Science.gov

Sample records for long-range signal transmission

  1. Fibers in the extracellular matrix enable long-range stress transmission between cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyue; Schickel, Maureen E; Stevenson, Mark D; Sarang-Sieminski, Alisha L; Gooch, Keith J; Ghadiali, Samir N; Hart, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    Cells can sense, signal, and organize via mechanical forces. The ability of cells to mechanically sense and respond to the presence of other cells over relatively long distances (e.g., ∼100 μm, or ∼10 cell-diameters) across extracellular matrix (ECM) has been attributed to the strain-hardening behavior of the ECM. In this study, we explore an alternative hypothesis: the fibrous nature of the ECM makes long-range stress transmission possible and provides an important mechanism for long-range cell-cell mechanical signaling. To test this hypothesis, confocal reflectance microscopy was used to develop image-based finite-element models of stress transmission within fibroblast-seeded collagen gels. Models that account for the gel's fibrous nature were compared with homogenous linear-elastic and strain-hardening models to investigate the mechanisms of stress propagation. Experimentally, cells were observed to compact the collagen gel and align collagen fibers between neighboring cells within 24 h. Finite-element analysis revealed that stresses generated by a centripetally contracting cell boundary are concentrated in the relatively stiff ECM fibers and are propagated farther in a fibrous matrix as compared to homogeneous linear elastic or strain-hardening materials. These results support the hypothesis that ECM fibers, especially aligned ones, play an important role in long-range stress transmission. PMID:23561517

  2. Fibers in the Extracellular Matrix Enable Long-Range Stress Transmission between Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyue; Schickel, Maureen E.; Stevenson, Mark D.; Sarang-Sieminski, Alisha L.; Gooch, Keith J.; Ghadiali, Samir N.; Hart, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Cells can sense, signal, and organize via mechanical forces. The ability of cells to mechanically sense and respond to the presence of other cells over relatively long distances (e.g., ∼100 μm, or ∼10 cell-diameters) across extracellular matrix (ECM) has been attributed to the strain-hardening behavior of the ECM. In this study, we explore an alternative hypothesis: the fibrous nature of the ECM makes long-range stress transmission possible and provides an important mechanism for long-range cell-cell mechanical signaling. To test this hypothesis, confocal reflectance microscopy was used to develop image-based finite-element models of stress transmission within fibroblast-seeded collagen gels. Models that account for the gel’s fibrous nature were compared with homogenous linear-elastic and strain-hardening models to investigate the mechanisms of stress propagation. Experimentally, cells were observed to compact the collagen gel and align collagen fibers between neighboring cells within 24 h. Finite-element analysis revealed that stresses generated by a centripetally contracting cell boundary are concentrated in the relatively stiff ECM fibers and are propagated farther in a fibrous matrix as compared to homogeneous linear elastic or strain-hardening materials. These results support the hypothesis that ECM fibers, especially aligned ones, play an important role in long-range stress transmission. PMID:23561517

  3. Long-Range Force Transmission in Fibrous Matrices Enabled by Tension-Driven Alignment of Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Abhilash, A.S.; Chen, Christopher S.; Wells, Rebecca G.; Shenoy, Vivek B.

    2014-01-01

    Cells can sense and respond to mechanical signals over relatively long distances across fibrous extracellular matrices. Recently proposed models suggest that long-range force transmission can be attributed to the nonlinear elasticity or fibrous nature of collagen matrices, yet the mechanism whereby fibers align remains unknown. Moreover, cell shape and anisotropy of cellular contraction are not considered in existing models, although recent experiments have shown that they play crucial roles. Here, we explore all of the key factors that influence long-range force transmission in cell-populated collagen matrices: alignment of collagen fibers, responses to applied force, strain stiffening properties of the aligned fibers, aspect ratios of the cells, and the polarization of cellular contraction. A constitutive law accounting for mechanically driven collagen fiber reorientation is proposed. We systematically investigate the range of collagen-fiber alignment using both finite-element simulations and analytical calculations. Our results show that tension-driven collagen-fiber alignment plays a crucial role in force transmission. Small critical stretch for fiber alignment, large fiber stiffness and fiber strain-hardening behavior enable long-range interaction. Furthermore, the range of collagen-fiber alignment for elliptical cells with polarized contraction is much larger than that for spherical cells with diagonal contraction. A phase diagram showing the range of force transmission as a function of cell shape and polarization and matrix properties is presented. Our results are in good agreement with recent experiments, and highlight the factors that influence long-range force transmission, in particular tension-driven alignment of fibers. Our work has important relevance to biological processes including development, cancer metastasis, and wound healing, suggesting conditions whereby cells communicate over long distances. PMID:25468338

  4. An optimization model for long-range transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. Jr.; Franca, P.M.; Said, A.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper is presented a static network synthesis method applied to transmission expansion planning. The static synthesis problem is formulated as a mixed-integer network flow model that is solved by an implicit enumeration algorithm. This model considers as the objective function the most productive trade off, resulting in low investment costs and good electrical performance. The load and generation nodal equations are considered in the constraints of the model. The power transmission law of DC load flow is implicit in the optimization model. Results of computational tests are presented and they show the advantage of this method compared with a heuristic procedure. The case studies show a comparison of computational times and costs of solutions obtained for the Brazilian North-Northeast transmission system.

  5. Fast Faraday fading of long range satellite signals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heron, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    20 MHz radio signals have been received during the day from satellite Beacon-B when it was below the optical horizon by using a bank of narrow filters to improve the signal to noise ratio. The Faraday fading rate becomes constant, under these conditions, at a level determined by the plasma frequency just below the F-layer peak. Variations in the Faraday fading rate reveal fluctuations in the electron density near the peak, while the rate of attaining the constant level depends on the shape of the electron density profile.

  6. A long range transmission system communication plan for ComEd of Chicago 1995 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, R.; Gerleve, F.J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of a telecommunication fiber optical network serving ComEd`s commercial centers and generation stations is described. A long range communication plan is presented describing a migration of transmission substation protection, monitoring and control from an analog system over power line carrier, microwave, and leased phone lines to a digital system using an optimum mix of communication channels including fiber.

  7. 75 FR 1799 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Register of January 7, 2010 (75 FR 998). The document announced termination of the Long Range Aids to... January 7, 2010, in ] FR Doc. 2010-83, on page 998 in the second column under DATES, correct... SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard,...

  8. Multi-echo processing by a bottlenose dolphin operating in "packet" transmission mode at long range.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Schroth-Miller, Maddie; Borror, Nancy; Tormey, Megan; Brewer, Arial; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly; Goya, Gavin

    2014-11-01

    Bottlenose dolphins performing echolocation tasks at long ranges may utilize a transmission mode where bursts, or "packets," of echolocation clicks are emitted rather than single clicks. The clicks within each packet are separated by time intervals well below the two-way travel time, while the packets themselves are emitted at intervals greater than the two-way travel time. Packet use has been shown to increase with range; however, the exact function of packets and the advantages gained by their utilization remain unknown. In this study, the capability for dolphins to utilize multi-echo processing within packets of echoes was investigated by manipulating the number of available echoes within each packet as a dolphin performed a long-range echolocation task. The results showed an improvement in detectability with an increase in the number of echoes in each packet and suggest that packet use is an adaptation to allow multi-echo processing at long ranges without introducing range ambiguity. PMID:25373986

  9. Mode tomography using signals from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K.

    Ocean acoustic tomography uses acoustic signals to infer the environmental properties of the ocean. The procedure for tomography consists of low frequency acoustic transmissions at mid-water depths to receivers located at hundreds of kilometer ranges. The arrival times of the signal at the receiver are then inverted for the sound speed of the background environment. Using this principle, experiments such as the 2004 Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment have used acoustic signals recorded across Vertical Line Arrays (VLAs) to infer the Sound Speed Profile (SSP) across depth. The acoustic signals across the VLAs can be represented in terms of orthonormal basis functions called modes. The lower modes of the basis set concentrated around mid-water propagate longer distances and can be inverted for mesoscale effects such as currents and eddies. In spite of these advantages, mode tomography has received less attention. One of the important reasons for this is that internal waves in the ocean cause significant amplitude and travel time fluctuations in the modes. The amplitude and travel time fluctuations cause errors in travel time estimates. The absence of a statistical model and the lack of signal processing techniques for internal wave effects have precluded the modes from being used in tomographic inversions. This thesis estimates a statistical model for modes affected by internal waves and then uses the estimated model to design appropriate signal processing methods to obtain tomographic observables for the low modes. In order to estimate a statistical model, this thesis uses both the LOAPEX signals and also numerical simulations. The statistical model describes the amplitude and phase coherence across different frequencies for modes at different ranges. The model suggests that Matched Subspace Detectors (MSDs) based on the amplitude statistics of the modes are the optimum detectors to make travel time estimates for modes up to 250 km. The mean of the

  10. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  11. 75 FR 998 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... FR 4047), the U.S. Coast Guard began a public review process for its Draft Programmatic Environmental... SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard, DHS..., the Department of Transportation has determined that sufficient alternative navigation aids...

  12. Transmission of long-range surface plasmon-polaritons across gap in Au waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Ji, Lanting; He, Guobing; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Yi, Yunji; Wang, Xibin; Chen, Changming; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Optical loss induced by the arbitrary structure discontinuity in the Au stripe that supports long-range surface plasmon-polaritons (LRSPPs) propagation is investigated in this paper. A broad range of arbitrary gap sizes, 4 to 20 μm, is reported for 25 nm thick Au stripe with different widths embedded in 5 μm thick optically symmetric polymer SU-8. The simulations and experimental data find a high tunneling efficiency of the long-range mode power transmission of larger than 50% over a 10 μm gap at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Accordingly, a thermally activated in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer switch based on the guiding of LRSPPs along Au stripe with gaps is designed and fabricated. Switching characteristics are analyzed upon heating one arm of the interferometer through the passage of current therein. The fabricated switch exhibits an extinction ratio of 17 dB with a driving power of 13 mW. The results prove that LRSPPs are insensitive to technological imperfections and waveguide interruptions, which is of benefit to active plasmonic device applications.

  13. Long-range gap junctional signaling controls oncogene-mediated tumorigenesis in Xenopus laevis embryos

    PubMed Central

    Chernet, Brook T.; Fields, Chris; Levin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the immediate microenvironment, long-range signaling may be an important component of cancer. Molecular-genetic analyses have implicated gap junctions—key mediators of cell-cell communication—in carcinogenesis. We recently showed that the resting voltage potential of distant cell groups is a key determinant of metastatic transformation and tumor induction. Here, we show in the Xenopus laevis model that gap junctional communication (GJC) is a modulator of the long-range bioelectric signaling that regulates tumor formation. Genetic disruption of GJC taking place within tumors, within remote host tissues, or between the host and tumors significantly lowers the incidence of tumors induced by KRAS mutations. The most pronounced suppression of tumor incidence was observed upon GJC disruption taking place farther away from oncogene-expressing cells, revealing a role for GJC in distant cells in the control of tumor growth. In contrast, enhanced GJC communication through the overexpression of wild-type connexin Cx26 increased tumor incidence. Our data confirm a role for GJC in tumorigenesis, and reveal that this effect is non-local. Based on these results and on published data on movement of ions through GJs, we present a quantitative model linking the GJC coupling and bioelectrical state of cells to the ability of oncogenes to initiate tumorigenesis. When integrated with data on endogenous bioelectric signaling during left-right patterning, the model predicts differential tumor incidence outcomes depending on the spatial configurations of gap junction paths relative to tumor location and major anatomical body axes. Testing these predictions, we found that the strongest influence of GJ modulation on tumor suppression by hyperpolarization occurred along the embryonic left-right axis. Together, these data reveal new, long-range aspects of cancer control by the host's physiological parameters. PMID:25646081

  14. Physical mechanisms associated with long-range propagation of the signals from ionospheric heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Zavorotny, Valery U.; Rietveld, Michael T.

    2014-10-01

    Long-range propagation of heater-produced signals has been studied in experiments with the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association ionospheric heating facility and with several globally distributed receiving sites by Zalizovski et al. [2009]. Two distinctive components were present in the signals' spectra, and these can be attributed to two modes of propagation of the signals. One of the components is narrowband and stable; it obviously can be associated with the multihop ionospheric propagation of HF waves radiated by the side lobes of the heater's antenna array. Prominent features of the second component are its wider spectral band (up to few tens of hertz) and strong variations in the average Doppler frequency shift and in the power, which in many cases were synchronous at the different receiving sites. These effects are most likely produced by the ionospheric scattering and dynamics within the heater's main beam. The tricky part is to explain how a portion of the HF energy contained in the relatively narrow main beam of the heater is redirected toward the remote receiving locations. We suggest a robust mechanism explaining the long-range propagation of the wideband component of the heater-generated signal based on the theory of scattering from rough surfaces. This mechanism preserves all the observed properties of the remote signals. We show that mountain relief in the vicinity of the heater plays the role of the rough surface causing almost isotropic scattering of the heater's main beam after it is reflected by the ionosphere. Multiple scattering by natural and artificial field-aligned irregularities in the ionospheric layer may be related to the ground-scattered remote signals through its role in spatial redistribution of the heater's radiation.

  15. Glutamate Induces Calcium Waves in Cultured Astrocytes: Long-Range Glial Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell-Bell, Ann H.; Finkbeiner, Steven M.; Cooper, Mark S.; Smith, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    The finding that astrocytes possess glutamate-sensitive ion channels hinted at a previously unrecognized signaling role for these cells. Now it is reported that cultured hippocampal astrocytes can respond to glutamate with a prompt and oscillatory elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium, visible through use of the fluorescent calcium indicator fluo-3. Two types of glutamate receptor-one preferring quisqualate and releasing calcium from intracellular stores and the other preferring kainate and promoting surface-membrane calcium influx-appear to be involved. Moreover, glutamate-induced increases in cytoplasmic free calcium frequently propagate as waves within the cytoplasm of individual astrocytes and between adjacent astrocytes in confluent cultures. These propagating waves of calcium suggest that networks of astrocytes may constitute a long-range signaling system within the brain.

  16. Two emerging topics regarding long-range physical signaling in neurosystems: Membrane nanotubes and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Scholkmann, Felix

    2015-06-01

    In this review paper, an overview is given of two emerging research topics that address the importance of long-range physical signaling in living biosystems. The first topic concerns the biophysical principles and the physiological significance of long-range cell-to-cell signaling through electrical signals facilitated by membrane nanotubes (MNTs) (also called "tunneling nanotubes"), namely long membrane extensions that connect cells, discovered about 10 years ago. This review paper looks at experimental results that showed electrical signals being propagated through MNTs, and that MNT-mediated electrical coupling between brain cells involves activation of low-voltage-gated calcium channels. The significance of electrical cell-to-cell coupling through MNT for neuronal communication is discussed. The second topic deals with endogenous electromagnetic fields generated by nerve cells. The review concludes that these fields are not just an "epiphenomenon" but play a fundamental role in neuronal processes. For example, electromagnetic fields from brain cells feed back to their generating cells and to other cells (ephaptic coupling) and, for example, modulate the spiking timing of them. It is also discussed that cell membranes of neurons have specific resonance properties which possibly determine the impact of endogenous electric field fluctuations with respect to field strength and frequency. In addition, it is reviewed how traveling and standing waves of the endogenous electromagnetic field produced by neuronal and non-neuronal cells may play an integral part in global neuronal network dynamics. Finally, an outlook is given on which research questions should be addressed in the future regarding these two topics. PMID:25962399

  17. Long range physical cell-to-cell signalling via mitochondria inside membrane nanotubes: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Scholkmann, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated interaction of single cells by cell-to-cell communication (signalling) enables complex behaviour necessary for the functioning of multicellular organisms. A quite newly discovered cell-to-cell signalling mechanism relies on nanotubular cell-co-cell connections, termed "membrane nanotubes" (MNTs). The present paper presents the hypothesis that mitochondria inside MNTs can form a connected structure (mitochondrial network) which enables the exchange of energy and signals between cells. It is proposed that two modes of energy and signal transmission may occur: electrical/electrochemical and electromagnetic (optical). Experimental work supporting the hypothesis is reviewed, and suggestions for future research regarding the discussed topic are given. PMID:27267202

  18. Long-range signaling in growing neurons after local elevation of cyclic AMP-dependent activity

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-dependent activity at the growth cone or the soma of cultured Xenopus spinal neurons was elevated by local extracellular perfusion of the neuron with culture medium containing 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-br-cAMP) or forskolin. During local perfusion of one of the growth cones of multipolar neurons with these drugs, the perfused growth cone showed further extension, while the distant, unperfused growth cones were inhibited in their growth. Local perfusion of the growth cone with culture medium or local perfusion with 8-br-cAMP at a cell-free region 100 microns away from the growth cone did not produce any effect on the extension of the growth cone. Reduced extension of all growth cones was observed when the perfusion with 8-br-cAMP was restricted to the soma. The distant inhibitory effect does not depend on the growth of the perfused growth cone since local coperfusion of the growth cone with 8-br-cAMP and colchicine inhibited growth on both perfused and unperfused growth cones, while local perfusion with colchicine alone inhibited only the perfused growth cone. The distant inhibitory effect was abolished when the perfusion of 8-br-cAMP was carried out together with kinase inhibitor H- 8, suggesting the involvement of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and/or its downstream factors in the long-range inhibitory signaling. Uniform exposure of the entire neuron to bath-applied 8-br-cAMP, however, led to enhanced growth activity at all growth cones. Thus, local elevation of cAMP-dependent activity produces long-range and opposite effects on distant parts of the neuron, and a cytosolic gradient of second messengers may produce effects distinctly different from those following uniform global elevation of the messenger, leading to differential growth regulation at different regions of the same neuron. PMID:7798321

  19. Preliminary results of Terabit-per-second long-range free-space optical transmission Experiment THRUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giggenbach, D.; Poliak, J.; Mata-Calvo, R.; Fuchs, C.; Perlot, N.; Freund, R.; Richter, T.

    2015-10-01

    Future Very High Throughput Satellite Systems (VHTS) will perform at several Tbit/s throughput and thus face the challenge of limited feeder-link spectrum. Whereas with conventional RF feeder links several tens of ground gateway stations would be required, the total capacity can alternatively be linked through a single optical ground station using Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) techniques as known from terrestrial fiber communications. While intermittent link blockage by clouds can be compensated by ground station diversity, the optical uplink signal is directly affected by scintillation and beam wander induced by the atmospheric index-of-refraction turbulence. The transmission system must be capable to mitigate these distortions by according high-speed tracking and fading compensation techniques. We report on the design of a near-ground long-range (10km) atmospheric transmission test-bed which is, with its relatively low elevation of 1.8 degrees, exemplary for a worst case GEO uplink scenario. The transmitting side of the test-bed consists of a single telescope with a a fine pointing assembly in order to track the atmospheric angle-ofarrival and precisely aim towards the beacon of the receiver. On the other side of the test-bed, the receiver telescope is also capable of fine pointing by tracking the transmitted signal. The GEO uplink scenario is modelled by a precise scaling of the beam divergence and the receiver's field of view as well as by the beacon offset to model the point-ahead angle. In order to make the experimental test-bed correspond to an actual feeder link scenario, the link budget as well as the turbulence profile of the experimental scenario are modelled and compared to the GEO uplink. Several DWDM channels are multiplexed to reach the total link capacity of above one Tbit/s.

  20. Global Low Frequency Protein Motions in Long-Range Allosteric Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeish, Tom; Rogers, Thomas; Townsend, Philip; Burnell, David; Pohl, Ehmke; Wilson, Mark; Cann, Martin; Richards, Shane; Jones, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    We present a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low frequency dynamics without a change in protein structure. Elastic inhomogeneities allow entropic ``signalling at a distance.'' Remarkably, many globular proteins display just this class of elastic structure, in particular those that support allosteric binding of substrates (long-range co-operative effects between the binding sites of small molecules). Through multi-scale modelling of global normal modes we demonstrate negative co-operativity between the two cAMP ligands without change to the mean structure. Crucially, the value of the co-operativity is itself controlled by the interactions around a set of third allosteric ``control sites.'' The theory makes key experimental predictions, validated by analysis of variant proteins by a combination of structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. A quantitative description of allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein ``design space'' that identified the key inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, by analyzing naturally occurring CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. The methodology establishes the means to engineer allosteric mechanisms that are driven by low frequency dynamics.

  1. Long-range, full-duplex, modulated-reflector cell phone for voice/data transmission

    DOEpatents

    Neagley, Daniel L.; Briles, Scott D.; Coates, Don M.; Freund, Samuel M.

    2002-01-01

    A long-range communications apparatus utilizing modulated-reflector technology is described. The apparatus includes an energy-transmitting base station and remote units that do not emit radiation in order to communicate with the base station since modulated-reflector technology is used whereby information is attached to an RF carrier wave originating from the base station which is reflected by the remote unit back to the base station. Since the remote unit does not emit radiation, only a low-power power source is required for its operation. Information from the base station is transmitted to the remote unit using a transmitter and receiver, respectively. The range of such a communications system is determined by the properties of a modulated-reflector half-duplex link.

  2. Fear Conditioning Potentiates Synaptic Transmission onto Long-Range Projection Neurons in the Lateral Subdivision of Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Penzo, Mario A.; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CeL) is essential for fear learning. Specifically, fear conditioning induces cell-type-specific synaptic plasticity in CeL neurons that is required for the storage of fear memories. The CeL also controls fear expression by gating the activity of the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM), the canonical amygdala output to areas that mediate defensive responses. In addition to the connection with CeM, the CeL sends long-range projections to innervate extra-amygdala areas. However, the long-range projection CeL neurons have not been well characterized, and their role in fear regulation is unknown. Here we show in mice that a subset of CeL neurons directly project to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, two brain areas implicated in defensive behavior. These long-range projection CeL neurons are predominantly somatostatin-positive (SOM+) neurons, which can directly inhibit PAG neurons, and some of which innervate both the PAG and paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Notably, fear conditioning potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission onto these long-range projection CeL neurons. Thus, our study identifies a subpopulation of SOM+ CeL neurons that may contribute to fear learning and regulate fear expression independent of CeM. PMID:24523533

  3. Long-Range Correlations in the Sequence of Human Heartbeats and Other Biological Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teich, Malvin C.

    1998-03-01

    specificity for various salient measures, as a function of data length, is determined by the use of ROC analysis. A phase-space reconstruction based on generalized heart rate is used to obtain a putative attractor's capacity dimension. Though the dependence of this dimension on the embedding dimension is consistent with that of a low-dimensional dynamical system, surrogate-data analysis shows that identical behavior emerges from long-range temporal correlations in a stochastic process.^2 An integrate-and-fire model, comprising a fractal-Gaussian-noise kernel and Gaussian event-jittering,(S. Thurner, S. B. Lowen, M. C. Feurstein, C. Heneghan, H. G. Feichtinger, and M. C. Teich, Fractals) 5, No. 4 (1997). provides a realistic simulation of heartbeat sequences for both normal and heart-failure patients, over all time scales. These results could be of use in generating an artificial heartbeat that mimics the healthy heartbeat sequence for applications such as pacemakers. The presentation will be concluded with a brief discussion of the application of these methods to other unitary biological signals.

  4. Conducting to non-conducting transition in dual transmission lines using a ternary model with long-range correlated disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, E.; Diez, E.

    2010-07-01

    In this work we study the behavior of the allowed and forbidden frequencies in disordered classical dual transmission lines when the values of capacitances {C} are distributed according to a ternary model with long-range correlated disorder. We introduce the disorder from a random sequence with a power spectrum S(k)∝k, where α⩾0.5 is the correlation exponent. From this sequence we generate an asymmetric ternary map using two map parameters b and b, which adjust the occupancy probability of each possible value of the capacitances C={CCC}. If the sequence of capacitance values is totally at random α=0.5 (white noise), the electrical transmission line is in the non-conducting state for every frequency ω. When we introduce long-range correlations in the distribution of capacitances, the electrical transmission lines can change their conducting properties and we can find a transition from the non-conducting to conducting state for a fixed system size. This implies the existence of critical values of the map parameters for each correlation exponent α. By performing finite-size scaling we obtain the asymptotic value of the map parameters in the thermodynamic limit for any α. With these data we obtain a phase diagram for the symmetric ternary model, which separates the non-conducting state from the conducting one. This is the fundamental result of this Letter. In addition, introducing one or more impurities in random places of the long-range correlated distribution of capacitances, we observe a dramatic change in the conducting properties of the electrical transmission lines, in such a way that the system jumps from conducting to non-conducting states. We think that this behavior can be considered as a possible mechanism to secure communication.

  5. Collective cell durotaxis emerges from long-range intercellular force transmission.

    PubMed

    Sunyer, Raimon; Conte, Vito; Escribano, Jorge; Elosegui-Artola, Alberto; Labernadie, Anna; Valon, Léo; Navajas, Daniel; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Muñoz, José J; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Trepat, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    The ability of cells to follow gradients of extracellular matrix stiffness-durotaxis-has been implicated in development, fibrosis, and cancer. Here, we found multicellular clusters that exhibited durotaxis even if isolated constituent cells did not. This emergent mode of directed collective cell migration applied to a variety of epithelial cell types, required the action of myosin motors, and originated from supracellular transmission of contractile physical forces. To explain the observed phenomenology, we developed a generalized clutch model in which local stick-slip dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions was integrated to the tissue level through cell-cell junctions. Collective durotaxis is far more efficient than single-cell durotaxis; it thus emerges as a robust mechanism to direct cell migration during development, wound healing, and collective cancer cell invasion. PMID:27609894

  6. Magnitude and sign of long-range correlated time series: Decomposition and surrogate signal generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Extremera, Manuel; Carpena, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    We systematically study the scaling properties of the magnitude and sign of the fluctuations in correlated time series, which is a simple and useful approach to distinguish between systems with different dynamical properties but the same linear correlations. First, we decompose artificial long-range power-law linearly correlated time series into magnitude and sign series derived from the consecutive increments in the original series, and we study their correlation properties. We find analytical expressions for the correlation exponent of the sign series as a function of the exponent of the original series. Such expressions are necessary for modeling surrogate time series with desired scaling properties. Next, we study linear and nonlinear correlation properties of series composed as products of independent magnitude and sign series. These surrogate series can be considered as a zero-order approximation to the analysis of the coupling of magnitude and sign in real data, a problem still open in many fields. We find analytical results for the scaling behavior of the composed series as a function of the correlation exponents of the magnitude and sign series used in the composition, and we determine the ranges of magnitude and sign correlation exponents leading to either single scaling or to crossover behaviors. Finally, we obtain how the linear and nonlinear properties of the composed series depend on the correlation exponents of their magnitude and sign series. Based on this information we propose a method to generate surrogate series with controlled correlation exponent and multifractal spectrum.

  7. Scaling properties of long-range correlated noisy signals: appplication to financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Anna; Castelli, Giuliano

    2003-05-01

    Long-range correlation properties of financial stochastic time series y have been investigated with the main aim to demonstrate the ability of a recently proposed method to extract the scaling parameters of a stochastic series. According to this technique, the Hurst coefficient H is calculated by means of the following function: EQUATION where yn(i)is the moving average of y(i), defined as EQUATION the moving average window and Nmax is the dimension of the stochastic series. The method is called Detrending Moving Average Analysis (DMA) on account of the several analogies with the well-known Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). The DMA technique has been widely tested on stochastic series with assigned H generated by suitable algorithms. It has been demonstrated that the ability of the proposed technique relies on very general grounds: the function EQUATION generates indeed a sequence of clusters with power-law distribution of amplitudes and lifetimes. In particular the exponent of the distribution of cluster lifetime varies as the fractal dimension 2 - H of the series, as expected on the basis of the box-counting method. In the present paper we will report on the scaling coefficients of real data series (the BOBL and DAX German future) calculated by the DMA technique.

  8. Magnitude and sign of long-range correlated time series: Decomposition and surrogate signal generation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Extremera, Manuel; Carpena, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A

    2016-04-01

    We systematically study the scaling properties of the magnitude and sign of the fluctuations in correlated time series, which is a simple and useful approach to distinguish between systems with different dynamical properties but the same linear correlations. First, we decompose artificial long-range power-law linearly correlated time series into magnitude and sign series derived from the consecutive increments in the original series, and we study their correlation properties. We find analytical expressions for the correlation exponent of the sign series as a function of the exponent of the original series. Such expressions are necessary for modeling surrogate time series with desired scaling properties. Next, we study linear and nonlinear correlation properties of series composed as products of independent magnitude and sign series. These surrogate series can be considered as a zero-order approximation to the analysis of the coupling of magnitude and sign in real data, a problem still open in many fields. We find analytical results for the scaling behavior of the composed series as a function of the correlation exponents of the magnitude and sign series used in the composition, and we determine the ranges of magnitude and sign correlation exponents leading to either single scaling or to crossover behaviors. Finally, we obtain how the linear and nonlinear properties of the composed series depend on the correlation exponents of their magnitude and sign series. Based on this information we propose a method to generate surrogate series with controlled correlation exponent and multifractal spectrum. PMID:27176287

  9. A new ionosphere-free ambiguity resolution method for long-range baseline with GNSS triple-frequency signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue; Chen, Wu; Weng, Duojie

    2015-10-01

    New GNSS systems (i.e. GPS modernization, BeiDou, and Galileo) will provide multiple navigation signals for reliable navigation services. The triple or even multiple frequency signals are expected to bring great benefits to the ambiguity resolution (AR) over long-range baselines, which is always regarded as a huge challenge. Another issue in the long baseline AR is the unmodeled ionospheric delay, which is one of the major errors in ranging signals. A new triple-frequency, ionosphere-free technique for ambiguity resolution of long-range baseline is developed in this study. In this technique, the optimal observation combinations are chosen considering the effect of ionospheric delay. At the same time, using this technique, the double difference (DD) ionospheric delay is nullified in the ambiguity search process. The performance of the new technique is examined using the simulated GPS triple frequency data as well as the real BDS observation. Results show that the ambiguity can be fixed within 10 min for GPS and BDS long-range baselines with this new technique.

  10. Direct functional consequences of ZRS enhancer mutation combine with secondary long range SHH signalling effects to cause preaxial polydactyly

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Edward J.; Neely, David M.; Dunn, Ian C.; Davey, Megan G.

    2014-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) plays a central role in patterning numerous embryonic tissues including, classically, the developing limb bud where it controls digit number and identity. This study utilises the polydactylous Silkie (Slk) chicken breed, which carries a mutation in the long range limb-specific regulatory element of SHH, the ZRS. Using allele specific SHH expression analysis combined with quantitative protein analysis, we measure allele specific changes in SHH mRNA and concentration of SHH protein over time. This confirms that the Slk ZRS enhancer mutation causes increased SHH expression in the posterior leg mesenchyme. Secondary consequences of this increased SHH signalling include increased FGF pathway signalling and growth as predicted by the SHH/GREM1/FGF feedback loop and the Growth/Morphogen models. Manipulation of Hedgehog, FGF signalling and growth demonstrate that anterior-ectopic expression of SHH and induction of preaxial polydactyly is induced secondary to increased SHH signalling and Hedgehog-dependent growth directed from the posterior limb. We predict that increased long range SHH signalling acts in combination with changes in activation of SHH transcription from the Slk ZRS allele. Through analysis of the temporal dynamics of anterior SHH induction we predict a gene regulatory network which may contribute to activation of anterior SHH expression from the Slk ZRS. PMID:24907417

  11. Proteins move! Protein dynamics and long-range allostery in cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Bu, Zimei; Callaway, David J E

    2011-01-01

    An emerging point of view in protein chemistry is that proteins are not the static objects that are displayed in textbooks but are instead dynamic actors. Protein dynamics plays a fundamental role in many diseases, and spans a large hierarchy of timescales, from picoseconds to milliseconds or even longer. Nanoscale protein domain motion on length scales comparable to protein dimensions is key to understanding how signals are relayed through multiple protein-protein interactions. A canonical example is how the scaffolding proteins NHERF1 and ezrin work in coordination to assemble crucial membrane complexes. As membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolding proteins, these provide excellent prototypes for understanding how regulatory signals are relayed through protein-protein interactions between the membrane and the cytoskeleton. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the structure and dynamics of the interaction. We describe recent novel applications of neutron spin echo spectroscopy to reveal the dynamic propagation of allosteric signals by nanoscale protein motion, and present a guide to the future study of dynamics and its application to the cure of disease. PMID:21570668

  12. Asynchronous decoding of finger movements from ECoG signals using long-range dependencies conditional random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Saa, Jaime F.; de Pesters, Adriana; Cetin, Mujdat

    2016-06-01

    Objective. In this work we propose the use of conditional random fields with long-range dependencies for the classification of finger movements from electrocorticographic recordings. Approach. The proposed method uses long-range dependencies taking into consideration time-lags between the brain activity and the execution of the motor task. In addition, the proposed method models the dynamics of the task executed by the subject and uses information about these dynamics as prior information during the classification stage. Main results. The results show that incorporating temporal information about the executed task as well as incorporating long-range dependencies between the brain signals and the labels effectively increases the system’s classification performance compared to methods in the state of art. Significance. The method proposed in this work makes use of probabilistic graphical models to incorporate temporal information in the classification of finger movements from electrocorticographic recordings. The proposed method highlights the importance of including prior information about the task that the subjects execute. As the results show, the combination of these two features effectively produce a significant improvement of the system’s classification performance.

  13. Noggin4 is a long-range inhibitor of Wnt8 signalling that regulates head development in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Eroshkin, Fedor M.; Nesterenko, Alexey M.; Borodulin, Alexander V.; Martynova, Natalia Yu.; Ermakova, Galina V.; Gyoeva, Fatima K.; Orlov, Eugeny E.; Belogurov, Alexey A.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Bayramov, Andrey V.; Zaraisky, Andrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Noggin4 is a Noggin family secreted protein whose molecular and physiological functions remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in contrast to other Noggins, Xenopus laevis Noggin4 cannot antagonise BMP signalling; instead, it specifically binds to Wnt8 and inhibits the Wnt/β -catenin pathway. Live imaging demonstrated that Noggin4 diffusivity in embryonic tissues significantly exceeded that of other Noggins. Using the Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) assay and mathematical modelling, we directly estimated the affinity of Noggin4 for Wnt8 in living embryos and determined that Noggin4 fine-tune the Wnt8 posterior-to-anterior gradient. Our results suggest a role for Noggin4 as a unique, freely diffusing, long-range inhibitor of canonical Wnt signalling, thus explaining its ability to promote head development. PMID:26973133

  14. HermesD: A High-Rate Long-Range Wireless Transmission System for Simultaneous Multichannel Neural Recording Applications.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Henrique; Gilja, Vikash; Chestek, Cindy A; Shenoy, Krishna V; Meng, Teresa H

    2010-06-01

    HermesD is a high-rate, low-power wireless transmission system to aid research in neural prosthetic systems for motor disabilities and basic motor neuroscience. It is the third generation of our "Hermes systems" aimed at recording and transmitting neural activity from brain-implanted electrode arrays. This system supports the simultaneous transmission of 32 channels of broadband data sampled at 30 ks/s, 12 b/sample, using frequency-shift keying modulation on a carrier frequency adjustable from 3.7 to 4.1 GHz, with a link range extending over 20 m. The channel rate is 24 Mb/s and the bit stream includes synchronization and error detection mechanisms. The power consumption, approximately 142 mW, is low enough to allow the system to operate continuously for 33 h, using two 3.6-V/1200-mAh Li-SOCl2 batteries. The transmitter was designed using off-the-shelf components and is assembled in a stack of three 28 mm ? 28-mm boards that fit in a 38 mm ? 38 mm ? 51-mm aluminum enclosure, a significant size reduction over the initial version of HermesD. A 7-dBi circularly polarized patch antenna is used as the transmitter antenna, while on the receiver side, a 13-dBi circular horn antenna is employed. The advantages of using circularly polarized waves are analyzed and confirmed by indoor measurements. The receiver is a stand-alone device composed of several submodules and is interfaced to a computer for data acquisition and processing. It is based on the superheterodyne architecture and includes automatic frequency control that keeps it optimally tuned to the transmitter frequency. The HermesD communications performance is shown through bit-error rate measurements and eye-diagram plots. The sensitivity of the receiver is -83 dBm for a bit-error probability of 10(-9). Experimental recordings from a rhesus monkey conducting multiple tasks show a signal quality comparable to commercial acquisition systems, both in the low-frequency (local field potentials) and upper-frequency bands

  15. Auxin is a long-range signal that acts independently of ethylene signaling on leaf abscission in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xu; Zimmermann, Jorma; Polle, Andrea; Fischer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Timing of leaf abscission is an important trait for biomass production and seasonal acclimation in deciduous trees. The signaling leading to organ separation, from the external cue (decreasing photoperiod) to ethylene-regulated hydrolysis of the middle lamellae in the abscission zone, is only poorly understood. Data from annual species indicate that the formation of an auxin gradient spanning the abscission zone regulates the timing of abscission. We established an experimental system in Populus to induce leaf shedding synchronously under controlled greenhouse conditions in order to test the function of auxin in leaf abscission. Here, we show that exogenous auxin delayed abscission of dark-induced leaves over short and long distances and that a new auxin response maximum preceded the formation of an abscission zone. Several auxin transporters were down-regulated during abscission and inhibition of polar auxin transport delayed leaf shedding. Ethylene signaling was not involved in the regulation of these auxin transporters and in the formation of an abscission zone, but was required for the expression of hydrolytic enzymes associated with cell separation. Since exogenous auxin delayed abscission in absence of ethylene signaling auxin likely acts independently of ethylene signaling on cell separation. PMID:26322071

  16. Long-range intramolecular signaling in a tRNA synthetase complex revealed by pre-steady-state kinetics.

    PubMed

    Uter, Nathan T; Perona, John J

    2004-10-01

    Pre-steady-state kinetic studies of Escherichia coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase conclusively demonstrate the existence of long-distance pathways of communication through the protein-RNA complex. Measurements of aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis reveal a rapid burst of product formation followed by a slower linear increase corresponding to k(cat). Thus, a step after chemistry but before regeneration of active enzyme is rate-limiting for synthesis of Gln-tRNA(Gln). Single-turnover kinetics validates these observations, confirming that the rate of the chemical step for tRNA aminoacylation (k(chem)) exceeds the steady-state rate by nearly 10-fold. The concentration dependence of the single-turnover reaction further reveals that the glutamine K(d) is significantly higher than the steady-state K(m) value. The separation of binding from catalytic events by transient kinetics now allows precise interpretation of how alterations in tRNA structure affect the aminoacylation reaction. Mutation of U35 in the tRNA anticodon loop decreases k(chem) by 30-fold and weakens glutamine binding affinity by 20-fold, demonstrating that the active-site configuration depends on enzyme-tRNA contacts some 40 A distant. By contrast, mutation of the adjacent G36 has very small effects on k(chem) and K(d) for glutamine. Together with x-ray crystallographic data, these findings allow a comparative evaluation of alternative long-range signaling pathways and lay the groundwork for systematic exploration of how induced-fit conformational transitions may control substrate selection in this model enzyme-RNA complex. PMID:15452355

  17. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  18. Substrate-Modulated Thermal Fluctuations Affect Long-Range Allosteric Signaling in Protein Homodimers: Exemplified in CAP

    PubMed Central

    Toncrova, Hedvika; McLeish, Tom C.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The role of conformational dynamics in allosteric signaling of proteins is increasingly recognized as an important and subtle aspect of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Cooperative binding is commonly observed in proteins with twofold symmetry that bind two identical ligands. We construct a coarse-grained model of an allosteric coupled dimer and show how the signal can be propagated between the distant binding sites via change in slow global vibrational modes alone. We demonstrate that modulation on substrate binding of as few as 5–10 slow modes can give rise to cooperativity observed in biological systems and that the type of cooperativity is given by change of interaction between the two monomers upon ligand binding. To illustrate the application of the model, we apply it to a challenging test case: the catabolite activator protein (CAP). CAP displays negative cooperativity upon association with two identical ligands. The conformation of CAP is not affected by the binding, but its vibrational spectrum undergoes a strong modification. Intriguingly, the first binding enhances thermal fluctuations, yet the second quenches them. We show that this counterintuitive behavior is, in fact, necessary for an optimal anticooperative system, and captured within a well-defined region of the model's parameter space. From analyzing the experimental results, we conclude that fast local modes take an active part in the allostery of CAP, coupled to the more-global slow modes. By including them into the model, we elucidate the role of the modes on different timescales. We conclude that such dynamic control of allostery in homodimers may be a general phenomenon and that our model framework can be used for extended interpretation of thermodynamic parameters in other systems. PMID:20483341

  19. Institutional Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, John G.

    This booklet presents a general outline for conducting a long-range planning study that can be adapted for use by any institution of higher education. The basic components of an effective long-range plan should include: (1) purposes of the plan, which define the scope of the study and provide the setting in which it will be initiated; (2) a set of…

  20. Long-range air transmission of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bovallius, A; Bucht, B; Roffey, R; Anäs, P

    1978-06-01

    Bacterial spores from a sandstorm area north of the Black Sea were transmitted to Sweden by air, giving increased concentrations of viable bacterial spores at two air sampling stations in Sweden. PMID:677884

  1. DNA G-quadruplex formation in response to remote downstream transcription activity: long-range sensing and signal transducing in DNA double helix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Hong-He; Zheng, Ke-Wei; Hao, Yu-Hua; Tan, Zheng

    2013-08-01

    G-quadruplexes, four-stranded structures formed by Guanine-rich nucleic acids, are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. G-quadruplex-forming sequences are abundant in genomic DNA, and G-quadruplexes have recently been shown to exist in the genome of mammalian cells. However, how G-quadruplexes are formed in the genomes remains largely unclear. Here, we show that G-quadruplex formation can be remotely induced by downstream transcription events that are thousands of base pairs away. The induced G-quadruplexes alter protein recognition and cause transcription termination at the local region. These results suggest that a G-quadruplex-forming sequence can serve as a sensor or receiver to sense remote DNA tracking activity in response to the propagation of mechanical torsion in a DNA double helix. We propose that the G-quadruplex formation may provide a mean for long-range sensing and communication between distal genomic locations to coordinate regulatory transactions in genomic DNA. PMID:23716646

  2. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  3. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  4. Exploring 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone as long-range emissive ratiometric fluorescent probe for signaling Zn(2+)/PO4(3-): Ensemble utilization for live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sougata; Gaur, Pankaj; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Mukhopadhyay, Subhrakanti; Ghosh, Subrata

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescent 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone 1 was found to demonstrate its ratiometric signaling property upon interaction with divalent zinc (Zn(2+)). While the probe itself exhibited fluorescence emission in the yellow region (λem=544 nm and 567 nm), binding with Zn(2+) induced strong emission in the orange region (λem=600 nm) which was mainly due to a combination of CHEF and ICT mechanism. The probe was found to be highly sensitive toward the detection of zinc and the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 9×10(-7) M. The possibility of using this probe for real-time analysis was strongly supported by the striking stability of fluorescence signal for more than five days with similar fluorescence intensity as observed during instant signaling. The present probe works within physiological pH range and is devoid of any interference caused by the same group elements such as Cd(2+)/Hg(2+). The probe possesses excellent excitation/emission wavelength profile and can penetrate cell membrane to image low concentration of zing inside living system. The in situ formed zinc-probe ensemble was further explored as ratiometric sensing platform for detecting another bio-relevant analyte phosphate anion through a zinc-displacement approach. PMID:25956560

  5. Structure of the Full-Length Bacteriophytochrome from the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas campestris Provides Clues to its Long-Range Signaling Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Otero, Lisandro Horacio; Klinke, Sebastián; Rinaldi, Jimena; Velázquez-Escobar, Francisco; Mroginski, María Andrea; Fernández López, María; Malamud, Florencia; Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; Hildebrandt, Peter; Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto; Bonomi, Hernán Ruy

    2016-09-25

    Phytochromes constitute a major superfamily of light-sensing proteins that are reversibly photoconverted between a red-absorbing (Pr) and a far-red-absorbing (Pfr) state. Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs) are found among photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria, including pathogens. To date, several BphPs have been biophysically characterized. However, it is still not fully understood how structural changes are propagated from the photosensory module to the output module during the signal transduction event. Most phytochromes share a common architecture consisting of an N-terminal photosensor that includes the PAS2-GAF-PHY domain triad and a C-terminal variable output module. Here we present the crystal structure of the full-length BphP from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (XccBphP) bearing its photosensor and its complete output module, a PAS9 domain. In the crystals, the protein was found to be in the Pr state, whereas diffraction data together with resonance Raman spectroscopic and theoretical results indicate a ZZZssa and a ZZEssa chromophore configuration corresponding to a mixture of Pr and Meta-R state, the precursor of Pfr. The XccBphP quaternary assembly reveals a head-to-head dimer in which the output module contributes to the helical dimer interface. The photosensor, which is shown to be a bathy-like BphP, is influenced in its dark reactions by the output module. Our structural analyses suggest that the photoconversion between the Pr and Pfr states in the full-length XccBphP may involve changes in the relative positioning of the output module. This work contributes to understand the light-induced structural changes propagated from the photosensor to the output modules in phytochrome signaling. PMID:27107635

  6. Long-range electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations have shed much light on the nuclear and electronic factors that control the rates of long-range electron tunneling through molecules in aqueous and organic glasses as well as through bonds in donor–bridge–acceptor complexes. Couplings through covalent and hydrogen bonds are much stronger than those across van der Waals gaps, and these differences in coupling between bonded and nonbonded atoms account for the dependence of tunneling rates on the structure of the media between redox sites in Ru-modified proteins and protein–protein complexes. PMID:15738403

  7. Image signal transmission with Airy beams.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Hu, Yi; Song, Daohong; Lou, Cibo; Zhang, Xinzheng; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate an approach for image signal transmission based on self-accelerating Airy beams. The spatial information is encoded in the Fourier space through a 4-f telescope system, which can circumvent obstacles to realize a self-bending signal transmission. Furthermore, the information can be retrieved from the Airy beams after propagation through a disordered scattering medium. Our experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions. PMID:26625082

  8. Long-range atmospheric predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichler, Thomas Josef

    This study investigated the prospects and limits of global atmospheric predictability on the long range (beyond 2 weeks). Forecasting the atmosphere at this range is very challenging since elements of both weather and climate prediction enter the problem. The basic questions were: (1) how large is long-range predictability with perfect model and data; (2) how sensitive is such predictability to uncertainties in model and data; (3) which atmospheric processes are related to this predictability? These questions were answered through numerical experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model which is forced with different combinations of initial and boundary conditions. In particular, four tasks were accomplished: First, temporal variations of predictability and its relationship to initial and boundary conditions were examined. On average, initial conditions dominated predictability for the first 4 weeks, improved predictability for 6 weeks, and influenced predictability for 8 weeks. These time scales varied with season, region, and strength of the external forcing. Second, the global 3-dimensional structure of predictability was examined. Boundary forcing dominated over the tropics, and over the two main teleconnection regions in the North and South Pacific. Initial conditions influenced predictability almost everywhere, in particular when the external forcing was weak. This was mostly related to atmospheric persistence, which in turn was linked to low-frequency variability of major atmospheric modes. Third, predictability in the tropics was investigated for monthly means. Boundary forcing is generally dominating for this time scale, and its quality is crucial. The atmospheric response was strongly asymmetric to SST forcing, which suggests that tropical convection has a positive self-amplifying feedback. Initial conditions were also important, in particular over the Eastern Hemisphere. This was related to strong persistence of the divergent circulation and

  9. Space - The long range future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Space exploration goals for NASA in the year 2000 time frame are examined. A lunar base would offer the opportunity for continuous earth viewing, further cosmogeochemical exploration and rudimentary steps at self-sufficiency in space. The latter two factors are also compelling reasons to plan a manned Mars base. Furthermore, competition and cooperation in a Mars mission and further interplanetary exploration is an attractive substitute for war. The hardware requirements for various configurations of Mars missions are briefly addressed, along with other, unmanned missions to the asteroid belt, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, long-range technological requirements for providing adequate living/working facilities for larger human populations in Space Station environments are summarized.

  10. Long range fast tool servo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorefield, G. M., II; Dow, Thomas A.; Falter, Karl J.; Ro, Paul I.

    1993-05-01

    The PEC's MAC 100 Fast Tool Servo (FTS) System has demonstrated the efficacy of fabricating off-axis parabolic segments on axis by utilizing a fast tool motion to machine non-rotationally symmetric surfaces. The key to this technique was a servo for the tool motion that had a high-bandwidth coupled with a small range of motion. The Keck telescope, with its thirty-six (36) 1-meter diameter segments, would have been an excellent application for this technology. Since this technology was not available at the time of construction, each mirror segment was fabricated to its desired shape by loading it to a specified deformed shape and polishing it to a spherical contour, then removing the bending loads to allow the segment to relax to the desired asymmetric shape. If the segments of this optic had been constructed on axis with an FTS, the fabrication of the most extreme segment would have required only about 200 micrometers of non-rotational symmetry. However, the demand for larger displacement actuators is being driven by new applications with nonrotationally symmetric components in the millimeter range. This report describes the search for a suitable actuator for a long range fast tool servo system that would allow the fabrication of non-rotationally symmetric optical surfaces with a 1 mm range of servo motion. To allow cost-effective machining of these surfaces, the actuator must also possess a 50 Hz bandwidth (minimum) and 25 nanometer resolution.

  11. Long-range polarimetric imaging through fog.

    PubMed

    Fade, Julien; Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Carré, Anthony; Frein, Ludovic; Hamel, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien; Ramachandran, Hema; Alouini, Mehdi

    2014-06-20

    We report an experimental implementation of long-range polarimetric imaging through fog over kilometric distance in real field atmospheric conditions. An incoherent polarized light source settled on a telecommunication tower is imaged at a distance of 1.3 km with a snapshot polarimetric camera including a birefringent Wollaston prism, allowing simultaneous acquisition of two images along orthogonal polarization directions. From a large number of acquisitions datasets and under various environmental conditions (clear sky/fog/haze, day/night), we compare the efficiency of using polarized light for source contrast increase with different signal representations (intensity, polarimetric difference, polarimetric contrast, etc.). With the limited-dynamics detector used, a maximum fourfold increase in contrast was demonstrated under bright background illumination using polarimetric difference image. PMID:24979415

  12. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  13. Long-range neural synchrony in behavior.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexander Z; Gordon, Joshua A

    2015-07-01

    Long-range synchrony between distant brain regions accompanies multiple forms of behavior. This review compares and contrasts the methods by which long-range synchrony is evaluated in both humans and model animals. Three examples of behaviorally relevant long-range synchrony are discussed in detail: gamma-frequency synchrony during visual perception, hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony during working memory, and prefrontal-amygdala synchrony during anxiety. Implications for circuit mechanism, translation, and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:25897876

  14. Long-range neural synchrony in behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Alexander Z.; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-range synchrony between distant brain regions accompanies multiple forms of behavior. This review compares and contrasts the methods by which long-range synchrony is evaluated in both humans and model animals. Three examples of behaviorally-relevant long-range synchrony are discussed in detail: gamma-frequency synchrony during visual perception; hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony during working memory; and prefrontal-amygdala synchrony during anxiety. Implications for circuit mechanism, translation, and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:25897876

  15. 1995-1998 Long Range Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), in Williamsport, long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1995-98 in three parts. Following an…

  16. Long Range Plan: 1992-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    Intended to enhance strategic planning and enable staff to work as a team toward a shared vision and common goals, this report presents the 1992-95 long-range plan of the Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT). Part I defines long-range planning; describes the structure and use of the plan at PCT; presents PCT's philosophy, mission, and vision…

  17. Long Range Plan, 1991-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    This long-range plan for the Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT) is divided into three main sections. Part I provides an overview of planning at PCT, including a definition of long-range planning, the college philosophy, mission, and vision statements, major institutional initiatives for 1991-92, and accreditation agency recommendations…

  18. Long Range Plan, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport. Office of Strategic Planning and Research.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1997-2000 in three parts. The first part describes long…

  19. NOVEL SIGNAL PROCESSING WITH NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    D. REAGOR; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    Nonlinear dielectrics offer uniquely strong and tunable nonlinearities that make them attractive for current devices (for example, frequency-agile microwave filters) and for future signal-processing technologies. The goal of this project is to understand pulse propagation on nonlinear coplanar waveguide prototype devices. We have performed time-domain and frequency-domain experimental studies of simple waveguide structures and pursued a theoretical understanding of the propagation of signals on these nonlinear waveguides. To realistically assess the potential applications, we used a time-domain measurement and analysis technique developed during this project to perform a broadband electrodynamics characterization in terms of nonlinear, dispersive, and dissipative effects. We completed a comprehensive study of coplanar waveguides made from high-temperature superconducting thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} electrodes on nonlinear dielectric single-crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. By using parameters determined from small-signal (linear) transmission characteristics of the waveguides, we develop a model equation that successfully predicts and describes large-signal (nonlinear) behavior.

  20. A long-range laser velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinath, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    A long-range laser velocimeter (LV) developed for remote operation from within the flow fields of large wind tunnels is described. Emphasis is placed on recent improvements in optical hardware as well as recent additions to data acquisition and processing techniques. The method used for data reduction of photon resolved signals is outlined in detail, and measurement accuracy is discussed. To study the performance of the LV and verify the measurement accuracy, laboratory measurements were made in the flow field of a 10-cm-diameter, 30-m/s axisymetric jet. The measured velocity and turbulence intensity surveys are compared with measurements made with a hot-wire anemometer. Additionally, the LV was used during the flow calibration of the 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel to measure the test-section boundary-layer thickness at the maximum wind tunnel speed of 51.5 m/s. The requirements and techniques used to seed the flow are discussed, and boundary-layer surveys of mean velocity and turbulence intensity of the streamwise component and the component normal to the surface are presented. The streamwise component of mean velocity is compared with data obtained with a total pressure rake.

  1. Long-range dismount activity classification: LODAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garagic, Denis; Peskoe, Jacob; Liu, Fang; Cuevas, Manuel; Freeman, Andrew M.; Rhodes, Bradley J.

    2014-06-01

    Continuous classification of dismount types (including gender, age, ethnicity) and their activities (such as walking, running) evolving over space and time is challenging. Limited sensor resolution (often exacerbated as a function of platform standoff distance) and clutter from shadows in dense target environments, unfavorable environmental conditions, and the normal properties of real data all contribute to the challenge. The unique and innovative aspect of our approach is a synthesis of multimodal signal processing with incremental non-parametric, hierarchical Bayesian machine learning methods to create a new kind of target classification architecture. This architecture is designed from the ground up to optimally exploit correlations among the multiple sensing modalities (multimodal data fusion) and rapidly and continuously learns (online self-tuning) patterns of distinct classes of dismounts given little a priori information. This increases classification performance in the presence of challenges posed by anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) sensing. To fuse multimodal features, Long-range Dismount Activity Classification (LODAC) develops a novel statistical information theoretic approach for multimodal data fusion that jointly models multimodal data (i.e., a probabilistic model for cross-modal signal generation) and discovers the critical cross-modal correlations by identifying components (features) with maximal mutual information (MI) which is efficiently estimated using non-parametric entropy models. LODAC develops a generic probabilistic pattern learning and classification framework based on a new class of hierarchical Bayesian learning algorithms for efficiently discovering recurring patterns (classes of dismounts) in multiple simultaneous time series (sensor modalities) at multiple levels of feature granularity.

  2. Topological defects with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, B. A.; González, J. A.; Guerrero, L. E.; López-Atencio, E.

    1998-07-01

    We investigate a modified sine-Gordon equation which possesses soliton solutions with long-range interaction. We introduce a generalized version of the Ginzburg-Landau equation which supports long-range topological defects in D = 1 and D > 1. The interaction force between the defects decays so slowly that it is possible to enter the non-extensivity regime. These results can be applied to non-equilibrium systems, pattern formation and growth models.

  3. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  4. Photon assisted long-range tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez, Rafael; Platero, Gloria

    2015-03-21

    We analyze long-range transport through an ac driven triple quantum dot with a single electron. Resonant transitions between separated and detuned dots are mediated by the exchange of n photons with the time-dependent field. An effective model is proposed in terms of second order (cotunneling) processes which dominate the long-range transport between the edge quantum dots. The ac field renormalizes the inter dot hopping, modifying the level hybridization. It results in a non-trivial behavior of the current with the frequency and amplitude of the external ac field.

  5. Photon assisted long-range tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez, Rafael; Platero, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    We analyze long-range transport through an ac driven triple quantum dot with a single electron. Resonant transitions between separated and detuned dots are mediated by the exchange of n photons with the time-dependent field. An effective model is proposed in terms of second order (cotunneling) processes which dominate the long-range transport between the edge quantum dots. The ac field renormalizes the inter dot hopping, modifying the level hybridization. It results in a non-trivial behavior of the current with the frequency and amplitude of the external ac field.

  6. College and University Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Raymond M.

    The system for long-range planning at West Virginia University is described, with emphasis on how it relates to short-range planning and how it is carried out operationally. Planning tools used include (1) an inventory of the past and present of the institution, (2) a statement of the division of labor within the institution and the objectives of…

  7. Long-Range Plan, 1978-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Stephen

    This nine-part, long-range plan discusses the internal and external factors that will affect Lorain County Community College's (LCCC's) development from 1978 to 1983 and presents a forecast of LCCC's future needs. Part I traces the history of LCCC, provides a conceptual framework for college planning, and discusses the plan development process…

  8. Discussion of long-range weather prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-09-10

    A group of scientists at Los Alamos have held a series of discussions of the issues in and prospects for improvements in Long-range Weather Predictions Enabled by Proving of the Atmosphere at High Space-Time Resolution. The group contained the requisite skills for a full evaluation, although this report presents only an informal discussion of the main technical issues. The group discussed all aspects of the proposal, which are grouped below into the headings: (1) predictability; (2) sensors and satellites, (3) DIAL and atmospheric sensing; (4) localized transponders; and (5) summary and integration. Briefly, the group agreed that the relative paucity of observations of the state of the atmosphere severely inhibits the accuracy of weather forecasts, and any program that leads to a more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather Predictions, the pay-back of accurate long-range forecasts should more than justify the expenditure associated with improved observations and forecast models required. The essential step is to show that the needed technologies are available for field test and space qualification.

  9. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  10. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  11. Dynamics of Mechanical Signal Transmission through Prestressed Stress Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of mechanical stimuli through the actin cytoskeleton has been proposed as a mechanism for rapid long-distance mechanotransduction in cells; however, a quantitative understanding of the dynamics of this transmission and the physical factors governing it remains lacking. Two key features of the actin cytoskeleton are its viscoelastic nature and the presence of prestress due to actomyosin motor activity. We develop a model of mechanical signal transmission through prestressed viscoelastic actin stress fibers that directly connect the cell surface to the nucleus. The analysis considers both temporally stationary and oscillatory mechanical signals and accounts for cytosolic drag on the stress fibers. To elucidate the physical parameters that govern mechanical signal transmission, we initially focus on the highly simplified case of a single stress fiber. The results demonstrate that the dynamics of mechanical signal transmission depend on whether the applied force leads to transverse or axial motion of the stress fiber. For transverse motion, mechanical signal transmission is dominated by prestress while fiber elasticity has a negligible effect. Conversely, signal transmission for axial motion is mediated uniquely by elasticity due to the absence of a prestress restoring force. Mechanical signal transmission is significantly delayed by stress fiber material viscosity, while cytosolic damping becomes important only for longer stress fibers. Only transverse motion yields the rapid and long-distance mechanical signal transmission dynamics observed experimentally. For simple networks of stress fibers, mechanical signals are transmitted rapidly to the nucleus when the fibers are oriented largely orthogonal to the applied force, whereas the presence of fibers parallel to the applied force slows down mechanical signal transmission significantly. The present results suggest that cytoskeletal prestress mediates rapid mechanical signal transmission and allows

  12. Critical Hamiltonians with long range hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitov, L. S.

    1999-11-01

    Critical states are studied by a real space RG in the problem with strong diagonal disorder and long range power law hopping. The RG ow of the distribution of coupling parameters is characterized by a family of non-trivial fix points. We consider the RG flow of the distribution of participation ratios of eigenstates. Scaling of participation ratios is sensitive to the nature of the RG fix point. For some fix points, scaling of participation ratios is characterized by a distribution of exponents, rather than by a single exponent.The RG method can be generalized to treat certain fermionic Hamiltonians with disorder and long range hopping. We derive the RG for a model of interacting two-level systems. Besides couplings, in this problem the RG includes the density of states. The density of states is renormalized so that it develops a singularity near zero energy.

  13. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-03-01

    DNA SEQUENCES have been analysed using models, such as an it-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations1. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  14. Gemini: A long-range cargo transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed Gemini, a long-range cargo transport, is designed as a high capacity, dedicated cargo transporter of 8'x8'x20' inter-modal containers, and long-range design. These requirements will result in a design that is larger than any existing aircraft. Due to the size, a conventional configuration would result in an aircraft unable to operate economically at existing airports. It is necessary to design for a minimum possible empty weight, wingspan, and landing gear track. After considering both a single fuselage biplane and a double fuselage biplane configuration, the design team choose the double fuselage biplane configuration. Both of these configuration choices result in a reduced wing root bending moment and subsequently in substantial savings in the wing weight. An overall decrease in the weight of the airplane, its systems, and fuel will be a direct result of the wing weight savings.

  15. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3 -Vaidya background. We gave a prescription for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator ⟨ O (v ,x )O (v ,0 )⟩ , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. We found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlator and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.

  16. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3-Vaidya background. A prescription was given for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. Moreover, we found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlatormore » and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.« less

  17. Long-range charge transfer in biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhova, T. Yu; Likhachev, V. N.; Vinogradov, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the charge transfer in biopolymers, namely, DNA and peptides, are presented. Conditions that ensure the efficient long-range charge transport (by several tens of nanometres) are considered. The known theoretical models of charge transfer mechanisms are discussed and the scopes of their application are analyzed. Attention is focused on the charge transport by the polaron mechanism. The bibliography includes 262 references.

  18. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:25362900

  19. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:25362900

  20. A criterion autoscheduler for long range planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sponsler, Jeffrey L.

    1994-01-01

    A constraint-based scheduling system called SPIKE is used to create long-term schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. A meta-level scheduler called the Criterion Autoscheduler for Long range planning (CASL) was created to guide SPIKE's schedule generation according to the agenda of the planning scientists. It is proposed that sufficient flexibility exists in a schedule to allow high level planning heuristics to be applied without adversely affected crucial constraints such as spacecraft efficiency. This hypothesis is supported by test data which is described.

  1. NASA's Long-range Technology Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is part of the Final Report performed under contract NASW-3864, titled "NASA's Long-Range Technology Goals". The objectives of the effort were: To identify technologies whose development falls within NASA's capability and purview, and which have high potential for leapfrog advances in the national industrial posture in the 2005-2010 era. To define which of these technologies can also enable quantum jumps in the national space program. To assess mechanisms of interaction between NASA and industry constituencies for realizing the leapfrog technologies. This Volume details the findings pertaining to the advanced space-enabling technologies.

  2. Long-range imaging ladar flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, James; Steiner, Todd D.; Mandeville, William J.; Dinndorf, Kenneth M.; Krasutsky, Nick J.; Minor, John L.

    1995-06-01

    Wright Laboratory and Loral Vought Systems (LVS) have been involved for the last nine years in the research and development of high power diode pumped solid state lasers for medium to long range laser radar (LADAR) seekers for tactical air-to-ground munitions. LVS provided the lead in three key LADAR programs at Wright Lab; the Submunition Guidance Program (Subguide), the Low Cost Anti-Armor Submunition Program (LOCAAS) and the Diode Laser and Detector Array Development Program (3-D). This paper discusses recent advances through the 3-D program that provide the opportunity to obtain three dimensional laser radar imagery in captive flight at a range of 5 km.

  3. Data Transmission Signal Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The error performances of several digital signaling methods are determined as a function of a specified signal-to-noise ratio. Results are obtained for Gaussian noise and impulse noise. Performance of a receiver for differentially encoded biphase signaling is obtained by extending the results of differential phase shift keying. The analysis presented obtains a closed-form answer through the use of some simplifying assumptions. The results give an insight into the analysis problem, however, the actual error performance may show a degradation because of the assumptions made in the analysis. Bipolar signaling decision-threshold selection is investigated. The optimum threshold depends on the signal-to-noise ratio and requires the use of an adaptive receiver.

  4. Impact of atmospheric aerosols on long range image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeMaster, Daniel A.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Image quality in high altitude long range imaging systems can be severely limited by atmospheric absorption, scattering, and turbulence. Atmospheric aerosols contribute to this problem by scattering target signal out of the optical path and by scattering in unwanted light from the surroundings. Target signal scattering may also lead to image blurring though, in conventional modeling, this effect is ignored. The validity of this choice is tested in this paper by developing an aerosol modulation transfer function (MTF) model for an inhomogeneous atmosphere and then applying it to real-world scenarios using MODTRAN derived scattering parameters. The resulting calculations show that aerosol blurring can be effectively ignored.

  5. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-3-O(D-4) , is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-4 .

  6. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    Malleable long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe)/sub 3/ and V(Co,Fe,Ni)/sub 3/ system. The composition comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 50% Fe, 0 to 22% Co and 19 to 40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 45% Fe, 0 to 10% Co, 25 to 35% Ni; 22 to 23% V, 28 to 33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22 to 23% V, 19 to 22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  7. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1980-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe).sub.3 and V(Co,Fe,Ni).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-50% Fe, 0-22% Co and 19-40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-45% Fe, 0-10% Co, 25-35% Ni; 22-23% V, 28-33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22-23% V, 19-22% Ni, 19-22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  8. A Long-Range Video Observation Post

    SciTech Connect

    Arlowe, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Long Range Video Observation Post (LRVOP) Project is a cooperative effort between the US and a Middle Eastern country to develop an improved version of their current video observation post. This project is part of a larger effort to cooperatively develop anti-terrorist technology. This particular equipment is required to facilitate the recording and identification of humans at a range of 1000 meters in day-light and 500 meters at night. The project objective was to take advantage of recent advances in camera technology, recorders, and image processing to provide an significant increase in performance with only a minimum increase in size, weight, and cost. The goal of the project was to convert the users general needs and desires into specific requirements that could be bid on by several companies. This paper covers the specific performance requirements, generally describe the components that might be used, and concentrate on describing the more difficult issues and technical challenges.

  9. Long range inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

  10. Efficient signal transmission by synchronization through compound chaotic signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, K.; Lakshmanan, M.

    1997-07-01

    The idea of synchronization of chaotic systems is further extended to the case where all the drive system variables are combined suitably to obtain a compound chaotic signal. An appropriate feedback loop is constructed in the response system to achieve synchronization among the variables of the drive and response systems. We apply this approach to transmit both analog and digital data signals in which the quality of the recovered signal is higher and the encoding is more secure.

  11. Long-range intercellular Ca2+ wave patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi, C. B.; Maïna, I.; Mohamadou, A.; Ekobena, H. P. F.; Kofané, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    Modulational instability is utilized to investigate intercellular Ca2+ wave propagation in an array of diffusively coupled cells. Cells are supposed to be connected via paracrine signaling, where long-range effects, due to the presence of extracellular messengers, are included. The multiple-scale expansion is used to show that the whole dynamics of Ca2+ waves, from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, can be reduced to a single differential-difference nonlinear equation whose solutions are assumed to be plane waves. Their linear stability analysis is studied, with emphasis on the impact of long-range coupling, via the range parameter s. It is shown that s, as well as the number of interacting cells, importantly modifies the features of modulational instability, as small values of s imply a strong coupling, and increasing its value rather reduces the problem to a first-neighbor one. Our theoretical findings are numerically tested, as the generic equations are fully integrated, leading to the emergence of nonlinear patterns of Ca2+ waves. Strong long-range coupling is pictured by extended trains of breather-like structures whose frequency decreases with increasing s. We also show numerically that the number of interacting cells plays on the spatio-temporal formation of Ca2+ patterns, whilst the quasi-perfect intercellular communication depends on the paracrine coupling parameter.

  12. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations

    PubMed Central

    Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J.L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A.V.; Ivanov, P.Ch.; Carpena, P.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome. PMID:23645997

  13. Mechanisms of cytoskeleton-mediated mechanical signal transmission in cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongyun; Gouget, Cecile L.M.; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated very rapid long-distance transmission of mechanical forces within cells. Because the speed of this transmission greatly exceeds that of reaction-diffusion signaling, it has been conjectured that it occurs via the propagation of elastic waves through the actin stress fiber network. To explore the plausibility of this conjecture, we recently developed a model of small amplitude stress fiber deformations in prestressed viscoelastic stress fibers subjected to external forces. The model results demonstrated that rapid mechanical signal transmission is only possible when the external force is applied orthogonal to the stress fiber axis and that the dynamics of this transmission are governed by a balance between the prestress in the stress fiber and the stress fiber's material viscosity. The present study, which is a follow-up on our previous model, uses dimensional analysis to: (1) further evaluate the plausibility of the elastic wave conjecture and (2) obtain insight into mechanical signal transmission dynamics in simple stress fiber networks. We show that the elastic wave scenario is likely not the mechanism of rapid mechanical signal transmission in actin stress fibers due to the highly viscoelastic character of these fibers. Our analysis also demonstrates that the time constant characterizing mechanical stimulus transmission is strongly dependent on the topology of the stress fiber network, implying that network organization plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cellular responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. PMID:23336020

  14. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009{degrees}(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions.

  15. Long range position and orientation tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The long range position and orientation tracking system (LRPOTS) will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the man-ways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the Content Mobilization System (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation.

  16. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  17. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  18. Autocrine signal transmission with extracellular ligand degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratov, C B; Posta, F; Shvartsman, S Y

    2009-03-01

    Traveling waves of cell signaling in epithelial layers orchestrate a number of important processes in developing and adult tissues. These waves can be mediated by positive feedback autocrine loops, a mode of cell signaling where binding of a diffusible extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor can lead to further ligand release. We formulate and analyze a biophysical model that accounts for ligand-induced ligand release, extracellular ligand diffusion and ligand-receptor interaction. We focus on the case when the main mode for ligand degradation is extracellular and analyze the problem with the sharp threshold positive feedback nonlinearity. We derive expressions that link the speed of propagation and other characteristics of traveling waves to the parameters of the biophysical processes, such as diffusion rates, receptor expression level, etc. Analyzing the derived expressions we found that traveling waves in such systems can exhibit a number of unusual properties, e.g. non-monotonic dependence of the speed of propagation on ligand diffusivity. Our results for the fully developed traveling fronts can be used to analyze wave initiation from localized perturbations, a scenario that frequently arises in the in vitro models of epithelial wound healing, and guide future modeling studies of cell communication in epithelial layers.

  19. High bandwidth magnetically isolated signal transmission circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repp, John Donald (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Many current electronic systems incorporate expensive or sensitive electrical components. Because electrical energy is often generated or transmitted at high voltages, the power supplies to these electronic systems must be carefully designed. Power supply design must ensure that the electrical system being supplied with power is not exposed to excessive voltages or currents. In order to isolate power supplies from electrical equipment, many methods have been employed. These methods typically involve control systems or signal transfer methods. However, these methods are not always suitable because of their drawbacks. The present invention relates to transmitting information across an interface. More specifically, the present invention provides an apparatus for transmitting both AC and DC information across a high bandwidth magnetic interface with low distortion.

  20. Long-range response in ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013)EPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology-for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions-a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014)1951-635510.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found. PMID:27575148

  1. Long-range response in ac electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013), 10.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology—for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions—a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014), 10.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found.

  2. Oscillation-induced signal transmission and gating in neural circuits.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sven; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin; Timme, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Reliable signal transmission constitutes a key requirement for neural circuit function. The propagation of synchronous pulse packets through recurrent circuits is hypothesized to be one robust form of signal transmission and has been extensively studied in computational and theoretical works. Yet, although external or internally generated oscillations are ubiquitous across neural systems, their influence on such signal propagation is unclear. Here we systematically investigate the impact of oscillations on propagating synchrony. We find that for standard, additive couplings and a net excitatory effect of oscillations, robust propagation of synchrony is enabled in less prominent feed-forward structures than in systems without oscillations. In the presence of non-additive coupling (as mediated by fast dendritic spikes), even balanced oscillatory inputs may enable robust propagation. Here, emerging resonances create complex locking patterns between oscillations and spike synchrony. Interestingly, these resonances make the circuits capable of selecting specific pathways for signal transmission. Oscillations may thus promote reliable transmission and, in co-action with dendritic nonlinearities, provide a mechanism for information processing by selectively gating and routing of signals. Our results are of particular interest for the interpretation of sharp wave/ripple complexes in the hippocampus, where previously learned spike patterns are replayed in conjunction with global high-frequency oscillations. We suggest that the oscillations may serve to stabilize the replay. PMID:25503492

  3. Oscillation-Induced Signal Transmission and Gating in Neural Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sven; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin; Timme, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Reliable signal transmission constitutes a key requirement for neural circuit function. The propagation of synchronous pulse packets through recurrent circuits is hypothesized to be one robust form of signal transmission and has been extensively studied in computational and theoretical works. Yet, although external or internally generated oscillations are ubiquitous across neural systems, their influence on such signal propagation is unclear. Here we systematically investigate the impact of oscillations on propagating synchrony. We find that for standard, additive couplings and a net excitatory effect of oscillations, robust propagation of synchrony is enabled in less prominent feed-forward structures than in systems without oscillations. In the presence of non-additive coupling (as mediated by fast dendritic spikes), even balanced oscillatory inputs may enable robust propagation. Here, emerging resonances create complex locking patterns between oscillations and spike synchrony. Interestingly, these resonances make the circuits capable of selecting specific pathways for signal transmission. Oscillations may thus promote reliable transmission and, in co-action with dendritic nonlinearities, provide a mechanism for information processing by selectively gating and routing of signals. Our results are of particular interest for the interpretation of sharp wave/ripple complexes in the hippocampus, where previously learned spike patterns are replayed in conjunction with global high-frequency oscillations. We suggest that the oscillations may serve to stabilize the replay. PMID:25503492

  4. Design, fabrication, and testing of fiber Bragg grating sensors for cryogenic long-range displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jicheng; Neumann, H.; Ramalingam, R.

    2015-06-01

    It is essential to measure the shrinkage/expansion and positioning/aligning of magnets and to control valve displacement which plays a vital role in experiments like the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam tube and Cryo pumps. Hence, a displacement sensor which, over a long working range, can be operated under extreme environmental conditions needs to be developed. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) have been considered to be excellent sensor elements useful for a variety of applications. This paper will discuss a long range displacement sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings for cryogenic temperature applications. The cryo pump inlet valve control requirements have been taken as example specifications for sensor design. To achieve the development goal, a proper signal transducer and sensor package were designed. A study of the strain transmission of surface-bonded FBG was conducted. The influence of bonding thickness and bonding length was reported. The design, fabrication, and performance were tested at low temperature of around 77 K. The sensor performance was found to be satisfactory at both room temperature and 77 K and linearly for long-range displacement of 550 mm with 14 pm/mm sensitivity and 0.142 mm accuracy.

  5. Transmission of RF Signals Over Optical Fiber for Avionics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaveski, Filip; Sluss, James, Jr.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Hung, Nguyen; Ngo, Duc

    2002-01-01

    During flight, aircraft avionics transmit and receive RF signals to/from antennas over coaxial cables. As the density and complexity of onboard avionics increases, the electromagnetic interference (EM) environment degrades proportionately, leading to decreasing signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and potential safety concerns. The coaxial cables are inherently lossy, limiting the RF signal bandwidth while adding considerable weight. To overcome these limitations, we have investigated a fiber optic communications link for aircraft that utilizes wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to support the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals (including RF) over a single optical fiber. Optical fiber has many advantages over coaxial cable, particularly lower loss, greater bandwidth, and immunity to EM. In this paper, we demonstrate that WDM can be successfully used to transmit multiple RF signals over a single optical fiber with no appreciable signal degradation. We investigate the transmission of FM and AM analog modulated signals, as well as FSK digital modulated signals, over a fiber optic link (FOL) employing WDM. We present measurements of power loss, delay, SNR, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), total harmonic distortion (THD), and bit error rate (BER). Our experimental results indicate that WDM is a fiber optic technology suitable for avionics applications.

  6. MRI dynamic range and its compatibility with signal transmission media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabr, Refaat E.; Schär, Michael; Edelstein, Arthur D.; Kraitchman, Dara L.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Edelstein, William A.

    2009-06-01

    As the number of MRI phased array coil elements grows, interactions among cables connecting them to the system receiver become increasingly problematic. Fiber optic or wireless links would reduce electromagnetic interference, but their dynamic range (DR) is generally less than that of coaxial cables. Raw MRI signals, however, have a large DR because of the high signal amplitude near the center of k-space. Here, we study DR in MRI in order to determine the compatibility of MRI multicoil imaging with non-coaxial cable signal transmission. Since raw signal data are routinely discarded, we have developed an improved method for estimating the DR of MRI signals from conventional magnitude images. Our results indicate that the DR of typical surface coil signals at 3 T for human subjects is less than 88 dB, even for three-dimensional acquisition protocols. Cardiac and spine coil arrays had a maximum DR of less than 75 dB and head coil arrays less than 88 dB. The DR derived from magnitude images is in good agreement with that measured from raw data. The results suggest that current analog fiber optic links, with a spurious-free DR of 60-70 dB at 500 kHz bandwidth, are not by themselves adequate for transmitting MRI data from volume or array coils with DR ˜90 dB. However, combining analog links with signal compression might make non-coaxial cable signal transmission viable.

  7. Long-range interactions between chiral molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, A.

    2015-01-22

    Results of molecular quantum electrodynamics calculations of discriminatory interactions between two chiral molecules undergoing resonance energy transfer, van der Waals dispersion, and optical binding are presented. A characteristic feature of the theory is that the radiation field is quantized with signals consequently propagating between centres at the speed of light. In order to correctly describe optically active chromophores, it is necessary to include magnetic as well as electric dipole coupling terms in the time-dependent perturbation theory computations. Recent work investigating the effect of an absorptive and dispersive chiral medium on the rate of migration of energy will also be discussed.

  8. Heart rate, multiple body temperature, long-range and long-life telemetry system for free-ranging animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-range, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body temperatures at multiple locations from free-ranging animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium range transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-range transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying temperature information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-range tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.

  9. Compression and Transmission of RF Signals for Telediagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Toshihiro; Doi, Motonori; Oshiro, Osamu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2000-05-01

    Health care is a critical issue nowadays. Much emphasis is given to quality care for all people. Telediagnosis has attracted public attention. We propose a new method of ultrasound image transmission for telediagnosis. In conventional methods, video image signals are transmitted. In our method, the RF signals which are acquired by an ultrasound probe, are transmitted. The RF signals can be transformed to color Doppler images or high-resolution images by a receiver. Because a stored form is adopted, the proposed system can be realized with existent technology such as hyper text transfer protocol (HTTP) and file transfer protocol (FTP). In this paper, we describe two lossless compression methods which specialize in the transmission of RF signals. One of the methods uses the characteristics of the RF signal. In the other method, the amount of the data is reduced. Measurements were performed in water targeting an iron block and triangular Styrofoam. Additionally, abdominal fat measurement was performed. Our method achieved a compression rate of 13% with 8 bit data.

  10. Long-range magnetic coupling across a polar insulating layer.

    PubMed

    Lü, W M; Saha, Surajit; Wang, X Renshaw; Liu, Z Q; Gopinadhan, K; Annadi, A; Zeng, S W; Huang, Z; Bao, B C; Cong, C X; Venkatesan, M; Yu, T; Coey, J M D; Ariando; Venkatesan, T

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic interactions in solids are normally mediated by short-range exchange or weak dipole fields. Here we report a magnetic interaction that can propagate over long distances (∼10 nm) across a polar insulating oxide spacer. Evidence includes oscillations of magnetization, coercivity and field-cooled loop shift with the thickness of LaAlO3 in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Similar modifications of the hysteresis loop appear when two coupled films of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 are separated by LaAlO3, or another polar insulator, but they are absent when the oxide spacer layer is nonpolar. The loop shift is attributed to strong spin-orbit coupling and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the interfaces. There is evidence from inelastic light scattering that the polar spacer mediates long-range transmission of orbital magnetization. This coupling mechanism is expected to apply for any conducting ferromagnetic oxide with mixed valence; in view of electron hopping frequency involved, it raises the prospect of terahertz tunability of magnetic coupling. PMID:26980456

  11. Long-range magnetic coupling across a polar insulating layer

    PubMed Central

    Lü, W. M.; Saha, Surajit; Wang, X. Renshaw; Liu, Z. Q.; Gopinadhan, K.; Annadi, A.; Zeng, S. W.; Huang, Z.; Bao, B. C.; Cong, C. X.; Venkatesan, M.; Yu, T.; Coey, J. M. D.; Ariando; Venkatesan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic interactions in solids are normally mediated by short-range exchange or weak dipole fields. Here we report a magnetic interaction that can propagate over long distances (∼10 nm) across a polar insulating oxide spacer. Evidence includes oscillations of magnetization, coercivity and field-cooled loop shift with the thickness of LaAlO3 in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Similar modifications of the hysteresis loop appear when two coupled films of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 are separated by LaAlO3, or another polar insulator, but they are absent when the oxide spacer layer is nonpolar. The loop shift is attributed to strong spin–orbit coupling and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction at the interfaces. There is evidence from inelastic light scattering that the polar spacer mediates long-range transmission of orbital magnetization. This coupling mechanism is expected to apply for any conducting ferromagnetic oxide with mixed valence; in view of electron hopping frequency involved, it raises the prospect of terahertz tunability of magnetic coupling. PMID:26980456

  12. A 16-channel flex circuit for cryogenic microwave signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarey, Patrick; Mani, Hamdi; Wheeler, Caleb; Groppi, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Heterodyne focal plane arrays used in the terahertz (THz) regime currently require a discrete set of rigid coaxial cables for the transmission of individual intermediate frequency (IF) signals. Consequently, the size of an array is limited to ~10s of pixels due to limited physical space and the complexity of assembly. In order to achieve an array with ~1000 pixels or greater, new interconnections must be developed capable of carrying multiple IF signals on a single carrier which is flexible, robust to noise, and terminated with a high density RF connector. As an intermediate step to the development of a ~1000 pixel heterodyne focal plane array, the Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) has developed a 16 channel IF flex circuit. Initially, design simulations were performed to evaluate various means of high-frequency (1~10 GHz) signal transmission, including microstrip, stripline and coplanar waveguides. The method allowing for the closest signal spacing and greatest resistance to radio frequency interference (RFI) was determined to be stripline. Designs were considered where stripline transitioned to microstrip in order to terminate the signal. As microstrip transmission lines are sensitive to RFI, a design featuring just stripline was evaluated. In both the stripline-to-microstrip and stripline-only designs, a three-layer copper-coated polyimide substrate was used. Signal transitions were accomplished by a signal carrying "hot" via passing through a series of three conductive pads, similar to work by Leib et al. (2010). The transition design essentially mimics a coaxial line, where the radial distance between the pads and the ground plane is optimized in order to achieve desired impedances. In simulation, 50 Ohm impedances were achieved throughout, with crosstalk and return loss limited to -30dB. Terminations are made via an array of Corning Gilbert G3PO blind mate connectors, which are small enough to match the 6mm pixel pitch of the KAPPa focal plane unit

  13. Long range laser propagation: power scaling and beam quality issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper will address long range laser propagation applications where power and, in particular beam quality issues play a major role. Hereby the power level is defined by the specific mission under consideration. I restrict myself to the following application areas: (1)Remote sensing/Space based LIDAR, (2) Space debris removal (3)Energy transmission, and (4)Directed energy weapons Typical examples for space based LIDARs are the ADM Aeolus ESA mission using the ALADIN Nd:YAG laser with its third harmonic at 355 nm and the NASA 2 μm Tm:Ho:LuLiF convectively cooled solid state laser. Space debris removal has attracted more attention in the last years due to the dangerous accumulation of debris in orbit which become a threat to the satellites and the ISS space station. High power high brightness lasers may contribute to this problem by partially ablating the debris material and hence generating an impulse which will eventually de-orbit the debris with their subsequent disintegration in the lower atmosphere. Energy transmission via laser beam from space to earth has long been discussed as a novel long term approach to solve the energy problem on earth. In addition orbital transfer and stationkeeping are among the more mid-term applications of high power laser beams. Finally, directed energy weapons are becoming closer to reality as corresponding laser sources have matured due to recent efforts in the JHPSSL program. All of this can only be realized if he laser sources fulfill the necessary power requirements while keeping the beam quality as close as possible to the diffraction limited value. And this is the rationale and motivation of this paper.

  14. Long Range Plan, 1993-1996. Pennsylvania College of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Sandra; And Others

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), in Williamsport, long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1993-96 in three parts. Following an…

  15. 77 FR 13683 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway..., announced the availability of the draft Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for..., 2011, at 76 FR 77300, the FHWA published a notice in the Federal Register inviting comments to...

  16. 76 FR 77300 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway... Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for public review and comment. The draft plans outline a... United States Code Section 204 requires all Federal land management agencies to conduct long...

  17. Long-Range Planning and the Enrollment Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, John H.

    The current period of enrollment decline offers school districts an ideal opportunity for program and facility reevaluation and long-range planning. Any long-range plan should evaluate current programs in light of statutory and educational trends, estimate existing facilities' ability to accommodate change, determine the community's potential…

  18. A Model for Long Range Planning for Seminole Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    A model for long-range planning designed to maximize involvement of college personnel, to improve communication among various areas of the college, to provide a process for evaluation of long-range plans and the planning process, to adjust to changing conditions, to utilize data developed at a level useful for actual operations, and to have…

  19. Report of the Long-Range Planning Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    This is the final report of the Long-Range Planning Committee of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It describes the make-up, purpose, working assumptions, and activities of the Committee and discusses the work done by the Committee on defense matters, energy, a number of additional topics, and future long-range planning activities.

  20. Blind Channel Shortening for Block Transmission of Correlated Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Teruyuki; Watanabe, Yoshihisa

    In block transmission systems, blind channel shortening methods are known to be effective to reduce the influence of interblock interference which degrades the performance when the length of a channel impulse response is extremely long. Conventional methods assume that the transmitted signal is uncorrelated; however, this assumption is invalid in practical systems such as OFDM with null carriers and MC-CDMA. In this paper, we consider blind channel shortening methods for block transmissions when the transmitted samples within a block are correlated. First, the channel shortening ability of a conventional method is clarified. Next, a new method which exploits the fact that the transmitted samples in different blocks are uncorrelated is introduced. It is shown that the proposed method can shorten the channel properly under certain conditions. Finally, simulation results of OFDM and MC-CDMA systems are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with a conventional one.

  1. Quench dynamics in long-range interacting quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhexuan

    2016-05-01

    A distinctive feature of atomic, molecular, and optical systems is that interactions between particles are often long-ranged. Control techniques from quantum optics often allow one to tune the pattern of these long-range interactions, creating an entirely new degree of freedom, absent in typical condensed matter systems. These tunable long-range interactions can result in very different far-from-equilibrium dynamics compared to systems with only short-range interactions. In the first half of the talk, I will describe how very general types of long-range interactions can qualitatively change the entanglement and correlation growth shortly after a quantum quench. In the second half of the talk I will show that, at longer times, long-range interactions can lead to exotic quasi-stationary states and dynamical phase transitions. These theoretical ideas have been explored in recent trapped-ion experiments, and connections to these experiments will be emphasized in both parts of the talk.

  2. Transmission of multiplexed video signals in multimode optical fiber systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Preston, III

    1988-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has the need for economical transmission of two multiplexed video signals along multimode fiberoptic systems. These systems must span unusual distances and must meet RS-250B short-haul standards after reception. Bandwidth is a major problem and studies of the installed fibers, available LEDs and PINFETs led to the choice of 100 MHz as the upper limit for the system bandwidth. Optical multiplexing and digital transmission were deemed inappropriate. Three electrical multiplexing schemes were chosen for further study. Each of the multiplexing schemes included an FM stage to help meet the stringent S/N specification. Both FM and AM frequency division multiplexing methods were investigated theoretically and these results were validated with laboratory tests. The novel application of quadrature amplitude multiplexing was also considered. Frequency division multiplexing of two wideband FM video signal appears the most promising scheme although this application requires high power highly linear LED transmitters. Futher studies are necessary to determine if LEDs of appropriate quality exist and to better quantify performance of QAM in this application.

  3. Truncated Long-Range Percolation on Oriented Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Enter, A. C. D.; de Lima, B. N. B.; Valesin, D.

    2016-07-01

    We consider different problems within the general theme of long-range percolation on oriented graphs. Our aim is to settle the so-called truncation question, described as follows. We are given probabilities that certain long-range oriented bonds are open; assuming that the sum of these probabilities is infinite, we ask if the probability of percolation is positive when we truncate the graph, disallowing bonds of range above a possibly large but finite threshold. We give some conditions in which the answer is affirmative. We also translate some of our results on oriented percolation to the context of a long-range contact process.

  4. Hyperfine-structure-induced purely long-range molecules.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Katsunari; Kitagawa, Masaaki; Tojo, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2008-03-28

    We have experimentally observed and theoretically identified a novel class of purely long-range molecules. This novel purely long-range state is formed due to a very weak hyperfine interaction that is usually treated only as a small perturbation in molecular spectra. Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold ytterbium (171Yb) atoms with the 1S0-3P1 intercombination transition presents clear identification of molecular states and the shallowest molecular potential depth of about 750 MHz among the purely long-range molecules ever observed. PMID:18517858

  5. Assessment of a long-range corrected hybrid functional

    SciTech Connect

    Vydrov, Oleg A.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2006-12-21

    Common approximate exchange-correlation functionals suffer from self-interaction error, and as a result, their corresponding potentials have incorrect asymptotic behavior. The exact asymptote can be imposed by introducing range separation into the exchange component and replacing the long-range portion of the approximate exchange by the Hartree-Fock counterpart. The authors show that this long-range correction works particularly well in combination with the short-range variant of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange functional. This long-range-corrected hybrid, here denoted LC-{omega}PBE, is remarkably accurate for a broad range of molecular properties, such as thermochemistry, barrier heights of chemical reactions, bond lengths, and most notably, description of processes involving long-range charge transfer.

  6. Power and signal transmission for mobile teleoperated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Appropriate means must be furnished for supplying power and for sending controlling commands to mobile teleoperated systems. Because a sizable number of possibilities are available for such applications, methods used in designing both the power and communications systems built into mobile vehicles that serve in radiological emergencies must be carefully selected. This paper describes a number of umbilical, on-board, and wireless systems used in tranmitting power that are available for mobile teleoperator services. The pros and cons of selecting appropriate methods from a list of possible communication systems (wired, fiber optic, and radio frequency) are also examined. Moreover, hybrid systems combining wireless power transmissions with command-information signals are also possible.

  7. Cerasomes: Soft Interface for Redox Enzyme Electrochemical Signal Transmission.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yun; Tahara, Keishiro; Zhang, Qian; Song, Xi-Ming; Kikuchi, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-22

    Anionic cerasomes, which consist of a liposomal lipid bilayer and a ceramic surface, were used as a soft interface for the construction of an integrated modified electrode to achieve the transmission of chemical information from a redox enzyme through electrical signals. The morphological properties of the cerasomes were systematically compared with those of two structural analogues, namely, liposomes and silica nanoparticles. The results indicated that the cerasomes combined the advantages of liposomes and silica nanoparticles. The lipid bilayer gave excellent biocompatibility, as in the case of liposomes, and high structural stability, similar to that of silica nanoparticles, was derived from the silicate framework on the cerasome surface. The performance at the electrochemical interface created by means of a combination of cerasomes and horseradish peroxidase on a glassy carbon electrode was much better than those achieved with liposomes or silica nanoparticles instead of cerasomes. The potential use of cerasomes in the construction of supramolecular devices for mediator-free biosensing was evaluated. PMID:26671064

  8. Fabrication of long-range surface plasmon polaritons waveguide by wet chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ying; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Xuliang; Zhang, Meiling; Chen, Changming; Wang, Fei; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Daming

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LRSPPs) waveguides based on a thin Au stripe embedded in poly(methyl-methacrylate-glycidly-methacrylate) polymers was investigated. By patterning the photoresist, a wet chemical etching technique was used to avoid sharp pin-like and shark-fin-like structures on the edges of the Au stripe. The surface morphology of the Au film and polymer cladding were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), as well as by using the waveguide configuration of the Au stripe. AFM images proved the elimination of parasitic structures. A 2 cm long, 4 μm wide, and 25 nm thick Au stripe waveguide exhibited a propagation loss of approximately 4.3 dB cm-1 measured by the cut-back method and end-fire excitation of LRSPP mode guiding at 1550 nm. The demonstration of optical signal transmission indicates that the LRSPP waveguide fabricated by wet chemical etching is a potential solution to on-chip optical interconnections.

  9. Signal transmission within the P2X2 trimeric receptor.

    PubMed

    Keceli, Batu; Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2014-06-01

    P2X2 receptor channel, a homotrimer activated by the binding of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to three intersubunit ATP-binding sites (each located ∼50 Å from the ion permeation pore), also shows voltage-dependent activation upon hyperpolarization. Here, we used tandem trimeric constructs (TTCs) harboring critical mutations at the ATP-binding, linker, and pore regions to investigate how the ATP activation signal is transmitted within the trimer and how signals generated by ATP and hyperpolarization converge. Analysis of voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in these TTCs showed that: (a) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating of P2X2 requires binding of at least two ATP molecules. (b) D315A mutation in the β-14 strand of the linker region connecting the ATP-binding domains to the pore-forming helices induces two different gating modes; this requires the presence of the D315A mutation in at least two subunits. (c) The T339S mutation in the pore domains of all three subunits abolishes the voltage dependence of P2X2 gating in saturating [ATP], making P2X2 equally active at all membrane potentials. Increasing the number of T339S mutations in the TTC results in gradual changes in the voltage dependence of gating from that of the wild-type channel, suggesting equal and independent contributions of the subunits at the pore level. (d) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in TTCs differs depending on the location of one D315A relative to one K308A that blocks the ATP binding and downstream signal transmission. (e) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating does not depend on where one T339S is located relative to K308A (or D315A). Our results suggest that each intersubunit ATP-binding signal is directly transmitted on the same subunit to the level of D315 via the domain that contributes K308 to the β-14 strand. The signal subsequently spreads equally to all three subunits at the level of the pore, resulting in symmetric and independent contributions of the three

  10. Signal transmission within the P2X2 trimeric receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    P2X2 receptor channel, a homotrimer activated by the binding of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to three intersubunit ATP-binding sites (each located ∼50 Å from the ion permeation pore), also shows voltage-dependent activation upon hyperpolarization. Here, we used tandem trimeric constructs (TTCs) harboring critical mutations at the ATP-binding, linker, and pore regions to investigate how the ATP activation signal is transmitted within the trimer and how signals generated by ATP and hyperpolarization converge. Analysis of voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in these TTCs showed that: (a) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating of P2X2 requires binding of at least two ATP molecules. (b) D315A mutation in the β-14 strand of the linker region connecting the ATP-binding domains to the pore-forming helices induces two different gating modes; this requires the presence of the D315A mutation in at least two subunits. (c) The T339S mutation in the pore domains of all three subunits abolishes the voltage dependence of P2X2 gating in saturating [ATP], making P2X2 equally active at all membrane potentials. Increasing the number of T339S mutations in the TTC results in gradual changes in the voltage dependence of gating from that of the wild-type channel, suggesting equal and independent contributions of the subunits at the pore level. (d) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in TTCs differs depending on the location of one D315A relative to one K308A that blocks the ATP binding and downstream signal transmission. (e) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating does not depend on where one T339S is located relative to K308A (or D315A). Our results suggest that each intersubunit ATP-binding signal is directly transmitted on the same subunit to the level of D315 via the domain that contributes K308 to the β-14 strand. The signal subsequently spreads equally to all three subunits at the level of the pore, resulting in symmetric and independent contributions of the three

  11. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview assessment of three separate programs at Langley Research Center that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of an span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. This concept has the potential for reduced structural weights. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The use of LFC can reduce the fuel requirements during long-range cruise. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel. Coal-derived hydrogen as an aircraft fuel offers both the prospect for reduced dependence on petroleum fuels and improved performance for long-range aircraft.

  12. Fourth International Symposium on Long-Range Sound Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Long range sound propagation is an aspect of many acoustical problems ranging from en route aircraft noise to the acoustic detection of aircraft. Over the past decade, the University of Mississippi and the Open University of England, together with a third institution, have held a symposium approx. every 2 years so that experts in the field of long range propagation could exchange information on current research, identify areas needing additional work, and coordinate activities as much as possible. The Fourth International Symposium on Long Range Sound Propagation was jointly sponsored by the University of Mississippi, the Open University of England, and NASA. Papers were given in the following areas: ground effects on propagation; infrasound propagation; and meteorological effects on sound propagation. A compilation of the presentations made at the symposium is presented along with a list of attendees, and the agenda.

  13. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short- and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species. PMID:27118164

  14. Entanglement area law for long-range interacting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhexuan; Foss-Feig, Michael; Brandao, Fernando G. S. L.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    Area laws for entanglement provide crucial insight into the low-energy behavior of many-body systems and are intimately connected to the efficiency of classical computational methods. For 1D systems, an area law was rigorously proven for ground states of gapped Hamiltonians with local interactions and for states with exponentially decaying correlations. In the presence of long-range interactions, the proof of an area law for gapped ground states becomes much more challenging because long-range interactions can change the effective dimensionality of the system and introduce correlations decaying slower than an exponential. Based on recent theoretical advances that reveal strong remnants of locality in quenched systems with power-law decaying interactions, we prove an area law for a large class of gapped Hamiltonians with long-range interactions. As an intermediate step, we prove tight bounds on the decay of ground-state correlations.

  15. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    PubMed Central

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short- and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species. PMID:27118164

  16. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations.

  17. Long-range oil and gas forecasting methodologies: literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cherniavsky, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    Performance of long-range energy system analyses requires the capability to project conventional domestic oil and gas supplies in the long term. The objective of the Long-range Forecasting Methodology project is to formulate an approach to this problem which will be compatible with the principal tool employed by the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy for long-range energy system analyses, the Long-term Energy Analysis Package (LEAP). This paper reports on projection methodologies that have appeared in the literature, evaluates them in terms of their applicability to the LEAP framework, and discusses the principal determinants of conventional domestic oil and gas supply in the long run.

  18. Memory and long-range correlations in chess games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaigorodsky, Ana L.; Perotti, Juan I.; Billoni, Orlando V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report the existence of long-range memory in the opening moves of a chronologically ordered set of chess games using an extensive chess database. We used two mapping rules to build discrete time series and analyzed them using two methods for detecting long-range correlations; rescaled range analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis. We found that long-range memory is related to the level of the players. When the database is filtered according to player levels we found differences in the persistence of the different subsets. For high level players, correlations are stronger at long time scales; whereas in intermediate and low level players they reach the maximum value at shorter time scales. This can be interpreted as a signature of the different strategies used by players with different levels of expertise. These results are robust against the assignation rules and the method employed in the analysis of the time series.

  19. Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation Using Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Schmickler, H.

    At the LHC, the effect of unavoidable long-range beam-beam collisions reduces the dynamic aperture, calling for a minimum crossing angle. A wire compensator partially cancels the effect of the long-range collisions, and may allow operation with reduced crossing angle or decreased beta function at the interaction point, thereby increasing the (virtual) peak luminosity. In this chapter, we describe the proposed compensation scheme, previous validation experiments with a single beam and multiple wires at the SPS, simulations for the LHC high-luminosity upgrade, a demonstrator project with real long-range encounters foreseen in the LHC proper, and the possible use of a low-energy electron beam as a future ultimate "wire".

  20. Baseband signal transmission experiment for intra-brain communication with implantable image sensor.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Yokota, Shogo; Matsuda, Takashi; Davis, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Li, Keren; Kobayashi, Takuma; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate image signal transmission for wireless intra-brain communication. As a preliminary experiment, transmission characteristics of the brain phantom were measured. The baseband output signal from an implantable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is transmitted through the phantom. The image was successfully reproduced from the received signal. PMID:23367299

  1. Emergent long-range synchronization of oscillating ecological populations without external forcing described by Ising universality

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Andrew E.; Machta, Jonathan; Hastings, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the synchronization of oscillations across space is fundamentally important to many scientific disciplines. In ecology, long-range synchronization of oscillations in spatial populations may elevate extinction risk and signal an impending catastrophe. The prevailing assumption is that synchronization on distances longer than the dispersal scale can only be due to environmental correlation (the Moran effect). In contrast, we show how long-range synchronization can emerge over distances much longer than the length scales of either dispersal or environmental correlation. In particular, we demonstrate that the transition from incoherence to long-range synchronization of two-cycle oscillations in noisy spatial population models is described by the Ising universality class of statistical physics. This result shows, in contrast to all previous work, how the Ising critical transition can emerge directly from the dynamics of ecological populations. PMID:25851364

  2. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  3. Long-range correction for dipolar fluids at planar interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Stephan; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans

    2015-12-01

    A slab-based long-range correction for dipolar interactions in molecular dynamics simulation of systems with a planar geometry is presented and applied to simulate vapour-liquid interfaces. The present approach is validated with respect to the saturated liquid density and the surface tension of the Stockmayer fluid and a molecular model for ethylene oxide. The simulation results exhibit no dependence on the cut-off radius for radii down to 1 nm, proving that the long-range correction accurately captures the influence of the dipole moment on the intermolecular interaction energies and forces as well as the virial and the surface tension.

  4. Long-range dependence in interest rates and monetary policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    This Letter studies the dynamics of Brazilian interest rates for short-term maturities. The Letter employs developed techniques in the econophysics literature and tests for long-range dependence in the term structure of these interest rates for the last decade. Empirical results suggest that the degree of long-range dependence has changed over time due to changes in monetary policy, specially in the short-end of the term structure of interest rates. Therefore, we show that it is possible to identify monetary arrangements using these techniques from econophysics.

  5. Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Sen, Tanaji; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2010-05-01

    In order to avoid the effects of long-range beam-beam interactions which produce beam blow-up and deteriorate beam life time, a compensation scheme with current carrying wires has been proposed. Two long-range beam-beam compensators were installed in RHIC rings in 2006. The effects of the compensators have been experimentally investigated. An indication was observed that the compensators are beneficial to beam life time in measurements performed in RHIC during 2009. In this paper, we report the effects of wire compensator on beam loss and emittance for proton-proton beams at collision energy.

  6. Small long-range alpha detector (LRAD) with computer readout

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1991-10-01

    The small long-range alpha detector developed by N-2 was described in detail in the Los Alamos publication LA-12073-MS, Long-Range Alpha Detector,'' published in 1991. Since publication of that report, a computerized data acquisition system has been added to the LRAD detector. In addition to detailing the new data acquisition system, we discuss new data generated with the enhanced system, including measurements of (1) ultimate sensitivity; (2) detector linearity; (3) ion lifetime; and (4) characteristics. Furthermore, we have expanded our understanding of ion recombination and statistical noise effects in the LRAD and have addressed them here as well as several proposed applications. 6 refs., 30 figs.

  7. Design of a high capacity long range cargo aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.

    1994-01-01

    This report examines the design of a long range cargo transport to attempt to reduce ton-mile shipping costs and to stimulate the air cargo market. This design effort involves the usual issues but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; cargo loading and unloading; and defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This report reviews the long range transport design problem and several solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University. The results show that it will be difficult to build large transports unless the infrastructure is changed and unless the basic form of the airplane changes so that aerodynamic and structural efficiencies are employed.

  8. Long-range correlation in cosmic microwave background radiation.

    PubMed

    Movahed, M Sadegh; Ghasemi, F; Rahvar, Sohrab; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the statistical anisotropy and gaussianity of temperature fluctuations of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe survey, using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Rescaled Range, and Scaled Windowed Variance methods. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis shows that CMB fluctuations has a long-range correlation function with a multifractal behavior. By comparing the shuffled and surrogate series of CMB data, we conclude that the multifractality nature of the temperature fluctuation of CMB radiation is mainly due to the long-range correlations, and the map is consistent with a gaussian distribution. PMID:21928945

  9. Research on long-range laser active imaging system applied in adverse weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-gang; Liu, Meng-de; Yang, Li; Kabanov, V. V.; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jie; Chu, Shi-bo; Yang, Jun-xian; Zhou, Yang

    2013-09-01

    A low-light level night vision device or thermal infrared imager belonging to passive imaging system is generally used in daily target detection and identification. But in adverse weather conditions of dark of night, poor atmospheric transmission characteristics or strong backscattering (fog, dust, rain, snow, etc.), even the most sensitive low-light level night vision could not provide enough image resolution for detecting and identifying targets, and the thermal infrared imager is also limited by low temperature contrast. A long-range laser active imaging system, in combination with high-power semiconductor pulsed lasers with collimation technology, receiving objective lens of large diameter, long focal length and narrow viewing angle, high-gain image intensifier CCD (ICCD) camera and range-gated synchronization control technology, is developed for long distance target detection and high resolution imaging in adverse weather conditions. The system composition and operating principle are introduced. The extremely powerful and efficient illuminators with collimation technology are able to deliver uniform beams, which are essential for illuminating targets at a distance and generating high-quality images. The particular receiving objective lens, ICCD camera and range-gated synchronization control technology could reduce strong backscattering signal and improve imaging signal-to-noise ratio. The laboratory and outfield experiments have been done to validate imaging effect and imaging quality. The results show that the minimum resolution is about 3-5cm, 10cm, and greater than 20 cm for target far from 1100m, 4700m, and 6700m respectively in dark of night. Furthermore, the minimum resolution could reach to 10cm and 20cm for target far from 2500m and 4800m respectively and the image is too blurred to accurately identify the target when observing the target far from 7200m in rainy condition.

  10. RESIDENCE TIME OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AND LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lagrangian trajectory model which is suitable for the study of long-range transport of pollutants, is developed. The computer program is capable of calculating trajectories over the region of the U.S. using routine sounding data. The output consists of tables of locations of ...

  11. Long-range correlation analysis of economic news flow intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, S. P.; Faizliev, A. R.; Balash, V. A.; Korobov, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the paper is to examine the auto-correlation properties for time series of the news flow intensity using different methods, such as the fluctuation analysis, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the detrending moving average analysis. Empirical findings for news analytics data show the presence of long-range correlations for the time series of news intensity data.

  12. LONG RANGE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR HONOLULU COMMUNITY COLLEGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KILIAN, OTTO H.

    THE LONG RANGE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR HONOLULU COMMUNITY COLLEGE DESCRIBES VERY BRIEFLY A WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS AS FOLLOWS--(1) SITE CONDITIONS--VICINITY MAP, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, ZONING AND LAND USE, ASSESSED VALUATIONS, TRAFFIC ANALYSIS, (2) EXISTING CAMPUS--TYPE, AGE AND CONDITION OF NEIGHBORHOOD AND CAMPUS STRUCTURES, CAMPUS PLAN, CAMPUS…

  13. "MAPseq"-uencing Long-Range Neuronal Projections.

    PubMed

    Yonehara, Keisuke; Roska, Botond

    2016-09-01

    Kebschull et al. (2016a) describe "MAPseq," which tags individual neurons from a specific brain region with individual mRNA barcodes and sequences these barcodes in other brain regions. This allows the simultaneous mapping of long-range neuronal projections at single-cell resolution. PMID:27608754

  14. New Long-Range Interaction between Dipolar Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Mark; Kiskamp, Stephen

    1997-09-01

    The interaction between two finite chains of dipoles is treated in a systematic fashion by considering perturbations from the idealized case of two infinite, uniform, parallel chains. A long-range attractive interaction is obtained which survives the zero-temperature limit. Thermal effects increase the range of attraction. Applications to magnetorheological fluids are discussed.

  15. Long-Range Strategic Planning: The Rochester Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, John M.; Anthony, Deborah L.

    The administration of Rochester Community Schools (Michigan) initiated a process for long-range strategic planning in 1984, described in this synopsis. Strategic planning is an ongoing, evolutionary process of defining the business one is in or should be in; establishing organizational goals and objectives; and developing and implementing…

  16. Long Range Development Plan, University of California, Riverside.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell (George Vernon) and Associates, Architects and Planners.

    A long range development plan, conceived as a general guide to final objectives, uses many diagrams and maps to illustrate the text. The plan is predicated on the assumption that orderly and efficient development of site possibilities is subject to ever-changing influences. The following areas are examined--(1) campus environment, (2) academic…

  17. Microcanonical Analysis on a System with Long-Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Yu, Xu-Chen; Hou, Jing-Min

    2016-09-01

    We study a long-range interacting spin chain placed in a staggered magnetic field using microcanonical approach and obtain the global phase diagram. We find that this model exhibits both first order phase transition and second order phase transition separated by a tricritical point, and temperature jump can be observed in the first order phase transition.

  18. Strategic Long Range Planning for Universities. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael E.

    The use of strategic long-range planning at Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) is discussed. A structure for strategic planning analysis that integrates existing techniques is presented, and examples of planning activities at CMU are included. The key concept in strategic planning is competitive advantage: if a university has a competitive…

  19. Long-range contributions to double beta decay revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helo, J. C.; Hirsch, M.; Ota, T.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the systematic decomposition of all dimension-7 ( d = 7) lepton number violating operators. These d = 7 operators produce momentum enhanced contributions to the long-range part of the 0νββ decay amplitude and thus are severely constrained by existing half-live limits. In our list of possible models one can find contributions to the long-range amplitude discussed previously in the literature, such as the left-right symmetric model or scalar leptoquarks, as well as some new models not considered before. The d = 7 operators generate Majorana neutrino mass terms either at tree-level, 1-loop or 2-loop level. We systematically compare constraints derived from the mass mechanism to those derived from the long-range 0 νββ decay amplitude and classify our list of models accordingly. We also study one particular example decomposition, which produces neutrino masses at 2-loop level, can fit oscillation data and yields a large contribution to the long-range 0 νββ decay amplitude, in some detail.

  20. Causality and quantum criticality in long-range lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Foss-Feig, Michael; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2016-03-01

    Long-range quantum lattice systems often exhibit drastically different behavior than their short-range counterparts. In particular, because they do not satisfy the conditions for the Lieb-Robinson theorem, they need not have an emergent relativistic structure in the form of a light cone. Adopting a field-theoretic approach, we study the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with long-range interactions, and a fermionic model with long-range hopping and pairing terms, explore their critical and near-critical behavior, and characterize their response to local perturbations. We deduce the dynamic critical exponent, up to the two-loop order within the renormalization group theory, which we then use to characterize the emergent causal behavior. We show that beyond a critical value of the power-law exponent of the long-range couplings, the dynamics effectively becomes relativistic. Various other critical exponents describing correlations in the ground state, as well as deviations from a linear causal cone, are deduced for a wide range of the power-law exponent.

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF A LONG RANGE TRACER SYSTEM USING PERFLUOROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional-scale tracer experiments are needed to validate atmospheric dispersion aspects of air pollution models. The capability of a new system, using perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), for long-range dispersion experiments at reasonable cost, was demonstrated in two experiments. Tw...

  2. The long-range interaction landscape of gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Amartya; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Dekker, Job

    2012-09-01

    The vast non-coding portion of the human genome is full of functional elements and disease-causing regulatory variants. The principles defining the relationships between these elements and distal target genes remain unknown. Promoters and distal elements can engage in looping interactions that have been implicated in gene regulation. Here we have applied chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C) to interrogate comprehensively interactions between transcription start sites (TSSs) and distal elements in 1% of the human genome representing the ENCODE pilot project regions. 5C maps were generated for GM12878, K562 and HeLa-S3 cells and results were integrated with data from the ENCODE consortium. In each cell line we discovered >1,000 long-range interactions between promoters and distal sites that include elements resembling enhancers, promoters and CTCF-bound sites. We observed significant correlations between gene expression, promoter-enhancer interactions and the presence of enhancer RNAs. Long-range interactions show marked asymmetry with a bias for interactions with elements located ∼120 kilobases upstream of the TSS. Long-range interactions are often not blocked by sites bound by CTCF and cohesin, indicating that many of these sites do not demarcate physically insulated gene domains. Furthermore, only ∼7% of looping interactions are with the nearest gene, indicating that genomic proximity is not a simple predictor for long-range interactions. Finally, promoters and distal elements are engaged in multiple long-range interactions to form complex networks. Our results start to place genes and regulatory elements in three-dimensional context, revealing their functional relationships. PMID:22955621

  3. Model for a neural network structure and signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsavasiloglou, C.; Kalampokis, A.; Argyrakis, P.; Baloyannis, S.

    1997-10-01

    We present a model of a neural network that is based on the diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) structure from fractal physics. A single neuron is one DLA cluster, while a large number of clusters, in an interconnected fashion, make up the neural network. Using simulation techniques, a signal is randomly generated and traced through its transmission inside the neuron and from neuron to neuron through the synapses. The activity of the entire neural network is monitored as a function of time. The characteristics included in the model contain, among others, the threshold for firing, the excitatory or inhibitory character of the synapse, the synaptic delay, and the refractory period. The system activity results in ``noisy'' time series that exhibit an oscillatory character. Standard power spectra are evaluated and fractal analyses performed, showing that the system is not chaotic, but the varying parameters can be associated with specific values of fractal dimensions. It is found that the network activity is not linear with the system parameters, e.g., with the numbers of active synapses. The details of this behavior may have interesting repercussions from the neurological point of view.

  4. INSTRUMENTATION FOR SURVEYING ACOUSTIC SIGNALS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-09-01

    In the U.S. natural gas is distributed through more than one million miles of high-pressure transmission pipelines. If all leaks and infringements could be detected quickly, it would enhance safety and U.S. energy security. Only low frequency acoustic waves appear to be detectable over distances up to 60 km where pipeline shut-off valves provide access to the inside of the pipeline. This paper describes a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) developed to record and identify acoustic signals characteristic of: leaks, pump noise, valve and flow metering noise, third party infringement, manual pipeline water and gas blow-off, etc. This PAMP consists of a stainless steel 1/2 inch NPT plumbing tree rated for use on 1000 psi pipelines. Its instrumentation is designed to measure acoustic waves over the entire frequency range from zero to 16,000 Hz by means of four instruments: (1) microphone, (2) 3-inch water full range differential pressure transducer with 0.1% of range sensitivity, (3) a novel 3 inch to 100 inch water range amplifier, using an accumulator with needle valve and (4) a line-pressure transducer. The weight of the PAMP complete with all accessories is 36 pounds. This includes a remote control battery/switch box assembly on a 25-foot extension chord, a laptop data acquisition computer on a field table and a sun shield.

  5. Concentric core optical fiber with multiple-mode signal transmission

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    A concentric core optical fiber provides for the simultaneous but independent transmission of signals over a single optical fiber. The concentric optical fiber is constructed of a single-mode or multimode inner optical fiber defined by a core and a cladding of a lower index of refraction than the core and an outer optical fiber defined by additional cladding concentrically disposed around the cladding and of an index of refraction lower than the first mentioned cladding whereby the latter functions as the core of the outer optical fiber. By employing such an optical fiber construction with a single-mode inner core or optical fiber, highly sensitive interferometric and stable less sensitive amplitude based sensors can be placed along the same length of a concentric core optical fiber. Also, by employing the concentric core optical fiber secure telecommunications can be achieved via the inner optical fiber since an intrusion of the concentric optical fiber will first cause a variation in the light being transmitted through the outer optical fiber and this variation of light being used to trigger a suitable alarm indicative of the intrusion.

  6. Concentric core optical fiber with multiple-mode signal transmission

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, J.D.

    1997-05-06

    A concentric core optical fiber provides for the simultaneous but independent transmission of signals over a single optical fiber. The concentric optical fiber is constructed of a single-mode or multimode inner optical fiber defined by a core and a cladding of a lower index of refraction than the core and an outer optical fiber defined by additional cladding concentrically disposed around the cladding and of an index of refraction lower than the first mentioned cladding whereby the latter functions as the core of the outer optical fiber. By employing such an optical fiber construction with a single-mode inner core or optical fiber, highly sensitive interferometric and stable less sensitive amplitude based sensors can be placed along the same length of a concentric core optical fiber. Also, by employing the concentric core optical fiber secure telecommunications can be achieved via the inner optical fiber since an intrusion of the concentric optical fiber will first cause a variation in the light being transmitted through the outer optical fiber and this variation of light being used to trigger a suitable alarm indicative of the intrusion. 3 figs.

  7. Mechanobiological induction of long-range contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The long-range nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to long-range “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development. PMID:27283037

  8. Mechanobiological induction of long-range contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The long-range nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to long-range “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development.

  9. Mechanobiological induction of long-range contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies.

    PubMed

    Dasbiswas, K; Alster, E; Safran, S A

    2016-01-01

    Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The long-range nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to long-range "macroscopic modes" in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development. PMID:27283037

  10. Optical signal monitoring in phase modulated optical fiber transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) is one of the essential functions for future high speed optical networks. Among the parameters to be monitored, chromatic dispersion (CD) is especially important since it has a significant impact on overall system performance. In this thesis effective CD monitoring approaches for phase-shift keying (PSK) based optical transmission systems are investigated. A number of monitoring schemes based on radio frequency (RF) spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling are proposed and their performance evaluated. A method for dispersion monitoring of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals based on RF power detection is studied. The RF power spectrum is found to increase with the increase of CD and decrease with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The spectral power density dependence on CD is studied theoretically and then verified through simulations and experiments. The monitoring sensitivity for nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) based systems can reach 80ps/nm/dB and 34ps/nm/dB respectively. The scheme enables the monitoring of differential group delay (DGD) and CD simultaneously. The monitoring sensitivity of CD and DGD can reach 56.7ps/nm/dB and 3.1ps/dB using a bandpass filter. The effects of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), DGD, fiber nonlinearity and chirp on the monitoring results are investigated. Two RF pilot tones are employed for CD monitoring of DPSK signals. Specially selected pilot tone frequencies enable good monitoring sensitivity with minimum influence on the received signals. The dynamic range exceeding 35dB and monitoring sensitivity up to 9.5ps/nm/dB are achieved. Asynchronous sampling technique is employed for CD monitoring. A signed CD monitoring method for 10Gb/s NRZ-DPSK and RZ-DPSK systems using asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique is studied. The demodulated signals suffer asymmetric waveform distortion if

  11. The design of a long-range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Allen, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are examining the market and feasibility of long-range passenger aircraft carrying more than 600 passengers. These aircraft would carry travelers at reduced cost and, at the same time, reduce congestion around major airports. The design of a large, long-range transport involves broad issues such as: the integration of airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; trade-offs between aircraft size and the cost to reconfigure these existing facilities; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law. Thirteen Purdue design teams generated RFP's that defined passenger capability and range, based upon team perception of market needs and infrastructure constraints. Turbofan engines were designed by each group to power these aircraft. The design problem and the variety of solutions developed are reviewed.

  12. Travel: a long-range goal of retired women.

    PubMed

    Staats, Sara; Pierfelice, Loretta

    2003-09-01

    The authors surveyed retired persons (predominately women) with regard to their immediate, intermediate, and long-range activities following retirement. As predicted, leisure travel emerged as a frequent long-range goal for persons retired more than 5 years. The travel activity preferences of long-retired older women present challenges and opportunities to both researchers and marketers. Length of trips and frequency of trips have been predicted from regression models, with trip length in particular being well predicted by the problem of daily life hassles. A theoretical model of continued post-retirement travel is presented as a variant of Solomon's opponent process theory of affect (R. L. Solomon, 1980). The authors suggest that to the degree that places traveled to are varied and different, older people may remain stimulated and continue to enjoy retirement. PMID:14629078

  13. Long-range correlation analysis of urban traffic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Peng; Wang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Zhao, Shu-Long

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates urban traffic data by analysing the long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis. Through a large number of real data collected by the travel time detection system in Beijing, the variation of flow in different time periods and intersections is studied. According to the long-range correlation in different time scales, it mainly discusses the effect of intersection location in road net, people activity customs and special traffic controls on urban traffic flow. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the urban traffic flow represents three-phase characters similar to highway traffic. Moreover, compared by the two groups of data obtained before and after the special traffic restrictions (vehicles with special numbered plates only run in a special workday) enforcement, it indicates that the rules not only reduce the flow but also avoid irregular fluctuation.

  14. Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.

    2014-12-01

    We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

  15. Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles, Tarcísio N.; Gupta, Shamik; Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Casetti, Lapo

    2015-08-01

    Temperature inversions occur in nature, e.g., in the solar corona and in interstellar molecular clouds: Somewhat counterintuitively, denser parts of the system are colder than dilute ones. We propose a simple and appealing way to spontaneously generate temperature inversions in systems with long-range interactions, by preparing them in inhomogeneous thermal equilibrium states and then applying an impulsive perturbation. In similar situations, short-range systems would typically relax to another thermal equilibrium, with a uniform temperature profile. By contrast, in long-range systems, the interplay between wave-particle interaction and spatial inhomogeneity drives the system to nonequilibrium stationary states that generically exhibit temperature inversion. We demonstrate this mechanism in a simple mean-field model and in a two-dimensional self-gravitating system. Our work underlines the crucial role the range of interparticle interaction plays in determining the nature of steady states out of thermal equilibrium.

  16. Sirius: a long-range infrared search and track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepper, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sirius is a long range infra red search and track system (LR- IRST) and intended to be used in an anti air warfare (AAW) multisensor suite on board of modern frigates. This Dutch/Canadian development program started 1/1/95 and includes also the evaluation of the system in warm and cold water scenarios. The operational requirements were drafted by both the national navies. The primary task is automatic detection, tracking and reporting of seaskimming missiles at long range. The design is based on recent experiences with IRSTs and the latest technological achievements in the areas of processing capabilities and IR-detectors. In this presentation design drivers and main technical choices are discussed.

  17. Preservation of long range temporal correlations under extreme random dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzayof, Dror; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2010-12-01

    Many natural time series exhibit long range temporal correlations that may be characterized by power-law scaling exponents. However, in many cases, the time series have uneven time intervals due to, for example, missing data points, noisy data, and outliers. Here we study the effect of randomly missing data points on the power-law scaling exponents of time series that are long range temporally correlated. The Fourier transform and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) techniques are used for scaling exponent estimation. We find that even under extreme dilution of more than 50%, the value of the scaling exponent remains almost unaffected. Random dilution is also applied on heart interbeat interval time series. It is found that dilution of 70%-80% of the data points leads to a reduction of only 8% in the scaling exponent; it is also found that it is possible to discriminate between healthy and heart failure subjects even under extreme dilution of more than 90%.

  18. Quantum Defect Theory for Long-range Anisotropic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzic, Brandon P.; Bohn, John L.; Greene, Chris H.

    2014-05-01

    Quantum Defect Theory (QDT) is a numerically efficient and accurate tool for studying a wide variety of ultracold atomic collisions, where the asymptotic behavior of the atoms is well described by a set of simple parameters. However, analytic formulas for these parameters only exist for the pure - 1 /R6 potential. The long-range parameters are given by simple power law equations in the collision energy, and the bound state energies of different partial waves are simply related. We extend these formulas to encompass all potentials of the form - 1 /Rn , where n > 2 . Moreover, the accuracy of QDT is limited by long-range anisotropic interactions, which, for example, play an important role in collisions of dysprosium or erbium atoms. We present our recent developments on numerically treating this type of interaction within perturbation theory. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy.

  19. Long-range nuclear cruise missiles and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.N.; Postol, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles are highly accurate and are capable of reaching most targets within the United States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) from launch points beyond their borders. Neither the United States nor the CIS has air surveillance systems capable of providing reliable warning against cruise missiles. Thus it is possible that a small-scale cruise missile attack could go entirely undetected until the nuclear weapons arrived over their targets. Such an attack could destroy the other country's entire strategic bomber force on the ground and severely damage its strategic command and control system, perhaps to the point of endangering the ability of its ICBM force to be launched on warning. This capability makes long-range nuclear cruise missiles potentially one of the most destabilizing of all nuclear weapons.

  20. Long-range mutual information and topological uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Chao-Ming; Kim, Isaac; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    Ordered phases in Landau paradigm can be diagnosed by a local order parameter, whereas topologically ordered phases cannot be detected in such a way. In this paper, we propose long-range mutual information (LRMI) as a unified diagnostic for both conventional long-range order and topological order. Using the LRMI, we characterize orders in n +1D gapped systems as m-membrane condensates with 0 <= m <= n-1. The familiar conventional order and 2 +1D topological orders are respectively identified as 0-membrane and 1-membrane condensates. We propose and study the topological uncertainty principle, which describes the non-commuting nature of non-local order parameters in topological orders.

  1. Information propagation and equilibration in long-range Kitaev chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Regemortel, Mathias; Sels, Dries; Wouters, Michiel

    2016-03-01

    We study the propagation of information through a Kitaev chain with long-range pairing interactions. Although the Lieb-Robinson bound is violated in the strict sense for long-range interacting systems, we illustrate that a major amount of information in this model still propagates ballistically on a light cone. We find a pronounced effect of the interaction range on the decay of the mutual information between spatially disconnected subsystems. A significant amount of information is shared at timelike separations. This regime is accompanied by very slow equilibration of local observables. As the Kitaev model is quasifree, we illustrate how the distribution of quasiparticle group velocities explains the physics of this system qualitatively.

  2. Long-range Coulomb interaction in nodal-ring semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Yejin; Moon, Eun-Gook; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-01-01

    Recently there have been several proposals of materials predicted to be nodal-ring semimetals, where zero energy excitations are characterized by a nodal ring in the momentum space. This class of materials falls between the Dirac-like semimetals and the more conventional Fermi-surface systems. As a step towards understanding this unconventional system, we explore the effects of the long-range Coulomb interaction. Due to the vanishing density of states at the Fermi level, Coulomb interaction is only partially screened and remains long-ranged. Through renormalization group and large-Nf computations, we have identified a nontrivial interacting fixed point. The screened Coulomb interaction at the interacting fixed point is an irrelevant perturbation, allowing controlled perturbative evaluations of physical properties of quasiparticles. We discuss unique experimental consequences of such quasiparticles: acoustic wave propagation, anisotropic dc conductivity, and renormalized phonon dispersion as well as energy dependence of quasiparticle lifetime.

  3. Reaching for the Horizon: The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geesaman, Donald

    2015-10-01

    In April 2014, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee was charged to conduct a new study of the opportunities and priorities for United States nuclear physics research and to recommend a long range plan for the coordinated advancement of the Nation's nuclear science program over the next decade. The entire community actively contributed to developing this plan. Ideas and goals, new and old, were examined and community priorities were established. The Long Range Plan Working Group gathered at Kitty Hawk, NC to converge on the recommendations. In this talk I will discuss the vision for the future that has emerged from this process. The new plan, ``Reaching for the Horizon,'' offers the promise of great leaps forward in our understanding of nuclear science and new opportunities for nuclear science to serve society. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. The design of a long range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Allen, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    During the period from August 1991 - June 1992 two design classes at Purdue University participated in the design of a long range, high capacity transport aircraft, dubbed the megatransport. Thirteen Purdue design teams generated RFP's that defined passenger capability and range, based upon team perception of market needs and infrastructure constraints. Turbofan engines were designed by each group to power these aircraft. The design problem and the variety of solutions developed are described in an attached paper.

  5. Long Range Interactions With Laser Cooled Neutral Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gattobigio, Giovanni Luca; Michaud, Franck; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Kaiser, Robin; Loureiro, Jorge; Mendonca, Jose Tito; Tercas, Hugo; Pohl, Thomas

    2008-09-07

    Multiple scattering of light in a trap of laser cooled neutral atoms leads to repulsion forces between the atoms. The corresponding interactions have long range behavior in 1/r{sup 2} and are thus similar to Coulomb interaction in an one component confined plasma. Consequences of these interactions will be described in this paper, including the limitation of the spatial density one can obtain in such systems and self-sustained oscillations of the cloud.

  6. Emergent long-range couplings in arrays of fluid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Douglas Bruce

    2014-08-07

    We present a system exhibiting extraordinarily long-range cooperative effects, on a length scale far exceeding the bulk correlation length. We give a theoretical explanation of these phenomena based on the mesoscopic picture of phase coexistence in finite systems, which is confirmedly Monte Carlo (MC) simulation studies. Our work demonstrates that such action-at-a-distance can occur in classical systems involving simple or complex fluids, such as colloid-polymer mixtures, or ferromagnets.

  7. Long-range substantially nonradiative metallo-dielectric waveguide.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Robin; Berini, Pierre

    2009-01-15

    A waveguide structure capable of aggressive bends (r(0)-->0) and long-range propagation (approximately 1.2 dB/mm) is described here. The structure uses a step-index slab to create the vertical confinement and a pair of metallic parallel plates on either side of the core for lateral confinement. The parallel plates are dimensioned to ensure that all modes that would cause radiation loss in a bend are cut off. PMID:19148262

  8. Long-range quantum entanglement in noisy cluster states

    SciTech Connect

    Raussendorf, Robert; Bravyi, Sergey; Harrington, Jim

    2005-06-15

    We describe a phase transition for long-range entanglement in a three-dimensional cluster state affected by noise. The partially decohered state is modeled by the thermal state of a short-range translation-invariant Hamiltonian. We find that the temperature at which the entanglement length changes from infinite to finite is nonzero. We give an upper and lower bound to this transition temperature.

  9. Long range Ising model for credit risk modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, Jordi; Vives, Eduard

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of maximum entropy principle we show that the finite-size long-range Ising model is the adequate model for the description of homogeneous credit portfolios and the computation of credit risk when default correlations between the borrowers are included. The exact analysis of the model suggest that when the correlation increases a first-order-like transition may occur inducing a sudden risk increase.

  10. Long range science scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are scheduled with the assistance of a long-range scheduling system (SPIKE) that was developed using artificial intelligence techniques. In earlier papers, the system architecture and the constraint representation and propagation mechanisms were described. The development of high-level automated scheduling tools, including tools based on constraint satisfaction techniques and neural networks is described. The performance of these tools in scheduling HST observations is discussed.

  11. Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Dobbs, Howard A; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-06-16

    Electrolyte solutions with high concentrations of ions are prevalent in biological systems and energy storage technologies. Nevertheless, the high interaction free energy and long-range nature of electrostatic interactions makes the development of a general conceptual picture of concentrated electrolytes a significant challenge. In this work, we study ionic liquids, single-component liquids composed solely of ions, in an attempt to provide a novel perspective on electrostatic screening in very high concentration (nonideal) electrolytes. We use temperature-dependent surface force measurements to demonstrate that the long-range, exponentially decaying diffuse double-layer forces observed across ionic liquids exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence: Increasing the temperature decreases the measured exponential (Debye) decay length, implying an increase in the thermally driven effective free-ion concentration in the bulk ionic liquids. We use our quantitative results to propose a general model of long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids, where thermally activated charge fluctuations, either free ions or correlated domains (quasiparticles), take on the role of ions in traditional dilute electrolyte solutions. This picture represents a crucial step toward resolving several inconsistencies surrounding electrostatic screening and charge transport in ionic liquids that have impeded progress within the interdisciplinary ionic liquids community. More broadly, our work provides a previously unidentified way of envisioning highly concentrated electrolytes, with implications for diverse areas of inquiry, ranging from designing electrochemical devices to rationalizing electrostatic interactions in biological systems. PMID:26040001

  12. Long-range infrasound monitoring of eruptive volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Emanuele; Innocenti, Lorenzo; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Lacanna, Giorgio; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The efficient long-range propagation in the atmosphere makes infrasound of active volcanoes extremely promising and opens new perspectives for volcano monitoring at large scale. In favourable propagation conditions, long-range infrasound observations can be used to track the occurrence and the duration of volcanic eruptions also at remote non-monitored volcanoes, but its potential to infer volcanic eruptive source term is still debated. We present results of comparing five years of infrasound of eruptive activity at Mt.Etna volcano (Italy) recorded both at local (~5 km) and at regional distances (~600 km) from the source. Infrasound of lava fountains at Etna volcano, occurring in between 2010 and 2015, are analysed in terms of the local and regional wavefield record, and by comparing to all available volcanic source terms (i.e. plume height and mass eruption rates). Besides, the potential of near real-time notification of ongoing volcanic activity at Etna volcano at a regional scale is investigated. In particular we show how long range infrasound, in the case of Etna volcano, can be used to promptly deliver eruption notification and reliability is constrained by the results of the local array. This work is performed in the framework of the H2020 ARISE2 project funded by the EU in the period 2015-2018.

  13. Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Dobbs, Howard A.; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    Electrolyte solutions with high concentrations of ions are prevalent in biological systems and energy storage technologies. Nevertheless, the high interaction free energy and long-range nature of electrostatic interactions makes the development of a general conceptual picture of concentrated electrolytes a significant challenge. In this work, we study ionic liquids, single-component liquids composed solely of ions, in an attempt to provide a novel perspective on electrostatic screening in very high concentration (nonideal) electrolytes. We use temperature-dependent surface force measurements to demonstrate that the long-range, exponentially decaying diffuse double-layer forces observed across ionic liquids exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence: Increasing the temperature decreases the measured exponential (Debye) decay length, implying an increase in the thermally driven effective free-ion concentration in the bulk ionic liquids. We use our quantitative results to propose a general model of long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids, where thermally activated charge fluctuations, either free ions or correlated domains (quasiparticles), take on the role of ions in traditional dilute electrolyte solutions. This picture represents a crucial step toward resolving several inconsistencies surrounding electrostatic screening and charge transport in ionic liquids that have impeded progress within the interdisciplinary ionic liquids community. More broadly, our work provides a previously unidentified way of envisioning highly concentrated electrolytes, with implications for diverse areas of inquiry, ranging from designing electrochemical devices to rationalizing electrostatic interactions in biological systems. PMID:26040001

  14. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements. 11.51 Section 11.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.51 EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements. (a) Analog and digital broadcast...

  15. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements. 11.51 Section 11.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.51 EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements. (a) Analog and digital broadcast...

  16. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements. 11.51 Section 11.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.51 EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements. (a) Analog and digital broadcast...

  17. Long-Range Weather Forecasting In The Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martazinova, V. F.; Ivanova, E. K.

    2004-12-01

    The operational system for long range weather forecasting (LRF) was developed by Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute (UHMI) in the result of studies of general circulation and on the long-range weather forecasting which were began in 1975 by research group leaded by Prof. V. Martazinova. Three key approaches are used in the operational system LRF of UHMI: (1) Floating analog method (FAM); (2) Two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes in the troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere; (3)Ethalon-field approach. The based on the pattern recognition technique FAM is the continuation of the ideas of former Soviet Union school of long-range forecasting. The traditional method of analog was generalized and advanced as the method of "floating analog" (Martazinova and Sologub, 1986; Martazinova, 1989; 2001). FAM requires only geometrical similarity of the planetary high-level frontal zone and surface pressure on the Northern Hemisphere. The limiting conditions of the coincidence in time and space are lifted. The use of FAM made it possible to reveal the two-month quasi-periodicity of synoptic situation in the Northern Hemisphere. The strong changes of weather within month are predicted using statistical "ethalon field" approach that was developed for classification of meteorological fields in the climate research and the long-range forecasting (Martazinova and Prokhorenko, 1991). The meteorological information for the forecast is used only for the last two months before the target month. The fields of geopotential and pressure are recognized by the "ethalon-field-analog" which corresponds to two-month quasi-periodicity of the ethalon-fields. The forecast for days the strong changes of weather over the territory of Ukraine in next two months. Recognition of daily synoptic situations of last two months by the synoptic situation of two-month quasi-periodicity of atmospheric processes for ethalons when there are waves of cold and heat, strong precipitation, strong

  18. Hidden data transmission using time delay for separating useful signals from masking oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kal'Yanov, Er. V.

    2009-03-01

    A new method of hidden data transmission based on the use of time delay for the separation of useful signals from masking noise-like (chaotic or stochastic) oscillations is described. Mathematical models involving a source of chaotic oscillations have been studied using numerical methods. The transmission of a masked non-encoded signal and the pulsed data transmission using 0/1 bit code are considered.

  19. Short-range/Long-range Integrated Target (SLIT) for Video Guidance Sensor Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Fred D. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A laser target reflector assembly for mounting upon spacecraft having a long-range reflector array formed from a plurality of unfiltered light reflectors embedded in an array pattern upon a hemispherical reflector disposed upon a mounting plate. The reflector assembly also includes a short-range reflector array positioned upon the mounting body proximate to the long-range reflector array. The short-range reflector array includes three filtered light reflectors positioned upon extensions from the mounting body. The three filtered light reflectors retro-reflect substantially all incident light rays that are transmissive by their monochromatic filters and received by the three filtered light reflectors. In one embodiment the short-range reflector array is embedded within the hemispherical reflector,

  20. Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal.

    PubMed

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Fisher, Daniel S

    2014-11-18

    The spreading of evolutionary novelties across populations is the central element of adaptation. Unless populations are well mixed (like bacteria in a shaken test tube), the spreading dynamics depend not only on fitness differences but also on the dispersal behavior of the species. Spreading at a constant speed is generally predicted when dispersal is sufficiently short ranged, specifically when the dispersal kernel falls off exponentially or faster. However, the case of long-range dispersal is unresolved: Although it is clear that even rare long-range jumps can lead to a drastic speedup--as air-traffic-mediated epidemics show--it has been difficult to quantify the ensuing stochastic dynamical process. However, such knowledge is indispensable for a predictive understanding of many spreading processes in natural populations. We present a simple iterative scaling approximation supported by simulations and rigorous bounds that accurately predicts evolutionary spread, which is determined by a trade-off between frequency and potential effectiveness of long-distance jumps. In contrast to the exponential laws predicted by deterministic "mean-field" approximations, we show that the asymptotic spatial growth is according to either a power law or a stretched exponential, depending on the tails of the dispersal kernel. More importantly, we provide a full time-dependent description of the convergence to the asymptotic behavior, which can be anomalously slow and is relevant even for long times. Our results also apply to spreading dynamics on networks with a spectrum of long-range links under certain conditions on the probabilities of long-distance travel: These are relevant for the spread of epidemics. PMID:25368183

  1. Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Fisher, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The spreading of evolutionary novelties across populations is the central element of adaptation. Unless populations are well mixed (like bacteria in a shaken test tube), the spreading dynamics depend not only on fitness differences but also on the dispersal behavior of the species. Spreading at a constant speed is generally predicted when dispersal is sufficiently short ranged, specifically when the dispersal kernel falls off exponentially or faster. However, the case of long-range dispersal is unresolved: Although it is clear that even rare long-range jumps can lead to a drastic speedup—as air-traffic–mediated epidemics show—it has been difficult to quantify the ensuing stochastic dynamical process. However, such knowledge is indispensable for a predictive understanding of many spreading processes in natural populations. We present a simple iterative scaling approximation supported by simulations and rigorous bounds that accurately predicts evolutionary spread, which is determined by a trade-off between frequency and potential effectiveness of long-distance jumps. In contrast to the exponential laws predicted by deterministic “mean-field” approximations, we show that the asymptotic spatial growth is according to either a power law or a stretched exponential, depending on the tails of the dispersal kernel. More importantly, we provide a full time-dependent description of the convergence to the asymptotic behavior, which can be anomalously slow and is relevant even for long times. Our results also apply to spreading dynamics on networks with a spectrum of long-range links under certain conditions on the probabilities of long-distance travel: These are relevant for the spread of epidemics. PMID:25368183

  2. Long-range attraction of particles adhered to lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfati, Raphael; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2016-07-01

    Many biological systems fold thin sheets of lipid membrane into complex three-dimensional structures. This microscopic origami is often mediated by the adsorption and self-assembly of proteins on a membrane. As a model system to study adsorption-mediated interactions, we study the collective behavior of micrometric particles adhered to a lipid vesicle. We estimate the colloidal interactions using a maximum likelihood analysis of particle trajectories. When the particles are highly wrapped by a tense membrane, we observe strong long-range attractions with a typical binding energy of 150 kBT and significant forces extending a few microns.

  3. DIII-D tokamak long range plan. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1992-08-01

    The DIII-D Tokamak Long Range Plan for controlled thermonuclear magnetic fusion research will be carried out with broad national and international participation. The plan covers: (1) operation of the DIII-D tokamak to conduct research experiments to address needs of the US Magnetic Fusion Program; (2) facility modifications to allow these new experiments to be conducted; and (3) collaborations with other laboratories to integrate DIII-D research into the national and international fusion programs. The period covered by this plan is 1 November 19983 through 31 October 1998.

  4. A Long Range Science Rover For Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation currently underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of a long range science rover for future missions to Mars. The small rover prototype, called Rocky 7, is capable of long traverse. autonomous navigation. and science instrument control, carries three science instruments, and can be commanded from any computer platform and any location using the World Wide Web. In this paper we describe the mobility system, the sampling system, the sensor suite, navigation and control, onboard science instruments. and the ground command and control system.

  5. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is presented of three separate programs that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of a span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel.

  6. Reconfigurable long-range phonon dynamics in optomechanical arrays.

    PubMed

    Xuereb, André; Genes, Claudiu; Pupillo, Guido; Paternostro, Mauro; Dantan, Aurélien

    2014-04-01

    We investigate periodic optomechanical arrays as reconfigurable platforms for engineering the coupling between multiple mechanical and electromagnetic modes and for exploring many-body phonon dynamics. Exploiting structural resonances in the coupling between light fields and collective motional modes of the array, we show that tunable effective long-range interactions between mechanical modes can be achieved. This paves the way towards the implementation of controlled phononic walks and heat transfer on densely connected graphs as well as the coherent transfer of excitations between distant elements of optomechanical arrays. PMID:24745417

  7. INEL D&D Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility.

  8. Comment on "Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems".

    PubMed

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2016-06-01

    In the recent paper by Teles et al. [Phys. Rev. E 92, 020101 (2015)]PRESCM1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.020101, it was suggested that the inversed temperature profiles in various astrophysical objects-ranging from the solar corona to the interstellar molecular clouds-can be explained by the specific features of relaxation in the long-range interacting systems. Here, we show that this mechanism can really work in the self-gravitating interstellar gaseous clouds; but it is irrelevant in the solar (and stellar) coronas where stratification of density is produced by the external gravitational field. PMID:27415395

  9. INEL D&D long-range plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  10. The design of a long range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Layton, J. B.; Allen, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Megatransport objectives and constraints are briefly reviewed, and certain solutions developed by student design teams at Perdue University are summarized. Particular attention is given to the market needs and the economic risks involved in such a project; and the different approaches taken to solve the problem and difficulties faced by the design teams. A long range megatransport aircraft is aimed at carrying more than 600 passengers at reduced cost, and at the same time, reducing airport and airway congestion. The design effort must take into account airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures.

  11. Comment on "Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumin, Yurii V.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent paper by Teles et al. [Phys. Rev. E 92, 020101 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.020101, it was suggested that the inversed temperature profiles in various astrophysical objects—ranging from the solar corona to the interstellar molecular clouds—can be explained by the specific features of relaxation in the long-range interacting systems. Here, we show that this mechanism can really work in the self-gravitating interstellar gaseous clouds; but it is irrelevant in the solar (and stellar) coronas where stratification of density is produced by the external gravitational field.

  12. Political Mechanisms for Long-Range Survival and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.

    As the first species aware of extinction and capable of proactively ensuring our long-term survival and development, it is striking that we do not do so with the rigor, formality, and foresight it requires. Only from a reactive posture have we responded to the challenges of global warfare, human rights, environmental concerns, and sustainable development. Despite our awareness of the possibility for extinction and apocalyptic set-backs to our evolution, and despite the existence of long-range studies-which must still be dramatically increased-proactive global policy implementation regarding our long-term survival and development is arguably non-existent. This lack of long-term policy making can be attributed in part to the lack of formal political mechanisms to facilitate longer-range policy making that extends 30 years or more into the future. Political mechanisms for infusing long-range thinking, research, and strategic planning into the policy-making process can help correct this shortcoming and provide the motivation needed to adequately address long-term challenges with the political rigor required to effectively establish and implement long-term policies. There are some efforts that attempt to address longer-range issues, but those efforts often do not connect to the political process, do not extend 30 or more years into the future, are not well-funded, and are not sufficiently systemic. Political mechanisms for long-range survival and prosperity could correct these inadequacies by raising awareness, providing funding, and most importantly, leveraging political rigor to establish and enforce long-range strategic planning and policies. The feasibility of such mechanisms should first be rigorously studied and assessed in a feasibility study, which could then inform implementation. This paper will present the case for such a study and suggest some possible political mechanisms that should be investigated further in the proposed study. This work is being further

  13. Immiscible Lattice Gas with Long-Range Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumaya, Akira; Ohashi, Hirotada

    We developed a new LGA model which has the applicability for simulation of immiscible two phases with wide difference in density. We introduced long-range interparticle forces into the Rothman and Keller's ILG model to represent density difference between phases. We attempted some simulations of phase separation using our new model. Two-phase interfaces are stably made with density distribution coinciding with particle color distribution. Furthermore, the two-phase interface is clearer than that obtained by the Appert and Zaleski's LG model.

  14. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bourasseau, E.; Ghoufi, A.

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  15. Slow and long-ranged dynamical heterogeneities in dissipative fluids.

    PubMed

    Avila, Karina E; Castillo, Horacio E; Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Zippelius, Annette

    2016-06-28

    A two-dimensional bidisperse granular fluid is shown to exhibit pronounced long-ranged dynamical heterogeneities as dynamical arrest is approached. Here we focus on the most direct approach to study these heterogeneities: we identify clusters of slow particles and determine their size, Nc, and their radius of gyration, RG. We show that , providing direct evidence that the most immobile particles arrange in fractal objects with a fractal dimension, df, that is observed to increase with packing fraction ϕ. The cluster size distribution obeys scaling, approaching an algebraic decay in the limit of structural arrest, i.e., ϕ→ϕc. Alternatively, dynamical heterogeneities are analyzed via the four-point structure factor S4(q,t) and the dynamical susceptibility χ4(t). S4(q,t) is shown to obey scaling in the full range of packing fractions, 0.6 ≤ϕ≤ 0.805, and to become increasingly long-ranged as ϕ→ϕc. Finite size scaling of χ4(t) provides a consistency check for the previously analyzed divergences of χ4(t) ∝ (ϕ-ϕc)(-γχ) and the correlation length ξ∝ (ϕ-ϕc)(-γξ). We check the robustness of our results with respect to our definition of mobility. The divergences and the scaling for ϕ→ϕc suggest a non-equilibrium glass transition which seems qualitatively independent of the coefficient of restitution. PMID:27230572

  16. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Panci, Paolo; Silk, Joseph E-mail: panci@iap.fr

    2014-11-10

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from helioseismology. Thanks to the explicit dependence on the exchanged momenta in the differential cross section (Rutherford-like scattering), we find that DM particles with a mass of ∼10 GeV, kinetic mixing parameter of the order of 10{sup –9}, and a mediator with a mass smaller than a few MeV improve the agreement between the best solar model and the helioseismic data without being excluded by direct detection experiments. In particular, the LUX detector will soon be able to either constrain or confirm our best-fit solar model in the presence of a dark sector with long-range interactions that reconcile helioseismology with thermal neutrino results.

  17. Dolphin "packet" use during long-range echolocation tasks.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J

    2013-03-01

    When echolocating, dolphins typically emit a single broadband "click," then wait to receive the echo before emitting another click. However, previous studies have shown that during long-range echolocation tasks, they may instead emit a burst, or "packet," of several clicks, then wait for the packet of echoes to return before emitting another packet of clicks. The reasons for the use of packets are unknown. In this study, packet use was examined by having trained bottlenose dolphins perform long-range echolocation tasks. The tasks featured "phantom" echoes produced by capturing the dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks, convolving the clicks with an impulse response to create an echo waveform, and then broadcasting the delayed, scaled echo to the dolphin. Dolphins were trained to report the presence of phantom echoes or a change in phantom echoes. Target range varied from 25 to 800 m. At ranges below 75 m, the dolphins rarely used packets. As the range increased beyond 75 m, two of the three dolphins increasingly produced packets, while the third dolphin instead utilized very high click repetition rates. The use of click packets appeared to be governed more by echo delay (target range) than echo amplitude. PMID:23464048

  18. Emergent long-range magnetic ordering in manganite superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burganov, Bulat; Macke, Sebastian; Monkman, Eric; Adamo, Carolina; Shai, Daniel; Schlom, Darrell; Sawatzky, George; Shen, Kyle

    2015-03-01

    Complex oxides composed into atomically precise heterostructures host a plethora of new phenomena driven by interface effects, dimensionality, correlations and strain. An example is emergent ferromagnetism in the superlattices (SL) of LaMnO3/SrMnO3 and the dimensionality-driven metal insulator transition, still not well understood theoretically. We use soft x-ray scattering combined with SQUID magnetometry to determine the magnetic and orbital ordering in the (LaMnO3)2n /(SrMnO3)n SL for n =1,2,3,4. By composition this system is close to colossal-magnetoresistive La2/3Sr1/3MnO3, an FM metal below 400K. The system undergoes a metal-insulator transition with higher n and is believed to have a complex magnetic ordering. We observe an unexpected long-range order in the n =4 sample where the magnetic period is equal to two chemical periods. The observed half-order Bragg peaks show strong linear and no circular dichroism. The temperature and polarization dependence of reflectometry points towards alignment between A-type AFM orders in the neighboring LaMnO3 layers, which is very unusual and indicates a long range interaction acting across the thick SrMnO3 layers with nominally G-type spin configuration. We simulate the reflectometry data for several model spin configurations to further elucidate the nature of this ordering.

  19. Helioseismology with Long-range Dark Matter-Baryon Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Ilídio; Panci, Paolo; Silk, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from helioseismology. Thanks to the explicit dependence on the exchanged momenta in the differential cross section (Rutherford-like scattering), we find that DM particles with a mass of ~10 GeV, kinetic mixing parameter of the order of 10-9, and a mediator with a mass smaller than a few MeV improve the agreement between the best solar model and the helioseismic data without being excluded by direct detection experiments. In particular, the LUX detector will soon be able to either constrain or confirm our best-fit solar model in the presence of a dark sector with long-range interactions that reconcile helioseismology with thermal neutrino results.

  20. The ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program Long Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 76 individual surplus facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. The ORNL SFMP has prepared this Long Range Plan to outline the long-term management strategy for those facilities included in the program. The primary objective of this plan are to: (1) develop a base of information for each ORNL SFMP facility, (2) conduct preliminary decommissioning analyses to identify feasible alternatives, (3) assess the current and future risk of each facility, (4) establish a priority list for the decommissioning projects, and (5) integrate the individual project costs and schedules into an overall program schedule and cost estimate for the ORNL site. The Long Range Plan also provides an overview of the ORNL SFMP management structure, specifies the decommissioning criteria to be employed, and identifies special technical problems, research and development needs, and special facilities and equipment that may be required for decommissioning operations.

  1. Advanced 3D imaging lidar concepts for long range sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K. J.; Hiskett, P. A.; Lamb, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Recent developments in 3D imaging lidar are presented. Long range 3D imaging using photon counting is now a possibility, offering a low-cost approach to integrated remote sensing with step changing advantages in size, weight and power compared to conventional analogue active imaging technology. We report results using a Geiger-mode array for time-of-flight, single photon counting lidar for depth profiling and determination of the shape and size of tree canopies and distributed surface reflections at a range of 9km, with 4μJ pulses with a frame rate of 100kHz using a low-cost fibre laser operating at a wavelength of λ=1.5 μm. The range resolution is less than 4cm providing very high depth resolution for target identification. This specification opens up several additional functionalities for advanced lidar, for example: absolute rangefinding and depth profiling for long range identification, optical communications, turbulence sensing and time-of-flight spectroscopy. Future concepts for 3D time-of-flight polarimetric and multispectral imaging lidar, with optical communications in a single integrated system are also proposed.

  2. First hyperpolarizability of polymethineimine with long-range corrected functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A.; Medved', Miroslav; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Kobayashi, Rika; Adamo, Carlo

    2007-05-01

    Using the long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory (DFT) scheme introduced by Iikura et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3540 (2001)] and the Coulomb-attenuating model (CAM-B3LYP) of Yanai et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 393, 51 (2004)], we have calculated the longitudinal dipole moments and static electronic first hyperpolarizabilities of increasingly long polymehtineimine oligomers. For comparison purposes Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and conventional pure and hybrid functionals have been considered as well. HF, generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and conventional hybrids provide too large dipole moments for long oligomers, while LC-DFT allows to reduce the discrepancy with respect to MP2 by a factor of 3. For the first hyperpolarizability, the incorrect evolution with the chain length predicted by HF is strongly worsened by BLYP, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), and also by B3LYP and PBE0. On the reverse, LC-BLYP and LC-PBE hyperpolarizabilities are correctly predicted to be positive (but for the two smallest chains). Indeed, for medium and long oligomers LC hyperpolarizabilities are slightly smaller than MP2 hyperpolarizabilities, as it should be. CAM-B3LYP also strongly improves the B3LYP results, though a bit less impressively for small chain lengths. The present study demonstrates the efficiency of long-range DFT, even in very pathological cases.

  3. Long Range Memory and Trends in Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestvand, L.; Nilsen, T.; Rypdal, K.; Rypdal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Local and global observed temperature records have previously been found to have the property of long range memory (LRM). Some model data sets have also been analyzed, with various results. In this work, new model data for the Northern Hemisphere are analyzed with the wavelet variance analysis (WVA) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method to look for long range memory. The data have a monthly resolution over approximately the last 2000 years. Reconstructed temperature records for the same time period seem to have an oscillation, but it is not yet decided if this oscillation is a significant trend or a natural part of an LRM record. In some of the model data used here, an oscillatory trend seems to be present, and the significance of the amplitude is tested against a null hypothesis that the data are an LRM stochastic process with no trend. In the cases where the trends are significant, the data are detrended by subtracting the estimated trend. The detrended data are then analyzed with WVA and MLE to test for LRM. The method is applied to temperature reconstructions by Mann and Moberg, for comparing the results of the model data to those of the reconstructions.

  4. Signal transmission in a Y-shaped one-way chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Tang, Ming; Lü, Huaping

    2013-12-01

    It has been found that noise plays a key role to improve signal transmission in a one-way chain of bistable systems [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. E 58, 2952 (1998)]. We here show that the signal transmission can be sharply improved without the aid of noise, if the one-way chain with a single source node is changed with two source nodes becoming a Y-shaped one-way chain. We further reveal that the enhanced signal transmission in the Y-shaped one-way chain is regulated by coupling strength, and that it is robust to noise perturbation and input signal irregularity. We finally analyze the mechanism of the enhanced signal transmission by the Y-shaped structure.

  5. A study on Data Transmission Scheme for High Functional Railway Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Sano, Minoru; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Railway signaling systems that transmit control information via rails have been deployed in many applications, for example, digital automatic train control (ATC) systems for controlling train speed. Since the performance of digital ATC systems depends on the signal transmission speed, recently there have been many studies aimed at realizing high-speed data transmission. However, it is difficult to increase the transmission speed because rails have strong attenuation in proportion to an increase of the frequency. In this paper, we aimed to increase the transmission speed by improving the modulation scheme to overcome these limitations. We proposed CDMA-QAM method that is combined code-division multiple access (CDMA) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). And we evaluated in a field trial the CDMA-QAM rail transmission device developed using DSP. On the other hand, an analog ATC based on an amplitude modulation (AM) is still employed in some railway lines. It is difficult for their lines to introduce the digital signal due to track circuit configurations and interoperability conditions. So we studied a data transmission scheme that makes it possible to mix an analog signal and a digital signal, and evaluated the influence given to both signals using a developed device that generates the mixed signal of analog and digital signal.

  6. Batteryless wireless transmission system for electronic drum uses piezoelectric generator for play signal and power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Takemura, K.; Tanaka, A.; Douseki, T.

    2015-12-01

    A batteryless self-powered wireless transmission system has been developed that sends a signal from a drum pad to a synthesizer. The power generated by a piezoelectric generator functions both as the “Play” signal for the synthesizer and as the power source for the transmitter. An FM transmitter, which theoretically operates with zero latency, and a receiver with quick-response squelch of the received signal were developed for wireless transmission with a minimum system delay. Experimental results for an electronic drum without any connecting wires fully demonstrated the feasibility of self-powered wireless transmission with a latency of 900 μs.

  7. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application. PMID:25234712

  8. Against the long-range spectral leakage of the cosine window family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kui Fu; Jiang, Jing Tao; Crowsen, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    Suppressing spectral leakage in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) has been investigated for over 30 years. Regarding the frequently used cosine window family, it is observed that the long-range leakage sampled by FFT spectral lines follow a flat trajectory. Consequently, the long-range leakage is approximated by polynomials in this paper. In light of this parametric model, the interpolating formula is presented with up to nine-point for a cosine window with maximum side lobe decaying. Its expression is general in the window order and number of interpolating points. Some well-known formulas of the modulus-based interpolated FFT are parallel to special cases of the new formula, but the former are susceptible to significant bias at coherent sampling conditions. The new formula was tested with real-valued signals containing a single tone and then duel tones. It is demonstrated the new formula is easy to implement and is free of the significant bias aforementioned.

  9. ATCOM: accelerated image processing for terrestrial long-range imaging through atmospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curt, Petersen F.; Paolini, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Long-range video surveillance performance is often severely diminished due to atmospheric turbulence. The larger apertures typically used for video-rate operation at long-range are particularly susceptible to scintillation and blurring effects that limit the overall diffraction efficiency and resolution. In this paper, we present research progress made toward a digital signal processing technique which aims to mitigate the effects of turbulence in real-time. Our previous work in this area focused on an embedded implementation for portable applications. Our more recent research has focused on functional enhancements to the same algorithm using general-purpose hardware. We present some techniques that were successfully employed to accelerate processing of high-definition color video streams and study performance under nonideal conditions involving moving objects and panning cameras. Finally, we compare the real-time performance of two implementations using a CPU and a GPU.

  10. Long range correlations in tree ring chronologies of the USA: Variation within and across species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, M. C.; Gao, J. B.; Tung, W. W.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Tree ring width data are among the best proxies for reconstructing past temperature and precipitation records. The discovery of fractal scaling and long-memory in meteorological and hydrological <span class="hlt">signals</span> motivates us to investigate such properties in tree ring chronologies. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis are utilized to estimate the Hurst parameter values of 697 tree ring chronologies from the continental United States. We find significant differences in the Hurst parameter values across the 10 species studied in the work. The <span class="hlt">long-range</span> scaling relations found here suggest that the behavior of tree ring growth observed in a short calibration period may be similar to the general behavior of tree ring growth in a much longer period, and therefore, the limited calibration period may be more useful than originally thought. The variations of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations within and across species may be further explored in future to better reconstruct paleoclimatic records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1017401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1017401"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Lepton Flavor Interactions and Neutrino Oscillations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Davoudiasl, H.; Lee, H-S; Marciano, W.</p> <p>2011-03-31</p> <p>Recent results from the MINOS accelerator neutrino experiment suggest a possible difference between {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance oscillation parameters, which one may ascribe to a new long distance potential acting on neutrinos. As a specific example, we consider a model with gauged B - L{sub e} - 2L{sub {tau}} number which contains an extremely light new vector boson, m{sub Z}, < 10{sup -18} eV and extraordinarily weak coupling {alpha}{prime} {approx}< 10{sup -52}. In that case, differences between {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}} oscillations can result from a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> potential due to neutrons in the Earth and the Sun that distinguishes {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} on Earth, with a potential difference of {approx} 6 x 10{sup -14} eV, and changes sign for anti-neutrinos. We show that existing solar, reactor, accelerator, and atmospheric neutrino oscillation constraints can be largely accommodated for values of parameters that help explain the possible MINOS anomaly by this new physics, although there is some tension with atmospheric constraints. A <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction, consistent with current bounds, could have very pronounced effects on atmospheric neutrino disappearance in the 20-50 GeV range that will be studied with the IceCube DeepCore array, currently in operation, and can have a significant effect on future high-precision long-baseline oscillation experiments which aim for {+-}1% sensitivity, in {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance, separately. Together, these experiments can extend the reach for new long-distance effects well beyond current bounds and test their relevance to the aforementioned MINOS anomaly. We also point out that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> potentials originating from the Sun could lead to annual modulations of neutrino data at the percent level, due to the variation of the Earth-Sun distance. A similar phenomenology is shown to apply to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6410K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6410K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Reservoir shore development in <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> terrestrial laser scanning monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaczmarek, Halina</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Shore zones of reservoirs are in most cases very active, getting transformed as a result of coastal processes and mass movements initiated on the slopes surrounding the reservoir. From the point of view of the users of water reservoirs shore recession strongly undesirable as it causes destruction to infrastructure and buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. For this reason, reservoir shores require continuous geodetic monitoring. Fast and accurate geodetic measurements covering shore sections several kilometers long, often in poorly accessible areas, are available using <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The possibilities of using <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> terrestrial laser scanning are shown on the example of the reservoir Jeziorsko on the Warta River (Central Poland). This reservoir, created in the years 1986-1992, is a typical retention reservoir, the annual fluctuations of which reach 5 m. Depending on the water level its surface area ranges from 42.3 to 19.6 km2. The width of the reservoir is 2.5 km. The total shore length of the reservoir, developed in Quaternary till and sand-till sediments, is 44.3 km, including 30.1 km of the unreinforced shore. Out of the unreinforced shore 27% is subject to coastal erosion. The cliff heights vary from a few cm to 12.5 meters, and the current rate of the cliff recession ranges from 0 to 1.12 m/y. The study used a terrestrial <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> laser scanner Riegl VZ-4000 of a range of up to 4000 m. It enabled conducting the measurements of the cliff recession from the opposite shore of the reservoir, with an angular resolution of 0.002°, which gives about 50 measurement points per 1 m2. The measurements were carried out in the years 2014-2015, twice a year, in early spring before high water level, and in late autumn at a dropping water level. This allowed the separation of the impact of coastal processes and frost weathering on the cliff recession and their quantitative determination. The size and nature of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612134D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612134D"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-scale variability and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> memory in indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios; Barbosa, Susana</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The presence or absence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in the variations of indoor Radon concentrations has recently attracted considerable interest. As a radioactive gas naturally emitted from the ground in certain geological settings, understanding environmental factors controlling Radon concentrations and their dynamics is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we re-analyze two high-resolution records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements. In order to evaluate the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations and fractal scaling, we utilize a multiplicity of complementary methods, including power spectral analysis, ARFIMA modeling, classical and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis, and two different estimators of the <span class="hlt">signals</span>' fractal dimensions. Power spectra and fluctuation functions reveal some complex behavior with qualitatively different properties on different time-scales: white noise in the high-frequency part, indications of some <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlated process dominating time scales of several hours to days, and pronounced low-frequency variability associated with tidal and/or meteorological forcing. In order to further decompose these different scales of variability, we apply two different approaches. On the one hand, applying multi-resolution analysis based on the discrete wavelet transform allows separately studying contributions on different time scales and characterize their specific correlation and scaling properties. On the other hand, singular system analysis (SSA) provides a reconstruction of the essential modes of variability. Specifically, by considering only the first leading SSA modes, we achieve an efficient de-noising of our environmental <span class="hlt">signals</span>, highlighting the low-frequency variations together with some distinct scaling on sub-daily time-scales resembling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26439165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26439165"><span id="translatedtitle">DNA Structural Correlation in Short and <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Ranges</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gu, Chan; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Y Isaac; Chen, Xi; Ge, Hao; Sun, Yujie; Su, Xiaodong; Yang, Lijiang; Xie, Sunney; Gao, Yi Qin</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Recent single-molecule measurements have revealed the DNA allostery in protein/DNA binding. MD simulations showed that this allosteric effect is associated with the deformation properties of DNA. In this study, we used MD simulations to further investigate the mechanism of DNA structural correlation, its dependence on DNA sequence, and the chemical modification of the bases. Besides a random sequence, poly d(AT) and poly d(GC) are also used as simpler model systems, which show the different bending and twisting flexibilities. The base-stacking interactions and the methyl group on the 5-carbon site of thymine causes local structures and flexibility to be very different for the two model systems, which further lead to obviously different tendencies of the conformational deformations, including the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> allosteric effects. PMID:26439165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615123"><span id="translatedtitle">Ratchetaxis: <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Directed Cell Migration by Local Cues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caballero, David; Comelles, Jordi; Piel, Matthieu; Voituriez, Raphaël; Riveline, Daniel</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Directed cell migration is usually thought to depend on the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> gradients of either chemoattractants or physical properties such as stiffness or adhesion. However, in vivo, chemical or mechanical gradients have not systematically been observed. Here we review recent in vitro experiments, which show that other types of spatial guidance cues can bias cell motility. Introducing local geometrical or mechanical anisotropy in the cell environment, such as adhesive/topographical microratchets or tilted micropillars, show that local and periodic external cues can direct cell motion. Together with modeling, these experiments suggest that cell motility can be viewed as a stochastic phenomenon, which can be biased by various types of local cues, leading to directional migration. PMID:26615123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014NaPho...8..846S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014NaPho...8..846S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">long-range</span> polarization-controlled optical tractor beam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shvedov, Vladlen; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Hnatovsky, Cyril; Engheta, Nader; Krolikowski, Wieslaw</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The laser beam has become an indispensable tool for the controllable manipulation and transport of microscopic objects in biology, physical chemistry and condensed matter physics. In particular, ‘tractor’ laser beams can draw matter towards a laser source and perform, for instance, all-optical remote sampling. Recent advances in lightwave technology have already led to small-scale experimental demonstrations of tractor beams. However, the realization of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> tractor beams has not gone beyond the realm of theoretical investigations. Here, we demonstrate the stable transfer of gold-coated hollow glass spheres against the power flow of a single inhomogeneously polarized laser beam over tens of centimetres. Additionally, by varying the polarization state of the beam we can stop the spheres or reverse the direction of their motion at will.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115g3201P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115g3201P"><span id="translatedtitle">Theory of <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Ultracold Atom-Molecule Photoassociation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Lepers, Maxence; Dulieu, Olivier</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The creation of ultracold molecules is currently limited to diatomic species. In this Letter, we present a theoretical description of the photoassociation of ultracold atoms and molecules to create ultracold excited triatomic molecules, thus being a novel example of a light-assisted ultracold chemical reaction. The calculation of the photoassociation rate of an ultracold Cs2 molecule in its rovibrational ground state with an ultracold Cs atom at frequencies close to its resonant excitation is reported, based on the solution of the quantum dynamics involving the atom-molecule <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions and assuming a model potential for the short-range physics. The rate for the formation of excited Cs3 molecules is predicted to be comparable with currently observed atom-atom photoassociation rates. We formulate an experimental proposal to observe this process relying on the available techniques of optical lattices and standard photoassociation spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93e4002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93e4002B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> properties of 1 S bottomonium states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brambilla, Nora; Krein, Gastão; Tarrús Castellà, Jaume; Vairo, Antonio</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In the framework of weakly coupled potential nonrelativistic QCD, we derive, first, an analytical expression for the chromopolarizability of 1 S bottomonium states in agreement with previous determinations. Then we use the QCD trace anomaly to obtain the two-pion production amplitude for the chromopolarizability operator and match the result to a chiral effective field theory with 1 S bottomonium states and pions as degrees of freedom. In this chiral effective field theory we compute some <span class="hlt">long-range</span> properties of the 1 S bottomonium generated by the pion coupling such as the leading chiral logarithm to the 1 S bottomonium mass and the van der Waals potential between two 1 S bottomonium states. Both results improve on previously known expressions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3964372','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3964372"><span id="translatedtitle">Sparse Labeling of Proteins: Structural Characterization from <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prestegard, James H.; Agard, David A.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Lavery, Laura A.; Morris, Laura C.; Pederson, Kari</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Structural characterization of biologically important proteins faces many challenges associated with degradation of resolution as molecular size increases and loss of resolution improving tools such as perdeuteration when non-bacterial hosts must be used for expression. In these cases, sparse isotopic labeling (single or small subsets of amino acids) combined with <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> paramagnetic constraints and improved computational modeling offer an alternative. This perspective provides a brief overview of this approach and two discussions of potential applications; one involving a very large system (an Hsp90 homolog) in which perdeuteration is possible and methyl-TROSY sequences can potentially be used to improve resolution, and one involving ligand placement in a glycosylated protein where resolution is achieved by single amino acid labeling (the sialyltransferase, ST6Gal1). This is not intended as a comprehensive review, but as a discussion of future prospects that promise impact on important questions in the structural biology area. PMID:24656078</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMagR.241...32P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMagR.241...32P"><span id="translatedtitle">Sparse labeling of proteins: Structural characterization from <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prestegard, James H.; Agard, David A.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Lavery, Laura A.; Morris, Laura C.; Pederson, Kari</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Structural characterization of biologically important proteins faces many challenges associated with degradation of resolution as molecular size increases and loss of resolution improving tools such as perdeuteration when non-bacterial hosts must be used for expression. In these cases, sparse isotopic labeling (single or small subsets of amino acids) combined with <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> paramagnetic constraints and improved computational modeling offer an alternative. This perspective provides a brief overview of this approach and two discussions of potential applications; one involving a very large system (an Hsp90 homolog) in which perdeuteration is possible and methyl-TROSY sequences can potentially be used to improve resolution, and one involving ligand placement in a glycosylated protein where resolution is achieved by single amino acid labeling (the sialyltransferase, ST6Gal1). This is not intended as a comprehensive review, but as a discussion of future prospects that promise impact on important questions in the structural biology area.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..850..559O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..850..559O"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconductivity from a <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Repulsive Interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onari, S.; Arita, R.; Kuroki, K.; Aoki, H.</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The lattice model with short-range interactions (exemplified by the Hubbard model) is known to exhibit quite different features from those in the electron gas with the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Coulomb interaction. In order to explore how they cross over to each other, we have studied an extended Hubbard model which includes repulsions up to the 12th neighbors with the simplified fluctuation exchange (FLEX) approximation for the square lattice. We have found that (i) in the most dilute density region, spin and charge fluctuations become comparable, and s- and p-waves superconductivity become dominant, in agreement with the result for the electron gas by Takada, while (ii) the dominant spin fluctuation and its reflection on dx2-y2 and dxy pairing, both the effect of lattice structure, persists well away (n ≳ 0.2) from the half filling. 2006 American Institute of Physics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15525149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15525149"><span id="translatedtitle">Phantom energy mediates a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> repulsive force.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amendola, Luca</p> <p>2004-10-29</p> <p>Scalar field models with nonstandard kinetic terms have been proposed in the context of k inflation, of Born-Infeld Lagrangians, of phantom energy and, more in general, of low-energy string theory. In general, scalar fields are expected to couple to matter inducing a new interaction. In this Letter I derive the cosmological perturbation equations and the Yukawa correction to gravity for such general models. I find three interesting results: first, when the field behaves as phantom energy (equation of state less than -1), then the coupling strength is negative, inducing a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> repulsive force; second, the dark-energy field might cluster on astrophysical scales; third, applying the formalism to a Brans-Dicke theory with a general kinetic term it is shown that its Newtonian effects depend on a single parameter that generalizes the Brans-Dicke constant. PMID:15525149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93q4114G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93q4114G"><span id="translatedtitle">Disrupting <span class="hlt">long-range</span> polar order with an electric field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Xue, Fei; Chen, Long-Qing; Hong, Wei; Tan, Xiaoli</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Electric fields are known to favor <span class="hlt">long-range</span> polar order through the aligning of electric dipoles in relation to Coulomb's force. Therefore, it would be surprising to observe a disordered polar state induced from an ordered state by electric fields. Here we show such an unusual phenomenon in a polycrystalline oxide where electric fields induce a ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition. The nonergodic relaxor phase with disordered dipoles appears as an intermediate state under electric fields during polarization reversal of the ferroelectric phase. Using the phenomenological theory, the underlying mechanism for this unexpected behavior can be attributed to the slow kinetics of the ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition, as well as its competition against domain switching during electric reversal. The demonstrated material could also serve as a model system to study the transient stages in first-order phase transitions; the slow kinetics does not require the use of sophisticated ultrafast tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4222192','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4222192"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> proton translocation along biological membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Medvedev, Emile S.; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Recent experiments suggest that protons can travel along biological membranes up to tens of micrometers, but the mechanism of transport is unknown. To explain such a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> proton translocation we describe a model that takes into account the coupled bulk diffusion that accompanies the migration of protons on the surface. We show that protons diffusing at or near the surface before equilibrating with the bulk desorb and re-adsorb at the surface thousands of times, giving rise to a power-law desorption kinetics. As a result, the decay of the surface protons occurs very slowly, allowing for establishing local gradient and local exchange, as was envisioned in the early local models of biological energy transduction. PMID:23268201</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20849457','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20849457"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractional dynamics of coupled oscillators with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tarasov, Vasily E.; Zaslavsky, George M.</p> <p>2006-06-15</p> <p>We consider a one-dimensional chain of coupled linear and nonlinear oscillators with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> powerwise interaction. The corresponding term in dynamical equations is proportional to 1/|n-m|{sup {alpha}}{sup +1}. It is shown that the equation of motion in the infrared limit can be transformed into the medium equation with the Riesz fractional derivative of order {alpha}, when 0<{alpha}<2. We consider a few models of coupled oscillators and show how their synchronization can appear as a result of bifurcation, and how the corresponding solutions depend on {alpha}. The presence of a fractional derivative also leads to the occurrence of localized structures. Particular solutions for fractional time-dependent complex Ginzburg-Landau (or nonlinear Schroedinger) equation are derived. These solutions are interpreted as synchronized states and localized structures of the oscillatory medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130417','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130417"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> frequency sweeping for energetic particle modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nyqvist, R. M.; Breizman, B. N.</p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> frequency sweeping events are simulated numerically within a one-dimensional, electrostatic bump-on-tail model with fast particle sources and collisions. The numerical solution accounts for fast particle trapping and detrapping in an evolving wave field with a fixed wavelength, and it includes three distinct collisions operators: Drag (dynamical friction on the background electrons), Krook-type collisions, and velocity space diffusion. The effects of particle trapping and diffusion on the evolution of holes and clumps are investigated, and the occurrence of non-monotonic (hooked) frequency sweeping and asymptotically steady holes is discussed. The presented solution constitutes a step towards predictive modeling of frequency sweeping events in more realistic geometries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753629','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753629"><span id="translatedtitle">Chromatin and epigenetic features of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> gene regulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harmston, Nathan; Lenhard, Boris</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The precise regulation of gene transcription during metazoan development is controlled by a complex system of interactions between transcription factors, histone modifications and modifying enzymes and chromatin conformation. Developments in chromosome conformation capture technologies have revealed that interactions between regions of chromatin are pervasive and highly cell-type specific. The movement of enhancers and promoters in and out of higher-order chromatin structures within the nucleus are associated with changes in expression and histone modifications. However, the factors responsible for mediating these changes and determining enhancer:promoter specificity are still not completely known. In this review, we summarize what is known about the patterns of epigenetic and chromatin features characteristic of elements involved in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions. In addition, we review the insights into both local and global patterns of chromatin interactions that have been revealed by the latest experimental and computational methods. PMID:23766291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10174879','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10174879"><span id="translatedtitle">Transuranic waste projections at SRS for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hootman, H.E.; Cook, J.R.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>This report predicts 30 year receipts of solid transuranic (TRU) wastes from eventual plutonium facility deactivation and cleanup, and combines them with the existing TRU waste holdings to provide a technical and quantitative basis for interim and <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> TRU waste management planning. The current TRU waste holdings have been characterized based on data from the Computerized Radioactive Waste Burial Records Analysis (COBRA) system. Six TRU waste disposition categories have been identified for existing TRU waste as shown in Table 1. An additional category has been quantified that includes projected waste volumes from the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of TRU waste generating facilities. These projections are based on COBRA data from D&D of the original plutonium finishing facilities in F and H Areas that were replaced in the 1970`s and 80`s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPSJ...84g4002E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPSJ...84g4002E"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallelized Stochastic Cutoff Method for <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Interacting Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Endo, Eishin; Toga, Yuta; Sasaki, Munetaka</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We present a method of parallelizing the stochastic cutoff (SCO) method, which is a Monte-Carlo method for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interacting systems. After interactions are eliminated by the SCO method, we subdivide a lattice into noninteracting interpenetrating sublattices. This subdivision enables us to parallelize the Monte-Carlo calculation in the SCO method. Such subdivision is found by numerically solving the vertex coloring of a graph created by the SCO method. We use an algorithm proposed by Kuhn and Wattenhofer to solve the vertex coloring by parallel computation. This method was applied to a two-dimensional magnetic dipolar system on an L × L square lattice to examine its parallelization efficiency. The result showed that, in the case of L = 2304, the speed of computation increased about 102 times by parallel computation with 288 processors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JPhCS.557a2053K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JPhCS.557a2053K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Position-insensitive <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> inductive power transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwan, Christopher H.; Lawson, James; Yates, David C.; Mitcheson, Paul D.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This paper presents results of an improved inductive wireless power transfer system for reliable <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> powering of sensors with milliwatt-level consumption. An ultra-low power flyback impedance emulator operating in open loop is used to present the optimal load to the receiver's resonant tank. Transmitter power modulation is implemented in order to maintain constant receiver power and to prevent damage to the receiver electronics caused by excessive received voltage. Received power is steady up to 3 m at around 30 mW. The receiver electronics and feedback system consumes 3.1 mW and so with a transmitter input power of 163.3 W the receiver becomes power neutral at 4.75 m. Such an IPT system can provide a reliable alternative to energy harvesters for supplying power concurrently to multiple remote sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19396375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19396375"><span id="translatedtitle">Protein lethality investigated in terms of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> dynamical interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Francisco A; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The relationship between network structure/dynamics and biological function constitutes a fundamental issue in systems biology. However, despite many related investigations, the correspondence between structure and biological functions is not yet fully understood. A related subject that has deserved particular attention recently concerns how essentiality is related to the structure and dynamics of protein interactions. In the current work, protein essentiality is investigated in terms of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> influences in protein-protein interaction networks by considering simulated dynamical aspects. This analysis is performed with respect to outward activations, an approach which models the propagation of interactions between proteins by considering self-avoiding random walks. The obtained results are compared to protein local connectivity. Both the connectivity and the outward activations were found to be strongly related to protein essentiality. PMID:19396375</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.112q6803S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.112q6803S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Spin Transfer in Triple Quantum Dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sánchez, R.; Granger, G.; Gaudreau, L.; Kam, A.; Pioro-Ladrière, M.; Studenikin, S. A.; Zawadzki, P.; Sachrajda, A. S.; Platero, G.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Tunneling in a quantum coherent structure is not restricted to only nearest neighbors. Hopping between distant sites is possible via the virtual occupation of otherwise avoided intermediate states. Here we report the observation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transitions in the transport through three quantum dots coupled in series. A single electron is delocalized between the left and right quantum dots, while the center one remains always empty. Superpositions are formed, and both charge and spin are exchanged between the outermost dots. The delocalized electron acts as a quantum bus transferring the spin state from one end to the other. Spin selection is enabled by spin correlations. The process is detected via the observation of narrow resonances which are insensitive to Pauli spin blockade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24836266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24836266"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> spin transfer in triple quantum dots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sánchez, R; Granger, G; Gaudreau, L; Kam, A; Pioro-Ladrière, M; Studenikin, S A; Zawadzki, P; Sachrajda, A S; Platero, G</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Tunneling in a quantum coherent structure is not restricted to only nearest neighbors. Hopping between distant sites is possible via the virtual occupation of otherwise avoided intermediate states. Here we report the observation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transitions in the transport through three quantum dots coupled in series. A single electron is delocalized between the left and right quantum dots, while the center one remains always empty. Superpositions are formed, and both charge and spin are exchanged between the outermost dots. The delocalized electron acts as a quantum bus transferring the spin state from one end to the other. Spin selection is enabled by spin correlations. The process is detected via the observation of narrow resonances which are insensitive to Pauli spin blockade. PMID:24836266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100397"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Correlations of Global Sea Surface Temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface temperature (SST) derived from 1870-2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities. PMID:27100397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144x5101R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144x5101R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> energy transport in photosystem II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roden, Jan J. J.; Bennett, Doran I. G.; Whaley, K. Birgitta</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We simulate the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> inter-complex electronic energy transfer in photosystem II - from the antenna complex, via a core complex, to the reaction center - using a non-Markovian (ZOFE) quantum master equation description that allows the electronic coherence involved in the energy transfer to be explicitly included at all length scales. This allows us to identify all locations where coherence is manifested and to further identify the pathways of the energy transfer in the full network of coupled chromophores using a description based on excitation probability currents. We investigate how the energy transfer depends on the initial excitation - localized, coherent initial excitation versus delocalized, incoherent initial excitation - and find that the overall energy transfer is remarkably robust with respect to such strong variations of the initial condition. To explore the importance of vibrationally enhanced transfer and to address the question of optimization in the system parameters, we systematically vary the strength of the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational degrees of freedom. We find that the natural parameters lie in a (broad) region that enables optimal transfer efficiency and that the overall <span class="hlt">long-range</span> energy transfer on a ns time scale appears to be very robust with respect to variations in the vibronic coupling of up to an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, vibrationally enhanced transfer appears to be crucial to obtain a high transfer efficiency, with the latter falling sharply for couplings outside the optimal range. Comparison of our full quantum simulations to results obtained with a "classical" rate equation based on a modified-Redfield/generalized-Förster description previously used to simulate energy transfer dynamics in the entire photosystem II complex shows good agreement for the overall time scales of excitation energy transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DMP.P2003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DMP.P2003R"><span id="translatedtitle">Photoassociation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> nD Rydberg molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raithel, Georg</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Cold atomic systems have opened new frontiers at the interface of atomic and molecular physics. Of particular interest are a recently discovered class of <span class="hlt">long-range</span>, homonuclear Rydberg molecules first predicted in and observed in. In rubidium, these molecules are formed via low-energy electron scattering of the Rydberg electron from a 5S1/2 ground-state atom that is present within the Rydberg atom's volume. The binding mostly arises from S-wave and P-wave triplet scattering. In recent work, we have observed <span class="hlt">long-range</span> homonuclear diatomic nD Rydberg molecules photoassociated out of an ultracold gas of 87Rb atoms for principal quantum numbers 34 <= n <= 40. Related results have also been reported in. The measured ground-state binding energies of 87Rb(nD + 5S1 / 2) molecular states are larger than those of their 87Rb(nS + 5S1 / 2) counterparts, showing the dependence of the molecular bond on the angular momentum of the Rydberg atom. We have exhibited the transition of 87Rb(nD + 5S1 / 2) molecules from a molecular-binding-dominant regime at low n to a fine-structure-dominant regime at high n [akin to Hund's cases (a) and (c), respectively]. In our analysis, we use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering, the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S1/2 atom. The hyperfine structure is important because it gives rise to mixed singlet-triplet potentials. This work was supported by the AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0453) and the NSF (PHY-1205559).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839764','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839764"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Correlations of Global Sea Surface Temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface temperature (SST) derived from 1870–2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities. PMID:27100397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080018812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080018812"><span id="translatedtitle">Method and apparatus for low-loss <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Siegel, Peter (Inventor); Yeh, Cavour (Inventor); Shimabukuro, Fred (Inventor); Fraser, Scott (Inventor)</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The present invention relates to the field of radio-frequency (RF) waveguides. More specifically, the present invention pertains to a method and apparatus that provides ultra-low-loss RF waveguide structures targeted between approximately 300 GHz and approximately 30 THz. The RF waveguide includes a hollow core and a flexible honeycomb, periodic-bandgap structure surrounding the hollow core. The flexible honeycomb, periodic-bandgap structure is formed of a plurality of tubes formed of a dielectric material such as of low-loss quartz, polyethylene, or high-resistivity silicon. Using the RF waveguide, a user may attach a terahertz <span class="hlt">signal</span> source to the waveguide and pass <span class="hlt">signals</span> through the waveguide, while a terahertz <span class="hlt">signal</span> receiver receives the <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JIMTW..36..180K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JIMTW..36..180K"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent Terahertz Wireless <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Using Advanced Optical Fiber Communication Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanno, Atsushi; Kuri, Toshiaki; Morohashi, Isao; Hosako, Iwao; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Coherent terahertz <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> with multilevel modulation and demodulation is demonstrated using an optical sub-harmonic IQ mixer (SHIQM), which consists of optical components in advanced optical fiber communication technologies. An optical-frequency-comb-employed <span class="hlt">signal</span> generator is capable of vector modulation as well as frequency tunability. Digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing (DSP) adopted from the recently developed optical digital coherent communication can easily demodulate multi-level modulated terahertz <span class="hlt">signals</span> by using electrical heterodyning for intermediate-frequency (IF) down conversion. This technique is applicable for mobile backhauling in the next-generation mobile communication technology directly connected to an optical fiber network as a high-speed wireless <span class="hlt">transmission</span> link.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090011790&hterms=transmission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtransmission','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090011790&hterms=transmission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtransmission"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Signal</span> Detection Theory Applied to Helicopter <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Diagnostic Thresholds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dempsey, Paula J.; Keller, Jonathan A.; Wade, Daniel R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) have potential for providing data to support increasing the service life of a dynamic mechanical component in the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of a helicopter. Data collected can demonstrate the HUMS condition indicator responds to a specific component fault with appropriate alert limits and minimal false alarms. Defining thresholds for specific faults requires a tradeoff between the sensitivity of the condition indicator (CI) limit to indicate damage and the number of false alarms. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to assess CI performance was demonstrated using CI data collected from accelerometers installed on several UH60 Black Hawk and AH64 Apache helicopters and an AH64 helicopter component test stand. Results of the analysis indicate ROC curves can be used to reliably assess the performance of commercial HUMS condition indicators to detect damaged gears and bearings in a helicopter <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041522','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041522"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Signal</span> Detection Theory Applied to Helicopter <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Diagnostic Thresholds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dempsey, Paula J.; Keller, Jonathan A.; Wade, Daniel R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) have potential for providing data to support increasing the service life of a dynamic mechanical component in the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of a helicopter. Data collected can demonstrate the HUMS condition indicator responds to a specific component fault with appropriate alert limits and minimal false alarms. Defining thresholds for specific faults requires a tradeoff between the sensitivity of the condition indicator (CI) limit to indicate damage and the number of false alarms. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to assess CI performance was demonstrated using CI data collected from accelerometers installed on several UH60 Black Hawk and AH64 Apache helicopters and an AH64 helicopter component test stand. Results of the analysis indicate ROC curves can be used to reliably assess the performance of commercial HUMS condition indicators to detect damaged gears and bearings in a helicopter <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARY48015R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARY48015R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> correlations by local dissipation in lattice waveguide QED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Royer, Baptiste; Grimsmo, Arne L.; Blais, Alexandre</p> <p></p> <p>In waveguide QED, superconducting qubits acting as artificial atoms are coupled to 1D superconducting <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines playing the role of common bath for the qubits. By controlling their effective separation and coupling to the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line, it is possible to engineer various types of dissipation-induced interactions between the qubits. In this talk, we consider the situation where multiple superconducting qubits are coupled to a lattice of superconducting <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines. We show that this can lead to the creation of highly entangled dark states using local dissipation only. Using tensor networks techniques, we study such large-scale highly-correlated systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9533E..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9533E..08L"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the coherent MDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using principal modes of the optical fiber as <span class="hlt">signal</span> carriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Zakirov, Robert A.; Vinogradova, Irina L.; Sultanov, Albert K.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this paper we demonstrate computer simulation results obtained for the coherent mode division multiplexed (MDM) 5x5 QPSK <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using principal modes (PMs) of the stepped-index few-mode fiber (FMF) as a basis of independent <span class="hlt">signal</span> carriers. The output <span class="hlt">signal</span> recovering and the fiber propagation matrix determination are considered to be carried out in optical domain by means of reconfigurable multibranch diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Both the cases of Gaussian and Nyquist raised-cosine pulse shaping are considered for optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> modulation. The simulation results show, that the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in the basis of PMs in strong coupling regime allows the reliability of the coherent MDM system to be fundamentally improved. As a result, utilization of the optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing for MDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> could minimize substantially the DSP circuit complexity required for the real-time recovering of the transmitted <span class="hlt">signal</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptCo.355..125X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptCo.355..125X"><span id="translatedtitle">Vector 8QAM <span class="hlt">signal</span> generation and <span class="hlt">transmission</span> based on optical carrier suppression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Jiangnan; Zhang, Zirang; Li, Xingying; Xu, Yuming; Chen, Long; Yu, Jianjun</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We experimentally demonstrate how to generate photonic eight quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) vector <span class="hlt">signal</span> by using only one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). Because of the 'square-law' characteristic of the photodetector (PD), the amplitudes and the phase of the driving radio-frequency (RF) <span class="hlt">signal</span> are changed after detection. The pre-coding for the amplitudes and the phase of the driving radio-frequency (RF) <span class="hlt">signal</span> before they drive the MZM will take the advantages of restoring the driving precoding <span class="hlt">signal</span> to regular <span class="hlt">signal</span> after PD. The <span class="hlt">transmission</span> performance with different date rates at 1, 2, and 3-Gbaud over single-mode fiber (SMF) <span class="hlt">transmission</span> is experimentally demonstrated. The bit-error ratios (BERs) of the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system are less than the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88f2718L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88f2718L"><span id="translatedtitle">Dendritic <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> induced by intracellular charge inhomogeneities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lazarevich, Ivan A.; Kazantsev, Victor B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Signal</span> propagation in neuronal dendrites represents the basis for interneuron communication and information processing in the brain. Here we take into account charge inhomogeneities arising in the vicinity of ion channels in cytoplasm and obtain a modified cable equation. We show that charge inhomogeneities acting on a millisecond time scale can lead to the appearance of propagating waves with wavelengths of hundreds of micrometers. They correspond to a certain frequency band predicting the appearance of resonant properties in brain neuron <span class="hlt">signaling</span>. We also show that membrane potential in spiny dendrites obeys the modified cable equation suggesting a crucial role of the spines in dendritic subthreshold resonance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889686"><span id="translatedtitle">In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-<span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> versus <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> flights.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-<span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. PMID:23889686</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhLA..374.2163L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhLA..374.2163L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiao-liang; Ren, Yi; Xie, Qiong-tao; Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that λ-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5<H<1 while, as far as the segments selected in our Letter are concerned, Ch22 sequence displays a transition from correlation behavior to anticorrelation behavior. The resonant peaks of the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> coefficient in genomic sequences can survive in longer sequence length than in random sequences but in shorter sequence length than in quasiperiodic sequences. It is shown that the genomic sequences have <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395542','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395542"><span id="translatedtitle">Large magnetoresistance from <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interface coupling in armchair graphene nanoribbon junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Suchun; Son, Young-Woo; Quek, Su Ying</p> <p>2014-12-15</p> <p>In recent years, bottom-up synthesis procedures have achieved significant advancements in atomically controlled growth of several-nanometer-long graphene nanoribbons with armchair-shaped edges (AGNRs). This greatly encourages us to explore the potential of such well-defined AGNRs in electronics and spintronics. Here, we propose an AGNR based spin valve architecture that induces a large magnetoresistance up to 900%. We find that, when an AGNR is connected perpendicularly to zigzag-shaped edges, the AGNR allows for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> extension of the otherwise localized edge state. The huge magnetoresistance is a direct consequence of the coupling of two such extended states from both ends of the AGNR, which forms a perfect <span class="hlt">transmission</span> channel. By tuning the coupling between these two spin-polarized states with a magnetic field, the channel can be destroyed, leading to an abrupt drop in electron <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........89S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........89S"><span id="translatedtitle">Neural network analysis of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> precipitation forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silverman, David I.</p> <p></p> <p>The object of this research is to show that <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> forecasts of precipitation for California is possible using large-scale climatological indexes and that artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a viable tool for modeling and data extraction. For each of California's seven climate zones, ANNs were trained using a calendar year's input of parameters to predict the coming water year's total precipitation and to predict the following water year's. Activity by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the east Pacific and the 700 mb height anomaly over the northern hemisphere is known to be related to various phenomena in specific regions of California. These large-scale climatological parameters represent the global atmospheric circulation that, in a sense, bring the weather to a region. By determining how these parameters interact over time, we can determine the general weather conditions that will arrive in a region. Because of the large amount of data, the short time period the data covers, the unknown type of relationships involved, and the possibly extraneous data, common statistical methods are not easily applied. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful and useful tools, especially in cases where the complex relationship between the inputs and outputs cannot easily be determined by common modeling methods. 0It was found that the pattern of rainfall predicted by the ANN model matched closely the observed rainfall with the nine month time lag for most California climate zones and for most years. This portion of the research shows the possibility of making <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> forecasts using ANNs and large scale climatological parameters. These artificial ``brains'' were then analyzed by two different methods to reveal their methods of forecasting. One method produced for each climate zone a reduced set of important global parameters that were used in a simple linear regression model with good results. The second method gave information about how the individual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...12..167C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...12..167C"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring flavor-dependent <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forces in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatterjee, Sabya Sachi; Dasgupta, Arnab; Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Standard Model gauge group can be extended with minimal matter content by introducing anomaly free U(1) symmetry, such as L e - L μ or L e - L τ . If the neutral gauge boson corresponding to this abelian symmetry is ultra-light, then it will give rise to flavor-dependent <span class="hlt">long-range</span> leptonic force, which can have significant impact on neutrino oscillations. For an instance, the electrons inside the Sun can generate a flavor-dependent <span class="hlt">long-range</span> potential at the Earth surface, which can suppress the ν μ → ν e appearance probability in terrestrial experiments. The sign of this potential is opposite for anti-neutrinos, and affects the oscillations of (anti-)neutrinos in different fashion. This feature invokes fake CP-asymmetry like the SM matter effect and can severely affect the leptonic CP-violation searches in long-baseline experiments. In this paper, we study in detail the possible impacts of these <span class="hlt">long-range</span> flavor-diagonal neutral current interactions due to L e - L μ symmetry, when (anti-)neutrinos travel from Fermilab to Homestake (1300 km) and CERN to Pyhäsalmi (2290 km) in the context of future high-precision superbeam facilities, DUNE and LBNO respectively. If there is no <span class="hlt">signal</span> of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> force, DUNE (LBNO) can place stringent constraint on the effective gauge coupling α eμ < 1.9 × 10-53 (7.8 × 10-54) at 90% C.L., which is almost 30 (70) times better than the existing bound from the Super-Kamiokande experiment. We also observe that if α eμ ≥ 2 × 10-52, the CP-violation discovery reach of these future facilities vanishes completely. The mass hierarchy measurement remains robust in DUNE (LBNO) if α eμ < 5 × 10-52 (10-52).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.370..239C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.370..239C"><span id="translatedtitle">Paired SSB optical OFDM channels for high spectral efficient <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> over DWDM networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chicharro, Francisco I.; Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A new high spectral efficient SSB-OOFDM DWDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system has been experimentally demonstrated. The proposed transmitter employs paired optical channels consisting of two SSB modulated OFDM <span class="hlt">signals</span> using opposite sidebands in order to allow an efficient use of the spectrum with optical carriers separation under 10 GHz. Moreover, different paired channels are multiplexed into the 25 GHz grid DWDM fiber <span class="hlt">transmission</span> link. Optical carrier spacing of 8.75 GHz in paired channels has been demonstrated allowing 40.8 Gb/s <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> rate over a 25 GHz paired channel bandwidth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1129865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1129865"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Chiral Imprinting of Cu(110) by Tartaric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lawton, T J; Pushkarev, V; Wei, D; Lucci, F R; Sholl, D S; Gellman, A J; Sykes, E C. H.</p> <p>2013-10-31</p> <p>Restructuring of metals by chiral molecules represents an important route to inducing and controlling enantioselective surface chemistry. Tartaric acid adsorption on Cu(110) has served as a useful system for understanding many aspects of chiral molecule adsorption and ordering on a metal surface, and a number of chiral and achiral unit cells have been reported. Herein, we show that given the appropriate annealing treatment, singly deprotonated tartaric acid monolayers can restructure the Cu metal itself, and that the resulting structure is both highly ordered and chiral. Molecular resolution scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that singly deprotonated tartaric acid extracts Cu atoms from the Cu(110) surface layer and incorporates them into highly ordered, chiral adatom arrays capped by a continuous molecular layer. Further evidence for surface restructuring comes from images of atom-deep trenches formed in the Cu(110) surface during the process. These trenches also run in low symmetry directions and are themselves chiral. Simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images are consistent with the appearance of the added atom rows and etched trenches. The chiral imprinting results in a <span class="hlt">long-range</span>, highly ordered unit cell covering the whole surface as confirmed by low energy electron diffraction. Details of the restructuring mechanism were further investigated via time-lapse imaging at elevated temperature. This work reveals the stages of nanoscale surface restructuring and offers an interesting method for chiral modification of an achiral metal surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.T9001E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.T9001E"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultracold <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Rydberg Molecules with Complex Multichannel Spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eiles, Matthew; Greene, Chris</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A generalized class of exotic <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Rydberg molecules consisting of a multichannel Rydberg atom bound to a distant ground state atom by the Rydberg electron is predicted. These molecules are characterized by the rich physics provided by the strongly perturbed multichannel Rydberg spectra of divalent atoms, in contrast to the regular Rydberg series of the alkali atoms used to form Rydberg molecules to date. These multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number n. In particular, the nd Rydberg state of calcium becomes nearly degenerate with states of high orbital angular momentum over the range 17 < n < 22 , promoting its admixture into the high l deeply bound ``trilobite'' molecule states and thereby circumventing the usual difficulty posed by electric dipole selection rules. Further novel molecular states are predicted to occur in the low- J states of silicon, which are strongly perturbed due to channel interactions between Rydberg series leading to the spin-orbit split ionization thresholds. These interactions manifest themselves in potential curves exhibiting two distinct length scales, providing novel opportunities for quantum manipulation. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306905.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510246L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510246L"><span id="translatedtitle">Metrological capabilities of Scanning <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Doppler Lidars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loaec, Sophie; Boquet, Matthieu; Cariou, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Many application areas are interested in getting wind measurements within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height, and with a relatively high accuracy. These applications include meteorology like PBL studies, air traffic safety like aircraft induced wake vortices and wind shears detection or wind farming like wind resources assessment. In order to answer these demands there are recent developments and deployments of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> vertical profiler or fully hemispherical scanning wind lidars. To validate the measurements provided by such a system, it is possible to make inter-comparisons with a met mast at short distance and with wind profilers radar or sodar at longer distance. But, there are difficulties that may arise from the implementation of this kind of methodology because of the uncertainty related to the campaign set-up and the instruments used as reference. In that perspective Leosphere is developing a method to assess the accuracy of the Leosphere's lidars. In this presentation, we will give a detail description of the method and its results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10f4006S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10f4006S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> forecasts of UK winter hydrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Svensson, C.; Brookshaw, A.; Scaife, A. A.; Bell, V. A.; Mackay, J. D.; Jackson, C. R.; Hannaford, J.; Davies, H. N.; Arribas, A.; Stanley, S.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Seasonal river flow forecasts are beneficial for planning agricultural activities, river navigation, and for management of reservoirs for public water supply and hydropower generation. In the United Kingdom (UK), skilful seasonal river flow predictions have previously been limited to catchments in lowland (southern and eastern) regions. Here we show that skilful <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forecasts of winter flows can now be achieved across the whole of the UK. This is due to a remarkable geographical complementarity between the regional geological and meteorological sources of predictability for river flows. Forecast skill derives from the hydrogeological memory of antecedent conditions in southern and eastern parts of the UK and from meteorological predictability in northern and western areas. Specifically, it is the predictions of the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic that provides the skill at the seasonal timescale. In addition, significant levels of skill in predicting the frequency of winter high flow events is demonstrated, which has the potential to allow flood adaptation measures to be put in place.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8759E..4YL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8759E..4YL"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> metrological atomic force microscope with versatile measuring head</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Mingzhen; Gao, Sitian; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Shi, Yushu; Tao, Xingfu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> metrological atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed at NIM. It aims to realize a maximum measurement volume of 50mm×50mm×2mm with an uncertainty of a few tens of nanometers in the whole range. In compliance with Abbe Principle, the instrument is designed as a sample-scanning type. The sample is moved by a 6-DOF piezostage in combination with a hybrid slide-air bearing stage for long scanning range. Homodyne interferometers with four passes attached to a metrological frame measure relative displacement between the probe and sample thus the instrument is directly traceable to the SI. An AFM head is developed as the measuring head for the instrument. Considering accuracy and dynamic performance of the instrument, it is designed to be capable of scanning perpendicularly in a range of 5μm×5μm×5μm with a 3-DOF piezostage. Optical beam deflection method is used and a minimum of components are mounted on the moving part. A novel design is devised so that the photodetector is only sensitive to the deflection of cantilever, but not the displacement of the head. Moving manner of the head varies with scanning range and mode of the instrument. Results of different measurements are demonstrated, showing the excellent performance of the instrument.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013627','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013627"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Kinetic Monte Carlo algorithms for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Hamiltonians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mason, D R; Rudd, R E; Sutton, A P</p> <p>2003-10-13</p> <p>We present a higher order kinetic Monte Carlo methodology suitable to model the evolution of systems in which the transition rates are non- trivial to calculate or in which Monte Carlo moves are likely to be non- productive flicker events. The second order residence time algorithm first introduced by Athenes et al.[1] is rederived from the n-fold way algorithm of Bortz et al.[2] as a fully stochastic algorithm. The second order algorithm can be dynamically called when necessary to eliminate unproductive flickering between a metastable state and its neighbors. An algorithm combining elements of the first order and second order methods is shown to be more efficient, in terms of the number of rate calculations, than the first order or second order methods alone while remaining statistically identical. This efficiency is of prime importance when dealing with computationally expensive rate functions such as those arising from <span class="hlt">long</span>- <span class="hlt">range</span> Hamiltonians. Our algorithm has been developed for use when considering simulations of vacancy diffusion under the influence of elastic stress fields. We demonstrate the improved efficiency of the method over that of the n-fold way in simulations of vacancy diffusion in alloys. Our algorithm is seen to be an order of magnitude more efficient than the n-fold way in these simulations. We show that when magnesium is added to an Al-2at.%Cu alloy, this has the effect of trapping vacancies. When trapping occurs, we see that our algorithm performs thousands of events for each rate calculation performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PrSS...40..210D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PrSS...40..210D"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forces of repulsion between biological cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Derjaguin, B. V.; Golovanov, M. V.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>We have established experimentally that when biological cells, for example, blood, are suspended in concentrated solutions of inorganic electrolytes (for instance, in a 15% solution of sodium chloride) then around some cells (leucocytes, especially tumour cells) there form haloes, i.e., circular spaces free from background cells (erythrocytes, yeast cells, colloidal particles of Indian ink). In the medium made up of erythrocytes the haloes form during 5-10 min as a result of the background cells drawing apart from the central halo-forming cell (HFC) at a distance of 10-100 μm and more. In the medium made of the Indian ink particles, the haloes form during 2-4 s and attain a thickness of about 10-20 μm. The erythrocytes and the haloes forming in their medium can be preserved for about three to five days at room temperature. It has been established that, when tumour HFCs are present at sufficient concentrations, they form hexagonal periodic structures having a mean spacing between cells of up to 60 μm. The authors put forward as one probable suggestion that the formation of haloes is largely determined by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> repulsive forces arising from the phenomenon of diffusiophoresis generated by the diffusion currents that emerge from the surface of halo-forming cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854464','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854464"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional Sites Induce <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Evolutionary Constraints in Enzymes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jack, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Austin G.; Echave, Julian; Wilke, Claus O.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Functional residues in proteins tend to be highly conserved over evolutionary time. However, to what extent functional sites impose evolutionary constraints on nearby or even more distant residues is not known. Here, we report pervasive conservation gradients toward catalytic residues in a dataset of 524 distinct enzymes: evolutionary conservation decreases approximately linearly with increasing distance to the nearest catalytic residue in the protein structure. This trend encompasses, on average, 80% of the residues in any enzyme, and it is independent of known structural constraints on protein evolution such as residue packing or solvent accessibility. Further, the trend exists in both monomeric and multimeric enzymes and irrespective of enzyme size and/or location of the active site in the enzyme structure. By contrast, sites in protein–protein interfaces, unlike catalytic residues, are only weakly conserved and induce only minor rate gradients. In aggregate, these observations show that functional sites, and in particular catalytic residues, induce <span class="hlt">long-range</span> evolutionary constraints in enzymes. PMID:27138088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5273044','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5273044"><span id="translatedtitle">ORNL <span class="hlt">long-range</span> environmental and waste management plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>This report, the ORNL <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyA..391.3477G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyA..391.3477G"><span id="translatedtitle">Two general models that generate <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gan, Xiaocong; Han, Zhangang</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>In this paper we study two models that generate sequences with LRC (<span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> correlation). For the IFT (inverse Fourier transform) model, our conclusion is the low frequency part leads to LRC, while the high frequency part tends to eliminate it. Therefore, a typical method to generate a sequence with LRC is multiplying the spectrum of a white noise sequence by a decaying function. A special case is analyzed: the linear combination of a smooth curve and a white noise sequence, in which the DFA plot consists of two line segments. For the patch model, our conclusion is long subsequences leads to LRC, while short subsequences tend to eliminate it. Therefore, we can generate a sequence with LRC by using a fat-tailed PDF (probability distribution function) of the length of the subsequences. A special case is also analyzed: if a patch model with long subsequences is mixed with a white noise sequence, the DFA plot will consist of two line segments. We have checked known models and actual data, and found they are all consistent with this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARA30001F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARA30001F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> transport of colloids in aqueous solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Florea, Daniel; Musa, Sami; Huyghe, Jacques M. R. J.; Wyss, Hans M.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Colloids in aqueous suspensions can experience strong, extremely <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> repulsive forces near interfaces such as biological tissues, gels, ion exchange resins or metals. As a result exclusion zones extending over several millimeters can be formed. While this phenomenon has been previously described, a physical understanding of this process is still lacking. This exclusion zone formation is puzzling because the typical forces acting on colloidal particles are limited to much shorter distances and external fields that could drive the particles are absent. Here we study the exclusion zone formation in detail by following the time and distance-dependent forces acting on the particles. We present a simple model that accounts for our experimental data and directly links the exclusion zone formation to an already known physical transport phenomenon. We show that the effect can be tuned by changing the zeta potential of the particles or by varying the species present in the aqueous solution. We thus provide a direct physical explanation for the intriguing exclusion zone formation and we illustrate how this effect can be exploited in a range of industrial applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARY41003K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARY41003K"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear Behaviour in <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Integrable Models with Spin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Manas; Franchini, Fabio; Abanov, Alexander</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We study nonlinear aspects of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> integrable models with spin by going beyond the Luttinger Liquid theory. We present here [1], the fully nonlinear dynamics of spin and charge in spin-Calogero model (sCM), an integrable 1D model of quantum spin-1/2 particles interacting through inverse square interaction and exchange. Hydrodynamic equations of motion are written for this model in the regime where gradient corrections to the exact theory may be neglected. In this approximation, variables separate in terms of dressed Fermi momenta of the model. Hydrodynamic equations reduce to a set of decoupled Riemann-Hopf equations for the dressed Fermi momenta. We study the dynamics of some non-equilibrium spin-charge configurations for times smaller than the time-scale of gradient catastrophe. We then show [2] how this field theory allows to calculate correlation functions that cannot be considered with conventional bosonization. We also highlight the connections between sCM, Haldane-Shastry model and λ=2 spin-less Calogero model. [1] M. Kulkarni, F. Franchini, A. G. Abanov, Phys. Rev. B 80, 165105 (2009) [2] F. Franchini, M. Kulkarni, Nucl. Phys. B, 825, 320 (2010)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/411814','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/411814"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> position and orientation tracking system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">long-range</span> position and orientation tracking system will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the manways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the content mobilization system (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4169270','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4169270"><span id="translatedtitle">Measured <span class="hlt">long-range</span> repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies1–3. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces4. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz5–7, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies8–11. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction12, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction13–15. PMID:19129843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4570401','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4570401"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient Sparse <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> over a Lossy Link Using Compressive Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Liantao; Yu, Kai; Cao, Dongyu; Hu, Yuhen; Wang, Zhi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Reliable data <span class="hlt">transmission</span> over lossy communication link is expensive due to overheads for error protection. For <span class="hlt">signals</span> that have inherent sparse structures, compressive sensing (CS) is applied to facilitate efficient sparse <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmissions</span> over lossy communication links without data compression or error protection. The natural packet loss in the lossy link is modeled as a random sampling process of the transmitted data, and the original <span class="hlt">signal</span> will be reconstructed from the lossy <span class="hlt">transmission</span> results using the CS-based reconstruction method at the receiving end. The impacts of packet lengths on <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency under different channel conditions have been discussed, and interleaving is incorporated to mitigate the impact of burst data loss. Extensive simulations and experiments have been conducted and compared to the traditional automatic repeat request (ARQ) interpolation technique, and very favorable results have been observed in terms of both accuracy of the reconstructed <span class="hlt">signals</span> and the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> energy consumption. Furthermore, the packet length effect provides useful insights for using compressed sensing for efficient sparse <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> via lossy links. PMID:26287195</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18542162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18542162"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic post-compensation of WDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> impairments using coherent detection and digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaoxu; Chen, Xin; Goldfarb, Gilad; Mateo, Eduardo; Kim, Inwoong; Yaman, Fatih; Li, Guifang</p> <p>2008-01-21</p> <p>A universal post-compensation scheme for fiber impairments in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems is proposed based on coherent detection and digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing (DSP). <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> of 10 x 10 Gbit/s binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) <span class="hlt">signals</span> at a channel spacing of 20 GHz over 800 km dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) has been demonstrated numerically. PMID:18542162</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25955071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25955071"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> spin accumulation from heat injection in mesoscopic superconductors with Zeeman splitting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silaev, M; Virtanen, P; Bergeret, F S; Heikkilä, T T</p> <p>2015-04-24</p> <p>We describe far-from-equilibrium nonlocal transport in a diffusive superconducting wire with a Zeeman splitting, taking into account different spin relaxation mechanisms. We demonstrate that due to the Zeeman splitting, an injection of current in a superconducting wire creates spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization. This effect leads to a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> spin accumulation detectable in the nonlocal <span class="hlt">signal</span>. Our model gives a qualitative explanation and provides accurate fits of recent experimental results in terms of realistic parameters. PMID:25955071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4541519','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4541519"><span id="translatedtitle">Selective detection of bacteria in urine with a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguide biosensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Béland, Paul; Krupin, Oleksiy; Berini, Pierre</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Experimentation demonstrates <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon polariton waveguides as a useful biosensor to selectively detect gram negative or gram positive bacteria in human urine having a low concentration of constituents. The biosensor can detect bacteria at concentrations of 105 CFU/ml, the internationally recommended threshold for diagnostic of urinary tract infection. Using a negative control urine solution of bacterial concentration 1000☓ higher than the targeted bacteria, we obtain a ratio of 5.4 for the positive to negative <span class="hlt">signals</span>. PMID:26309755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25967617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25967617"><span id="translatedtitle">Secure chaotic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of electrocardiography <span class="hlt">signals</span> with acousto-optic modulation under profiled beam propagation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Almehmadi, Fares S; Chatterjee, Monish R</p> <p>2015-01-10</p> <p>Electrocardiography (ECG) <span class="hlt">signals</span> are used for both medical purposes and identifying individuals. It is often necessary to encrypt this highly sensitive information before it is transmitted over any channel. A closed-loop acousto-optic hybrid device acting as a chaotic modulator is applied to ECG <span class="hlt">signals</span> to achieve this encryption. Recently improved modeling of this approach using profiled optical beams has shown it to be very sensitive to key parameters that characterize the encryption and decryption process, exhibiting its potential for secure <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog and digital <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Here the encryption and decryption is demonstrated for ECG <span class="hlt">signals</span>, both analog and digital versions, illustrating strong encryption without significant distortion. Performance analysis pertinent to both analog and digital <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of the ECG waveform is also carried out using output <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise, <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-distortion, and bit-error-rate measures relative to the key parameters and presence of channel noise in the system. PMID:25967617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdRS...13..175B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdRS...13..175B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transmission</span> characteristics of a TEM waveguide for transient <span class="hlt">signals</span> by the use of a damped sinusoidal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Briest, N.; Garbe, H.; Potthast, S.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This article broaches the issue of the propagation of transient <span class="hlt">signals</span> in gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cells. As a representative for transient <span class="hlt">signals</span> a damped sinusoidal (DS) is used with three different mid-band frequencies. The <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of the DS in the GTEM1250 is qualified and discussed on the basis of the Pearson correlation coefficient (Pcc). The Pcc gives an overview of the <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> quality for all measuring points within the testvolume and <span class="hlt">signal</span> distortions can be identified. A 100 MHz DS is weakly distorted in several measuring points. The Pcc at those points decreases and a <span class="hlt">signal</span> shape variance can be assumed. Furthermore inhomogeneities of the GTEM1250 caused by the cell door can be identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..84c6110E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..84c6110E"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemic spreading in networks with nonrandom <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estrada, Ernesto; Kalala-Mutombo, Franck; Valverde-Colmeiro, Alba</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>An “infection,” understood here in a very broad sense, can be propagated through the network of social contacts among individuals. These social contacts include both “close” contacts and “casual” encounters among individuals in transport, leisure, shopping, etc. Knowing the first through the study of the social networks is not a difficult task, but having a clear picture of the network of casual contacts is a very hard problem in a society of increasing mobility. Here we assume, on the basis of several pieces of empirical evidence, that the casual contacts between two individuals are a function of their social distance in the network of close contacts. Then, we assume that we know the network of close contacts and infer the casual encounters by means of nonrandom <span class="hlt">long-range</span> (LR) interactions determined by the social proximity of the two individuals. This approach is then implemented in a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model accounting for the spread of infections in complex networks. A parameter called “conductance” controls the feasibility of those casual encounters. In a zero conductance network only contagion through close contacts is allowed. As the conductance increases the probability of having casual encounters also increases. We show here that as the conductance parameter increases, the rate of propagation increases dramatically and the infection is less likely to die out. This increment is particularly marked in networks with scale-free degree distributions, where infections easily become epidemics. Our model provides a general framework for studying epidemic spreading in networks with arbitrary topology with and without casual contacts accounted for by means of LR interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DPS....36.1410T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DPS....36.1410T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> Plans for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tokunaga, A. T.; Bus, S. J.; Rayner, J.; Tollestrup, E. V.</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a 3-meter optical/IR telescope dedicated to NASA-related programs of mission support and basic solar system research. All of the funding for IRTF operations comes from the Planetary Astronomy Program. The IRTF is unique in providing NASA with a dedicated telescope for mission support. Its aperture is sufficient for many kinds of solar system observations. While large telescopes like the Keck allow astronomers to push the limits of sensitivity, the IRTF provides the ability to carry out complementary studies on brighter objects. In addition, the IRTF provides the planetary community with access to one of the world's best observing sites, the summit of Mauna Kea. The user base of the telescope has been expanding in recent years due to new instrumentation, visible imaging capability, and remote observing. The IRTF also provides opportunities for instrument development and training of students and post-docs, thus helping ensure a solid foundation for the next generation of planetary scientists. A <span class="hlt">long-range</span> plan is being developed that will position the IRTF to be a powerful facility for mission support well beyond the Cassini mission. A refurbished IRTF would have: (1) Optimized instruments for planetary science that provide high-spectral resolution, wide wavelength coverage, and diffraction-limited imaging capabilities. (2) An adaptive optics system that produces extremely high Strehl ratio images, and includes an extended object wave-front sensor. (3) Focused programs on mission support, NEOs, asteroids, and comets. (4) Remote observing. (5) Rapid response to needs of the planetary community. (6) Flexible scheduling. (7) Daytime observing close to the Sun. We acknowledge the support of NASA Cooperative Agreement no. NCC 5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Planetary Astronomy Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4863...87C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4863...87C"><span id="translatedtitle">Architecture and implementation for high-bandwidth real-time radar <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and computing application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, Yoong-Goog; Chandrasekar, V.; Jayasumana, Anura P.; Brunkow, David</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>he design, architecture, and implementation for the high-throughput data <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and high-performance computing,which are applicable for various real-time radar <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> applications over the data network, are presented. With a client-server model, the multiple processes and threads on the end systems operate simultaneously and collaborately to meet the real-time requirement. The design covers the Digitized Radar <span class="hlt">Signal</span> (DRS) data acquisition and data <span class="hlt">transmission</span> on the DRS server end as well as DRS data receiving, radar <span class="hlt">signal</span> parameter computation and parameter <span class="hlt">transmission</span> on the DRS receiver end. Generic packet and data structures for <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and inter-process data sharing are constructed. The architecture was successfully implemented on Sun/Solaris workstations with dual 750 MHz UltraSPARC-III processors containing Gigabit Ethernet card. The comparison in <span class="hlt">transmission</span> throughput over gigabit link between with computation and without computation clearly shows the importance of the <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing capability on the end-to-end performance. Profiling analysis on the DRS receiver process shows the work-loaded functions and provides guides for improving computing capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9100E..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9100E..04B"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance of PHOTONIS' low light level CMOS imaging sensor for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bourree, Loig E.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Identification of potential threats in low-light conditions through imaging is commonly achieved through closed-circuit television (CCTV) and surveillance cameras by combining the extended near infrared (NIR) response (800-10000nm wavelengths) of the imaging sensor with NIR LED or laser illuminators. Consequently, camera systems typically used for purposes of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> observation often require high-power lasers in order to generate sufficient photons on targets to acquire detailed images at night. While these systems may adequately identify targets at <span class="hlt">long-range</span>, the NIR illumination needed to achieve such functionality can easily be detected and therefore may not be suitable for covert applications. In order to reduce dependency on supplemental illumination in low-light conditions, the frame rate of the imaging sensors may be reduced to increase the photon integration time and thus improve the <span class="hlt">signal</span> to noise ratio of the image. However, this may hinder the camera's ability to image moving objects with high fidelity. In order to address these particular drawbacks, PHOTONIS has developed a CMOS imaging sensor (CIS) with a pixel architecture and geometry designed specifically to overcome these issues in low-light level imaging. By combining this CIS with field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based image processing electronics, PHOTONIS has achieved low-read noise imaging with enhanced <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio at quarter moon illumination, all at standard video frame rates. The performance of this CIS is discussed herein and compared to other commercially available CMOS and CCD for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> observation applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP51D..08W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP51D..08W"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass Burning, <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Atmospheric Transport and the Sedimentary Record of Plant Wax Biomarkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weber, J. C.; Conte, M. H.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Sedimentary distributions of plant leaf wax molecular and isotopic composition can provide detailed information about past terrestrial ecosystem structure and its variability in response to climatic forcing. However, in many locales (e.g. marine sediments, high elevation lakes), sedimentary plant waxes are derived primarily from atmospheric deposition rather than from local fluvial input or direct runoff. Thus, an understanding of wax atmospheric transport and deposition is essential for accurate interpretation of the sedimentary <span class="hlt">signal</span>. In this talk we synthesize results from our studies of wax aerosol composition and atmospheric transport at strategically located sites (Northern Alaska, Maine, Florida, Bermuda, Barbados, French Guiana) that sample continental air masses passing over major terrestrial ecosystems (tundra, North American boreal, temperate and southern pine forests, North African desert grasslands, Amazon rain forest). Wax aerosols in boundary layer air masses reflect a large regionally integrated source <span class="hlt">signal</span>. Over the North Atlantic, the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> atmospheric transport of plant waxes is essentially uncorrelated with episodes of high African dust transport. Rather, the highest plant wax aerosol concentrations are clearly associated with continental air masses that are laden with smoke from biomass burning, which enhances <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport both by the process of steam distillation of wax and other easily volatilized compounds off living (moisture-rich) vegetation in the advancing front of the fire and by deep atmospheric convection, which efficiently injects re- condensed particles into the lower troposphere where they can be most efficiently transported by high altitude winds. The direct linkage between enhanced <span class="hlt">long-range</span> atmospheric transport of plant waxes and biomass burning suggests that the wax sedimentary record in localities dominated by atmospheric input strongly co-varies with climate-driven changes in fire frequency and is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24297034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24297034"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-line <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in medical imaging using the second-harmonic <span class="hlt">signal</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prieur, Fabrice; Dénarié, Bastien; Austeng, Andreas; Torp, Hans</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The emergence of three-dimensional imaging in the field of medical ultrasound imaging has greatly increased the number of <span class="hlt">transmissions</span> needed to insonify a whole volume. With a large number of <span class="hlt">transmissions</span> comes a low image frame rate. When using classical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> techniques, as in two-dimensional imaging, the frame rate becomes unacceptably low, prompting the use of alternative <span class="hlt">transmission</span> patterns that require less time. One alternative is to use a multi-line <span class="hlt">transmission</span> (MLT) technique which consists of transmitting several pulses simultaneously in different directions. Perturbations appear when acquiring and beamforming the <span class="hlt">signal</span> in the direction of one pulse because of the pulses sent in other directions. The edge waves from the pulses transmitted in a different direction add to the <span class="hlt">signal</span> transmitted in the direction of interest, resulting in artifacts in the final image. Taking advantage of the nonlinear propagation of sound in tissue, the second-harmonic <span class="hlt">signal</span> can be used with the MLT technique. The image obtained using the second-harmonic <span class="hlt">signal</span>, compared with an image obtained using the fundamental <span class="hlt">signal</span>, should have reduced artifacts coming from other pulses transmitted simultaneously. Simulations, backed up by experiments imaging a wire target and an in vivo left ventricle, confirm that the hypothesis is valid. In the studied case, the perturbations appear as an increase in the <span class="hlt">signal</span> level around the main echo of a point scatterer. When using the fundamental <span class="hlt">signal</span>, the measured amplitude level of the perturbations was approximately -40 dB compared with the maximum <span class="hlt">signal</span> amplitude (-27 dB in vivo), whereas it was around -60 dB (-45 dB in vivo) for the second-harmonic <span class="hlt">signal</span>. The MLT technique encounters limitations in the very near field where the pulses overlap and the perturbation level also increases for images with strong speckle and low contrast. PMID:24297034</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413322T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413322T"><span id="translatedtitle">Multifractal Geophysical Extremes: Nonstationarity and <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Correlations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Throughout the world, extremes in environmental sciences are of prime importance. They are key variables not only for risk assessments and engineering designs (e.g. of dams and bridges), but also for resource management (e.g. water and energy) and for land use. A better understanding of them is more and more indispensable in settling the debate on their possible climatological evolution. Whereas it took decades before a uniform technique for estimating flow frequencies within a stationary framework, it is often claimed that « stationarity is dead ! ». The fact that geophysical and environmental fields are variable over a wider range of scales than previously thought require to go beyond the limits of the (classical) Extreme Value Theory (EVT). Indeed, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations are beyond the scope of the classical EVT theory. We show that multifractal concepts and techniques are particularly appealing because they can effectively deal with a cascade of interactions concentrating for instance energy, liquid water, etc. into smaller and smaller space-time domains. Furthermore, a general outcome of these cascade processes -which surprisingly was realized only rather recently- is that rather independently of their details they yield probability distributions with power-law fall-offs, often called (asymptotic) Pareto or Zipf laws. We discuss the corresponding probability distributions of their maxima and its relationship with the Frechet law. We use these multifractal techniques to investigate the possibility of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we assess the multifractal parameter uncertainty with the help of long synthetic multifractal series and their sub-samples, in particular to obtain an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of this approach with its application to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A44C..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A44C..01S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> transport of air pollution into the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153094"><span id="translatedtitle">Immune response and insulin <span class="hlt">signalling</span> alter mosquito feeding behaviour to enhance malaria <span class="hlt">transmission</span> potential.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cator, Lauren J; Pietri, Jose E; Murdock, Courtney C; Ohm, Johanna R; Lewis, Edwin E; Read, Andrew F; Luckhart, Shirley; Thomas, Matthew B</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Malaria parasites alter mosquito feeding behaviour in a way that enhances parasite <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. This is widely considered a prime example of manipulation of host behaviour to increase onward <span class="hlt">transmission</span>, but transient immune challenge in the absence of parasites can induce the same behavioural phenotype. Here, we show that alterations in feeding behaviour depend on the timing and dose of immune challenge relative to blood ingestion and that these changes are functionally linked to changes in insulin <span class="hlt">signalling</span> in the mosquito gut. These results suggest that altered phenotypes derive from insulin <span class="hlt">signalling</span>-dependent host resource allocation among immunity, blood feeding, and reproduction in a manner that is not specific to malaria parasite infection. We measured large increases in mosquito survival and subsequent <span class="hlt">transmission</span> potential when feeding patterns are altered. Leveraging these changes in physiology, behaviour and life history could promote effective and sustainable control of female mosquitoes responsible for <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. PMID:26153094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002ChPhL..19..378L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002ChPhL..19..378L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Penetration of Low-Energy Ions in Botanic Samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Feng; Wang, Yu-Gang; Xue, Jian-Ming; Wang, Si-Xue; Du, Guang-Hua; Yan, Sha; Zhao, Wei-Jiang</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>We present experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples. In the 100 keV Ar+ ion <span class="hlt">transmission</span> measurement, the result confirmed that low-energy ions could penetrate at least 60 µm thick kidney bean slices with the probability of about 1.0×10-5. The energy spectrum of 1 MeV He+ ions penetrating botanic samples has shown that there is a peak of the count of ions with little energy loss. The probability of the low-energy ions penetrating the botanic sample is almost the same as that of the high-energy ions penetrating the same samples with little energy loss. The results indicate that there are some micro-regions with mass thickness less than the projectile range of low-energy ions in the botanic samples and they result in the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18262579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18262579"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> correlations improve understanding of the influence of network structure on contact dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peyrard, N; Dieckmann, U; Franc, A</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Models of infectious diseases are characterized by a phase transition between extinction and persistence. A challenge in contemporary epidemiology is to understand how the geometry of a host's interaction network influences disease dynamics close to the critical point of such a transition. Here we address this challenge with the help of moment closures. Traditional moment closures, however, do not provide satisfactory predictions close to such critical points. We therefore introduce a new method for incorporating longer-range correlations into existing closures. Our method is technically simple, remains computationally tractable and significantly improves the approximation's performance. Our extended closures thus provide an innovative tool for quantifying the influence of interaction networks on spatially or socially structured disease dynamics. In particular, we examine the effects of a network's clustering coefficient, as well as of new geometrical measures, such as a network's square clustering coefficients. We compare the relative performance of different closures from the literature, with or without our <span class="hlt">long-range</span> extension. In this way, we demonstrate that the normalized version of the Bethe approximation-extended to incorporate <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations according to our method-is an especially good candidate for studying influences of network structure. Our numerical results highlight the importance of the clustering coefficient and the square clustering coefficient for predicting disease dynamics at low and intermediate values of <span class="hlt">transmission</span> rate, and demonstrate the significance of path redundancy for disease persistence. PMID:18262579</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/918095','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/918095"><span id="translatedtitle">2006 <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Philliber, Jeff</p> <p>2007-01-22</p> <p>This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been reduced since the Notice of Preparation for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20588368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20588368"><span id="translatedtitle">Demonstration of optical steganography <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using temporal phase coded optical <span class="hlt">signals</span> with spectral notch filtering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Xuezhi; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Lei; He, Sailing</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>A novel approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for optical steganography <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in WDM networks using temporal phase coded optical <span class="hlt">signals</span> with spectral notch filtering. A temporal phase coded stealth channel is temporally and spectrally overlaid onto a public WDM channel. Direct detection of the public channel is achieved in the presence of the stealth channel. The interference from the public channel is suppressed by spectral notching before the detection of the optical stealth <span class="hlt">signal</span>. The approach is shown to have good compatibility and robustness to the existing WDM network for optical steganography <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. PMID:20588368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SMaS...10..736K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SMaS...10..736K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Signal</span> processing algorithm for <span class="hlt">transmission</span>-type Fabry-Pérot interferometric optical fiber sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Ju; Kwon, Dong-Soo</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>The recently developed <span class="hlt">transmission</span>-type extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric (TEFPI) optical fiber sensor can simply and effectively compensate for the difficult distinction of the measured direction of conventional EFPI optical fiber sensors. The TEFPI optical fiber sensor <span class="hlt">signal</span> is composed of fringes and <span class="hlt">signal</span> level variations, which correspond to the measured quantity and measured directions, respectively. In this paper, the <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing algorithm, the fringe tracking method, is presented for TEFPI optical fiber sensors with a <span class="hlt">signal</span> that differs from conventional interferometric sensors. The algorithm is verified by application to simulated and experimental sensor <span class="hlt">signals</span> from strain measurements. The algorithm successfully processed TEFPI optical fiber sensor <span class="hlt">signals</span> by finding the correct positions of peaks, valleys and <span class="hlt">signal</span> levels, and by calculating the exact measured quantity and directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5922718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5922718"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> transported pollutants and conductivity of atmospheric ice on insulators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fikke, S.M. ); Hanssen, J.E. ); Rolfseng, L. )</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Internationally comprehensive studies have been performed to analyze the effect of clean or contaminated snow and ice accretions on high voltage insulators. The experience with <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines in inland mountainous areas reveals a substantial contribution of pollution from anthropogenic (man made) contaminants. One observation of a flash over case with thin rime ice layers in contrast to the many cases with thicker accretions without similar failures, led to the question of the role of the ion content of the ice. 55 ice samples are analyzed and the contributions to the conductivity from natural (sea salt) and man made ions (sulphur and nitrogen components) are found. It is shown that <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> transported anthropogenic ions contributed to more than 50% of the conductivity in 33 of the 55 cases, and in 21 cases the contribution was more than 80%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818355M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818355M"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of gravity waves on <span class="hlt">long-range</span> infrasound propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Millet, Christophe; Lott, François; De La Camara, Alvaro</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this work we study infrasound propagation in acoustic waveguides that support a finite number of propagating modes. We analyze the effects of gravity waves on these acoustic waveguides. Testing sound propagation in such perturbed fields can potentially be used to improve the gravity wave models. A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the forward-scattering approximation. The wave mode structure is determined by the effective sound speed profile which is strongly affected by gravity wave breaking. The random perturbations are described by a stochastic field predicted by a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves, which is operational in the LMDz climate model. The justification for this approach is two fold. On the one hand, the use of a few monochromatic waves mimics the observations of rather narrow-banded gravity wave packets in the lower stratosphere. On the other hand, the stochastic sampling of the gravity wave field and the random choice of wave properties deals with the inherent unpredictability of mesoscale dynamics from large scale conditions provided by the meteorological reanalysis. The transmitted acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span> contain a stable front and a small-amplitude incoherent coda. A general expression for the stable front is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. This approach extract the dominant effects in the acoustic - gravity wave interaction. We present results that show how statistics of the transmitted <span class="hlt">signal</span> are related to a few saddle-points and how the GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>. While some of the characteristics of the stable front can be directly related to that of a few individual gravity waves, it is shown that the amount of the launched gravity waves included in climate models can be estimated using</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992MiJo...35...98W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992MiJo...35...98W"><span id="translatedtitle">Active-passive bistatic surveillance for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> air defense</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wardrop, B.; Molyneux-Berry, M. R. B.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>A hypothetical mobile support receiver capable of working within existing and future air defense networks as a means to maintain essential surveillance functions is considered. It is shown how multibeam receiver architecture supported by digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing can substantially improve surveillance performance against chaff and jamming threats. A dual-mode support receiver concept is proposed which is based on the state-of-the-art phased-array technology, modular processing in industry standard hardware and existing networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7271836','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7271836"><span id="translatedtitle">Active-passive bistatic surveillance for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> air defense</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wardrop, B.; Molyneux-Berry, M.R.B. )</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>A hypothetical mobile support receiver capable of working within existing and future air defense networks as a means to maintain essential surveillance functions is considered. It is shown how multibeam receiver architecture supported by digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing can substantially improve surveillance performance against chaff and jamming threats. A dual-mode support receiver concept is proposed which is based on the state-of-the-art phased-array technology, modular processing in industry standard hardware and existing networks. 20 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6682045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6682045"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of near-infrasound over <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the results of basic research on the physics of infrasonic propagation, both for predictive purposes and <span class="hlt">signal</span> interpretation. The following aspects were considered: (1) attenuation, (2) seasonal effects, (3) wave effects, (4) average velocity, (5) azimuth deviations, (6) coherence, and (7) surface effects. The primary region of interest was approximately 0.1 to Hz with corresponding wavelengths of 3000 to 30 meters. (ACR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11487656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11487656"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> synchrony in the gamma band: role in music perception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, J; Petsche, H; Pereda, E</p> <p>2001-08-15</p> <p>Synchronization seems to be a central mechanism for neuronal information processing within and between multiple brain areas. Furthermore, synchronization in the gamma band has been shown to play an important role in higher cognitive functions, especially by binding the necessary spatial and temporal information in different cortical areas to build a coherent perception. Specific task-induced (evoked) gamma oscillations have often been taken as an indication of synchrony, but the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> synchrony cannot be inferred from spectral power in the gamma range. We studied the usefulness of a relatively new measure, called similarity index to detect asymmetric interdependency between two brain regions. Spontaneous EEG from two groups-musicians and non-musicians-were recorded during several states: listening to music, listening to text, and at rest (eyes closed and eyes open). While listening to music, degrees of the gamma band synchrony over distributed cortical areas were found to be significantly higher in musicians than non-musicians. Yet no differences between these two groups were found at resting conditions and while listening to a neutral text. In contrast to the degree of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> synchrony, spectral power in the gamma band was higher in non-musicians. The degree of spatial synchrony, a measure of <span class="hlt">signal</span> complexity based on eigen-decomposition method, was also significantly increased in musicians while listening to music. As compared with non-musicians, the finding of increased <span class="hlt">long-range</span> synchrony in musicians independent of spectral power is interpreted as a manifestation of a more advanced musical memory of musicians in binding together several features of the intrinsic complexity of music in a dynamical way. PMID:11487656</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290435','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290435"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of allosteric <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> by information-theoretic analysis of protein dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pandini, Alessandro; Fornili, Arianna; Fraternali, Franca; Kleinjung, Jens</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Allostery offers a highly specific way to modulate protein function. Therefore, understanding this mechanism is of increasing interest for protein science and drug discovery. However, allosteric <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> is difficult to detect experimentally and to model because it is often mediated by local structural changes propagating along multiple pathways. To address this, we developed a method to identify communication pathways by an information-theoretical analysis of molecular dynamics simulations. <span class="hlt">Signal</span> propagation was described as information exchange through a network of correlated local motions, modeled as transitions between canonical states of protein fragments. The method was used to describe allostery in two-component regulatory systems. In particular, the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> from the allosteric site to the <span class="hlt">signaling</span> surface of the receiver domain NtrC was shown to be mediated by a layer of hub residues. The location of hubs preferentially connected to the allosteric site was found in close agreement with key residues experimentally identified as involved in the <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. The comparison with the networks of the homologues CheY and FixJ highlighted similarities in their dynamics. In particular, we showed that a preorganized network of fragment connections between the allosteric and functional sites exists already in the inactive state of all three proteins.—Pandini, A., Fornili, A., Fraternali, F., Kleinjung, J. Detection of allosteric <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> by information-theoretic analysis of protein dynamics. PMID:22071506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746816"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrasound at <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from saturn v, 1967.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donn, W L; Posmentier, E; Fehr, U; Balachandran, N K</p> <p>1968-12-01</p> <p>Two distinct groups of infrasonic waves from Saturn V, 1967, were recorded at Palisades, New York, 1485 kilometers from the launch site. The first group, of 10-minute duration, began about 70 minutes after launch time; the second, having more than twice the amplitude and a duration of 9 minutes, commenced 81 minutes after launch time. From information on the Saturn V trajectory and analysis of recorded data, it is established that the first group represents sound emitted either by the first stage reentry or by the second stage when its elevation was above 120 kilometers. The second, more intense wave group represents the sound from the powered first stage. A reversal of <span class="hlt">signal</span> occurs because the rocket outran its own sound. Fourier analyses indicate that the energy extends to relatively long periods-10 seconds for the first stage and 7 seconds for the second. Trapping of sound in the upper atmospheric sound channel can be the cause of the separation of the <span class="hlt">signal</span> into two distinct groups. PMID:17746816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395654','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395654"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen-mediated <span class="hlt">long-range</span> magnetic ordering in Pd-rich alloy film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, Wen-Chin Tsai, Cheng-Jui; Huang, Han-Yuan; Mudinepalli, Venkata Ramana; Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Wang, Bo-Yao</p> <p>2015-01-05</p> <p>The effect of hydrogenation on a 14 nm Co{sub 14}Pd{sub 86}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) thin film was investigated on the basis of the magnetooptical Kerr effect. After exposure to H{sub 2} gas, the squareness of the hysteresis loop showed a large transition from approximately 10% to 100% and the saturation Kerr <span class="hlt">signal</span> was reduced to nearly 30% of the pristine value. The reversibility of the transition was verified and the response time was within 2–3 s. These observations indicate that the hydride formation transformed the short-range coupled and disordered magnetic state of the Co{sub 14}Pd{sub 86} film to a <span class="hlt">long-range</span>-ordered ferromagnetic state and induced appreciable decrease in the magnetic moment. The enhanced <span class="hlt">long-range</span>-ordering and the reduction of the magnetic moment were attributed to the change of electronic structure in Co{sub 14}Pd{sub 86} with hydrogen uptake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26625038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26625038"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-phase matching for efficient <span class="hlt">long-range</span> plasmonic third-harmonic generation via graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nasari, Hadiseh; Abrishamian, Mohammad Sadegh</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We propose and numerically investigate an efficient method for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> third-harmonic generation (THG) of propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves on graphene sheets for nonlinear plasmonic purposes in the terahertz (THZ) gap region of the electromagnetic spectrum via a developed nonlinear finite-difference time-domain technique. We reveal that although extended and unmodulated graphene sheets with low Fermi levels can offer high-conversion efficiency (CE) for SPP THG at short distances, suitable for miniaturized plasmonic circuits, they suffer from inherent absorption loss induced by graphene that noticeably reduces the CE of the THG at <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. We suggest a structure benefiting from low Fermi-level graphene regions of strong nonlinear response as oscillators and high Fermi-level ones of low loss as a propagating medium in a periodic manner, which satisfies the quasi-phase matching condition and shows considerable efficiency improvement at long propagation distances. We predict that such a configuration can find valuable potential applications in the realm of nonlinear THz plasmonics for generating new frequencies and also in spectroscopy, <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing, and so on. PMID:26625038</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082361"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of second order <span class="hlt">signal</span>-noise interactions in nonlinearity compensated optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Khateeb, Mohammad A Z; McCarthy, Mary; Sánchez, Christian; Ellis, Andrew</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>In this Letter, we theoretically and numerically analyze the performance of coherent optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> systems that deploy inline or transceiver based nonlinearity compensation techniques. For systems where <span class="hlt">signal-signal</span> nonlinear interactions are fully compensated, we find that beyond the performance peak the <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio degradation has a slope of 3  dB<sub>SNR</sub>/dB<sub>Power</sub> suggesting a quartic rather than quadratic dependence on <span class="hlt">signal</span> power. This is directly related to the fact that <span class="hlt">signals</span> in a given span will interact not only with linear amplified spontaneous emission noise, but also with the nonlinear four-wave mixing products generated from <span class="hlt">signal</span>-noise interaction in previous (hitherto) uncompensated spans. The performance of optical systems employing different nonlinearity compensation schemes were numerically simulated and compared against analytical predictions, showing a good agreement within a 0.4 dB margin of error. PMID:27082361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8009E..23R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8009E..23R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transmission</span> line galloping image monitoring system based on digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Hai Peng; Ma, Zhan Feng</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>An embedded image monitoring system based on TMS320DM642 Digital <span class="hlt">Signal</span> Processor (DSP) is proposed for the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line monitoring. The system can detect galloping, ice or snow covering, and other abnormal status of the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line in a real time mode. The image detection algorithms are compared using the controlled experiment under the complex weather environment, thereby, a set of image processing algorithms is proposed for <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines image monitoring. The DSP/BOIS multi-threaded programming techniques are used to realize the algorithm in the DSPs' embedded software. A wireless communication based on General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) module is designed to transmit the detection results and the changed information of the image to the monitoring center, so that the operators can get the real time status of the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line. The application of the system will play an important role in the condition-based maintenance of power <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines and improve the reliability of power delivery system. <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> line; Status monitoring; Complex weather factor; Image filtering and sharpening; Image segment; Morphological filtering; Wireless communication; Digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processor; Multi-threaded programming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EPJST.225..663T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EPJST.225..663T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Uninformed sacrifice: Evidence against <span class="hlt">long-range</span> alarm <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in foraging ants exposed to localized abduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tejera, F.; Reyes, A.; Altshuler, E.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>It is well established that danger information can be transmitted by ants through relatively small distances, provoking either a state of alarm when they move away from potentially dangerous stimulus, or charge toward it aggressively. There is almost no knowledge if danger information can be transmitted along large distances. In this paper, we abduct leaf cutting ants of the species Atta insularis while they forage in their natural environment at a certain point of the foraging line, so ants make a "U" turn to escape from the danger zone and go back to the nest. Our results strongly suggest that those ants do not transmit "danger information" to other nestmates marching towards the abduction area. The individualistic behavior of the ants returning from the danger zone results in a depression of the foraging activity due to the systematic sacrifice of non-informed individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JMagR.162..356L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JMagR.162..356L"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow effects in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dipolar field MRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loureiro de Sousa, Paulo; Gounot, Daniel; Grucker, Daniel</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>Incoherent spin motion, such as diffusion, can lead to significant <span class="hlt">signal</span> loss in multiple spin echoes (MSE) experiments, sometimes to its complete extinction. Coherent spin motion, such as laminar flow, can also modify the magnetization in MSE imaging and yield additional contrast. Our experimental results indicate that MSE is flow-sensitive. Our theoretical analysis and experimental results show how the effect of the distant dipolar field can be annihilated by flow. This effect can be quantified by directly solving the nonlinear Bloch equation, taking into account the deformation of the dipolar field by motion. Unexpected results have been observed, such as a recovery of the dipolar interaction due to flow in the "magic angle" condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910007383','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910007383"><span id="translatedtitle">Meteorological effects on <span class="hlt">long-range</span> outdoor sound propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klug, Helmut</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of sound propagation over distances up to 1000 m were carried out with an impulse sound source offering reproducible, short time <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Temperature and wind speed at several heights were monitored simultaneously; the meteorological data are used to determine the sound speed gradients according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The sound speed profile is compared to a corresponding prediction, gained through the measured travel time difference between direct and ground reflected pulse (which depends on the sound speed gradient). Positive sound speed gradients cause bending of the sound rays towards the ground yielding enhanced sound pressure levels. The measured meteorological effects on sound propagation are discussed and illustrated by ray tracing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014889','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014889"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Emergency Preemption of Traffic Lights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bachelder, Aaron</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A forwarding system could prove beneficial as an addition to an electronic communication-and-control system that automatically modifies the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. A system to which the forwarding system could be added could be any of a variety of emergency traffic-<span class="hlt">signal</span>-preemption systems: these include systems now used in some municipalities as well as advanced developmental systems described in several NASA Tech Briefs articles in recent years. Because of a variety of physical and design limitations, emergency traffic-<span class="hlt">signal</span>- preemption systems now in use are often limited in range to only one intersection at a time: in a typical system, only the next, closest intersection is preempted for an emergency vehicle. Simulations of gridlock have shown that such systems offer minimal advantages and can even cause additional delays. In analogy to what happens in fluid dynamics, the forwarding system insures that flow at a given location is sustained by guaranteeing downstream flow along the predicted route (typically a main artery) and intersecting routes (typically, side streets). In simplest terms, the forwarding system starts by taking note of any preemption issued by the preemption system to which it has been added. The forwarding system predicts which other intersections could be encountered by the emergency vehicle downstream of the newly preempted intersection. The system then forwards preemption triggers to those intersections. Beyond affording a right of way for the emergency vehicle at every intersection that lies ahead along any likely route from the current position of the vehicle, the forwarding system also affords the benefit of clearing congested roads far ahead of the vehicle. In a metropolitan environment with heavy road traffic, forwarding of preemption triggers could greatly enhance the performance of a pre-existing preemption system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074605','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074605"><span id="translatedtitle">Power-efficient method for IM-DD optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of multiple OFDM <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Effenberger, Frank; Liu, Xiang</p> <p>2015-05-18</p> <p>We propose a power-efficient method for transmitting multiple frequency-division multiplexed (FDM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) <span class="hlt">signals</span> in intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) optical systems. This method is based on quadratic soft clipping in combination with odd-only channel mapping. We show, both analytically and experimentally, that the proposed approach is capable of improving the power efficiency by about 3 dB as compared to conventional FDM OFDM <span class="hlt">signals</span> under practical bias conditions, making it a viable solution in applications such as optical fiber-wireless integrated systems where both IM-DD optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and OFDM <span class="hlt">signaling</span> are important. PMID:26074605</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992RScI...63.4289H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992RScI...63.4289H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> constant force profiling for measurement of engineering surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howard, L. P.; Smith, S. T.</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>A new instrument bridging the gap between atomic force microscopes (AFMs) and stylus profiling instruments is described. The constant force profiler is capable of subnanometer resolution over a 15-μm vertical range with a horizontal traverse length of 50 mm. This long traverse length, coupled with the possibilities of utilizing standard radius, diamond measurement styli, make the force profiler more compatible with existing profiling instrument standards. The forces between the specimen and a diamond stylus tipped cantilever spring are sensed as displacements using a capacitance bridge. This displacement <span class="hlt">signal</span> is then fed through a proportional plus integral controller to a high stability piezoelectric actuator to maintain a constant tip-to-sample force of approximately 100 nN. Much of the sensor head and traverse mechanism is made of Zerodur glass-ceramic to provide the thermal stability needed for long travel measurements. Profiles of a 30-nm silica step height standard and an 8.5-μm step etched on Zerodur are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1581..179L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1581..179L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> guided wave defect monitoring in rail track</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A guided wave ultrasound system was previously developed for monitoring rail track used on heavy duty freight lines. This system operates by transmitting guided waves between permanently installed transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. The system has been proven to reliably detect rail breaks without false alarms. While cracks are sometimes detected there is a trade - off between detecting cracks and the possibility of false alarms. Adding a pulse-echo mode of operation to the system could provide increased functionality by detecting, locating and possibly monitoring cracks. This would require an array of transducers to control the direction and mode of propagation and it would be necessary to detect cracks up to a range of approximately 500 m in either direction along the rail. A four transducer array was designed and full matrix capture was used for field measurements. Post processing of the <span class="hlt">signals</span> showed that a thermite weld could be detected at a range of 790m from the transducer array. It was concluded that the required range can be achieved in new rail while it would be extremely difficult in very old rail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779200','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779200"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcription factors mediate <span class="hlt">long-range</span> enhancer–promoter interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nolis, Ilias K.; McKay, Daniel J.; Mantouvalou, Eva; Lomvardas, Stavros; Merika, Menie; Thanos, Dimitris</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We examined how remote enhancers establish physical communication with target promoters to activate gene transcription in response to environmental <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Although the natural IFN-β enhancer is located immediately upstream of the core promoter, it also can function as a classical enhancer element conferring virus infection-dependent activation of heterologous promoters, even when it is placed several kilobases away from these promoters. We demonstrated that the remote IFN-β enhancer “loops out” the intervening DNA to reach the target promoter. These chromatin loops depend on sequence-specific transcription factors bound to the enhancer and the promoter and thus can explain the specificity observed in enhancer–promoter interactions, especially in complex genetic loci. Transcription factor binding sites scattered between an enhancer and a promoter can work as decoys trapping the enhancer in nonproductive loops, thus resembling insulator elements. Finally, replacement of the transcription factor binding sites involved in DNA looping with those of a heterologous prokaryotic protein, the λ repressor, which is capable of loop formation, rescues enhancer function from a distance by re-establishing enhancer–promoter loop formation. PMID:19923429</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009Chaos..19c3135X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009Chaos..19c3135X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A biologically motivated <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> approach based on stochastic delay differential equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Mingdong; Wu, Fan; Leung, Henry</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Based on the stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) modeling of neural networks, we propose an effective <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> approach along the neurons in such a network. Utilizing the linear relationship between the delay time and the variance of the SDDE system output, the transmitting side encodes a message as a modulation of the delay time and the receiving end decodes the message by tracking the delay time, which is equivalent to estimating the variance of the received <span class="hlt">signal</span>. This <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> approach turns out to follow the principle of the spread spectrum technique used in wireless and wireline wideband communications but in the analog domain rather than digital. We hope the proposed method might help to explain some activities in biological systems. The idea can further be extended to engineering applications. The error performance of the communication scheme is also evaluated here.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23670016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23670016"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transmission</span> of multi-polarization-multiplexed <span class="hlt">signals</span>: another freedom to explore?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Zhiyu; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Guo, Yinghui; Jiang, Hengyun; Yi, Anlin; Sun, Yafei; Wu, Xiaoxia</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We propose a configuration of <span class="hlt">signal</span> multiplexing with four polarization states, and investigate its <span class="hlt">transmission</span> performance over single-mode-fiber links. Assisted by coherent detection and digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing (DSP), the demodulation of four-polarization multiplexed (4PM) on-off-keying (OOK) and phase-shift-keying (PSK) <span class="hlt">signals</span> are achieved. We then discuss the impact of the crosstalk from polarization mode dispersion (PMD) on 4PM systems. The <span class="hlt">transmission</span> distance is extended from ~50-km to ~80 km by employing feedback-decision-equalizers. We also compare the back-to-back characteristics of the 40-Gbit/s 4PM-OOK system and 40-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK system with the same spectral efficiency. The results show that the performance of 4PM systems is comparable to that of PDM-QPSK systems, which indicates that the proposed scheme is a potentially promising candidate for future optical networks. PMID:23670016</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677181"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of chromatin accessibility and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions in response to glucocorticoid pulsing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stavreva, Diana A; Coulon, Antoine; Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee; John, Sam; Stixova, Lenka; Tesikova, Martina; Hakim, Ofir; Miranda, Tina; Hawkins, Mary; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Chow, Carson C; Hager, Gordon L</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Although physiological steroid levels are often pulsatile (ultradian), the genomic effects of this pulsatility are poorly understood. By utilizing glucocorticoid receptor (GR) <span class="hlt">signaling</span> as a model system, we uncovered striking spatiotemporal relationships between receptor loading, lifetimes of the DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs), <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions, and gene regulation. We found that hormone-induced DHSs were enriched within ± 50 kb of GR-responsive genes and displayed a broad spectrum of lifetimes upon hormone withdrawal. These lifetimes dictate the strength of the DHS interactions with gene targets and contribute to gene regulation from a distance. Our results demonstrate that pulsatile and constant hormone stimulations induce unique, treatment-specific patterns of gene and regulatory element activation. These modes of activation have implications for corticosteroid function in vivo and for steroid therapies in various clinical settings. PMID:25677181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3780893','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3780893"><span id="translatedtitle">Breakdown of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> temporal dependence in default mode and attention networks during deep sleep</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tagliazucchi, Enzo; von Wegner, Frederic; Morzelewski, Astrid; Brodbeck, Verena; Jahnke, Kolja; Laufs, Helmut</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The integration of segregated brain functional modules is a prerequisite for conscious awareness during wakeful rest. Here, we test the hypothesis that temporal integration, measured as long-term memory in the history of neural activity, is another important quality underlying conscious awareness. For this aim, we study the temporal memory of blood oxygen level-dependent <span class="hlt">signals</span> across the human nonrapid eye movement sleep cycle. Results reveal that this property gradually decreases from wakefulness to deep nonrapid eye movement sleep and that such decreases affect areas identified with default mode and attention networks. Although blood oxygen level-dependent spontaneous fluctuations exhibit nontrivial spatial organization, even during deep sleep, they also display a decreased temporal complexity in specific brain regions. Conversely, this result suggests that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> temporal dependence might be an attribute of the spontaneous conscious mentation performed during wakeful rest. PMID:24003146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599483"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of dengue NS1 antigen using <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, Wei Ru; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd; Berini, Pierre</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>The non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of the dengue virus circulates in infected patients' blood samples and can be used for early diagnosis of dengue infection. In this paper, we present the detection of naturally-occurring dengue NS1 antigen in infected patient blood plasma using straight <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguides. Three commercially-available anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies were used for recognition and their performance was compared and discussed. A similar figure of merit to the one used in conventional dengue NS1 capture using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to our results. In general, the positive patient samples can be clearly differentiated from the negative ones and the results agree with those obtained using ELISA. The largest <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio observed during the experiments was 356 and the best detection limit observed is estimated as 5.73 pg/mm(2). PMID:26599483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8007E..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8007E..03K"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensing of bacteria immobilised under static conditions using <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguides in Cytop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khan, Asad; Krupin, Oleksiy; Lisicka-Skrzek, Ewa; Berini, Pierre</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Waveguides consisting of Au embedded in Cytop with micro-fluidic channels etched into the cladding are used for sensing via the propagation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmons. Initially, a range of water/glycerol solutions with varying refractive indices were sequentially injected in a waveguide section in order to assess its bulk sensitivity and to find a solution supporting a strong high quality mode. Au waveguide surfaces were then functionalized with antibodies against Gram negative bacteria (Anti-Gneg) by first forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (16-MHA) and subsequent conjugation with antibodies through carbodiimide chemistry. E.Coli XL-1 Blue was used as an analyte in static incubations. Wavelength sweeps of 16-MHA covered waveguides were compared against waveguides covered with E-coli. The results indicate that very few bacteria cells are required to obtain a measurable change in output <span class="hlt">signal</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.2742T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.2742T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> Hydroacoustic Detection From Antarctic Icebergs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Talandier, J.; Hyvernaud, O.; Piserchia, P. F.; Okal, E. A.</p> <p></p> <p>T-waves are commonly observed on coastal seismographs of the French Polynesian Seismic Network (RSP), when an oceanic events like earthquake or an underwater ex- plosion occurs, even for small events. T-waves are trapped in the underwater channel and can propagate over very long distances before to be converted in seismic waves close to the coastal seismic stations. During the 2000/2001 Austral summer, coastal seismic stations of the RSP detected unique series of T-waves from Antarctica (about 60 away) in the frequency band 2 -15 Hz. Some last just a few minutes while other wavetrains last for several hours; some are broadband while others feature promi- nent frequencies, occasionally accompanied by overtones. Most of the hydroacoustic sources are relocated using the RSP stations and some Antarctic seismographs. It is shown that observed waves have an underwater path but may also propagate in the ice sheet. This paper investigates possible underwater sources using the wave form in their relocations. Because of the wide spread area of the source location in the Ross sea and the large diversity of signature and their spectral content, all well known hy- droacoustic sources (earthquakes, underwater explosions, volcanisms,E) are rejected. Whereas satellite monitoring shows that hydroacoustic source locations are very well correlated in space and in time with icebergs B-15B and B-17 moving off the Ross Ice Shelf. These two icebergs appear after the Iceberg B15 broke from the Ross Ice Shelf in March 2000. Therefore, we believe that <span class="hlt">signals</span> detected on the RSP network may be due to due to activity during the drift of the bergs. From the experience achieved studying hydroacoustic sources like volcanic and hydrothermal phenomena, we pro- pose a few possible, albeit speculative source mechanisms, such the cracking of the icebergs, rubbing of ice masses against each other, or possible resonance during the filling of cavities inside the ice structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title29-vol8-sec1926-1420.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title29-vol8-sec1926-1420.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1926.1420 - <span class="hlt">Signals</span>-radio, telephone or other electronic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1420 Signals—radio, telephone or other electronic... must be through a dedicated channel, except: (1) Multiple cranes/derricks and one or more <span class="hlt">signal</span> persons may share a dedicated channel for the purpose of coordinating operations. (2) Where a crane...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol8-sec1926-1420.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol8-sec1926-1420.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1926.1420 - <span class="hlt">Signals</span>-radio, telephone or other electronic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1420 Signals—radio, telephone or other electronic... must be through a dedicated channel, except: (1) Multiple cranes/derricks and one or more <span class="hlt">signal</span> persons may share a dedicated channel for the purpose of coordinating operations. (2) Where a crane...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol8-sec1926-1420.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol8-sec1926-1420.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1926.1420 - <span class="hlt">Signals</span>-radio, telephone or other electronic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1420 Signals—radio, telephone or other electronic... must be through a dedicated channel, except: (1) Multiple cranes/derricks and one or more <span class="hlt">signal</span> persons may share a dedicated channel for the purpose of coordinating operations. (2) Where a crane...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol8-sec1926-1420.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol8-sec1926-1420.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1926.1420 - <span class="hlt">Signals</span>-radio, telephone or other electronic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1420 Signals—radio, telephone or other electronic... must be through a dedicated channel, except: (1) Multiple cranes/derricks and one or more <span class="hlt">signal</span> persons may share a dedicated channel for the purpose of coordinating operations. (2) Where a crane...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27543332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27543332"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> through the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) transmembrane helices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wescott, Melanie P; Kufareva, Irina; Paes, Cheryl; Goodman, Jason R; Thaker, Yana; Puffer, Bridget A; Berdougo, Eli; Rucker, Joseph B; Handel, Tracy M; Doranz, Benjamin J</p> <p>2016-08-30</p> <p>The atomic-level mechanisms by which G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit extracellular ligand binding events through their transmembrane helices to activate intracellular G proteins remain unclear. Using a comprehensive library of mutations covering all 352 residues of the GPCR CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), we identified 41 amino acids that are required for <span class="hlt">signaling</span> induced by the chemokine ligand CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). CXCR4 variants with each of these mutations do not <span class="hlt">signal</span> properly but remain folded, based on receptor surface trafficking, reactivity to conformationally sensitive monoclonal antibodies, and ligand binding. When visualized on the structure of CXCR4, the majority of these residues form a continuous intramolecular <span class="hlt">signaling</span> chain through the transmembrane helices; this chain connects chemokine binding residues on the extracellular side of CXCR4 to G protein-coupling residues on its intracellular side. Integrated into a cohesive model of <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>, these CXCR4 residues cluster into five functional groups that mediate (i) chemokine engagement, (ii) <span class="hlt">signal</span> initiation, (iii) <span class="hlt">signal</span> propagation, (iv) microswitch activation, and (v) G protein coupling. Propagation of the <span class="hlt">signal</span> passes through a "hydrophobic bridge" on helix VI that coordinates with nearly every known GPCR <span class="hlt">signaling</span> motif. Our results agree with known conserved mechanisms of GPCR activation and significantly expand on understanding the structural principles of CXCR4 <span class="hlt">signaling</span>. PMID:27543332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22071506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22071506"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of allosteric <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> by information-theoretic analysis of protein dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pandini, Alessandro; Fornili, Arianna; Fraternali, Franca; Kleinjung, Jens</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Allostery offers a highly specific way to modulate protein function. Therefore, understanding this mechanism is of increasing interest for protein science and drug discovery. However, allosteric <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> is difficult to detect experimentally and to model because it is often mediated by local structural changes propagating along multiple pathways. To address this, we developed a method to identify communication pathways by an information-theoretical analysis of molecular dynamics simulations. <span class="hlt">Signal</span> propagation was described as information exchange through a network of correlated local motions, modeled as transitions between canonical states of protein fragments. The method was used to describe allostery in two-component regulatory systems. In particular, the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> from the allosteric site to the <span class="hlt">signaling</span> surface of the receiver domain NtrC was shown to be mediated by a layer of hub residues. The location of hubs preferentially connected to the allosteric site was found in close agreement with key residues experimentally identified as involved in the <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. The comparison with the networks of the homologues CheY and FixJ highlighted similarities in their dynamics. In particular, we showed that a preorganized network of fragment connections between the allosteric and functional sites exists already in the inactive state of all three proteins. PMID:22071506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5703029','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5703029"><span id="translatedtitle">An analytic overview of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> passive detection and localization in an inhomogeneous ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Middleton, D</p> <p>1991-07-01</p> <p>An analytic summary or overview of the problem of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> passive source detection and localization is presented. The principal aims are to provide an analytic basis for developing effective weak-<span class="hlt">signal</span> detection and estimation algorithms and performance measures in a model-based approach, when the desired source (or sources) are not surely known to be present p(H{sub 1})<1, in a general ambient noise field due primarily to surface or near-surface noise mechanisms. In addition to threshold detection and estimation (when (pH{sub 1})<1: <span class="hlt">signal</span> not surely present) with correlated space and time noise samples, procedures for modeling the random acoustic noise and <span class="hlt">signal</span> fields are outlined, from the viewpoint of the ocean as an inhomogeneous acoustic waveguide, {nabla}c{ne}0, with boundaries, and arbitrary (near) surface distributions of noise sources. The latter are required to specify these otherwise canonical results to the present class of problems. The Report concludes with a short list of next steps, and references to pertinent supporting material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24514506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24514506"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-<span class="hlt">long-range</span> symmetric plasmonic waveguide for high-density and compact photonic devices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Chia-Chien</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This study reports a symmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of a cylindrical metal nanowire surrounded by low-index SiO₂ and high-index Si covered with SiO₂. The symmetric circumambience relative to the metal nanowire significantly facilitates the present design to minimize the energy attenuation resulting from Ohmic losses while retaining highly confined modes guided in the low-index nanoscale gaps between the metal nanowire and the high-index Si. The geometric dependence of the mode characteristics on the proposed structure is analyzed in detail, showing long propagation lengths beyond 10 mm with normalized mode areas on the order of 10⁻². In addition to enabling the building of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> plasmonic circuit interconnects, the compactness and high-density integration of the proposed structure are examined by analyzing crosstalk in a directional coupler composed of two such waveguides and bending losses for a 90° bend. A relatively short coupling length of 1.16 μm is obtained at a center-to-center separation of 0.26 μm between adjacent waveguides. Increasing the separation to 1.65 μm could completely prevent coupling between waveguides. Power <span class="hlt">transmission</span> exceeds 80% in the case of a 90° bend with small radius of curvature of 0.5 μm. Moreover, the dependence of spectral response on coupling length and the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of a 90° bend, ranging from telecom wavelengths of 1.40 to 1.65 μm, are investigated. Over a wide wavelength range, a strong coupling length dependence on wavelength and a high <span class="hlt">transmission</span> for a 90° bend also make the proposed plasmonic waveguide promising for the realization of wavelength-selective components. PMID:24514506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3796471','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3796471"><span id="translatedtitle">Call <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Efficiency in Native and Invasive Anurans: Competing Hypotheses of Divergence in Acoustic <span class="hlt">Signals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Llusia, Diego; Gómez, Miguel; Penna, Mario; Márquez, Rafael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Invasive species are a leading cause of the current biodiversity decline, and hence examining the major traits favouring invasion is a key and long-standing goal of invasion biology. Despite the prominent role of the advertisement calls in sexual selection and reproduction, very little attention has been paid to the features of acoustic communication of invasive species in nonindigenous habitats and their potential impacts on native species. Here we compare for the first time the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency of the advertisement calls of native and invasive species, searching for competitive advantages for acoustic communication and reproduction of introduced taxa, and providing insights into competing hypotheses in evolutionary divergence of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>: acoustic adaptation vs. morphological constraints. Using sound propagation experiments, we measured the attenuation rates of pure tones (0.2–5 kHz) and playback calls (Lithobates catesbeianus and Pelophylax perezi) across four distances (1, 2, 4, and 8 m) and over two substrates (water and soil) in seven Iberian localities. All factors considered (<span class="hlt">signal</span> type, distance, substrate, and locality) affected <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>, which was maximized with lower frequency sounds, shorter distances, and over water surface. Despite being broadcast in nonindigenous habitats, the advertisement calls of invasive L. catesbeianus were propagated more efficiently than those of the native species, in both aquatic and terrestrial substrates, and in most of the study sites. This implies absence of optimal relationship between native environments and propagation of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span> in anurans, in contrast to what predicted by the acoustic adaptation hypothesis, and it might render these vertebrates particularly vulnerable to intrusion of invasive species producing low frequency <span class="hlt">signals</span>, such as L. catesbeianus. Our findings suggest that mechanisms optimizing sound <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in native habitat can play a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24155940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24155940"><span id="translatedtitle">Call <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency in native and invasive anurans: competing hypotheses of divergence in acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Llusia, Diego; Gómez, Miguel; Penna, Mario; Márquez, Rafael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Invasive species are a leading cause of the current biodiversity decline, and hence examining the major traits favouring invasion is a key and long-standing goal of invasion biology. Despite the prominent role of the advertisement calls in sexual selection and reproduction, very little attention has been paid to the features of acoustic communication of invasive species in nonindigenous habitats and their potential impacts on native species. Here we compare for the first time the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency of the advertisement calls of native and invasive species, searching for competitive advantages for acoustic communication and reproduction of introduced taxa, and providing insights into competing hypotheses in evolutionary divergence of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>: acoustic adaptation vs. morphological constraints. Using sound propagation experiments, we measured the attenuation rates of pure tones (0.2-5 kHz) and playback calls (Lithobates catesbeianus and Pelophylax perezi) across four distances (1, 2, 4, and 8 m) and over two substrates (water and soil) in seven Iberian localities. All factors considered (<span class="hlt">signal</span> type, distance, substrate, and locality) affected <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>, which was maximized with lower frequency sounds, shorter distances, and over water surface. Despite being broadcast in nonindigenous habitats, the advertisement calls of invasive L. catesbeianus were propagated more efficiently than those of the native species, in both aquatic and terrestrial substrates, and in most of the study sites. This implies absence of optimal relationship between native environments and propagation of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span> in anurans, in contrast to what predicted by the acoustic adaptation hypothesis, and it might render these vertebrates particularly vulnerable to intrusion of invasive species producing low frequency <span class="hlt">signals</span>, such as L. catesbeianus. Our findings suggest that mechanisms optimizing sound <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in native habitat can play a less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3528083','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3528083"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational quest for understanding the role of astrocyte <span class="hlt">signaling</span> in synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and plasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Pittà, Maurizio; Volman, Vladislav; Berry, Hugues; Parpura, Vladimir; Volterra, Andrea; Ben-Jacob, Eshel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The complexity of the <span class="hlt">signaling</span> network that underlies astrocyte-synapse interactions may seem discouraging when tackled from a theoretical perspective. Computational modeling is challenged by the fact that many details remain hitherto unknown and conventional approaches to describe synaptic function are unsuitable to explain experimental observations when astrocytic <span class="hlt">signaling</span> is taken into account. Supported by experimental evidence is the possibility that astrocytes perform genuine information processing by means of their calcium <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and are players in the physiological setting of the basal tone of synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. Here we consider the plausibility of this scenario from a theoretical perspective, focusing on the modulation of synaptic release probability by the astrocyte and its implications on synaptic plasticity. The analysis of the <span class="hlt">signaling</span> pathways underlying such modulation refines our notion of tripartite synapse and has profound implications on our understanding of brain function. PMID:23267326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptFT..26..201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptFT..26..201L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transmission</span> and reception of PDM dual-subcarrier coherent 16QAM-OFDM <span class="hlt">signals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Fan; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, 16-Gbaud polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) dual-subcarrier coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and reception are successfully demonstrated without overhead. The in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) components of dual-subcarrier 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM <span class="hlt">signal</span> are both seven-level <span class="hlt">signals</span> in time domain, and thus can be equalized like a 49 QAM <span class="hlt">signal</span> in time domain with cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization method. The experimental results show that there is no power penalty observed between optical back to back (OBTB) and after 80-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) with time domain CMMA equalization method. A 0.4 dB optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty in OBTB is observed when the bandwidth of channel is set at 26 GHz at the BER of 2.0 × 10-2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptSp.119..708Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptSp.119..708Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical radio-photonic channel for <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of a coherent narrowband analog <span class="hlt">signal</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhuk, D. I.; Denisyuk, I. Yu.; Fokina, M. I.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The channel of an optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line of coherent narrowband analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> consisting of a continuous-wave laser, an electro-optic modulator, and a vector phase rotator based on electrically controlled fiber-optical 1 × 2 splitter and fixed delay lines is analyzed. The scheme is constructed from commercially available components used in digital optical communication systems. The applicability of components for analog and small-<span class="hlt">signal</span> circuits is determined. Variation of radio <span class="hlt">signal</span> phase in the range from 0° to 170° for radio <span class="hlt">signal</span> frequencies between 1 and 2 GHz is demonstrated experimentally. It is shown that phase variation is a linear function of frequency in this range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcAau..69..777F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcAau..69..777F"><span id="translatedtitle">SETI: The <span class="hlt">transmission</span> rate of radio communication and the <span class="hlt">signal</span>'s detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fridman, P. A.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transmission</span> rate of communication between radio telescopes on Earth and extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) is here calculated up to distances of 1000 light years. Both phase-shift keying (PSK) and frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation schemes are considered. It is shown that M-ary FSK is advantageous in terms of energy. Narrow-band pulses scattered over the spectrum sharing a common drift rate can be the probable <span class="hlt">signals</span> of ETI. Modern SETI spectrum analyzers are well suited to searching for these types of <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Such <span class="hlt">signals</span> can be detected using the Hough transform which is a dedicated tool for detecting patterns in an image. The time-frequency plane representing the power output of the spectrum analyzer during the search for ETI gives an image from which the Hough transform (HT) can detect <span class="hlt">signal</span> patterns with frequency drift.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27137550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27137550"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical diversity <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using WDM <span class="hlt">signal</span> and phase-conjugate lights through multi-core fiber.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koga, Masafumi; Moroi, Mitsuki; Takara, Hidehiko</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a maximum-ratio combining (MRC) scheme for a WDM <span class="hlt">signal</span> and phase-conjugate pair (PCP) diversity <span class="hlt">transmission</span> to cancel nonlinear phase-shift. A transfer function approximation for nonlinear phase-shift cancellation is formulated. It shows, with the help of a numerical calculation, that span-by-span chromatic dispersion compensation is more effective than the lumped equivalent at the receiver. This is confirmed in a 2-core diversity 5 channel WDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> experiment over 3-spans of 60km MCF with 25 Gbit/s-QPSK PCP. The peak Q-value was enhanced by 3.6dB through MRC, resulting in superior bitrate-distance product and optical power density limit, compared to twice the single core <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. PMID:27137550</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297587','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297587"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of the pediatric subglottis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Volgger, Veronika; Sharma, Giriraj K.; Jing, Joe; Peaks, Ya-Sin A.; Loy, Anthony Chin; Lazarow, Frances; Wang, Alex; Qu, Yueqiao; Su, Erica; Chen, Zhongping; Ahuja, Gurpreet S.; Wong, Brian J-F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Acquired subglottic stenosis (SGS) most commonly results from prolonged endotracheal intubation and is a diagnostic challenge in the intubated child. At present, no imaging modality allows for in vivo characterization of subglottic microanatomy to identify early signs of acquired SGS while the child remains intubated. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a minimally invasive, light-based imaging modality which provides high resolution, three dimensional (3D) cross-sectional images of biological tissue. We used <span class="hlt">long-range</span> FD-OCT to image the subglottis in intubated pediatric patients undergoing minor head and neck surgical procedures in the operating room. Methods A <span class="hlt">long-range</span> FD-OCT system and rotary optical probes (1.2 mm and 0.7 mm outer diameters) were constructed. Forty-six pediatric patients (ages 2–16 years) undergoing minor upper airway surgery (e.g. tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy) were selected for intraoperative, trans-endotracheal tube FD-OCT of the subglottis. Images were analyzed for anatomical landmarks and subepithelial histology. Volumetric image sets were rendered into virtual 3D airway models in Mimics software. Results FD-OCT was performed on 46 patients (ages 2–16 years) with no complications. Gross airway contour was visible on all 46 data sets. Twenty (43%) high-quality data sets clearly demonstrated airway anatomy (e.g., tracheal rings, cricoid, vocal folds) and layered microanatomy of the mucosa (e.g., epithelium, basement membrane, lamina propria). The remaining 26 data sets were discarded due to artifact, high <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio or missing data. 3D airway models allowed for user-controlled manipulation and multiplanar airway slicing (e.g. sagittal, coronal) for visualization of OCT data at multiple anatomic levels simultaneously. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> FD-OCT produces high-resolution, 3D volumetric images of the pediatric subglottis. This technology offers a safe and practical means for in vivo evaluation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ITEIS.127..324Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ITEIS.127..324Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Experiment of 80-Gbit/s-Based WDM <span class="hlt">Signals</span> Using an OPGW in the Field and In-service Chromatic Dispersion Monitering through Envelope Modulated WDM <span class="hlt">Signals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamashita, Ikuo; Oro, Kyoichi; Seikai, Shigeyuki</p> <p></p> <p>A field experiment on <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of 80-Gbit/s-based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) <span class="hlt">signals</span> is successfully carried out. In order to keep good <span class="hlt">transmission</span> quality, technique of an in-service dispersion monitoring and an adaptive control of the chromatic dispersion are proposed. Difference of the propagation delay between channels caused by the chromatic dispersion of the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line is detected using <span class="hlt">signals</span> superimposed on the envelope of the WDM pulses. Dispersion alteration of the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line is estimated from the measured delay in real-time. Accuracy of the method is clarified through a <span class="hlt">transmission</span> experiment using wound fibers in an oven changing their temperature. The field experiment on 80Gbit/s × 8WDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using an OPGW with 60km × 2spans is carried out and fine BER performances are obtained in all channels. <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> properties are found to be stable owing to the dispersion control techniques throughout the field trial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLA..380..635F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLA..380..635F"><span id="translatedtitle">Heaviside revisited: Distortionless <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> through lossy media with application to precision clock synchronization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flake, Robert H.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A recently discovered non-sinusoidal, non-periodic electrical <span class="hlt">signal</span> in the form of an exponentially rising pulse achieves distortionless propagation at constant velocity through lossy, passive <span class="hlt">transmission</span> media. This unique property is derived theoretically in the framework of the telegrapher's equation analyzed by Heaviside and confirmed experimentally in propagation of such a pulse along serially connected sections of telephone cable. The utility of the distortion-free pulse within the field of time-domain reflectometry is demonstrated in precise time-of-flight measurement of the reflected <span class="hlt">signal</span>, with the prospect of enhancing the accuracy of protocols for synchronization of spatially separated clocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EJASP2005...13G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EJASP2005...13G"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Optical CDMA <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span>: Capacity Limits and Simulation Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garba, Aminata A.; Yim, Raymond M. H.; Bajcsy, Jan; Chen, Lawrence R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>We present performance limits of the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) networks. In particular, we evaluate the information-theoretical capacity of the OCDMA <span class="hlt">transmission</span> when single-user detection (SUD) is used by the receiver. First, we model the OCDMA <span class="hlt">transmission</span> as a discrete memoryless channel, evaluate its capacity when binary modulation is used in the interference-limited (noiseless) case, and extend this analysis to the case when additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is corrupting the received <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Next, we analyze the benefits of using nonbinary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> for increasing the throughput of optical CDMA <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. It turns out that up to a fourfold increase in the network throughput can be achieved with practical numbers of modulation levels in comparison to the traditionally considered binary case. Finally, we present BER simulation results for channel coded binary and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-ary OCDMA <span class="hlt">transmission</span> systems. In particular, we apply turbo codes concatenated with Reed-Solomon codes so that up to several hundred concurrent optical CDMA users can be supported at low target bit error rates. We observe that unlike conventional OCDMA systems, turbo-empowered OCDMA can allow overloading (more active users than is the length of the spreading sequences) with good bit error rate system performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6204224','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6204224"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> techniques for large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herndon, J.N.; Bible, D.W.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The RCE is currently developing a prototypic microwave-based <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system for reprocessing cell applications. This system, being developed for use in the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS), will operate in the 10-GHz frequency range. Provisions are being made for five real-time video channels, three bidirectional data channels at one megabaud data rate each, and two audio channels. The basic utility of the concept has been proven in a laboratory demonstration using gallium arsenide gunn diode transmitter/receivers with horn antennas. Unidirectional <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of one real-time video channel over a distance of 200 ft was demonstrated. No evidence of multipath interference was detected even when the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> path was surrounded by metallic reflectors. The microwave <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system for the AIMS application is in final design. Fabrication in the ORNL instrument shops will begin in October 1985, and the system should be operational in the Maintenance Systems Test Area (MSTA) at ORNL in the latter half of 1986.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24821454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24821454"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-distance <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and regulation of photosynthesis in characean cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bulychev, A A; Komarova, A V</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Photosynthetic electron transport in an intact cell is finely regulated by the structural flexibility of thylakoid membranes, existence of alternative electron-transport pathways, generation of electrochemical proton gradient, and continuous exchange of ions and metabolites between cell organelles and the cytoplasm. Long-distance interactions underlying reversible transitions of photosynthetic activity between uniform and spatially heterogeneous distributions are of particular interest. Microfluorometric studies of characean cells with the use of saturating light pulses and in combination with electrode micromethods revealed three mechanisms of distant regulation ensuring functional coordination of cell domains and <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> over long distances. These include: (1) circulation of electric currents between functionally distinct cell domains, (2) propagation of action potential along the cell length, and (3) continuous cyclical cytoplasmic streaming. This review considers how photosynthetic activity depends on membrane transport of protons and cytoplasmic pH, on ion fluxes associated with the electrical excitation of the plasmalemma, and on the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of photoinduced <span class="hlt">signals</span> with streaming cytoplasm. Because of <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> with cytoplasmic flow, dynamic changes in photosynthetic activity can develop far from the point of photostimulus application and with a long delay (up to 100 s) after a light pulse stimulus is extinguished. PMID:24821454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27196975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27196975"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced GABA <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Drives Bradykinesia Following Loss of Dopamine D2 Receptor <span class="hlt">Signaling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lemos, Julia C; Friend, Danielle M; Kaplan, Alanna R; Shin, Jung Hoon; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Alvarez, Veronica A</p> <p>2016-05-18</p> <p>Bradykinesia is a prominent phenotype of Parkinson's disease, depression, and other neurological conditions. Disruption of dopamine (DA) <span class="hlt">transmission</span> plays an important role, but progress in understanding the exact mechanisms driving slowness of movement has been impeded due to the heterogeneity of DA receptor distribution on multiple cell types within the striatum. Here we show that selective deletion of DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) from indirect-pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs) is sufficient to impair locomotor activity, phenocopying DA depletion models of Parkinson's disease, despite this mouse model having intact DA <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. There was a robust enhancement of GABAergic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and a reduction of in vivo firing in striatal and pallidal neurons. Mimicking D2R <span class="hlt">signaling</span> in iMSNs with Gi-DREADDs restored the level of tonic GABAergic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and rescued the motor deficit. These findings indicate that DA, through D2R activation in iMSNs, regulates motor output by constraining the strength of GABAergic <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. PMID:27196975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......129F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......129F"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical Activity of Chiral Nanomaterials: Effects of Short Range and <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Electromagnetic Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, Zhiyuan</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation, chiral nanomaterials with new plasmonic properties have been investigated. Electromagnetic interactions between well-defined building blocks in nanomaterials are modeled using classical and quantum mechanical theories. We predict several new mechanisms of plasmonic circular dichroism (CD) <span class="hlt">signals</span> in chiral nanomaterials. The predicted CD mechanisms include plasmon-plasmon interactions of nanoparticle assemblies, plasmon-exciton interactions of molecule-nanoparticle conjugates, multipole plasmon mixing in chiral metal nanocrystals and electrodynamic effect of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> plasmon-exciton interactions. It is efficient and accurate to simulate light-matter interactions with analytic solutions. However, only a limited number of geometries can be solved analytically. Many numerical tools based on finite element methods, discrete dipole approximation or finite-difference time-domain methods are available currently. These methods are capable of simulating nanostructures with arbitrary shapes. Numerical simulations using such software have shown agreements with analytical results of our models. Hence, this study may offer a new approach to design of complex nanostructures for sensing of chiral molecules. This dissertation also reviews several experimental papers that have demonstrated successful fabrications of chiral nanostructures and nano-assemblies with new plasmonic CD <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Our theories strongly motivated the field and have been used in many experimental studies for interpretation and understanding of observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23624372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23624372"><span id="translatedtitle">Specialized filopodia direct <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanders, Timothy A; Llagostera, Esther; Barna, Maria</p> <p>2013-05-30</p> <p>The ability of <span class="hlt">signalling</span> proteins to traverse tissues containing tightly packed cells is of fundamental importance for cell specification and tissue development; however, how this is achieved at a cellular level remains poorly understood. For more than a century, the vertebrate limb bud has served as a model for studying cell <span class="hlt">signalling</span> during embryonic development. Here we optimize single-cell real-time imaging to delineate the cellular mechanisms for how <span class="hlt">signalling</span> proteins, such as sonic hedgehog (SHH), that possess membrane-bound covalent lipid modifications traverse long distances within the vertebrate limb bud in vivo. By directly imaging SHH ligand production under native regulatory control in chick (Gallus gallus) embryos, our findings show that SHH is unexpectedly produced in the form of a particle that remains associated with the cell via long cytoplasmic extensions that span several cell diameters. We show that these cellular extensions are a specialized class of actin-based filopodia with novel cytoskeletal features that have not been previously described. Notably, particles containing SHH travel along these extensions with a net anterograde movement within the field of SHH cell <span class="hlt">signalling</span>. We further show that in SHH-responding cells, specific subsets of SHH co-receptors, including cell adhesion molecule downregulated by oncogenes (CDO) and brother of CDO (BOC), actively distribute and co-localize in specific micro-domains within filopodial extensions, far from the cell body. Stabilized interactions are formed between filopodia containing SHH ligand and those containing co-receptors over a <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. These results suggest that contact-mediated release propagated by specialized filopodia contributes to the delivery of SHH at a distance. Together, these studies identify an important mode of communication between cells that considerably extends our understanding of ligand movement and reception during vertebrate tissue patterning. PMID:23624372</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8667E..0MN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8667E..0MN"><span id="translatedtitle">Location-based tracking using <span class="hlt">long-range</span> passive RFID and ultrawideband communications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nekoogar, Faranak; Dowla, Farid</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Reliable positioning capability is a crucial need for first responders in emergency and disaster situations. Lack of a dependable positioning system can result in disruptions in the situational awareness between the local responders in the field and the emergency command and control centers. Indoor localization and navigation poses many challenges for search and rescue teams (i.e. firefighters) such as inability to determine their exact location and communicate with the incident commander outside the building. Although RF navigation and tracking systems have many advantages over other technologies, the harsh indoor RF environment demands new ways of developing and using RF sensor and communication systems. A new approach, proposed recently [1-4], employs passive RFID for geo-location and tracking of a first responder. However, because conventional passive RFID tags have limited communications ranges, a very large number of these tags will be required to fully cover a large multi-storied building without any dead spots. Another technical challenge for conventional RF communications is the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of data from the mobile RFID platform (the tag reader) to the outside command and control node, as the buildings walls impose challenges such as attenuation and multipath. In this paper, we introduce a mobile platform architecture that makes optimal use of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> passive tags, and takes advantage of the frequency diversity of Ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems for a reliable, robust and yet low-cost infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27557224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27557224"><span id="translatedtitle">Segmented silicon MZM for PAM-8 <span class="hlt">transmissions</span> at 114 Gb/s with binary <span class="hlt">signaling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simard, A D; Filion, B; Patel, D; Plant, D; LaRochelle, S</p> <p>2016-08-22</p> <p>We experimentally demonstrate PAM-8 generation from binary electrical <span class="hlt">signals</span> driving a silicon multi-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator acting as an optical digital-to-analog converter. Measured BER in back-to-back configuration is used to evaluate <span class="hlt">signal</span> quality. We demonstrate 38 GBd PAM-8 <span class="hlt">transmission</span> below the forward error correction (FEC) threshold using minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalization. The results show that modulators with segmented phase shifters can be advantageously used to eliminate the need for high bandwidth electronic digital-to-analog converters in the generation of multilevel <span class="hlt">signals</span>. These modulators, that can be designed and fabricated with standard CMOS compatible tools and processes, are of high interest for short range high-speed data links. PMID:27557224</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9884E..20L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9884E..20L"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear effects in propagation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) in gold strip waveguides. The plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, tantalum pentoxide adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length, and the chromatic dispersion does not affect the propagation of the plasmonic mode. We find that the third-order susceptibility of the gold layer has a dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the LRSPP mode. The real part of the effective third-order susceptibility leads to the observed spectral broadening through the self-phase modulation effect, and its imaginary part determines the nonlinear absorption parameter and leads to the observed nonlinear power <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. The experimental values of the third-order susceptibility of the gold layers are obtained. They indicate an effective enhancement of the third-order susceptibility for the gold layers, comparing to the bulk gold values. This enhancement is explained in terms of the change of the electrons motion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4178651','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4178651"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> and Binding Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR To Indicate the Viral Integrities of Noroviruses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Keuckelaere, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study intends to establish and apply methods evaluating both viral capsid and genome integrities of human noroviruses (NoVs), which thus far remain nonculturable. Murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) and human NoV GII.4 in phosphate-buffered saline suspensions were treated with heat, UV light, or ethanol and detected by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), <span class="hlt">long-range</span> RT-qPCR, binding RT-qPCR, and binding <span class="hlt">long-range</span> RT-qPCR. For MNV-1 heated at 60°C for 2 and 30 min, limited reductions of genomic copies (<0.3-log) were obtained by RT-qPCR and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> RT-qPCR, while the cell-binding pretreatments obtained higher reductions (>1.89-log reduction after 60°C for 30 min by binding <span class="hlt">long-range</span> RT-qPCR). The human NoV GII.4 was found to be more heat resistant than MNV-1. For both MNV-1 and human NoV GII.4 after UV treatments of 20 and 200 mJ/cm2, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the dose-dependent reductions obtained by the four detection methodologies. Treatment of 70% ethanol for 1 min was shown to be more effective for inactivation of both MNV-1 and human NoV GII.4 than the heat and UV treatments used in this study. Subsequently, eight raspberry and four shellfish samples previously shown to be naturally contaminated with human NoVs by RT-qPCR (GI and GII; thus, 24 RT-qPCR <span class="hlt">signals</span>) were subjected to comparison by this method. RT-qPCR, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> RT-qPCR, binding RT-qPCR, and binding <span class="hlt">long-range</span> RT-qPCR detected 20/24, 14/24, 24/24, and 23/24 positive <span class="hlt">signals</span>, respectively, indicating the abundant presence of intact NoV particles. PMID:25107982</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3787903','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3787903"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Habitat Acoustics on Common Marmoset Vocal <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MORRILL, RYAN J.; THOMAS, A. WREN; SCHIEL, NICOLA; SOUTO, ANTONIO; MILLER, CORY T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Noisy acoustic environments present several challenges for the evolution of acoustic communication systems. Among the most significant is the need to limit degradation of spectro-temporal <span class="hlt">signal</span> structure in order to maintain communicative efficacy. This can be achieved by selecting for several potentially complementary processes. Selection can act on behavioral mechanisms permitting <span class="hlt">signalers</span> to control the timing and occurrence of <span class="hlt">signal</span> production to avoid acoustic interference. Likewise, the <span class="hlt">signal</span> itself may be the target of selection, biasing the evolution of its structure to comprise acoustic features that avoid interference from ambient noise or degrade minimally in the habitat. Here, we address the latter topic for common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) long-distance contact vocalizations, known as phee calls. Our aim was to test whether this vocalization is specifically adapted for <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in a species-typical forest habitat, the Atlantic forests of northeastern Brazil. We combined seasonal analyses of ambient habitat acoustics with experiments in which pure tones, clicks, and vocalizations were broadcast and rerecorded at different distances to characterize <span class="hlt">signal</span> degradation in the habitat. Ambient sound was analyzed from intervals throughout the day and over rainy and dry seasons, showing temporal regularities across varied timescales. Broadcast experiment results indicated that the tone and click stimuli showed the typically inverse relationship between frequency and <span class="hlt">signaling</span> efficacy. Although marmoset phee calls degraded over distance with marked predictability compared with artificial sounds, they did not otherwise appear to be specially designed for increased <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficacy or minimal interference in this habitat. We discuss these data in the context of other similar studies and evidence of potential behavioral mechanisms for avoiding acoustic interference in order to maintain effective vocal communication in common marmosets. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disaster+AND+recovery+AND+plan&pg=5&id=ED305735','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disaster+AND+recovery+AND+plan&pg=5&id=ED305735"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Plan for Information Systems from the State Board of Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas Education Agency, Austin.</p> <p></p> <p>The Information Systems <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Plan specifically addresses Goal four of the Texas State Board of Education's (SBOE's) "<span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Plan for Public School Education" dealing with efficient management and organization of the educational system. To facilitate this goal, the SBOE in 1986 approved and directed the Texas Education Agency to implement…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol1-sec5-404.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol1-sec5-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 5.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span>... REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 5.404 Release of long... may be desirable to publicize estimates of unclassified <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition requirements....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol4-sec405-404.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol4-sec405-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 405.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 405.404 Section 405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol4-sec405-404.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol4-sec405-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 405.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 405.404 Section 405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol4-sec605-404.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol4-sec605-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 605.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 605.404 Section 605.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol1-sec5-404-2.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol1-sec5-404-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 5.404-2 - Announcements of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Announcements of long... Announcements of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. Further publicizing, consistent with the needs of the individual case, may be accomplished by announcing through the GPE that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol4-sec405-404.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol4-sec405-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 405.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 405.404 Section 405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol4-sec605-404.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol4-sec605-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 605.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 605.404 Section 605.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol1-sec5-404-2.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol1-sec5-404-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 5.404-2 - Announcements of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Announcements of long... Announcements of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. Further publicizing, consistent with the needs of the individual case, may be accomplished by announcing through the GPE that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol1-sec5-404.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol1-sec5-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 5.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span>... REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 5.404 Release of long... may be desirable to publicize estimates of unclassified <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition requirements....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol4-sec605-404.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol4-sec605-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 605.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 605.404 Section 605.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol5-sec1405-404.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol5-sec1405-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 1405.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 1405.404 Section 1405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol5-sec1305-404.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol5-sec1305-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 1305.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 1305.404 Section 1305.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may... current flight navigator certificate; or (2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol4-sec405-404.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol4-sec405-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 405.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 405.404 Section 405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol4-sec605-404.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol4-sec605-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 605.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 605.404 Section 605.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol5-sec1405-404.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol5-sec1405-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 1405.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 1405.404 Section 1405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol1-sec5-404.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol1-sec5-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 5.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span>... REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 5.404 Release of long... may be desirable to publicize estimates of unclassified <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition requirements....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol1-sec5-404.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol1-sec5-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 5.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span>... REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 5.404 Release of long... may be desirable to publicize estimates of unclassified <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition requirements....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol1-sec5-404-2.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol1-sec5-404-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 5.404-2 - Announcements of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Announcements of long... Announcements of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. Further publicizing, consistent with the needs of the individual case, may be accomplished by announcing through the GPE that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol1-sec5-404-2.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol1-sec5-404-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 5.404-2 - Announcements of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Announcements of long... Announcements of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. Further publicizing, consistent with the needs of the individual case, may be accomplished by announcing through the GPE that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol5-sec1305-404.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol5-sec1305-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 1305.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 1305.404 Section 1305.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-sec125-267.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may...-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title23-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title23-vol1-sec450-214.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title23-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title23-vol1-sec450-214.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">23 CFR 450.214 - Development and content of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> statewide transportation plan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Development and content of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> statewide transportation plan. 450.214 Section 450.214 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.214 Development and content of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> statewide transportation plan. (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coeur&pg=3&id=ED225611','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coeur&pg=3&id=ED225611"><span id="translatedtitle">North Idaho College <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Plan and Statement of Institutional Mission and Purpose.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cargol, Owen F.</p> <p></p> <p>Based upon a planning project initiated at North Idaho College (NIC) in 1981 and approved by the Board of Trustees in 1982, this <span class="hlt">long-range</span> plan states the mission of NIC and specifies goals and objectives to be attained in the next 3 years. First, introductory sections consider the qualities of a good <span class="hlt">long-range</span> plan, address the responsibilities…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol5-sec1405-404.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol5-sec1405-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 1405.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 1405.404 Section 1405.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol5-sec1305-404.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol5-sec1305-404.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 1305.404 - Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates. 1305.404 Section 1305.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acquisition estimates....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... construction work plans (CWPs) in form and substance as set forth in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3835930','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3835930"><span id="translatedtitle">Corticomuscular <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> of Tremor <span class="hlt">Signals</span> by Propriospinal Neurons in Parkinson's Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hao, Manzhao; He, Xin; Xiao, Qin; Alstermark, Bror; Lan, Ning</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cortical oscillatory <span class="hlt">signals</span> of single and double tremor frequencies act together to cause tremor in the peripheral limbs of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). But the corticospinal pathway that transmits the tremor <span class="hlt">signals</span> has not been clarified, and how alternating bursts of antagonistic muscle activations are generated from the cortical oscillatory <span class="hlt">signals</span> is not well understood. This paper investigates the plausible role of propriospinal neurons (PN) in C3–C4 in transmitting the cortical oscillatory <span class="hlt">signals</span> to peripheral muscles. Kinematics data and surface electromyogram (EMG) of tremor in forearm were collected from PD patients. A PN network model was constructed based on known neurophysiological connections of PN. The cortical efferent <span class="hlt">signal</span> of double tremor frequencies were integrated at the PN network, whose outputs drove the muscles of a virtual arm (VA) model to simulate tremor behaviors. The cortical efferent <span class="hlt">signal</span> of single tremor frequency actuated muscle spindles. By comparing tremor data of PD patients and the results of model simulation, we examined two hypotheses regarding the corticospinal <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of oscillatory <span class="hlt">signals</span> in Parkinsonian tremor. Hypothesis I stated that the oscillatory cortical <span class="hlt">signals</span> were transmitted via the mono-synaptic corticospinal pathways bypassing the PN network. The alternative hypothesis II stated that they were transmitted by way of PN multi-synaptic corticospinal pathway. Simulations indicated that without the PN network, the alternating burst patterns of antagonistic muscle EMGs could not be reliably generated, rejecting the first hypothesis. However, with the PN network, the alternating burst patterns of antagonist EMGs were naturally reproduced under all conditions of cortical oscillations. The results suggest that cortical commands of single and double tremor frequencies are further processed at PN to compute the alternating burst patterns in flexor and extensor muscles, and the neuromuscular dynamics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25321810','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25321810"><span id="translatedtitle">Terabit Nyquist PDM-32QAM <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> with training sequence based time domain channel estimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fan; Wang, Dan; Ding, Rui; Chen, Zhangyuan</p> <p>2014-09-22</p> <p>We propose a time domain structure of channel estimation for coherent optical communication systems, which employs training sequence based equalizer and is transparent to arbitrary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) formats. Enabled with this methodology, 1.02 Tb/s polarization division multiplexed 32 QAM Nyquist pulse shaping <span class="hlt">signal</span> with a net spectral efficiency of 7.46 b/s/Hz is transmitted over standard single-mode fiber link with Erbium-doped fiber amplifier only amplification. After 1190 km <span class="hlt">transmission</span>, the average bit-error rate is lower than the 20% hard-decision forward error correction threshold of 1.5 × 10(-2). The <span class="hlt">transmission</span> distance can be extended to 1428 km by employing intra-subchannel nonlinear compensation with the digital back-propagation method. PMID:25321810</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JaJAP..55gKD01S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JaJAP..55gKD01S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiplex <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system for gate drive <span class="hlt">signals</span> of inverter circuit using surface acoustic wave filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Akifumi; Ueda, Kensuke; Goka, Shigeyoshi; Wada, Keiji; Kakio, Shoji</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We propose and fabricate a multiplexed <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system based on frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) with surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. SAW filters are suitable for use in wide-gap switching devices and multilevel inverters because of their capability to operate at high temperatures, good electrical isolation, low cost, and high reliability. Our proposed system reduces the number of electrical <span class="hlt">signal</span> wires needed to control each switching device and eliminates the need for isolation circuits, simplifying the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system and gate drive circuits. We successfully controlled two switching devices with a single coaxial line and confirmed the operation of a single-phase half-bridge inverter at a supply voltage of 100 V, and the total delay time to control the switching devices was less than 2.5 µs. Our experimental results validated our proposed system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=31667&keyword=five+AND+hole&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76746367&CFTOKEN=45728717','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=31667&keyword=five+AND+hole&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76746367&CFTOKEN=45728717"><span id="translatedtitle">QUANTIFYING UNCERTAINTY IN <span class="hlt">LONG</span> <span class="hlt">RANGE</span> TRANSPORT MODELS: WORKSHOP REPORT ON SOURCES AND EVALUATION OF UNCERTAINTY IN <span class="hlt">LONG-RANGE</span> TRANSPORT MODELS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The quantification of uncertainty in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport model predictions and the implications of these uncertainties on formulations of control policy have been the subject of investigations by both the United States and Canada. To more fully address these topics, the American...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JInst...9C2002G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JInst...9C2002G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Low power wireless ultra-wide band <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of bio-<span class="hlt">signals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gabrielli, A.; Bastianini, S.; Crepaldi, M.; D'Amen, G.; Demarchi, D.; Lax, I.; Motto Ros, P.; Zoccoli, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The paper shows the design of microelectronic circuits composed of an oscillator, a modulator, a transmitter and an antenna. Prototype chips were recently fabricated and tested exploiting commercial 130 nm [1] and 180 nm [2,3] CMOS technologies. Detected <span class="hlt">signals</span> have been measured using a commercial Ultra-Wide-Band amplifier connected to custom designed filters and a digital demodulator. Preliminary results are summarized along with some waveforms of the transmitted and received <span class="hlt">signals</span>. A digital Synchronized On-Off Keying (S-OOK) was implemented to exploit the Ultra-Wide-Band <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. In this way, each transmitted bit is coded with a S-OOK protocol. Wireless <span class="hlt">transmission</span> capabilities of the system have been also evaluated within a one-meter distance. The chips fit a large variety of applications like spot radiation monitoring, punctual measurements of radiation in High-Energy Physics experiments or, since they have been characterized as low-power components, readout of the system for medical applications. These latter fields are those that we are investigating for in-vivo measurements on small animals. In more detail, if we refer to electromyographic, electrocardiographic or electroencephalographic <span class="hlt">signals</span> [4], we need to handle very small <span class="hlt">signal</span> amplitudes, of the order of tens of μV, overwhelmed with a much higher (white) noise. In these cases the front-end of the readout circuit requires a so-called amplifier for instrumentation, here not described, to interface with metal-plate sensor's outputs such those used for electrocardiograms, to normal range of amplitude <span class="hlt">signals</span> of the order of 1 V. We are also studying these circuits, to be also designed on a microelectronic device, without adding further details since these components are technically well known in the literature [5,6]. The main aim of this research is hence integrating all the described electronic components into a very small, low-powered, microelectronic circuit fully compatible with in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptCo.355..296C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptCo.355..296C"><span id="translatedtitle">In-band simultaneous <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of baseband and broadcast <span class="hlt">signals</span> in wavelength reused bidirectional passive optical network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choudhury, Pallab K.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) based bidirectional wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) is proposed and analyzed for broadcasting services along with conventional baseband <span class="hlt">signal</span>. The downstream baseband <span class="hlt">signal</span> is spectrally shaped for in-band <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of broadcast <span class="hlt">signal</span>, which ensures effective utilization of <span class="hlt">transmission</span> bandwidth. The modulated downstream optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> is further reused for upstream data modulation and transmitted over the same fiber with suppressed re-modulation and rayleigh backscattering noises. The proposed WDM-PON is successfully demonstrated for 10 Gb/s downstream baseband <span class="hlt">signal</span>, 100 Mb/s 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) in-band broadcast <span class="hlt">signal</span> and wavelength reused 1.25 Gb/s upstream <span class="hlt">signal</span>. Error free operation for both the baseband <span class="hlt">signals</span> as well as low value of error vector magnitude (EVM) for broadcast data are simultaneously achieved in acceptable receiver sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.1529M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.1529M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-<span class="hlt">long-range</span> hydroacoustic observations of submarine volcanic activity at Monowai, Kermadec Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Metz, D.; Watts, A. B.; Grevemeyer, I.; Rodgers, M.; Paulatto, M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Monowai is an active submarine volcanic center in the Kermadec Arc, Southwest Pacific Ocean. During May 2011, it erupted over a period of 5 days, with explosive activity directly linked to the generation of seismoacoustic T phases. We show, using cross-correlation and time-difference-of-arrival techniques, that the eruption is detected as far as Ascension Island, equatorial South Atlantic Ocean, where a bottom moored hydrophone array is operated as part of the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Hydroacoustic phases from the volcanic center must therefore have propagated through the Sound Fixing and Ranging channel in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans, a source-receiver distance of ~15,800 km. We believe this to be the furthest documented range of a naturally occurring underwater <span class="hlt">signal</span> above 1 Hz. Our findings, which are consistent with observations at regional broadband stations and <span class="hlt">long-range</span>, acoustic parabolic equation modeling, have implications for submarine volcano monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4775224','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4775224"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> tertiary interactions during ligand binding by the TPP riboswitch aptamer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duesterberg, Van K; Fischer-Hwang, Irena T; Perez, Christian F; Hogan, Daniel W; Block, Steven M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitch is a cis-regulatory element in mRNA that modifies gene expression in response to TPP concentration. Its specificity is dependent upon conformational changes that take place within its aptamer domain. Here, the role of tertiary interactions in ligand binding was studied at the single-molecule level by combined force spectroscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET), using an optical trap equipped for simultaneous smFRET. The ‘Force-FRET’ approach directly probes secondary and tertiary structural changes during folding, including events associated with binding. Concurrent transitions observed in smFRET <span class="hlt">signals</span> and RNA extension revealed differences in helix-arm orientation between two previously-identified ligand-binding states that had been undetectable by spectroscopy alone. Our results show that the weaker binding state is able to bind to TPP, but is unable to form a tertiary docking interaction that completes the binding process. <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> tertiary interactions stabilize global riboswitch structure and confer increased ligand specificity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12362.001 PMID:26709838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MAR.G8009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MAR.G8009C"><span id="translatedtitle">Light-induced <span class="hlt">long-range</span> hydrogen motion in a-Si:H at room temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheong, Hyeonsik M.; Lee, S.-H.; Nelson, B. P.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S. K.</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that one can detect minuscule amounts of hydrogen diffusion out of a-Si:H under illumination at room temperature, by monitoring the changes in the Raman spectrum of a-WO3 as a function of illumination. The Staebler-Wronski effect, the light-induce creation of metastable defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), has been one of the major problems that has limited the performance of solar cells based on this material. The recently suggested ¡®hydrogen collision model¡¯ can explain many aspects of the Staebler-Wronski effect, but assumes that the photogenerated mobile hydrogen atoms can move a long distance at room temperature. However, light-induced hydrogen motion in a-Si:H has not been experimentally observed at room temperature. We utilized the high sensitivity of the Raman spectrum of electrochromic a-WO3 to hydrogen insertion to probe the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> motion of hydrogen at room temperature. We deposited a thin (200 nm) layer of a-WO3 on top of a-Si:H, and under illumination, a change in the Raman spectrum was detected. By comparing the Raman <span class="hlt">signal</span> changes with those for control experiments where hydrogen is electrochemically inserted into a-WO_3, we can estimate semiquantitatively the amount of hydrogen that diffuses out of the a-Si:H layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20649241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20649241"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> underwater vocalizations of the crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klinck, Holger; Mellinger, David K; Klinck, Karolin; Hager, Julia; Kindermann, Lars; Boebel, Olaf</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>This study provides a comprehensive description of the acoustic characteristics of the predominant <span class="hlt">long-range</span> underwater vocalizations of the crabeater seal, Lobodon carcinophaga, derived from stationary and continuous long-term recordings obtained in the Southern Ocean in 2007. Visual screening of data recorded between 1 October and 15 December 2007 indicates that the principal period of vocal activity of the crabeater seal is the latter part of October and all of November, coinciding with the breeding season of this species. Two call types were identified during this period: the low moan call, which has been described in previous studies and the high moan call, a call type newly described here. Out of 17 052 manually extracted crabeater seal calls, high-quality recordings of 152 low moans and 86 high moans with a <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio exceeding 15 dB were selected and call-specific acoustic features were determined. While the mean duration of the two call types was comparable ( approximately 2.5 s), the high moan occurred at notably higher frequencies (1000-4900 Hz) than the low moan (260-2500 Hz). This study provides baseline information necessary to develop automated detection algorithms to facilitate systematic screening of extended data sets for crabeater seal vocalizations. PMID:20649241</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5194298','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5194298"><span id="translatedtitle">Brown snow: A <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport event in the Canadian Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welch, H.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Billeck, B.N.; Lockhart, W.L.; Brunskill, G.J.; Kling, H.J. ); Olson, M.P. ); Lemoine, R.M. )</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>The authors document the occurrence of a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport event that deposited thousands of tons of fine particulates on the District of Keewatin, central Canadian Arctic, {approximately}63 N. Air mass trajectories, clay mineral composition, soot particles, and visible organic remains point to Asian sources for the brown snow material, probably western China. Semivolatile organic pollutants detected in the brown snow included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ({Sigma}PAH), PCB congeners, and DDT-related compounds ({Sigma}DDT), polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), as well as the herbicide trifuluralin and insecticides methoxychlor, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). {Sigma}PAH, PCB, and PCC concentrations were within the range reported in other studies of Arctic snow but {Sigma}DDT levels were 2-10 times higher than previous reports. High molecular weight PAH may have been associated with soot particles in the brown snow but evidence for Asian sources of the pesticides was not strong because of unknown source <span class="hlt">signal</span> strengths and possible atmospheric transformations of the compounds. Fluxes of these pollutants were also determined by analyzing sediment cores from two small headwater lakes near the sampling site. The quantities of pollutants deposited in this single event may have comprised a significant fraction (>10%) of total annual input {Sigma}PAH and {Sigma}DDT, as determined from lake sedimentation records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22965708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22965708"><span id="translatedtitle">Unmanned platform for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> remote analysis of volatile compounds in air samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>da Costa, Eric T; Neves, Carlos A; Hotta, Guilherme M; Vidal, Denis T R; Barros, Marcelo F; Ayon, Arturo A; Garcia, Carlos D; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> remotely controlled CE system built on an all-terrain vehicle. A four-stroke engine and a set of 12-V batteries were used to provide power to a series of subsystems that include drivers, communication, computers, and a capillary electrophoresis module. This dedicated instrument allows air sampling using a polypropylene porous tube, coupled to a flow system that transports the sample to the inlet of a fused-silica capillary. A hybrid approach was used for the construction of the analytical subsystem combining a conventional fused-silica capillary (used for separation) and a laser machined microfluidic block, made of PMMA. A solid-state cooling approach was also integrated in the CE module to enable controlling the temperature and therefore increasing the useful range of the robot. Although ultimately intended for detection of chemical warfare agents, the proposed system was used to analyze a series of volatile organic acids. As such, the system allowed the separation and detection of formic, acetic, and propionic acids with <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratios of 414, 150, and 115, respectively, after sampling by only 30 s and performing an electrokinetic injection during 2.0 s at 1.0 kV. PMID:22965708</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695673"><span id="translatedtitle">Compact laser transmitter delivering a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> infrared beam aligned with a monitoring visible beam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Hong-Shik; Kim, Haeng-In; Lee, Sang-Shin</p> <p>2012-06-10</p> <p>A compact laser transmitter, which takes advantage of an optical subassembly module, was proposed and demonstrated, providing precisely aligned collinear IR and visible beams. The collimated IR beam acts as a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> projectile for simulated combat, carrying an optical pulsed <span class="hlt">signal</span>, whereas the visible beam plays the role of tracking the IR beam. The proposed laser transmitter utilizes IR (λ(1)=905 nm) and visible (λ(2)=660 nm) light sources, a fiber-optic collimator, and a beam combiner, which includes a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filter in conjunction with optical fiber. The device was built via the laser welding technique and then evaluated by investigating the characteristics of the generated light beams. The IR collimated beam produced had a Gaussian profile and a divergence angle of ~1.3 mrad, and the visible monitoring beam was appropriately collimated to be readily discernible in the vicinity of the transmitter. The two beams were highly aligned within an angle of 0.004 deg as anticipated. Finally, we performed a practical outdoor field test to assess the IR beam with the help of a receiver. An effective trajectory was observed ranging up to 660 m with an overall detectable beam width of ~60 cm. PMID:22695673</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20437263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20437263"><span id="translatedtitle">Flying the fly: <span class="hlt">long-range</span> flight behavior of Drosophila melanogaster to attractive odors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Becher, Paul G; Bengtsson, Marie; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is a model for how animals sense, discriminate, and respond to chemical <span class="hlt">signals</span>. However, with D. melanogaster our knowledge of the behavioral activity of olfactory receptor ligands has relied largely on close-range attraction, rather than on <span class="hlt">long-range</span> orientation behavior. We developed a flight assay to relate chemosensory perception to behavior. Headspace volatiles from vinegar attracted 62% of assayed flies during a 15-min experimental period. Flies responded irrespective of age, sex, and mating state, provided they had been starved. To identify behaviorally relevant chemicals from vinegar, we compared the responses to vinegar and synthetic chemicals. Stimuli were applied by a piezoelectric sprayer at known and constant release rates. Re-vaporized methanol extracts of Super Q-trapped vinegar volatiles attracted as many flies as vinegar. The main volatile component of vinegar, acetic acid, elicited significant attraction as a single compound. Two other vinegar volatiles, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetoin, produced a synergistic effect when added to acetic acid. Geosmin, a microbiological off-flavor, diminished attraction to vinegar. This wind tunnel assay based on a conspicuous and unambiguous behavioral response provides the necessary resolution for the investigation of physiologically and ecologically relevant odors and will become an essential tool for the functional analysis of the D. melanogaster olfactory system. PMID:20437263</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26428774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26428774"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy rate defined by internal wave scattering in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> propagation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morozov, Andrey K; Colosi, John A</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The reduction of information capacity of the ocean sound channel due to scattering by internal waves is a potential problem for acoustic communication, navigation, and remote sensing over <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. In spite of recent progress in research on acoustic <span class="hlt">signal</span> scattering by random internal waves and the fact that random internal waves are ubiquitous in the world oceans, there is no clear understanding of how these waves influence data communication performance. The entropy decrease resulting from scattering by internal waves is an important measure of information loss. Here a rigorous calculation of the entropy is carried out using second moment transport theory equations with random sound-speed perturbations obeying the Garrett-Munk internal-wave model. It is shown that full-wave rate of entropy is of the same order of magnitude as the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Lyapunov exponents for the relevant ray trajectories. The correspondence between full-wave and ray entropies suggests a correspondence between full-wave scattering and ray chaos near statistical saturation. The relatively small level of entropy rate during propagation through the random internal-wave field shows that scattering by internal waves is likely not an essential limitation for data rate and channel capacity. PMID:26428774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JOpt...18e5501S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JOpt...18e5501S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> BOTDA sensor over 50 km distance employing pre-pumped Simplex coding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Qiao; Tu, Xiaobo; Sun, Shilin; Meng, Zhou</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We propose and demonstrate a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensor based on the pre-pumped Simplex coding technique. This approach combines Simplex coding with the pulse pre-pump technique, which takes full advantage of the <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio enhancement provided by optical pulse coding and achieves meter-scale spatial resolution with an unbroadened Brillouin gain spectrum by the use of pre-pumped short pump pulse. Compared to the widely used differential pulse-width pair technique, a comparable performance can be realized while the measurement time is reduced by half. The theoretical analysis of pre-pumped Simplex coding applied to BOTDA systems is presented and a proof-of-concept experiment is carried out along a ∼51 km single-mode fiber composed of two fiber segments with slightly different Brillouin frequency shift values. With the proposed technique, Brillouin frequency shifts of the two different fiber sections at the end of the sensing fiber are clearly distinguished, and the obtained spatial resolution and temperature/strain accuracy along the sensing fiber are respectively 1 m and {0.4}\\circ {{C}}/8μ \\varepsilon . According to the experimental results, we believe that the BOTDA employing pre-pumped Simplex coding is able to realize extra-long distance sensing without Raman amplification, while keeping a high spatial resolution and measurement accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7136E..3HZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7136E..3HZ"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulator bias control based on dither <span class="hlt">signal</span> in 40Gb/s RZ optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jianyong; Wang, Muguang; Fu, Yongjun; Cao, Jihong; Qin, Xi; Zhang, Feng; Jian, Shuisheng</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The bias drift effect in the packaged LiNbO3 modulator is investigated. The Bessel expansion of the dithered clock shows that the harmonic component equal to the dither frequency can be synchronously demodulated to get the bias drift and avoid the random phase difference between the clock or data and the dither <span class="hlt">signal</span>. By using the time division control method one control system can track two modulator bias drift in 40Gb/s RZ optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system because the optimum bias point changes very slowly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626079"><span id="translatedtitle">Wnt <span class="hlt">signaling</span> pathway improves central inhibitory synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fuenzalida, Marco; Espinoza, Claudia; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Cuitino, Loreto; Brandan, Enrique; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) that connects the cytoskeleton, plasma membrane and the extracellular matrix has been related to the maintenance and stabilization of channels and synaptic receptors, which are both essential for synaptogenesis and synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. The dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) exhibits a significant reduction in hippocampal GABA efficacy, which may underlie the altered synaptic function and abnormal hippocampal long-term plasticity exhibited by mdx mice. Emerging studies have implicated Wnt <span class="hlt">signaling</span> in the modulation of synaptic efficacy, neuronal plasticity and cognitive function. We report here that the activation of the non-canonical Wnt-5a pathway and Andrographolide, improves hippocampal mdx GABAergic efficacy by increasing the number of inhibitory synapses and GABA(A) receptors or GABA release. These results indicate that Wnt <span class="hlt">signaling</span> modulates GABA synaptic efficacy and could be a promising novel target for DMD cognitive therapy. PMID:26626079</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JON.....6..969C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JON.....6..969C"><span id="translatedtitle">Add/drop multiplexing and TDM <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in an optical CDMA ring network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Biao; Guo, Changjian; Chen, Jiajia; Zhang, Linjian; Jiang, Qiong; He, Sailing</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>It is shown that a ring topology is better than a star topology for an optical-code-division multiple access (OCDMA) network as an optical metropolitan or local area network in terms of security and capacity. Each node in an OCDMA ring network requires an OCDMA add/drop multiplexer. We present what we believe to be a novel OCDMA add/drop multiplexer that can simultaneously add and drop multiple code channels, and a proof-of-feasibility experiment is demonstrated. An OCDMA ring may also adapt code channels for time domain multiplexing and other digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> systems. An experiment for the synchronized digital hierarchy (SDH) <span class="hlt">signal</span> over a OCDMA link is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26670529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26670529"><span id="translatedtitle">Gigabit Ethernet <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using asynchronous optical code division multiple access.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Philip Y; Fok, Mable P; Shastri, Bhavin J; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel architecture for interfacing and transmitting a Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) <span class="hlt">signal</span> using asynchronous incoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA). This is the first such asynchronous incoherent OCDMA system carrying GbE data being demonstrated to be working among multi-users where each user is operating with an independent clock/data rate and is granted random access to the network. Three major components, the GbE interface, the OCDMA transmitter, and the OCDMA receiver are discussed in detail. The performance of the system is studied and characterized through measuring eye diagrams, bit-error rate and packet loss rate in real-time file transfer. Our Letter also addresses the near-far problem and realizes asynchronous <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and detection of <span class="hlt">signal</span>. PMID:26670529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460005','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460005"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Correlation of Hydrophilicity and Flexibility Along the Hemoglobin Chain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Craciun, D.; Isvoran, A.; Avram, N. M.</p> <p>2010-08-04</p> <p>Within this study, we reveal the <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> correlation concerning hydrophilicity and flexibility along sequences of hemoglobins belonging to different organisms and we compare them with the <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> correlations properties obtained for other protein families. For all hemoglobins considered, we investigate two discrete spatial series: the hydrophilicity and flexibility respectively. We apply the nonlinear analysis methods to analyze the two spatial series by calculating the spectral coefficient {beta}, the scaling exponent {alpha} and Hurst exponent H. The obtained values for the mentioned coefficients suggest <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> correlation within the analyzed sequences of hemoglobins in good agreement with those obtained for the calcium binding proteins and hydrolases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhyA..373..603C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhyA..373..603C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> dependence and multifractality in the term structure of LIBOR interest rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present evidence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence in LIBOR interest rates. We study a data set from 2000 to 2005, for six different currencies and various maturities. Empirical results suggest that the degree of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence decreases with maturity, with the exception of interest rates on Japanese Yen and on Indonesian Rupiah. Furthermore, interest rates have a multifractal nature and the degree of multifractality is much stronger for Indonesia (emerging market). These findings suggest that interest rates derivatives should take these features into account. Furthermore, fixed income risk and portfolio management should incorporate <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence in the modeling of interest rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhRvE..91e2703C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhRvE..91e2703C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ising-model description of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in DNA sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colliva, A.; Pellegrini, R.; Testori, A.; Caselle, M.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We model <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations of nucleotides in the human DNA sequence using the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> one-dimensional (1D) Ising model. We show that, for distances between 103 and 106 bp, the correlations show a universal behavior and may be described by the non-mean-field limit of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> 1D Ising model. This allows us to make some testable hypothesis on the nature of the interaction between distant portions of the DNA chain which led to the DNA structure that we observe today in higher eukaryotes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9715E..12B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9715E..12B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> non-contact imaging photoplethysmography: cardiac pulse wave sensing at a distance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.; Piasecki, Alyssa M.; Bowers, Margaret A.; Klosterman, Samantha L.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Non-contact, imaging photoplethysmography uses photo-optical sensors to measure variations in light absorption, caused by blood volume pulsations, to assess cardiopulmonary parameters including pulse rate, pulse rate variability, and respiration rate. Recently, researchers have studied the applications and methodology of imaging photoplethysmography. Basic research has examined some of the variables affecting data quality and accuracy of imaging photoplethysmography including <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing, imager parameters (e.g. frame rate and resolution), lighting conditions, subject motion, and subject skin tone. This technology may be beneficial for long term or continuous monitoring where contact measurements may be harmful (e.g. skin sensitivities) or where imperceptible or unobtrusive measurements are desirable. Using previously validated <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing methods, we examined the effects of imager-to-subject distance on one-minute, windowed estimates of pulse rate. High-resolution video of 22, stationary participants was collected using an enthusiast-grade, mirrorless, digital camera equipped with a fully-manual, super-telephoto lens at distances of 25, 50, and 100 meters with simultaneous contact measurements of electrocardiography, and fingertip photoplethysmography. By comparison, previous studies have usually been conducted with imager-to-subject distances of up to only a few meters. Mean absolute error for one-minute, windowed, pulse rate estimates (compared to those derived from gold-standard electrocardiography) were 2.0, 4.1, and 10.9 beats per minute at distances of 25, 50, and 100 meters, respectively. <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> imaging presents several unique challenges among which include decreased, observed light reflectance and smaller regions of interest. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate that accurate pulse rate measurements can be obtained from over long imager-to-participant distances given these constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9815076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9815076"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabotropic glutamate receptors depress vagal and aortic baroreceptor <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in the NTS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Z; Chen, C Y; Bonham, A C</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>We sought to determine whether metabotropic glutamate receptors contribute to frequency-dependent depression of vagal and aortic baroreceptor <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in vivo. In alpha-chloralose-anesthetized rabbits, we determined the number of extracellular action potentials synaptically evoked by low (1 Hz)- or high-frequency vagal (3-20 Hz) or aortic depressor nerve (ADN) (6-80 Hz) stimulation and postsynaptically evoked by the ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (2S,1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I) attenuated NTS responses monosynaptically evoked by 1-Hz vagus stimulation by 34% (n = 25; P = 0.011), while augmenting AMPA-evoked responses by 64% (n = 17; P = 0.026). The metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) did not affect NTS responses to low-frequency vagal stimulation (n = 11) or AMPA (n = 10) but augmented responses to high-frequency stimulation by 50% (n = 25; P = 0.0001). MPPG also augmented NTS responses to high-frequency ADN stimulation by 35% (n = 9; P = 0.048) but did not affect responses to low-frequency stimulation (n = 9) or AMPA (n = 7). The results suggest that metabotropic glutamate receptors, presumably at presynaptic sites, contribute to frequency-dependent depression of vagal and aortic baroreceptor <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in NTS. PMID:9815076</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EJASP2006...64J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EJASP2006...64J"><span id="translatedtitle">Progressive and Error-Resilient <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Strategies for VLC Encoded <span class="hlt">Signals</span> over Noisy Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jégou, Hervé; Guillemot, Christine</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>This paper addresses the issue of robust and progressive <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of <span class="hlt">signals</span> (e.g., images, video) encoded with variable length codes (VLCs) over error-prone channels. This paper first describes bitstream construction methods offering good properties in terms of error resilience and progressivity. In contrast with related algorithms described in the literature, all proposed methods have a linear complexity as the sequence length increases. The applicability of soft-input soft-output (SISO) and turbo decoding principles to resulting bitstream structures is investigated. In addition to error resilience, the amenability of the bitstream construction methods to progressive decoding is considered. The problem of code design for achieving good performance in terms of error resilience and progressive decoding with these <span class="hlt">transmission</span> strategies is then addressed. The VLC code has to be such that the symbol energy is mainly concentrated on the first bits of the symbol representation (i.e., on the first transitions of the corresponding codetree). Simulation results reveal high performance in terms of symbol error rate (SER) and mean-square reconstruction error (MSE). These error-resilience and progressivity properties are obtained without any penalty in compression efficiency. Codes with such properties are of strong interest for the binarization of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-ary sources in state-of-the-art image, and video coding systems making use of, for example, the EBCOT or CABAC algorithms. A prior statistical analysis of the <span class="hlt">signal</span> allows the construction of the appropriate binarization code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040172633&hterms=bioelectric+engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbioelectric%2Bengineering','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040172633&hterms=bioelectric+engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dbioelectric%2Bengineering"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrical <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in a bone cell network: the influence of a discrete gap junction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, D.; Weinbaum, S.; Cowin, S. C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A refined electrical cable model is formulated to investigate the role of a discrete gap junction in the intracellular <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of electrical <span class="hlt">signals</span> in an electrically coupled system of osteocytes and osteoblasts in an osteon. The model also examines the influence of the ratio q between the membrane's electrical time constant and the characteristic time of pore fluid pressure, the circular, cylindrical geometry of the osteon, and key simplifying assumptions in our earlier continuous cable model (see Zhang, D., S. C. Cowin, and S. Weinbaum. Electrical <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and gap junction regulation in a bone cell network: A cable model for an osteon. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 25:379-396, 1997). Using this refined model, it is shown that (1) the intracellular potential amplitude at the osteoblastic end of the osteonal cable retains the character of a combination of a low-pass and a high-pass filter as the corner frequency varies in the physiological range; (2) the presence of a discrete gap junction near a resting osteoblast can lead to significant modulation of the intracellular potential and current in the osteoblast for measured values of the gap junction coupling strength; and (3) the circular, cylindrical geometry of the osteon is well simulated by the beam analogy used in Zhang et al.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209280"><span id="translatedtitle">Cross-inhibition of NMBR and GRPR <span class="hlt">signaling</span> maintains normal histaminergic itch <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Zhong-Qiu; Wan, Li; Liu, Xian-Yu; Huo, Fu-Quan; Li, Hui; Barry, Devin M; Krieger, Stephanie; Kim, Seungil; Liu, Zhong-Chun; Xu, Jinbin; Rogers, Buck E; Li, Yun-Qing; Chen, Zhou-Feng</p> <p>2014-09-10</p> <p>We previously showed that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in the spinal cord is important for mediating nonhistaminergic itch. Neuromedin B receptor (NMBR), the second member of the mammalian bombesin receptor family, is expressed in a largely nonoverlapping pattern with GRPR in the superficial spinal cord, and its role in itch <span class="hlt">transmission</span> remains unclear. Here, we report that Nmbr knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal scratching behavior in response to intradermal injection of pruritogens. However, mice lacking both Nmbr and Grpr (DKO mice) showed significant deficits in histaminergic itch. In contrast, the chloroquine (CQ)-evoked scratching behavior of DKO mice is not further reduced compared with Grpr KO mice. These results suggest that NMBR and GRPR could compensate for the loss of each other to maintain normal histamine-evoked itch, whereas GRPR is exclusively required for CQ-evoked scratching behavior. Interestingly, GRPR activity is enhanced in Nmbr KO mice despite the lack of upregulation of Grpr expression; so is NMBR in Grpr KO mice. We found that NMB acts exclusively through NMBR for itch <span class="hlt">transmission</span>, whereas GRP can <span class="hlt">signal</span> through both receptors, albeit to NMBR to a much lesser extent. Although NMBR and NMBR(+) neurons are dispensable for histaminergic itch, GRPR(+) neurons are likely to act downstream of NMBR(+) neurons to integrate NMB-NMBR-encoded histaminergic itch information in normal physiological conditions. Together, we define the respective function of NMBR and GRPR in itch <span class="hlt">transmission</span>, and reveal an unexpected relationship not only between the two receptors but also between the two populations of interneurons in itch <span class="hlt">signaling</span>. PMID:25209280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20718357','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20718357"><span id="translatedtitle">van der Waals forces in density functional theory: Perturbational <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electron-interaction corrections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Angyan, Janos G.; Gerber, Iann C.; Savin, Andreas; Toulouse, Julien</p> <p>2005-07-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> exchange and correlation effects, responsible for the failure of currently used approximate density functionals in describing van der Waals forces, are taken into account explicitly after a separation of the electron-electron interaction in the Hamiltonian into short- and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> components. We propose a 'range-separated hybrid' functional based on a local density approximation for the short-range exchange-correlation energy, combined with a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> exact exchange energy. <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> correlation effects are added by a second-order perturbational treatment. The resulting scheme is general and is particularly well adapted to describe van der Waals complexes, such as rare gas dimers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014977','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014977"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships Between <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Lightning Networks and TRMM/LIS Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rudlosky, Scott D.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chris J.; Bateman, Monte; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> lightning detection technologies have improved our understanding of thunderstorm evolution in the data sparse oceanic regions. Although the expansion and improvement of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> lightning datasets have increased their applicability, these applications (e.g., data assimilation, atmospheric chemistry, and aviation weather hazards) require knowledge of the network detection capabilities. The present study intercompares <span class="hlt">long-range</span> lightning data with observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite. The study examines network detection efficiency and location accuracy relative to LIS observations, describes spatial variability in these performance metrics, and documents the characteristics of LIS flashes that are detected by the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> networks. Improved knowledge of relationships between these datasets will allow researchers, algorithm developers, and operational users to better prepare for the spatial and temporal coverage of the upcoming GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhyA..345..635C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhyA..345..635C"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible causes of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence in the Brazilian stock market</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>While the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence in the asset returns seems to be a stylized fact, the issue of arguing the possible causes of this phenomena is totally obscure. Trying to shed light in this problem, we investigate the possible sources of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence phenomena in the Brazilian Stock Market. For this purpose, we employ a sample which comprises stocks traded in the Brazilian financial market (BOVESPA Index). The Hurst exponent here is considered as our measure of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence and it is evaluated by six different methods. We have found evidence of statistically significant rank correlation between specific variables of the Brazilian firms which subscribe stocks and the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence phenomena present in these stocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005837"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Atmospheric Lasercom Links Between Static and Mobile Platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scharlemann, E T; Breitfeller, E F; Henderson, J R; Kallman, J S; Morris, J R; Ruggiero, A J</p> <p>2003-07-29</p> <p>We describe modeling and simulation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> terrestrial laser communications links between static and mobile platforms. Atmospheric turbulence modeling, along with pointing, tracking and acquisition models are combined to provide an overall capability to estimate communications link performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8205E..0AS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8205E..0AS"><span id="translatedtitle">Motion planning in unstructured road for intelligent vehicle with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, Chaoxia; Wang, Yanqing; Yang, Jingyu; Liu, Hanxiang</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>We present a novel motion planning method for intelligent vehicle with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> perception under the uncertain constraints of unstructured road boundary on the basis of obstacle roadside fusion strategy and beam curvature method . Not only does this method inherit the advantages of reliability, smoothness and speediness from LCM, but also it can produce more reasonable path than traditional LCM does by virtue of the global information acquired by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040119','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040119"><span id="translatedtitle">High energy factorization in nucleus-nucleus collisions III. <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> rapidity correlations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Venugopalan, R.; Gelis, F., Lappi, T.</p> <p>2009-10-27</p> <p>We obtain a novel result in QCD for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> rapidity correlations between gluons produced in the collision of saturated high energy hadrons or nuclei. This result, obtained in a high energy factorization framework, provides strong justification for the Glasma flux tube picture of coherent strong color fields. Our formalism can be applied to 'near side ridge' events at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and in future studies of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> rapidity correlations at the LHC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21308421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21308421"><span id="translatedtitle">High energy factorization in nucleus-nucleus collisions. III. <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> rapidity correlations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gelis, Francois</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>We obtain a novel result in QCD for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> rapidity correlations between gluons produced in the collision of saturated high energy hadrons or nuclei. This result, obtained in a high energy factorization framework, provides strong justification for the Glasma flux tube picture of coherent strong color fields. Our formalism can be applied to 'near side ridge' events at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and in future studies of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> rapidity correlations at the LHC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20676723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20676723"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> interactions and wave patterns in a DNA model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tabi, C B; Mohamadou, A; Kofané, T C</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>We propose a spin-like model of DNA nonlinear dynamics with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions between adjacent base pairs. We show that the model equation is a modified sine-Gordon equation. We perform the linear stability analysis of a plane wave, which predicts high-amplitude and extended oscillating waves for high values of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> parameter. This is confirmed numerically and biological implications of the obtained patterns are suggested. PMID:20676723</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3781160','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3781160"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Correlations in Stride Intervals May Emerge from Non-Chaotic Walking Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahn, Jooeun; Hogan, Neville</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Stride intervals of normal human walking exhibit <span class="hlt">long-range</span> temporal correlations. Similar to the fractal-like behaviors observed in brain and heart activity, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in walking have commonly been interpreted to result from chaotic dynamics and be a signature of health. Several mathematical models have reproduced this behavior by assuming a dominant role of neural central pattern generators (CPGs) and/or nonlinear biomechanics to evoke chaos. In this study, we show that a simple walking model without a CPG or biomechanics capable of chaos can reproduce <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations. Stride intervals of the model revealed <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations observed in human walking when the model had moderate orbital stability, which enabled the current stride to affect a future stride even after many steps. This provides a clear counterexample to the common hypothesis that a CPG and/or chaotic dynamics is required to explain the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in healthy human walking. Instead, our results suggest that the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlation may result from a combination of noise that is ubiquitous in biological systems and orbital stability that is essential in general rhythmic movements. PMID:24086274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089241&hterms=cardiac+scale&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcardiac%2Bscale','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089241&hterms=cardiac+scale&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcardiac%2Bscale"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical mechanics in biology: how ubiquitous are <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Goldberger, Z. D.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Ossadnik, S. M.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this opening talk is to describe examples of recent progress in applying statistical mechanics to biological systems. We first briefly review several biological systems, and then focus on the fractal features characterized by the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations found recently in DNA sequences containing non-coding material. We discuss the evidence supporting the finding that for sequences containing only coding regions, there are no <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations. We also discuss the recent finding that the exponent alpha characterizing the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations increases with evolution, and we discuss two related models, the insertion model and the insertion-deletion model, that may account for the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations. Finally, we summarize the analysis of long-term data on human heartbeats (up to 10(4) heart beats) that supports the possibility that the successive increments in the cardiac beat-to-beat intervals of healthy subjects display scale-invariant, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> "anti-correlations" (a tendency to beat faster is balanced by a tendency to beat slower later on). In contrast, for a group of subjects with severe heart disease, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations vanish. This finding suggests that the classical theory of homeostasis, according to which stable physiological processes seek to maintain "constancy," should be extended to account for this type of dynamical, far from equilibrium, behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9270E..14C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9270E..14C"><span id="translatedtitle">Excess <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> with dimming control pattern in indoor visible light communication systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jian; You, Xiaodi; Zheng, Huanhuan; Yu, Changyuan</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In traditional dimming control system using pulse width modulation (PWM) combined with M-QAM OFDM scheme, OFDM <span class="hlt">signal</span> is only transmitted during "on" period. To guarantee the communication quality, reduction of duty cycle will cause increased symbol rate or added LED power. This means system BER performance degradation and power consumption. In order to solve the defects of the traditional dimming scheme, we propose a new dimming control scheme in indoor visible light communication, which combines OFDM <span class="hlt">signal</span> and multi-pulse position modulation (MPPM) light pulse well with each other. By means of dividing traditional PWM pulses into MPPM pulses with the same duty cycle, the pattern effect of MPPM pulses is utilized, which makes excess <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> possible. Simulation results show that when reducing the brightness of LED the achievable symbol rate using dimming control patterns is not higher than the traditional PWM scheme and the LED power is also reduced, which satisfies both system reliability and energy effectiveness under constant high data rate and BER less than 10-3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8752E..03Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8752E..03Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Integration of radio-frequency <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and radar in general software for multimodal battlefield <span class="hlt">signal</span> modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Kenneth K.; Reznicek, Nathan J.; Wilson, D. Keith</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The Environmental Awareness for Sensor and Emitter Employment (EASEE) software, being developed by the U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), provides a general platform for predicting sensor performance and optimizing sensor selection and placement in complex terrain and weather conditions. It incorporates an extensive library of target signatures, <span class="hlt">signal</span> propagation models, and sensor systems. A flexible object-oriented design supports efficient integration and simulation of diverse <span class="hlt">signal</span> modalities. This paper describes the integration of modeling capabilities for radio-frequency (RF) <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and radar systems from the U. S. Navy Electromagnetic Propagation Integrated Resource Environment (EMPIRE), which contains nearly twenty different realistic RF propagation models. The integration utilizes an XML-based interface between EASEE and EMPIRE to set inputs for and run propagation models. To accommodate radars, fundamental improvements to the EASEE software architecture were made to support active-sensing scenarios with forward and backward propagation of the RF <span class="hlt">signals</span> between the radar and target. Models for reflecting targets were defined to apply a target-specific, directionally dependent reflection coefficient (i.e., scattering cross section) to the incident wavefields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4139731','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4139731"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural occurrence of microbial sulphur oxidation by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electron transport in the seafloor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Malkin, Sairah Y; Rao, Alexandra MF; Seitaj, Dorina; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Zetsche, Eva-Maria; Hidalgo-Martinez, Silvia; Boschker, Henricus TS; Meysman, Filip JR</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Recently, a novel mode of sulphur oxidation was described in marine sediments, in which sulphide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers was electrically coupled to oxygen reduction at the sediment surface. Subsequent experimental evidence identified that long filamentous bacteria belonging to the family Desulfobulbaceae likely mediated the electron transport across the centimetre-scale distances. Such <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electron transfer challenges some long-held views in microbial ecology and could have profound implications for sulphur cycling in marine sediments. But, so far, this process of electrogenic sulphur oxidation has been documented only in laboratory experiments and so its imprint on the seafloor remains unknown. Here we show that the geochemical signature of electrogenic sulphur oxidation occurs in a variety of coastal sediment environments, including a salt marsh, a seasonally hypoxic basin, and a subtidal coastal mud plain. In all cases, electrogenic sulphur oxidation was detected together with an abundance of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. Complementary laboratory experiments in intertidal sands demonstrated that mechanical disturbance by bioturbating fauna destroys the electrogenic sulphur oxidation <span class="hlt">signal</span>. A survey of published geochemical data and 16S rRNA gene sequences identified that electrogenic sulphide oxidation is likely present in a variety of marine sediments with high sulphide generation and restricted bioturbation, such as mangrove swamps, aquaculture areas, seasonally hypoxic basins, cold sulphide seeps and possibly hydrothermal vent environments. This study shows for the first time that electrogenic sulphur oxidation occurs in a wide range of marine sediments and that bioturbation may exert a dominant control on its natural distribution. PMID:24671086</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRG..121.1249E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRG..121.1249E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial Fe(II) oxidation distinguished by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlation in redox potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enright, Allison M. L.; Ferris, F. Grant</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The kinetics of bacterial Fe(II) oxidation was investigated 297 m underground at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (near Oskarshamn, Sweden) under steady state groundwater flow conditions in a flow-through cell containing well-developed flocculent mats of bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS). Pseudo first-order rate constants of 0.004 min-1 and 0.009 min-1 were obtained for chemical and bacterial Fe(II) oxidation, respectively, based on the 104 min retention time of groundwater in the flow cell, inlet Fe(II) concentration of 21.0 ± 0.5 µm, outlet Fe(II) concentration of 8.5 ± 0.7 µm, as well as constant pH = - log H+ of 7.42 ± 0.01, dissolved O2 concentration of 0.11 ± 0.01 mg/L, and groundwater temperature of 12.4 ± 0.1°C. Redox potential was lower at the BIOS-free inlet (-135.4 ± 1.16 mV) compared to inside BIOS within the flow cell (-112.6 ± 1.91 mV), consistent with the Nernst relationship and oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Further evaluation of the redox potential time series data using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) revealed power law scaling in the amplitude of fluctuations over increasing intervals of time with significantly different (p < 0.01) DFA α scaling exponents of 1.89 ± 0.03 for BIOS and 1.67 ± 0.06 at the inlet. These α values not only <span class="hlt">signal</span> the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlation in the redox potential time series measurements but also distinguish between the slower rate of chemical Fe(II) oxidation at the inlet and faster rate accelerated by FeOB in BIOS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22398790','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22398790"><span id="translatedtitle">High-frequency <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> through single-atom contacts of Au and Pt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aoyama, Shodai; Kurokawa, Shu; Sakai, Akira</p> <p>2015-03-23</p> <p><span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> through atom-sized contacts of Au and Pt has been studied at room temperature for frequencies from 9 kHz to 1 GHz and for conductances (1−10)G{sub 0} (G≡2e{sup 2}/h is the quantum unit of conductance). We measured the frequency spectrum of S parameter S{sub 21}=|S{sub 21}|e{sup iθ} and found θ∼0 up to 1 GHz for all contacts irrespective of their conductance. Our observations directly prove that the atom-sized contacts of Au and Pt, including their single-atom contacts, behave as a pure resistance in the RF regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1403..369S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1403..369S"><span id="translatedtitle">A Physiological <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Model to be Used for Specific Diagnosis of Cochlear Impairments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saremi, Amin; Stenfelt, Stefan</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Many of the sophisticated characteristics of human auditory system are attributed to cochlea. Also, most of patients with a hearing loss suffer from impairments that originate from cochlea (sensorineural). Despite this, today's clinical diagnosis methods do not probe the specific origins of such cochlear lesions. The aim of this research is to introduce a physiological <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> model to be clinically used as a tool for diagnosis of cochlear losses. This model enables simulation of different bio-mechano-electrical processes which occur in the auditory organ of Corti inside the cochlea. What makes this model different from many available computational models is its loyalty to physiology since the ultimate goal is to model each single physiological phenomenon. This includes passive BM vibration, outer hair cells' performances such as nonlinear mechanoelectrical transduction (MET), active amplifications by somatic motor, as well as vibration to neural conversion at the inner hair cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000091055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000091055"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5250652','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5250652"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing very <span class="hlt">long-range</span> impacts from a rapid climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Markley, O.W.; Hall, P.R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A variety of anthropogenic, or human-generated forces are gradually changing global climate. These include effects due to slash and burn agriculture, industrial particulates, waste heat and gasses such as chlorofluoromethanes, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. Although the short-range effects of these forces may seem to be relatively minor from a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> perspective, climatologists warn that the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> effects - especially of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from widespread fossil fuel use - will be great, bringing significant alterations in atmospheric temperature, wind and ocean currents, precipitation patterns, and other ecological phenomena. From a geological time perspective, the resulting climate changes will occur quite rapidly, and will affect human concerns in a number of ways. Besides being important for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> social planning, these effects are of intrinsic interest to futures research and impact assessment methodologists. Although many uncertainties exist in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> climate forecasting, climate change comprises one of the very few classes of phenomena where the nature of very <span class="hlt">long-range</span> (i.e., 30 to 3000 years) impact-producing changes are feasible to forecast in reasonably rigorous, quantitative terms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600391','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600391"><span id="translatedtitle">Hierarchical organization of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> circuits in the olfactory cortices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Weiguo; Sun, Qian-Quan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>How sensory information is processed within olfactory cortices is unclear. Here, we examined <span class="hlt">long-range</span> circuit wiring between different olfactory cortical regions of acute mouse brain slices using a channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-based neuronal targeting approach. Our results provide detailed information regarding the synaptic properties of the reciprocal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> monosynaptic glutamatergic projections (LRMGP) between and within anterior piriform cortex (aPC), posterior piriform cortex (pPC), and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), thereby creating a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> inter- and intracortical circuit diagrams at the level of synapses and single cortical neurons. Our results reveal the following information regarding hierarchical intra- and intercortical organizations: (i) there is massive bottom-up (i.e., rostral–caudal) excitation within the LRMGP accompanied with strong feedforward (FF) inhibition; (ii) there are convergent FF connections onto LEC from both aPC and pPC; (iii) feedback (FB) intercortical connections are weak with a significant fraction of presumptive silent synapses; and (iv) intra and intercortical <span class="hlt">long-range</span> connections lack layer specificity and their innervation of interneurons are stronger than neighboring pyramidal neurons. The elucidation of the distinct hierarchical organization of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> olfactory cortical circuits paves the way for further understanding of higher order cortical processing within the olfactory system. PMID:26416972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27310985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27310985"><span id="translatedtitle">Aberrant <span class="hlt">long-range</span> functional connectivity density in generalized tonic-clonic seizures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Ling; Li, Yibo; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Rong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Studies in generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) have reported both structural and functional alterations in the brain. However, changes in spontaneous neuronal functional organization in GTCS remain largely unknown.In this study, 70 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by tonic-clonic seizures and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Here, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, an ultrafast data-driven method based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was applied for the first time to investigate the changes of spontaneous functional brain activity caused by epilepsy.The results showed significantly decreased <span class="hlt">long-range</span> FCD in the middle and inferior temporal, prefrontal, and inferior parietal cortices as well as increased <span class="hlt">long-range</span> FCD in the cerebellum anterior lobe and sensorimotor areas. Negative correlation between duration of disease and reduced <span class="hlt">long-range</span> FCD was found. In addition, most regions with reduced <span class="hlt">long-range</span> FCD showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within default mode network.Negative correlation between duration of disease and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> FCD may reflect an adverse consequence eventually from original. Furthermore, the observed FCD and rsFC alterations have been speculated to be associated with the social-cognitive impairments as well as motor control. Our study provided novel evidences to look into neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying GTCS. PMID:27310985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080046911','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080046911"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Transhorizon Lunar Surface Radio Wave Propagation in the Presence of a Regolith and a Sparse Exospheric Plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manning, Robert M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span>, over-the-horizon (transhorizon) radio wave propagation is considered for the case of the Moon. In the event that relay satellites are not available or otherwise unwarranted for use, transhorizon communication provides for a contingency or backup option for non line-of-sight lunar surface exploration scenarios. Two potential low-frequency propagation mechanisms characteristic of the lunar landscape are the lunar regolith and the photoelectron induced plasma exosphere enveloping the Moon. Although it was hoped that the regolith would provide for a spherical waveguide which could support a trapped surface wave phenomena, it is found that, in most cases, the regolith is deleterious to <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> radio wave propagation. However, the presence of the plasma of the lunar exosphere supports wave propagation and, in fact, surpasses the attenuation of the regolith. Given the models of the regolith and exosphere adopted here, it is recommended that a frequency of 1 MHz be considered for low rate data <span class="hlt">transmission</span> along the lunar surface. It is also recommended that further research be done to capture the descriptive physics of the regolith and the exospheric plasma so that a more complete model can be obtained. This comprehensive theoretical study is based entirely on first principles and the mathematical techniques needed are developed as required; it is self-contained and should not require the use of outside resources for its understanding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961774','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961774"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transmission</span> of Predictable Sensory <span class="hlt">Signals</span> to the Cerebellum via Climbing Fiber Pathways Is Gated during Exploratory Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lawrenson, Charlotte L.; Watson, Thomas C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Pathways arising from the periphery that target the inferior olive [spino-olivocerebellar pathways (SOCPs)] are a vital source of information to the cerebellum and are modulated (gated) during active movements. This limits their ability to forward <span class="hlt">signals</span> to climbing fibers in the cerebellar cortex. We tested the hypothesis that the temporal pattern of gating is related to the predictability of a sensory <span class="hlt">signal</span>. Low-intensity electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral hindlimb in awake rats evoked field potentials in the C1 zone in the copula pyramidis of the cerebellar cortex. Responses had an onset latency of 12.5 ± 0.3 ms and were either short or long duration (8.7 ± 0.1 vs 31.2 ± 0.3 ms, respectively). Both types of response were shown to be mainly climbing fiber in origin and therefore evoked by <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in hindlimb SOCPs. Changes in response size (area of field, millivolts per millisecond) were used to monitor differences in <span class="hlt">transmission</span> during rest and three phases of rearing: phase 1, rearing up; phase 2, upright; and phase 3, rearing down. Responses evoked during phase 2 were similar in size to rest but were smaller during phases 1 and 3, i.e., <span class="hlt">transmission</span> was reduced during active movement when self-generated (predictable) sensory <span class="hlt">signals</span> from the hindlimbs are likely to occur. To test whether the pattern of gating was related to the predictability of the sensory <span class="hlt">signal</span>, some animals received the hindlimb stimulation only during phase 2. Over ∼10 d, the responses became progressively smaller in size, consistent with gating-out <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of predictable sensory <span class="hlt">signals</span> relayed via SOCPs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A major route for peripheral information to gain access to the cerebellum is via ascending climbing fiber pathways. During active movements, gating of <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in these pathways controls when climbing fiber <span class="hlt">signals</span> can modify cerebellar activity. We investigated this phenomenon in rats during their exploratory behavior of rearing</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4268690','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4268690"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> ordered vorticity patterns in living tissue induced by cell division</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rossen, Ninna S.; Tarp, Jens M.; Mathiesen, Joachim; Jensen, Mogens H.; Oddershede, Lene B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In healthy blood vessels with a laminar blood flow, the endothelial cell division rate is low, only sufficient to replace apoptotic cells. The division rate significantly increases during embryonic development and under halted or turbulent flow. Cells in barrier tissue are connected and their motility is highly correlated. Here we investigate the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dynamics induced by cell division in an endothelial monolayer under non-flow conditions, mimicking the conditions during vessel formation or around blood clots. Cell divisions induce <span class="hlt">long-range</span>, well-ordered vortex patterns extending several cell diameters away from the division site, in spite of the system’s low Reynolds number. Our experimental results are reproduced by a hydrodynamic continuum model simulating division as a local pressure increase corresponding to a local tension decrease. Such <span class="hlt">long-range</span> physical communication may be crucial for embryonic development and for healing tissue, for instance around blood clots. PMID:25483750</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92q4202P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92q4202P"><span id="translatedtitle">Density of states and magnetotransport in Weyl semimetals with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pesin, D. A.; Mishchenko, E. G.; Levchenko, A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We study the density of states and magnetotransport properties of disordered Weyl semimetals, focusing on the case of a strong <span class="hlt">long-range</span> disorder. To calculate the disorder-averaged density of states close to nodal points, we treat exactly the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> random potential fluctuations produced by charged impurities, while the short-range component of disorder potential is included systematically and controllably with the help of a diagram technique. We find that, for energies close to the degeneracy point, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> potential fluctuations lead to a finite density of states. In the context of transport, we discuss that a self-consistent theory of screening in magnetic field may conceivably lead to nonmonotonic low-field magnetoresistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.C7008W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.C7008W"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact Diagonalization of a Quantum XXZ Model with <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Justin A.; Smith, David A.; Wang, C. C.-Joseph; Varney, Christopher N.</p> <p></p> <p>In recent years, rapid advancement has been made in using ultra-cold gases as quantum spin simulators, with two dimensional lattices becoming a rich target for exploring the exotic states and excitations of spin-1/2 systems on frustrated lattices. When the interaction in the system becomes <span class="hlt">long-ranged</span>, the spins are frustrated by the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction. Consequently, the competition between the geometric frustration and the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction results in the the underlying orders present in the ground state being unclear. Here, we investigate the quantum dipolar XXZ model with exact diagonalization to characterize and contrast the ground state and excitations on square and triangular lattices to provide a baseline for comparison with experiments. University of West Florida Summer Undergraduate Research Program, University of West Florida Quality Enhancement Plan Award.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.112u0601M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.112u0601M"><span id="translatedtitle">Spreading of Perturbations in <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Interacting Classical Lattice Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Métivier, David; Bachelard, Romain; Kastner, Michael</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Lieb-Robinson-type bounds are reported for a large class of classical Hamiltonian lattice models. By a suitable rescaling of energy or time, such bounds can be constructed for interactions of arbitrarily <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. The bound quantifies the dependence of the system's dynamics on a perturbation of the initial state. The effect of the perturbation is found to be effectively restricted to the interior of a causal region of logarithmic shape, with only small, algebraically decaying effects in the exterior. A refined bound, sharper than conventional Lieb-Robinson bounds, is required to correctly capture the shape of the causal region, as confirmed by numerical results for classical <span class="hlt">long-range</span> XY chains. We discuss the relevance of our findings for the relaxation to equilibrium of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interacting lattice models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116209&hterms=spatial+networks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dspatial%2Bnetworks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116209&hterms=spatial+networks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dspatial%2Bnetworks"><span id="translatedtitle">Cross-Sensor Calibration of the GAI <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Detection Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boccippio, Dennis J.; Boeck, William; Goodman, Steven J.; Cummins, K.; Cramer, J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> component of the North American Lightning Detection Network has been providing experimental data products since July 1996, offering cloud-to-ground lightning coverage throughout the Atlantic and Western Pacific oceans, as well as south to the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The network experiences a strong decrease in detection efficiency with range, which is also significantly modulated by differential propagation under day, night and terminator-crossing conditions. A climatological comparison of total lightning data observed by the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and CG lightning observed by the <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> network is conducted, with strict quality control and allowance for differential network performance before and after the activation of the Canadian Lightning Detection Network. This yields a first-order geographic estimate of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> network detection efficiency and its spatial variability. Intercomparisons are also performed over the continental US, allowing large scale estimates of the midlatitude climatological IC:CG ratio and its possible dependence on latitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627108Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627108Q"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quan, Wei; Hao, Xiaolei; Chen, Yongju; Yu, Shaogang; Xu, Songpo; Wang, Yanlan; Sun, Renping; Lai, Xuanyang; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; He, Xiantu; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In strong field atomic physics community, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4891819','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4891819"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Wu, ChengYin; Gong, QiHuang; He, XianTu; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In strong field atomic physics community, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends. PMID:27256904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27256904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27256904"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Wu, ChengYin; Gong, QiHuang; He, XianTu; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In strong field atomic physics community, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends. PMID:27256904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E5720R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E5720R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> ordered vorticity patterns in living tissue induced by cell division</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rossen, Ninna S.; Tarp, Jens M.; Mathiesen, Joachim; Jensen, Mogens H.; Oddershede, Lene B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In healthy blood vessels with a laminar blood flow, the endothelial cell division rate is low, only sufficient to replace apoptotic cells. The division rate significantly increases during embryonic development and under halted or turbulent flow. Cells in barrier tissue are connected and their motility is highly correlated. Here we investigate the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dynamics induced by cell division in an endothelial monolayer under non-flow conditions, mimicking the conditions during vessel formation or around blood clots. Cell divisions induce <span class="hlt">long-range</span>, well-ordered vortex patterns extending several cell diameters away from the division site, in spite of the system’s low Reynolds number. Our experimental results are reproduced by a hydrodynamic continuum model simulating division as a local pressure increase corresponding to a local tension decrease. Such <span class="hlt">long-range</span> physical communication may be crucial for embryonic development and for healing tissue, for instance around blood clots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890049392&hterms=Barium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBarium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890049392&hterms=Barium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBarium"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleation in the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions. [performed on ferroelectric barium titanate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chandra, P.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Unlike droplet nucleation near a liquid-gas critical point, the decay of metastable phases in crystalline materials is strongly affected by the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forces. Field quench experiments performed on the ferroelectric barium titanate indicate that nucleation in this material is markedly different from that observed in liquids. In this paper, a theory for nucleation at a first-order phase transition in which the mediating forces are <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> is presented. It is found that the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> force induces cooperative nucleation and growth processes, and that this feedback mechanism produces a well-defined delay time with a sharp onset in the transformation to the stable phase. Closed-form expressions for the characteristic onset time and width of the transition are developed, in good agreement with numerical and experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Fract..2250010O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Fract..2250010O"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractality Evidence and <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Dependence on Capital Markets: a Hurst Exponent Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oprean, Camelia; Tănăsescu, Cristina</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Since the existence of market memory could implicate the rejection of the efficient market hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to find any evidence that selected emergent capital markets (eight European and BRIC markets, namely Hungary, Romania, Estonia, Czech Republic, Brazil, Russia, India and China) evince <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence or the random walk hypothesis. In this paper, the Hurst exponent as calculated by R/S fractal analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is our measure of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence in the series. The results reinforce our previous findings and suggest that if stock returns present <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence, the random walk hypothesis is not valid anymore and neither is the market efficiency hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1051314','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1051314"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of disorder with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlation on transport in graphene nanoribbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, GP; Gao, M.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Liu, N.; Qin, Z.J.; Shanqqan, M.H.</p> <p>2012-06-13</p> <p>Transport in disordered armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGR) with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlation between quantum wire contacts is investigated by a transfer matrix combined with Landauer's formula. The metal-insulator transition is induced by disorder in neutral AGR. Therein, the conductance is one conductance quantum for the metallic phase and exponentially decays otherwise, when the length of AGR approaches infinity and far longer than its width. Similar to the case of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> disorder, the conductance of neutral AGR first increases and then decreases while the conductance of doped AGR monotonically decreases, as the disorder strength increases. In the presence of strong disorder, the conductivity depends monotonically and non-monotonically on the aspect ratio for heavily doped and slightly doped AGR, respectively. For edge disordered graphene nanoribbon, the conductance increases with the disorder strength of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlated disordered while no delocalization exists, since the edge disorder induces localization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94b3601C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94b3601C"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> hopping and interactions on quantum walks in ordered and disordered lattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chattaraj, T.; Krems, R. V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We study the effects of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> hopping and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interparticle interactions on the quantum walk of hard-core bosons in ideal and disordered one-dimensional lattices. We find that the range of hopping has a much more significant effect on the particle correlation dynamics than the range of interactions. We illustrate that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> hopping makes the correlation diagrams asymmetric with respect to the sign of the interaction. We examine the relative role of repulsive and attractive interactions on the dynamics of scattering by isolated impurities and Anderson localization in disordered lattices. We show that weakly repulsive interactions increase the probability of tunneling through isolated impurities and decrease the localization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..81q4430G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..81q4430G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> magnetic response of the XY spin chain under far-from-equilibrium conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorczyca–Goraj, Anna; Mierzejewski, Marcin; Prosen, Tomaž</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Within the formalism of the Keldysh Green’s functions we investigate <span class="hlt">long-range</span> response of an anisotropic XY chain to the local magnetic field. This field couples to a single spin on a selected lattice site. The system is driven out of equilibrium by a coupling to two semi-infinite XX spin chains. We demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> response becomes enhanced by a few orders of magnitude upon application of nonequilibrium conditions. This enhancement does not occur in the isotropic XX chain. Our results agree with the recently predicted nonequilibrium-driven <span class="hlt">long-range</span> magnetic correlations [T. Prosen and I. Pižorn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 105701 (2008)]. We argue that this effect may be observed in quasi-one-dimensional triplet superconductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5350702','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5350702"><span id="translatedtitle">Mutual design of overhead <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines and railroad communications and <span class="hlt">signal</span> systems. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Taflove, A.; Umashankar, K.R.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>Objective was to develop mutual design methods and criteria for overhead ac <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines and adjacent railroad systems. This project has addressed basic engineering issues which govern the operation of railroad communications and <span class="hlt">signal</span> (C and S) systems under conditions of interference from nearby <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines. Data and techniques have been compiled and developed to contribute to the achievement of electromagnetic compatibility in a manner that is acceptable to both the power and railroad industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4197815','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4197815"><span id="translatedtitle">Pin1-dependent <span class="hlt">signalling</span> negatively affects GABAergic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> by modulating neuroligin2/gephyrin interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Antonelli, Roberta; Pizzarelli, Rocco; Pedroni, Andrea; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Del Sal, Giannino; Cherubini, Enrico; Zacchi, Paola</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The cell adhesion molecule Neuroligin2 (NL2) is localized selectively at GABAergic synapses, where it interacts with the scaffolding protein gephyrin in the post-synaptic density. However, the role of this interaction for formation and plasticity of GABAergic synapses is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous NL2 undergoes proline-directed phosphorylation at its unique S714-P consensus site, leading to the recruitment of the peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase Pin1. This <span class="hlt">signalling</span> cascade negatively regulates NL2’s ability to interact with gephyrin at GABAergic post-synaptic sites. As a consequence, enhanced accumulation of NL2, gephyrin and GABAA receptors was detected at GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus of Pin1-knockout mice (Pin1−/−) associated with an increase in amplitude of spontaneous GABAA-mediated post-synaptic currents. Our results suggest that Pin1-dependent <span class="hlt">signalling</span> represents a mechanism to modulate GABAergic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> by regulating NL2/gephyrin interaction. PMID:25297980</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23A0176K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23A0176K"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport on secondary aerosol in Northeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Woo, J.; Zhang, Q.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> transport air pollution is an important issue in Northeast Asia. Large amounts of anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx aggravate air pollution in the region. Most of the emissions come from the industrialized regions along the East China coast. China and Korea are changing their air quality standards for particle pollutant from PM10 to PM2.5 in 2012 and 2015, respectively. According to many previous studies, the <span class="hlt">long-rang</span> transport of particle matter contributes to Korean air pollution problems, but there are many uncertainties regarding the impact of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> transport. Secondary inorganic aerosols (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) are dominant ionic contributors to PM2.5. Especially high relative contributions of secondary aerosol appear under westerly wind cases at Korea. The secondary aerosols are produced by converting from SO2 and NOx during the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport, but the contribution varies dramatically depending on season and wind pattern. So far, sulfate is the primary contributor to PM2.5, but nitrate levels are increasing because that NOx emissions in China are increasing dramatically since 2000 due to the growth in power, industry, and transport, while SO2 emissions are trending downward since 2005. We will present chemical characteristics of PM2.5 by westerly <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport focused on secondary aerosol, tracking their transport pattern, and production pathway in order to better understand regional air quality modeling of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport. This study will be performed based on the international study, MICS-Asia phase III, initiated with many researchers. Results using CMAQ with the modeling domain covering Northeast and Southeast China, Korea, and Japan with 15km resolution will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1702i0062S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1702i0062S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> corrected density functional theory with linearly-scaled HF exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Jong-Won; Hirao, Kimihiko</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) attracts many chemists' attentions as a quantum chemical method to be applied to large molecular system and its property calculations. However, the expensive time cost to evaluate the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> HF exchange is a big obstacle to be overcome to be applied to the large molecular systems and the solid state materials. Upon this problem, we propose a linear-scaling method of the HF exchange integration, in particular, for the LC-DFT hybrid functional.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20699427','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20699427"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Attraction between Protein Molecules in Solutions Studied by Small Angle Neutron Scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu Yun; Chen, W.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero</p> <p>2005-09-09</p> <p>Small angle neutron scattering intensity distributions taken from cytochrome C and lysozyme protein solutions show a rising intensity at a very small wave vector Q, which can be interpreted in terms of the presence of a weak <span class="hlt">long-range</span> attraction between protein molecules. This interaction has a range several times that of the diameter of the protein molecule, much greater than the range of the screened electrostatic repulsion. We show evidence that this <span class="hlt">long-range</span> attraction is closely related to the type of anion present and ion concentration in the solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1983ITNS...30.1282M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1983ITNS...30.1282M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring aerosol elemental composition in particle size fractions of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Metternich, P.; Georgii, H.-W.; Groeneveld, K. O.</p> <p>1983-04-01</p> <p>Collection of atmospheric samples was performed at Malta, a semi-remote environment in the Mediterranean, in case of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport studies of pollutants and natural substances. Using PIXE as a non-destructive trace-element analytical tool, the elemental composition of these samples was determined. Atmospheric concentrations obtained in this study were of one magnitude higher than those observed over the open North Alantic in purely marine air. For most of the anomalously enriched elements in the Mediterranean aerosol, the high concentrations can be explained by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21140431','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21140431"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguide bends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Degiron, Aloyse; Cho, Sang-Yeon; Harrison, Cameron; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Smith, David R.; Dellagiacoma, Claudio; Martin, Olivier J. F.</p> <p>2008-02-15</p> <p>We report on the characterization of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguide bends at telecom wavelengths ({lambda}=1550 nm). The structures consist of a thin Au stripe embedded in a transparent polymer film. When the polymer thickness is larger than the lateral extension of the plasmon, the stripe sustains a conventional <span class="hlt">long-range</span> mode; in the opposite case, the mode is hybrid because its field distribution is confined by total internal reflection in the dielectric cladding. This hybridization increases the damping by absorption but dramatically reduces the radiation loss that occurs for curved geometries, such as bends. Our results are supported quantitatively by full-wave finite-element simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22499168','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22499168"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> corrected density functional theory with linearly-scaled HF exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Song, Jong-Won; Hirao, Kimihiko</p> <p>2015-12-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) attracts many chemists’ attentions as a quantum chemical method to be applied to large molecular system and its property calculations. However, the expensive time cost to evaluate the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> HF exchange is a big obstacle to be overcome to be applied to the large molecular systems and the solid state materials. Upon this problem, we propose a linear-scaling method of the HF exchange integration, in particular, for the LC-DFT hybrid functional.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.5623S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.5623S"><span id="translatedtitle">Acidic loadings in South Korean ecosystems by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport and local emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shim, Jae-Myun; Park, Soon-Ung</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Exceedances of sulfur and nitrogen critical loads in South Korean ecosystems caused by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport and local emissions of sulfur and nitrogen have been estimated using the maximum critical load of sulfur and the critical load of nutrient nitrogen. The long-term-averaged deposition of sulfur and nitrogen is estimated with a simplified chemical model and the K-mean clustering technique. The three consecutive days of gridded daily mean National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP) reanalyzed 850 hPa geopotential height fields with and without precipitation on the last day over South Korea are used for clustering of synoptic patterns for the period of 1994-1998. Two emission conditions are simulated for each cluster to estimate long-term averaged depositions of sulfur and nitrogen by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport and local emissions over South Korea. One condition takes all emissions within the simulated domain into account as a base case and the other condition excludes all South Korean emissions but includes all of the other emissions, as a control case. The results of the present study indicate that the contribution of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport to the annual total deposition over South Korea is found to be about 40% (530 eqha-1yr-1) for sulfur and 49% (650 eqha-1yr-1) for nitrogen, of which 55% for sulfur and 58% for nitrogen are contributed by wet deposition. This suggests the importance of wet deposition through the transformed acidic precursors for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport to South Korea's total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen. The estimated exceedance for South Korean ecosystems indicates that the current estimate of total sulfur deposition affects about 42% of the South Korean ecosystems adversely, of which 14% is attributed to South Korean source only and the rest 28% is attributed to <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport together with South Korean source. <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> transport of sulfur itself does not exceed the maximum critical load of sulfur. On the other hand, the current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810009491&hterms=time+travel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtime%2Btravel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810009491&hterms=time+travel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtime%2Btravel"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> airplane study: The consumer looks at SST travel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Landes, K. H.; Matter, J. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The attitudes of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> air travelers toward several basic air travel decisions, were surveyed. Of interest were tradeoffs involving time versus comfort and time versus cost as they pertain to supersonic versus conventional wide-body aircraft on overseas routes. The market focused upon was the segment of air travelers most likely to make that type of tradeoff decision: those having flown overseas routes for business or personal reasons in the recent past. The information generated is intended to provide quantifiable insight into consumer demand for supersonic as compared to wide-body aircraft alternatives for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> overseas air travel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940030874','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940030874"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> forecasts of the Northern Hemisphere anomalies with antecedent sea surface temperature patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kung, Ernest C.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The contract research has been conducted in the following three major areas: analysis of numerical simulations and parallel observations of atmospheric blocking, diagnosis of the lower boundary heating and the response of the atmospheric circulation, and comprehensive assessment of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forecasting with numerical and regression methods. The essential scientific and developmental purpose of this contract research is to extend our capability of numerical weather forecasting by the comprehensive general circulation model. The systematic work as listed above is thus geared to developing a technological basis for future NASA <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPL...622...45D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPL...622...45D"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions on ion equilibria in liquid-liquid extraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dufrêche, J.-F.; Zemb, Th.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We demonstrate here that equilibria of electrolytes between a water phase and an (organic) solvent phase containing amphiphilic extractants depend not only on complexation toward nearest neighbors but also on <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> supramolecular interactions (LRI). Taking into account bulk, polarization and chain reorganization terms, we show that the net free energy difference associated with one metal ion transfer from water results from a strong inhibition (>25 kBT/ metal ion) due to colloidal <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> interactions competing with differences in complexation considered in surpramolecular chemistry (≈-30 kBT/ metal ion). LRI also influence selectivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930044052&hterms=NIH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DNIH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930044052&hterms=NIH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DNIH"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> anticorrelations and non-Gaussian behavior of the heartbeat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peng, C.-K.; Mietus, J.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We find that the successive increments in the cardiac beat-to-beat intervals of healthy subjects display scale-invariant, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> anticorrelations (up to 10 exp 4 heart beats). Furthermore, we find that the histogram for the heartbeat intervals increments is well described by a Levy (1991) stable distribution. For a group of subjects with severe heart disease, we find that the distribution is unchanged, but the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations vanish. Therefore, the different scaling behavior in health and disease must relate to the underlying dynamics of the heartbeat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22814084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22814084"><span id="translatedtitle">Horizontal <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of Thelohania contejeani in the endangered white-clawed (Austropotamobius pallipes) and the invasive <span class="hlt">signal</span> crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Imhoff, Emily M; Mortimer, Robert J G; Christmas, Martin; Dunn, Alison M</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani causes porcelain disease and has been implicated in mass mortalities in populations of the endangered European crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. However, the route of parasite <span class="hlt">transmission</span> is not known. This paper investigates the horizontal <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of T. contejeani between A. pallipes hosts as well as its <span class="hlt">transmissibility</span> to the invasive <span class="hlt">signal</span> crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus). Field collected juvenile A. pallipes and P. leniusculus were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments; fed heavily infected A. pallipes tissue, exposed to water from tanks housing heavily parasitized A. pallipes, and a control group to provide an estimate of the baseline infection levels in the field. After 26 weeks, abdominal muscle samples were screened by PCR for T. contejeani. Infection was significantly higher in the treatment groups (83% in the cannibalism treatment, 42% in the water exposure treatment) than in the control group (4%), providing evidence for horizontal <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of the parasite between A. pallipes hosts. Cannibalism and scavenging are common amongst crayfish, providing <span class="hlt">transmission</span> opportunities in the field. The study also provides the first direct evidence for <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of the parasite from an indigenous European crayfish species to the invasive <span class="hlt">signal</span> crayfish, with 50% of P. leniusculus in each treatment, and 8% of control animals infected. We discuss the possibility that high density populations of the invasive <span class="hlt">signal</span> crayfish may serve either as reservoirs or sinks for the parasite. PMID:22814084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21218860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21218860"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> multi-carrier acoustic communications in shallow water based on iterative sparse channel estimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Taehyuk; Song, H C; Hodgkiss, W S; Soo Kim, Jea</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) acoustic communications is demonstrated using data from the Kauai Acomms MURI 2008 (KAM08) experiment carried out in about 106 m deep shallow water west of Kauai, HI, in June 2008. The source bandwidth was 8 kHz (12-20 kHz), and the data were received by a 16-element vertical array at a distance of 8 km. Iterative sparse channel estimation is applied in conjunction with low-density parity-check decoding. In addition, the impact of diversity combining in a highly inhomogeneous underwater environment is investigated. Error-free <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using 16-quadtrative amplitude modulation is achieved at a data rate of 10 kb/s. PMID:21218860</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25723422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25723422"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> surface plasmon resonance sensor based on dielectric/silver coated hollow fiber with enhanced figure of merit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Bing-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Song; Tang, Xiao-Li; Shi, Yi-Wei</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon resonance (LRSPR) sensor based on dielectric/silver-coated hollow fiber (HF) is proposed. It can detect the refractive index (RI) of sensed liquid filled in the hollow core of the sensor. A HF LRSPR sensor with 90-nm-thick silver layer and 260-nm-thick OC300 layer is fabricated. Experiments are taken to evaluate the performance of the sensor by measuring the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> spectra. Theoretical analysis based on a ray model is also taken, and the results agree well with the experimental results. The proposed sensor has similar sensitivity but much smaller SPR dip width than the silver-coated HF SPR sensor. Thus figure of merit of the sensor is enhanced approximately five times. The stability of the sensor is also improved because the dielectric layer acts as a protection layer for the damageable silver layer. PMID:25723422</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PMB....60.3459O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PMB....60.3459O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Prototype positron emission tomography insert with electro-optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> for simultaneous operation with MRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olcott, Peter; Kim, Ealgoo; Hong, Keyjo; Lee, Brian J.; Grant, Alexander M.; Chang, Chen-Ming; Glover, Gary; Levin, Craig S.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI data shows promise to provide powerful capabilities to study disease processes in human subjects, guide the development of novel treatments, and monitor therapy response and disease progression. A brain-size PET detector ring insert for an MRI system is being developed that, if successful, can be inserted into any existing MRI system to enable simultaneous PET and MRI images of the brain to be acquired without mutual interference. The PET insert uses electro-optical coupling to relay all the <span class="hlt">signals</span> from the PET detectors out of the MRI system using analog modulated lasers coupled to fiber optics. Because the fibers use light instead of electrical <span class="hlt">signals</span>, the PET detector can be electrically decoupled from the MRI making it partially <span class="hlt">transmissive</span> to the RF field of the MRI. The SiPM devices and low power lasers were powered using non-magnetic MRI compatible batteries. Also, the number of laser-fiber channels in the system was reduced using techniques adapted from the field of compressed sensing. Using the fact that incoming PET data is sparse in time and space, electronic circuits implementing constant weight codes uniquely encode the detector <span class="hlt">signals</span> in order to reduce the number of electro-optical readout channels by 8-fold. Two out of a total of sixteen electro-optical detector modules have been built and tested with the entire RF-shielded detector gantry for the PET ring insert. The two detectors have been tested outside and inside of a 3T MRI system to study mutual interference effects and simultaneous performance with MRI. Preliminary results show that the PET insert is feasible for high resolution simultaneous PET/MRI imaging for applications in the brain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856511"><span id="translatedtitle">Prototype positron emission tomography insert with electro-optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> for simultaneous operation with MRI.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olcott, Peter; Kim, Ealgoo; Hong, Keyjo; Lee, Brian J; Grant, Alexander M; Chang, Chen-Ming; Glover, Gary; Levin, Craig S</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI data shows promise to provide powerful capabilities to study disease processes in human subjects, guide the development of novel treatments, and monitor therapy response and disease progression. A brain-size PET detector ring insert for an MRI system is being developed that, if successful, can be inserted into any existing MRI system to enable simultaneous PET and MRI images of the brain to be acquired without mutual interference. The PET insert uses electro-optical coupling to relay all the <span class="hlt">signals</span> from the PET detectors out of the MRI system using analog modulated lasers coupled to fiber optics. Because the fibers use light instead of electrical <span class="hlt">signals</span>, the PET detector can be electrically decoupled from the MRI making it partially <span class="hlt">transmissive</span> to the RF field of the MRI. The SiPM devices and low power lasers were powered using non-magnetic MRI compatible batteries. Also, the number of laser-fiber channels in the system was reduced using techniques adapted from the field of compressed sensing. Using the fact that incoming PET data is sparse in time and space, electronic circuits implementing constant weight codes uniquely encode the detector <span class="hlt">signals</span> in order to reduce the number of electro-optical readout channels by 8-fold. Two out of a total of sixteen electro-optical detector modules have been built and tested with the entire RF-shielded detector gantry for the PET ring insert. The two detectors have been tested outside and inside of a 3T MRI system to study mutual interference effects and simultaneous performance with MRI. Preliminary results show that the PET insert is feasible for high resolution simultaneous PET/MRI imaging for applications in the brain. PMID:25856511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811624"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the influence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> molecular interactions on macroscopic-scale diffusion by homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kekenes-Huskey, P M; Gillette, A K; McCammon, J A</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The macroscopic diffusion constant for a charged diffuser is in part dependent on (1) the volume excluded by solute "obstacles" and (2) <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions between those obstacles and the diffuser. Increasing excluded volume reduces transport of the diffuser, while <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions can either increase or decrease diffusivity, depending on the nature of the potential. We previously demonstrated [P. M. Kekenes-Huskey et al., Biophys. J. 105, 2130 (2013)] using homogenization theory that the configuration of molecular-scale obstacles can both hinder diffusion and induce diffusional anisotropy for small ions. As the density of molecular obstacles increases, van der Waals (vdW) and electrostatic interactions between obstacle and a diffuser become significant and can strongly influence the latter's diffusivity, which was neglected in our original model. Here, we extend this methodology to include a fixed (time-independent) potential of mean force, through homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation. We consider the diffusion of ions in crowded, hydrophilic environments at physiological ionic strengths and find that electrostatic and vdW interactions can enhance or depress effective diffusion rates for attractive or repulsive forces, respectively. Additionally, we show that the observed diffusion rate may be reduced independent of non-specific electrostatic and vdW interactions by treating obstacles that exhibit specific binding interactions as "buffers" that absorb free diffusers. Finally, we demonstrate that effective diffusion rates are sensitive to distribution of surface charge on a globular protein, Troponin C, suggesting that the use of molecular structures with atomistic-scale resolution can account for electrostatic influences on substrate transport. This approach offers new insight into the influence of molecular-scale, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions on transport of charged species, particularly for diffusion-influenced <span class="hlt">signaling</span> events occurring in crowded</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22252939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22252939"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the influence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> molecular interactions on macroscopic-scale diffusion by homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kekenes-Huskey, P. M.; Gillette, A. K.; McCammon, J. A.; Department of Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 </p> <p>2014-05-07</p> <p>The macroscopic diffusion constant for a charged diffuser is in part dependent on (1) the volume excluded by solute “obstacles” and (2) <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions between those obstacles and the diffuser. Increasing excluded volume reduces transport of the diffuser, while <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions can either increase or decrease diffusivity, depending on the nature of the potential. We previously demonstrated [P. M. Kekenes-Huskey et al., Biophys. J. 105, 2130 (2013)] using homogenization theory that the configuration of molecular-scale obstacles can both hinder diffusion and induce diffusional anisotropy for small ions. As the density of molecular obstacles increases, van der Waals (vdW) and electrostatic interactions between obstacle and a diffuser become significant and can strongly influence the latter's diffusivity, which was neglected in our original model. Here, we extend this methodology to include a fixed (time-independent) potential of mean force, through homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation. We consider the diffusion of ions in crowded, hydrophilic environments at physiological ionic strengths and find that electrostatic and vdW interactions can enhance or depress effective diffusion rates for attractive or repulsive forces, respectively. Additionally, we show that the observed diffusion rate may be reduced independent of non-specific electrostatic and vdW interactions by treating obstacles that exhibit specific binding interactions as “buffers” that absorb free diffusers. Finally, we demonstrate that effective diffusion rates are sensitive to distribution of surface charge on a globular protein, Troponin C, suggesting that the use of molecular structures with atomistic-scale resolution can account for electrostatic influences on substrate transport. This approach offers new insight into the influence of molecular-scale, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions on transport of charged species, particularly for diffusion-influenced <span class="hlt">signaling</span> events occurring in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140q4106K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140q4106K"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the influence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> molecular interactions on macroscopic-scale diffusion by homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kekenes-Huskey, P. M.; Gillette, A. K.; McCammon, J. A.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The macroscopic diffusion constant for a charged diffuser is in part dependent on (1) the volume excluded by solute "obstacles" and (2) <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions between those obstacles and the diffuser. Increasing excluded volume reduces transport of the diffuser, while <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions can either increase or decrease diffusivity, depending on the nature of the potential. We previously demonstrated [P. M. Kekenes-Huskey et al., Biophys. J. 105, 2130 (2013)] using homogenization theory that the configuration of molecular-scale obstacles can both hinder diffusion and induce diffusional anisotropy for small ions. As the density of molecular obstacles increases, van der Waals (vdW) and electrostatic interactions between obstacle and a diffuser become significant and can strongly influence the latter's diffusivity, which was neglected in our original model. Here, we extend this methodology to include a fixed (time-independent) potential of mean force, through homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation. We consider the diffusion of ions in crowded, hydrophilic environments at physiological ionic strengths and find that electrostatic and vdW interactions can enhance or depress effective diffusion rates for attractive or repulsive forces, respectively. Additionally, we show that the observed diffusion rate may be reduced independent of non-specific electrostatic and vdW interactions by treating obstacles that exhibit specific binding interactions as "buffers" that absorb free diffusers. Finally, we demonstrate that effective diffusion rates are sensitive to distribution of surface charge on a globular protein, Troponin C, suggesting that the use of molecular structures with atomistic-scale resolution can account for electrostatic influences on substrate transport. This approach offers new insight into the influence of molecular-scale, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions on transport of charged species, particularly for diffusion-influenced <span class="hlt">signaling</span> events occurring in crowded</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25310190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25310190"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Falk, Magnus; Alcalde, Miguel; Bartlett, Philip N; De Lacey, Antonio L; Gorton, Lo; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina; Haddad, Raoudha; Kilburn, Jeremy; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond; Mate, Diana M; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Ortiz, Roberto; Pita, Marcos; Pöller, Sascha; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Sebelius, Fredrik; Shao, Minling; Stoica, Leonard; Sygmund, Cristoph; Tilly, Jonas; Toscano, Miguel D; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Wright, Emma; Shleev, Sergey</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply. PMID:25310190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4195609','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4195609"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-Powered Wireless Carbohydrate/Oxygen Sensitive Biodevice Based on Radio <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Falk, Magnus; Alcalde, Miguel; Bartlett, Philip N.; De Lacey, Antonio L.; Gorton, Lo; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina; Haddad, Raoudha; Kilburn, Jeremy; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond; Mate, Diana M.; Conghaile, Peter Ó.; Ortiz, Roberto; Pita, Marcos; Pöller, Sascha; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Sebelius, Fredrik; Shao, Minling; Stoica, Leonard; Sygmund, Cristoph; Tilly, Jonas; Toscano, Miguel D.; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Wright, Emma; Shleev, Sergey</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply. PMID:25310190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED496668.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED496668.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">South Dakota Arts Council <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Plan FY 2006-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>South Dakota Arts Council, 2006</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This report presents South Dakota Arts Council <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Plan for Fiscal Years 2006-2008 in terms of how it intends to achieve six goals. These goals are: (1) Enhance quality of life and economic development through the arts; (2) Promote public awareness and support of the arts; (3) Advance the arts as essential to education and life-long…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Computerized+AND+development+AND+models&pg=6&id=EJ424737','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Computerized+AND+development+AND+models&pg=6&id=EJ424737"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing Strategic and <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Planning via a Proactive, User-Friendly Planning Document.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dailey, Anne Louise; And Others</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A computerized method for managing institutional information to use in creating college planning documents is described. Development of the database, manipulation of the data for reporting, uses in strategic and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning, and the model's implications for improvement of planning processes are discussed. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=automation+AND+construction&pg=6&id=ED301197','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=automation+AND+construction&pg=6&id=ED301197"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Plan for Statewide Library Development in Texas, 1989-1991.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas State Library, Austin. Dept. of Library Development.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">long-range</span> plan was prepared to satisfy the requirements of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA; Public Law 98-480) and to guide the Texas State Library and Archives Commission in the fulfillment of its statutory mission. The plan provides a framework for the establishment or expansion of programs to carry out the purposes…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>