a.c. field (below 10 Hz) while the particle is held in the trap by the gradient force, the trapped nano-objects can be immobilized into plasmonic hotspots, thereby providing the potential for effective low-power nanomanufacturing on-chip.

  6. Long-range acoustic interactions in insect swarms: an adaptive gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbonos, Dan; Ianconescu, Reuven; Puckett, James G.; Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-07-01

    The collective motion of groups of animals emerges from the net effect of the interactions between individual members of the group. In many cases, such as birds, fish, or ungulates, these interactions are mediated by sensory stimuli that predominantly arise from nearby neighbors. But not all stimuli in animal groups are short range. Here, we consider mating swarms of midges, which are thought to interact primarily via long-range acoustic stimuli. We exploit the similarity in form between the decay of acoustic and gravitational sources to build a model for swarm behavior. By accounting for the adaptive nature of the midges’ acoustic sensing, we show that our ‘adaptive gravity’ model makes mean-field predictions that agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. Our results highlight the role of sensory mechanisms and interaction range in collective animal behavior. Additionally, the adaptive interactions that we present here open a new class of equations of motion, which may appear in other biological contexts.

  7. Long-range cortical connections give rise to a robust velocity map of V1.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Phillip

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a two-dimensional velocity model (2DVM) of the primary visual cortex (V1). The model's novel aspect is that it specifies a particular pattern of long-range cortical temporal connections, via the Connection Algorithm, and shows how the addition of these connections to well-known spatial properties of V1 transforms V1 into a velocity map. The map implies a number of organizational properties of V1: (1) the singularity of each orientation pinwheel contributes to the detection of slow-moving spots across the visual field; (2) the speed component of neuronal velocity selectivity decreases monotonically across each joint orientation contour line for parallel motion and increases monotonically for orthogonal motion; (3) the cells that are direction selective to slow-moving objects are situated in the periphery of V1; and (4) neurons in distinct pinwheels tend to be connected to neurons with similar tuning preferences in other pinwheels. The model accounts for various types of known illusionary perceptions of human vision: perceptual filling-in, illusionary orientation and visual crowding. The three distinguishing features of 2DVM are: (1) it unifies the functional properties of the conventional energy model of V1; (2) it directly relates the functional properties to the known structure of the upper layers of V1; and (3) it implies that the spatial selectivity features of V1 are side effects of its more important role as a velocity map of the visual field. PMID:26343820

  8. Network of long-range concerted chemical shift displacements upon ligand binding to human angiogenin

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Donald; Narayanan, Chitra; Doucet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Molecular recognition models of both induced fit and conformational selection rely on coupled networks of flexible residues and/or structural rearrangements to promote protein function. While the atomic details of these motional events still remain elusive, members of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily were previously shown to depend on subtle conformational heterogeneity for optimal catalytic function. Human angiogenin, a structural homologue of bovine pancreatic RNase A, induces blood vessel formation and relies on a weak yet functionally mandatory ribonucleolytic activity to promote neovascularization. Here, we use the NMR chemical shift projection analysis (CHESPA) to clarify the mechanism of ligand binding in human angiogenin, further providing information on long-range intramolecular residue networks potentially involved in the function of this enzyme. We identify two main clusters of residue networks displaying correlated linear chemical shift trajectories upon binding of substrate fragments to the purine- and pyrimidine-specific subsites of the catalytic cleft. A large correlated residue network clusters in the region corresponding to the V1 domain, a site generally associated with the angiogenic response and structural stability of the enzyme. Another correlated network (residues 40–42) negatively affects the catalytic activity but also increases the angiogenic activity. 15N-CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments could not reveal the existence of millisecond timescale conformational exchange in this enzyme, a lack of flexibility supported by the very low-binding affinities and catalytic activity of angiogenin. Altogether, the current report potentially highlights the existence of long-range dynamic reorganization of the structure upon distinct subsite binding events in human angiogenin. PMID:25450558

  9. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

    This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

  10. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  11. Solution of the Schroedinger Eq. in the presence of very long-range potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawitscher, George

    2013-04-01

    Conventional finite difference methods usually do not provide the required accuracy for the relative motion wave function of two colliding atoms or molecules for the large distances required in the presence of long range potentials at low temperatures. An alternative method is presented that obtains two independent solutions at large distances, that can be matched to the conventional solution at short distances. The method is akin to the Born approximation applied iteratively in the large distance domain, and hence by-passes the conventional methods of solving a differential equation. With this method, for a potential of the form C6/r^6, 10 iterations suffice to achieve an accuracy of 10-10 in the radial domain [100,1000]a0 for a wave number k = 10-3(a0)-1. For the case C3/(r^3) convergence still takes place, but is not as fast, and requires a smaller radial domain. For example, an accuracy of 10-8 is obtained after 19 iterations in the domain [2500,3000]a0, with k = 10-3 (a0)-1.

  12. Comment on the existence of a long range correlation in the geomagnetic disturbance storm time (Dst) index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasa, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Very recently (Banerjee et al. in Astrophys. Space, doi:10.1007/s10509-011-0836-1, 2011) the statistics of geomagnetic Disturbance storm (Dst) index have been addressed, and the conclusion from this analysis suggests that the underlying dynamical process can be modeled as a fractional Brownian motion with persistent long-range correlations. In this comment we expose several misconceptions and flaws in the statistical analysis of that work. On the basis of these arguments, the former conclusion should be revisited.

  13. Photon Devil's staircase: photon long-range repulsive interaction in lattices of coupled resonators with Rydberg atoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J-Q; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil's staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence. PMID:26108705

  14. Photon Devil’s staircase: photon long-range repulsive interaction in lattices of coupled resonators with Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J.-Q.; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2015-06-01

    The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil’s staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence.

  15. Photon Devil’s staircase: photon long-range repulsive interaction in lattices of coupled resonators with Rydberg atoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Fan, Jingtao; Liang, J.-Q.; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The realization of strong coherent interactions between individual photons is a long-standing goal in science and engineering. In this report, based on recent experimental setups, we derive a strong photon long-range repulsive interaction, by controlling the van der Waals repulsive force between Cesium Rydberg atoms located inside different cavities in extended Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. We also find novel quantum phases induced by this photon long-range repulsive interaction. For example, without photon hopping, a photon Devil’s staircase, induced by the breaking of long-range translation symmetry, can emerge. If photon hopping occurs, we predict a photon-floating solid phase, due to the motion of particle- and hole-like defects. More importantly, for a large chemical potential in the resonant case, the photon hopping can be frozen even if the hopping term exists. We call this new phase the photon-frozen solid phase. In experiments, these predicted phases could be detected by measuring the number of polaritons via resonance fluorescence. PMID:26108705

  16. 75 FR 1799 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Register of January 7, 2010 (75 FR 998). The document announced termination of the Long Range Aids to... January 7, 2010, in ] FR Doc. 2010-83, on page 998 in the second column under DATES, correct... SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard,...

  17. Long Range Plan for Information Systems from the State Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The Information Systems Long Range Plan specifically addresses Goal four of the Texas State Board of Education's (SBOE's) "Long-Range Plan for Public School Education" dealing with efficient management and organization of the educational system. To facilitate this goal, the SBOE in 1986 approved and directed the Texas Education Agency to implement…

  18. 48 CFR 5.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Release of long-range... REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 5.404 Release of long... may be desirable to publicize estimates of unclassified long-range acquisition requirements....

  19. 48 CFR 405.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 405.404 Section 405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Release of long-range acquisition estimates....

  20. 48 CFR 405.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 405.404 Section 405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Release of long-range acquisition estimates....

  1. 48 CFR 605.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 605.404 Section 605.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... long-range acquisition estimates....

  2. 48 CFR 5.404-2 - Announcements of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Announcements of long... Announcements of long-range acquisition estimates. Further publicizing, consistent with the needs of the individual case, may be accomplished by announcing through the GPE that long-range acquisition estimates...

  3. 48 CFR 405.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 405.404 Section 405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Release of long-range acquisition estimates....

  4. 48 CFR 605.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 605.404 Section 605.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... long-range acquisition estimates....

  5. 48 CFR 5.404-2 - Announcements of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Announcements of long... Announcements of long-range acquisition estimates. Further publicizing, consistent with the needs of the individual case, may be accomplished by announcing through the GPE that long-range acquisition estimates...

  6. 48 CFR 5.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of long-range... REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 5.404 Release of long... may be desirable to publicize estimates of unclassified long-range acquisition requirements....

  7. 48 CFR 605.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 605.404 Section 605.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... long-range acquisition estimates....

  8. 48 CFR 1405.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 1405.404 Section 1405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Release of long-range acquisition estimates....

  9. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

  10. 48 CFR 1305.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 1305.404 Section 1305.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... long-range acquisition estimates....

  11. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

  12. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

  13. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...

  14. 48 CFR 405.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 405.404 Section 405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Release of long-range acquisition estimates....

  15. 48 CFR 605.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 605.404 Section 605.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... long-range acquisition estimates....

  16. 48 CFR 1405.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 1405.404 Section 1405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Release of long-range acquisition estimates....

  17. 48 CFR 5.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of long-range... REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 5.404 Release of long... may be desirable to publicize estimates of unclassified long-range acquisition requirements....

  18. 48 CFR 5.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Release of long-range... REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 5.404 Release of long... may be desirable to publicize estimates of unclassified long-range acquisition requirements....

  19. 48 CFR 5.404-2 - Announcements of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Announcements of long... Announcements of long-range acquisition estimates. Further publicizing, consistent with the needs of the individual case, may be accomplished by announcing through the GPE that long-range acquisition estimates...

  20. 48 CFR 5.404-2 - Announcements of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Announcements of long... Announcements of long-range acquisition estimates. Further publicizing, consistent with the needs of the individual case, may be accomplished by announcing through the GPE that long-range acquisition estimates...

  1. 48 CFR 1305.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 1305.404 Section 1305.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... long-range acquisition estimates....

  2. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may...-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of...

  3. 23 CFR 450.214 - Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan. 450.214 Section 450.214 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.214 Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan. (a) The...

  4. North Idaho College Long-Range Plan and Statement of Institutional Mission and Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargol, Owen F.

    Based upon a planning project initiated at North Idaho College (NIC) in 1981 and approved by the Board of Trustees in 1982, this long-range plan states the mission of NIC and specifies goals and objectives to be attained in the next 3 years. First, introductory sections consider the qualities of a good long-range plan, address the responsibilities…

  5. 7 CFR 1717.604 - Long-range engineering plans and construction work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Long-range engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 Long-range engineering plans...

  6. 48 CFR 1405.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 1405.404 Section 1405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Release of long-range acquisition estimates....

  7. 48 CFR 1305.404 - Release of long-range acquisition estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of long-range acquisition estimates. 1305.404 Section 1305.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... long-range acquisition estimates....

  8. 7 CFR 1717.604 - Long-range engineering plans and construction work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-range engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 Long-range engineering plans...

  9. 7 CFR 1717.604 - Long-range engineering plans and construction work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Long-range engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 Long-range engineering plans...

  10. 7 CFR 1717.604 - Long-range engineering plans and construction work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Long-range engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 Long-range engineering plans...

  11. 7 CFR 1717.604 - Long-range engineering plans and construction work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Long-range engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 Long-range engineering plans...

  12. Sensitivity in the Correction of Long-Range Ground-Based Thermal Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Anson; James, Mike; Ganci, Gaetana; Harris, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based thermal remote sensing is a valuable tool for the study and monitoring of volcanoes and their hazards. However, permanent monitoring installations often require the camera to be positioned at relatively long ranges from the target (i.e. >1000 m). These types of long-range deployments have been seldom analysed quantitatively due primarily to factors such as atmospheric attenuation and across-image variations in the target path-length resulting in substantial uncertainty in the derived surface temperatures. Here we examine the sensitivity of measurements at three different apparent temperatures (400, 500 and 600 K) to uncertainty in the atmospheric conditions and type of path for the INGV-Catania (Etna, Sicily) permanently installed thermal camera. The camera is located at Mount Cagliato at an elevation of 1154 m asl and looks to the summit area at ˜3000 m asl, over a distance of ˜8.5 km. Analysis was carried out using MODTRAN to calculate atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance values for the different scenarios. We then calculated corrected surface temperatures by applying an atmospheric correction using two different temperature-to-radiance methods: a top-hat wavelength integrated based method supplied by FLIR Systems in their ThermaCam Researcher software and a mid-wavelength value method using the Planck equation. Results indicate that calculated surface temperatures between the two methods differ by as much as 382.5 K over a path-length of 8.5 km. Over path lengths between 1 and 8.5 km, changing the atmospheric temperature to 288.15 (15 oC), 293.15 (20 oC) and 298.15 K (25 oC) resulted in increases in calculated surface temperatures of 1.7-72.4 K using the FLIR top-hat method and 1.4-205.5 K using the mid-wavelength method. For relative humidities of 40, 50 and 60 %, increases in calculated surface temperatures of 1.0-58.7 K and 1.0-148.9 K using the FLIR top-hat and mid-wavelength methods, respectively. We also found that calculated

  13. 2. QUANTUM HALL EFFECT: Magnetocapacitance studies of two-dimensional electron systems with long-range potential fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhova, M. O.; Dorozhkin, S. I.

    2001-10-01

    We report on magnetocapacitance study of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) states. Capacitance minima width was found to be independent of magnetic field and to be the same for even, odd and fractional QHE states when measured as a function of the average electron density. This result indicates that the width of capacitance minima in the samples investigated are governed by long-range carrier density fluctuations. At low temperatures, the amplitudes of the minima decrease linearly with the temperature increase. All our experimental results for the integer QHE states are quantitatively explained by introducing unbroadened magnetic levels and dispersion of the electron density along the sample. The energy gaps at even filling factors obtained from fitting the experimental data are found to be close to the known cyclotron gaps. At odd fillings v = 1, 3, and 5, the energy gaps appear to be enhanced in comparison with the Zeeman splitting, with the enhancement decreasing with filling factor. The capacitance minima are argued to originate from the motion of incompressible regions along a sample caused by the gate voltage variation. We derive the condition for the appearance and motion of such regions for the case of gated samples with long-range fluctuations of density of charged donors. The appearance of narrow magnetocapacitance peaks when a dc current is passed through the sample is reported. We hypothesize that these peaks are due to the current percolation along incompressible regions.

  14. QUANTIFYING UNCERTAINTY IN LONG RANGE TRANSPORT MODELS: WORKSHOP REPORT ON SOURCES AND EVALUATION OF UNCERTAINTY IN LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quantification of uncertainty in long-range transport model predictions and the implications of these uncertainties on formulations of control policy have been the subject of investigations by both the United States and Canada. To more fully address these topics, the American...

  15. Comparison of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Intravoxel Incoherent Motion for Differentiating among Glioblastoma, Metastasis, and Lymphoma Focusing on Diffusion-Related Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Brain tumor cellularity has been assessed by using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). However, the ADC value might be influenced by both perfusion and true molecular diffusion, and the perfusion effect on ADC can limit the reliability of ADC in the characterization of tumor cellularity, especially, in hypervascular brain tumors. In contrast, the IVIM technique estimates parameter values for diffusion and perfusion effects separately. The purpose of our study was to compare ADC and IVIM for differentiating among glioblastoma, metastatic tumor, and primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) focusing on diffusion-related parameter. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 128 patients with pathologically confirmed glioblastoma (n = 55), metastasis (n = 31), and PCNSL (n = 42) prior to any treatment. Two neuroradiologists independently calculated the maximum IVIM-f (fmax) and minimum IVIM-D (Dmin) by using 16 different b-values with a bi-exponential fitting of diffusion signal decay, minimum ADC (ADCmin) by using 0 and 1000 b-values with a mono-exponential fitting and maximum normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBVmax). The differences in fmax, Dmin, nCBVmax, and ADCmin among the three tumor pathologies were determined by one-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons. The fmax and Dmin were correlated to the corresponding nCBV and ADC using partial correlation analysis, respectively. Results Using a mono-exponential fitting of diffusion signal decay, the mean ADCmin was significantly lower in PCNSL than in glioblastoma and metastasis. However, using a bi-exponential fitting, the mean Dmin did not significantly differ in the three groups. The mean fmax significantly increased in the glioblastomas (reader 1, 0.103; reader 2, 0.109) and the metastasis (reader 1, 0.105; reader 2, 0.107), compared to the primary CNS lymphomas (reader 1, 0.025; reader 2, 0.023) (P < .001 for each). The correlation between fmax and the corresponding nCBV was highest

  16. Long-range non-contact imaging photoplethysmography: cardiac pulse wave sensing at a distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.; Piasecki, Alyssa M.; Bowers, Margaret A.; Klosterman, Samantha L.

    2016-03-01

    Non-contact, imaging photoplethysmography uses photo-optical sensors to measure variations in light absorption, caused by blood volume pulsations, to assess cardiopulmonary parameters including pulse rate, pulse rate variability, and respiration rate. Recently, researchers have studied the applications and methodology of imaging photoplethysmography. Basic research has examined some of the variables affecting data quality and accuracy of imaging photoplethysmography including signal processing, imager parameters (e.g. frame rate and resolution), lighting conditions, subject motion, and subject skin tone. This technology may be beneficial for long term or continuous monitoring where contact measurements may be harmful (e.g. skin sensitivities) or where imperceptible or unobtrusive measurements are desirable. Using previously validated signal processing methods, we examined the effects of imager-to-subject distance on one-minute, windowed estimates of pulse rate. High-resolution video of 22, stationary participants was collected using an enthusiast-grade, mirrorless, digital camera equipped with a fully-manual, super-telephoto lens at distances of 25, 50, and 100 meters with simultaneous contact measurements of electrocardiography, and fingertip photoplethysmography. By comparison, previous studies have usually been conducted with imager-to-subject distances of up to only a few meters. Mean absolute error for one-minute, windowed, pulse rate estimates (compared to those derived from gold-standard electrocardiography) were 2.0, 4.1, and 10.9 beats per minute at distances of 25, 50, and 100 meters, respectively. Long-range imaging presents several unique challenges among which include decreased, observed light reflectance and smaller regions of interest. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate that accurate pulse rate measurements can be obtained from over long imager-to-participant distances given these constraints.

  17. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    This paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of a long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) in gold strip waveguides. The plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, tantalum pentoxide adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power transmission and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length, and the chromatic dispersion does not affect the propagation of the plasmonic mode. We find that the third-order susceptibility of the gold layer has a dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the LRSPP mode. The real part of the effective third-order susceptibility leads to the observed spectral broadening through the self-phase modulation effect, and its imaginary part determines the nonlinear absorption parameter and leads to the observed nonlinear power transmission. The experimental values of the third-order susceptibility of the gold layers are obtained. They indicate an effective enhancement of the third-order susceptibility for the gold layers, comparing to the bulk gold values. This enhancement is explained in terms of the change of the electrons motion.

  18. Evaluation of Meteorological Analyses, Simulations, and Long-Range Transport Calculations Using ANATEX Surface Tracer Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haagenson, Philip L.; Gao, Kun; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    1990-12-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracer data collected during the Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX) are used to evaluate different meteorological analysis, simulations, and long-range transport calculations. Three basic types of meteorological analysis and simulation are evaluated: objective analysis of observed data, prognostic simulation with observed lateral boundary conditions, and four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA). The evaluation is based on 1) the root-mean-square separation between two-dimensional meteorological trajectories (constructed from different analyses or simulations) and surface tracer trajectories and 2) the relationship between the upward displacement of three-dimensional trajectories and the maximum value of the surface tracer concentration. The root-mean-square data indicate that the optimum value of the Newtonian nudging coefficient for the FDDA wind field in the lower troposphere is 6 × 104 s1, and the quality of the prognostic simulation is lower than that for FDDA or the objective analysis, particularly when surface fronts are present. These data also show that trajectory errors, with respect to transport distance, are larger in low-speed wind regimes than in medium- to high-speed regimes, and suggest that the rate of increase of trajectory error decreases with time, but the uncertainty of the rate of increase is quite large during the first 18 h of transit. The three-dimensional trajectories indicate that large-scale upward motion is a mechanism for removal of tracer from the boundary layer, and the strongest correlation between the upward displacement of the trajectory air parcels and the surface tracer concentration is obtained using the FDDA dataset. The overall results suggest that when both the vertical and horizontal components of the wind fields are considered, FDDA (using an appropriate value for the nudging coefficient) is better than the other methodologies.

  19. Long Range Correlation of Hydrophilicity and Flexibility Along the Hemoglobin Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Craciun, D.; Isvoran, A.; Avram, N. M.

    2010-08-04

    Within this study, we reveal the long range correlation concerning hydrophilicity and flexibility along sequences of hemoglobins belonging to different organisms and we compare them with the long range correlations properties obtained for other protein families. For all hemoglobins considered, we investigate two discrete spatial series: the hydrophilicity and flexibility respectively. We apply the nonlinear analysis methods to analyze the two spatial series by calculating the spectral coefficient {beta}, the scaling exponent {alpha} and Hurst exponent H. The obtained values for the mentioned coefficients suggest long range correlation within the analyzed sequences of hemoglobins in good agreement with those obtained for the calcium binding proteins and hydrolases.

  20. Long-range dependence and multifractality in the term structure of LIBOR interest rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present evidence of long-range dependence in LIBOR interest rates. We study a data set from 2000 to 2005, for six different currencies and various maturities. Empirical results suggest that the degree of long-range dependence decreases with maturity, with the exception of interest rates on Japanese Yen and on Indonesian Rupiah. Furthermore, interest rates have a multifractal nature and the degree of multifractality is much stronger for Indonesia (emerging market). These findings suggest that interest rates derivatives should take these features into account. Furthermore, fixed income risk and portfolio management should incorporate long-range dependence in the modeling of interest rates.

  1. Ising-model description of long-range correlations in DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliva, A.; Pellegrini, R.; Testori, A.; Caselle, M.

    2015-05-01

    We model long-range correlations of nucleotides in the human DNA sequence using the long-range one-dimensional (1D) Ising model. We show that, for distances between 103 and 106 bp, the correlations show a universal behavior and may be described by the non-mean-field limit of the long-range 1D Ising model. This allows us to make some testable hypothesis on the nature of the interaction between distant portions of the DNA chain which led to the DNA structure that we observe today in higher eukaryotes.

  2. van der Waals forces in density functional theory: Perturbational long-range electron-interaction corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Angyan, Janos G.; Gerber, Iann C.; Savin, Andreas; Toulouse, Julien

    2005-07-15

    Long-range exchange and correlation effects, responsible for the failure of currently used approximate density functionals in describing van der Waals forces, are taken into account explicitly after a separation of the electron-electron interaction in the Hamiltonian into short- and long-range components. We propose a 'range-separated hybrid' functional based on a local density approximation for the short-range exchange-correlation energy, combined with a long-range exact exchange energy. Long-range correlation effects are added by a second-order perturbational treatment. The resulting scheme is general and is particularly well adapted to describe van der Waals complexes, such as rare gas dimers.

  3. Relationships Between Long-Range Lightning Networks and TRMM/LIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudlosky, Scott D.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chris J.; Bateman, Monte; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in long-range lightning detection technologies have improved our understanding of thunderstorm evolution in the data sparse oceanic regions. Although the expansion and improvement of long-range lightning datasets have increased their applicability, these applications (e.g., data assimilation, atmospheric chemistry, and aviation weather hazards) require knowledge of the network detection capabilities. The present study intercompares long-range lightning data with observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite. The study examines network detection efficiency and location accuracy relative to LIS observations, describes spatial variability in these performance metrics, and documents the characteristics of LIS flashes that are detected by the long-range networks. Improved knowledge of relationships between these datasets will allow researchers, algorithm developers, and operational users to better prepare for the spatial and temporal coverage of the upcoming GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM).

  4. Possible causes of long-range dependence in the Brazilian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2005-01-01

    While the presence of long-range dependence in the asset returns seems to be a stylized fact, the issue of arguing the possible causes of this phenomena is totally obscure. Trying to shed light in this problem, we investigate the possible sources of the long-range dependence phenomena in the Brazilian Stock Market. For this purpose, we employ a sample which comprises stocks traded in the Brazilian financial market (BOVESPA Index). The Hurst exponent here is considered as our measure of long-range dependence and it is evaluated by six different methods. We have found evidence of statistically significant rank correlation between specific variables of the Brazilian firms which subscribe stocks and the long-range dependence phenomena present in these stocks.

  5. Modeling of Long-Range Atmospheric Lasercom Links Between Static and Mobile Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Scharlemann, E T; Breitfeller, E F; Henderson, J R; Kallman, J S; Morris, J R; Ruggiero, A J

    2003-07-29

    We describe modeling and simulation of long-range terrestrial laser communications links between static and mobile platforms. Atmospheric turbulence modeling, along with pointing, tracking and acquisition models are combined to provide an overall capability to estimate communications link performance.

  6. High energy factorization in nucleus-nucleus collisions III. Long range rapidity correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Venugopalan, R.; Gelis, F., Lappi, T.

    2009-10-27

    We obtain a novel result in QCD for long range rapidity correlations between gluons produced in the collision of saturated high energy hadrons or nuclei. This result, obtained in a high energy factorization framework, provides strong justification for the Glasma flux tube picture of coherent strong color fields. Our formalism can be applied to 'near side ridge' events at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and in future studies of long range rapidity correlations at the LHC.

  7. High energy factorization in nucleus-nucleus collisions. III. Long range rapidity correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Francois

    2009-05-01

    We obtain a novel result in QCD for long range rapidity correlations between gluons produced in the collision of saturated high energy hadrons or nuclei. This result, obtained in a high energy factorization framework, provides strong justification for the Glasma flux tube picture of coherent strong color fields. Our formalism can be applied to 'near side ridge' events at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and in future studies of long range rapidity correlations at the LHC.

  8. Long-range interactions and wave patterns in a DNA model.

    PubMed

    Tabi, C B; Mohamadou, A; Kofané, T C

    2010-07-01

    We propose a spin-like model of DNA nonlinear dynamics with long-range interactions between adjacent base pairs. We show that the model equation is a modified sine-Gordon equation. We perform the linear stability analysis of a plane wave, which predicts high-amplitude and extended oscillating waves for high values of the long-range parameter. This is confirmed numerically and biological implications of the obtained patterns are suggested. PMID:20676723

  9. Long-Range Correlations in Stride Intervals May Emerge from Non-Chaotic Walking Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jooeun; Hogan, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Stride intervals of normal human walking exhibit long-range temporal correlations. Similar to the fractal-like behaviors observed in brain and heart activity, long-range correlations in walking have commonly been interpreted to result from chaotic dynamics and be a signature of health. Several mathematical models have reproduced this behavior by assuming a dominant role of neural central pattern generators (CPGs) and/or nonlinear biomechanics to evoke chaos. In this study, we show that a simple walking model without a CPG or biomechanics capable of chaos can reproduce long-range correlations. Stride intervals of the model revealed long-range correlations observed in human walking when the model had moderate orbital stability, which enabled the current stride to affect a future stride even after many steps. This provides a clear counterexample to the common hypothesis that a CPG and/or chaotic dynamics is required to explain the long-range correlations in healthy human walking. Instead, our results suggest that the long-range correlation may result from a combination of noise that is ubiquitous in biological systems and orbital stability that is essential in general rhythmic movements. PMID:24086274

  10. Statistical mechanics in biology: how ubiquitous are long-range correlations?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Goldberger, Z. D.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Ossadnik, S. M.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this opening talk is to describe examples of recent progress in applying statistical mechanics to biological systems. We first briefly review several biological systems, and then focus on the fractal features characterized by the long-range correlations found recently in DNA sequences containing non-coding material. We discuss the evidence supporting the finding that for sequences containing only coding regions, there are no long-range correlations. We also discuss the recent finding that the exponent alpha characterizing the long-range correlations increases with evolution, and we discuss two related models, the insertion model and the insertion-deletion model, that may account for the presence of long-range correlations. Finally, we summarize the analysis of long-term data on human heartbeats (up to 10(4) heart beats) that supports the possibility that the successive increments in the cardiac beat-to-beat intervals of healthy subjects display scale-invariant, long-range "anti-correlations" (a tendency to beat faster is balanced by a tendency to beat slower later on). In contrast, for a group of subjects with severe heart disease, long-range correlations vanish. This finding suggests that the classical theory of homeostasis, according to which stable physiological processes seek to maintain "constancy," should be extended to account for this type of dynamical, far from equilibrium, behavior.

  11. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is

  12. Comparing the performance of FA, DFA and DMA using different synthetic long-range correlated time series

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ying-Hui; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding the significant efforts to develop estimators of long-range correlations (LRC) and to compare their performance, no clear consensus exists on what is the best method and under which conditions. In addition, synthetic tests suggest that the performance of LRC estimators varies when using different generators of LRC time series. Here, we compare the performances of four estimators [Fluctuation Analysis (FA), Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Backward Detrending Moving Average (BDMA), and Centred Detrending Moving Average (CDMA)]. We use three different generators [Fractional Gaussian Noises, and two ways of generating Fractional Brownian Motions]. We find that CDMA has the best performance and DFA is only slightly worse in some situations, while FA performs the worst. In addition, CDMA and DFA are less sensitive to the scaling range than FA. Hence, CDMA and DFA remain “The Methods of Choice” in determining the Hurst index of time series. PMID:23150785

  13. Comparing the performance of FA, DFA and DMA using different synthetic long-range correlated time series.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ying-Hui; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding the significant efforts to develop estimators of long-range correlations (LRC) and to compare their performance, no clear consensus exists on what is the best method and under which conditions. In addition, synthetic tests suggest that the performance of LRC estimators varies when using different generators of LRC time series. Here, we compare the performances of four estimators [Fluctuation Analysis (FA), Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Backward Detrending Moving Average (BDMA), and Centred Detrending Moving Average (CDMA)]. We use three different generators [Fractional Gaussian Noises, and two ways of generating Fractional Brownian Motions]. We find that CDMA has the best performance and DFA is only slightly worse in some situations, while FA performs the worst. In addition, CDMA and DFA are less sensitive to the scaling range than FA. Hence, CDMA and DFA remain "The Methods of Choice" in determining the Hurst index of time series. PMID:23150785

  14. Assessing very long-range impacts from a rapid climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, O.W.; Hall, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of anthropogenic, or human-generated forces are gradually changing global climate. These include effects due to slash and burn agriculture, industrial particulates, waste heat and gasses such as chlorofluoromethanes, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. Although the short-range effects of these forces may seem to be relatively minor from a long-range perspective, climatologists warn that the long-range effects - especially of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from widespread fossil fuel use - will be great, bringing significant alterations in atmospheric temperature, wind and ocean currents, precipitation patterns, and other ecological phenomena. From a geological time perspective, the resulting climate changes will occur quite rapidly, and will affect human concerns in a number of ways. Besides being important for long-range social planning, these effects are of intrinsic interest to futures research and impact assessment methodologists. Although many uncertainties exist in long-range climate forecasting, climate change comprises one of the very few classes of phenomena where the nature of very long-range (i.e., 30 to 3000 years) impact-producing changes are feasible to forecast in reasonably rigorous, quantitative terms.

  15. Hierarchical organization of long-range circuits in the olfactory cortices

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiguo; Sun, Qian-Quan

    2015-01-01

    How sensory information is processed within olfactory cortices is unclear. Here, we examined long-range circuit wiring between different olfactory cortical regions of acute mouse brain slices using a channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-based neuronal targeting approach. Our results provide detailed information regarding the synaptic properties of the reciprocal long-range monosynaptic glutamatergic projections (LRMGP) between and within anterior piriform cortex (aPC), posterior piriform cortex (pPC), and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), thereby creating a long-range inter- and intracortical circuit diagrams at the level of synapses and single cortical neurons. Our results reveal the following information regarding hierarchical intra- and intercortical organizations: (i) there is massive bottom-up (i.e., rostral–caudal) excitation within the LRMGP accompanied with strong feedforward (FF) inhibition; (ii) there are convergent FF connections onto LEC from both aPC and pPC; (iii) feedback (FB) intercortical connections are weak with a significant fraction of presumptive silent synapses; and (iv) intra and intercortical long-range connections lack layer specificity and their innervation of interneurons are stronger than neighboring pyramidal neurons. The elucidation of the distinct hierarchical organization of long-range olfactory cortical circuits paves the way for further understanding of higher order cortical processing within the olfactory system. PMID:26416972

  16. Aberrant long-range functional connectivity density in generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Li, Yibo; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Rong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2016-06-01

    Studies in generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) have reported both structural and functional alterations in the brain. However, changes in spontaneous neuronal functional organization in GTCS remain largely unknown.In this study, 70 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by tonic-clonic seizures and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Here, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, an ultrafast data-driven method based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was applied for the first time to investigate the changes of spontaneous functional brain activity caused by epilepsy.The results showed significantly decreased long-range FCD in the middle and inferior temporal, prefrontal, and inferior parietal cortices as well as increased long-range FCD in the cerebellum anterior lobe and sensorimotor areas. Negative correlation between duration of disease and reduced long-range FCD was found. In addition, most regions with reduced long-range FCD showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within default mode network.Negative correlation between duration of disease and long-range FCD may reflect an adverse consequence eventually from original. Furthermore, the observed FCD and rsFC alterations have been speculated to be associated with the social-cognitive impairments as well as motor control. Our study provided novel evidences to look into neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying GTCS. PMID:27310985

  17. Long-range ordered vorticity patterns in living tissue induced by cell division

    PubMed Central

    Rossen, Ninna S.; Tarp, Jens M.; Mathiesen, Joachim; Jensen, Mogens H.; Oddershede, Lene B.

    2014-01-01

    In healthy blood vessels with a laminar blood flow, the endothelial cell division rate is low, only sufficient to replace apoptotic cells. The division rate significantly increases during embryonic development and under halted or turbulent flow. Cells in barrier tissue are connected and their motility is highly correlated. Here we investigate the long-range dynamics induced by cell division in an endothelial monolayer under non-flow conditions, mimicking the conditions during vessel formation or around blood clots. Cell divisions induce long-range, well-ordered vortex patterns extending several cell diameters away from the division site, in spite of the system’s low Reynolds number. Our experimental results are reproduced by a hydrodynamic continuum model simulating division as a local pressure increase corresponding to a local tension decrease. Such long-range physical communication may be crucial for embryonic development and for healing tissue, for instance around blood clots. PMID:25483750

  18. Emergent long-range synchronization of oscillating ecological populations without external forcing described by Ising universality

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Andrew E.; Machta, Jonathan; Hastings, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the synchronization of oscillations across space is fundamentally important to many scientific disciplines. In ecology, long-range synchronization of oscillations in spatial populations may elevate extinction risk and signal an impending catastrophe. The prevailing assumption is that synchronization on distances longer than the dispersal scale can only be due to environmental correlation (the Moran effect). In contrast, we show how long-range synchronization can emerge over distances much longer than the length scales of either dispersal or environmental correlation. In particular, we demonstrate that the transition from incoherence to long-range synchronization of two-cycle oscillations in noisy spatial population models is described by the Ising universality class of statistical physics. This result shows, in contrast to all previous work, how the Ising critical transition can emerge directly from the dynamics of ecological populations. PMID:25851364

  19. Density of states and magnetotransport in Weyl semimetals with long-range disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesin, D. A.; Mishchenko, E. G.; Levchenko, A.

    2015-11-01

    We study the density of states and magnetotransport properties of disordered Weyl semimetals, focusing on the case of a strong long-range disorder. To calculate the disorder-averaged density of states close to nodal points, we treat exactly the long-range random potential fluctuations produced by charged impurities, while the short-range component of disorder potential is included systematically and controllably with the help of a diagram technique. We find that, for energies close to the degeneracy point, long-range potential fluctuations lead to a finite density of states. In the context of transport, we discuss that a self-consistent theory of screening in magnetic field may conceivably lead to nonmonotonic low-field magnetoresistance.

  20. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  1. Exact Diagonalization of a Quantum XXZ Model with Long-Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Justin A.; Smith, David A.; Wang, C. C.-Joseph; Varney, Christopher N.

    In recent years, rapid advancement has been made in using ultra-cold gases as quantum spin simulators, with two dimensional lattices becoming a rich target for exploring the exotic states and excitations of spin-1/2 systems on frustrated lattices. When the interaction in the system becomes long-ranged, the spins are frustrated by the long-range interaction. Consequently, the competition between the geometric frustration and the long-range interaction results in the the underlying orders present in the ground state being unclear. Here, we investigate the quantum dipolar XXZ model with exact diagonalization to characterize and contrast the ground state and excitations on square and triangular lattices to provide a baseline for comparison with experiments. University of West Florida Summer Undergraduate Research Program, University of West Florida Quality Enhancement Plan Award.

  2. Spreading of Perturbations in Long-Range Interacting Classical Lattice Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métivier, David; Bachelard, Romain; Kastner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Lieb-Robinson-type bounds are reported for a large class of classical Hamiltonian lattice models. By a suitable rescaling of energy or time, such bounds can be constructed for interactions of arbitrarily long range. The bound quantifies the dependence of the system's dynamics on a perturbation of the initial state. The effect of the perturbation is found to be effectively restricted to the interior of a causal region of logarithmic shape, with only small, algebraically decaying effects in the exterior. A refined bound, sharper than conventional Lieb-Robinson bounds, is required to correctly capture the shape of the causal region, as confirmed by numerical results for classical long-range XY chains. We discuss the relevance of our findings for the relaxation to equilibrium of long-range interacting lattice models.

  3. Cross-Sensor Calibration of the GAI Long Range Detection Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Boeck, William; Goodman, Steven J.; Cummins, K.; Cramer, J.

    1999-01-01

    The long range component of the North American Lightning Detection Network has been providing experimental data products since July 1996, offering cloud-to-ground lightning coverage throughout the Atlantic and Western Pacific oceans, as well as south to the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The network experiences a strong decrease in detection efficiency with range, which is also significantly modulated by differential propagation under day, night and terminator-crossing conditions. A climatological comparison of total lightning data observed by the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and CG lightning observed by the long range network is conducted, with strict quality control and allowance for differential network performance before and after the activation of the Canadian Lightning Detection Network. This yields a first-order geographic estimate of long range network detection efficiency and its spatial variability. Intercomparisons are also performed over the continental US, allowing large scale estimates of the midlatitude climatological IC:CG ratio and its possible dependence on latitude.

  4. Long-Range Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Hao, Xiaolei; Chen, Yongju; Yu, Shaogang; Xu, Songpo; Wang, Yanlan; Sun, Renping; Lai, Xuanyang; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; He, Xiantu; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2016-06-01

    In strong field atomic physics community, long-range Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of long-range Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the long-range tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends.

  5. Long-Range Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Wu, ChengYin; Gong, QiHuang; He, XianTu; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In strong field atomic physics community, long-range Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of long-range Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the long-range tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends. PMID:27256904

  6. Long-Range Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Wu, ChengYin; Gong, QiHuang; He, XianTu; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In strong field atomic physics community, long-range Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of long-range Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the long-range tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends. PMID:27256904

  7. Long-range ordered vorticity patterns in living tissue induced by cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossen, Ninna S.; Tarp, Jens M.; Mathiesen, Joachim; Jensen, Mogens H.; Oddershede, Lene B.

    2014-12-01

    In healthy blood vessels with a laminar blood flow, the endothelial cell division rate is low, only sufficient to replace apoptotic cells. The division rate significantly increases during embryonic development and under halted or turbulent flow. Cells in barrier tissue are connected and their motility is highly correlated. Here we investigate the long-range dynamics induced by cell division in an endothelial monolayer under non-flow conditions, mimicking the conditions during vessel formation or around blood clots. Cell divisions induce long-range, well-ordered vortex patterns extending several cell diameters away from the division site, in spite of the system’s low Reynolds number. Our experimental results are reproduced by a hydrodynamic continuum model simulating division as a local pressure increase corresponding to a local tension decrease. Such long-range physical communication may be crucial for embryonic development and for healing tissue, for instance around blood clots.

  8. Nucleation in the presence of long-range interactions. [performed on ferroelectric barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, P.

    1989-01-01

    Unlike droplet nucleation near a liquid-gas critical point, the decay of metastable phases in crystalline materials is strongly affected by the presence of long-range forces. Field quench experiments performed on the ferroelectric barium titanate indicate that nucleation in this material is markedly different from that observed in liquids. In this paper, a theory for nucleation at a first-order phase transition in which the mediating forces are long range is presented. It is found that the long-range force induces cooperative nucleation and growth processes, and that this feedback mechanism produces a well-defined delay time with a sharp onset in the transformation to the stable phase. Closed-form expressions for the characteristic onset time and width of the transition are developed, in good agreement with numerical and experimental results.

  9. Fractality Evidence and Long-Range Dependence on Capital Markets: a Hurst Exponent Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprean, Camelia; Tănăsescu, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Since the existence of market memory could implicate the rejection of the efficient market hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to find any evidence that selected emergent capital markets (eight European and BRIC markets, namely Hungary, Romania, Estonia, Czech Republic, Brazil, Russia, India and China) evince long-range dependence or the random walk hypothesis. In this paper, the Hurst exponent as calculated by R/S fractal analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is our measure of long-range dependence in the series. The results reinforce our previous findings and suggest that if stock returns present long-range dependence, the random walk hypothesis is not valid anymore and neither is the market efficiency hypothesis.

  10. Effect of disorder with long-range correlation on transport in graphene nanoribbon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, GP; Gao, M.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Liu, N.; Qin, Z.J.; Shanqqan, M.H.

    2012-06-13

    Transport in disordered armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGR) with long-range correlation between quantum wire contacts is investigated by a transfer matrix combined with Landauer's formula. The metal-insulator transition is induced by disorder in neutral AGR. Therein, the conductance is one conductance quantum for the metallic phase and exponentially decays otherwise, when the length of AGR approaches infinity and far longer than its width. Similar to the case of long-range disorder, the conductance of neutral AGR first increases and then decreases while the conductance of doped AGR monotonically decreases, as the disorder strength increases. In the presence of strong disorder, the conductivity depends monotonically and non-monotonically on the aspect ratio for heavily doped and slightly doped AGR, respectively. For edge disordered graphene nanoribbon, the conductance increases with the disorder strength of long-range correlated disordered while no delocalization exists, since the edge disorder induces localization.

  11. Effects of long-range hopping and interactions on quantum walks in ordered and disordered lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattaraj, T.; Krems, R. V.

    2016-08-01

    We study the effects of long-range hopping and long-range interparticle interactions on the quantum walk of hard-core bosons in ideal and disordered one-dimensional lattices. We find that the range of hopping has a much more significant effect on the particle correlation dynamics than the range of interactions. We illustrate that long-range hopping makes the correlation diagrams asymmetric with respect to the sign of the interaction. We examine the relative role of repulsive and attractive interactions on the dynamics of scattering by isolated impurities and Anderson localization in disordered lattices. We show that weakly repulsive interactions increase the probability of tunneling through isolated impurities and decrease the localization.

  12. Long-range magnetic response of the XY spin chain under far-from-equilibrium conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorczyca–Goraj, Anna; Mierzejewski, Marcin; Prosen, Tomaž

    2010-05-01

    Within the formalism of the Keldysh Green’s functions we investigate long-range response of an anisotropic XY chain to the local magnetic field. This field couples to a single spin on a selected lattice site. The system is driven out of equilibrium by a coupling to two semi-infinite XX spin chains. We demonstrate that the long-range response becomes enhanced by a few orders of magnitude upon application of nonequilibrium conditions. This enhancement does not occur in the isotropic XX chain. Our results agree with the recently predicted nonequilibrium-driven long-range magnetic correlations [T. Prosen and I. Pižorn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 105701 (2008)]. We argue that this effect may be observed in quasi-one-dimensional triplet superconductors.

  13. The impact of long-range transport on secondary aerosol in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Woo, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Long-range transport air pollution is an important issue in Northeast Asia. Large amounts of anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx aggravate air pollution in the region. Most of the emissions come from the industrialized regions along the East China coast. China and Korea are changing their air quality standards for particle pollutant from PM10 to PM2.5 in 2012 and 2015, respectively. According to many previous studies, the long-rang transport of particle matter contributes to Korean air pollution problems, but there are many uncertainties regarding the impact of long range transport. Secondary inorganic aerosols (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) are dominant ionic contributors to PM2.5. Especially high relative contributions of secondary aerosol appear under westerly wind cases at Korea. The secondary aerosols are produced by converting from SO2 and NOx during the long-range transport, but the contribution varies dramatically depending on season and wind pattern. So far, sulfate is the primary contributor to PM2.5, but nitrate levels are increasing because that NOx emissions in China are increasing dramatically since 2000 due to the growth in power, industry, and transport, while SO2 emissions are trending downward since 2005. We will present chemical characteristics of PM2.5 by westerly long-range transport focused on secondary aerosol, tracking their transport pattern, and production pathway in order to better understand regional air quality modeling of the long-range transport. This study will be performed based on the international study, MICS-Asia phase III, initiated with many researchers. Results using CMAQ with the modeling domain covering Northeast and Southeast China, Korea, and Japan with 15km resolution will be discussed.

  14. Long-range corrected density functional theory with linearly-scaled HF exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jong-Won; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2015-12-01

    Long-range corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) attracts many chemists' attentions as a quantum chemical method to be applied to large molecular system and its property calculations. However, the expensive time cost to evaluate the long-range HF exchange is a big obstacle to be overcome to be applied to the large molecular systems and the solid state materials. Upon this problem, we propose a linear-scaling method of the HF exchange integration, in particular, for the LC-DFT hybrid functional.

  15. Effective Long-Range Attraction between Protein Molecules in Solutions Studied by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yun; Chen, W.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero

    2005-09-09

    Small angle neutron scattering intensity distributions taken from cytochrome C and lysozyme protein solutions show a rising intensity at a very small wave vector Q, which can be interpreted in terms of the presence of a weak long-range attraction between protein molecules. This interaction has a range several times that of the diameter of the protein molecule, much greater than the range of the screened electrostatic repulsion. We show evidence that this long-range attraction is closely related to the type of anion present and ion concentration in the solution.

  16. Monitoring aerosol elemental composition in particle size fractions of long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metternich, P.; Georgii, H.-W.; Groeneveld, K. O.

    1983-04-01

    Collection of atmospheric samples was performed at Malta, a semi-remote environment in the Mediterranean, in case of long-range transport studies of pollutants and natural substances. Using PIXE as a non-destructive trace-element analytical tool, the elemental composition of these samples was determined. Atmospheric concentrations obtained in this study were of one magnitude higher than those observed over the open North Alantic in purely marine air. For most of the anomalously enriched elements in the Mediterranean aerosol, the high concentrations can be explained by long-range transport.

  17. Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends

    SciTech Connect

    Degiron, Aloyse; Cho, Sang-Yeon; Harrison, Cameron; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Smith, David R.; Dellagiacoma, Claudio; Martin, Olivier J. F.

    2008-02-15

    We report on the characterization of long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends at telecom wavelengths ({lambda}=1550 nm). The structures consist of a thin Au stripe embedded in a transparent polymer film. When the polymer thickness is larger than the lateral extension of the plasmon, the stripe sustains a conventional long-range mode; in the opposite case, the mode is hybrid because its field distribution is confined by total internal reflection in the dielectric cladding. This hybridization increases the damping by absorption but dramatically reduces the radiation loss that occurs for curved geometries, such as bends. Our results are supported quantitatively by full-wave finite-element simulations.

  18. Long-range corrected density functional theory with linearly-scaled HF exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jong-Won; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2015-12-31

    Long-range corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) attracts many chemists’ attentions as a quantum chemical method to be applied to large molecular system and its property calculations. However, the expensive time cost to evaluate the long-range HF exchange is a big obstacle to be overcome to be applied to the large molecular systems and the solid state materials. Upon this problem, we propose a linear-scaling method of the HF exchange integration, in particular, for the LC-DFT hybrid functional.

  19. Acidic loadings in South Korean ecosystems by long-range transport and local emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Myun; Park, Soon-Ung

    2004-10-01

    Exceedances of sulfur and nitrogen critical loads in South Korean ecosystems caused by long-range transport and local emissions of sulfur and nitrogen have been estimated using the maximum critical load of sulfur and the critical load of nutrient nitrogen. The long-term-averaged deposition of sulfur and nitrogen is estimated with a simplified chemical model and the K-mean clustering technique. The three consecutive days of gridded daily mean National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP) reanalyzed 850 hPa geopotential height fields with and without precipitation on the last day over South Korea are used for clustering of synoptic patterns for the period of 1994-1998. Two emission conditions are simulated for each cluster to estimate long-term averaged depositions of sulfur and nitrogen by long-range transport and local emissions over South Korea. One condition takes all emissions within the simulated domain into account as a base case and the other condition excludes all South Korean emissions but includes all of the other emissions, as a control case. The results of the present study indicate that the contribution of long-range transport to the annual total deposition over South Korea is found to be about 40% (530 eqha-1yr-1) for sulfur and 49% (650 eqha-1yr-1) for nitrogen, of which 55% for sulfur and 58% for nitrogen are contributed by wet deposition. This suggests the importance of wet deposition through the transformed acidic precursors for long-range transport to South Korea's total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen. The estimated exceedance for South Korean ecosystems indicates that the current estimate of total sulfur deposition affects about 42% of the South Korean ecosystems adversely, of which 14% is attributed to South Korean source only and the rest 28% is attributed to long-range transport together with South Korean source. Long-range transport of sulfur itself does not exceed the maximum critical load of sulfur. On the other hand, the current

  20. Long-range airplane study: The consumer looks at SST travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, K. H.; Matter, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The attitudes of long-range air travelers toward several basic air travel decisions, were surveyed. Of interest were tradeoffs involving time versus comfort and time versus cost as they pertain to supersonic versus conventional wide-body aircraft on overseas routes. The market focused upon was the segment of air travelers most likely to make that type of tradeoff decision: those having flown overseas routes for business or personal reasons in the recent past. The information generated is intended to provide quantifiable insight into consumer demand for supersonic as compared to wide-body aircraft alternatives for long-range overseas air travel.

  1. Long range forecasts of the Northern Hemisphere anomalies with antecedent sea surface temperature patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kung, Ernest C.

    1994-01-01

    The contract research has been conducted in the following three major areas: analysis of numerical simulations and parallel observations of atmospheric blocking, diagnosis of the lower boundary heating and the response of the atmospheric circulation, and comprehensive assessment of long-range forecasting with numerical and regression methods. The essential scientific and developmental purpose of this contract research is to extend our capability of numerical weather forecasting by the comprehensive general circulation model. The systematic work as listed above is thus geared to developing a technological basis for future NASA long-range forecasting.

  2. Effect of long-range interactions on ion equilibria in liquid-liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufrêche, J.-F.; Zemb, Th.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate here that equilibria of electrolytes between a water phase and an (organic) solvent phase containing amphiphilic extractants depend not only on complexation toward nearest neighbors but also on long range supramolecular interactions (LRI). Taking into account bulk, polarization and chain reorganization terms, we show that the net free energy difference associated with one metal ion transfer from water results from a strong inhibition (>25 kBT/ metal ion) due to colloidal long range interactions competing with differences in complexation considered in surpramolecular chemistry (≈-30 kBT/ metal ion). LRI also influence selectivity.

  3. Long-range anticorrelations and non-Gaussian behavior of the heartbeat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Mietus, J.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    We find that the successive increments in the cardiac beat-to-beat intervals of healthy subjects display scale-invariant, long-range anticorrelations (up to 10 exp 4 heart beats). Furthermore, we find that the histogram for the heartbeat intervals increments is well described by a Levy (1991) stable distribution. For a group of subjects with severe heart disease, we find that the distribution is unchanged, but the long-range correlations vanish. Therefore, the different scaling behavior in health and disease must relate to the underlying dynamics of the heartbeat.

  4. 75 FR 998 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... FR 4047), the U.S. Coast Guard began a public review process for its Draft Programmatic Environmental... SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard, DHS..., the Department of Transportation has determined that sufficient alternative navigation aids...

  5. South Dakota Arts Council Long Range Plan FY 2006-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Arts Council, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents South Dakota Arts Council Long Range Plan for Fiscal Years 2006-2008 in terms of how it intends to achieve six goals. These goals are: (1) Enhance quality of life and economic development through the arts; (2) Promote public awareness and support of the arts; (3) Advance the arts as essential to education and life-long…

  6. Managing Strategic and Long-Range Planning via a Proactive, User-Friendly Planning Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Anne Louise; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A computerized method for managing institutional information to use in creating college planning documents is described. Development of the database, manipulation of the data for reporting, uses in strategic and long-range planning, and the model's implications for improvement of planning processes are discussed. (MSE)

  7. The Long Range Plan for Statewide Library Development in Texas, 1989-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin. Dept. of Library Development.

    This long-range plan was prepared to satisfy the requirements of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA; Public Law 98-480) and to guide the Texas State Library and Archives Commission in the fulfillment of its statutory mission. The plan provides a framework for the establishment or expansion of programs to carry out the purposes…

  8. Long-Range Plan for Library Services in Wisconsin, 1991-1996. Bulletin No. 92157.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

    This report addresses the status of library development in Wisconsin, the needs and problems of libraries, and possible ways of meeting these needs over the next 5 years. These long-range plans developed by the staff of the Division for Library Services (DLS) reflect reports submitted to the DLS, surveys, consultations with librarians and…

  9. Idaho State Library Long Range Plan for Implementation of LSCA Priorities, 1989-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joslin, Ann

    Based largely on recommendations from a 1986 strategy study, this long range plan for the improvement of library services in Idaho addresses goals and activities for the years 1989-1991. It is intended to support the direction of library development begun in 1984 to improve services to the user and to meet Library Services and Construction Act…

  10. The Long Range Plan for Statewide Library Development in Texas, 1990-1993. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin. Dept. of Library Development.

    The Long Range Plan was prepared to satisfy requirements of the Library Services Construction Act (LSCA) and to guide the Texas State Library and Archives Commission in the fulfillment of its statutory mission. The plan provides a framework for the establishment or expansion of programs to carry out the purposes mandated by the state and federal…

  11. Long Range Plan for Statewide Library Development in Texas: 1996 to 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin. Dept. of Library Development.

    Texas State Library's 1996 to 1999 long range plan for library development provides for the establishment and expansion of programs needed to carry out the objectives of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) and the Library Systems Act (LSA). The first three chapters give an overview of the Statewide Library Development Program of the…

  12. LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION OF SO2 AND SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical descriptions and computer programs are presented for two models that calculate long-range transport, diffusion, transformation of SO2 to sulfate, and dry and precipitation deposition of initially emitted SO2. One model treats the mixing layer height as constant; the oth...

  13. FINE-PARTICLE SODIUM TRACER FOR LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT OF THE KUWAITI OIL FIRE PLUME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence for long-range transport of the Kuwaiti oil-fire smoke during the months following the Persian Gulf War has been more or less indirect. or example, high concentrations of aerosols containing soot and oil-combustion tracers such as vanadium observed at great distances fro...

  14. Long range correlations in high multiplicity hadron collisions: Building bridges with ridges

    SciTech Connect

    Venugopalan, Raju

    2015-01-15

    We discuss the physics of the ridge–azimuthally collimated long range rapidity correlations–in high multiplicity proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions. We outline some of the theoretical discussions in the literature that address the systematics of these ridge correlations.

  15. Attractor nonequilibrium stationary states in perturbed long-range interacting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Michael; Morand, Jules; Viot, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Isolated long-range interacting particle systems appear generically to relax to nonequilibrium states ("quasistationary states" or QSSs) which are stationary in the thermodynamic limit. A fundamental open question concerns the "robustness" of these states when the system is not isolated. In this paper we explore, using both analytical and numerical approaches to a paradigmatic one-dimensional model, the effect of a simple class of perturbations. We call them "internal local perturbations" in that the particle energies are perturbed at collisions in a way which depends only on the local properties. Our central finding is that the effect of the perturbations is to drive all the very different QSSs we consider towards a unique QSS. The latter is thus independent of the initial conditions of the system, but determined instead by both the long-range forces and the details of the perturbations applied. Thus in the presence of such a perturbation the long-range system evolves to a unique nonequilibrium stationary state, completely different from its state in absence of the perturbation, and it remains in this state when the perturbation is removed. We argue that this result may be generic for long-range interacting systems subject to perturbations which are dependent on the local properties (e.g., spatial density or velocity distribution) of the system itself.

  16. The pluripotent regulatory circuitry connecting promoters to their long-range interacting elements.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Furlan-Magaril, Mayra; Mifsud, Borbala; Tavares-Cadete, Filipe; Sugar, Robert; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Nagano, Takashi; Katsman, Yulia; Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Wingett, Steven W; Dimitrova, Emilia; Dimond, Andrew; Edelman, Lucas B; Elderkin, Sarah; Tabbada, Kristina; Darbo, Elodie; Andrews, Simon; Herman, Bram; Higgs, Andy; LeProust, Emily; Osborne, Cameron S; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Fraser, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The mammalian genome harbors up to one million regulatory elements often located at great distances from their target genes. Long-range elements control genes through physical contact with promoters and can be recognized by the presence of specific histone modifications and transcription factor binding. Linking regulatory elements to specific promoters genome-wide is currently impeded by the limited resolution of high-throughput chromatin interaction assays. Here we apply a sequence capture approach to enrich Hi-C libraries for >22,000 annotated mouse promoters to identify statistically significant, long-range interactions at restriction fragment resolution, assigning long-range interacting elements to their target genes genome-wide in embryonic stem cells and fetal liver cells. The distal sites contacting active genes are enriched in active histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy, whereas inactive genes contact distal sites with repressive histone marks, demonstrating the regulatory potential of the distal elements identified. Furthermore, we find that coregulated genes cluster nonrandomly in spatial interaction networks correlated with their biological function and expression level. Interestingly, we find the strongest gene clustering in ES cells between transcription factor genes that control key developmental processes in embryogenesis. The results provide the first genome-wide catalog linking gene promoters to their long-range interacting elements and highlight the complex spatial regulatory circuitry controlling mammalian gene expression. PMID:25752748

  17. A Long-Range, Comprehensive Plan for Early Childhood Education in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rath, Robert R.

    This long-range, comprehensive plan for early childhood education in Alaska focuses on providing environmental surroundings conducive to learning for children aged 3, 4 and 5. Topics covered are: (1) needs, objectives and activities--projected numbers of students (age and grade distribution, school distribution), early childhood education…

  18. Quantum transport with long-range steps on Watts-Strogatz networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2016-07-01

    We study transport dynamics of quantum systems with long-range steps on the Watts-Strogatz network (WSN) which is generated by rewiring links of the regular ring. First, we probe physical systems modeled by the discrete nonlinear schrödinger (DNLS) equation. Using the localized initial condition, we compute the time-averaged occupation probability of the initial site, which is related to the nonlinearity, the long-range steps and rewiring links. Self-trapping transitions occur at large (small) nonlinear parameters for coupling ɛ=-1 (1), as long-range interactions are intensified. The structure disorder induced by random rewiring, however, has dual effects for ɛ=-1 and inhibits the self-trapping behavior for ɛ=1. Second, we investigate continuous-time quantum walks (CTQW) on the regular ring ruled by the discrete linear schrödinger (DLS) equation. It is found that only the presence of the long-range steps does not affect the efficiency of the coherent exciton transport, while only the allowance of random rewiring enhances the partial localization. If both factors are considered simultaneously, localization is greatly strengthened, and the transport becomes worse.

  19. Kaleidoscope of quantum phases in a long-range interacting spin-1 chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Z.-X.; Maghrebi, M. Â. F.; Hu, A.; Foss-Feig, M.; Richerme, P.; Monroe, C.; Gorshkov, A. Â. V.

    2016-05-01

    Motivated directly by recent trapped-ion quantum simulation experiments, we carry out a comprehensive study of the phase diagram of a spin-1 chain with XXZ-type interactions that decay as 1 /rα , using a combination of finite and infinite-size DMRG calculations, spin-wave analysis, and field theory. In the absence of long-range interactions, varying the spin-coupling anisotropy leads to four distinct and well-studied phases: a ferromagnetic Ising phase, a disordered XY phase, a topological Haldane phase, and an antiferromagnetic Ising phase. If long-range interactions are antiferromagnetic and thus frustrated, we find primarily a quantitative change of the phase boundaries. On the other hand, ferromagnetic (nonfrustrated) long-range interactions qualitatively impact the entire phase diagram. Importantly, for α ≲3 , long-range interactions destroy the Haldane phase, break the conformal symmetry of the XY phase, give rise to a new phase that spontaneously breaks a U (1 ) continuous symmetry, and introduce a possibly exotic tricritical point with no direct parallel in short-range interacting spin chains. Importantly, we show that the main signatures of all five phases found could be observed experimentally in the near future.

  20. Application of powered-lift concepts for improved cruise efficiency of long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Fournier, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies conducted to explore the use of powered lift concepts for improved low speed performance of long range subsonic and supersonic cruise vehicles are summarized. It is indicated that powered lift can provide significant improvements in low speed performance, as well as substantial increases in cruise efficiency and range for both subsonic and supersonic cruise configurations.

  1. 25 CFR 170.410 - What is the purpose of tribal long-range transportation planning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the purpose of tribal long-range transportation planning? 170.410 Section 170.410 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation...

  2. The pluripotent regulatory circuitry connecting promoters to their long-range interacting elements

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Furlan-Magaril, Mayra; Mifsud, Borbala; Tavares-Cadete, Filipe; Sugar, Robert; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Nagano, Takashi; Katsman, Yulia; Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Wingett, Steven W.; Dimitrova, Emilia; Dimond, Andrew; Edelman, Lucas B.; Elderkin, Sarah; Tabbada, Kristina; Darbo, Elodie; Andrews, Simon; Herman, Bram; Higgs, Andy; LeProust, Emily; Osborne, Cameron S.; Mitchell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian genome harbors up to one million regulatory elements often located at great distances from their target genes. Long-range elements control genes through physical contact with promoters and can be recognized by the presence of specific histone modifications and transcription factor binding. Linking regulatory elements to specific promoters genome-wide is currently impeded by the limited resolution of high-throughput chromatin interaction assays. Here we apply a sequence capture approach to enrich Hi-C libraries for >22,000 annotated mouse promoters to identify statistically significant, long-range interactions at restriction fragment resolution, assigning long-range interacting elements to their target genes genome-wide in embryonic stem cells and fetal liver cells. The distal sites contacting active genes are enriched in active histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy, whereas inactive genes contact distal sites with repressive histone marks, demonstrating the regulatory potential of the distal elements identified. Furthermore, we find that coregulated genes cluster nonrandomly in spatial interaction networks correlated with their biological function and expression level. Interestingly, we find the strongest gene clustering in ES cells between transcription factor genes that control key developmental processes in embryogenesis. The results provide the first genome-wide catalog linking gene promoters to their long-range interacting elements and highlight the complex spatial regulatory circuitry controlling mammalian gene expression. PMID:25752748

  3. SOURCES AND EVALUATION OF UNCERTAINTY IN LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Meteorological Society, under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada, convened a workshop in September 1984 to address an aspect of long-range tr...

  4. Calculation of long range forces and their applications in determining gaseous properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of various theoretical and experimental techniques for the calculation of long range interaction between two atomic systems at moderate separation is presented. Some applications of these techniques for obtaining gaseous properties are described. The forces between neutral molecules and metallic surfaces are also discussed and numerical values of heats of adsorption for a number of systems are calculated.

  5. Towards theoretical analysis of long-range proton transfer kinetics in biomolecular pumps

    PubMed Central

    König, P. H.; Ghosh, N.; Hoffmann, M.; Elstner, M.; Tajkhorshid, E.; Frauenheim, Th.; Cui, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the long-term goal of theoretically analyzing long-range proton transfer (PT) kinetics in biomolecular pumps, a number of technical developments were made in the framework of QM/MM simulations. A set of collective reaction co-ordinates is proposed for characterizing the progress of long-range proton transfers; unlike previous suggestions, the new coordinates can describe PT along highly non-linear three-dimensional pathways. Calculations using a realistic model of carbonic anhydrase demonstrated that adiabatic mapping using these collective coordinates gives reliable energetics and critical geometrical parameters as compared to minimum energy path calculations, which suggests that the new coordinates can be effectively used as reaction coordinate in potential of mean force calculations for long-range PT in complex systems. In addition, the generalized solvent boundary potential was implemented in the QM/MM framework for rectangular geometries, which is useful for studying reactions in membrane systems. The resulting protocol was found to produce water structure in the interior of aquaporin consistent with previous studies including much larger number of explicit solvent and lipid molecules. The effect of electrostatics for PT through membrane protein was also illustrated with a simple model channel embedded in different dielectric continuum environments. The encouraging results observed so far suggest that robust theoretical analysis of long-range PT kinetics in biomolecular pumps can soon be realized in a QM/MM framework. PMID:16405327

  6. Global and Regional Modeling of Long-Range Transport and Intercontinental Source-Receptor Linkages (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because long-range transport has been shown to affect air quality in downwind continents, there is a growing realization that these effects may need to be considered in air quality management efforts by distinguishing between the contributions of local and regional emission sourc...

  7. Policy Directions for U. S. Agriculture; Long-Range Choices in Farming and Rural Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    A comprehensive view of agriculture is presented in this volume written to aid critical re-examination of long-range agricultural policy. Farm people, rural institutions and services, rural towns, the spatial organization of agriculture, and its capital structure, in addition to the usual subjects of agricultural output, demand, trade, price, and…

  8. INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF LONG RANGE TRANSPORT ON MERCURY DEPOSITION IN SOUTH FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999, the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) through a Regional Applied Research Effort initiated a study to evaluate the magnitude of long-range transport of mercury through the marine free troposphere to South Florida via aircraft measurements (200 to 11,5...

  9. Long-range dispersion interactions. III: Method for two homonuclear atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.; Zhang, J.-Y.

    2007-12-15

    A procedure for systematically evaluating the long-range dispersion interaction between two homonuclear atoms in arbitrary LS coupled states is outlined. The method is then used to generate dispersion coefficients for a number of the low-lying states of the Na and Mg dimers.

  10. The Origin of Long-Range Attraction between Hydrophobes in Water

    PubMed Central

    Despa, Florin; Berry, R. Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When water-coated hydrophobic surfaces meet, direct contacts form between the surfaces, driving water out. However, long-range attractive forces first bring those surfaces close. This analysis reveals the source and strength of the long-range attraction between water-coated hydrophobic surfaces. The origin is in the polarization field produced by the strong correlation and coupling of the dipoles of the water molecules at the surfaces. We show that this polarization field gives rise to dipoles on the surface of the hydrophobic solutes that generate long-range hydrophobic attractions. Thus, hydrophobic aggregation begins with a step in which water-coated nonpolar solutes approach one another due to long-range electrostatic forces. This precursor regime occurs before the entropy increase of releasing the water layers and the short-range van der Waals attraction provide the driving force to “dry out” the contact surface. The effective force of attraction is derived from basic molecular principles, without assumptions of the structure of the hydrophobe-water interaction. The strength of this force can be measured directly from atomic force microscopy images of a hydrophobic molecule tethered to a surface but extending into water, and another hydrophobe attached to an atomic force probe. The phenomenon can be observed in the transverse relaxation rates in water proton magnetic resonance as well. The results shed light on the way water mediates chemical and biological self-assembly, a long outstanding problem. PMID:16997876

  11. Futures Research and the Strategic Planning Process: Implications for Long-Range Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Renfro, William L.

    The concepts of long-range planning and strategic planning are explained, and a planning model is proposed. Attention is directed to an environmental scanning model that is congruent with the concept of strategic planning and that emerges from one portion of the futures research community, issues management. A third planning model, the strategic…

  12. Sterling landing fuel tanks site environmental baseline survey: Tatalina Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of the environmental baselines survey (EBS) was to document the existence of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and to identify potential environmental liabilities to the US. Air Force (USAF) associated with the fuel storage tanks at Sterling Landing on the Tatalina Long Range Radar Station (LRRS).

  13. Attenuated MP2 with a Long-Range Dispersion Correction for Treating Nonbonded Interactions.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Matthew B; Belzunces, Bastien; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Attenuated second order Møller-Plesset theory (MP2) captures intermolecular binding energies at equilibrium geometries with high fidelity with respect to reference methods, yet must fail to reproduce dispersion energies at stretched geometries due to the removal of fully long-range dispersion. For this problem to be ameliorated, long-range correction using the VV10 van der Waals density functional is added to attenuated MP2, capturing short-range correlation with attenuated MP2 and long-range dispersion with VV10. Attenuated MP2 with long-range VV10 dispersion in the aug-cc-pVTZ (aTZ) basis set, MP2-V(terfc, aTZ), is parametrized for noncovalent interactions using the S66 database and tested on a variety of noncovalent databases, describing potential energy surfaces and equilibrium binding energies equally well. Further, a spin-component scaled (SCS) version, SCS-MP2-V(2terfc, aTZ), is produced using the W4-11 database as a supplemental thermochemistry training set, and the resulting method reproduces the quality of MP2-V(terfc, aTZ) for noncovalent interactions and exceeds the performance of SCS-MP2/aTZ for thermochemistry. PMID:26575911

  14. Imputation of Missing Genotypes From Sparse to High Density Using Long-Range Phasing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Related individuals in a population share long chromosome segments which trace to a common ancestor. We describe a long-range phasing algorithm that makes use of this property to phase whole chromosomes and simultaneously impute a large number of missing markers. We test our method by imputing marke...

  15. Superharmonic long-range triplet current in a diffusive Josephson junction.

    PubMed

    Richard, Caroline; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S

    2013-05-24

    We study the Josephson current through a long ferromagnetic bilayer in the diffusive regime. For noncollinear magnetizations, we find that the current-phase relation is dominated by its second harmonic, which corresponds to the long-range coherent propagation of two triplet pairs of electrons. PMID:23745915

  16. Long-Range Statewide Enrollment and WSCH Forecast, California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck; Chan, Chuen-Rong

    This report summarizes the most recent (December 1998) long-range statewide forecast of fall enrollment and average annual weekly student contact hours (WSCH) in California Community Colleges. The annual fall survey of college registrars shows that fall 1998 enrollment is up 1.8 percent over fall 1997. The office forecasting model projects an…

  17. Long-Range Strategic Planning for the Alamo Community College District. Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenney, Byron N.; Moore, Kay M.

    Prepared for use in long-range planning in the Alamo Community College District (ACCD), this report presents an overview of the District and position papers containing data and interpretive discussion on five planning concerns. Following an overview of ACCD enrollments, personnel, and finances, the first position paper outlines population…

  18. NIDRR Long-Range Plan for Fiscal Years 2005-09. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) "Long-Range Plan for Fiscal Years 2005-09" (the "Plan") provides an agenda for achieving advancements in applied rehabilitation research that will benefit people with disabilities in the United States. This executive summary describes the purposes and scope of the "Plan,"…

  19. 25 CFR 170.411 - What may a long-range transportation plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What may a long-range transportation plan include? 170.411 Section 170.411 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program...

  20. 25 CFR 170.411 - What may a long-range transportation plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What may a long-range transportation plan include? 170.411 Section 170.411 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program...

  1. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1987-01-01

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co).sub.3 (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to drammatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  2. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1984-08-22

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co)/sub 3/ (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to dramatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  3. A long range transmission system communication plan for ComEd of Chicago 1995 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, R.; Gerleve, F.J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of a telecommunication fiber optical network serving ComEd`s commercial centers and generation stations is described. A long range communication plan is presented describing a migration of transmission substation protection, monitoring and control from an analog system over power line carrier, microwave, and leased phone lines to a digital system using an optimum mix of communication channels including fiber.

  4. The Characteristics of Long-range Transboundary Inorganic Secondary Aerosols in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Carmichael, G. R.; Woo, J. H.; Qiang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Recurrent particle matter episodes greatly influence air quality in Northeast Asia. According to many studies, a major reason is long-range transport of air pollutant. Large amount of emission of chemical compounds aggravate air pollution in the region. Emitted air pollutants mainly come from industrialized regions along the East China coast. It can be transported over downwind region by the prevailing westerlies. The long-rang transported fine particle certainly attributes to air quality in downwind region, but there are many unknowns on the quantity, transport pattern, and secondary aerosol production mechanism despite the fact with many studies have been performed. Major contributors of PM2.5 are inorganic secondary aerosols, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, in Korea. Especially high relative contributions of inorganic secondary aerosols appear for westerly wind cases. The main pathway of production of inorganic secondary aerosols is produced by converting from SO2 and NOx during the long-range transport but the contribution varies dramatically depending on season and wind pattern. Sulfate is consistently the primary contributor of PM2.5 still now but we should more concern nitrate because that NOx emissions of China is increasing steeply since 2000 by leading powerplant, industry, and transport, despite downward trend of SO2. In order to better understand regional air quality modeling of the long-range transport, international study, MICS-Asia phase III, has been initiated with many researchers. We will present chemical characteristics of PM2.5 long-range transport during westerly wind cases focused on secondary aerosol, tracking their transport pattern, and production pathway. Results using CMAQ with the modeling domain covering Northeast and Southeast China, Korea, and Japan with 15km resolution will be discussed.

  5. Roles of long-range electrostatic domain interactions and K+ in phosphoenzyme transition of Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kazuo; Daiho, Takashi; Danko, Stefania; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2013-07-12

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase couples the motions and rearrangements of three cytoplasmic domains (A, P, and N) with Ca(2+) transport. We explored the role of electrostatic force in the domain dynamics in a rate-limiting phosphoenzyme (EP) transition by a systematic approach combining electrostatic screening with salts, computer analysis of electric fields in crystal structures, and mutations. Low KCl concentration activated and increasing salt above 0.1 m inhibited the EP transition. A plot of the logarithm of the transition rate versus the square of the mean activity coefficient of the protein gave a linear relationship allowing division of the activation energy into an electrostatic component and a non-electrostatic component in which the screenable electrostatic forces are shielded by salt. Results show that the structural change in the transition is sterically restricted, but that strong electrostatic forces, when K(+) is specifically bound at the P domain, come into play to accelerate the reaction. Electric field analysis revealed long-range electrostatic interactions between the N and P domains around their hinge. Mutations of the residues directly involved and other charged residues at the hinge disrupted in parallel the electric field and the structural transition. Favorable electrostatics evidently provides a low energy path for the critical N domain motion toward the P domain, overcoming steric restriction. The systematic approach employed here is, in general, a powerful tool for understanding the structural mechanisms of enzymes. PMID:23737524

  6. The Central domain of RyR1 is the transducer for long-range allosteric gating of channel opening.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Chen; Yan, Zhen; Wu, Jianping; Li, Zhangqiang; Yan, Nieng

    2016-09-01

    The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium channels responsible for rapid release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) to the cytoplasm, which is essential for the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling of cardiac and skeletal muscles. The near-atomic resolution structure of closed RyR1 revealed the molecular details of this colossal channel, while the long-range allosteric gating mechanism awaits elucidation. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of rabbit RyR1 in three closed conformations at about 4 Å resolution and an open state at 5.7 Å. Comparison of the closed RyR1 structures shows a breathing motion of the cytoplasmic platform, while the channel domain and its contiguous Central domain remain nearly unchanged. Comparison of the open and closed structures shows a dilation of the S6 tetrahelical bundle at the cytoplasmic gate that leads to channel opening. During the pore opening, the cytoplasmic "O-ring" motif of the channel domain and the U-motif of the Central domain exhibit coupled motion, while the Central domain undergoes domain-wise displacement. These structural analyses provide important insight into the E-C coupling in skeletal muscles and identify the Central domain as the transducer that couples the conformational changes of the cytoplasmic platform to the gating of the central pore. PMID:27468892

  7. Controlling the long-range corrections in atomistic Monte Carlo simulations of two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Florent; Ghoufi, Aziz; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2015-10-13

    The long-range correction to the surface tension can amount to up to 55% of the calculated value of the surface tension for cutoffs in the range of 2.1-6.4 σ. The calculation of the long-range corrections to the surface tension and to the configurational energy in two-phase systems remains an active area of research. In this work, we compare the long-range corrections methods proposed by Guo and Lu ( J. Chem. Phys. 1997 , 106 , 3688 - 3695 ) and Janeček ( J. Phys. Chem. B 2006 , 110 , 6264 - 6269 ) for the calculation of the surface tension and of the coexisting densities in Monte Carlo simulations of the truncated Lennard-Jones potential and the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones potential models. These methods require an estimate of the long-range correction at each step in the Monte Carlo simulation. We apply the full version of the Guo and Lu method, which involves the calculation of a double integral that contains a series of density differences, and we compare these results with the simplified version of the method which is routinely used in two-phase simulations. We conclude that the cutoff dependencies of the surface tension and coexisting densities are identical for the full versions of Guo and Lu and Janeček methods. We show that it is possible to avoid applying the long-range correction at every step by using the truncated Lennard-Jones potential with a cutoff rc ≥ 5 σ. The long-range correction can then be applied at the end of the simulation. The limiting factor in the accurate calculation of this final correction is an accurate estimate of the coexisting densities. Link-cell simulations performed using a cutoff rc = 5.5 σ require twice as much computing time as those with a more typical cutoff of rc = 3.0 σ. The application of the Janeček correction increases the running time of the simulation by less than 10%, and it can be profitably applied with the shorter cutoff. PMID:26574249

  8. Low-frequency source for very long-range underwater communication.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Frédéric; Matte, Guillaume; Shimura, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    Very long-range underwater acoustic communication (UAC) is crucial for long cruising (>1000 km) autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Very long-range UAC source for AUV must exhibit high electro-acoustic efficiency (>60%) and compactness. This paper describes the Janus-Hammer Bell (JHB) transducer that has been designed for this purpose and meets those requirements. The transducer works on the 450-550 Hz bandwidth and reaches source level above 200 dB (ref. 1 μPa at 1 m) with 1 kW excitation and full immersion capability. JHB source has been used for communication experiments by the Japanese institute for marine technology (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) achieving a baud rate of 100 bits/s at 1000 km. PMID:23298019

  9. Long-range spoof surface plasmons on the doubly corrugated metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Kong, Ling-Bao; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, symmetric spoof surface plasmon (SSP) mode on the doubly corrugated metal surfaces is indentified as long-range spoof surface plasmon (LRSSP) because of its extreme low propagation loss and symmetric dominant field profile so as short-range SSP (SRSSP) for anti-symmetric mode. Based on theoretical calculation and numerical simulation of finite integration method, symmetric and anti-symmetric SSP modes with various gap sizes between these two identical corrugated metal surfaces are investigated in terahertz (THz) regime and good agreement is realized. Besides, the low loss superiority of LRSSP diminishes along with the increased gap size. This work opens up new avenues to utilize this long-range surface mode in far-infrared, THz or lower frequency band and can find many potential applications such as low-loss waveguide, filters and novel electronic sources.

  10. Electrically tunable birefringence of a polymer composite with long-range orientational ordering of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byeongdae; Song, Seongkyu; Jeong, Soon Moon; Chung, Seok-Hwan; Glushchenko, Anatoliy

    2014-07-28

    We report an optical film with electrically tunable birefringence in which the liquid crystals (LCs), mixed with the host polymer, form long-range ordering. The film was prepared through polymerization without phase separation between the LCs and polymers. Driving voltage below 30 V for full switching of birefringence is achieved in a 6 μm-thick film. Electro-optical investigations for the film suggest that the long-range ordering of the LCs mixed in the film caused by polymerization lead to rotations of the LCs as well as optical anisotropy in the film. These films with electrically tunable birefringence could have applications as flexible light modulators and phase retardation films for 2D-3D image switching. PMID:25089422

  11. Atmosphere-surface exchange and long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pul, W.A.J. van; Jaarsveld, J.A. van; Jacobs, C.M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are compounds that are resistant to photolytic, biological and chemical degradation. Many POPs are semi-volatile at atmospheric conditions. Because of these characteristics POPs have a atmospheric lifetime of weeks or more and are subject to long-range atmospheric transport. During this transport POPs can be deposited as well as be re-emitted from soil and water bodies. In this study a model for the exchange of POP at the soil and sea surface is presented as well as its application in a long-range atmospheric transport model. The main goal of this study is to simulate the spatial distribution of POP deposition (accumulation) over Europe.

  12. Impact of Local Pollution Versus Long Range Transported Aerosols on Clouds and Precipitation over California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols form cloud droplets and ice crystals in clouds and can profoundly impact precipitation processes. In-situ aircraft measurements of the composition of individual cloud residuals have been used to study the impact of different aerosol sources including sea spray, dust, soot, and biomass burning on cloud microphysics and precipitation processes. Aircraft studies in 2011 as part of the CalWater project showed that long range transport of dust aerosols from as far away as Africa and biological particles can lead to an increase in the amount of snowfall over California. This presentation will describe results from CalWater-2015 involving aircraft and ground-based measurements at a coastal site. A discussion of the aerosol sources measured in clouds will be presented detailing the relative impacts of local versus long range transported pollution aerosols over California.

  13. Spin Superfluidity and Long-Range Transport in Thin-Film Ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Skarsvåg, Hans; Holmqvist, Cecilia; Brataas, Arne

    2015-12-01

    In ferromagnets, magnons may condense into a single quantum state. Analogous to superconductors, this quantum state may support transport without dissipation. Recent works suggest that longitudinal spin transport through a thin-film ferromagnet is an example of spin superfluidity. Although intriguing, this tantalizing picture ignores long-range dipole interactions; here, we demonstrate that such interactions dramatically affect spin transport. In single-film ferromagnets, "spin superfluidity" only exists at length scales (a few hundred nanometers in yttrium iron garnet) somewhat larger than the exchange length. Over longer distances, dipolar interactions destroy spin superfluidity. Nevertheless, we predict the reemergence of spin superfluidity in trilayer ferromagnet-normal metal-ferromagnet films that are ∼1  μm in size. Such systems also exhibit other types of long-range spin transport in samples that are several micrometers in size. PMID:26684138

  14. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application. PMID:25234712

  15. Against the long-range spectral leakage of the cosine window family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kui Fu; Jiang, Jing Tao; Crowsen, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    Suppressing spectral leakage in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) has been investigated for over 30 years. Regarding the frequently used cosine window family, it is observed that the long-range leakage sampled by FFT spectral lines follow a flat trajectory. Consequently, the long-range leakage is approximated by polynomials in this paper. In light of this parametric model, the interpolating formula is presented with up to nine-point for a cosine window with maximum side lobe decaying. Its expression is general in the window order and number of interpolating points. Some well-known formulas of the modulus-based interpolated FFT are parallel to special cases of the new formula, but the former are susceptible to significant bias at coherent sampling conditions. The new formula was tested with real-valued signals containing a single tone and then duel tones. It is demonstrated the new formula is easy to implement and is free of the significant bias aforementioned.

  16. Entropy and long-range memory in random symbolic additive Markov chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, S. S.; Usatenko, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the entropy of random symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. As a plausible model, we use the high-order additive stationary ergodic Markov chain with long-range memory. Supposing that the correlations between random elements of the chain are weak, we express the conditional entropy of the sequence by means of the symbolic pair correlation function. We also examine an algorithm for estimating the conditional entropy of finite symbolic sequences. We show that the entropy contains two contributions, i.e., the correlation and the fluctuation. The obtained analytical results are used for numerical evaluation of the entropy of written English texts and DNA nucleotide sequences. The developed theory opens the way for constructing a more consistent and sophisticated approach to describe the systems with strong short-range and weak long-range memory.

  17. Fractal mechanisms and heart rate dynamics. Long-range correlations and their breakdown with disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Havlin, S.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Mietus, J. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, it is found that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g., congestive heart failure patients), these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiologic models of systems that appear to be heterodynamic rather than homeostatic.

  18. Excitation of Ultracold Molecules to ``TRILOBITE-LIKE" Long-Range Molecular Rydberg States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellos, M. A.; Carollo, R.; Banerjee, J.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.; Stwalley, W. C.

    2013-06-01

    A class of long-range Rydberg molecules, sometimes called ``trilobite states", occurs when a ground-state atom is embedded in the electronic cloud of a Rydberg atom. The bond between the Rydberg atom and the ground-state atom originates from the low-energy scattering of the Rydberg electron from the ground-state atom. We produce trilobite-like states of ultracold Rb_2 at low principal quantum numbers and at internuclear separations less than 40 bohr. We populate these states through single-photon ultraviolet transitions starting from molecules in high-lying vibrational levels of the lowest triplet state. This demonstrates that long-range Rydberg molecules can also be excited through bound-bound transitions, in addition to previous studies that used free-bound transitions. We also discuss the advantages of a bound-bound pathway. C. H. Greene, A. S. Dickinson, and H. R. Sadeghpour, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2458 (2000).

  19. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Riascos, A P; Mateos, José L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs. PMID:26651751

  20. On the Continuum Limit for Discrete NLS with Long-Range Lattice Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Kay; Lenzmann, Enno; Staffilani, Gigliola

    2013-02-01

    We consider a general class of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations (DNLS) on the lattice {h{Z}} with mesh size h > 0. In the continuum limit when h → 0, we prove that the limiting dynamics are given by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) on {{R}} with the fractional Laplacian (-Δ) α as dispersive symbol. In particular, we obtain that fractional powers {1/2 < α < 1} arise from long-range lattice interactions when passing to the continuum limit, whereas the NLS with the usual Laplacian -Δ describes the dispersion in the continuum limit for short-range or quick-decaying interactions (e. g., nearest-neighbor interactions). Our results rigorously justify certain NLS model equations with fractional Laplacians proposed in the physics literature. Moreover, the arguments given in our paper can be also applied to discuss the continuum limit for other lattice systems with long-range interactions.

  1. Fluorescence quenching of quantum dots by gold nanoparticles: a potential long range spectroscopic ruler.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Anirban; Zhou, Yadong; Zou, Shengli; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-09-10

    The dependence of quantum dot (QD) fluorescence emission on the proximity of 30 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was studied with controlled interparticle distances ranging from 15 to 70 nm. This was achieved by coassembling DNA-conjugated QDs and AuNPs in a 1:1 ratio at precise positions on a triangular-shaped DNA origami platform. A profound, long-range quenching of the photoluminescence intensity of the QDs was observed. A combination of static and time-resolved fluorescence measurements suggests that the quenching is due to an increase in the nonradiative decay rate of QD emission. Unlike FRET, the energy transfer is inversely proportional to the 2.7th power of the distance between nanoparticles with half quenching at ∼28 nm. This long-range quenching phenomena may be useful for developing extended spectroscopic rulers in the future. PMID:25084363

  2. Photoassociation of a cold-atom-molecule pair: Long-range quadrupole-quadrupole interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lepers, M.; Dulieu, O.; Kokoouline, V.

    2010-10-15

    The general formalism of the multipolar expansion of electrostatic interactions is applied to the calculation of the potential energy between an excited atom (without fine structure) and a ground-state diatomic molecule at large mutual separations. Both partners exhibit a permanent quadrupole moment so that their mutual long-range interaction is dominated by a quadrupole-quadrupole term, which is attractive enough to bind trimers. Numerical results are given for an excited Cs(6{sup 2}P) atom and a ground-state Cs{sub 2} molecule. The prospects for achieving photoassociation of a cold-atom-dimer pair are thus discussed and found promising. The formalism can be generalized to the long-range interaction between molecules to investigate the formation of cold tetramers.

  3. Stable distribution and long-range correlation of Brent crude oil market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Jin, Xiu; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-11-01

    An empirical study of stable distribution and long-range correlation in Brent crude oil market was presented. First, it is found that the empirical distribution of Brent crude oil returns can be fitted well by a stable distribution, which is significantly different from a normal distribution. Second, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that there are long-range correlation in returns. It implies that there are patterns or trends in returns that persist over time. Third, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that after the financial crisis 2008, the Brent crude oil market becomes more persistence. It implies that the financial crisis 2008 could increase the frequency and strength of the interdependence and correlations between the financial time series. All of these findings may be used to improve the current fractal theories.

  4. Quantum spin models with long-range interactions and tunnelings: a quantum Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maik, Michał; Hauke, Philipp; Dutta, Omjyoti; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2012-11-01

    We use a quantum Monte Carlo method to investigate various classes of two-dimensional spin models with long-range interactions at low temperatures. In particular, we study a dipolar XXZ model with U(1) symmetry that appears as a hard-core boson limit of an extended Hubbard model describing polarized dipolar atoms or molecules in an optical lattice. Tunneling, in such a model, is short-range, whereas density-density couplings decay with distance following a cubic power law. We also investigate an XXZ model with long-range couplings of all three spin components—such a model describes a system of ultracold ions in a lattice of microtraps. We describe an approximate phase diagram for such systems at zero and at finite temperature, and compare their properties. In particular, we compare the extent of crystalline, superfluid and supersolid phases. Our predictions apply directly to current experiments with mesoscopic numbers of polar molecules and trapped ions.

  5. Organic thin films. Rational synthesis of organic thin films with exceptional long-range structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Seiki, Noriya; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Kajitani, Takashi; Ishiwari, Fumitaka; Kosaka, Atsuko; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Someya, Takao; Fukushima, Takanori

    2015-06-01

    Highly oriented, domain-boundary-free organic thin films could find use in various high-performance organic materials and devices. However, even with state-of-the-art supramolecular chemistry, it is difficult to construct organic thin films with structural integrity in a size regime beyond the micrometer length scale. We show that a space-filling design, relying on the two-dimensional (2D) nested hexagonal packing of a particular type of triptycene, enables the formation of large-area molecular films with long-range 2D structural integrity up to the centimeter length scale by vacuum evaporation, spin-coating, and cooling from the isotropic liquid of the triptycene. X-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic observations reveal that triptycene molecules form a completely oriented 2D (hexagonal triptycene array) + 1D (layer stacking) structure, which is key for the long-range propagation of structural order. PMID:26045433

  6. Dark matter, long-range forces, and large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1992-01-01

    If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. We discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter and find rather tight constraints on its strength. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). We explore the consequent effects on the two-point correlation function, large-scale velocity flows, and microwave background anisotropies, for models with initial scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations and cold dark matter.

  7. Collective modes in charge-density waves and long-range Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virosztek, Attila; Maki, Kazumi

    1993-07-01

    We study theoretically the collective modes in charge-density waves in the presence of long-range Coulomb interaction. We find that earlier works by Takada and his collaborators are inadequate since they introduced inconsistent approximations in evaluating a variety of correlation functions. The amplitude mode is unaffected by the Coulomb interaction, while the phase mode splits into the phason with linear dispersion (i.e., acoustic mode) and the optical mode with an energy gap in the presence of the Coulomb interaction. In particular, we establish the temperature dependence of the phason velocity vφ. A comparison with recent neutron-scattering data on the phason velocity in the charge-density wave of a single crystal of blue bronze K0.3MoO3 indicates that mean-field theory which includes the long-range Coulomb interaction gives an excellent description of the observed phason velocity.

  8. Short-range/Long-range Integrated Target (SLIT) for Video Guidance Sensor Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Fred D. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A laser target reflector assembly for mounting upon spacecraft having a long-range reflector array formed from a plurality of unfiltered light reflectors embedded in an array pattern upon a hemispherical reflector disposed upon a mounting plate. The reflector assembly also includes a short-range reflector array positioned upon the mounting body proximate to the long-range reflector array. The short-range reflector array includes three filtered light reflectors positioned upon extensions from the mounting body. The three filtered light reflectors retro-reflect substantially all incident light rays that are transmissive by their monochromatic filters and received by the three filtered light reflectors. In one embodiment the short-range reflector array is embedded within the hemispherical reflector,

  9. Evaluation of Long-Range Lightning Detection Networks Using TRMM/LIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudlosky, Scott D.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chris J.; Bateman, Monte; Cecil, Daniel J.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in long-range lightning detection technologies have improved our understanding of thunderstorm evolution in the data sparse oceanic regions. Although the expansion and improvement of long-range lightning datasets have increased their applicability, these applications (e.g., data assimilation, atmospheric chemistry, and aviation weather hazards) require knowledge of the network detection capabilities. Toward this end, the present study evaluates data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) using observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite. The study documents the WWLLN detection efficiency and location accuracy relative to LIS observations, describes the spatial variability in these performance metrics, and documents the characteristics of LIS flashes that are detected by WWLLN. Improved knowledge of the WWLLN detection capabilities will allow researchers, algorithm developers, and operational users to better prepare for the spatial and temporal coverage of the upcoming GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM).

  10. Pairing in high-density neutron matter including short- and long-range correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dong; Rios, Arnau; Dussan, Helber; Dickhoff, Willem; Witte, Sam; Polls, Artur

    2016-03-01

    To address open questions in neutron star phenomenology, pairing gaps of 1S0 and 3P2 -3F2 channels in a wide range of densities has been calculated using three different interactions (AV18 CDbonn N3LO). Traditionally, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS) approach has been used to compute gaps from bare nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here, we incorporate the influence of short- and long-range correlations in the pairing gaps. Short-range correlations (SRC) are treated including the appropriate fragmentation of single-particle states, and they suppress the gaps substantially. Long-range correlations(LRC) dress the pairing interaction via density and spin modes, and provide a relatively small correction. Results are relevant and parametrized in a user friendly way for neutron-star cooling scenarios, in particular in view of the recent observational data on Cassiopeia A.

  11. FY 1991--FY 1995 Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Department of Energy has consolidated its plans for Information Systems, Computing Resources, and Telecommunications into a single document, the Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan. The consolidation was done as a joint effort by the Office of ADP Management and the Office of Computer Services and Telecommunications Management under the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Administration, Information, and Facilities Management. This Plan is the product of a long-range planning process used to project both future information technology requirements and the resources necessary to meet those requirements. It encompasses the plans of the various organizational components within the Department and its management and operating contractors over the next 5 fiscal years, 1991 through 1995.

  12. ATCOM: accelerated image processing for terrestrial long-range imaging through atmospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curt, Petersen F.; Paolini, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Long-range video surveillance performance is often severely diminished due to atmospheric turbulence. The larger apertures typically used for video-rate operation at long-range are particularly susceptible to scintillation and blurring effects that limit the overall diffraction efficiency and resolution. In this paper, we present research progress made toward a digital signal processing technique which aims to mitigate the effects of turbulence in real-time. Our previous work in this area focused on an embedded implementation for portable applications. Our more recent research has focused on functional enhancements to the same algorithm using general-purpose hardware. We present some techniques that were successfully employed to accelerate processing of high-definition color video streams and study performance under nonideal conditions involving moving objects and panning cameras. Finally, we compare the real-time performance of two implementations using a CPU and a GPU.

  13. Reinvestigation of long-range magnetic ordering in icosahedral Tb-Mg-Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Z.; Fisher, I. R.; Zarestky, J.; Canfield, P. C.; Stassis, C.; Goldman, A. I.

    1998-05-01

    We present results of a study of possible magnetic ordering in the icosahedral phase of Tb-Mg-Zn probed by bulk magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction. Measurements on both crushed single grains and cast polycrystalline samples of Tb-Mg-Zn were performed. Magnetization measurements on both samples reveal only a spin-glass-like transition at approximately 5.8 K. Neutron diffraction from the crushed single grains reveals only short-range magnetic ordering at low temperatures, with no evidence of the long-range magnetic ordering reported previously [Charrier, Ouladdiaf, and Schmitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4637 (1997)]. Likewise, the cast polycrystalline samples exhibit primarily diffuse magnetic scattering at low temperature, but at least one relatively sharp diffraction peak was observed. Our results indicate that for single grain samples there is no long-range magnetic ordering and that, at best, the magnetic ordering in these quasicrystalline alloys is not very robust.

  14. Shear-induced quench of long-range correlations in a liquid mixture.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hirofumi

    2004-03-01

    A static correlation function of concentration fluctuations in a (dilute) binary liquid mixture subjected to both a concentration gradient and uniform shear flow is investigated within the framework of fluctuating hydrodynamics. It is shown that a well-known |c|(2)/k(4) long-range correlation at large wave numbers k crosses over to a weaker divergent one at wave numbers satisfying k<(gamma;/D)(1/2), while an asymptotic shear-controlled power-law dependence is found at much smaller wave numbers given by k<(gamma;/nu)(1/2), where c, gamma;, D, and nu are the mass concentration, the rate of the shear, the mass diffusivity, and the kinematic viscosity of the mixture, respectively. The result will provide the possibility to observe the shear-induced suppression of a long-range correlation experimentally by using, for example, a low-angle light scattering technique. PMID:15089275

  15. Pairing in high-density neutron matter including short- and long-range correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, D.; Rios, A.; Dussan, H.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Witte, S. J.; Carbone, A.; Polls, A.

    2016-08-01

    Pairing gaps in neutron matter need to be computed in a wide range of densities to address open questions in neutron-star phenomenology. Traditionally, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer approach has been used to compute gaps from bare nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here we incorporate the influence of short- and long-range correlations in the pairing gaps. Short-range correlations are treated, including the appropriate fragmentation of single-particle states, and substantially suppress the gaps. Long-range correlations dress the pairing interaction via density and spin modes and provide a relatively small correction. We use different interactions, some with three-body forces, as a starting point to control for any systematic effects. Results are relevant for neutron-star cooling scenarios, in particular in view of the recent observational data on Cassiopeia A.

  16. Instabilities and relaxation to equilibrium in long-range oscillator chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloshevich, George; Nguenang, Jean-Pierre; Dauxois, Thierry; Khomeriki, Ramaz; Ruffo, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    We study instabilities and relaxation to equilibrium in a long-range extension of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPU) oscillator chain by exciting initially the lowest Fourier mode. Localization in mode space is stronger for the long-range FPU model. This allows us to uncover the sporadic nature of instabilities, i.e., by varying initially the excitation amplitude of the lowest mode, which is the control parameter, instabilities occur in narrow amplitude intervals. Only for sufficiently large values of the amplitude, the system enters a permanently unstable regime. These findings also clarify the long-standing problem of the relaxation to equilibrium in the short-range FPU model. Because of the weaker localization in mode space of this latter model, the transfer of energy is retarded and relaxation occurs on a much longer timescale.

  17. Long-range repulsion of colloids driven by ion exchange and diffusiophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Florea, Daniel; Musa, Sami; Huyghe, Jacques M. R.; Wyss, Hans M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between surfaces and particles in aqueous suspension are usually limited to distances smaller than 1 μm. However, in a range of studies from different disciplines, repulsion of particles has been observed over distances of up to hundreds of micrometers, in the absence of any additional external fields. Although a range of hypotheses have been suggested to account for such behavior, the physical mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon still remain unclear. To identify and isolate these mechanisms, we perform detailed experiments on a well-defined experimental system, using a setup that minimizes the effects of gravity and convection. Our experiments clearly indicate that the observed long-range repulsion is driven by a combination of ion exchange, ion diffusion, and diffusiophoresis. We develop a simple model that accounts for our data; this description is expected to be directly applicable to a wide range of systems exhibiting similar long-range forces. PMID:24748113

  18. Long range correlations in tree ring chronologies of the USA: Variation within and across species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, M. C.; Gao, J. B.; Tung, W. W.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Tree ring width data are among the best proxies for reconstructing past temperature and precipitation records. The discovery of fractal scaling and long-memory in meteorological and hydrological signals motivates us to investigate such properties in tree ring chronologies. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis are utilized to estimate the Hurst parameter values of 697 tree ring chronologies from the continental United States. We find significant differences in the Hurst parameter values across the 10 species studied in the work. The <span class="hlt">long-range</span> scaling relations found here suggest that the behavior of tree ring growth observed in a short calibration period may be similar to the general behavior of tree ring growth in a much longer period, and therefore, the limited calibration period may be more useful than originally thought. The variations of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations within and across species may be further explored in future to better reconstruct paleoclimatic records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159129"><span id="translatedtitle">Information resources management <span class="hlt">long-range</span> plan, FY1994--1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>This document describes IRM activities and the information technology resources and capabilities of the Department, the future requirements, and the strategies and plans to satisfy the identified requirements. The <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning process provides the systematic means to meet this objective and assists the Department in assuring that information technology (IT) support is provided in an efficient, effective, and timely manner so that its programmatic missions can be accomplished. Another important objective of the Plan is to promote better understanding, both within and external to the Department, of its IT environment, requirements, issues, and recommended solutions. This DOE IRM Plan takes into consideration the IRM requirements of approximately 50 different sites. The annual <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning cycle for supporting this Plan was initiated by a Call in August 1991 for site plans to be submitted in February 1992 by those Departmental components and contractors with major IRM requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6731272','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6731272"><span id="translatedtitle">ESR study of 2-substituted 2-adamantyl radicals. Configuration and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> hyperfine interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kira, Mitsuo; Akiyama, Mieko; Ichinose, Michiko; Sakurai, Hideki )</p> <p>1989-10-11</p> <p>Structure and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> hyperfine interaction in 2-adamantyl, 5,7-dimethyl-2-adamantyl, and the various 2-substituted radicals (substituent = CH{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3}, OSiMe{sub 3}, SSiMe{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}GeMe{sub 3}, etc.) were studied by ESR. The origin of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> hyperfine interaction is discussed on the basis of the comparison between experimental and theoretical hfs values. The analyses of hfs values for persistent 2-bis(trimethylsilyl)methyl-2-adamantyl radical and the 5,7-dimethyl derivative were made by the assistance of the ENDOR spectrum.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20588373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20588373"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> surface magnetoplasmon on thin plasmon films in the Voigt configuration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lan, Yung-Chiang; Chen, Chih-Min</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>This study elucidates the characteristics of a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface magnetoplasmon (LRSMP) that propagates on a plasmon film with the Voigt configuration. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and theoretical analyses are performed. Simulation results indicate that LRSMP has non-symmetrical fields. The proposed scheme also verifies the non-reciprocal properties of LRSMP as the direction of an applied external magnetic field is reversed. When surface waves propagate on a plasmon film across an interface on one side of which <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon (LRSP) is allowed while on the other side of which LRSMP is allowed, the interface behaves similar to a defect and transforms the surface waves into radiation modes owing to the mismatch between the field patterns of LRSP and LRSMP. Furthermore, PIC simulation results confirm the presence of a new high-frequency LRSMP whose frequency exceeds the plasma frequency and lacks a LRSP counterpart. PMID:20588373</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901349','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901349"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanobiological induction of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The <span class="hlt">long-range</span> nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to <span class="hlt">long-range</span> “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development. PMID:27283037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EL.....74..547M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EL.....74..547M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> transport and universality classes in in vitro viral infection spread</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manrubia, S. C.; García-Arriaza, J.; Domingo, E.; Escarmís, C.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Dispersal mechanisms play a main role in the dynamics of infection spread. Recent experimental results with in vitro infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus reveal that the time needed for the virus to kill a cellular monolayer depends qualitatively on the number of viral particles required to initiate infection in a susceptible cell. A two-dimensional susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model based on the experimental setting agrees with the observations only when viral particles are subject to <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport. Numerical and analytical results show that this <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport plays a role when a single particle causes infection, while it is inefficient when complementation between two or more particles is necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27415245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27415245"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> memory in random symbolic additive Markov chains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melnik, S S; Usatenko, O V</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the entropy of random symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. As a plausible model, we use the high-order additive stationary ergodic Markov chain with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> memory. Supposing that the correlations between random elements of the chain are weak, we express the conditional entropy of the sequence by means of the symbolic pair correlation function. We also examine an algorithm for estimating the conditional entropy of finite symbolic sequences. We show that the entropy contains two contributions, i.e., the correlation and the fluctuation. The obtained analytical results are used for numerical evaluation of the entropy of written English texts and DNA nucleotide sequences. The developed theory opens the way for constructing a more consistent and sophisticated approach to describe the systems with strong short-range and weak <span class="hlt">long-range</span> memory. PMID:27415245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26450319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26450319"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> orientation correlation in dipolar liquids probed by hyper-Rayleigh scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shelton, David P</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) is sensitive to <span class="hlt">long-range</span> molecular orientation correlation in isotropic liquids composed of dipolar molecules. The correlation functions that appear in the calculation of HRS mediated by the vector part of the first hyperpolarizability β are the same as the correlation functions for the homogeneous isotropic random vector fields that appear in the description of fluid turbulence. Recent experiments measuring the angle and polarization dependence of HRS from water find a dominant transverse mode contribution with amplitude independent of the scattering wavevector, and this observation of transverse mode HRS strongly constrains the form of the orientation correlation function. Analysis of these HRS results for water determines that the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> molecular orientation correlation function varies as r(-3±ε) with |ε| < 0.03 on spatial scales up to 2000 nm. PMID:26450319</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.T9005Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.T9005Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Cesium Ultra-<span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Rydberg Molecules and Many-Body Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Jin; Jahangiri, Akbar; Rittenhouse, Seth; Reschke, Margarita; Booth, Donald; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Shaffer, James</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Ultra-<span class="hlt">long-range</span> Rydberg molecules have received increasing interest recently because of their novel properties such as the ability to serve as an electron trap, the potential to possess kilo-Debye dipole moments, and their unique binding mechanism. Recently, experiments focusing on Rydberg P-state and D-state molecules have revealed interesting new features of these novel molecules, like coupling between singlet and triplet scattering channels, p-wave scattering dominated states and their behavior in magnetic fields. In this presentation, we report our recent observation of Cesium D-state ultra-<span class="hlt">long-range</span> Rydberg molecules and compare our observations to theoretical calculations. We also report our preliminary data on ``polymer'' molecules, which are formed by one Cs Rydberg atom but more than one Cs ground state atom. The transition from a few-body system to a many-body system can provide insight into many-body physics. We acknowledge funding from the NSF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...627692D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...627692D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanobiological induction of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The <span class="hlt">long-range</span> nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to <span class="hlt">long-range</span> “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22181921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22181921"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> crystalline nature of the Skyrmion lattice in MnSi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adams, T; Mühlbauer, S; Pfleiderer, C; Jonietz, F; Bauer, A; Neubauer, A; Georgii, R; Böni, P; Keiderling, U; Everschor, K; Garst, M; Rosch, A</p> <p>2011-11-18</p> <p>We report small angle neutron scattering of the Skyrmion lattice in MnSi using an experimental setup that minimizes the effects of demagnetizing fields and double scattering. Under these conditions, the Skyrmion lattice displays resolution-limited Gaussian rocking peaks that correspond to a magnetic correlation length in excess of several hundred micrometers. This is consistent with exceptionally well-defined <span class="hlt">long-range</span> order. We further establish the existence of higher-order scattering, discriminating parasitic double scattering with Renninger scans. The field and temperature dependence of the higher-order scattering arises from an interference effect. It is characteristic for the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> crystalline nature of the Skyrmion lattice as shown by simple mean-field calculations. PMID:22181921</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27283037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27283037"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanobiological induction of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dasbiswas, K; Alster, E; Safran, S A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The <span class="hlt">long-range</span> nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to <span class="hlt">long-range</span> "macroscopic modes" in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development. PMID:27283037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92e2814R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92e2814R"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> dynamics and quantum transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riascos, A. P.; Mateos, José L.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows <span class="hlt">long-range</span> displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMMM..327..110C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMMM..327..110C"><span id="translatedtitle">Entanglement and quantum-classical crossover in the extended XX model with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campelo, M. W. V.; de Lima, J. P.; Gonçalves, L. L.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>In this work we considered the one-dimensional extended isotropic XY model (s=1/2) in a transverse field with uniform <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions among the z components of the spins. We studied the classical critical behaviour of the model through the behaviour of the magnetization, isothermal susceptibility, internal energy and specific heat. We have obtained exact expressions for these functions and evaluated the critical exponents. The phase diagrams for the classical critical behaviour were built for three cases of the multiplicity p of the multiple spin interaction, namely p=2, p=3 and p→∞. We have also shown that the quantum phase transitions can also be characterized through two quantifiers of entanglement, namely, the concurrence and the von Neumann entropy. We have also verified through the von Neumann entropy how the central charge of the model is affected by the multiplicity p, the coupling exchange J2 and the uniform <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction I.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86b2102R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86b2102R"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous diffusion and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in the score evolution of the game of cricket</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mukherjee, Satyam; Zeng, Xiao Han T.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We investigate the time evolution of the scores of the second most popular sport in the world: the game of cricket. By analyzing, event by event, the scores of more than 2000 matches, we point out that the score dynamics is an anomalous diffusive process. Our analysis reveals that the variance of the process is described by a power-law dependence with a superdiffusive exponent, that the scores are statistically self-similar following a universal Gaussian distribution, and that there are <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in the score evolution. We employ a generalized Langevin equation with a power-law correlated noise that describes all the empirical findings very well. These observations suggest that competition among agents may be a mechanism leading to anomalous diffusion and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685257','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685257"><span id="translatedtitle">Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electron transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Westereng, Bjørge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Jørgensen, Henning; Larsen Andersen, Mogens; Eijsink, Vincent G.H.; Felby, Claus</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Enzymatic oxidation of cell wall polysaccharides by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) plays a pivotal role in the degradation of plant biomass. While experiments have shown that LPMOs are copper dependent enzymes requiring an electron donor, the mechanism and origin of the electron supply in biological systems are only partly understood. We show here that insoluble high molecular weight lignin functions as a reservoir of electrons facilitating LPMO activity. The electrons are donated to the enzyme by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electron transfer involving soluble low molecular weight lignins present in plant cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds new light on how oxidative enzymes present in plant degraders may act in concert. PMID:26686263</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6394472','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6394472"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> maintenance planning: A case study of working system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Flanigan, M.J.</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>This paper addresses the development of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Maintenance Planning System (MPS). The pitfalls encountered and overcome, and future expansion plans. The MPS provides the ability to develop and track <span class="hlt">long-range</span> programs, i.e., conversion of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) equipment to hydrochlorofluorocaron (HCFC), roofing, roads, etc., in addition to providing invaluable information and data for current year budget justification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10269910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10269910"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> hospital capital requirements planning: the state of the art, a proposal for change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hogan, A J</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A Hospital Capital Requirements Planning System is proposed to channel competition through the use of a regional planning model. This model would help to reduce the social deadweight loss arising from competition-induced uncertainty. The system would increase the internal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning capacity of hospitals and improve the quality of the applications presented for Certificate of Need review. Both health systems planners and investment bankers should have better information with which to evaluate hospital capital investment proposals. PMID:10269910</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720021136','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720021136"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies for determining the optimum propulsion system characteristics for use in a <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> transport aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brines, G. L.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive evaluation of propulsion systems for the next generation of near-sonic <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> transport aircraft indicates that socially responsive noise and emission goals can be achieved within the probable limits of acceptable airplane performance and economics. Technology advances needed in the 1975-1985 time period to support the development of these propulsion systems are identified and discussed. The single most significant result is the low noise, high performance potential of a low tip speed, spaced, two-stage fan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..327C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..327C"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-space, mean-field algorithm to numerically calculate <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cadilhe, A.; Costa, B. V.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> interactions are known to be of difficult treatment in statistical mechanics models. There are some approaches that introduce a cutoff in the interactions or make use of reaction field approaches. However, those treatments suffer the illness of being of limited use, in particular close to phase transitions. The use of open boundary conditions allows the sum of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions over the entire system to be done, however, this approach demands a sum over all degrees of freedom in the system, which makes a numerical treatment prohibitive. Techniques like the Ewald summation or fast multipole expansion account for the exact interactions but are still limited to a few thousands of particles. In this paper we introduce a novel mean-field approach to treat <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions. The method is based in the division of the system in cells. In the inner cell, that contains the particle in sight, the 'local' interactions are computed exactly, the 'far' contributions are then computed as the average over the particles inside a given cell with the particle in sight for each of the remaining cells. Using this approach, the large and small cells limits are exact. At a fixed cell size, the method also becomes exact in the limit of large lattices. We have applied the procedure to the two-dimensional anisotropic dipolar Heisenberg model. A detailed comparison between our method, the exact calculation and the cutoff radius approximation were done. Our results show that the cutoff-cell approach outperforms any cutoff radius approach as it maintains the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> memory present in these interactions, contrary to the cutoff radius approximation. Besides that, we calculated the critical temperature and the critical behavior of the specific heat of the anisotropic Heisenberg model using our method. The results are in excellent agreement with extensive Monte Carlo simulations using Ewald summation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...12..167C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...12..167C"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring flavor-dependent <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forces in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatterjee, Sabya Sachi; Dasgupta, Arnab; Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Standard Model gauge group can be extended with minimal matter content by introducing anomaly free U(1) symmetry, such as L e - L μ or L e - L τ . If the neutral gauge boson corresponding to this abelian symmetry is ultra-light, then it will give rise to flavor-dependent <span class="hlt">long-range</span> leptonic force, which can have significant impact on neutrino oscillations. For an instance, the electrons inside the Sun can generate a flavor-dependent <span class="hlt">long-range</span> potential at the Earth surface, which can suppress the ν μ → ν e appearance probability in terrestrial experiments. The sign of this potential is opposite for anti-neutrinos, and affects the oscillations of (anti-)neutrinos in different fashion. This feature invokes fake CP-asymmetry like the SM matter effect and can severely affect the leptonic CP-violation searches in long-baseline experiments. In this paper, we study in detail the possible impacts of these <span class="hlt">long-range</span> flavor-diagonal neutral current interactions due to L e - L μ symmetry, when (anti-)neutrinos travel from Fermilab to Homestake (1300 km) and CERN to Pyhäsalmi (2290 km) in the context of future high-precision superbeam facilities, DUNE and LBNO respectively. If there is no signal of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> force, DUNE (LBNO) can place stringent constraint on the effective gauge coupling α eμ < 1.9 × 10-53 (7.8 × 10-54) at 90% C.L., which is almost 30 (70) times better than the existing bound from the Super-Kamiokande experiment. We also observe that if α eμ ≥ 2 × 10-52, the CP-violation discovery reach of these future facilities vanishes completely. The mass hierarchy measurement remains robust in DUNE (LBNO) if α eμ < 5 × 10-52 (10-52).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/82821','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/82821"><span id="translatedtitle">The nature of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> order in the vortex lattice of high {Tc} superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryu, S.; Doniach, S.; Kapitulnik, A.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Recent neutron data on the disappearance of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> order in the vortex lattice of BSCCO at fields of order 1 kGauss is interpreted in terms of the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the thermodynamics of the vortex lattice in a pure system. The authors show that the neutron data is consistent with a disorder-driven phase transition from a vortex crystal at low fields to a vortex glass at higher fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1682c0004C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1682c0004C"><span id="translatedtitle">Rolling estimations of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> dependence volatility for high frequency S&P500 index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheong, Chin Wen; Pei, Tan Pei</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the time-varying <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> dependence behaviors of the S&P500 volatility index using the modified rescaled adjusted range (R/S) statistic. For better computational result, a high frequency rolling bipower variation realized volatility estimates are used to avoid possible abrupt jump. The empirical analysis findings allow us to understand better the informationally market efficiency before and after the subprime mortgage crisis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255175','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255175"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Force Transmission in Fibrous Matrices Enabled by Tension-Driven Alignment of Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Hailong; Abhilash, A.S.; Chen, Christopher S.; Wells, Rebecca G.; Shenoy, Vivek B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Cells can sense and respond to mechanical signals over relatively long distances across fibrous extracellular matrices. Recently proposed models suggest that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> force transmission can be attributed to the nonlinear elasticity or fibrous nature of collagen matrices, yet the mechanism whereby fibers align remains unknown. Moreover, cell shape and anisotropy of cellular contraction are not considered in existing models, although recent experiments have shown that they play crucial roles. Here, we explore all of the key factors that influence <span class="hlt">long-range</span> force transmission in cell-populated collagen matrices: alignment of collagen fibers, responses to applied force, strain stiffening properties of the aligned fibers, aspect ratios of the cells, and the polarization of cellular contraction. A constitutive law accounting for mechanically driven collagen fiber reorientation is proposed. We systematically investigate the range of collagen-fiber alignment using both finite-element simulations and analytical calculations. Our results show that tension-driven collagen-fiber alignment plays a crucial role in force transmission. Small critical stretch for fiber alignment, large fiber stiffness and fiber strain-hardening behavior enable <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction. Furthermore, the range of collagen-fiber alignment for elliptical cells with polarized contraction is much larger than that for spherical cells with diagonal contraction. A phase diagram showing the range of force transmission as a function of cell shape and polarization and matrix properties is presented. Our results are in good agreement with recent experiments, and highlight the factors that influence <span class="hlt">long-range</span> force transmission, in particular tension-driven alignment of fibers. Our work has important relevance to biological processes including development, cancer metastasis, and wound healing, suggesting conditions whereby cells communicate over long distances. PMID:25468338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576498','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576498"><span id="translatedtitle">Operation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> substituent effects in rigid opiates: protonated and unprotonated oxymorphone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Darling, S.D.; Kolb, V.M.; Mandel, G.S.; Mandel, N.S.</p> <p>1982-07-01</p> <p>The structure of protonated oxymorphone (amine salt) was determined by an X-ray crystallographic study. Significant differences were found with the previously determined structure of unprotonated oxymorphone (free base). Upon protonation on nitrogen, an elongation of the N-C bound occurred, accompanied by subtle changes in bond lengths and angles distant from the site of protonation. These changes in geometry are interpreted as a reflection of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> substituent effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020054542&hterms=Mechanical+potential+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DMechanical%2Bpotential%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020054542&hterms=Mechanical+potential+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DMechanical%2Bpotential%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Intermolecular Interactions in Nanotubes, Fullerenes and Graphite using a New <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jaffe, Richard; Halicioglu, Timur; Han, Jie; Yang, Liu; Huo, Winifred (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The cohesive energy and compressibility of strands of a single-wall nanotube rope has been computed using a new <span class="hlt">long-range</span> potential energy function derived from accurate ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of the benzene dimer and calibrated for energetic and mechanical properties of graphite (at pressures up to 12 GPa). We also use this potential to calculate a variety of properties of carbon nanotubes (both single- and multi-wall) and fullerenes. Extensive comparisons are made with previously published potentials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JChPh.143d4103F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JChPh.143d4103F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A new smoothing function to introduce <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E.; Cisneros, G. Andrés</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A new method to account for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Å cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic contribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4514725','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4514725"><span id="translatedtitle">A new smoothing function to introduce <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E.; Cisneros, G. Andrés</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new method to account for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Å cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic contribution. PMID:26233103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40205200','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40205200"><span id="translatedtitle">Back reaction of a <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> force on a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brisudova, Martina; Kinney, William H.</p> <p>2000-11-15</p> <p>It is possible that there may exist <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forces in addition to gravity. In this paper we construct a simple model for such a force based on exchange of a massless scalar field and analyze its effect on the evolution of a homogeneous Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. The presence of such an interaction leads to an equation of state characterized by positive pressure and to resonant particle production similar to that observed in preheating scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27244393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27244393"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing photonic spin Hall effect via <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon resonance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Xiao-Jie; Zhu, Xiao-Song</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We presented the significant enhancement of the photonic spin Hall effect by taking advantage of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon resonance (LRSPR). The influence of the thicknesses of metal and dielectric layers in the insulator-metal-insulator structure which supports LRSPR was investigated. Under the optimal parameter setup, the largest transverse separation with a 632.8 nm incident Gaussian beam reaches 7.85 μm, which is much larger than previous reported values. PMID:27244393</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AIPC..693..261E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AIPC..693..261E"><span id="translatedtitle">Wire Map and Applications to <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Beam-Beam Compensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdelyi, B.; Sen, T.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> beam-beam effects play an important role in the Tevatron. Active compensation is envisaged by current wires, as proposed recently for the LHC. Here, we present the first steps in this program, namely the principle of the compensation, the derivation of the transfer map of the wire, potentially increasing robustness by utilizing wire cages, and some very preliminary results of application to the Tevatron at injection energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21011429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21011429"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> dispersion interactions. I. Formalism for two heteronuclear atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, J.-Y.; Mitroy, J.</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>A general procedure for systematically evaluating the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dispersion interaction between two heteronuclear atoms in arbitrary states is outlined. The C{sub 6} dispersion parameter can always be written in terms of sum rules involving oscillator strengths only and formulas for a number of symmetry cases are given. The dispersion coefficients for excited alkali-metal atoms interacting with the ground-state H and He are tabulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056734&hterms=resonance+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dresonance%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056734&hterms=resonance+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dresonance%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">N(+)-N <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction energies and resonance charge exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stallcop, J. R.; Partridge, H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The aerothermodynamic studies of proposed space missions require atmospheric charge-transfer data. N2(+) eigenstate energies are calculated with use of the complete-active-space self-consistent-field method with an extended Gaussian basis set. The N(+)-N charge-exchange cross section, determined from these energies, agrees with merged-beam measurements. This contradicts the previous theoretical conclusion. A simple physical description of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction is presented and should expedite future charge-transfer studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/288966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/288966"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground state and excitations of the supersymmetric extended Hubbard model with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, D.F.; Liu, J.T.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>We examine the ground state and excitations of the one-dimensional supersymmetric extended Hubbard model with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction. The ground state wave-function and low lying excitations are given explicitly in the form of a Jastrow product of two-body terms. This result motivates an asymptotic Bethe ansatz solution for the model. We present evidence that this solution is in fact exact and spans the complete spectrum of states. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493902','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493902"><span id="translatedtitle">A new smoothing function to introduce <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E.; Andrés Cisneros, G.</p> <p>2015-07-28</p> <p>A new method to account for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Å cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic contribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612134D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612134D"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-scale variability and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> memory in indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios; Barbosa, Susana</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The presence or absence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in the variations of indoor Radon concentrations has recently attracted considerable interest. As a radioactive gas naturally emitted from the ground in certain geological settings, understanding environmental factors controlling Radon concentrations and their dynamics is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we re-analyze two high-resolution records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements. In order to evaluate the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations and fractal scaling, we utilize a multiplicity of complementary methods, including power spectral analysis, ARFIMA modeling, classical and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis, and two different estimators of the signals' fractal dimensions. Power spectra and fluctuation functions reveal some complex behavior with qualitatively different properties on different time-scales: white noise in the high-frequency part, indications of some <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlated process dominating time scales of several hours to days, and pronounced low-frequency variability associated with tidal and/or meteorological forcing. In order to further decompose these different scales of variability, we apply two different approaches. On the one hand, applying multi-resolution analysis based on the discrete wavelet transform allows separately studying contributions on different time scales and characterize their specific correlation and scaling properties. On the other hand, singular system analysis (SSA) provides a reconstruction of the essential modes of variability. Specifically, by considering only the first leading SSA modes, we achieve an efficient de-noising of our environmental signals, highlighting the low-frequency variations together with some distinct scaling on sub-daily time-scales resembling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344525','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344525"><span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous actions of the human growth hormone <span class="hlt">long-range</span> enhancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yoo, Eung Jae; Brown, Christopher D.; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Cooke, Nancy E.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The human growth hormone (hGH) gene is controlled by a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> enhancer, HSI, located 14.5 kb 5′ to the hGH promoter. HSI establishes a domain of noncoding transcription that is ‘looped’ to the hGH promoter as an essential step in initiating hGH gene expression. Thus, defining how HSI generates its domain of noncoding transcription is central to understanding its <span class="hlt">long-range</span> function. Here, we demonstrate that activation of noncoding transcription reflects an HSI-autonomous activity fully independent of interactions with linked gene promoters and occurring in spatial and temporal synchrony with initiation of GH expression in the embryonic pituitary. HSI establishes its noncoding transcription start sites (TSS) over a defined distance from its core determinants and in a manner independent of local primary sequences. The interval between HSI and it TSS co-maps with a domain of disordered and/or highly mobile nucleosomes specific to the pituitary locus. Thus, a localized chromatin reconfiguration by HSI and consequent establishment of an adjacent domain of noncoding transcription constitute initiating events in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> enhancer function within the hGH locus. PMID:25662214</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8704E..2JL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8704E..2JL"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> night/day human identification using active-SWIR imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lemoff, Brian E.; Martin, Robert B.; Sluch, Mikhail; Kafka, Kristopher M.; McCormick, William; Ice, Robert</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Positive identification of personnel from a safe distance is a long-standing need for security and defense applications. Advances in computer face recognition have made this a reliable means of identification when facial imagery of sufficient resolution is available to be matched against a database of mug shots. <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> identification at night requires that the face be actively illuminated; however, for visible and NIR illumination, the intensity required to produce high-resolution <span class="hlt">long-range</span> imagery typically creates an eye-safety hazard. SWIR illumination makes active- SWIR imaging a promising approach to <span class="hlt">long-range</span> night-time identification. We will describe an active-SWIR imaging system that is being developed to covertly detect, track, zoom in on, and positively identify a human target, night or day, at hundreds of meters range. The SWIR illuminator pans, tilts, and zooms with the imager to always just fill the imager field of view. The illuminator meets Class 1 eye-safety limits (safe even with magnifying optics) at the intended target, and meets Class 1M eye-safety limits (safe to the naked eye) at point-blank range. Close-up night-time facial imagery will be presented along with experimental face recognition performance results for matching SWIR imagery to a database of visible mug shots at distance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..APRU16006A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..APRU16006A"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Limits on Exotic Spin Dependent <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Forces using Double Boson Exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aldaihan, Sheakha; Snow, William Michael; Krause, Dennis; Long, Joshua</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The existence of very light weakly interacting particles that mediate new <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> forces has been suggested in many extensions of the Standard Model. Such particles span a length scale between a μm and a few meters and include axions, familons, Majorons,and arions. Parameterizations of forces in this range show that they are composite-dependent, have a Yukawa shape, and have both spin-dependent as well as spin independent components. Very stringent limits on spin-independent couplings exist. For <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> spin dependent forces, limits are weaker by 20 orders of magnitude compared to their spin independent analogs. The disparity in the limits raises the question of whether interesting limits on spin dependent couplings can be inferred from spin independent searches for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> forces. We show that this is possible using higher order contributions corresponding to double boson exchange and report the limits placed on spin dependent couplings using this method. We gratefully acknowledge the support of Indiana University and the National Science Foundation. The first author also acknowdges King Abdullah scholarship program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144j4502B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144j4502B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of simple solutes on the <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> dipolar correlations in liquid water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baul, Upayan; Kanth, J. Maruthi Pradeep; Anishetty, Ramesh; Vemparala, Satyavani</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions. Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exist considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) have a <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> effect on the dipolar correlations, which cannot be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions and their <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH4) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> orientational correlations in liquid water, contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.Q1157J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.Q1157J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Atom-Wall Mixing Terms for Excited States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jentschura, Ulrich D.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> interactions between an atom and a perfectly conducting surface have been studied for a number of decades. Based on the work of G. Barton, we know that the treatment of these interactions for excited reference states can be highly problematic, requires the careful regularization of infinities, and additional renormalizations. Here, the treatment is extended to higher-order corrections, namely, mixing terms which are generated by the spatial symmetry breaking due to the presence of the conducting surface. These terms are evaluated, with full account of retardation, for metastable hydrogen. Very-<span class="hlt">long-range</span> admixture ``tails'' due to neighboring 2P3 / 2 states which are removed from the reference 2 S state only by the fine structure, have a characteristic and surprising oscillatory 1 / Z form in the vicinity of a surface, where Z is the atom-surface distance. The transition from the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> regime to the nonretarded close-range interactions and admixture terms is studied. Supported by the NSF (Grant PHY-1403973).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253042"><span id="translatedtitle">Describing <span class="hlt">long-range</span> charge-separation processes with subsystem density-functional theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Solovyeva, Alisa; Neugebauer, Johannes; Pavanello, Michele</p> <p>2014-04-28</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> charge-transfer processes in extended systems are difficult to describe with quantum chemical methods. In particular, cost-effective (non-hybrid) approximations within time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) are not applicable unless special precautions are taken. Here, we show that the efficient subsystem DFT can be employed as a constrained DFT variant to describe the energetics of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> charge-separation processes. A formal analysis of the energy components in subsystem DFT for such excitation energies is presented, which demonstrates that both the distance dependence and the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> limit are correctly described. In addition, electronic couplings for these processes as needed for rate constants in Marcus theory can be obtained from this method. It is shown that the electronic structure of charge-separated states constructed by a positively charged subsystem interacting with a negatively charged one is difficult to converge — charge leaking from the negative subsystem to the positive one can occur. This problem is related to the delocalization error in DFT and can be overcome with asymptotically correct exchange–correlation (XC) potentials or XC potentials including a sufficiently large amount of exact exchange. We also outline an approximate way to obtain charge-transfer couplings between locally excited and charge-separated states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373986"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-echo processing by a bottlenose dolphin operating in "packet" transmission mode at <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Finneran, James J; Schroth-Miller, Maddie; Borror, Nancy; Tormey, Megan; Brewer, Arial; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly; Goya, Gavin</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Bottlenose dolphins performing echolocation tasks at <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> may utilize a transmission mode where bursts, or "packets," of echolocation clicks are emitted rather than single clicks. The clicks within each packet are separated by time intervals well below the two-way travel time, while the packets themselves are emitted at intervals greater than the two-way travel time. Packet use has been shown to increase with range; however, the exact function of packets and the advantages gained by their utilization remain unknown. In this study, the capability for dolphins to utilize multi-echo processing within packets of echoes was investigated by manipulating the number of available echoes within each packet as a dolphin performed a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> echolocation task. The results showed an improvement in detectability with an increase in the number of echoes in each packet and suggest that packet use is an adaptation to allow multi-echo processing at <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> without introducing range ambiguity. 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